Science.gov

Sample records for 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

  1. Dental school vacant budgeted faculty positions, academic years 2005-06 and 2006-07.

    PubMed

    Chmar, Jacqueline E; Weaver, Richard G; Valachovic, Richard W

    2008-03-01

    The annual turnover of dental school faculty creates a varying number of vacant budgeted positions at any given time. The American Dental Education Association (ADEA) conducts an annual survey to determine the status and characteristics of these vacant faculty positions. In addition, ADEA conducts an annual survey of dental educators to maintain a database on the size and characteristics of dental school faculty, including data on the distribution of full-time, part-time, and volunteer faculty, reasons for faculty separations, and sources of new faculty. The number of vacant budgeted faculty positions within U.S. dental schools increased throughout the 1990s, with a peak of 358 positions in 2000. Following this peak, the number of vacancies declined, falling to 275 in 2004-05. Since that time, there has been a rapid increase in the number of estimated vacancies, reaching 417 in 2005-06, then falling slightly to 406 in 2006-07. The 2005-06 and 2006-07 faculty vacancies surveys explore these increases, along with information relevant to trends in the faculty workforce, factors influencing faculty vacancies, and the impact of vacant positions on dental schools. PMID:18383641

  2. Update on 2005-06 State Financial Aid Program Activity and 2006-07 Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The state of Washington is committed to higher education opportunity for all students, regardless of income, through its state financial aid programs. The purpose of this report is to provide the members of the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) with an overview of state and federal financial aid in Washington, an update on state financial…

  3. Parents Returning to Work: Evaluation of Grant Recipient Outcomes 2004-05, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Kellock, Peter; Burke, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The Parents Returning to Work Program (PRTW) is a Victorian government initiative which commenced in 2003. It provides grants to assist eligible parents who wish to return to paid employment after a period of caring for children to participate in training that will increase their work skills and job prospects. This evaluation aimed to review the…

  4. ARL Annual Salary Survey 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2005-06" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,655…

  5. Delivering Courses beyond Campus Walls: Off-Campus and Distance Education in Nebraska, 2004-05 and 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights distance delivery courses in Nebraska for the academic years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. All six community colleges, the three state colleges, and the University of Nebraska campuses offer courses at distance; more than 40 degrees, endorsements and certificates are now offered completely by distance technology. The total number…

  6. Colleges and Universities Education Digest, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Marcia, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    The 2005-06 Education Digest includes data on basic student charges, fall enrollments, residence of students, degrees conferred, and faculty and staff. Data is compiled from annual surveys of Pennsylvania colleges and universities. In 2005-06, Pennsylvania had 149 colleges and universities consisting of 33 public and 116 private institutions.…

  7. School Finance 2005?06. Budget Sets Off Public Battle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    For the past year, the issue of public education funding has been particularly contentious in California. A pitched political battle between education advocates and the administration of Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger began with a December 2004 preview of the governor's budget proposal for 2005?06. The fight continued through a spring filled with…

  8. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This document presents results of the 2005-06 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 75 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections, including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased, current…

  9. ARL Annual Salary Survey, 2006-07. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2006-07" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,824…

  10. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in five European countries during season 2006/07 and trends over six consecutive seasons

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Patricia R; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Szucs, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The objectives of the survey were to identify the level of influenza vaccination coverage in five European countries between 2001 and 2007, to understand the drivers and barriers to vaccination, to assess vaccination intentions for the winter 2007/08 as well as major encouraging factors for vaccination. Methods Between 2001 and 2007, representative household surveys were performed with telephone or mailed (France) interviews of individuals aged 14 and above. The questionnaire used in the UK, Germany, Italy, France and Spain was essentially the same in all seasons. The data were subsequently pooled. Four target groups were defined for the analysis: 1) persons aged 65 years and over; 2) persons working in the medical field; 3) chronically ill persons and 4) combined target group composed of individuals belonging to one or more of the previous groups 1, 2 or 3. Results In 2006/07, vaccination coverage was, 25.0% in UK, 27.4% in Germany, 21.8% in Spain, 24.2% in France and 24.4% in Italy. During six influenza seasons (2001–2007), vaccination coverage showed a slight positive trend in the five countries (p ≤ 0.0001). In the elderly (≥ 65 years), across all countries, no significant trend was seen; the vaccination rate decreased non-significantly from a peak of 64.2% in season 2005/06 to 61.1% in season 2006/07. The most frequent reason for getting vaccinated was a recommendation by the family doctor or nurse (51%), and this was also perceived as the major encouraging factor for vaccination (61%). The main reason for not getting vaccinated was feeling unlikely to catch the flu (36%). Conclusion In the UK, Germany and Spain, influenza vaccination coverage rates in season 2006/07 dropped slightly compared to the previous season. However, a trend of increasing vaccination coverage was observed from 2001/02 to 2006/07 across Europe. The family doctor is the major source of encouragement for individuals getting vaccinated. Efforts to overcome the barriers to

  11. Career and Technical Education. Secondary Programs, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simchock, Stephen, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This publication provides information relating to secondary occupational career and technical education program enrollments within Pennsylvania's public secondary schools. For school year 2004-05, Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) used the Career and Technical Education Information System (CATS) to collect individual student enrollment…

  12. School Finance 2006-07: State Leaders Settle Up with Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian; Perry, Mary

    2006-01-01

    EdSource's annual public education budget report, "School Finance 2006-07: State Leaders Settle Up with Education," offers a comprehensive look at this year's funding decisions for schools, recent budget history, and how the state's schools are funded. In contrast with last year's budget battles, the process for 2006-07 notably lacked conflict.…

  13. Distance Education at Postsecondary Institutions: 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-044

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsad, Basmat; Lewis, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    This report provides national estimates on distance education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions in the 2006-07 academic year. While this report covers many of the topics in the previous three reports, the data are not comparable. The definition of distance education in the 2006-07 study reflected two major changes from earlier studies.…

  14. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Academic Year Report: 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Academic Year Report 2005-06 provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and students. Additional demographic…

  15. 2005-06 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2006

    2006-01-01

    On March 8, 2005, the Ministry of Advanced Education sent British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, (BCCAT) a management letter setting out the expectations of the Ministry of Advanced Education for the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer in 2005-06. This Annual Report is presented to specify how BCCAT has addressed those expectations…

  16. Evaluation of the Waterford Early Reading Program in Kindergarten, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; Price-Johnson, Connie

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), a technology-based program for early elementary grades, was provided through Arizona all day kindergarten funds to kindergarten students in 15 Title I elementary schools in the Tucson Unified School District (TUSD) in the 2005-06 school year. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the…

  17. The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    New Jersey's urban--or "Abbott"--schools have improved at the preschool and elementary school level, but lag when it comes to middle and high school performance. These are the key findings of an Abbott Indicators Project report entitled, "The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges." The report was prepared by Education Law Center and…

  18. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2005/06.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Lo, S V

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong domestic health spending between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2005/06, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider, and function on an annual basis. In fiscal year 2005/06, total health expenditure was HK$71 557 million. In real terms, it grew 6.5% per annum on average throughout the study period, whereas gross domestic product grew 4.1%, indicating a growing percentage of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.5% in 1989/90 to 5.1% in 2005/06. This increase was largely funded by public spending, which rose 8.2% per annum on average in real terms, compared with 5.1% for private spending. This represents a growing share of public spending from 40.2% to 51.6% of total health expenditure during the period. Public spending was the dominant source of health financing in 2005/06, whereas private household out-of-pocket expenditure accounted for the second largest share (34.5%), followed by employer-provided group medical benefits (7.5%), privately purchased insurance (5.1%), and other private sources (1.3%). Of the HK$71 557 million total health expenditure in 2005/06, HK$68 810 million (96.2%) was on current expenditure and HK$2746 million (3.8%) on capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Services of curative care accounted for the largest share (67.3%) and were made up of ambulatory services (35.7%), in-patient services (27.7%), day patient hospital services (3.4%), and home care (0.6%). The second largest share was spending on medical goods outside the patient care setting (10.8%). In terms of health care providers, hospitals (44.0%) accounted for the largest share of total health expenditure in 2005/06, followed by providers of ambulatory health care (31.4%). We observed a system-wide trend towards service consolidation at institutions (as opposed to free-standing ambulatory clinics, most of which are staffed by solo practitioners). Not taking capital expenses

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF US HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS-RELATED LIGAMENTOUS ANKLE INJURIES, 2005/06-2010/11

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, David M.; Collins, Christy L.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe ankle injury epidemiology among US high school athletes in 20 sports. Design Descriptive prospective epidemiology study. Setting Sports injury data for the 2005/06–2010/11 academic years were collected using an internet-based injury surveillance system, Reporting Information Online (RIO). Participants A nationwide convenience sample of US high schools. Assessment of Risk Factors Injuries sustained as a function of sport and gender. Main Outcome Measures Ankle sprain rates and patterns, outcomes, and mechanisms. Results From 2005/06–2010/11, certified athletic trainers reported 5,373 ankle sprains in 17,172,376 athlete exposures [AEs], for a rate of 3.13 ankle sprains per 10,000 AEs. Rates were higher for girls than boys (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17–1.34) in gender-comparable sports and higher in competition than practice for boys (RR 3.42, 95% CI 3.20–3.66) and girls (RR 2.71, 95% CI 2.48–2.95). The anterior talofibular ligament was most commonly injured (involved in 85.3% of sprains). Overall, 49.7% of sprains resulted in loss of participation from 1–6 days. While 0.5% of all ankle sprains required surgery, 6.6% of those involving the deltoid ligament required surgery. Athletes were wearing ankle braces in 10.6% of all sprains. The most common injury mechanism was contact with another person (42.4% of all ankle sprains). Conclusions Ankle sprains are a serious problem in high school sports, with high rates of recurrent injury and loss of participation from sport. PMID:23328403

  20. School-Based Health Centers: National Census School Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juszczak, Linda; Schlitt, John; Moore, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care conducted the 2004-05 Census, the tenth count of school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986, to: (1) provide a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collect up-to-date data on demographics, staffing services, operations,…

  1. Montana Statewide Dropout and Graduate Report: 2004-05 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Montana School Accreditation Standards (10.55.603, ARM) require schools to do follow-up studies of graduates and students no longer in attendance. This report provides information on students who graduated or dropped out of Montana public, state-funded and nonpublic, accredited schools during the 2004-05 school year. Students who drop out of…

  2. Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion at Mount St Helens in 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.; Dzurisin, D.; Gardner, C.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Lisowski, M.; Major, J.J.; Malone, S.D.; Messerich, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Pallister, J.S.; Qamar, A.I.; Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The 2004-05 eruption of Mount St Helens exhibited sustained, near-equilibrium behaviour characterized by relatively steady extrusion of a solid dacite plug and nearly periodic shallow earthquakes. Here we present a diverse data set to support our hypothesis that these earthquakes resulted from stick-slip motion along the margins of the plug as it was forced incrementally upwards by ascending, solidifying, gas-poor magma. We formalize this hypothesis with a dynamical model that reveals a strong analogy between behaviour of the magma-plug system and that of a variably damped oscillator. Modelled stick-slip oscillations have properties that help constrain the balance of forces governing the earthquakes and eruption, and they imply that magma pressure never deviated much from the steady equilibrium pressure. We infer that the volcano was probably poised in a near-eruptive equilibrium state long before the onset of the 2004-05 eruption. ??2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion at Mount St Helens in 2004-05.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Richard M; Dzurisin, Daniel; Gardner, Cynthia A; Gerlach, Terrence M; LaHusen, Richard G; Lisowski, Michael; Major, Jon J; Malone, Stephen D; Messerich, James A; Moran, Seth C; Pallister, John S; Qamar, Anthony I; Schilling, Steven P; Vallance, James W

    2006-11-23

    The 2004-05 eruption of Mount St Helens exhibited sustained, near-equilibrium behaviour characterized by relatively steady extrusion of a solid dacite plug and nearly periodic shallow earthquakes. Here we present a diverse data set to support our hypothesis that these earthquakes resulted from stick-slip motion along the margins of the plug as it was forced incrementally upwards by ascending, solidifying, gas-poor magma. We formalize this hypothesis with a dynamical model that reveals a strong analogy between behaviour of the magma-plug system and that of a variably damped oscillator. Modelled stick-slip oscillations have properties that help constrain the balance of forces governing the earthquakes and eruption, and they imply that magma pressure never deviated much from the steady equilibrium pressure. We infer that the volcano was probably poised in a near-eruptive equilibrium state long before the onset of the 2004-05 eruption. PMID:17122849

  4. 2006/07 Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Yarbrough, David W; Miller, William A; Petrie, Thomas; Childs, Phillip W; Syed, Azam M

    2008-12-01

    Most recent improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that in the near future, residences will be routinely constructed to operate with very low heating and cooling loads. In that light, the application of novel building materials containing active thermal components (e.g., phase change materials [PCMs,] sub-venting, radiant barriers, and integrated hydronic systems) is like a final step in achieving relatively significant heating and cooling energy savings from technological improvements in the building envelope. It is expected that optimized building envelope designs using PCMs for energy storage can effectively bring notable savings in energy consumption and reductions in peak hour power loads. During 2006/07, a research team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a series of laboratory and field tests of several wall and roof assemblies using PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. This report summarizes the test results from the perspective of energy performance. The ORNL team is working on both inorganic and organic PCMs; this report discusses only paraffinic PCMs. A limited economical analysis also is presented. PCMs have been tested as a thermal mass component in buildings for at least 40 years. Most of the research studies found that PCMs enhanced building energy performance. In the case of the application of organic PCMs, problems such as high initial cost and PCM leaking (surface sweating) have hampered widespread adoption. Paraffinic hydrocarbon PCMs generally performed well, with the exception that they increased the flammability of the building envelope.

  5. Channel Morphodynamics in Four Reaches of the Lower Missouri River, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Channel morphodynamics in response to flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam are examined in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River. Measures include changes in channel morphology and indicators of sediment transport in four 6 kilometer long reaches located downstream from Gavins Point Dam, near Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri. Each of the four reaches was divided into 300 transects with a 20-meter spacing and surveyed during the summer in 2006 and 2007. A subset of 30 transects was randomly selected and surveyed 7-10 times in 2006-07 over a wide range of discharges including managed and natural flow events. Hydroacoustic mapping used a survey-grade echosounder and a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System to evaluate channel change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to evaluate bed-sediment velocity. Results indicate varying amounts of deposition, erosion, net change, and sediment transport in the four Lower Missouri River reaches. The Yankton reach was the most stable over monthly and annual time-frames. The Kenslers Bend and Little Sioux reaches exhibited substantial amounts of deposition and erosion, although net change was generally low in both reaches. Total, or gross geomorphic change was greatest in the Kenslers Bend reach. The Miami reach exhibited varying rates of deposition and erosion, and low net change. The Yankton, Kenslers Bend, and Miami reaches experienced net erosion during the time period that bracketed the managed May 2006 spring rise event from Gavins Point Dam.

  6. Hong Kong's domestic health spending--financial years 1989/90 through 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Leung, G M; Tin, K Y K; Yeung, G M K; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Fung, A Y K; Lo, S V

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong's domestic health spending between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2004/05, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider and function on an annual basis. Total expenditure on health was HK$67,807 million in fiscal year 2004/05. In real terms, total expenditure on health showed positive growth averaging 7% per annum throughout the period covered in this report while gross domestic product grew at 4% per annum on average, indicating a growing percentage of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.5% in 1989/90 to 5.2% in 2004/05. This increase was largely driven by the rise in public spending, which rose 9% per annum on average in real terms over the period, compared with 5% for private spending. This represents a growing share of public spending from 40% to 55% of total expenditure on health during the period. While public spending was the dominant source of health financing in 2004/05, private household out-of-pocket expenditure accounted for the second largest share of total health spending (32%). The remaining sources of health finance were employer-provided group medical benefits (8%), privately purchased insurance (5%), and other private sources (1%). Of the $67,807 million total health expenditure in 2004/05, current expenditure comprised $65,429 million (96%) while $2378 million (4%) were capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Services of curative care accounted for the largest share of total health spending (67%) which were made up of ambulatory services (35%), in-patient curative care (28%), day patient hospital services (3%), and home care (1%). The next largest share of total health expenditure was spent on medical goods outside the patient care setting (10%). Analysed by health care provider, hospitals accounted for the largest share (46%) and providers of ambulatory health care the second largest share (30%) of total health spending in 2004/05. We

  7. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2005-06 (Fiscal Year 2006). First Look. NCES 2008-345

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2008-01-01

    This brief publication contains basic revenue and expenditure data, by state, for public elementary and secondary education for school year 2005-06. It contains state-level data on revenues by source and expenditures by function, including expenditures per pupil. It presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2005-06

  8. Ecological Assessment of Streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P., Jr.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005-06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring. The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report. The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River

  9. Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Yung, C F; Ramsay, M

    2016-08-18

    Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in the 1980s. A simple statistical model, based on analysing time trends for diagnosed complications in hospital databases with routine laboratory surveillance data, found that the actual morbidity was much higher. There were 2.5 times (166 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1970s cohort and 2.0 times (708 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1980s cohort than complications coded to mumps in hospital databases. Our study demonstrated that the mumps outbreak in England 2004/05 resulted in a substantial increase in hospitalised mumps complications, and the model we used can improve the ascertainment of morbidity from a mumps outbreak. PMID:27562958

  10. Chloride Concentrations in Ground Water in East and West Baton Rouge Parishes, Louisiana, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelace, John K.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing chloride concentrations are a threat to fresh ground-water sources in East Baton Rouge and West Baton Rouge Parishes, Louisiana. Large withdrawals at Baton Rouge have lowered water levels and altered flow patterns in most of the 10 aquifers that underlie the area. Prior to development, freshwater flowed southward to the Baton Rouge fault, an east-west trending growth fault that extends through Baton Rouge and across southeastern Louisiana. Aquifers south of the fault generally contain saltwater. Ground-water withdrawals north of the fault have created gradients favorable for the movement of saltwater from south of the fault into freshwater areas north of the fault. Water samples were collected from 152 wells during 2004-05 to document chloride concentrations in aquifers underlying East and West Baton Rouge Parishes. The background concentration for chloride in fresh ground water in the Baton Rouge area north of the Baton Rouge fault is generally less than 10 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in one or more samples from wells north of the fault screened in the '600-foot', '1,000-foot', '1,200-foot', '1,500-foot', '1,700-foot', '2,000-foot', '2,400-foot', and '2,800-foot' sands. Comparison of the 2004-05 data with historical data indicated that chloride concentrations are increasing at wells in the '600-foot', '1,000-foot', '1,200-foot', '1,500-foot', '2,000-foot', '2,400-foot', and '2,800-foot' sands north of the Baton Rouge fault.

  11. (Re)form with substance? Restructuring and governance in the Australian health system 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Rix, Mark; Owen, Alan; Eagar, Kathy

    2005-08-24

    The Australian health system has been the subject of multiple reviews and reorganisations over the last twenty years or more. The year 2004-2005 was no different. This paper reviews the reforms, (re)structures and governance arrangements in place at both the national and state/territory levels in the last year. At the national level some progress has been made in 2004/05 through the Australian Health Ministers' Council and there is now a national health reform agenda, albeit not a comprehensive one, endorsed by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in June 2005. Quality and safety was an increasing focus in 2004-2005 at both the national and jurisdictional levels, as was the need for workforce reform. Although renewed policy attention was given to the need to better integrate and coordinate health care, there is little evidence of any real progress this last year. More progress was made on a national approach to workforce reform. At the jurisdictional level, the usual rounds of reviews and restructuring occurred in several jurisdictions and, in 2005, they are organisationally very different from each other. The structure and effectiveness of jurisdictional health authorities are now more important. All health authorities are being expected to drive an ambitious set of national and local reforms. At the same time, most have now blurred the boundary between policy and service delivery and are devoting significant resources to centrally 'crisis managing' their service systems. These same reasons led to decentralisation in previous restructuring cycles. While there were many changes in 2004-2005, and a new national report to COAG on health reform is expected at the end of 2005, based on current evidence there is little room for optimism about the prospects for real progress. PMID:16120207

  12. Evaluation of a fruit and vegetable distribution program--Mississippi, 2004-05 school year.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    Although diets high in fruit and vegetables are associated with decreased risk for many chronic diseases, consumption of fruit and vegetables among children is below recommended levels. During the 2004-05 school year, the Mississippi Department of Education Child Nutrition Program initiated the Mississippi Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program. The program was designed to 1) increase student access to fresh fruit and vegetables, 2) increase the degree of student preference for fruit and vegetables, and 3) increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The 25 schools selected to participate in the program distributed fresh fruit and vegetables free of charge during the school day and provided nutrition education activities to promote and support consumption of fruit and vegetables. An evaluation of the program was conducted using a pretest in the fall (before the program was implemented by the schools) and a posttest in the spring (at the end of the school year). This report summarizes the findings of that evaluation, which indicated that the program might have 1) increased the variety of fruit and vegetables ever tried by students from all three grades sampled (5th, 8th, and 10th); 2) increased the degree of preference for fruit among 8th-grade and 10th-grade students; 3) promoted positive attitudes toward eating fruit among 8th-grade students; 4) increased consumption of fruit, but not vegetables, among 8th-grade and 10th-grade students; and 5) decreased preference for fruit and vegetables, the belief that they could eat more vegetables, and willingness to try new fruit and vegetables among 5th-grade students. The results of this evaluation suggest that the distribution of fresh fruit at school free of charge to secondary school students might be an effective component of a comprehensive approach for improving student dietary behaviors; however, distribution of fresh vegetables might be more effective with changes in program implementation. PMID:16960549

  13. How Segregated are Michigan's Schools? Changes in Enrollment from 1992-93 to 2004-05. Policy Report 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landauer-Menchik, Bettie

    2006-01-01

    A 2002 study, "Race in American Public Schools: Rapidly Resegregating School Districts," identified Michigan as the state with the most segregated schools in the nation. The present data brief looks at changes in the distribution of Michigan's African American students between 1992-93 and 2004-05 to determine if African American students are more…

  14. The State of Charter Schools in Colorado, 2004-05: The Characteristics, Status, and Performance Record of Colorado Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSchryver, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This report presents and analyzes data from the 2004-05 school year related to the characteristics of charter schools in Colorado, including student achievement and school performance. The purpose, methodology and growth of charter schools in the state is discussed, followed by an overview of the background and mandates of the Colorado Charter…

  15. Assessment of Contaminant Exposure and Effects on Ospreys Nesting along the Lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Branden L.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Davis, Jay W.; Schulz, Edmund P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contaminants on osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the lower Duwamish River (LDR), Washington, and used the upper reach of the Willamette River (WR), Oregon, as a reference site. Osprey eggs and nestling blood (plasma) were collected at nests along the LDR (11 eggs, 7 plasmas) and WR (10 eggs, 6 plasmas) in 2006-07 and analyzed for contaminants. Additionally, hematology and serum chemistries were determined in the blood/plasma samples of nestlings (about 35-45 days old) and were used as potential indicators of stress induced by contaminant exposure. Detailed foraging information for ospreys nesting along the LDR was collected and evaluated to better understand contaminant profiles observed in the eggs and plasma. Additional residue data from 26 osprey eggs collected and analyzed in 2002-03 from nests along the LDR, Snohomish River Estuary (SRE) and Lake Washington (LW) in the Puget Sound (PS) region also were evaluated.

  16. Rapid liquid chromatography for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis using superficially porous chromatography with AOAC Official Method 2005.06.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Robert G; Turner, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, oysters, cockles, hard clams, razors, and king scallops is monitored in England, Scotland, and Wales by AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-with fluorescence detection (FLD). One of the commonly perceived disadvantages of using this method is the long turnaround time and low throughput in a busy laboratory environment. The chromatographic analysis of each sample typically utilizes a 15 min cycle time to achieve toxin oxidation product separation and column equilibration prior to subsequent analysis. A standard RP C18 analytical column, used successfully in recent years, achieves good separation with a long column lifetime. The analysis of a 40 sample qualitative screening batch takes approximately 18 h, including blanks, standards, and other QC samples. The availability of superficially porous column technology has offered the potential to reduce analysis time while retaining column performance on existing hardware. In this study, AOAC Official Method 2005.06 with LC-FLD was transferred to two different commercially available superficially porous columns, and the method performance characteristics were evaluated. Both columns separated all toxins adequately with cycle times less than half that of the existing method. Linearity for each toxin was acceptable up to two times the European maximum permitted limit of 800 microg di-HCl saxitoxin equivalent/kg flesh. LOD and LOQ values were substantially improved for the majority of toxins, with gonyautoxin 1&4 and neosaxitoxin showing up to a two- and fourfold improvement, respectively, depending on the column used. Quantification results obtained from parallel analysis of contaminated samples were acceptable on both columns. Comparative screen results gave a slight increase in the occurrence of contaminated samples, which was attributed to the improved detection limit for most toxins. Issues with rapidly increasing back pressure, however, were identified with both

  17. Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2005 and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2007-150

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Miller, Elise

    2007-01-01

    This report presents information from the Winter 2005-06 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) web-based data collection. Tabulations represent data requested from all postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV federal student financial aid programs. The tables in this publication include data on the number of staff…

  18. Progress without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Don; Veliz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This first-of-its-kind report on gender and high school sports participation, "Progress Without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06," flows from an analysis of high schools that is unprecedented in its national and historical scope. It uses merged data from the Civil…

  19. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2005-06. NCES 2007-361

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolle, Kacey Lee; Guerino, Paul; Dinkes, Rachel; Chandler, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This report presents findings on crime and violence in U.S. public schools, using data from the 2005-06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006). Developed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and supported by the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools of the U.S. Department of Education, SSOCS asks public school principals…

  20. Dual Credit in Oregon: An Analysis of Students Taking Dual Credit in High School in 2005-06 with Subsequent Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jonathan; North, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A dual credit course is a college/university level course that is taught at a high school, by a high school teacher, in partnership with a community college (CCWD) or Oregon University System (OUS) institution. Successful completion of a dual credit course counts as credit for both high school and college. In 2005-06, about 12,000 students took…

  1. Applying the ECTS System to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rosario Merida; Romero, Julia Angulo; Del Pino, Carmen Gil

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the research conducted as part of a Pilot Experiment regarding the application of the ECTS to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree taught at the University of Cordoba (Spain). It analyses the Experiment, which was carried out in the Education Faculty over the course of three academic years (2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07).…

  2. Creating a University System for the 21st Century. Student Affordability Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Historically, tuition and mandatory fee rates of all North Dakota University System (NDUS) institutions (except the 2-year campuses) have been less than their regional counterparts. Average tuition and fee increases at NDUS institutions were significantly higher than their regional counterparts in 2004-05, 2005-06 and 2006-07, as a result, the gap…

  3. Parent and Family Involvement in Education, 2006-07 School Year, From the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007. First Look. NCES 2008-050

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrold, Kathleen; O'Donnell, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on parents' and families' involvement in their children's education in the United States according to parents' reports for the 2006-07 school year. It also incorporates basic demographic information about children, parent/guardian characteristics, and household characteristics. The data come from the Parent and Family…

  4. Are Student Protests in Arab States Caused by Economic and Political Grievances? Empirical Evidence from the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Mason, Jessica; Seybolt, Taylor; DeLuca, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of protests by students (age 18 and older) in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen by using subsamples of students from nationally representative and acclaimed public opinion data (the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"). We find between 22.1% (Jordan) and 54.7% (Yemen) participated in either the signing of petitions, or…

  5. Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2006, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2008-172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.; Miller, Elise

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions, such as Puerto Rico. This report presents information from the Winter 2006-07 IPEDS web-based data collection. Tabulations represent data…

  6. Numbers and Types of Public Elementary and Secondary Education Agencies from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lee

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary local education agencies (LEAs) in the United States and other jurisdictions in the 2006-07 school year, using data from the Local Education Agency Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. Appended are the methodology and technical…

  7. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2006-07 (Fiscal Year 2007). First Look. NCES 2009-338

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2006-07 (fiscal year 2007, or FY 07). The School District Finance Survey is a district-level survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) by state education agencies (SEAs) in the 50 states and the District of…

  8. Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2005 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2004-05. First Look. NCES 2007-167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.

    2006-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2005 collection, which included two survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2005-06 academic year, and Completions covering the period July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005. These data were collected through the IPEDS web-based…

  9. Organic compounds assessed in Chattahoochee River water used for public supply near Atlanta, Georgia, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W. Brian; Younker, Cristal L.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program characterized the occurrence of 266 organic compounds in source water and finished water from the Chattahoochee River, which is the main water-supply source for the Atlanta metropolitan area. Source water is stream water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment, and finished water is water that has passed through treatment processes prior to distribution. Samples were collected approximately monthly during 2004-05 and included 15 paired source-water and finished-water samples. Samples were collected during winter-spring high flow and summer-fall low flow, but storm events were not targeted during this Source Water-Quality Assessment (SWQA) study. Samples were analyzed for pesticides and degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, disinfection by-products, personal care and domestic-use products, and other organic compounds. Community water systems are required to monitor regulated organic compounds under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1998); however, most compounds included in this study are not regulated by Federal drinking-water standards (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). The Chattahoochee River study is part of an ongoing NAWQA investigation of community water systems across the United States. Additional details about the national study are given in Carter and others (2007).

  10. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2004-05 (Fiscal Year 2005). First Look. NCES 2007-355

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei; Gaviola, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This brief publication contains data on revenues and expenditures per pupil made by school districts for school year 2004-05. Median per pupil revenue and expenditure data are reported by state, as well as values at the 5th and 95th percentiles. Data for charter schools are reported separately. There are also discussions on the different types of…

  11. Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC

  12. Single-laboratory validation of a refined AOAC HPLC method 2005.06 for oysters, cockles, and clams in U.K. shellfish.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G; Rapkova-Dhanji, Monika; Norton, Deirdre M; Algoet, Myriam; Lees, David N

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, a refined HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 was developed and validated for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in mussels. A single-laboratory validation study of this method was undertaken here for the analysis of PSP toxins in oysters, cockles, clams, and razor clams. The method was characterized for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, repeatability, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty of measurement. Validation data were utilized to determine method performance characteristics for non-mussel bivalves for all commercially available certified reference toxins, extending the method to dcNEO and dcGTX2,3, where available. A period of parallel testing of oysters, cockles, and clams enabled a comparison of sample toxicities obtained using mouse bioassay (MBA) and HPLC methodologies, although only a very low number of PSP-positive samples were obtained through the United Kingdom official control monitoring program. Results from the MBA and HPLC methods were well-correlated for PSP-negative samples, but the low number of naturally contaminated PSP-positive samples has prevented any comparative statistical assessment of method performance for non-mussels between the two official methods. However, some evidence for potentially significant differences in total saxitoxin equivalents obtained by the two methods in some species has highlighted the need for further comparative testing in non-mussel samples to be conducted prior to implementation of the HPLC method in routine official control monitoring programs. PMID:21140661

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia in 2005-06 and 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Roic, Besi; Jemersic, Lorena; Terzic, Svjetlana; Keros, Tomislav; Balatinec, Jelena; Florijancic, Tihomir

    2012-01-01

    We determined prevalence of antibody to selected viral pathogens important for domestic pigs and livestock in 556 wild boar (Sus scrofa) sera collected during 2005-06 and 2009-10 in four counties in Croatia. These counties account for an important part of the Croatian commercial pig production and have a high density of wild boars. Samples were tested for antibodies to porcine parvovirus (PPV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Antibodies to all of the infectious pathogens except SVDV were detected. There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence between the two periods for PPV, ADV, PCV2, PRRSV, and PRCV, with a higher prevalence of PPV and ADV in the 2009-10 period (P<0.05). During the same period, the prevalence of PCV2, PRRSV, and PRCV was lower (P<0.05). Our results provide information on the current disease exposure and health status of wild boars in Croatia and suggest that wild boars may act as a reservoir for several pathogens and a source of infection for domestic pigs and other livestock as well as humans, especially for ADV. PMID:22247381

  14. Electron donor concentrations in sediments and sediment properties at the agricultural chemicals team research site near New Providence, Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maharjan, Bijesh; Korom, Scott F.; Smith, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of electron donors in aquifer sediments are important to the understanding of the fate and transport of redox-sensitive constituents in groundwater, such as nitrate. For a study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 50 sediment samples were collected from below the water table from 11 boreholes at the U.S. Geological Survey Agricultural Chemicals Team research site near New Providence, Iowa, during 2006-07. All samples were analyzed for gravel, sand (coarse, medium, and fine), silt, clay, Munsell soil color, inorganic carbon content, and for the following electron donors: organic carbon, ferrous iron, and inorganic sulfide. A subset of 14 sediment samples also was analyzed for organic sulfur, but all of these samples had concentrations less than the method detection limit; therefore, the presence of this potential electron donor was not considered further. X-ray diffraction analyses provided important semi-quantitative information of well-crystallized dominant minerals within the sediments that might be contributing electron donors.

  15. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  16. The relationship between socially-assigned ethnicity, health and experience of racial discrimination for Māori: analysis of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In New Zealand, there are significant and long-standing inequalities in a range of health outcomes, risk factors and healthcare measures between Māori (indigenous peoples) and Pākehā (European). This study expands our understanding of racism as a determinant of such inequalities to examine the concept of socially-assigned ethnicity (how an individual is classified by others ethnically/racially) and its relationship to health and racism for Māori. There is some evidence internationally that being socially-assigned as the dominant ethnic group (in this case European) offers health advantage. Methods We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey for adult participants who self-identified their ethnicity as Māori (n = 3160). The association between socially-assigned ethnicity and individual experience of racial discrimination, and socially-assigned ethnicity and health (self-rated health, psychological distress [Kessler 10-item scale]) was assessed using logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively. Results Māori who were socially-assigned as European-only had significantly lower experience of racial discrimination (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.78) than Māori who were socially-assigned as non-European. Being socially-assigned as European-only was also associated with health advantage compared to being socially-assigned non-European: more likely to respond with self-rated very good/excellent health (age, sex adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.74), and lower Kessler 10 scores (age, sex adjusted mean difference = -0.66, 95% C I = -1.22, -0.10). These results were attenuated following adjustment for socioeconomic measures and experience of racial discrimination. Conclusions Results suggest that, in a race conscious society, the way people’s ethnicities are viewed by others is associated with tangible health risk or advantage, and this is consistent with an

  17. Factors associated with non-utilization of child immunization in Pakistan: evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The proportion of incompletely immunized children in Pakistan varies from 37-58%, and this has recently resulted in outbreaks of measles and polio. The aim of this paper is to determine the factors associated with incomplete immunization among children aged 12-23 months in Pakistan. Methods Secondary analysis was conducted on nationally representative cross-sectional survey data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-07. The analysis was limited to ever-married mothers who had delivered their last child during the 23 months immediately preceding the survey (n = 2,435). ‘Complete immunization’ was defined as the child having received twelve doses of five vaccines, and ‘incomplete immunization’ was defined if he/she had missed at least one of these twelve doses. The association between child immunization status and determinants of non-utilization of vaccines was assessed by calculating unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals using a multivariable binary logistic regression. Results The findings of this research showed that nearly 66% of children were incompletely immunized against seven preventable childhood diseases. The likelihood of incomplete immunization was significantly associated with the father’s occupation as a manual worker (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.10-1.97), lack of access to information (AOR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.66), non-use of antenatal care (AOR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.07-1.66), children born in Baluchistan region (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.12-2.70) and delivery at home (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.14-1.69). Conclusions Despite governmental efforts to increase rates of immunization against childhood diseases, the proportion of incompletely immunized children in Pakistan is still high. Targeted interventions are needed to increase the immunization rates in Pakistan. These interventions need to concentrate on people with low socioeconomic and educational status in order to improve their knowledge

  18. Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  19. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Faja Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Ant?o, and Ribeira Faj? on S?o Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development. Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Faj? indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Faj? tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Faj? have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s. Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground

  20. Update: influenza activity--United States and worldwide, 2003-04 season, and composition of the 2004-05 influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    2004-07-01

    During the 2003-04 influenza season, influenza A (H1), A (H3N2), and B viruses co-circulated worldwide, and influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated. Several Asian countries reported widespread outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry. In Vietnam and Thailand, these outbreaks were associated with severe illnesses and deaths among humans. In the United States, the 2003-04 influenza season began earlier than most seasons, peaked in December, was moderately severe in terms of its impact on mortality, and was associated predominantly with influenza A (H3N2) viruses. This report 1) summarizes information collected by World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) collaborating laboratories, state and local health departments, health-care providers, vital statistics registries, and CDC and 2) describes influenza activity in the United States and worldwide during the 2003-04 influenza season and the composition of the 2004-05 influenza vaccine. PMID:15229411

  1. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD. PMID:26024751

  2. Hydrology and water quality in the Green River and surrounding agricultural areas near Green River in Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for municipal and industrial purposes by about 27 million people and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of land in the Western United States. Water users in the Upper Colorado River Basin consume water from the Colorado River and its tributaries, reducing the amount of water in the river. In addition, application of water to agricultural land within the basin in excess of crop needs can increase the transport of dissolved solids to the river. As a result, dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River have increased, affecting downstream water users. During 2004-05, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, investigated the occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids in water from the agricultural areas near Green River, Utah, and in the adjacent reach of the Green River, a principle tributary of the Colorado River. The flow-weighted concentration of dissolved solids diverted from the Green River for irrigation during 2004 and 2005 was 357 milligrams per liter and the mean concentration of water collected from seeps and drains where water was returning to the river during low-flow conditions was 4,170 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from the shallow part of the ground-water system ranged from 687 to 55,900 milligrams per liter. Measurable amounts of dissolved solids discharging to the Green River are present almost exclusively along the river banks or near the mouths of dry washes that bisect the agricultural areas. The median dissolved-solids load in discharge from the 17 drains and seeps visited during the study was 0.35 ton per day. Seasonal estimates of the dissolved-solids load discharging from the study area ranged from 2,800 tons in the winter to 6,400 tons in the spring. The estimate of dissolved solids discharging from the study area annually is 15,700 tons. Water samples collected from selected sites within

  3. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    , was not necessarily an important factor affecting spatial differences of metals deposition in snow along the road in CAKR during winter 2005?06. The average metal content of particulates in 2005?06 snow samples was slightly less than that of snow samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in CAKR at three near-road locations in April 2003. Mean metals concentrations in 2006 snow particulates were about three times greater than in the road bed soils that were sampled in 2005; however, the fraction of annual metals loadings occurring in winter as compared to the remainder of the year was not readily determined by these data. Although procedures have been implemented in recent years to reduce the quantities of metal-enriched fugitive dusts, particulates dispersed near the road during the winter of 2005?06 were enriched in metals and these particulates contributed considerable metal loadings to the nearby terrain.

  4. Characteristics of the crustal magma body in the 2005-06 eruption area at 9°50'N on the East Pacific Rise from a 3D multi-channel seismic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Canales, J. P.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Newman, K. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Xu, M.; Aghaei, O.; Stowe, L.

    2008-12-01

    In July-August 2008 the first 3D academic multi-streamer seismic survey was carried out aboard R/V Langseth, focusing on the 9°50'N Integrated Study Site (ISS) at the East Pacific Rise. Preliminary results from 2D processing of along-axis and across-axis grid lines provide insight into the architecture of the magmatic system at the ISS and its relationship with hydrothermal activity and volcanic/dyking events associated with the 2005-06 eruption. Segmentation at length scales of about 5-10km of the axial magmatic system of the 9°50'N area can be mapped based on variations in two-way travel time, reflection strength and along-axis dip of the axial magma chamber (AMC) reflector on the stack sections, as well as the presence of edge diffractions. The main hydrothermal vents around 9°50'N are located over the region of shallowest AMC, which can be divided into two sub-regions, between 9°45.2'N - 9°48.7'N and 9°48.7'N - 9°51.9'N, respectively, separated by a discontinuity that has been interpreted as a potential hydrothermal downflow zone based on microseismicity studies. The northern lens event is rather flat-lying, while the southern one is more complex, dips south and shows pronounced edge diffractions. Both of these shallow lenses display distinctly weaker amplitudes than AMC reflections located immediately to the north and south. Lava flows from the most recent eruption overlie these two 'dim' lenses, and also extend over part of the north-dipping, brighter AMC to the north. Though detailed quantification is required, such along-axis variations in reflection strength are suggestive of a lower present-day melt percentage between 9°45.2'N - 9°51.9'N, an observation consistent with melt being drained by the 1991 and 2005-06 eruptions.

  5. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Facilities Performance Indicators Survey" ("FPI") supersedes and builds upon the two major surveys APPA conducted in the past: the Comparative Costs and Staffing (CCAS) survey and the Strategic Assessment Model (SAM). The "FPI" covers all the materials collected in CCAS and SAM, along with some select new data points and improved survey…

  6. NSHE Diversity Report, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report presents statistical data on student diversity and minority enrollment distributions in the eight institutions comprising the Nevada System of Higher Education in order to meet the goal of the NSHE Master Plan in achieving opportunity and accessible education for all. The report is divided into three sections. Section I: Performance…

  7. Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical

  8. Alberta Advanced Education Annual Report 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the "Government Accountability Act." The Public Accounts consist of the annual report of the Government of Alberta and the annual reports of each of the 24 ministries. The annual report of the Government of Alberta released June 26, 2006 contains…

  9. 2005-06 NCAA[R] Gender-Equity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHass, Denise

    2008-01-01

    This report provides summary information concerning personnel, revenues, expenses and other comparative variables of men's and women's intercollegiate athletics programs at NCAA member institutions for the 2005-2006 fiscal year. The summary information may be used to help track gender-equity issues at the collegiate level. This report is the…

  10. Arkansas Consolidated School Improvement Planning (ACSIP): Handbook. 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Arkansas Consolidated School Improvement Planning model (ACSIP) is an annual comprehensive planning and fund distribution design that must be used by all Arkansas public schools. Using the ACSIP model, each school in Arkansas develops a comprehensive school improvement plan. The plan is used, also, as the school's application for all federal…

  11. The Complete Learning Disabilities Directory: 2005/06 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey House Publishing, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This is the twelfth edition of the most comprehensive reference book covering the wide range of learning disabilities resources available nationwide. This directory contains well over 7,000 entries and covers the schools, learning centers, vocational training programs, associations and organizations, and government agencies involved in learning…

  12. High School Counselor's Handbook: 2004-05 Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document provides useful information to help high school and TRIO counselors advise students about financial aid for postsecondary education. This document focuses on the federal student aid programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education. It includes general information about postsecondary opportunities, and the application process…

  13. Ground-Water Quality in the St. Lawrence River Basin, New York, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Clean Water Act requires that States monitor and report on the quality of ground water and surface water. To satisfy part of these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have developed a program in which ground-water quality is assessed in 2 to 3 of New York State's 14 major river basins each year. To characterize the quality of ground water in the St. Lawrence River Basin in northern New York, water samples were collected from 14 domestic and 11 production wells between August 2005 and January 2006. Eight of the wells were finished in sand and gravel and 17 wells were finished in bedrock. Ground-water samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 229 constituents and physical properties, including inorganic constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Sixty-six constituents were detected above laboratory reporting levels. Concentrations of most compounds at most sites were within drinking water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and New York State Department of Health, but a few compounds exceeded drinking water standards at some sites. Water in the basin is generally hard to very hard (hardness equal to 121 mg/L as CaCO3 or greater); hardness and alkalinity were generally higher in the St. Lawrence Valley than in the Adirondack Mountains. The cation with the highest median concentration was calcium; the anion with the highest median concentration was bicarbonate. The concentration of chloride in one sample exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard; the concentration of sulfate in one sample also exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard. Nitrate was the predominant nutrient detected but no sample exceeded the 10 mg/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level. The trace elements detected with the highest median concentrations were strontium, barium, and iron. Concentration of trace elements in several samples exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standards, including aluminum (50 micrograms per liter, 4 samples), iron (300 micrograms per liter, 5 samples), and manganese (50 micrograms per liter, 4 samples). The concentration of uranium in one sample from a domestic well finished in crystalline bedrock was three times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter. The median concentration of radon-222 was 600 picoCuries per liter, but concentrations as high as 18,800 picoCuries per liter were detected; two wells with high radon concentrations also had high uranium concentrations. Radon-222 is not currently regulated, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picoCuries per liter along with an Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level of 4,000 picoCuries per liter, to be in effect in states that have programs to address radon in indoor air. Concentrations of radon-222 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level in 60 percent of samples and exceeded the proposed Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level in 8 percent of samples. Six pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected; all were amide or triazine herbicides or degradates. Five volatile organic compounds were detected, including disinfection byproducts such as trichloromethane and gasoline components or additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether. No pesticides, pesticide degradates, or volatile organic compounds were detected above established limits. Coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, were detected in three wells finished in carbonate bedrock.

  14. Government College of Teacher Education Kozhikode Community Living Camp, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, Chandrasekharan

    2005-01-01

    The old Citizenship Training has reappeared as Community Living Camp and has found a place in the curriculum of the University of Calicut. Among the affiliated colleges of the University of Calicut, the Government College of Teacher Education, Kozhikode was the first to conduct the camp. This report of the camp throws light on the conditions that…

  15. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: 2005-06 Transfer Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  16. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  17. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T.; Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

  18. 2005-06 Overview of M-DCPS Academic Performance. Research Capsule. Volume 0602

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS) earned a performance grade of "B" for the second year in a row and was just seven points short of the points required to earn an "A." This Research Capsule summarizes several key elements that contributed to the district's achievement. Results indicate that, in most cases, students' levels of academic…

  19. Public Secondary School Dropouts in Pennsylvania 2005-06: Report to the General Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Joanne R., Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Act 49 of 1987 requires the Secretary of Education to provide the General Assembly with an annual report on public school dropouts in Pennsylvania. The purpose of this report is to document the actual number of students who drop out each year and to provide various characteristics about these students. The type of data collected about each dropout…

  20. Classroom Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Teaching Ideas, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the four issues in the 23rd volume of "Classroom Notes Plus." Each issue of "Classroom Notes Plus" contains descriptions of original, unpublished teaching practices, and of adapted ideas. The August 2005 (v23 n1) issue includes: Sharing Responses to Literature via Exit Slips (Barb Wagner); Letting Learners Teach…

  1. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2005-06

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006 and Food ...

  2. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia, 1993-94 to 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's (BC's) public post-secondary institutions. In March 2003, BCCAT prepared a report detailing the…

  3. Academic Competitiveness and National SMART Grant Programs: 2006-07 and 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Berkner, Lutz; Li, Xiaojie; Woo, Jennie; Lee, John; Topper, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Education is vitally interested in whether the financial incentives provided by the grants affect student behavior. That is, will the Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACGs) induce more economically disadvantaged high school students to complete a rigorous high school program and enroll and succeed in postsecondary education? Will…

  4. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed criterion in all but four stream samples (266 of 270). Similarly, only 2 of 84 Missouri River samples had total phosphorus concentrations less than the proposed criterion. The proposed total nitrogen criterion for the Corn Belt and Northern Great Plains ecoregion was surpassed in 80 percent of the water samples collected from the stream sites. Samples with total nitrogen concentrations greater than the proposed criterion were most common at Papillion Creek and Big Papillion Creek sites, where the proposed criterion was surpassed in 90 and 96 percent of the samples collected, respectively. Elevated concentrations of total nitrogen were less common at the Missouri River sites, with 33 percent of the samples analyzed having concentrations that surpassed the proposed nutrient criterion for total nitrogen. The three constituents with measured concentrations greater than their respective health-based screening levels were nickel, zinc, and dichlorvos. Differences in water quality during the beginning, middle, and end of the combined sewer overflow discharge and the stream hydrograph rise, peak, and recession were investigated. Concentrations from the ending part of the combined sewer overflow hydrograph were significantly different than those from the beginning and middle parts for 3 and 11 constituents, respectively. No constituents were significantly different between the beginning and middle parts of the combined sewer overflow discharge hydrograph. For the stream site upstream from combined sewer overflow outfalls on Cole Creek, the constituents with geometric mean values for the hydrograph rise that were at least twice those for the values of the peak and recession were specific conductance, magnesium, nitrite, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), methyl salicylate, p-cresol, and Escherichia coli. Similarly, the constituents where the hydrograph peak was at least twice that for the rise and recession at the upstream Cole Creek site were total suspended solids, silver, an

  5. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Outcomes for the Third Year (2006-07)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, set forth a vision for technology immersion in public schools. Senate Bill 396 called for the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to establish a pilot project to "immerse" schools in technology by providing a wireless mobile computing device for each teacher and student,…

  6. 2006-07 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report outlines accomplishments relative to items listed in the February 23, 2006 Management Letter from the Assistant Deputy Minister of Advance Education to the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT). A major focus of BCCAT during this year was the redesign and launch of BCCAT.bc.ca, implementing a number of…

  7. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples from the Ogallala and the Brule sand. Median concentrations of nitrate varied by aquifer-2.6 milligrams per liter (Ogallala), 2.1 milligrams per liter (Brule), and 1.3 milligrams per liter (Brule sand). The chemistry of the ground water in the study area indicates that ground water flows from recharge areas in both the tableland areas and Lodgepole Creek Valley to discharge areas beyond the study area. Recharging water that percolates into the Ogallala in the tableland areas either enters the Ogallala aquifer, flows along the Ogallala-Brule contact, or enters Brule fractures or sand. Although limited in amount, ground water flowing along the Ogallala-Brule contact or in the Brule fractures or sand appears to be the predominant means by which water moves from the tableland areas to Lodgepole Creek Valley. Apparent ground-water ages from chlorofluorocarbon and sulfur hexafluoride data generally were similar. Age of ground water for most monitoring wells located in Lodgepole Creek Valley ranged from the mid- to late 1960s to the early 1990s. Ages of ground water in samples from monitoring wells located in tableland draw areas ranged from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s. Water in the Brule (areas without known secondary permeability structures) or deeper Brule sand aquifer was substantially older than water in the Ogallala aquifer and probably was recharged between 10,000 to 30,000 years before present. The stable isotopic data indicate that the ground water in the study area probably originated from precipitation. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek and the tableland areas are similar in chemistry. However, there appears to be limited interaction between ground water within the Ogallala to the north of Sidney and Lodgepole Creek Valley. Available data indicate that although some of the ground water in the Ogallala likely flows across the Ogallala-Brule contact, most of it does not move toward Lodgepole Creek.

  8. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Annual Accountability Report, Fiscal Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (CHE) serves as the coordinating board for South Carolina's 33 public institutions of higher learning and is responsible for serving a dual role within state government acting both as an advocate for higher education as well as an oversight entity on behalf of the General Assembly. The agency's…

  9. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary: In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was measured in Lake Huron. There was almost no net change in the water level of Lake Huron from January 2004 through December 2005. In 2004, annual precipitation measured in Port Hope was about 3.7 inches above normal, but precipitation measured in Bad Axe was about 1.4 inches below normal. About 14.5 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2004 summer growing season (May through August), which is about the same as was measured in Port Hope during the same period. Provisional precipitation totals for 2005 were 30.7 inches for January through November in Port Hope, and about 31.7 inches for the year in Bad Axe. About 10.6 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2005 summer growing season, which is about 0.2 inches more than was recorded at Port Hope during the same period. Two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders are completed in the Saginaw and Marshall aquifers in Fairhaven and Lake Townships, respectively. From January 2004 through December 2005, the net rise in the water level in the Fairhaven Township well was 0.71 ft, and the net rise in the Lake Township well was 0.98 ft. The Fairhaven Township well is drilled adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and, as previously noted, there was almost no net change in the water level in Saginaw Bay over the same period. Hydrographs showing water levels are presented for the two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders. Continuous-data recorders were discontinued in the Grant and Bingham Township wells at the end of 2003 due to budget constraints. The decision of which two wells to discontinue was based on an analysis of the intrinsic value to Huron County of data from each well. The Grant Township well was selected for periodic or quarterly measurement at that time because it is completed in the glacial aquifer, which is little used for drinking water purposes or absent in much of Huron County. The Bingham Township well, which is completed in the Marshall aquif

  10. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was measured in Lake Huron. There was almost no net change in the water level of Lake Huron from January 2004 through December 2005. In 2004, annual precipitation measured in Port Hope was about 3.7 inches above normal, but precipitation measured in Bad Axe was about 1.4 inches below normal. About 14.5 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2004 summer growing season (May through August), which is about the same as was measured in Port Hope during the same period. Provisional precipitation totals for 2005 were 30.7 inches for January through November in Port Hope, and about 31.7 inches for the year in Bad Axe. About 10.6 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2005 summer growing season, which is about 0.2 inches more than was recorded at Port Hope during the same period. Two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders are completed in the Saginaw and Marshall aquifers in Fairhaven and Lake Townships, respectively. From January 2004 through December 2005, the net rise in the water level in the Fairhaven Township well was 0.71 ft, and the net rise in the Lake Township well was 0.98 ft. The Fairhaven Township well is drilled adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and, as previously noted, there was almost no net change in the water level in Saginaw Bay over the same period. Hydrographs showing water levels are presented for the two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders. Continuous-data recorders were discontinued in the Grant and Bingham Township wells at the end of 2003 due to budget constraints. The decision of which two wells to discontinue was based on an analysis of the intrinsic value to Huron County of data from each well. The Grant Township well was selected for periodic or quarterly measurement at that time because it is completed in the glacial aquifer, which is little used for drinking water purposes or absent in much of Huron County. The Bingham Township well, which is completed in the Marshall aquifer, was selected for

  11. Characterization of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of Agricultural Lands near Manila, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, have been identified as contributing dissolved solids to Flaming Gorge Reservoir. Concentrations of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, ranged from 35 to 7,410 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids load in seeps and drains in the study area that discharge to Flaming Gorge Reservoir ranged from less than 0.1 to 113 tons per day. The most substantial source of dissolved solids discharging from the study area to the reservoir was Birch Spring Draw. The mean daily dissolved-solids load near the mouth of Birch Spring Draw was 65 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load imported to the study area by Sheep Creek and Peoples Canals is 1,330 and 13,200 tons, respectively. Daily dissolved-solid loads discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the period July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005, ranged from 90 to 289 tons per day with a mean of 142 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the same period was 51,900 tons. Of this 51,900 tons of dissolved solids, about 9,000 tons may be from a regional source that is not associated with agricultural activities. The salt-loading factor is 3,670 milligrams per liter or about 5.0 tons of dissolved solids per acre-foot of deep percolation in Lucerne Valley and 1,620 milligrams per liter or 2.2 tons per acre-foot in South Valley. The variation of 87Sr with strontium concentration indicates some general patterns that help to define a conceptual model of the processes affecting the concentration of strontium and the 87Sr isotopic ratio in area waters. As excess irrigation water percolates through soils derived from Mancos Shale, the 87Sr isotopic ratio (0.21 to 0.69 permil) approaches one that is typical of deep percolation from irrigation on Mancos Shale. The boron concentration and 11B value for the water sample from Antelope Wash, being distinctly different from water samples from other sites, is evidence that water in Antelope Wash may contain a substantial component of regional ground-water flow.

  12. Public Secondary School Dropouts in Pennsylvania, 2004-05. Report to the General Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Richard A., Comp.

    2006-01-01

    Act 49 of 1987 requires the Secretary of Education to provide the General Assembly with an annual report on public school dropouts in Pennsylvania. The purpose of this report is to document the actual number of students who drop out each year and to provide various characteristics about these students. The type of data collected about each dropout…

  13. Observations of wintertime mesopause temperature with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar during winter 2004/05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, D.; Blum, U.; Williams, B.; Vance, J.; She, C.-Y.; Singer, W.; Hoppe, U.-P.

    2005-08-01

    The ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar is a sodium fluorescence lidar, designed by the Colorado State University (CSU) lidar group and operated by CSU, Colorado Research Associates/NorthWest Research Associates (CoRA/NWRA) and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI). By remote spectroscopy, this instrument is used to determine N-density profiles as well as profiles of atmospheric temperature and wind from about 80-110 km. The instrument is part of the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR), located in northern Norway (69°N), about 150 km north of the Arctic circle. During November/December 2004 and during the ROMA rocket campaign in January/February 2005 at the Andøya Rocket Range the Na Lidar was operated on several occasions. Atmospheric wind and temperature profiles retrieved from meteorological rockets were obtained during the measurement campaign. Further, the SKiYMET meteor radar performed continuous measurements during this time, providing temperature and wind data in the mesopause region. The 90-km daily average temperature from the Meteor Radar agrees with the measurements of the Na lidar. We observed different wave structures in the polar mesopause region. We will present and discuss the results of the wintertime temperature measurements in the mesopause region obtained with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar.

  14. Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. NCJ 219374

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaves, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    This publication reports on the first survey of campus law enforcement agencies conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics since 1994-1995. The report presents data covering the 2004-2005 school year. Agencies serving 4-year U.S. universities and colleges with a fall 2004 enrollment of 2,500 or more, and those serving 2-year public colleges…

  15. High School Attrition Rates across Texas Education Service Center Regions: 2009-10. IDRA Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roy L.

    2011-01-01

    Attrition rates are an indicator of a school's holding power, or ability to keep students enrolled in school and learning until they graduate. This study examines regional trends in Texas for the number and percent of students lost from public high school enrollment prior to graduation. A comparative analysis of 1985-86, 2005-06, 2006-07,…

  16. BELTWIDE COTTON QUALITY STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season with the ultimate goal of identifying areas where improvements can be ma...

  17. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in Los Angeles Unified School District: A District and Neighborhood Matched Comparison Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The study examined whether charter schools have higher growth in student achievement than traditional public schools. The study analyzed data on 79 charter schools and 593 traditional public elementary, middle, and high schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District from 2005-06 to 2006-07. School-level academic achievement was measured using…

  18. Trash particle distribution measurements in ginned cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A beltwide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality during the ginning process and throughout the ginning season. The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the USDA-ARS Southwester...

  19. BELTWIDE GIN SAMPLING - FIRST SEASON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season. This report discusses preliminary analysis of the first year data. In...

  20. Characteristics of California School Districts in Program Improvement: 2008 Update. REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Huang, Chun-Wei; Huang, Min; Derby, Kenwyn

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive analysis updates an earlier study of California's Title I school districts in program improvement (July 2008 "Characteristics of California School Districts in Program Improvement. Issues & Answers"), which was based on performance data for 2005/06, with another year of data. By 2006/07 more school districts were in program…

  1. Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2007, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2006-07, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2008-159

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    This First Look report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2007 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2007-08 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2007, and 12-Month Enrollment covering academic year…

  2. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of Second-Year (2005-06) Implementation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Center for Educational Research, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), a project sponsored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), leverages federal Title II, Part D funds to support a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student…

  3. The Division III Financial Aid Reporting Process: Findings and Review Results, 2005-06 through 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report marks the completion of the 2008-09 reporting cycle and the fourth year of the Division III Financial Aid Reporting Program. The report examines findings for all reporting institutions from each of the four reporting cycles, and details the outcomes of the Division III Financial Aid Committee's 2008-09 review process. Four calculations…

  4. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Running Start: 2005-06 Annual Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Running Start program; data about student participation rates and academic performance; updates on savings to families, taxpayers and the state; and new information about national trends in dual-credit programs. Running Start is a program that allows 11th and 12th grade students to take college courses at…

  5. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona-2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area averages about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2005 to September 2006. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2005, ground-water withdrawals in the Black Mesa area totaled 7,330 acre-feet, including ground-water withdrawals for industrial (4,480 acre-feet) and municipal (2,850 acre-feet) uses. From 2004 to 2005, total withdrawals increased by less than 2 percent, industrial withdrawals increased by approximately 3 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 0.35 percent. From 2005 to 2006, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 10 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.5 foot. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 12 of 15 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.4 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2006, the median water-level change for 29 wells was -8.5 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.2 foot for 13 wells in the unconfined areas and -46.6 feet for 16 wells in the confined area. Ground-water discharges were measured once in 2005 and once in 2006 at Moenkopi School Spring and Burro Spring. Discharge decreased by 3.5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring and by 15 percent at Burro Spring. During the period of record at each spring, discharges fluctuated; a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash (1976 to 2005), Dinnebito Wash (1993 to 2005), Polacca Wash (1994 to 2005), Pasture Canyon Spring (August 2004 to December 2005), and Laguna Creek (1996 to 2005). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring and Laguna Creek was discontinued at the end of December 2005. In 2006, water samples were collected from 6 wells and 2 springs in the Black Mesa area and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 111 to 588 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 5 of the wells and both of the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Trends in the chemistry of water samples from the 6 wells show the Pi?on NTUA 1 and Peabody 9 wells increasing in dissolved solids, Forest Lake NTUA 1 and Peabody 2 wells decreasing in dissolved solids, and Kykotsmovi PM2 and Keams Canyon PM2 wells show a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for the 2 springs.

  6. Survivor needs or logistical convenience? Factors shaping decisions to deliver relief to earthquake-affected communities, Pakistan 2005-06.

    PubMed

    Benini, Aldo; Conley, Charles; Dittemore, Brody; Waksman, Zachary

    2009-03-01

    In Bureaucratizing the Good Samaritan, Waters (2001) argues that bureaucratic rationality distracts humanitarian agencies from the needs of the people they are supposed to assist, in favour of other values that their institutional frameworks dictate. We test his claim by investigating the response to the Pakistan 2005 earthquake. One of us (Dittemore) worked with the United Nations Joint Logistics Centre in the theatre, managing a relief cargo shipment database. The response, known as 'Operation Winter Race', was hampered by extreme logistical challenges, but ultimately succeeded in averting a second disaster resulting from cold and starvation. We use statistical models to probe whether survivor needs significantly guided decisions to deliver relief to affected communities. Needs assessments remained incomplete and incoherent. We measure needs through proxy indicators and integrate them, on a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, with logistics and relief delivery data. We find that, despite strong logistics effects, needs orientations were significant. However, the strength of decision factors varies between commodity types (food versus clothing and shelter versus reconstruction materials) as well as over the different phases of the response. This study confirms Thomas's observation that logistics databases are rich 'repositories of data that can be analyzed to provide post-event learning' (Thomas, 2003, p. 4). This article is an invitation for others to engage in creative humanitarian data management. PMID:18513312

  7. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of Second-Year (2005-06) Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Huntsberger, Briana

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), a project sponsored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), leverages federal Title II, Part D funds to support a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student…

  8. Relations Among the Use, Occurrence, and Flux of Azoxystrobin, Propiconazole, and Other Fungicides in US Streams, 2005-06

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglin, W. A.; Sandstrom, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    Fungicides account for 10 percent of global pesticide use (0.25 million metric tons per year), and 6 percent of US use (33 thousand metric tons per year). Some fungicides such as chlorothalonil have been in use for decades (first US registration in 1966), while others such as azoxystrobin were introduced in the last decade (first US sales in 1996). Fungicide fate and transport is not well understood, but recent investigations have detected fungicides in precipitation, groundwater, streams, and streambed sediment. The occurrence of Asian soybean rust in the Southern US is of concern because of the increase in fungicide use that would result if it spreads to the Central US during the growing season. In the Central US many growers have never used fungicides to protect soybeans. The purpose of this study is to collect baseline data on fungicide occurrence in streams prior to the spread of Asian rust to soybeans in the Central US and the anticipated increase in fungicide use to control the rust. These data are then used to investigate relations among the occurrence and flux of fungicides in US streams, and the use of those products within the associated drainage basins. Water samples from streams in the Southern and Central US were collected in 2005 (26 sites, 40 samples) and 2006 (16 sites, 41 samples), and analyzed for up to 11 fungicides. This is the first study to monitor for several of these fungicides in environmental samples from locations in this region of the US. Chlorothalonil was used in all study basins but only detected in one sample from 2006. Azoxystrobin was detected in one or more samples from 12 of 26 sites in 2005 and 10 of 16 sites in 2006. Estimated daily fluxes of azoxystrobin ranged from zero to 440 grams/day but were not significantly correlated (p value = 0.3) with estimated azoxystrobin use in the upstream watershed. Estimated daily fluxes of propiconizole ranged from zero to 360 grams/day and were correlated (p value = <0.0001) with estimated propiconizole use. Results indicate that fungicides can readily enter aquatic systems where they may have toxic effects, and that their occurrence and flux in streams may be correlated with regional patterns of fungicide use.

  9. Adding Up the Numbers: The Education Budget under Mayoral Control. Update and Summary of 2005-06 EPP Bulletins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    For more than a century, a succession of New York City (NYC) mayors have claimed that they were reducing administrative overhead in the school system and driving more resources to instruction. These claims have been dutifully reported by the press with rarely any effort to verify them. For the last 50 years, the salaries of teachers were increased…

  10. Findings from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey: School Year 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2008-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank; Cornman, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey (TCS), which collected data for school year 2005-2006. This pilot collection is a research and development effort to see if it is possible to collect and publish teacher-level data from the administrative records residing in state departments of education. Seven states…

  11. Financial Inequality in Higher Education: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2007-01-01

    Financial inequality is growing in U.S. higher education. In this report, the author observes increasing differences between the endowments of rich and poor institutions, between the salaries of college and university presidents and their faculties, between the salaries of athletic coaches and professors, and between well and poorly compensated…

  12. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

  13. Higher Education Capital Improvements, 1997-98 through 2006-07. Status Report Presented to the Legislative Capital Development Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    This report summarizes a $1,219.6 million ten-year higher education capital improvement program in Colorado for 354 projects, including academic facilities, building safety and protection systems, research and clinical space, student housing, auxiliary services, and athletics. Summary text and graphs describe the purpose of the capital…

  14. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured once in 2006 and once in 2007 at Moenkopi School Spring. Flow decreased by 18.9 percent at Moenkopi School Spring. During the period of record, flow fluctuated, and a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi (1976 to 2006), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs (1993 to 2006), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa (1994 to 2006), and Pasture Canyon Springs (August 2004 to December 2006). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained even, showing neither a significant increase nor decrease in flows. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring for a trend to be apparent. In 2007, water samples were collected from 1 well and 1 spring in the Black Mesa area and were analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at Peabody well 5 for the period of record, and there is an apparent increasing trend. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record.

  15. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  16. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading from Surface Water and Groundwater to Sweitzer Lake, Colorado, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. Sweitzer Lake was placed on the State 303(d) list as impaired with respect to dissolved selenium. In Colorado, the Water Quality Control Division of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment is required to develop total maximum daily loads of selenium for the 303(d) list segments. The U.S. Geological survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading from surface water and ground water to Sweitzer Lake to support the total maximum daily loads development process. Surface-water and groundwater data were collected to quantify selenium concentrations and loads to Sweitzer Lake from October 2006 to October 2007. These data were used to determine the amount of selenium load (pounds annually) that would need to be reduced for the contributing sources (surface water and groundwater) to meet the State chronic aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium, herein referred to as 'a load reduction.' Selenium concentration data were also compared to the State acute aquatic-life standard of 18.4 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium. Both surface-water and groundwater-quality samples collected during this study were found to exceed the chronic standard. Surface-water quantity and quality data were collected at Garnet Canal Diversion and Diversion Drain. Groundwater flux data were collected at 10 seepage-meter sires in Sweitzer Lake, and groundwater-quality data were collected at a groundwater seep and inferred from a January 2007 sample collected at Garnet Canal Diversion. Selenium concentrations and loads were greater at Garnet Canal Diversion than those observed at Diversion Drain. Approximately one-third of Garnet Canal Diversion-s Streamflow originates from Loutzenhizer Arroyo. Selenium concentrations observed during previous studies at Loutzenhizer Arroyo indicate high selenium concentrations and high selenium loads. All selenium concentrations in samples from Garnet Canal Diversion were greater than the chronic standard and were less that the acute standard during the irrigation season. Seventy-three percent of the annual selenium load at Garnet Canal Diversion would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. All daily mean selenium concentrations and selenium-concentration samples were greater than the chronic standard at Diversion Drain, but less than the acute standard during the irrigation season. Forty percent of the mean annual selenium loads at Diversion Drain would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. Estimated groundwater selenium loads and reductions of selenium loads to Sweitzer Lake were estimated using ranges of lake-bottom areas with positive groundwater flux and groundwater selenium concentrations. Estimated annual groundwater selenium load reductions ranged from 0.900 pound of the 1.17 pounds of annual load to 86.3 points of the 88.3 pounds of annual load for the selenium concentration scenarios over the range of lake-bottom areas. Groundwater selenium load and load reductions determined from this study identify the probably minimum and maximum values for these parameters. Further data collection and analysis could refine the range of groundwater selenium loads and load reductions.

  17. Ground-Water Data and Flow Directions in the Vicinity of Swamp Road, Licking County, Ohio, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is proposing to build a dry dam on the South Fork Licking River to mitigate flood impacts. Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of impounded floodwaters on ground-water conditions in the Swamp Road neighborhood. To obtain a better understanding of existing ground-water conditions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NRCS, installed three monitoring wells and collected ground-water-quality samples on two occasions from these and four residential wells. In addition, transducers were placed in these seven wells to obtain hourly water-level measurements from August, 2006 to early March, 2007. Intermittent water levels also were measured in another seven residential wells in the area. Water-quality samples were collected in September 2006 and January 2007. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, inorganic elements, and fecal-indicator bacteria. In general, the ground-water quality was very hard with large iron concentrations of 1,700 ?g/L and above. Although the aquifer underlying the Swamp Road area is confined, the continuous water-level records indicate a rapid response to precipitation. Comparison of the well hydrographs with the stage hydrograph for the nearby South Fork Licking River indicates a hydraulic connection between the river and the aquifer. In the vicinity of Swamp Road, the ground-water-flow direction was southeast during the duration of the study. The ground-water-level elevations were above the planned maximum elevation for water impounded by the dam, thus the impounded floodwater should have minimal impact on ground-water conditions along Swamp Road.

  18. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights student transition trends across a four-year period, with K-12 data from 2001/02 - 2004/05 and post-secondary data from 2002/03-2005/06. Reported findings include: (1) There is a consistent trend in immediate entry transition rates, with slightly more than half of all high school graduates making an immediate transition into…

  19. Blends of Soft Red Winter Wheat Varieties Increased Yield in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed mixtures, or blends, of small grain cultivars have been widely used to manage foliar fungal diseases and stabilize yield. However, blends are unknown in eastern U.S. wheat production, where numerous diseases and abiotic stresses often take a toll. In 2004-05 and 2005-06, a field experiment wa...

  20. Inquiry-Learning with WebLab: Undergraduate Attitudes and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Judith; Mitchell, Rudolph; del Alamo, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    The Microelectronics WebLab at MIT allows students to do actual (not simulated) laboratory research on state-of-the art equipment through the Internet. This study assesses the use of WebLab in a junior-level course on microelectronic devices and circuits in 2004-05 and 2005-06. In quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews, students and…

  1. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  2. WWC Review of the Report "Increasing Young Children's Contact with Print during Shared Reading: Longitudinal Effects on Literacy Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the impact of the "Project STAR" ("Sit Together and Read") reading program on the literacy skills of preschool students. Researchers randomly assigned 85 preschool classrooms in Ohio to one of three study groups at the start of the 2004-05 or 2005-06 school years: (1) A high-dose intervention group, in which teachers used…

  3. An Action-Research Programme with Secondary Education Teachers on Teaching and Learning Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingos-Grilo, Paula; Reis-Grilo, Carlos; Ruiz, Constantino; Mellado, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We describe part of an action-research programme in Spain which was based on metacognitive reflection. The participants were four science teachers in a secondary school during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 academic years. During the study, they each analysed their own pupils' alternative ideas on photosynthesis and their teaching methods as recorded in…

  4. Misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-provided meals based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Finney, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have relied on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation, few studies have evaluated parental response accuracy. We investigated misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-meal programs based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records using cross-sectional study data collected for 3 school years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07) for 1,100 fourth-grade children (87% black; 52% girls) from 18 schools total in one district. Parents reported children's usual school-meal participation on paper consent forms. The district provided administrative daily records of individual children's school-meal participation. Researchers measured children's weight and height. "Usual participation" in breakfast/lunch was defined as ≥50% of days. Parental responses misclassified 16.3%, 12.8%, 19.8%, and 4.7% of children for participation in breakfast, classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch, respectively. Parental responses misclassified more children for participation in cafeteria than classroom breakfast (P=0.0008); usual-participant misclassification probabilities were less than nonusual-participant misclassification probabilities for classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch (P<0.0001 for each) (two-proportion z tests). Parental responses concerning children's participation were more accurate for lunch than breakfast; parents overstated breakfast participation (both classroom and cafeteria) and lunch participation. Breakfast participation misclassification was not related to body mass index (P=0.41), sex (P=0.40), age (P=0.63), or socioeconomic status (P=0.21) (multicategory logistic regression controlling for school year, breakfast location, and school). Relying on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation may hamper researchers' abilities to detect relationships that have policy implications for the child nutrition community. The use of

  5. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2004, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,210 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,370 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,840 acre-feet. From 2003 to 2004, total withdrawals decreased by less than 1 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 2 percent, and municipal withdrawals increased by 2 percent. From 2004 to 2005, annually measured water levels declined in 6 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 12 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2005, the median water-level change for 33 wells was -9.0 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.6 foot for 16 wells in the unconfined areas and -32.0 feet for 17 wells in the confined area. Discharges were measured once in 2004 and once in 2005 at four springs. Discharge increased by 8 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, decreased by 5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring, increased by 71 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and stayed the same at Burro Spring. For the period of record at each spring, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2004 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2004 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2004 at Dinnebito Wash, 1994 to 2004 at Polacca Wash, and August 2004 to December 2004 at Pasture Canyon Spring. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2005, water samples were collected from 11 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 122 to 639 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 9 of the wells and from all the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are some long-term trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells having more than 10 years of data and from 2 springs. Rough Rock PM5, Keams Canyon PM2, Second Mesa PM2, and Kayenta PM2 show an increasing trend in dissolved solids; Forest Lake NTUA1 and PWCC 2 show a decreasing trend in dissolved solids; and Kykostmovi PM2 shows a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for 2 springs.

  6. Surface-Water Exchange through Culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Stewart, Marc A.; Nowacki, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic data between June 2004 and December 2005 to investigate the temporal and spatial nature of flow exchanges through culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park. Continuous data collected during the study measured flow velocity, water level, salinity, conductivity, and water-temperature in or near seven culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. The two culverts east of Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road flowed into Taylor Slough Basin from 87 to 96 percent of the study period, whereas flows through five culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond flowed into Shark River Slough Basin from 70 to 99 percent of the study period. Synoptic flow discharges measured at all culverts during three intensive field efforts revealed a net discharge into Taylor Slough Basin from Shark River Slough Basin through culverts between Royal Palm Road and Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road, and into Shark River Slough Basin from Taylor Slough Basin through culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. Data collected during the study and presented in this report provided additional knowledge of the magnitude, direction, and nature of flow exchanges through the road culverts.

  7. Numbers and Rates of Public High School Dropouts: School Year 2004-05. First Look (NCES 2008-305)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Gaviola, Nick; Hoffman, Lee

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual universe collection of public elementary and secondary education data that is administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its data collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for the CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings…

  8. Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. NCES 2007-307

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, John; Lyter, Deanna M.; Peltola, Pia; Strizek, Gregory A.; Morton, Beth A.; Rowland, Renee

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) is to provide information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers who teach in grades K-12 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. In pursuit of this objective, TFS examines the characteristics of those who stay in the teaching profession and…

  9. Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were collected following USGS protocols.

  10. Home Education in Pennsylvania, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John S., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    The 2006-07 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 22,136. The total was comprised of 11,422 males and 10,714 females. There was a decrease of 276 students, or 1.2%, from the 2005-06 total of 22,412. It was the fourth year in a row that home education enrollments decreased and only the fifth year overall since the passage of Act 169…

  11. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Two Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program is part of a long history of performance pay programs and policies in Texas. The GEEG program was state-funded and provided grants to schools to implement three-year locally-designed performance pay plans. During the 2005-06, 2006-07, and 2007-08 school years, the GEEG program operated in 99…

  12. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  13. Deaths averted by influenza vaccination in the U.S. during the seasons 2005/06 through 2013/14☆

    PubMed Central

    Foppa, Ivo M.; Cheng, Po-Yung; Reynolds, Sue B.; Shay, David K.; Carias, Cristina; Bresee, Joseph S.; Kim, Inkyu K.; Gambhir, Manoj; Fry, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Excess mortality due to seasonal influenza is substantial, yet quantitative estimates of the benefit of annual vaccination programs on influenza-associated mortality are lacking. Methods We estimated the numbers of deaths averted by vaccination in four age groups (0.5 to 4, 5 to 19, 20 to 64 and ≥65 yrs.) for the nine influenza seasons from 2005/6 through 2013/14. These estimates were obtained using a Monte Carlo approach applied to weekly U.S. age group-specific estimates of influenza-associated excess mortality, monthly vaccination coverage estimates and summary seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates to obtain estimates of the number of deaths averted by vaccination. The estimates are conservative as they do not include indirect vaccination effects. Results From August, 2005 through June, 2014, we estimated that 40,127 (95% confidence interval [CI] 25,694 to 59,210) deaths were averted by influenza vaccination. We found that of all studied seasons the most deaths were averted by influenza vaccination during the 2012/13 season (9398; 95% CI 2,386 to 19,897) and the fewest during the 2009/10 pandemic (222; 95% CI 79 to 347). Of all influenza-associated deaths averted, 88.9% (95% CI 83 to 92.5%) were in people ≥65 yrs. old. Conclusions The estimated number of deaths averted by the US annual influenza vaccination program is considerable, especially among elderly adults and even when vaccine effectiveness is modest, such as in the 2012/13 season. As indirect effects (“herd immunity”) of vaccination are ignored, these estimates represent lower bound estimates and are thus conservative given valid excess mortality estimates PMID:25812842

  14. Variations in Magmatic He, CO2 and δ13 C during the 2005-06 Seafloor Eruption Near 9°50'N on the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. W.; Michael, P. J.; Rubin, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    We report dissolved (glass) CO2 concentrations, plus vesicle He and C isotope compositions and He and CO2 abundances, for a suite of 23 basalt glasses from the 2005-2006 eruption on the East Pacific Rise. This sample suite provides a unique opportunity to study magma recharge along the mid-ocean ridge, to quantify degassing prior to and during eruption, and to evaluate the extent to which mantle carbon is incorporated into hydrothermal fluids and ultimately into seafloor ecosystems. Our work covers the full spatial and temporal extent of the months-long eruption (ages from 210Po-210Pb dating), and is complementary to a previous study of volatile changes with distance from the vent during part of the eruptive episode (Soule et al. 2013; EPSL). Vesicle 3He/4He is uniform at 8.56±0.04(1σ) RA. Vesicle He and CO2 abundances vary by factors of 17 and 230, respectively. The variability in CO2/He ratio is evidence for kinetic fractionation of He from CO2 during vesiculation, and reveals the potential for using vesicle CO2/He as a relative geo-speedometer for the rate of magma ascent and lava emplacement. Nearly all samples lie in a narrow range of 280-370 ppm for total CO2 (vesicles+glass) suggesting saturation at a depth of ~1.5 km in the crust, similar to the depth of the seismically imaged magma lens. Vesicle CO2/He co-varies positively with the fraction of CO2 contained in vesicles (r2=0.94) and negatively with vesicle δ13C (r2=0.83). The δ13C ranges from -2.6 to -5 per mil, and straddles the value for CO2 in EPR vent fluids (M. Lilley, pers. comm.). The C isotope results are consistent with vapor phase 13C-enrichment during CO2 exsolution from a basaltic melt, as determined experimentally (Javoy et al. 1978; Contrib Mineral Petrol). Collectively the observations are explained by quasi-closed-system degassing, where melt ascent from the magma lens was sufficiently rapid that minimal bubble loss occurred during the eruption and flow of lava onto the seafloor.

  15. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2005-06 (Fiscal Year 2006). First Look. NCES 2008-328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2008-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings on public education…

  16. An Exploratory Evaluation of the Data from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey: School Year 2005-06. Research and Development Report. NCES 2008-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank; Cornman, Stephen Q.

    2008-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents summary data from the Pilot Teacher…

  17. Chloride concentrations and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer long tributary to the Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, conducted a study to determine the interaction of local surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek. In conjunction with the surface water and groundwater interaction study, samples were collected for analysis of chloride and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Chloride concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 26.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) near Teton Village, 1.2 to 4.9 mg/L near Resor's Bridge, and 1.8 to 5.0 mg/L near Wilson. Stable isotope data for hydrogen and oxygen in water samples collected in and near the three cross sections on Fish Creek are shown in relation to the Global Meteoric Water Line and the Local Meteoric Water Line.

  18. UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-06 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

    2006-11-30

    The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a “Research to Development to Application” structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction.

  19. Algal community characteristics and response to nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in streams in the Ozark Plateaus, Southern Missouri, 1993-95 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient and algae data were collected in the 1990s and 2000s by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Water- Quality Assessment program in the Ozark Highlands, southern Missouri. These data were collected at sites of differing drainage area, land use, nutrient concentrations, and physiography. All samples were collected at sites with a riffle/pool structure and cobble/gravel bed material. A total of 60 samples from 45 sites were available for analyses to determine relations between nutrient concentrations and algal community structure in this region. This information can be used by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to develop the State's nutrient criteria plan. Water samples collected for this study had total nitrogen concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 4.41 milligram per liter (mg/L) with a median of 0.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.78 mg/L with a median of 0.007 mg/L. These nutrient concentrations were transformed into nutrient categories consisting of varying percentiles of data. Algal community data were entered into the U.S. Geological Survey's Algae Data Analysis System for the computation of more than 250 metrics. These metrics were correlated with nutrient categories, and four metrics with the strongest relation with the nutrient data were selected. These metrics were Organic Nitrogen Tolerance, Oxygen Tolerance, Bahls Pollution Class, and the Saprobien index with the 25th and 80th percentile nutrient categories. These data indicate that near the 80th percentile (Total Nitrogen = 0.84 mg/L, Total Phosphorus = 0.035 mg/L) the algae communities significantly changed from nitrogen-fixing species dominance to those species more tolerant of eutrophic conditions.

  20. An Evaluation of the Data from the Teacher Compensation Survey: School Year 2006-07. Research and Development Report. NCES 2010-329

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Johnson, Frank; Zhou, Lei; Honegger, Steven; Noel, Amber M.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are the largest component of school spending, with more funding being allocated to teacher salaries than to any other education expense (Loeb, Miller, and Strunk 2009). Teacher and staff salaries and benefits consume up to 80 percent of current expenditures (Aud et al. 2010). Yet, there is not a wealth of data on teacher compensation.…

  1. A Digest of UNC System Reports on Freshman Performance: 2006-07. Research Watch. E&R Report No. 10.05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdzkom, David

    2010-01-01

    The University of North Carolina System (UNC) annually reports statistics related to characteristics of freshmen classes from each high school and district in the state. Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) graduates were more successful at gaining admission and making academic progress at the member institutions of the UNC system than was…

  2. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Third-Year (2006-07) Traits of Higher Technology Immersion Schools and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Sheehan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, called for the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to establish a pilot project to "immerse" schools in technology by providing a wireless mobile computing device for each teacher and student, technology-based learning resources, training for teachers to integrate technology…

  3. Trends in influenza vaccination coverage rates in Germany over five seasons from 2001 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Majbrit V; Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Background To assess influenza vaccination coverage from 2001 to 2006 in Germany, to understand drivers and barriers to vaccination and to identify vaccination intentions for season 2006/07. Methods 9,990 telephone-based household surveys from age 14 were conducted between 2001 and 2006. Essentially, the same questionnaire was used in all seasons. Results The influenza vaccination coverage rate reached 32.5% in 2005/06. In the elderly (≥60 years), the vaccination rate reached 58.9% in 2005/06. In those aged 65 years and older, it was 63.4%. Perceiving influenza as a serious illness was the most frequent reason for getting vaccinated. Thirteen percent of those vaccinated in 2005/06 indicated the threat of avian flu as a reason. The main reason for not getting vaccinated was thinking about it without putting it into practice. The major encouraging factor to vaccination was a recommendation by the family doctor. 49.6% of the respondents intend to get vaccinated against influenza in season 2006/07. Conclusion Increasing vaccination rates were observed from 2001 to 2006 in Germany. The threat of avian influenza and the extended reimbursement programs may have contributed to the recent increase. PMID:18070354

  4. Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod to examine the utility of passive diffusion sampling for long-term monitoring of concentrations of perchlorate and explosive compounds in ground water. The diffusion samplers were constructed of 1-inch-diameter rigid, porous polyethylene tubing. The results of laboratory tests in which diffusion samplers were submerged in containers filled with ground water containing perchlorate, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) indicate that concentrations inside the diffusion samplers equilibrated with concentrations in the containers within the 19-day-long test period. Field tests of the diffusion samplers were conducted in 15 wells constructed of 2- or 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe with 10-foot-long slotted screens. Concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX in the diffusion samplers placed in the wells for 42 to 52 days were compared to concentrations in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling from 53 days before to 109 days after retrieval of the diffusion samples. The results of the field tests indicate generally good agreement between the pumped and diffusion samples for concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX. The concentration differences indicate no systematic bias related to contaminant type or concentration levels.

  5. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2004-05 (Fiscal Year 2005). First Look. NCES 2007-356

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei; Honegger, Steven; Gaviola, Nick

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings on public education…

  6. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Final Outcomes for a Four-Year Study (2004-05 to 2007-08)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, was based on the assumption that the use of technology in Texas public schools could be achieved more effectively by "immersing" schools in technology rather than by introducing technology resources, such as hardware, software, digital content, and educator training,…

  7. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Physical Aquatic Habitat Availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E., III; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6-263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6-673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9-748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8-808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities. A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties. To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach-average basis, annual topographic change contributed little to habitat area variation. Net erosion occurred at Yankton (the upstream reach) and because erosion was distributed uniformly, there was little affect on many habitat metrics. Topographic change was spatially nonuniform at Little Sioux and Kenslers Bend reaches. Shallow water habitat units and some reach-scale patch statistics (edge density, patch density, and Simpson's Diversity Index) were affected by these changes. Erosion dominated at the downstream reach but habitat metrics did not vary substantially from 2006 to 2007. Among habitat metrics that were explored, zones of convergent flow were identified as areas that most closely correspond to spawning habitats of other sturgeon species, as identified in the scientific literature, and that are consistent with sparse data on pallid sturgeon spawning locations in the Lower Missouri River. Areas of convergent zone habitat varied little with discharges that would be associated with spring pulsed flows, and relations with discharge changed negligibly between 2006 and 2007. Other habitat measures show how physical habitat varies with discharge and among the four reaches. Wake habitats defined by velocity gradients seem to correspond with migration pathways of adult pallid sturgeon. Habitats with low Froude-number correspond to low energy areas that may accumulate passively transporting particles, organic matter, and larval fish. Among the modeled reaches, Yankton had substantially longer water residence time for equivalent flow exceedances than the other three modeled reaches. Longer residence times result from greater flow resistance in the relatively wide, shallow channel and may be associated with longer residence times of passively transported particulate materials.

  8. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum-based flocculent used in the lower reservoir. Suspended-sediment concentrations and turbidity measurements were largest at the site downstream from the lower reservoir. This is because of the large amounts of debris deposited in the lower reservoir from the breach, which in turn were redeposited into the East Fork Black River during releases. When these constituents were plotted over time, the concentrations decreased and were similar to the other two sites in the study. Trend analyses were studied at one site with historical data. No major trends were discovered for streamflow, turbidity, suspended-sediment concentrations, or suspended-sediment discharges before or after the event. Although long-term effects of the elevated turbidity, major trace metals, and suspended sediments in the study area as a result of the reservoir embankment breach are not expected, there could possibly be other effects not measured during this study that could potentially affect the surface-water quality, such as loss of riparian habitat, changes in biological ecosystems, and large-scale reworking of sediments.

  9. Fulfilling the Covenant--The Way Forward: 2004-05 Annual Report to the President on the Results of Participation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in Federal Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is the third annual report of the President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), appointed by George W. Bush under Presidential Executive Order 13256. The report for fiscal years 2004-2005 details the performance of the 32 designated federal agencies and departments during 2004-2005, and…

  10. An Analysis of the New Jersey Public School District School Bond Referendum Process: A Historical Case Study of the Egg Harbor Township School District Bond Referendum of 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a historical case study of the Egg Harbor Township School District bond referendum that passed with an exceptionally high 92 percent of votes in January 2005. The methodology used in this study resulted in both an examination of the components of the New Jersey Public School District bond referendum process as well as an…

  11. Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget, 2nd Edition. An Analysis of Fiscal-Year 2003-04 Appropriations and Recommendations for 2004-05. Revision of the March 2003 Study. A Mackinac Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFaive, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    As the debate rages in Lansing over the size and scope of the 2004-2005 Fiscal Year state budget, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy is republishing and updating budget cutting ideas from its March 2003 study, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's Budget." The 2003 study made over 200 recommendations that, if…

  12. Changes in the Characteristics, Services, and Performance of Preschoolers with Disabilities from 2003-04 to 2004-05. Wave 2 Overview Report from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS). NCSER 2008-3011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elaine; Daley, Tamara; Shimshak, Amy; Riley, Jarnee; Keller, Brad; Jenkins, Frank; Markowitz, Joy; Rosenquist, Celia

    2008-01-01

    PEELS involves a nationally representative sample of children, 3 to 5 years of age when they entered the study, with diverse disabilities who are receiving preschool special education services in a variety of settings. Topics covered in the report include declassification (children leaving special education), reclassification (movement from one…

  13. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Chylek, Petr; Liston, Glen; Steffen, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  14. Net Costs Due to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination — United States, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Reed, Carrie; Kim, Inkyu K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Meltzer, Martin I.; Finelli, Lyn; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality across all age groups, and influenza vaccination was recommended in 2010 for all persons aged 6 months and above. We estimated the averted costs due to influenza vaccination, taking into account the seasonal economic burden of the disease. Methods We used recently published values for averted outcomes due to influenza vaccination for influenza seasons 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09, and age cohorts 6 months-4 years, 5-19 years, 20-64 years, and 65 years and above. Costs were calculated according to a payer and societal perspective (in 2009 US$), and took into account medical costs and productivity losses. Results When taking into account direct medical costs (payer perspective), influenza vaccination was cost saving only for the older age group (65≥) in seasons 2005-06 and 2007-08. Using the same perspective, influenza vaccination resulted in total costs of $US 1.7 billion (95%CI: $US 0.3–4.0 billion) in 2006-07 and $US 1.8 billion (95%CI: $US 0.1–4.1 billion) in 2008-09. When taking into account a societal perspective (and including the averted lost earnings due to premature death) averted deaths in the older age group influenced the results, resulting in cost savings for all ages combined in season 07-08. Discussion Influenza vaccination was cost saving in the older age group (65≥) when taking into account productivity losses and, in some seasons, when taking into account medical costs only. Averted costs vary significantly per season; however, in seasons where the averted burden of deaths is high in the older age group, averted productivity losses due to premature death tilt overall seasonal results towards savings. Indirect vaccination effects and the possibility of diminished case severity due to influenza vaccination were not considered, thus the averted burden due to influenza vaccine may be even greater than reported. PMID:26230271

  15. Tribal Colleges and Universities: Education as the Engine for Economic Development in Indian Country. A Report to the President. 2004-05 Annual Performance Report on the Results of Federal Agency Actions to Assist Tribal Colleges and Universities and Recommendations to Strengthen Implementation of Executive Order 13270

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) are unique institutions of postsecondary education. They serve specific Native American communities that have unique social and cultural ways of relating to each other, while they also provide valuable links to the mainstream society. In arguably the richest nation in the world, many Native Americans remain…

  16. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  17. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary. PMID:24661742

  18. Monitoring and adaptive resistance management in Australia for Bt-cotton: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rod; Olsen, Karen

    2007-07-01

    In the mid-1990 s the Australian Cotton industry adopted an insect-resistant variety of cotton (Ingard) which expresses the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that is specific to a group of insects including the target Helicoverpa armigera. A conservative resistance management plan (RMP), that restricted the area planted to Ingard, was implemented to preserve the efficacy of Cry1Ac until two-gene transgenic cotton was available. In 2004/05 Bollgard II replaced Ingard as the transgenic cotton available in Australia. It improves on Ingard by incorporating an additional insecticidal protein (Cry2Ab). If an appropriate refuge is grown, there is no restriction on the area planted to Bollgard II. In 2004/05 and 2005/06 the Bollgard II acreage represented approximately 80 of the total area planted to cotton in Australia. The sensitivity of field-collected populations of H. armigera to Bt products was assayed before and subsequent to the widespread deployment of Ingard cotton. In 2002 screens against Cry2Ab were developed in preparation for replacement of Ingard with Bollgard II. There have been no reported field failures of Bollgard II due to resistance. However, while alleles that confer resistance to H. armigera in the field are rare for Cry1Ac, they are surprisingly common for Cry2Ab. We present an overview of the current approach adopted in Australia to monitor and adaptively manage resistance to Bt-cotton in field populations of H. armigera and discuss the implications of our findings to date. We also highlight future challenges for resistance management in Australia, many of which extend to other Bt-crop and pest systems. PMID:17470372

  19. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in penguins of the genus Pygoscelis in Admiralty Bay - An Antarctic specially managed area.

    PubMed

    Montone, Rosalinda C; Taniguchi, Satie; Colabuono, Fernanda I; Martins, César C; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Z; Barroso, Hileia S; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia C; Weber, Rolf R

    2016-05-15

    Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in fat samples of the Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarcticus) and Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) penguins collected during the austral summers of 2005/06 and 2006/07 in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. The predominant organic pollutants were PCB (114 to 1115), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (60.1 to 238.7), HCB (<0.3 to 132.2) and BDE-47 (<1.0 to 10.7) in ng g(-1) wet weight. The mean concentrations of the majority of organic pollutants were similar among the three species of penguins. Chicks of all three species showed similar profiles of PCB congeners, with predominance of lower chlorinated compounds. The distribution of PAHs was similar in all birds, with a predominance of naphthalene and alkyl-naphthalene, which are the main constituents of arctic diesel fuel. These data contribute to the monitoring of the continued exposure to organic pollutants in the Antarctic biota. PMID:26952994

  20. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  1. Storm activity in North Atlantic and precipitation anomalies in European region during winter seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N. A.; Vyazilova, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the storm activity influence on the formation of wet and dry zone in North Atlantic and European region during winter seasons 1994/95, 2006/07 and 2007/08 years with positive mode of NAO, 1995/96, 2000/01 and 2005/06 years with negative mode of NAO. The study of storm activity includes the analyses of cyclonic intensity and cyclone track number. Analyses of cyclonic intensity based on calculation cyclone centers number (CCN) and sum of cyclone centers MSLP anomalies (CCMA). This analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm and the 6-hourly MSLP from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses 2 from 1979 to 2009. Precipitation anomalies were calculated from CMAP archive. Analyses had included the calculation of cyclone track number in all region [30°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E]and selected latitude zone for long cyclones (with lifetime more 2 day) and short cyclones (with lifetime less 2 day). The study had shown the special features of CCN and CCMA patterns in region for long and short cyclones. The study shows, that every winter season short cyclone track number twice as much long cyclone track number. However, the contribution of long cyclones in main determines the CCMA in region. Study had shown that winter seasons with positive NAO mode Nord Europe were outstanding by strong positive precipitation anomalies and strong cyclonic intensity, and during winter seasons with negative NAO mode in this region were observed negative precipitation anomalies and weak cyclonic activity. Standartizide anomalies of integral CCMA for selected latitude zone [55°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E] had shown the intensification of cyclonic activity over North Atlantic and North European region in last years.

  2. Rain simulator as a standardized laboratory measurement of soil structural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Luz; Cancelo González, Javier; Benito, Elena; Álvarez, Manuel; Barral, Maria Teresa; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulations are used since the 30's by scientist and technicians to study the soil erosion and soil hydrology. The basis of the rainfall simulation is that can reproduce the natural soil degradation processes, more accurately than the traditional methods used for the determination of structural stability. A rainfall simulator was built in 2006 based on those made by Guitián and Méndez (1961), and Morin (1967), to obtain standardized laboratory measurements of soil structural stability and a final implementation were made in the rainfall simulator to incorporate a intermittent fan-like water yet system with four sieves of 250 micrometres where the soil samples can be placed, and allow the simultaneous measurement of soil losses in the samples. Data obtained in the rainfall simulator, using different soils of the study basins, are related with the Ig Henin index and the results of the Emerson structural stability test. At the same time with the laboratory test, 10 water sampling surveys were carried out during the hydrological years 2004/05 and 2005/06, in two basins located in the humid region of NW Spain belonging to the Anllons River basin, one of the main basins of Galicia-Costa, that has been subject of detailed hydrological studies since 2000 (Rial, M., 2007 and Devesa, R., 2009) and had continuous records of streamflow. The selected subbasins have 57,62 and 50,05 square kilometres respectively, and presents significative geological differences; being one of them formed, mainly, by schists and a lower area with granites and, the other one formed mainly by gabbros. The suspended sediments in the samples were separated by centrifugation and weighted in the laboratory to study the possible relationship between soil losses in the rainfall simulations and the sediment fluxes in the river. The analysis revealed a good relationship between the sediments delivery to the streams and soil losses measured in the rainfall simulations.

  3. Comparison of bed planting-furrow irrigation with conventional planting-flood irrigation in durum wheat (T. durum Desf) in southeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozberk, Irfan; Coskun, Yalçin; Ilkhan, Ali; Köten, Mehmet; Karli, Bahri; Ryan, John

    2009-05-15

    There is no clear consensus regarding the advantages of bed planting with furrow irrigation over conventionally irrigated cropping. This 3-year study from Southeastern Turkey aimed to assess the limits to some input savings in bed planting-furrow irrigation in terms of yields and profitability of durum wheat. Field trials were carried out using a randomized complete block design with six treatments and tree replications: T1: Conventional Planting-Flood Irrigation (CP-FI) with recommended practices for seed rate, chemical fertilizers and chemical weed control; T2: Bed Planting and Furrow Irrigation (BP-FI) with recommended input rates as in T2; T3: BP-FI with 10% input reduction; T4: BP-FI with 20% input reduction; T5: BP-FI with 30% input reduction; T6: BP-FI with 40% input reduction. The trial had four replications at each location over three cropping seasons, i.e., Akçakale (2004-05, 2005-06) and Koruklu (2006-2007). Individual and combined analysis of variance were performed for grain yields, market prices based on quality assessment, protein content and both 1000-kernel and hectoliter weights. Profitability was assessed with partial budget analysis. Except for yields, there was little effect of treatments on the other variables. Based on yields and economic analysis, the conventional system with flood irrigation was superior to the bed and furrow system, even when the inputs were reduced in such a system. The work demonstrates the site-specific nature of any new technology as there are several local biological and economical factors to be considered. PMID:19806807

  4. Population dynamics and secondary production of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: A comparison between Merja Zerga (Moroccan Atlantic Coast) and Arcachon Bay (French Atlantic Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gam, Mériame; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Bazairi, Hocein

    2010-04-01

    Cockle ( Cerastoderma edule) population dynamics were studied at the southern limit of the distribution of this marine bivalve in Merja Zerga, Morocco. Parameters such as growth, mortality, and production were compared with those of a population at Arcachon Bay (France) a site in the center of the cockle's range. At each sampling period between two and three cohorts were simultaneously observed at each site and the average total abundance was usually higher at Merja Zerga. Recruitment occurred at both sites in spring when temperature rose above 19 °C, independently of the month. In Merja Zerga, winter recruitment was also observed at one occasion, following high sediment disturbance. The first year (2005-06) at Merja Zerga, the mortality rate was close to nil for juveniles and was Z = 1.5 yr - 1 for adults, providing a high production (64 g dry weight m - 2 yr - 1 ). At Arcachon during the same period, the juvenile mortality rate was Z = 10.9 yr - 1 , the adult mortality rate was 3.4 yr - 1 and production was 26 gDW m -2 yr - 1 . The second year (2006-07), mortality after recruitment was much higher ( Z = 8.6 yr - 1 , for juveniles) and similar to what was observed at Arcachon ( Z = 8.4 yr - 1 ). Mortality rate of adults was higher at Merja Zerga ( Z = 3.0 yr - 1 ) than at Arcachon ( Z = 1.5 yr - 1 ). Production was lower at Arcachon than at Merja Zerga although growth performances were higher at Arcachon. The higher growth performance at Arcachon ( Φ' = 3.3) was mainly due to high asymptotic length ( L∞ = 38 mm) and was related to low intraspecific competition compared to Merja Zerga where cockle abundance was higher ( Φ' = 3.1, L∞ = 31 mm). P/B was low in both sites and slightly higher at Arcachon (1.1-1.5 against 1.0-1.1 yr - 1 ). At Arcachon, recruitment was correlated with temperature, a peak occurring when temperature rose above 19 °C (June-July). At Merja Zerga, recruitment was already 2-3 months earlier but was not significantly correlated to

  5. Effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV Vaccine Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leah M.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Strumpf, Erin C.; Lévesque, Linda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in some jurisdictions is partly attributed to fears that vaccination may increase risky sexual behaviour. We assessed the effect of HPV vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Ontario. Methods: Using Ontario’s administrative health databases, we identified a population-based cohort of girls in grade 8 in the 2 years before (2005/06 and 2006/07) and after (2007/08 and 2008/09) implementation of Ontario’s grade 8 HPV vaccination program. For each girl, we then obtained data on vaccine receipt in grades 8 and 9 and data on indicators of sexual behaviour (pregnancy and non–HPV-related sexually transmitted infections) in grades 10–12. Using a quasi-experimental method known as regression discontinuity, we estimated, for each outcome, the risk difference (RD) and relative risk (RR) attributable to vaccination and to program eligibility. Results: The cohort comprised 260 493 girls, of whom 131 781 were ineligible for the program and 128 712 were eligible. We identified 15 441 (5.9%) cases of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection and found no evidence that vaccination increased the risk of this composite outcome: RD per 1000 girls −0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] −10.71 to 9.49) and RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Similarly, we found no discernible effect of program eligibility: RD per 1000 girls −0.25 (95% CI −4.35 to 3.85) and RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.06). The findings were similar when outcomes were assessed separately. Interpretation: We present strong evidence that HPV vaccination does not have any significant effect on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls. These results suggest that concerns over increased promiscuity following HPV vaccination are unwarranted and should not deter from vaccinating at a young age. PMID:25487660

  6. Four-Year Follow-Up of the Community Intervention "10 000 Steps Ghent"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien A.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M.; Brown, Wendy J.; Cardon, Greet M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the 4-year follow-up effects of the "10 000 steps Ghent" project, which had shown increases in pedometer steps after the first year of implementation (2005-06). All adults who had participated in 2005-06 (n = 866) were recontacted in 2009 and invited to complete the International Physical Activity…

  7. 29 CFR 18.1103 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Applicability § 18.1103 Title. These rules may be known as the United States Department of Labor Rules of Evidence and cited as 29 CFR 18.__ (1989). ... 29 Labor 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Title. 18.1103 Section 18.1103 Labor Office of...

  8. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  9. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy. PMID:24958010

  10. Menthol Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2006/07. 2008, National Cancer Institute and Centers ... 07): http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/tus-cps/ . U.S. Department of Commerce Census Bureau, Menthol Cigarette ...

  11. 75 FR 24934 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... states reporting SY 2006-07 data. The information collected from these records included base salary, total salary, benefits, highest level of education, years of teaching experience, gender, and...

  12. Gender Differences in Motor Skill Proficiency from Childhood to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lisa M.; van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J.; Brooks, Lyndon O.; Beard, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Students' proficiency in three object control and three locomotor skills were assessed in 2000 (M age = 10.06 years, SD = 0.63) in New South Wales, Australia and in 2006-07 (M age = 16.44 years, SD = 0.64). In 2006-07, 266 students, 138 girls (51.9%) and 128 boys (48.1%), had at least one skill reassessed. Boys were more object control proficient…

  13. Project Title: Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alan A. Chen

    2008-03-27

    the understanding the origin of galactic {sup 26}Al, a target radioisotope for gamma ray astronomy; the {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reaction in turn is the trigger reaction for the transition into the Hot-CNO cycles in novae and X-ray bursts. A graduate student of mine, who has been supported part-time by this grant, completed the evaluation of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction as part of his plans to measure this reaction at TRIUMF for his Ph.D. thesis project. I also hired a part-time undergraduate student for the 2004-05 academic year to assist with the evaluations, including that of the {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reaction. Year 3 (2005-06): The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti and {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reactions - This year's progress was closely coupled to new results coming from our collaboration on the DRAGON spectrometer team at TRIUMF. The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti and {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reactions were both measured, and significant modifications to their respective reaction rates were required. Both are required input toward predicting the respective amounts of Titanium-44 and Aluminum-26 produced in our galaxy, in supernovae, massive stars, and nova explosions. The {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reaction rate was successfully completed. The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction in particular served as the Ph.D. thesis for Christian Ouellet, and therefore the evaluation of this rate fell naturally within his thesis project. Christian successfully defended his thesis in 2007 and is now working for me on the McMaster DOE-funded Nuclear Data Project. In light of the recent data from his thesis, Christian is now putting the final touches on this evaluation, and will disseminate it through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reaction rate database.

  14. East-West Cooperative: Influx of Chinese Students in America Helps Promote a Global Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    American degrees have become increasingly fashionable among members of China's rapidly growing middle class who are eager for their children to study American business practices, become well-rounded by getting a higher education degree steeped in the liberal arts and master the English language. In a five-year period beginning in 2005-06, the…

  15. Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis. Working Paper 2008-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Chingos, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We use value-added models to calculate measures of effectiveness for new elementary school teachers in Florida between 2001-02 and 2005-06, then compare the attrition and mobility patterns of more and less effective teachers overall and across various types of schools. While we do not find evidence that schools are disproportionately losing their…

  16. An Evaluation of Colorado's College Opportunity Fund and Related Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the State of Colorado enacted legislation that fundamentally changed the mechanisms through which it financed its public higher education system, beginning with the 2005-06 academic year. Rather than appropriating funds directly to institutions, the legislation created the College Opportunity Fund (COF), the principal…

  17. AYP Results for 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, has been monitoring national adequate yearly progress (AYP) data going back to school year 2005-06. In April 2011, the author and her colleagues released a report with estimates of the number of schools in the nation and each state that did not make AYP in 2010, as well…

  18. A Comparison of Supply and Demand for PETE Professionals in Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the supply and demand issues of D-PETE professionals in higher education. The three concerns addressed were: (a) doctoral graduates and their respective job placements in the academic years of 1996-97 through 2008-09, (b) an examination of two targeted academic years (2005-06 and 2008-09) to determine the supply of entry level…

  19. Wanted: Well-Rounded Students Who Can Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, G. Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The author states that the U.S. is at risk of falling behind in the global economic competition because too few of the young people are choosing to study fields like engineering and science. A 2005-06 Lemelson-MIT Invention Index survey found that while American teenagers are comfortable with rapid technological change and optimistic about the…

  20. 76 FR 10216 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B19 (Regional Jet Series 100 & 440...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... been numerous reported failures of the Regional Jet engine TCGB P/Ns: 2100140-003, 2100140- 005... specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 64960), and proposed to supersede AD 2005-06-04, Amendment 39-14012 (70 FR 12963, March 17, 2005). That NPRM...

  1. 77 FR 60489 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    .... 67672 (August 15, 2012) 77 FR 50750 (August 22, 2012) (SR-NYSEAmex-2012-29). The Exchange began trading... Release No. 51041 (January 14, 2005), 70 FR 3408 (January 24, 2005) (SR-CBOE-2005-06). \\8\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64928 (July 20, 2011), 76 FR 44633 (July 26, 2011) (SR-CBOE-2011-065)....

  2. Do Future Teachers Choose Wisely? A Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Personality Preference Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Bill; Peltier, Gary; Hill, Gus

    2005-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires that all teachers in core academic subjects to be "highly qualified" by the end of the 2005-06 school year. New teacher leave the profession at an alarming rate--research indicates that 50% have left within five years of their first job. This article explores the personality types of pre-service teachers and…

  3. Attitudes to the Uses of Animals in Higher Education: Has Anything Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Lynda; Downie, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Bioscience staff and students at Glasgow University in session 2005-06 were questioned on their attitudes to animal uses in higher education, as follow-up to a similar survey 20 years before. Disapproval by students of animal use was generally reduced compared to 20 years ago, but students remained in a "moral bind", recognising the interest and…

  4. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  5. Medical Residency Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, Beth; Gallucci, Chrysan; Swanson, Judy; Van Lare, Michelle; Yoon, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Highline School District, located roughly 10 miles south of Seattle, Washington, has begun to implement a residency model for professional learning. Like the medical model, current teachers often traveled from other schools to be "in residency" at a previously selected classroom for six half-day sessions during the 2005-06 school year. Some…

  6. Does Your Organization Welcome Participants with Disabilities? A New Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Fred; Shea, Mary McAllister

    2009-01-01

    During the 2005-06 school year, more than 6.7 million children with disabilities received special education and related services in our public schools; this represents more than a 20 percent increase over the previous decade (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). These children, who are typically at risk for chronic physical, developmental,…

  7. Feeling the Heat: The Impact of Rising Energy Costs on Colleges & Universities in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Chris; Johnson, Gina

    2006-01-01

    This report is the result of a survey conducted in late 2005 of higher education institution chief financial officers throughout the U.S. Midwest region concerning their plans to manage what was expected to be a substantial increase in the price of energy in advance of the 2005-06 heating season. Although the winter turned out to be one of the…

  8. 76 FR 24951 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... options on SPDRs ). \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 51071 (January 21, 2005), 70 FR 4911... order''). See also Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 51043 (January 14, 2005), 70 FR 3402 (January 24, 2005) (SR-Amex-2005-06) (approval order); 51041 (January 14, 2005), 70 FR 3408 (January 24, 2005)...

  9. Department Raps States on Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education has notified 10 states that it intends to withhold a portion of their state administrative funds under the Title I program for failing to comply fully with the testing provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act by the end of the 2005-06 school year. Those funds would instead be diverted directly to school…

  10. School Segregation under Color-Blind Jurisprudence: The Case of North Carolina. Working Papers Series. SAN08-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2008-01-01

    Using detailed administrative data for the public K-12 schools of North Carolina, we measure racial segregation in the public schools of North Carolina. With data for the 2005/06 school year, we update previously published calculations that measure segregation in terms of unevenness in racial enrollment patterns both between schools and within…

  11. 37th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2005-2006 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 37th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2005-06. Data highlights of the survey include: (1) In the 2005-2006 academic year, the states…

  12. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  13. Characteristics of PETE Doctoral Level Institutions: Descriptions of Programs, Faculty and Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    The present study of Doctoral PETE programs provided an extensive description of demographic data which included: (a) doctoral program characteristics, (b) faculty, and (c) doctoral graduates. Several data sets from the academic years of 2005-06 and 2008-09 as well as selected summary data from 1996-97 through 2008-09 were used to make comparisons…

  14. Women, Education and the Law: Defining the "High Qualified" Teacher--No Child Left Behind's Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Patricia F.

    2003-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) provided that by the end of the 2005-06 school year, all teachers in core content areas, teaching in public schools, must be "highly qualified" in each subject they teach. Under the law, "highly qualified" means that a teacher is fully licensed through a traditional or alternative route and has demonstrated…

  15. Measuring Child Poverty in South Africa: Sensitivity to the Choice of Equivalence Scale and an Updated Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streak, Judith Christine; Yu, Derek; Van der Berg, Servaas

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers evidence on the sensitivity of child poverty in South Africa to changes in the adult equivalence scale (AES) and updates the child poverty profile based on the Income and Expenditure Survey 2005/06. Setting the poverty line at the 40th percentile of households calculated with different AESs the scope and composition of child…

  16. 34 CFR 200.1 - State responsibilities for developing challenging academic standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... year, science, and may include other subjects determined by the State. (b) Academic content standards... at least reading/language arts, mathematics, and, beginning in the 2005-06 school year, science... standards in science, a State must develop— (i) Achievement levels and descriptions no later than the...

  17. 34 CFR 200.1 - State responsibilities for developing challenging academic standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year, science, and may include other subjects determined by the State. (b) Academic content standards... at least reading/language arts, mathematics, and, beginning in the 2005-06 school year, science... standards in science, a State must develop— (i) Achievement levels and descriptions no later than the...

  18. Teacher Pensions and Retirement Behavior: How Teacher Pension Rules Affect Behavior, Mobility, and Retirement. Working Paper 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Ehlert, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines late career mobility and retirement decisions for a cohort of mid-career Missouri public school teachers. Specifically, the paper follows a cohort of teachers whose combined age and experience totaled 45 or more years in fall 1991 through the 2005-06 school year. Like many public employee pensions, Missouri has a system that…

  19. 34 CFR 200.1 - State responsibilities for developing challenging academic standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year, science, and may include other subjects determined by the State. (b) Academic content standards... define the knowledge and skills that all high school students are expected to know and be able to do in at least reading/language arts, mathematics, and, beginning in the 2005-06 school year,...

  20. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  1. Literacy Progress of Young Children from Poor Urban Settings: A Reading Recovery Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs-Lange, Sue; Douetil, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This naturalistic inquiry evaluated the impact of early literacy intervention on children in London schools. The progress, in the 2005-06 school year, was compared for 234 of the lowest-achieving children in 42 schools serving disadvantaged urban areas. The children, aged around 6 years who received Reading Recovery in their schools, were compared…

  2. Effects of State Tests on Classroom Test Items in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom tests from nine eighth-grade mathematics teachers were collected from the 2003-04 and 2005-06 school years. These years represent one school year prior to the eighth-grade Ohio Achievement Test (OAT) in mathematics being implemented and the year after the eighth-grade OAT in mathematics was implemented, respectively. In addition,…

  3. Phylogenetic diversity and microsphere array-based genotyping of human pathogenic Fusaria, including isolates from the multistate contact lens-associated U.S. keratitis outbreaks of 2005 and 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005-06, outbreaks of Fusarium keratitis associated with soft contact lens use occurred in multiple U.S. states and Puerto Rico. A case-control study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) showed a significant association between infections and the use of one particula...

  4. European Standards and Guidelines in a Nordic Perspective: Joint Nordic Project 2005-2006. ENQA Occasional Papers 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinther-Jorgensen, Tue, Ed.; Hansen, Signe Ploug, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of the joint 2005-06 project of the Nordic Quality Assurance Network in Higher Education (NOQA). The project focused on the European standards and guidelines for quality assurance agencies, examining them in a Nordic perspective. The project aimed at interpreting and clarifying the European standards and guidelines…

  5. Sedimentation History Of Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife And Fish Refuge, Wisconsin, 1846-2006. Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5209

    EPA Science Inventory

    The history of overbank sedimentation in the vicinity of Halfway Creek Marsh near La Crosse, Wisconsin, was examined during 2005-06 by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Wisconsin-Madison as part of a broader study of sediment and nutrient loadings to the Upper Mississi...

  6. Changes in Student Choices and Graduate Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an comprehensive analysis of the way recession is impacting upon graduate outcomes. Data used in this report reflects the current level of applications to higher education (HE) for 2010 entry, but, due to data collection timing differences, the employment and training destinations of the graduating cohorts of 2005/06-2008/09.…

  7. Campus Cultures Fostering Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 and 2005-06 workshops sponsored by the Council of Independent Colleges and the National Institute for Technology & Liberal Education have generated much data that can be used to describe aspects of the campus cultures at some 130 institutions that foster information literacy. These data are particularly informative regarding collaboration…

  8. SOLARIZATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO METHYL BROMIDE IN FLORIDA FLORICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2005-06, a small-scale demonstration strip with solarization was set up on a commercial site in Hobe Sound, FL. The solarized area was 10 ft wide x 100 ft long and covered with 1-mil clear plastic from 12 Aug. to 19 Sept. 2005. The remainder of the site was fumigated with 450 lbs/A of MB:chl...

  9. Changes in Family Literacy Funding and Welfare Policy: Consequences for Pennsylvania Family Literacy Programs. Research Brief #5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Gungor, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    Due to federal budget cuts in 2005-06, 11 family literacy programs in Pennsylvania switched from federal Even Start to state (Act 143) funding. Simultaneously, state welfare requirements stipulated that in most circumstances adult education is not an allowable work activity for welfare recipients over age 20. This study examined how these policy…

  10. Fwd: Half Empty or Half Full? Florida's Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten Standards. Volume: 2, Number: 1. Arresting Insights in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, when its voters approved a ballot measure calling for universal pre- Kindergarten by 2005-06, Florida joined a handful of states in which all children are eligible for free, publicly funded education in the year prior to Kindergarten. The passage of the referendum--which received more votes than Governor Jeb Bush garnered in his victory…

  11. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  12. Reenrollment of High School Dropouts in a Large, Urban School District. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 056

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Fong, Anthony B.; Shirk, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    This study follows a cohort of first-time 9th graders in San Bernardino City Unified School District from 2001/01 to 2005/06 and documents their dropout, reenrollment, and graduation rates. For the one-third of dropouts who reenrolled in the district over that period, it reports course credit accrual and graduation outcomes as well as students'…

  13. 77 FR 8927 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... (September 13, 2006), 71 FR 55037 (September 20, 2006) (SR-CHX-2005-06). III. Discussion The Commission finds... FR 312 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal The Exchange proposes to add Interpretation and.... Introduction On December 16, 2011, the Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc. (``CHX'' or the ``Exchange'') filed...

  14. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2005-06 school year alone, approximately $78 billion in new aid was…

  15. Why Am I Here? Student Choice in the Biosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduate recruitment is a significant activity for all universities. This brief report sets out the results of a survey regarding the course and institutional choices of the 2005-06 entry cohort of bioscience students in four universities. The key findings show that enjoyment of the subject and the wish to learn more are the primary reasons…

  16. Knowledge or Skills--The Way to a Meaningful Degree? An Investigation into the Importance of Key Skills within an Undergraduate Degree and the Effect This Has on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Stuart; Feltham, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The grades attained by students studying biological science at level 1, at Liverpool John Moores University, UK, were examined between the academic years 2003/04 - 2005/06. The marks attained in the study skills module, and the mean level 1 mark (number of modules, n = 10) were also analysed. The data were divided into two groups: those relating…

  17. Can Pay Incentives Improve the Recruitment of Teachers in America's Hard-to-Staff Schools? "A Research Summary": Policy Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Justin; Glennie, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) has increased concern about the staffing difficulties faced by schools that serve a high percentage of low-achieving students. NCLB requires each student be taught in all core academic subjects by a highly-qualified teacher by the 2005-06 school year. The law defines highly-qualified teachers as those…

  18. Development of the DHQ II and C-DHQ II Nutrient & Food Group Database

    Cancer.gov

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ II, is based on a compilation of national 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 2001-02, 2003-04, and 2005-06.

  19. California's Impending College Graduate Crisis and What Needs to Be Done about It. Policy Brief 10-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In 2005-06 almost half of the pupils in California's public schools were Latinos, but Latinos only received about 15 percent of the BA degrees awarded by public and private colleges in the state. Texas has a comparable Latino population, but does significantly better than California in getting Latino students through college. The implication of…

  20. Situated Responses and Professional Development for Changing Student Demographics in the New Latino South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Paul H.; Portes, Pedro R.; Mellom, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the outcomes and key elements of collaborative professional development on K-12 educators working to improve education of Latino and English learning students in a state with rapidly changing demographics. Across four years (2003-04 through 2006-07), 37 teams from 16 urban, suburban, and rural school districts in the state of…

  1. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  2. Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Hamilton, Laura; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ballou, Dale; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Pepper, Matthew; Lockwood, J. R.; Stecher, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Project on Incentives in Teaching (POINT) was a three-year study conducted in the Metropolitan Nashville School System from 2006-07 through 2008-09, in which middle school mathematics teachers voluntarily participated in a controlled experiment to assess the effect of financial rewards for teachers whose students showed unusually large gains…

  3. A Description of Foundation Skills Interventions for Struggling Middle-Grade Readers in Four Urban Northeast and Islands Region School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 042

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorfass, Judith; Urbano, Carole

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted during the 2006/07 academic year, describes how four midsize urban school districts in the Northeast and Islands Region--Worcester, Massachusetts; Nashua, New Hampshire; Yonkers, New York; and Providence, Rhode Island--were providing foundation skills assessments and programs to struggling middle-grade readers. Researchers…

  4. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Baseline Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program and the author's plan for evaluating it over a five year period. It also presents a brief summary of the main findings of the four distinct topical reports that the author and his colleagues have completed for 2006-07--the baseline year of the evaluation. Those four…

  5. Guide for Accredited Private School Education Planning and Results Reporting. Requirements for Three-Year Education Plans for 2007/08-2009/10 and Annual Education Results Reports for November 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Guide to Accredited Private School Education Planning and Results Reporting, 2007-2010 provides the provincial requirements for: 1) Private school authority three-year education plans for 2007-2010. These plans cover the 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10 school years. 2) Private school authority annual education results report for the 2006/07

  6. School Policies and Practices to Improve Health and Prevent Obesity: National Secondary School Survey Results. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides updated results from one of the most comprehensive studies of health-related policies and practices in U.S. public middle and high schools to date, which was released in August 2011. The major findings and trends presented in this report describe issues relevant to childhood obesity for four school years, from 2006-07 to…

  7. Forward Thinking: Out-of-the-Box Ideas for Surviving the Budget Crunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Back in 2006, the stock market was rising, unemployment was still relatively low, and most of the country was not yet worried about a recession. But officials at San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) were closely monitoring the economy, and they saw clouds on the horizon. By the end of the 2006-07 academic year, the district, which serves…

  8. Updating a Searchable Database of Dropout Prevention Programs and Policies in Nine Low-Income Urban School Districts in the Northeast and Islands Region. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myint-U, Athi; O'Donnell, Lydia; Phillips, Dawna

    2012-01-01

    This technical brief describes updates to a database of dropout prevention programs and policies in 2006/07 created by the Regional Education Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands and described in the Issues & Answers report, "Piloting a searchable database of dropout prevention programs in nine low-income urban school districts in the Northeast…

  9. Student Attainment and the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    In this report the authors examine high school completion and postsecondary enrollment (a.k.a. "educational attainment") of the cohort of 9th grade students who were in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) at the beginning of their state-mandated evaluation of the MPCP in 2006. After tracking the MPCP 9th graders following the 2006-07 year…

  10. Quality Assurance in Higher Education Institutions: Exit Survey among Universiti Putra Malaysia Graduating Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konting, Mohd Majid; Kamaruddin, Norfaryanti; Man, Nor Azirawani

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the exit survey of graduating students at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). The results gathered from 1,823 final year students of the 2006/07 session indicate that overall, the students' satisfaction level is moderately high (3.55 ± 0.79). The students' perception on the attributes of graduates resulting from learning outcomes…

  11. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether offering financial incentives to teachers of fifth- through eighth-grade math students improved their students' achievement on the math section of the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. The study took place in the Metropolitan Nashville Public School District during the 2006-07 through 2008-09 school years. It…

  12. Review of a Proposal for Los Rios Community College District to Establish an Educational Center in Davis. Commission Report 08-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Los Rios Community College District has proposed to convert its Davis outreach operations to a single, state-approved educational center. The proposal responds to the district's need to expand educational services in the Davis area. The area is marked by high student demand and limited instructional facilities. In the 2006-07 academic year,…

  13. Aboriginal Report--Charting Our Path: Public Post-Secondary System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an update on initiatives, activities and performance information regarding public post-secondary Aboriginal students in British Columbia between 2003-04 and 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations…

  14. Get a Vocation: Keeping on Top of Studies--Reducing the Drop-Out Rate in Vocational Upper Secondary Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jappinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2009-01-01

    The Finnish Ministry of education commissioned a study in 2006-07 on reducing the number of drop-outs, "Get a vocation--keeping on top of studies". The aim of the study was to establish the good practices and operating models underpinning reduction in drop-outs. The study indicates that an educational institution that fosters commitment of…

  15. WWC Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in New Jersey." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effect of 60 New Jersey charter schools on annual student achievement growth in reading and math. The study was based on data from a large sample of students in grades 3-8 during 5 school years (2006-07 through 2010-11). The study authors matched charter school students to students attending traditional public schools based…

  16. Characteristics of Career Academies in 12 Florida School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; D'Souza, Stephanie; Bozick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes career academies in 12 Florida school districts in the 2006/07 school year. It examines their structure and career clusters, the high schools offering them, and the students enrolled. This study is driven by three research questions: (1) How many career academies were there, and of what types? (2) What were the…

  17. The Achievement Progress of English Learner Students in Arizona. REL 2015-098

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min; Yu, Airong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the learning trajectories of the growing numbers of English learner students in the West, especially those who struggle to pass state English language arts and math content tests, this study followed three cohorts of English learner students in Arizona over six school years, 2006/07 through 2011/12, to assess their progress in…

  18. School District Wellness Policies: Evaluating Progress and Potential for Improving Children's Health Five Years after the Federal Mandate. Brief Report. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie; Resnick, Elissa; Schneider, Linda; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Adcock, Tessa; Carrion, Violeta; Chaloupka, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This brief report updates data published in August 2010 from the most comprehensive, ongoing nationwide analysis of written wellness policies. It includes data from the 2006-07 through the 2010-11 school years, which were the first five years following the required implementation date for wellness policies. The major findings and trends presented…

  19. Restructuring under the No Child Left Behind Act in Maryland. 2007-08 Follow-Up Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman-Sheldon, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    This report, the Center on Education Policy's (CEP's) third annual review of Maryland's efforts to restructure schools under the No Child Left Behind Act, finds that (1) although between school years 2006-07 and 2007-08 the number of schools in the restructuring implementation phase declined slightly, there was a drastic increase in the number of…

  20. A Fifty-State Survey of School Finance Policies and Programs: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.; Jordan, Teresa S.

    2009-01-01

    This overview provides a synthesis of a comprehensive survey of school finance programs in the 50 states conducted in 2006-07. Information was provided by chief state school finance officers or persons with expertise in a state's public school funding-allocation system. Brief descriptions of the major Pre-K-12 funding formulae, district-based…

  1. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  2. Alabama Education Quick Facts, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is a quick look at general information about Alabama schools. The document contains 11 sections: (1) state statistics; (2) Alabama public schools, 2006-07; (3) Alabama state board of education members; (4) financial data; (5) school size and enrollment; (6) transportation and school meals; (7) graduation requirements; (8) additional…

  3. "Don't You Pick and Refuse Me"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clunis, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In 2006-07, the author had the task of teaching the first substantially separate class at her school. Before this year, all of Mission Hill's students had been included in the classrooms. They have always had children with special needs, but before last year, they never had a classroom in which the students were told they had to be separate. Added…

  4. Bridging Worlds: Ethnic Minority Pupils in Catholic Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    Aggregated attainment data for each of the four Key Stages of the National Curriculum during 2006-07 are used to compare the performance of schools having differing proportions of ethnic minority pupils on roll. The data are for all maintained primary and secondary schools that completed the 2007 Annual Schools' Census. There are noticeable…

  5. Teacher Attitudes about Performance Incentives in Texas: Early Reactions to the GEEG Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. Findings are based on surveys administered to GEEG teachers during the 2006-07 school year, the…

  6. Factors Affecting the Adoption of an E-Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Ann L.

    2010-01-01

    A case study was conducted in 2006-07 to explore how one US campus implemented a centralised e-assessment system. The study specifically measured the extent of adoption by faculty members, identified their reasons for adoption and evaluated the impact on teaching and learning. The purposes of the system, entitled researching learning (REAL, a…

  7. Prekindergarten Participation Rates in West Virginia. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraghty, Thomas M.; Holian, Laura; Gyekye, Adwoa

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, in response to concerns of state policymakers, Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia published "West Virginia's progress toward universal prekindergarten" (Cavalluzzo et al. 2009), which covered school years 2002/03-2006/07. This follow-up brief updates that report with data for 2007/08-2010/11. It compares the shares of preK seats…

  8. 38th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2006-2007 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 38th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2006-07. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2006-2007 academic year, the states…

  9. 75 FR 3127 - Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft, Inc. Model 600 S2D and S2R Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... (68 FR 15653), the Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of Quality... FR 36055), the Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of Ayres... rulemaking (NPRM) on May 4, 2009 (74 FR 20431). The NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2006-07-15, Amendment...

  10. Evaluation of New Texas Charter Schools: Second Interim Report (2007-10). Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) was awarded Charter School Program (CSP) funding in 2007, and specified that the required evaluation would focus on the experiences and outcomes of new charter schools authorized to begin serving students across 4 school years: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10. TEA categorizes charter schools in terms of…

  11. 75 FR 10658 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... 2006-07-12, Amendment 39-14539 (71 FR 16211, March 31, 2006). The existing AD applies to all Model 737... Register on May 20, 2009 (74 FR 23664). That NPRM proposed to expand the area to be inspected and, for..., Revision 2, dated October 25, 2006, mandated by AD 2003-14-06, Amendment 39-13225 (68 FR 42956, July...

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Final Report. NCEE 2012-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis; Finney, Pamela B.; Bell, Steve; Turner, Herb; Jaciw, Andrew P.; Zacamy, Jenna L.; Gould, Laura Feagans

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experiment conducted in Alabama beginning in the 2006/07 school year, to determine the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI), which aims to improve mathematics and science achievement in the state's K-12 schools. This study is the first randomized controlled trial…

  13. Gaining Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Leslie A.; Rollison, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    In the 2006-07 school year, North Brunswick High School--a rural, racially and economically diverse high school in Leland, North Carolina--was identified as a priority school by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Overall student proficiency was at 48.6%, indicating that less than one-half of all students earned a score of…

  14. Mutual Comparison Reception Model (MCRM) of Concept Development in Secondary Science Learning: A Variation to Brunarian Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, K. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is the outcome of an experiential learning episode encountered by a teacher educator (the author) with a group of student-teachers under his mentorship during a session of the practice teaching programme (2006-07) at the secondary school level. The crisis faced by a student teacher in connection with the development of a lesson template…

  15. Do More Effective Teachers Earn More outside of the Classroom? Working Paper Series. PEPG 10-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine earnings records for more than 90,000 classroom teachers employed by Florida public schools between the 2001-02 and 2006-07 school years, roughly 20,000 of whom left the classroom during that time. A majority of those leaving the classroom remained employed by public school districts. Among teachers in grades 4-8 leaving for other…

  16. Developing and Sustaining Leadership Learning Communities: Implications of NPQICL Rollout for Public Policy Local Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Margy; Chandler, Rachel; John, Karen; Reid, Lindsay; Thorpe, Sheila; Everitt, John

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the UK government launched a new programme for early years leaders in England--the National Professional Qualification in Integrated Centre Leadership (NPQICL). In collaboration with the National College for School Leadership, Pen Green led the development, pilot and rollout of this M-level training programme, which by 2006-07 involved 17…

  17. West Virginia's Progress Toward Universal Prekindergarten. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  18. West Virginia's Progress toward Universal Prekindergarten. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  19. A Decade of Results: A Case for School District Consolidation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Betty; Cox, Becky

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the results of consolidation on the Hamilton County Department of Education, an urban school district located in Tennessee. The purpose of the study was to analyze the longitudinal effects by comparing and contrasting the district's pre-consolidation data from 1997-98 to its post-consolidation figures for 2006-07. More…

  20. Achievement Gap Patterns of Grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Reading and Math. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven; Greenough, Richard; Sage, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a summary of a larger report that focuses on student proficiency reading and math from 2003-04 to 2006-07. The report compares gaps in performance on state achievement tests between grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native students and all other grade 8 students in 26 states serving large populations of American Indian and…

  1. Achievement Gap Patterns of Grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven; Greenough, Richard; Sage, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on student proficiency in reading and math from 2003-04 to 2006-07, this report compares gaps in performance on state achievement tests between grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native students and all other grade 8 students in 26 states serving large populations of American Indian and Alaska Native students. In response to a request by…

  2. Meeting Oregon's New High School Math Graduation Requirements: Examining Student Enrollment and Teacher Availability. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Sage, Nicole; Ishimaru, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Disaggregating the data across four school variables--size, locale, racial/ethnic minority population, and population eligible for free or reduced-price lunch--this study examines the extent to which Oregon grade 9-12 students enrolled in high school math courses during 2006/07 and 2007/08 would not have been on track to graduate had the new…

  3. Meeting Oregon's New High School Math Graduation Requirements: Examining Student Enrollment and Teacher Availability. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Sage, Nicole; Ishimaru, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Disaggregating the data across four school variables--size, locale, racial/ethnic minority population, and population eligible for free or reduced-price lunch--this study examines the extent to which Oregon grade 9-12 students enrolled in high school math courses during 2006/07 and 2007/08 would not have been on track to graduate had the new…

  4. Evaluation of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Secondary 1 Program) by the Program Participants: Findings Based on the Full Implementation Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 207 schools (N = 33,693 students) participated in the Secondary 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Full Implementation Phase (2006-07). Participants responded to a Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form A) to assess their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness after program completion. Utilizing the…

  5. An Examination of Inter-District Public School Transfers in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, David M.; Statz, Bambi; Skidmore, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Using data for all Wisconsin school districts over the 2003/04 through 2006/07 school years, we evaluate the state of Wisconsin's Open Enrollment (inter-district transfer) program to determine which school district characteristics influence parental transfer decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study of school choice in a public school…

  6. Engagement as a Core University Leadership Position and Advancement Strategy: Perspectives from an Engaged Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Mark N.; McVeety, Cassie S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, Portland State University (PSU) has received consistent national accolades for its innovative, engaged approaches to student learning. More recently, PSU has expanded its emphasis on engaged research and has more intentionally highlighted its institutional partnerships and impact on the region. A current (2006-07)…

  7. Degrees Conferred by Connecticut Institutions of Higher Education Highlights, 2007-08. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the degrees conferred by Connecticut institutions of higher education in 2007-08. Connecticut colleges and universities awarded 36,634 degrees in 2007-08 (up 1.6% over 2006-07), the state's seventh consecutive year of growth and a 28 percent increase since 1998. Once again, the top five degree-producing disciplines were…

  8. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded…

  9. From the outside Looking in: A Study of Australian Employers' Perceptions of Graduates from Outdoor Education Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munge, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted in 2006-07 exploring the perspectives that some Australian employers have of graduates from an outdoor education degree program. Similar studies have been conducted in the US and the UK; however no such study has been conducted in Australia. This study clarifies some of the tensions that exist in the…

  10. The Relationship between High School Course Grades and Exam Scores. Research Watch. E&R Report No. 09.39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Anne-Sylvie M.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2006-07 school year, in addition to earning a certain number of course credits, all North Carolina high school students have been required to pass the End of Course test (EOC) in five subjects in order to obtain a high school diploma. This report examines the relationship between EOC test results and course grades for Algebra I and…

  11. Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

  12. A Profile of Successful Pell Grant Recipients: Time to Bachelor's Degree and Early Graduate School Enrollment. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2009-156

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Christina Chang; Horn, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2006-07, the federal government awarded over $13 billion in Pell Grants to more than 5 million undergraduate students (U.S. Department of Education 2007). The goal of the Pell Grant program is to help students with financial need enroll in and graduate from college by providing them with a basic foundation of financial aid, to which they may…

  13. Snapshots of Indiana's Full-Day Kindergarten Programs before and after the State's Funding Increase for the Program. REL Technical Brief. REL 2009-No. 013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Rachel; Kochanek, Julie; Mathers, Carrie; Burke, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The Indiana General Assembly increased the state grant funds for full-day kindergarten from $8.5 million for 2006/07 to $33.5 million for 2007/08. Following the increase in funding, the Indiana Department of Education and the Indiana State Board of Education requested assistance from Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest to analyze Indiana…

  14. Student Progress and Goal Attainment Report: Adult School Programs in California. Program Year July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 285 adult schools in California enrolled 1,206,864 adult learners supported through state apportionment funds in program year 2006-07. This report presents the results of data collected by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) from all learners enrolled in California adult schools. The report analysis was prepared by…

  15. Model Wellness Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, PL 105-268, the U.S. Congress established a new requirement for all local agencies with a federally funded National School Lunch program. The local agencies are required to develop and implement wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity by the start of the 2006-07

  16. Alabama Department of Education Quick Facts, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics; Alabama public schools 2007-08; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data; public school size and enrollment; transportation; school meals; school personnel, 2007-2008; graduation requirements; student assessment; additional enrollment; and dropouts, 2006-07.

  17. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in Europe – covering five consecutive seasons (2001–2006) in five countries

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Majbrit V.; Blank, Patricia R.; Szucs, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To understand potential drivers and barriers to influenza vaccination in the general population. Methods  47 982 household surveys were conducted in five European countries between 2001 and 2006. Results  Overall influenza vaccination coverage increased over the years and reached 26·2% in 2005/06. Among the elderly ≥65 years, the rate increased significantly to 67·8% (2005/06). The most common reason for being vaccinated over the 5 years was the perception of influenza as a serious illness, which people want to avoid. The main reason for not getting vaccinated among those never previously vaccinated was feeling that they were unlikely to catch influenza. A recommendation by the family physician was the most encouraging factor for vaccination. PMID:19453429

  18. High School Five-Year Graduation Rates, Wake County Public School System (WCPSS): 2009-10. Measuring Up. E&R Report No. 11.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Glenda

    2011-01-01

    In 2009-10, the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction was approved to include a five-year graduation rate as well as a four-year rate in determining if schools, districts, and the state made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) under the NCLB Act. This rate was based on the incoming 9th grade students of 2005-06. The denominator of the cohort…

  19. Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, David; Rice, Neil E.; Lewis, Ceri; Henley, William E.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in food and drinks packaging. Associations have previously been reported between urinary BPA concentrations and heart disease, diabetes and liver enzymes in adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003/04. We aimed to estimate associations between urinary BPA concentrations and health measures in NHANES 2005/06 and in data pooled across collection years. Methodology and Findings A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES: subjects were n = 1455 (2003/04) and n = 1493 (2005/06) adults aged 18–74 years, representative of the general adult population of the United States. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, BMI, waist circumference, and urinary creatinine concentration. Main outcomes were reported diagnoses of heart attack, coronary heart disease, angina and diabetes and serum liver enzyme levels. Urinary BPA concentrations in 2005/06 (geometric mean 1.79 ng/ml, 95% CI: 1.64 to 1.96) were lower than in 2003/04 (2.49 ng/ml, CI: 2.20 to 2.83, difference p-value = 0.00002). Higher BPA concentrations were associated with coronary heart disease in 2005/06 (OR per z-score increase in BPA = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.01 to 1.75, p = 0.043) and in pooled data (OR = 1.42, CI: 1.17 to 1.72, p = 0.001). Associations with diabetes did not reach significance in 2005/06, but pooled estimates remained significant (OR = 1.24, CI: 1.10 to 1.40, p = 0.001). There was no overall association with gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations, but pooled associations with alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase remained significant. Conclusions Higher BPA exposure, reflected in higher urinary concentrations of BPA, is consistently associated with reported heart disease in the general adult population of the USA. Studies to clarify the mechanisms of these associations are urgently needed. PMID

  20. Matrix effects on a cell-based assay used for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalve shellfish samples.

    PubMed

    Aballay-Gonzalez, Ambbar; Ulloa, Viviana; Rivera, Alejandra; Hernández, Víctor; Silva, Macarena; Caprile, Teresa; Delgado-Rivera, Lorena; Astuya, Allisson

    2016-05-01

    Detecting marine biotoxins such as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is essential to ensuring the safety of seafood. The mouse bioassay is the internationally accepted method for monitoring PSTs, but technical and ethical issues have led to a search for new detection methods. The mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (Neuro-2a CBA) using ouabain and veratridine (O/V) has proven useful for the detection of PSTs. However, CBAs are sensitive to shellfish-associated matrix interferences. As the extraction method highly influences matrix interferences, this study compared three extraction protocols: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2005.06, AOAC 2011.02 and an alternative liquid-liquid method. These methods were used to assess the matrix effect of extracts from four commercially important bivalve species (Chilean mussel, Magellan mussel, clam and Pacific oyster) in Neuro-2a CBA. Extracts from all three protocols caused a toxic effect in Neuro-2a cells (without O/V) when tested at a concentration of 25 mg of tissue-equivalent (TE) ml(-1). The greatest toxicity was obtained through the AOAC 2011.02 protocol, especially for the Chilean mussel and Pacific oyster extracts. Similar toxicity levels (less than 15%) were observed in all extracts at 3.1 mg TE ml(-1). When assessed in Neuro-2a CBA, AOAC 2005.06 extracts presented the lowest matrix interferences, while the highest interferences were observed for AOAC 2011.02 in Magellan mussel and clam extracts. Finally, the AOAC 2005.06 and alternative protocols were compared using Chilean mussel samples fortified with 40 and 80 µg STX per 100 g meat. The AOAC 2005.06 method demonstrated better results. In conclusion, the AOAC 2005.06 extracts exhibited the fewest interferences in the Neuro-2a CBA. Therefore, this extraction method should be considered for the implementation of Neuro-2a CBA as a high-throughput screening methodology for PST detection. PMID:27002718

  1. Message from the Governor and State Education Secretary. South Dakota Department of Education 2003-2004 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    South Dakota's Department of Education aims to put kids first. In order to do that, efforts are focused on promoting leadership and service among administrators and educators, who touch the lives of children on a daily basis. The department has identified seven goals for 2004-05 to ensure that South Dakota students have the best educational…

  2. Performance indicators for information technology services at four community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Pegi; Dimnik, Gerry; Burns, Rodney; Bowie, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    During the 2004/05 fiscal year, the Directors of Information Technology Services (ITS) at four Toronto-area hospitals agreed to participate in a detailed benchmarking exercise looking at ITS costs and services in their organizations. The indicators presented in this article highlight some of the findings from this data analysis. PMID:16826771

  3. Sustaining the Impact: A Follow-Up of the Teachers Who Participated in the Math-in-CTE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Pearson, Donna

    2007-01-01

    During the 2004-05 school year, the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education conducted a study entitled "Building Academic Skills in Context: Testing the Value of Enhanced Math Learning in Career and Technical Education," commonly referred to as the Math-in-CTE study. This was a random-assignment experiment that tested the…

  4. 78 FR 21441 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... periods of market stress. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 53539 (March 22, 2006), 71 FR 16353 (March 31, 2006) (SR-NYSE-2004-05); Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58265 (July 30, 2008), 73 FR...), 77 FR 33498 (June 6, 2012) (``LULD Release''). Nevertheless, the Exchange proposes to phase out...

  5. 77 FR 56170 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... terminating action for Boeing Service Bulletin 737- 55-1086 (specified in AD 2004-05-19, Amendment 39-13514 (69 FR 10921, March 9, 2004; corrected April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19313)), or during maintenance as... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3)...

  6. Toast of the Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolbright, Cynthia; Martin, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes, the key to solving an old problem is a fresh perspective. This was the case for the annual fund for The Catholic University of America (CUA), which underwent a transformation that nearly doubled the fund between 2004 and 2008. In 2004-05, the annual giving program at CUA raised $454,789 in unrestricted gifts from 1,760 donors. By…

  7. Mapping 2005 State Proficiency Standards onto the NAEP Scales. Research and Development Report. NCES 2007-482

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of applying a methodology for mapping state proficiency standards in reading and mathematics onto the appropriate National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scale, employing data from the 2004-05 academic year. The mapping exercise was carried out for both grades 4 and 8. For each of the four subject and…

  8. Innovating in Higher Education: Contexts for Change in Learning Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on three research projects (undertaken in 1997-99, 2002 and 2004-05) that have examined innovation in learning and teaching methods in UK higher education. The first two of these focused on such matters as departmental and institutional cultures and the factors that have either enabled or inhibited change. The third has begun to…

  9. Moving into Students' Spaces: The Impact of Location of Academic Advising on Student Engagement among Undecided Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss-Arms, Janet; Cabrera, Alberto F.; Brower, Aaron M.

    2008-01-01

    University stakeholders recognize the importance of exposing all students to academic advising as a means to enhance their engagement with the institution. Living-learning communities are of particular promise. In this study, conducted at a mid-western land grant university in the 2004-05 academic year, advisees in living-learning communities…

  10. The Status of the Teaching Profession, 2005. Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, C. E.; Chang-Ross, C. M.; Guha, R.; Humphrey, D. C.; Shields, P. M.; Tiffany-Morales, J. D.; Wechsler, M. E.; Woodworth, K. R.

    2005-01-01

    During the 2004-05 school year, SRI International, an independent research firm, launched a fourth comprehensive round of data collection. They conducted analyses of statewide teacher data to follow trends in teacher distribution over time and to document changes in California's teacher development policies and programs. They also collected…

  11. Exploring Adjustment: The Social Situation of Chinese Students in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurling, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of the social situations of first year Chinese students in one UK University. The study used in-depth interviews and constructivist grounded theory to investigate the social situations of 19 foundation, undergraduate and postgraduate students in 2004-05. This exploratory approach was informed by Siu's "The…

  12. Annual Performance Report. 2002-2003. Wyoming Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Wyoming's Department of Education (WDE?s) Special Programs Unit conducts compliance monitoring for all IDEA procedural requirements on a five-year cycle. The current process began for Wyoming?s school districts in 1999-2000 and will be completed in 2004-05. The special education monitoring process is a comprehensive program review. The process…

  13. Shifting Trends in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Janie; Winkler, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines trends in the number of special-education students and personnel at both the national and state levels from 2000-01 to 2009-10. It finds that the overall population of special-education students, after decades of increases, peaked in the 2004-05 school year and has declined since. But within this population, individual…

  14. Challenges of University Adjustment in the UK: A Study of East Asian Master's Degree Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master's level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004-05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East…

  15. Adult, Flexible Students' Approaches to Studying in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Wenche M.

    2009-01-01

    A Norwegian translation of the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI-32) was administered to 1477 adult students attending flexible study programs in higher education in Norway (2004-05). The intention was to investigate their approaches to studying, taking into account their educational backgrounds and their present, challenging study conditions.…

  16. Bridging the Experiential Learning Gap: An Evaluation of the Impacts of Ulster University's Senior Student Tutoring Scheme on First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004-05 first year students at the School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University have engaged with senior student tutors (SSTs) in workshop activities aimed at preparations for their written examinations. Using a pedagogical action research methodology we evaluated the role of SSTs in bridging the experiential learning gap between…

  17. Analysis of the Impact of School Consolidation on Student Transportation Cost. Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Gritter, Aaron K.; Sloan, James E.

    2007-01-01

    This analysis entailed an examination of student transportation costs for SAUs that have consolidated through new school construction. School Administrative Units (SAUs) on the State Board of Education's list of approved school consolidation projects between 1999-00 and 2004-05 were evaluated to determine if a school consolidation had already…

  18. Science Education and ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    The number of students who learn English as a second language (ESL) in U.S. schools has grown significantly in the past decade. This segment of the student population increased by 56% between the 1994-95 and 2004-05 school years (NCLR 2007). As the ESL student population increases, many science teachers struggle to tailor instructional materials,…

  19. Post-Primary Education and Capabilities: Insights from Young Women in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Shelley K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…

  20. Abbott Students Attending Charter Schools: Funding Disparities and Legal Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Most of New Jersey's charter schools are located in the state's poorer, urban school districts, or "Abbott" districts, and exclusively serve students from those communities. A number of other schools are located outside of the Abbott districts but enroll students from these districts. Specifically, of the 50 charter schools operating in 2004-05,…

  1. Trends in reference usage statistics in an academic health sciences library

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Sandra L.; Hitchcock, Kristin; McGowan, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine reference questions asked through traditional means at an academic health sciences library and place this data within the context of larger trends in reference services. Methodology: Detailed data on the types of reference questions asked were collected during two one-month periods in 2003 and 2004. General statistics documenting broad categories of questions were compiled over a fifteen-year period. Results: Administrative data show a steady increase in questions from 1990 to 1997/98 (23,848 to 48,037, followed by a decline through 2004/05 to 10,031. The distribution of reference questions asked over the years has changed—including a reduction in mediated searches 2,157 in 1990/91 to 18 in 2004/05, an increase in instruction 1,284 in 1993/94 to 1,897 in 2004/05 and an increase in digital reference interactions 0 in 1999/2000 to 581 in 2004/05. The most commonly asked questions at the current reference desk are about journal holdings 19%, book holdings 12%, and directional issues 12%. Conclusions: This study provides a unique snapshot of reference services in the contemporary library, where both online and offline services are commonplace. Changes in questions have impacted the way the library provides services, but traditional reference remains the core of information services in this health sciences library. PMID:17252063

  2. Fiscal Profiles, 2004: The Thirteenth Annual in a Series of Factsheets about the Financing of California Higher Education. Commission Report 04-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report contains and analyzes statistical information about the financing of California postsecondary education from the 1965-66 fiscal year through 2004-05. In addition, there is information on California public elementary and secondary education financing as well as State government in general. The Commission compiles, disseminates and…

  3. Not Just New--Newly Reborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Career and technical education has always been able to change with the times. New technologies and new educational challenges have made such change necessary. Sometimes a school must reinvent itself and undergo a rebirth as part of that adaptation. That is what has happened at the former St. Louis Career Academy. In the 2004-05 school year, the…

  4. 36th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2004-2005 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 36th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2004-05. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2004-2005 academic year, the states…

  5. Truth or Consequences: The State Budget for 2004-2005 and Its Impact on Texans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresette, Patrick; Castro, Eva De Luna; Dunkelberg, Anne; Hagert, Celia

    2004-01-01

    This report analyzes the Texas state budget for 2004-05, discusses the impact of the fiscal and policy decisions that were made, and serves as a roadmap to the service restorations that must be considered as the economy and state revenues rebound. In addition to the analysis of budget and policy changes in the body of the report, useful…

  6. 76 FR 16026 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... 22, 2006), 71 FR 16353 (March 31, 2006) (SR-NYSE-2004-05). In connection with the adoption of the New... (Nov. 26, 2008), 73 FR 73683 (Dec. 3, 2008) (SR-NYSEALTR-2008-10). The NYSE included the relevant.... See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58845 (Oct. 24, 2008), 73 FR 64379 (Oct. 29. 2008)...

  7. 76 FR 16019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... 22, 2006), 71 FR 16353 (March 31, 2006) (SR-NYSE-2004-05). \\9\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58845 (Oct. 24, 2008), 73 FR 64379 (Oct. 29. 2008) (SR-NYSE-2008-46). 2. Statutory Basis The Exchange... affiliate, NYSE Amex LLC, has proposed parallel changes its rules. See SR-NYSEAmex-2011-16. \\5\\...

  8. Strengths and Limitations of Ontario Post-Secondary Education Accessibility Plans: A Review of One University Accessibility Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opini, Bathseba M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the strengths and limitations of the Ontarians with Disabilities Act (ODA) accessibility plan prepared by one post-secondary education institution in Ontario, Canada, during the 2004/05 academic year. The paper focuses on ways the intersectionality between disability and gender is not voiced in the plan and its implications for…

  9. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  10. Non-Formal Education and Livelihood Skills for Marginalised Street and Slum Youth in Uganda. Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Building Capacities for Non formal Education and Life Skills Programmes project in Uganda was implemented by Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) with financial and technical support from UNESCO--Section for Literacy and non Formal Education in 2004-05; aiming at assisting vulnerable and marginalised youth affected by HIV/AIDS and other risk…

  11. Organisation and Management of a Complete Bachelor Degree Offered Online at the University of Milan for Ten Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milani, Manuela; Papini, Sabrina; Scaccia, Daniela; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting some reflections on organisation and management of SSRI online: an e-learning initiative started at the University of Milan (Italy) in the academic year 2004/05 and offered to students over the last ten years. The initiative consisted in implementing the online version of an already existing three-year bachelor…

  12. Measuring Efficiencies of Academic Departments within a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauer, Loren W.; Fried, Harold O.; Fry, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Technical and allocative efficiencies of 26 academic departments in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University are computed using Data Envelopment Analysis over 2004/05. Allocations of faculty time between teaching, research, and extension vary by department and are used as unique prices in calculating allocative…

  13. Grow Your Own School Leaders: A Case Study of Principal Development in Philadelphia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Education Collaborative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2004-05, the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) began a groundbreaking partnership with the Eli Broad Foundation to develop the Academy for Leadership in Philadelphia Schools (ALPS), one of several Broad-funded, alternative principal development programs initiated across the country. The ALPS effort was designed to respond to two challenges:…

  14. Capacity Building for the Common Good: PSU's Interdisciplinary Minor in Civic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishishiba, Masami; Kecskes, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, Portland State University has furthered its commitment to civic engagement education by adopting an integrated approach to its general education curriculum. As an outgrowth to this initiative, the minor in Civic Leadership was developed in 2004-05. This interdisciplinary minor was designed with the intent to further…

  15. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  16. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  17. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  18. 77 FR 51596 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; NYSE MKT LLC; Order Granting Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ....19b-4. \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 67317 (June 29, 2012), 77 FR 40133 (SR-NYSE-2012-19) and 67318 (June 29, 2012), 77 FR 40129 (SR-NYSEMKT-2012-13) (hereinafter referred to collectively... (March 22, 2006), 71 FR 16353 (March 31, 2006) (SR-NYSE-2004-05) (Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

  19. Role of Parental Education in Schooling and Child Labour Decision: Urban India in the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Diganta; Das, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th (1999-2000) and the 61st (2004-05) rounds, to show that even with a significant wage incentive for schooling of urban children, the school drop out rate and child labour incidence are not small over this period. The parents' level of education…

  20. A Teacher for Every Classroom: New Teachers in the Baltimore City Public Schools, 1999-2005. Brief Report Update, May 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Katz, Gregory; Vaughn, E. Sidney

    2006-01-01

    This brief report provides an update to the analysis of five cohorts of new teachers in the Baltimore City Public School System (1999-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04). Presented here are updated retention figures using Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS) teacher data for 2004-05, comparing teachers with different certification…

  1. Moving towards Inclusion? The First-Degree Results of Students with and without Disabilities in Higher Education in the UK: 1998-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pumfrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Is the currently selective UK higher education (HE) system becoming more inclusive? Between 1998/99 and 2004/05, in relation to talented students with disabilities, has the UK government's HE policy implementation moved HE towards achieving two of the government's key HE objectives for 2010? These objectives are: (a) increasing HE participation…

  2. Towards a Pedagogy of Mentor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mary E.; Pachler, Norbert; Mitchell, Helen; Herrington, Neil

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on findings from an exploratory study carried out during 2004/05 among members of the London Providers Mentoring Group. Qualitative data from nine teacher education partnerships working with a significant proportion of the schools in London was subjected to interpretative analysis. The paper explores how the London Providers…

  3. Trends in the Participation and Performance of Students with Disabilities. Technical Report 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Quenemoen, Rachel; Altman, Jason; Cuthbert, Marge

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the participation and performance trends over time for students with disabilities, progressing from school year 2001-02, a base year for determining AYP goals under NCLB, through school year 2004-05, the third year that states reported after the NCLB baseline year (VanGetson & Thurlow, 2007). Within this…

  4. The BC Provincial Education Number (PEN): Considerations for Assigning the PEN to Post-Secondary Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has had a long-standing interest in measures of student mobility and the potential of the Provincial Education Number (PEN) being applied in post-secondary institutions at the applicant stage. The Admissions Committee of BCCAT included a project in its 2004/05 Work Plan to conduct a thorough…

  5. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Supreme Court's preview is presented in this article. During the 2006-07 Supreme Court term, it was the 5-4 decisions that garnered the most attention. Twenty-four of the term's 72 cases were decided by this narrowest of margins--the highest percentage of 5-4 opinions in a decade--even as the share of unanimous opinions fell "below levels seen…

  6. Runoff simulations from the Greenland ice sheet at Kangerlussuaq from 2006-2007 to 2007/08. West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Hasholt, Bent; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Liston, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on runoff from a large sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) - the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland - for the runoff observation period 2006/07 to 2007/08. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff. Independent in situ end-of-winter snow depth and high-resolution runoff observations were used for validation of simulated accumulation and ablation processes. Runoff was modeled on both daily and hourly time steps, filling a data gap of runoff exiting part of the GrIS. Using hourly meteorological driving data instead of smoothed daily-averaged data produced more realistic meteorological conditions in relation to snow and melt threshold surface processes, and produced 6-17% higher annual cumulative runoff. The simulated runoff series yielded useful insights into the present conditions of inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Kangerlussuaq runoff, and provided an acceptable degree of agreement between simulated and observed runoff. The simulated spatial runoff distributions, in some areas of the GrIS terminus, were as high as 2,750 mm w.eq. of runoff for 2006/07, while only 900 mm w.eq was simulated for 2007/08. The simulated total runoff from Kangerlussuaq was 1.9 km{sup 3} for 2006/07 and 1.2 km{sup 3} for 2007/08, indicating a reduction of 35-40% caused by the climate conditions and changes in the GrIS freshwater storage. The reduction in runoff from 2006/07 to 2007/08 occurred simultaneously with the reduction in the overall pattern of satellite-derived GrIS surface melt from 2007 to 2008.

  7. Environmental variability in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy): Focusing on the response of microbial activities and prokaryotic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Gabriella; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Decembrini, Franco; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Maimone, Giovanna; De Pasquale, Francesca; Monticelli, Luis Salvador; Zaccone, Renata; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    The response of both microbial activities and prokaryotic abundances to environmental variability was studied in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy) during two yearly surveys (1997-'98 and 2005-'06). The total enzymatic (leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase) and respiratory activity rates as well as of the abundances of total prokaryotes, culturable heterotrophic bacteria, faecal coliforms and enterococci were measured in surface waters of four brackish ponds, together with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen determinations. The seasonal and interannual patterns of microbial parameters were investigated in relation to environmental variations.

  8. Initial results from the lost alpha diagnostics on Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, Doug; Baeumel, Stefan; Cecil, Ed; Ellis, Bob; Fullard, Keith; Hill, Ken; Horton, Alan; Kiptily, Vasily; Pedrick, Les; Reich, Matthias; Werner, Andreas

    2006-10-15

    Two devices have been installed in the Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel near the plasma boundary to investigate the loss of energetic ions and fusion products in general and alpha particles in particular during the upcoming JET experiments. These devices are (i) a set of multichannel thin foil Faraday collectors and (ii) a well collimated scintillator, which is optically connected to a charge-coupled device. Initial results including the radial energy and poloidal dependence of lost ions from hydrogen and deuterium plasmas during the 2005-06 JET restart campaign will be presented.

  9. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  10. Map showing Features and Displacements of the Scenic Drive Landslide, La Honda, California, During the Period March 31, 2005-November 5, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wheeler, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Scenic Drive landslide in La Honda, San Mateo County, California began movement during the El Ni?o winter of 1997-98. Recurrent motion occurred during the mild El Ni?o winter of 2004-2005 and again during the winter of 2005-06. This report documents the changing geometry and motion of the Scenic Drive landslide in 2005-2006, and it documents changes and persistent features that we interpret to reflect underlying structural control of the landslide. We have also compared the displacement history to near-real time rainfall history at a continuously recording gauge for the period October 2004-November 2006.

  11. Rapid Survey of Wasting and Stunting in Children: Whats New, Whats Old and Whats the Buzz?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Sinha, Dipa; Yumnam, Veda

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide Rapid Survey on Children (RSoC), conducted by the Ministry of Women and Child Development and UNICEF in 2013-14 showed a marked improvement in the status of the child malnutrition over the third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) that was conducted in 2005-06. Despite some impressive gains in the anthropometric indicators of malnutrition, the absolute levels remain high, and of concern. Despite these gains, the feeding indicators remain stagnant. The programmatic responses need to adopt a multi-sectoral comprehensive approach with regular and comprehensive nutrition surveillance and recognize the epidemiological diversity. PMID:26840673

  12. Geochemistry of the 2005-2006 East Pacific Rise Eruption: Chemical Changes and Possible Petrogenetic Relationships to the 1991-1992 Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, B. E.; Perfit, M. R.; Ridley, W. I.; Soule, S. A.; Fornari, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    The first opportunity to study a well-documented temporal sequence of eruptions at one mid-ocean ridge (MOR) locality presented itself when a second eruption was discovered in 2006 on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) around 9 °50 'N, 15 years after an eruption was witnessed in 1991-1992. Major and trace element analyses of glass samples from the 2005-2006 eruption indicate that the flows are largely aphyric, relatively homogeneous N-type MORB but exhibit some geochemical variability outside of analytical uncertainties. Relative to the more than 1200 basalts that have been analyzed from this section of the Integrated Study Site (ISS), samples from the 2005-06 eruption are moderately evolved (7.5 to 8.3 weight percent MgO), and are more evolved than the basalts erupted in 1991-92 (8.3 to 8.9 weight percent MgO). However, both the 2005- 06 and 1991-92 eruptions appear to have originated from the same incompatible element-depleted mantle source. Modeling of the observed chemical variability suggests the 2005-06 flows could be related to the most primitive 1991-92 lava by up to ~10 percent low-pressure fractional crystallization. The compositions of the new flows fall along a liquid line of descent predicted by the crystallization of olivine and plagioclase in ratios that range, respectively, from approximately 6:1 to 1:2, and at crystallization temperatures that range from approximately 1200 °C to 1140 °C. Some gabbroic crystal clots enclosed in the young lavas support this model but others suggest complex crystal-melt interactions in the subaxial magma chamber. Additionally, chemical and spatial data from the 2005-06 eruption may indicate chemical differentiation of the lava along axis during the eruptive process. Although the data are consistent with small amounts of crystal fractionation of the 1991-92 parent over the past 15 years, it is possible the elemental trends were created by mixing between the parental melt and a more evolved magma from another part of the

  13. Tier-specific evolution of match performance characteristics in the English Premier League: it's getting tougher at the top.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Archer, David T; Hogg, Bob; Schuth, Gabor; Bush, Michael; Carling, Chris; Barnes, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of physical and technical performances in the English Premier League (EPL), with special reference to league ranking. Match performance observations (n = 14,700) were collected using a multiple-camera computerised tracking system across seven consecutive EPL seasons (2006-07 to 2012-13). Final league rankings were classified into Tiers: (A) 1st-4th ranking (n = 2519), (B) 5th-8th ranking (n = 2965), (C) 9th-14th ranking (n = 4448) and (D) 15th-20th ranking (n = 4768). Teams in Tier B demonstrated moderate increases in high-intensity running distance while in ball possession from the 2006-07 to 2012-13 season (P < 0.001; effect size [ES]: 0.68), with Tiers A, C and D producing less pronounced increases across the same period (P < 0.005; ES: 0.26, 0.41 and 0.33, respectively). Large increases in sprint distance were observed from the 2006-07 to 2012-13 season for Tier B (P < 0.001; ES: 1.21), while only moderate increases were evident for Tiers A, C and D (P < 0.001; ES: 0.75, 0.97 and 0.84, respectively). Tier B demonstrated large increases in the number of passes performed and received in 2012-13 compared to 2006-07 (P < 0.001; ES: 1.32-1.53) with small-to-moderate increases in Tier A (P < 0.001; ES: 0.30-0.38), Tier C (P < 0.001; ES: 0.46-0.54) and Tier D (P < 0.001; ES: 0.69-0.87). The demarcation line between 4th (bottom of Tier A) and 5th ranking (top of Tier B) in the 2006-07 season was 8 points, but this decreased to just a single point in the 2012-13 season. The data demonstrate that physical and technical performances have evolved more in Tier B than any other Tier in the EPL and could indicate a narrowing of the performance gap between the top two Tiers. PMID:26359805

  14. Hospitals then and now: changes since the start of Medicare.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Bill

    2007-04-01

    Australia's current hospital system is very different to the one that existed in 1982-83, the last full year before the introduction of Medicare. Capped budgets, new technology and rising expectations have seen the public sector lose ground to the private sector, particularly in terms of elective admissions and surgical episodes. In comparing the situation in 2004-05 with that in 1982-83, this paper focuses on hospital efficiency, casemix and the public-private balance. PMID:17402905

  15. Becoming a nurse in Italy: a multi-method study on expenditures by families and students.

    PubMed

    Palese, A; Achil, I; Bulfone, G; Bulfone, T; Caporale, L; Comisso, I; Comand, F; Fabris, S; Urli, N; Zanini, A; Zuliani, S; Bortoluzzi, G

    2012-11-01

    Potential nursing students and their families are faced with difficult decisions regarding the amount of time and money required to complete the nursing programme and the availability of funds to cover the costs and this seems to have received little no attention to date. With the aim of describing the costs incurred by Italian nursing students and/or their families per academic year and compare cost trends incurred from 2004-05 to 2010-11, a multi-centre qualitative/quantitative study design was adopted. Italian Nursing students attending the first, second and third academic years in 2004-05 and those attending the first, second and third academic years in 2010-11 were eligible. Five hundred and six students were involved: 215 (out of 300 eligible, 71.6%) attended the bachelor's degree in nursing in 2004-05 and 291 (out of 383 eligible, 75.9%) in 2010-11. On an annual basis, the average annual expenditures increased by 12% for nursing education from 2004-05 to 2010-11. Given that qualification as a nurse requires at least three years, and considering inflation, for a student who matriculated in 2005 an average of 2485.7€ per year (7457.0€ in total) was required. Data suggest that students have modified their spending behaviour (limiting lunches at public bars, buying books and photocopies) in order to handle the rise of non-discretionary costs, such as tuition fees and the costs of attending lectures and hospital/district trainings. Policies supporting nursing education in general and for those students who are motivated but unable to undertake the course for economic reasons are urgently needed. PMID:22503295

  16. Scientist to Expose Students to Wetlands Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Marco Giardino, chief of the Applications Integration Division for NASA Stennis Space Center's Earth Science Applications Directorate, has been chosen by the JASON Project to be one of six host researchers for Disappearing Wetlands, which will run through the 2004-05 school year. In the photo, Giardino (left) interprets satellite imagery on the way to an archeological site near Lake Salvador, La., in November 2002. With him is his local guide, Michael Comardelle.

  17. Sources of inoculum for Phytophthora ramorum in a redwood forest.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J M; Patterson, H A; Rizzo, D M

    2008-08-01

    ABSTRACT Sources of inoculum were investigated for dominant hosts of Phytophthora ramorum in a redwood forest. Infected trunks, twigs, and/or leaves of bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), and redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) were tested in the laboratory for sporangia production. Sporangia occurred on all plant tissues with the highest percentage on bay laurel leaves and tanoak twigs. To further compare these two species, field measurements of inoculum production and infection were conducted during the rainy seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05. Inoculum levels in throughfall rainwater and from individual infections were significantly higher for bay laurel as opposed to tanoak for both seasons. Both measurements of inoculum production from bay laurel were significantly greater during 2004-05 when rainfall extended longer into the spring, while inoculum quantities for tanoak were not significantly different between the 2 years. Tanoak twigs were more likely to be infected than bay laurel leaves in 2003-04, and equally likely to be infected in 2004-05. These results indicate that the majority of P. ramorum inoculum in redwood forest is produced from infections on bay laurel leaves. Years with extended rains pose an elevated risk for tanoak because inoculum levels are higher and infectious periods continue into late spring. PMID:18943203

  18. Trends in hospital librarianship and hospital library services: 1989 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Patricia L.; Funk, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The research studied the status of hospital librarians and library services to better inform the Medical Library Association's advocacy activities. Methods: The Vital Pathways Survey Subcommittee of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians distributed a web-based survey to hospital librarians and academic health sciences library directors. The survey results were compared to data collected in a 1989 survey of hospital libraries by the American Hospital Association in order to identify any trends in hospital libraries, roles of librarians, and library services. A web-based hospital library report form based on the survey questions was also developed to more quickly identify changes in the status of hospital libraries on an ongoing basis. Results: The greatest change in library services between 1989 and 2005/06 was in the area of access to information, with 40% more of the respondents providing access to commercial online services, 100% more providing access to Internet resources, and 28% more providing training in database searching and use of information resources. Twenty-nine percent (n = 587) of the 2005/06 respondents reported a decrease in staff over the last 5 years. Conclusions: Survey data support reported trends of consolidation of hospitals and hospital libraries and additions of new services. These services have likely required librarians to acquire new skills. It is hoped that future surveys will be undertaken to continue to study these trends. PMID:19851491

  19. The evolution of physical and technical performance parameters in the English Premier League.

    PubMed

    Barnes, C; Archer, D T; Hogg, B; Bush, M; Bradley, P S

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the evolution of physical and technical soccer performance across a 7-season period in the English Premier League. Match performance observations (n=14 700) were analysed for emergent trends. Total distance covered during a match was ~2% lower in 2006-07 compared to 2012-13. Across 7 seasons, high-intensity running distance and actions increased by ~30% (890±299 vs. 1 151±337 m, p<0.001; ES: 0.82) and ~50% (118±36 vs. 176±46, p<0.001; ES: 1.41), respectively. Sprint distance and number of sprints increased by ~35% (232±114 vs. 350±139 m, p<0.001; ES: 0.93) and ~85% (31±14 vs. 57±20, p<0.001; ES: 1.46), respectively. Mean sprint distance was shorter in 2012-13 compared to 2006-07 (5.9±0.8 vs. 6.9±1.3 m, p<0.001; ES: 0.91), with the proportion of explosive sprints increasing (34±11 vs. 47±9%, p<0.001; ES: 1.31). Players performed more passes (35±17 vs. 25±13, p<0.001; ES: 0.66) and successful passes (83±10% vs. 76±13%, p<0.001; ES: 0.60) in 2012-13 compared to 2006-07. Whereas the number of short and medium passes increased across time (p<0.001; ES>0.6), the number of long passes varied little (p<0.001; ES: 0.11). This data demonstrates evolution of physical and technical parameters in the English Premier League, and could be used to aid talent identification, training and conditioning preparation. PMID:25009969

  20. Changes in smoking prevalence among U.S. adults by state and region: Estimates from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 1992-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies at the state level have been a critical impetus for reduction in smoking prevalence. We examine the association between recent changes in smoking prevalence and state-specific tobacco control policies and activities in the entire U.S. Methods We analyzed the 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) by state and two indices of state tobacco control policies or activities [initial outcome index (IOI) and the strength of tobacco control (SOTC) index] measured in 1998-1999. The IOI reflects cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation, whereas the SOTC reflects tobacco control program resources and capacity. Pearson Correlation coefficient between the proportionate change in smoking prevalence from 1992-93 to 2006-07 and indices of tobacco control activities or programs was the main outcome measure. Results Smoking prevalence decreased from 1992-93 to 2006-07 in both men and women in all states except Wyoming, where no reduction was observed among men, and only a 6.9% relative reduction among women. The percentage reductions in smoking in men and women respectively were the largest in the West (average decrease of 28.5% and 33.3%) and the smallest in the Midwest (18.6% and 20.3%), although there were notable exceptions to this pattern. The decline in smoking prevalence by state was correlated with the state's IOI in both women and men (r = -0.49, p < 0.001; r = -0.31, p = 0.03; respectively) and with state's SOTC index in women(r = -0.30, p = 0.03 0), but not men (r = -0.21, p = 0.14). Conclusion State level policies on cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation correlate strongly with reductions in smoking prevalence since 1992. Strengthening and systematically implementing these policies could greatly accelerate further reductions in smoking. PMID:21714876

  1. Antisolar-type surface differential rotation of the K1-giant sigma Geminorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Zsolt; Künstler, Andreas; Vida, Krisztián; Kriskovics, Levente; Carroll, Thorsten; Strassmeier, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Spot migration pattern is analysed to derive surface differential rotation on the active K1-giant component of the long-period RS CVn-type binary system σ Gem. From a set of high-resolution spectra taken with STELLA-I SES in 2006/07, three subsequent Doppler images were obtained using our advanced surface reconstruction code iMap. The time-evolution of the spotted surface suggests antisolar-type differential rotation with α of -0.04 shear parameter, in quite an agreement with preceding results.

  2. Within-Gender Changes in HIV Prevalence among Adults between 2005/6 and 2010/11 in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Dzangare, Janet; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Kilmarx, Peter H.; Postma, Maarten J.; Ngwende, Stella; Mandisarisa, John; Nyika, Ponesai; Mvere, David A.; Mugurungi, Owen; Tshimanga, Mufuta; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Zimbabwe has reported significant declines in HIV prevalence between 2005/06 and 2010/11 Demography and Health Surveys; a within-gender analysis to identify the magnitude and factors associated with this change, which can be masked, is critical for targeting interventions. Methods We analyzed change in HIV prevalence for 6,947 women and 5,848 men in the 2005/06 survey and 7,313 women and 6,250 men in 2010/11 surveys using 2005/06 as referent. The data was analyzed taking into consideration the survey design and therefore the svy, mean command in Stata was used in both linear and logistic regression. Results There were similar proportional declines in prevalence at national level for males (15% p=0.011) and females (16%,p=0.008). However, there were variations in decline by provincial setting, demographic variables of age, educational level and some sexual risk behaviours. In logistic regression analysis, statistically significant declines were observed among men in Manicaland, Mashonaland East and Harare (p<0.01) and for women in Manicaland, Mashonaland Central and Harare (p<0.01). Although not statistically significant, numerical increases were observed among men in Matebeleland North, Matebeleland South, Midlands and for both men and women in Bulawayo. Young women in the age range 15-34 experienced a decline in prevalence (p<0.01) while older men 30-44 had a statistically significant decline (p<0.01). Having a secondary and above education, regardless of employment status for both men and women recorded a significant decline. For sexual risk behaviours, currently in union for men and women and not in union for women there was a significant decline in prevalence. Conclusion Zimbabwe has reported a significant decline among both men and women but there are important differentials across provinces, demographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviours that suggest that the epidemic in Zimbabwe is heterogeneous and therefore interventions must be

  3. Increasing Mercury in Yellow Perch at a Hotspot in Atlantic Canada, Kejimkujik National Park

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and common loons (Gavia immer) from Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site (KNPNHS), Nova Scotia, Canada, had among the highest mercury (Hg) concentrations across North America. In 2006 and 2007, we re-examined 16 lakes to determine whether there have been changes in Hg in the loon’s preferred prey, yellow perch. Total Hg concentrations were measured in up to nine perch in each of three size classes (5−10 cm, 10−15 cm, and 15−20 cm) consumed by loons. Between 1996/97 and 2006/07, polynomial regressions indicated that Hg in yellow perch increased an average of 29% in ten lakes, decreased an average of 21% in three, and were unchanged in the remaining three lakes. In 2006/07, perch in 75% of the study lakes had Hg concentrations (standardized to 12-cm fish length) equal to or above the concentration (0.21 μg·g−1 ww) associated with a 50% reduction in maximum productivity of loons, compared with only 56% of these lakes in 1996/97. Mercury contamination currently poses a greater threat to loon health than a decade ago, and further reductions in anthropogenic emissions should be considered to reduce its impacts on ecosystem health. PMID:21062071

  4. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  5. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2011-05-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  6. "The boys won't let us play:" fifth-grade mestizas challenge physical activity discourse at school.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kimberly L; Hamzeh, Manal

    2010-03-01

    Drawing on feminist, critical, and poststructural theories, the purpose of this research was: (a) to understand fifth-grade mestizas self-identified barriers to physical activity, and (b) to work with them to develop strategies for challenging these barriers. Data were collected over the 2005-06 school year. Our interpretations are divided into three sections: (a) the barriers the girls identified to their physical activity participation; (b) how we worked with them to study their primary self-identified barrier to physical activity--"the boy's won't let us play"; and (c) how we refocused our research to help the girls publicize their barrier to challenge the inequities in physical activity at their school. PMID:20387397

  7. AXARM: An Extensible Remote Assistance and Monitoring Tool for ND Telerehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Antonio; Marzo, Jose L.; Vallejo, Xavier

    AXARM is a multimedia tool for rehabilitation specialists that allow remote assistance and monitoring of patients activities. This tool is the evolution of the work done in 2005-06 between the BCDS research group of UdG and the Multiple Sclerosis Foundation (FEM in Spanish) in Girona under the TRiEM project. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease (ND) that can provoke significant exhaustion in patients even just by going to the medical centre for rehabilitation or regular checking visits. The tool presented in this paper allows the medical staff to remotely carry on patient consults and activities from their home, minimizing the displacements to medical consulting. AXARM has a hybrid P2P architecture and consists essentially of a cross-platform videoconference system, with audio/video recording capabilities. The system can easily be extended to include new capabilities like, among others, asynchronous activities whose result can later be analyzed by the medical personnel.

  8. The value of reducing HIV stigma.

    PubMed

    Brent, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    HIV-stigma is a major reason why HIV continues to be a global epidemic. Interventions targeting HIV-stigma are therefore necessary. To find an intervention that is worthwhile, a Cost-Benefit Analysis is needed which compares costs and benefits. There are many documented costs of HIV-stigma. What is missing is a valuation of the benefits of reducing HIV-stigma. The purpose of this paper is to present a general method that can be used to value the benefits of stigma reduction programs. The method involves estimating the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between stigma and income in the utility function of older people with HIV. To illustrate how our framework can be used, we applied it to a sample of just over 900 people coming from the 2005-06 ROAH study (Research on Older Adults with HIV) in New York City. PMID:26820574

  9. Nutrient conditions during Alexandrium fundyense blooms in the western Gulf of Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Rebecca C.; Loder, Theodore C.; Keafer, Bruce A.

    2005-09-01

    Inorganic nutrients and organic nitrogen were measured in April-June of 1998 and 2000 near Casco Bay, Maine and the adjacent coastal waters as part of the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms—Gulf of Maine (ECOHAB-GOM) program. The samples were collected during development of toxic Alexandrium fundyense blooms [ Keafer, B.A., Churchill, J.H., Anderson, D.M., 2005. Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense in the Casco Bay region of the western Gulf of Maine: advection from offshore source populations and interactions with the Kennebec River plume. Deep Sea Research II, this issue [ doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.06.017

  10. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India. PMID:25487194

  11. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future. PMID:27002810

  12. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Copepod Abundance along the 20°S Monitoring Transect in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System from 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Maya; Kreiner, Anja; van der Plas, Anja K.; Louw, Deon C.; Horaeb, Richard; Auel, Holger; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Long-term data sets are essential to understand climate-induced variability in marine ecosystems. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of longer-term temporal and spatial variations in zooplankton abundance and copepod community structure in the northern Benguela upwelling system from 2005 to 2011. Samples were collected from the upper 200 m along a transect at 20°S perpendicular to the coast of Namibia to 70 nm offshore. Based on seasonal and interannual trends in surface temperature and salinity, three distinct time periods were discernible with stronger upwelling in spring and extensive warm-water intrusions in late summer, thus, high temperature amplitudes, in the years 2005/06 and 2010/11, and less intensive upwelling followed by weaker warm-water intrusions from 2008/09 to 2009/10. Zooplankton abundance reflected these changes with higher numbers in 2005/06 and 2010/11. In contrast, zooplankton density was lower in 2008/09 and 2009/10, when temperature gradients from spring to late summer were less pronounced. Spatially, copepod abundance tended to be highest between 30 and 60 nautical miles off the coast, coinciding with the shelf break and continental slope. The dominant larger calanoid copepods were Calanoides carinatus, Metridia lucens and Nannocalanus minor. On all three scales studied, i.e. spatially from the coast to offshore waters as well as temporally, both seasonally and interannually, maximum zooplankton abundance was not coupled to the coldest temperature regime, and hence strongest upwelling intensity. Pronounced temperature amplitudes, and therefore strong gradients within a year, were apparently important and resulted in higher zooplankton abundance. PMID:24844305

  13. Biology and life cycles of pelagic tunicates in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Dubischar, C. D.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Strass, V.; Cisewski, B.; Siegel, V.; von Harbou, L.; Gurney, L.; Kitchener, J.; Bathmann, U.

    2011-07-01

    Four grid surveys were carried out in the top 200 m layer of the Lazarev Sea during fall 2004, summer 2005-06, winter 2006 and summer 2007-08 onboard the R.V. Polarstern as a part of the German SO-GLOBEC. The distribution, abundance and biology of two species of salps, Salpa thompsoni and Ihlea racovitzai, were investigated. With the exception of fall 2004, I. racovitzai dominated the salp community although being represented by low densities (<20 ind. 1000 m -3). S. thompsoni was scarce during the summers of 2005-06 and 2007-08 and almost absent from the region during winter 2006. Nevertheless, it was modestly numerous during fall 2004 reaching densities of up to 33 ind. 1000 m -3 in the south-western stations of the grid. The data on the seasonal population structure and life cycle of I. racovitzai showed that this species followed the generalized pattern typical of S. thompsoni, i.e. sexual/asexual reproduction and spawning during fall. I. racovitzai densities were the lowest during summer, increased during fall and peaked in during winter. Numerous offspring were produced by I. racovitzai during fall, just before the area became ice-covered. Conversely, S. thompsoni was not able to complete its life cycle in the Lazarev Sea, with a high occurrence of stage X (unfertilized) aggregates present. Highest S. thompsoni densities in summer and fall, and its disappearance in winter are indicative of a population of the expatriate origin that is sustained by advection.

  14. Assessment of an ensemble system that assimilates Jason-1/Envisat altimeter data in a probabilistic model of the North Atlantic ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candille, G.; Brankart, J. M.; Brasseur, P.

    2014-12-01

    A realistic circulation model of the North Atlantic ocean at 1/4° resolution (NATL025 NEMO configuration) has been adapted to explicitly simulate model uncertainties. This is achieved by introducing stochastic perturbations in the equation of state to represent the effect of unresolved scales on the model dynamics. The main motivation for this work is to develop ensemble data assimilation methods, assimilating altimetric data from past missions JASON-1 and ENVISAT. The assimilation experiment is designed to better control the Gulf Stream circulation for years 2005/06, focusing on frontal regions which are predominantly affected by unresolved dynamical scales. An ensemble based on such stochastic perturbations is first produced and evaluated using along-track altimetry observations. The Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) scheme is applied in order to obtain an ensemble of continuous trajectories all over the 2005/06 assimilation period. These three elements - stochastic parameterization, ensemble simulation and 4-D observation operator - are then used together to perform a 4-D analysis of along-track altimetry over 10 day windows. Finally, the results of this experiment are objectively evaluated using the standard probabilistic approach developed for meteorological applications (Toth et al., 2003; Candille et al., 2007). The results show that the free ensemble - before starting the assimilation process - correctly reproduces the statistical variability over the Gulf Stream area: the system is then pretty reliable but not informative (null probabilistic resolution). Updating the free ensemble with altimetric data leads to a better reliability with an information gain around 30% (for 10 day forecasts of the SSH variable). Diagnoses on fully independent data (i.e. data that are not assimilated, like temperature and salinity profiles) provide more contrasted results when the free and updated ensembles are compared.

  15. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (< 0.7 μm). Similar trends were observed with most of the heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  16. Participation in and attitude towards the national immunization program in the Netherlands: data from population-based questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the determinants of participation and attitude towards the National Immunisation Program (NIP) may be helpful in tailoring information campaigns for this program. Our aim was to determine which factors were associated with nonparticipation in the NIP and which ones were associated with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. Further, we analyzed possible changes in opinion on vaccination over a 10 year period. Methods We used questionnaire data from two independent, population-based, cross-sectional surveys performed in 1995-96 and 2006-07. For the 2006-07 survey, logistic regression modelling was used to evaluate what factors were associated with nonparticipation and with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression modelling to compare the results between the two surveys. Results Ninety-five percent of parents reported that they or their child (had) participated in the NIP. Similarly, 95% reported they intended to accept remaining vaccinations. Ethnicity, religion, income, educational level and anthroposophic beliefs were important determinants of nonparticipation in the NIP. Parental concerns that played a role in whether or not they would accept remaining vaccinations included safety of vaccinations, maximum number of injections, whether vaccinations protect the health of one's child and whether vaccinating healthy children is necessary. Although about 90% reported their opinion towards vaccination had not changed, a larger proportion of participants reported to be less inclined to accept vaccination in 2006-07 than in 1995-96. Conclusion Most participants had a positive attitude towards vaccination, although some had doubts. Groups with a lower income or educational level or of non-Western descent participated less in the NIP than those with a high income or educational level or indigenous Dutch and have been less well identified previously. Particular

  17. Alcohol Intoxication in Pediatric Age: Ten-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bitunjac, Kristina; Saraga, Marijan

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the changes in the number of children younger than 18 who were hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, from November 1, 1997 to October 31, 2007. Methods Data on children hospitalized due to intoxication were retrieved from hospital medical records. Children were classified into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years, and their sex and type of intoxication were recorded. For children with alcohol intoxication, data on time of intoxication, reason for drinking, presence of injuries or suspected suicide attempts, and possible presence of other drugs in the organism were collected. Results Out of 29 506 hospitalized children, 594 were hospitalized due to intoxications. Out of these, 239 (40.2%) were hospitalized due to intoxication by alcohol. More boys than girls were hospitalized (71.1%). The proportion of alcohol intoxication cases among all types of intoxication cases increased from 16.7% in 1997/98 to 66.3% in 2006/07. The proportion of patients hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication increased from 0.3% of all hospitalized children in the first year to 1.7% in the last year of the study (P = 0.015, z test for comparison of two proportions). Eighty two per cent of cases of alcohol intoxication were in the 14-18 age-group. The number of alcohol intoxication cases increased among girls from 1 case (6.3% of all intoxication cases among girls) in 1997/98 to 15 cases (45.5%) in 2006/07, while among boys it increased from 6 cases (23.1% of all intoxicated boys) in 1997/98 to 44 cases (78.6%) in 2006/07. Children usually drank outside their homes (79.4%) and mostly on weekends and holidays (73.2%). Conclusion The alarming increase in the number of hospitalizations due to alcohol intoxication in children, especially among girls and in the adolescent age group, represents a serious problem, which requires further attention and research. PMID:19399948

  18. Trial of "Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation" Tests in Japanese High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Junpei; Iwama, Toru; Yamazaki, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masashi; Sakatani, Takafumi; Uchimura, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kazunari; Murata, Takatoshi

    A tentative version of Japanese translation of "Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation" was used in a preliminary research to investigate high school students' conceptual understanding of Newtonian dynamics after the students attended formal courses on the topic in 2006-07. The results obtained were generally similar to those of post-tests after traditional lectures in universities in U.S.A.. It was also used as pre- and post-test at two extramural classes on dynamics based on the active learning materials. The results of those uses suggested a well validated version of the translated test and more systematic large scale research can contribute well to physics education research in Japan.

  19. Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Toms, L.-M.L.; Thompson, J.; Rotander, A.; Hobson, P.; Calafat, A.M.; Kato, K.; Ye, X.; Broomhall, S.; Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002–2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends. Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n = 26); 2008/09 (n = 24) and 2010/11 (n = 24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n = 84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <16 years (2002/03 only); 0–4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5–15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16–30; 31–45; 46–60; and >60 years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3–19.2 ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4–17.4 ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8–7.3 ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1–6.5 ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <1 ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2–5.7 ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4–5.4 ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5–15 year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0–4 year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA). This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends

  20. Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the seventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) Nomination and election of the Executive Council members for the 2006-07 term, (2) Finalize and release the 2006 Request for Proposals (RFP), (3) Invoice and recruit members, (4) Plan for the spring meeting, (5) Improving communication efforts, and (6) Continue distribution of the DVD entitled: ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''.

  1. What can be done to reduce false alarms?

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Although (the Department for Communities and Local Government's 'Fire statistics' reveal) the number of such incidents has fallen every year since 2006/07, UK fire and rescue services still attended over 312,400 'false fire alarms,' i.e. instances where, on arriving at a site, they found no fire, in 2011/12. Such incidents have been a significant concern for healthcare facilities teams, and for the fire and rescue services serving them, for many years, and, although the past decade has seen determined efforts to substantially reduce the number bearing fruit, many believe far too many still occur. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports on a recent London roundtable discussion staged by two leading fire detection and alarm equipment specialists, Apollo Fire Detectors, and Static Systems Group, with IHEEM, which brought together experts to discuss what more can be done to minimise false fire alarms. PMID:23763086

  2. Selenium-enriched durum wheat improves the nutritional profile of pasta without altering its organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    De Vita, Pasquale; Platani, Cristiano; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Colecchia, Salvatore Antonio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Petrozza, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons (2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10) to evaluate Se-enriched pasta through foliar fertilization at various rates and timing of application on 4 durum wheat varieties. Our findings confirm the effectiveness of foliar Se fertilization to increase Se concentrations in durum wheat grain, even at high Se rates (120gSeha(-1)). Se fortification was significant across different genotypes, with greater Se accumulation in landraces ('Timilia') and obsolete varieties ('Cappelli'), with respect to modern varieties. The Se content in the grain was increased by up to 35-fold that of the untreated control. The Se concentration decreased during milling (11%), while processing and cooking of pasta did not show significant decreases. This biofortification stategy had no effects on grain quality parameters, except for reduced gluten index in the high-gluten variety PR22D89, as well as for the sensorial properties of the spaghetti. PMID:27507488

  3. Science and block scheduling: An analysis of teacher experiences in Wake County, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carrie Aliceanna

    This study provides an overview of the issues science teachers faced in the 2006-07 school year with the change to the block schedule in Wake County, North Carolina. The purpose of this research was to address gaps in literature related to changes teachers had made in their instruction and interaction with students after the implementation of the block schedule. The mixed methods used were a survey instrument, followed by eight focus group interviews. Data Analysis included t-tests, correlations, and triangulation through a phenomenological approach. Results obtained were a difference in methods used by teachers with End-of-Course tests when compared with Non-End-of-Course tests in the areas of outdoor activities, projects, media center visits, and guest speakers. Teachers with more experience also tended to change instructional methods less on the block schedule. Conclusions drawn include state testing negates some benefits of block scheduling including those to curriculum, learning, and student relationships.

  4. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater. PMID:25934432

  5. The effect of non-traditional science instruction in the middle grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, Victoria

    This causal-comparative study explored effects on student achievement in four middle schools when two distinct types of science instruction were utilized. Quantitatively, the researcher examined the effect of a non-traditional approach (NTA) to science instruction on student TCAP achievement scores (NCE scores) for 7th and 8th graders for the year 2006-07. The treatment was found to be effective. Qualitatively, teacher interviews provided insight into the implementation and effects of the NTA approach. Teachers reported NTA to be more effective in science instruction considering the factors of expertise, standards, resources, lesson plan and labs quality. The findings suggest that NTA offers a cost-effective and successful instructional model for science instruction in the middle grades that may be replicated by virtually any school.

  6. Serotype Specific Invasive Capacity and Persistent Reduction in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Inci; Hanage, William P.; Lipsitch, Marc; Shea, Kimberly M.; Stevenson, Abbie; Finkelstein, Jonathan; Huang, Susan S.; Lee, Grace M.; Kleinman, Ken; Pelton, SI

    2011-01-01

    Defining the propensity of Streptoccocus pneumoniae (SP) serotypes to invade sterile body sites following nasopharyngeal (NP) acquisition has the potential to inform about how much invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) may occur in a typical population with a given distribution of carriage serotypes. Data from enhanced surveillance for IPD in Massachusetts children ≤7 years in 2003/04, 2006/07 and 2008/09 seasons and surveillance of SP NP carriage during the corresponding respiratory seasons in 16 Massachusetts communities in 2003/04 and 8 of the 16 communities in both 2006/07 and 2008/09 were used to compute a serotype specific “invasive capacity (IC)” by dividing the incidence of IPD due to serotype x by the carriage prevalence of that same serotype in children of the same age. A total of 206 IPD and 806 NP isolates of SP were collected during the study period. An approximate 50-fold variation in the point estimates between the serotypes having the highest (18C, 33F, 7F, 19A, 3 and 22F) and lowest (6C, 23A, 35F, 11A, 35B, 19F, 15A, and 15BC) IC was observed. Point estimates of IC for most of the common serotypes currently colonizing children in Massachusetts were low and likely explain the continued reduction in IPD from the pre-PCV era in the absence of specific protection against these serotypes. Invasive capacity differs among serotypes and as new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are introduced, ongoing surveillance will be essential to monitor whether serotypes with high invasive capacity emerge (e.g. 33F, 22F) as successful colonizers resulting in increased IPD incidence due to replacement serotypes. PMID:21029807

  7. Modern thermokarst lake dynamics in the continuous permafrost zone, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, G.; Arp, C.D.; Jones, M.C.; Walter, Anthony K.M.; Romanovsky, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying changes in thermokarst lake extent is of importance for understanding the permafrost-related carbon budget, including the potential release of carbon via lake expansion or sequestration as peat in drained lake basins. We used high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery from 1950/51, 1978, and 2006/07 to quantify changes in thermokarst lakes for a 700 km2 area on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The number of water bodies larger than 0.1 ha increased over the entire observation period (666 to 737 or +10.7%); however, total surface area decreased (5,066 ha to 4,312 ha or -14.9%). This pattern can largely be explained by the formation of remnant ponds following partial drainage of larger water bodies. Thus, analysis of large lakes (>40 ha) shows a decrease of 24% and 26% in number and area, respectively, differing from lake changes reported from other continuous permafrost regions. Thermokarst lake expansion rates did not change substantially between 1950/51 and 1978 (0.35 m/yr) and 1978 and 2006/07 (0.39 m/yr). However, most lakes that drained did expand as a result of surface permafrost degradation before lateral drainage. Drainage rates over the observation period were stable (2.2 to 2.3 per year). Thus, analysis of decadal-scale, high spatial resolution imagery has shown that lake drainage in this region is triggered by lateral breaching and not subterranean infiltration. Future research should be directed toward better understanding thermokarst lake dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution as these systems have implications for landscape-scale hydrology and carbon budgets in thermokarst lake-rich regions in the circum-Arctic.

  8. How much money is spent on vaccines across Western European countries?

    PubMed Central

    Ethgen, Olivier; Baron-Papillon, Florence; Cornier, Murielle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prevention programs, particularly vaccinations, remain highly vulnerable to budget cuts because their benefits may not be immediately identifiable. Seven Western European countries were selected (Germany, England, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Portugal) constituting a good mix of vaccine procurement modalities, with the objective to document the proportion of healthcare spending devoted to vaccines and its evolution. A data search was performed using the OECD online databases and official national sources from 2008 (2006 for England). No country spent more than 0.5% of its healthcare budget on vaccines. The proportion ranged from 0.25% in Spain (2012) and France (2013) to 0.47% in Germany (2014). Whereas healthcare spending increased in all countries but Spain (with increases ranging from +2.6% per year in France between 2008 and 2013 to +8.1% per year in England between 2006/07 and 2009/10), vaccine spending diminished markedly in Germany (−6.2% per year from 2008 to 2014), Spain (−6.7% per year from 2008 to 2012) and France (−4.2% per year from 2008 to 2013). Only Sweden (+5.9% per year from 2011 to 2013) and England (+18.9% per year from 2006/07 to 2009/10) increased their spending on vaccines. Vaccination involves relatively low levels of healthcare investment in Western Europe relative to the far-reaching public health benefits that it provides. We found a net trend toward a decrease in such spending in recent years, with the exception of Sweden and England. Vaccination budgets should be preserved or even increased to sustain a life-course approach to immunization with sufficient coverage rates. PMID:27224429

  9. Modern thermokarst lake dynamics in the continuous permafrost zone, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, M. C.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2011-06-01

    Quantifying changes in thermokarst lake extent is of importance for understanding the permafrost-related carbon budget, including the potential release of carbon via lake expansion or sequestration as peat in drained lake basins. We used high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery from 1950/51, 1978, and 2006/07 to quantify changes in thermokarst lakes for a 700 km2 area on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The number of water bodies larger than 0.1 ha increased over the entire observation period (666 to 737 or +10.7%); however, total surface area decreased (5,066 ha to 4,312 ha or -14.9%). This pattern can largely be explained by the formation of remnant ponds following partial drainage of larger water bodies. Thus, analysis of large lakes (>40 ha) shows a decrease of 24% and 26% in number and area, respectively, differing from lake changes reported from other continuous permafrost regions. Thermokarst lake expansion rates did not change substantially between 1950/51 and 1978 (0.35 m/yr) and 1978 and 2006/07 (0.39 m/yr). However, most lakes that drained did expand as a result of surface permafrost degradation before lateral drainage. Drainage rates over the observation period were stable (2.2 to 2.3 per year). Thus, analysis of decadal-scale, high spatial resolution imagery has shown that lake drainage in this region is triggered by lateral breaching and not subterranean infiltration. Future research should be directed toward better understanding thermokarst lake dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution as these systems have implications for landscape-scale hydrology and carbon budgets in thermokarst lake-rich regions in the circum-Arctic.

  10. Characteristics of atmospheric Kelvin waves during warm and cold ENSO phases observed with GPS RO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Ladstädter, Florian; Steiner, Andrea; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2015-04-01

    Inter-annual variability in the Earth's troposphere at low and middle latitudes is dominated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. While ENSO emerges from an atmosphere-ocean interaction in the tropical Pacific, it has a significant impact on global weather and climate. Atmospheric wave dynamics plays a crucial role in this context. However, current understanding of this wave dynamics is mostly based on climate model output and reanalysis data. We use observational data from Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) measurements to investigate characteristics of atmospheric Kelvin waves during warm and cold ENSO phases. Due to their high accuracy and vertical resolution, RO data provide reliable and valuable information on wave-induced temperature oscillations with short vertical wavelengths of a few kilometers. After the launch of the six micro-satellites of the Formosat-3/COSMIC mission in April 2006, the number of RO measurements per day increased significantly compared to earlier time periods. With an appropriate binning strategy, the sampling is therefore sufficiently dense from mid-2006 onwards in order to capture the main characteristics of large-scale atmospheric waves. Frequencies and wavelengths of atmospheric Kelvin waves are extracted from space-time spectral analysis for overlapping 60-day time series centered on each month. In this study we focus on the northern hemisphere winter season DJF (December, January, February) using data from DJF 2006/07 to DJF 2011/12. Comparative results are presented for warm ENSO phases, which occurred in DJF 2006/07 and DJF 2009/10, and for cold ENSO phases in DJF 2007/08, DJF 2010/11, and DJF 2011/12.

  11. Determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of the geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E.; Kaiser, G.

    2003-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites at the Kourovka Astronomical Observatory. The calculated corrections Delta C_{22} and Delta S_{22} for the geopotential model JGM-3 are equal to Delta C_{22}=(-2.6 ± 1.4) * 10(-10) , Delta S_{22}=(-3.1 ± 0.9) * 10(-10) . From ads Wed Jan 12 06:25:03 2005 Return-Path: Received: (from ads@localhost) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) id j0CBP3DC007102; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:25:03 -0500 (EST) Received: from cfa.harvard.edu (cfa.harvard.edu [131.142.10.1]) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) with ESMTP id j0CBOeKD007030 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:41 -0500 (EST) Received: from uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (mao.gluk.org [194.183.183.193]) by cfa.harvard.edu (8.12.9-20030924/8.12.9/cfunix Mast-Sol 1.0) with ESMTP id j0CBOXgu026863 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:35 -0500 (EST) Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (root@maoling.mao.kiev.ua [194.44.216.101]) by uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (8.11.6/8.11.6) with ESMTP id j0CBOVv08377 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:31 +0200 Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (gallaz@localhost [127.0.0.1]) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) with ESMTP id j0CBOTPb014668 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Received: (from gallaz@localhost) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) id j0CBOTgq014666 for ads@cfa.harvard.edu; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Date: Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 From: "Galina A. Lazorenko" Message-Id: <200501121124.j0CBOTgq014666@maoling.mao.kiev.ua> To: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Virus-Scanned: ClamAV 0.80/650/Mon Jan 3 05:00:02 2005 clamav-milter version 0.80j on maoling.mao.kiev.ua X-Virus-Status: Clean X-Loop: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Loop: ads@head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Checker-Version: SpamAssassin 2.64 (2004-01-11) on head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Level: * X

  12. Gravitational lensing by globular clusters and dwarf galaxies-- the explanation of quasar-galaxy associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, A.; Kim, C.; Sergeev, A.

    2003-04-01

    Quasar-galaxy associations can be explained as gravitational lensing by globular clusters, located in the halos of the foreground galaxies and dwarf galaxies in small groups of galaxies. We propose an observational test for checking this hypothesis. We used the SUPERCOSMOS sky survey to find the overdensities of star-like sources with zero proper motions in the vicinities of the~foreground galaxies from the CfA3 catalog. The results obtained for 19413 galaxies are presented. We show the results of calculations of number densities of star-like sources with zero proper motions in the vicinity of 19413 galaxies. Two different effects can explain the observational data: lensing by globular clusters and lensing by dwarf galaxies. We carried out the CCD 3-color photometry with the 2.0-m telescope of the~Terskol Observatory and the 1.8-m telescope of the Bohyunsan Observatory (South Korea) to select extremely lensed objects around several galaxies for future spectroscopic observations. From ads Wed Jan 12 06:25:17 2005 Return-Path: Received: (from ads@localhost) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) id j0CBPHjt007159; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:25:17 -0500 (EST) Received: from cfa.harvard.edu (cfa.harvard.edu [131.142.10.1]) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) with ESMTP id j0CBOuKD007095 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:56 -0500 (EST) Received: from uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (mao.gluk.org [194.183.183.193]) by cfa.harvard.edu (8.12.9-20030924/8.12.9/cfunix Mast-Sol 1.0) with ESMTP id j0CBOgRv026875 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:51 -0500 (EST) Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (root@maoling.mao.kiev.ua [194.44.216.101]) by uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (8.11.6/8.11.6) with ESMTP id j0CBOdv08381 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:39 +0200 Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (gallaz@localhost [127.0.0.1]) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) with ESMTP id j0CBObPb014682 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:37 +0200 Received: (from gallaz

  13. Fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing concepts: An adaptation for the Komati Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, Enoch M.; Dhlamini, Sidney; Mthimkhulu, Sindy

    This paper presents an adaptation of fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing (FWARCS) concepts for application in the Komati Basin, a river system shared between South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. Many traditional methods for allocating water are based on volume-per-unit-time allocation that is supplied at some level of assurance and managed using priority-based reservoir and river system operating rules, as well as on the “use it or lose it” principle, which is considered exclusive by water users as it leaves them out of the management of their water allocations. In the Komati Basin, these traditional methods of water allocation led to frequent conflicts among users and with water managers. However, the introduction of the modified FWARCS, which assigns available water in the system to water users according to the proportions of their water entitlements and allows water to be banked in reservoirs, appears to be a solution to some of these problems. This method allows water users to decide when and how much of that entitlement they may use. Since the implementation of the modified FWARCS technique in the Komati Basin in 2002, the regulation, transparency and efficiency of operating the system improved and subsequently the number of disputes over water has declined. South Africa improved from an overuse of 8.2 Mm 3 in 2002/03 water year to realize a saving of 29.5 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Similarly, Swaziland improved from an overuse of 3.9 Mm 3 in 2002/03 to achieve a saving of 14.6 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Users have recognised and embraced the transparency and flexibility of the modified FWARCS. They choose, as the need and opportunity arise, when and how much water they utilise, whether to “bank” and/or “trade” the water they save subject to the conditions of their entitlements. The implementation of the modified FWARCS was also made successful by the existence of proper institutional structures, appropriate decision support tools, good water

  14. Bank erosion of navigation canals in the western and central Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Wilson, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Erosion of navigation canal banks is a direct cause of land loss, but there has been little quantitative analysis to determine why certain major canals exhibit faster widening rates (indicative of erosion) than others in the coastal zones of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. We hypothesize that navigation canals exhibit varying rates of erosion based on soil properties of the embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region (derived from digital versions of state geologic maps), and the presence or absence of canal bank armaments (that is, rock rip-rap, concrete bulkheads, or other shoreline protection structures). The first objective of this project was to map the shoreline position and substrate along both banks of the navigation canals, which were digitized from 3 different time periods of aerial photography spanning the years of 1978/79 to 2005/06. The second objective was to quantify the erosion rates of the navigation canals in the study area and to determine whether differences in erosion rates are related to embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region, or soil type. To measure changes in shoreline position over time, transects spaced at 50-m (164-ft) intervals were intersected with shorelines from all three time periods, and an annual rate of change was calculated for each transect. Mean annual rates of shoreline change ranged from 1.75 m/year (5.74 ft/year) on the west side of the Atchafalaya River, La., where there was shoreline advancement or canal narrowing, to -3.29 m/year (-10.79 ft/year) on the south side of the Theodore Ship Channel, Ala., where there was shoreline retreat or erosion. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in shoreline retreat rates according to geologic region and marsh vegetation type, and a weak relationship with soil organic content. This information can be used to better estimate future land loss rates associated with navigation canals and to prioritize the location of

  15. Distribution pattern of phthirapterans infesting certain common Indian birds.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A K; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Nidhi; Mitra, J D; Ali, S A; Srivastava, Roshni

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence and frequency distribution patterns of 10 phthirapteran species infesting house sparrows, Indian parakeets, common mynas, and white breasted kingfishers were recorded in the district of Rampur, India, during 2004-05. The sample mean abundances, mean intensities, range of infestations, variance to mean ratios, values of the exponent of the negative binomial distribution, and the indices of discrepancy were also computed. Frequency distribution patterns of all phthirapteran species were skewed, but the observed frequencies did not correspond to the negative binomial distribution. Thus, adult-nymph ratios varied in different species from 1:0.53 to 1:1.25. Sex ratios of different phthirapteran species ranged from 1:1.10 to 1:1.65 and were female biased. PMID:17918388

  16. Data on Mercury in Water, Bed Sediment, and Fish from Streams Across the United States, 1998-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Chasar, Lia C.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Moran, Patrick W.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Wentz, Dennis A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) and Toxic Substances Hydrology Programs conducted the National Mercury Pilot Study in 1998 to examine relations of mercury (Hg) in water, bed sediment and fish in streams across the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and other constituents; fish were analyzed for THg. Similar sampling was conducted at additional streams across the country in 2002 and 2004-05. This report summarizes sample collection and processing protocols, analytical methods, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for stream water, bed sediment, and fish for these national studies. To extend the geographic coverage of the data, this report also includes four regional USGS Hg studies conducted during 1998-2001 and 2004. The environmental data for these national and regional Hg studies are provided in an electronic format.

  17. Draft genome sequences of two Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates harboring plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Antony T; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Melanie V; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a widespread fish disease causing important economic losses to the fish farming industry. Antibiotic treatments in fish farms may be challenging given the existence of multidrug-resistant isolates of this bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the 2004-05MF26 and 2009-144K3 isolates, which harbor plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance. Both isolates also carry the large plasmid pAsa5, which is known to encode a type three secretion system (TTSS) and the pAsal1 plasmid which has the aopP gene producing a TTSS effector. These two isolates are good representatives of the plasmid diversity in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:25724776

  18. Reproductive health financing in Kenya: an analysis of national commitments, donor assistance, and the resources tracking process.

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Pradhan, Jalandhar; Beekink, Erik; Maina, Thomas M; Maina, Beatrice W

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the flow of resources at the country level to reproductive health is essential for effective financing of this key component of health. This paper gives a comprehensive picture of the allocation of resources for reproductive health in Kenya and the challenges faced in the resource-tracking process. Data are drawn from Kenyan budget estimates, reproductive health accounts, and the Resource Flows Project database and compare budgets and spending in 2005-06 with 2009-10. Despite policies and programmes in place since 1994, services for family planning, maternity care and infant and child health face serious challenges. As regards health financing, the government spends less than the average in sub-Saharan Africa, while donor assistance and out-of-pocket expenditure for health are high. Donor assistance to Kenya has increased over the years, but the percentage of funds devoted to reproductive health is lower than it was in 2005. We recommend an increase in the budget and spending for reproductive health in order to achieve MDG targets on maternal mortality and universal access to reproductive health in Kenya. Safety nets for the poor are also needed to reduce the burden of spending by households. Lastly, we recommend the generation of more comprehensive reproductive health accounts on a regular basis. PMID:24315070

  19. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  20. Density currents in the Chicago River: characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P Ryan; García, Carlos M; Oberg, Kevin A; Johnson, Kevin K; García, Marcelo H

    2008-08-15

    Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common. PMID:18499229

  1. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results. PMID:26568665

  2. Hydraulic performance of a permeable reactive barrier at Casey Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mumford, K A; Rayner, J L; Snape, I; Stevens, G W

    2014-12-01

    A permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed at Casey Station, Antarctica in 2005/06 to intercept, capture and degrade petroleum hydrocarbons from a decade old fuel spill. A funnel and gate configuration was selected and implemented. The reactive gate was split into five separate cells to enable the testing of five different treatment combinations. Although different treatment materials were used in each cell, each treatment combination contained the following reactive zones: a zone for the controlled release of nutrients to enhance degradation, a zone for hydrocarbon capture and enhanced degradation, and a zone to capture excess nutrients. The materials selected for each of these zones had other requirements, these included; not having any adverse impact on the environment, being permeable enough to capture the entire catchment flow, and having sufficient residence time to fully capture migrating hydrocarbons. Over a five year period the performance of the PRB was extensively monitored and evaluated for nutrient concentration, fuel retention and permeability. At the end of the five year test period the material located within the reactive gate was excavated, total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations present on the material determined and particle size analysis conducted. This work found that although maintaining media reactivity is obviously important, the most critical aspect of PRB performance is preserving the permeability of the barrier itself, in this case by maintaining appropriate particle size distribution. This is particularly important when PRBs are installed in regions that are subject to freeze thaw processes that may result in particle disintegration over time. PMID:25078614

  3. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    PubMed

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. PMID:25157803

  4. Examining inter-generational differentials in maternal health care service utilization: insights from the Indian Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the association between age cohort and utilization of maternal health care services in India, before and after adjusting for individual, household and contextual factors. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06, women were classified into three distinct age cohorts based on their age at childbirth: 15-24, 25-34 and 35-49 years. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the influence of women's age cohort on receiving full antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendance (SBA). The analytical sample included the women who delivered their most recent birth at any time in the 5 years preceding the survey. Women belonging to the younger age cohort were found to be disadvantaged in receiving full ANC, whereas increasing age of women was negatively associated with receiving SBA. Low level of education, low mass media exposure, low autonomy, belonging to deprived social groups, poor economic status and residence in the central region were found to be major constraining factors in receiving full ANC and SBA for women in India. The findings support the need for 'age-sensitive' interventions that tailor programmes and incentives to women's health care needs through the reproductive life-stage. Urgent efforts are needed to ensure that women who are illiterate and those belonging to low autonomy and low socioeconomic groups receive the recommended maternal health care benefits. PMID:23866261

  5. A validity assessment of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™.

    PubMed

    Desiere, Sam; Vellema, Wytse; D'Haese, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Development organisations need easy-to-use and quick-to-implement indicators to quantify poverty when requested to measure program impact. In this paper we assess the validity of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™, a country-specific indicator based on ten closed questions on directly observable household characteristics, by its compliance to the SMART criteria. Each response receives a pre-determined score, such that the sum of these scores can be converted into the likelihood the household is living below the poverty line. We focus on the PPI scorecard for Rwanda, which was validated using two national household surveys conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11. The PPI is Specific, Measurable, Available cost effectively, and Timely available. Yet, its Relevance depends on the way it is used. Although it accurately distinguishes poor from non-poor households, making it a useful reporting tool, its limited sensitivity to changes in poverty status restricts its usefulness for evaluating the impact of development projects. PMID:25462937

  6. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  7. Impact of forage clipping treatments on performance of winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, S A; Ullah, H; Mohammad, F; Khalil, I H; Alam, M; Shahwar, D; Malik, M F A; Jamal, Y

    2013-01-01

    Farmers in northern parts of Pakistan face severe shortage of green forage for their livestock during the harsh winter season. Winter wheat has the potential to be used as a dual-purpose crop for forage plus grain production in these areas. Ten elite winter wheat lines from Oklahoma State University were evaluated at Hazara Research Station Abbottabad under unclipped and clipped treatment level during 2005-06. The material was planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications, with a row length of four meters and a row to row space of 25 cm. Data were recorded on green forage yield, plant height, spike length, spikelets/spike, days to maturity, spike weight, biological weight, and grain yield. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among genotypes for all traits except spike length. Similarly all traits except spikelets/spike exhibited significant differences between unclipped and clipped treatment levels. Genotype x clipping interaction was non-significant for all traits except grain yield. Overall, winter wheat lines OK98G508W and OK00611W performed better for important traits such as early maturity, biological yield and grain yield, although over-environment testing is needed before recommendations can be made to the farmers. PMID:24301789

  8. Assessing the utilization of maternal and child health care among married adolescent women: evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lucky; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of maternal and child health care services among married adolescent women in India using the third round of the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The findings suggest that the utilization of maternal and child health care services among adolescent women is far from satisfactory in India. A little over 10% of adolescent women utilized antenatal care, about 50% utilized safe delivery services and about 41% of the children of adolescent women received full immunization. Large differences by urban-rural residence, educational attainment, religion, economic status and region were evident. Both gross effect and fixed effect binary logit models yielded statistically significant socioeconomic and demographic factors. Women's education, wealth quintile and region are the most important determinants for the utilization of maternal and child health care services. Health care programmes should focus more on educating adolescents, providing financial support, creating awareness and counselling households with married adolescent women. Moreover, there should be substantial financial assistance for the provision of delivery and child care for married women below the age of 19 years. PMID:21933465

  9. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai‘i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. PMID:20414477

  10. Influenza Activity - United States, 2015-16 Season and Composition of the 2016-17 Influenza Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Davlin, Stacy L; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Mustaquim, Desiree; Smith, Sophie; Kramer, Natalie; Cohen, Jessica; Cummings, Charisse Nitura; Garg, Shikha; Flannery, Brendan; Fry, Alicia M; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Bresee, Joseph; Wallis, Teresa; Sessions, Wendy; Garten, Rebecca; Xu, Xiyan; Elal, Anwar Isa Abd; Gubareva, Larisa; Barnes, John; Wentworth, David E; Burns, Erin; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel; Brammer, Lynnette

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015-16 influenza season (October 4, 2015-May 21, 2016) in the United States, influenza activity* was lower and peaked later compared with the previous three seasons (2012-13, 2013-14, and 2014-15). Activity remained low from October 2015 until late December 2015 and peaked in mid-March 2016. During the most recent 18 influenza seasons (including this season), only two other seasons have peaked in March (2011-12 and 2005-06). Overall influenza activity was moderate this season, with a lower percentage of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI),(†) lower hospitalization rates, and a lower percentage of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) compared with the preceding three seasons. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated overall, but influenza A(H3N2) viruses were more commonly identified from October to early December, and influenza B viruses were more commonly identified from mid-April through mid-May. The majority of viruses characterized this season were antigenically similar to the reference viruses representing the recommended components of the 2015-16 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine (1). This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2015-16 influenza season (October 4, 2015-May 21, 2016)(§) and reports the vaccine virus components recommended for the 2016-17 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccines. PMID:27281364

  11. Supporting the Temporal Dimension in Geospatial Information Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, S.; Ressler, J.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005-06, a study on temporal geospatial standards and technology was undertaken by the National Technology Alliance. The project, called Temporal Evaluation and Assessment, examined challenges in accessing, processing, analyzing and visualizing temporal characteristics of geospatial data. Service oriented architecture principles were applied in developing prototype web services based on web standards, including specifications from the Open Geospatial Consortium. The prototypes were tested through a series of demonstrations. Questions addressed included detection , data modeling and depiction of change in features over time, both static and moving; collection and reporting sensor observations; use of web services with temporal interfaces; application of the Geography Markup Language (GML) to temporal features; comparison of imagery changes over time; search and retrieval of spatiotemporal data from multiple sources. Some of the key results from these demonstrations were in the areas of spatiotemporal data modeling, multi- source analysis of temporal images, features, moving features and sensor time-value data, exchange formats and workflow for feature updates, the use of catalogs to search and retrieve spatiotemporal data sources. The recommendations from the temporal evaluation were provided to standards organizations and technology developers. This paper describes the results of the research, the state of standards and technology, and future recommendations for using spatiotemporal data in a service oriented architecture.

  12. A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yasmeen Majid; Khan, Asmat

    2012-09-01

    The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the nonagricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.

  13. The Annual Glaciohydrology Cycle in the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Part 2. Observed and Modeled Ice Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgan, William Terence; Rajaram, Harihar; Anderson, Robert S.; Steffen, Konrad; Zwally, H. Jay; Phillips, Thomas; Abdalati, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    Ice velocities observed in 2005/06 at three GPS stations along the Sermeq Avannarleq flowline, West Greenland, are used to characterize an observed annual velocity cycle. We attempt to reproduce this annual ice velocity cycle using a 1-D ice-flow model with longitudinal stresses coupled to a 1-D hydrology model that governs an empirical basal sliding rule. Seasonal basal sliding velocity is parameterized as a perturbation of prescribed winter sliding velocity that is proportional to the rate of change of glacier water storage. The coupled model reproduces the broad features of the annual basal sliding cycle observed along this flowline, namely a summer speed-up event followed by a fall slowdown event. We also evaluate the hypothesis that the observed annual velocity cycle is due to the annual calving cycle at the terminus. We demonstrate that the ice acceleration due to a catastrophic calving event takes an order of magnitude longer to reach CU/ETH ('Swiss') Camp (46km upstream of the terminus) than is observed. The seasonal acceleration observed at Swiss Camp is therefore unlikely to be the result of velocity perturbations propagated upstream via longitudinal coupling. Instead we interpret this velocity cycle to reflect the local history of glacier water balance.

  14. Marriage and parenthood in relation to obesogenic neighborhood trajectories: The CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Howard, Annie Green; Meyer, Katie; Lewis, Cora E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Laroche, Helena H; Gunderson, Erica P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-07-01

    Marriage and parenthood are associated with weight gain and residential mobility. Little is known about how obesity-relevant environmental contexts differ according to family structure. We estimated trajectories of neighborhood poverty, population density, and density of fast food restaurants, supermarkets, and commercial and public physical activity facilities for adults from a biracial cohort (CARDIA, n=4,174, aged 25-50) over 13 years (1992-93 through 2005-06) using latent growth curve analysis. We estimated associations of marriage, parenthood, and race with the observed neighborhood trajectories. Married participants tended to live in neighborhoods with lower poverty, population density, and availability of all types of food and physical activity amenities. Parenthood was similarly but less consistently related to neighborhood characteristics. Marriage and parenthood were more strongly related to neighborhood trajectories in whites (versus blacks), who, in prior studies, exhibit weaker associations between neighborhood characteristics and health. Greater understanding of how interactive family and neighborhood environments contribute to healthy living is needed. PMID:26093081

  15. Turning points in nonlinear business cycle theories, financial crisis and the 2007-2008 downturn.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Ragiv G

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews three nonlinear dynamical business cycle theories of which only one (The Goodwin model) reflects the stylized facts of observed business cycles and has a plausible turning point mechanism. The paper then examines the US (and now global) financial crisis of 2008 and the accompanying downturn in the US. The paper argues that a skewed income distribution could not sustain effective demand and that over the 2001-2006 expansion demand was maintained through massive amounts of credit, with more than 50 percent of sales in the US being maintained through credit. A vector autoregression model confirms the crucial role played by credit. However legislative changes that dismantled the restrictions placed on the financial sector after the crash of 1929 and the consequent structural changes in the financial sector after 1980 enabled the growth of new debt instruments and credit. But overexpansion of credit when profits and house prices were declining in 2005/06 led to a nonlinear shift due to a new realization of the poor quality of some of this debt, namely mortgage backed securities. Bankruptcies, followed by retrenchment at the banks, then led to the bursting of the credit bubble, with the possibility of a severe recession. PMID:19781138

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CRUSTAL MAGMA BODY IN THE 2005-2006 ERUPTION AREA AT 9°50'N ON THE EAST PACIFIC RISE FROM 3D MULTI-CHANNEL SEISMIC DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Canales, J.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Aghaei, O.; Xu, M.; Han, S.; Stowe, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2008 a large 3D multi-channel seismic dataset (expedition MGL0812) was collected over the 9°50’N Integrated Study Site at the East Pacific Rise, providing insight into the architecture of the magmatic system and its relationship with hydrothermal activity and volcanic/dyking events associated with the 2005-06 eruption. The main area of 3D coverage is located between 9°42’N and 9°57’N, spanning ~28km along-axis, and was acquired along 94 (1 partial) prime lines shot across-axis and each ~24km-long. Pre-processing of the data acquired in this area is now well under way, with significant efforts targeted at amplitude spike removal. Current work focuses on setting up the 3D processing sequence up to the stack stage for a small group of inlines (axis-perpendicular grid lines spaced 37.5m apart) located over the “bull’s eye” site at 9°50’N, a sequence that will subsequently be applied to the whole dataset. At the meeting we will present stacked and migrated sections - inlines, crosslines, time slices - obtained through 3D processing. We will discuss results focusing on the characteristics of the axial magma body, whose detailed structure and along-axis segmentation will be resolved by the 3D data.

  17. Human rights approach to maternal & child health: Has India fared well?

    PubMed Central

    Ram, F.; Singh, Abhishek; Ram, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: The objectives of the study were to examine: right to access maternal health; right to access child health; and right to access improved water and sanitation in India. Methods: We used large-scale data sets like District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007-08 and National Family Health Surveys conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 to fulfil the objectives. The selection of the indicator variables was guided by the Human Rights’ Framework for Health and Convention of the Rights of the Child- Articles 7, 24 and 27. We used univariate and bivariate analysis along with ratio of access among non-poor to access among poor to fulfil the objectives. Results: Evidence clearly suggested gross violation of human rights starting from the birth of an individual. Even after 60 years of independence, significant proportions of women and children do not have access to basic services like improved drinking water and sanitation. Interpretation & conclusions: There were enormous socio-economic and residence related inequalities in maternal and child health indicators included in the study. These inequalities were mostly to the disadvantage of the poor. The fulfilment of the basic human rights of women and children is likely to pay dividends in many other domains related to overall population and health in India. PMID:23703339

  18. Secular trends in plume composition of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilanko, Tehnuka; Oppenheimer, Clive; Kyle, Philip; Burgisser, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Long-lived active lava lakes, such as that in the summit crater of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, provide a rare insight into sustained magma convection and degassing over long timescales. Erebus lava lake has been persistently active since 1972, and potentially for several decades or more previously (Ross, 1847). Since the 1970s, regular scientific expeditions, lasting a few weeks in the austral summers, have made observations of the lake activity. Annual Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic gas measurements began in 2004 (Oppenheimer and Kyle, 2008; Oppenheimer et al., 2009), yielding an extensive, if discontinuous, time series of infrared absorption spectra. These data, once processed, provide insights into temporal evolution of the gas geochemistry in terms of seven molecular species: H2O, CO2, CO, SO2, HCl, HF, and OCS. FTIR spectroscopic data are now available over ten field seasons, totalling roughly 1.8 million spectra and increasing each year. This period spans changes to crater morphology, fluctuations in lava lake surface area (Jones et al., 2014), and two episodes of increased explosive activity (2005-06 and 2013). The dataset captures both long-term degassing trends and short-lived features, such as cyclicity in gas emissions during passive degassing (Ilanko et al., 2015) and compositions released by explosive bubble-burst eruptions. We consider the longer-term changes to gas ratios occurring within (i.e. over days to weeks) and between annual field seasons, their potential causes, and their relationship to observations of eruptive behaviour and crater morphology.

  19. Volcanology and eruptive styles of Barren Island: an active mafic stratovolcano in the Andaman Sea, NE Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Kumar, Alok; Smitha, R. S.

    2009-11-01

    Barren Island (India) is a relatively little studied, little known active volcano in the Andaman Sea, and the northernmost active volcano of the great Indonesian arc. The volcano is built of prehistoric (possibly late Pleistocene) lava flows (dominantly basalt and basaltic andesite, with minor andesite) intercalated with volcaniclastic deposits (tuff breccias, and ash beds deposited by pyroclastic falls and surges), which are exposed along a roughly circular caldera wall. There are indications of a complete phreatomagmatic tephra ring around the exposed base of the volcano. A polygenetic cinder cone has existed at the centre of the caldera and produced basalt-basaltic andesite aa and blocky aa lava flows, as well as tephra, during historic eruptions (1787-1832) and three recent eruptions (1991, 1994-95, 2005-06). The recent aa flows include a toothpaste aa flow, with tilted and overturned crustal slabs carried atop an aa core, as well as locally developed tumuli-like elliptical uplifts having corrugated crusts. Based on various evidence we infer that it belongs to either the 1991 or the 1994-95 eruptions. The volcano has recently (2008) begun yet another eruption, so far only of tephra. We make significantly different interpretations of several features of the volcano than previous workers. This study of the volcanology and eruptive styles of the Barren Island volcano lays the ground for detailed geochemical-isotopic and petrogenetic work, and provides clues to what the volcano can be expected to do in the future.

  20. Cryogenic infrared spectrometers and telescopes for the atmosphere: new frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullmann, Andreas; Riese, Martin; Olschewski, Friedhelm; Stroh, Fred; Grossmann, Klaus-Ulrich

    2004-11-01

    The new airborne CRyogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere experiment (CRISTA-New Frontiers) succeeds the CRISTA satellite instrument operated twice during NASA space shuttle flights in November 1994 (STS 66) and August 1997 (STS 85). The first mission of the instrument will take place aboard the high altitude research aircraft M55-Geophysica in a campaign in the tropics in 2005/06. CRISTA-NF is a limb-scanning instrument measuring thermal emissions of various atmospheric trace gases (e.g. water vapor, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons), clouds and aerosols in the mid-infrared spectral region. The incoming radiation entering the optics through a Herschel telescope is analyzed by two Ebert-Fastie grating spectrometers with moderate spectral resolution and finally registered by cryogenic semiconductor-detectors. The optical system is integrated into a compact cryostat which reaches temperatures down to 10K by cooling with supercritical helium. This allows fast measurements and provides good signal-to-noise ratio. A narrow vertical field of view (200m) results in high vertical resolution which is neccessary for the analysis of small scale dynamic processes especially in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This paper gives a scientific motivation, some remarks on the measurement technique and an overview of instrument design and technology.

  1. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). PMID:26610567

  2. EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS ON MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICE USE IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess empirically the influence of individual and community (neighbourhood) factors on the use of maternal health care services in India through three outcomes: utilization of full antenatal care (ANC) services, safe delivery and utilization of postnatal care services. Data were from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The study sample constituted ever-married women aged 15-49 from 29 Indian states. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed for the three outcomes of interest accounting for individual- and community-level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. A substantial amount of variation was observed at the community level. About 45%, 51% and 62% of the total variance in the use of full ANC, safe delivery and postnatal care, respectively, could be attributed to differences across the community. There was significant variation in the use of maternal health care services at the individual level, with socioeconomic status and mother's education being the most prominent factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. At the community level, urban residence and poverty concentration were found to be significantly associated with maternal health care service use. The results suggest that an increased focus on community-level interventions could lead to an increase in the utilization of maternal health care services in India. PMID:25741587

  3. Household Headship and Infant Mortality in India: Evaluating the Determinants and Differentials

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Borkotoky, M Kakoli; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been ample discussion on the levels and trends of infant mortality in India over time, but what remains less explored are, the differentials in infant mortality according to household headship. This paper examined the differences in the determinants of infant mortality between male-headed households (MHH) and female-headed households (FHH). Methods: The study used Cox proportional hazard model to examine the determinants of infant death, and Kaplan-Meier estimation technique to examine the survival pattern during infancy using data from Indian National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The analysis is restricted to women who had at least one live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Results: The study observed that household size and number of children below five are significant risk factors of infant mortality in MHH while length of previous birth interval is the only significant risk factor of infant death in FHH. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The results indicate that children from FHH have higher survival probability at each age than children from MHH irrespective of place of residence and sex of the child.

  4. 2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

  5. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). PMID:26610567

  6. Faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jeff; Shachar, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    This research study investigated the relationship between faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership and the effects of moderating demographic and institutional characteristics. Data for this study were collected utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X and the self-designed Demographic and Institution Questionnaire. The study working sample included 184 graduate occupational therapy faculty members from 98 (65%) of all accredited academic occupational therapy programs in the United States for the 2005-06 academic year. Major findings from the study indicate that, in general, transformational leadership had a significant (p < 0.001) positive predictive relationship with the leadership outcomes whereas transactional leadership had a significant (p < 0.001) negative predictive relationship. The contingent reward leadership attribute (although belonging to the transactional leadership construct) was found to be a positive predictor of leadership outcomes. Demographic and institutional characteristics did not have a significant (p > 0.01) influence on perceived leadership styles and leadership outcomes. The results of this research show that the most effective occupational therapy leaders in academia have been found to be those who adopt and utilize a full range of leadership styles that combine both transformational and transactional contingent reward leadership styles and suggest common effectiveness for other allied health fields. PMID:19157052

  7. Density currents in the Chicago River: Characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P.R.; Garcia, C.M.; Oberg, K.A.; Johnson, K.K.; Garcia, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.

  8. Emergent interfacility evacuation of critical care patients in combat.

    PubMed

    Franco, Yvonne E; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Salyer, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    During the Second Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom), high-intensity, low-utilization medical and surgical services, such as neurosurgical care, were consolidated into a centralized location within the combat zone. This arrangement necessitated intra-theater air medical evacuation of critically ill or injured patients from outlying combat support hospitals (CSH) to another combat zone facility having the needed services. A case series is presented of intratheater transfer of neurosurgical patients in Iraq during 2005-06. Ninety-eight patients are included in the series, with typical transfer distances of 40 miles (approximately 20-25 minutes of flight time). All patients were transported with a CSH nurse in addition to the standard Army EMT-B flight medic. Seventy-six percent of cases were battle injury, 17% were non-battle injuries, and the balance were classified as non-injury mechanisms. Seventy-six percent of cases were head injuries, with the balance involving burns, stroke, and other injuries. At 30 days, 12% of the patients had died, and 9% remained hospitalized in a critical care setting. None of the patients died during evacuation. Intratheater and interfacility transfer of critical care patients in the combat theater often involves severely head-injured and other neurosurgical cases. Current Army staffing for helicopter transport in these case requires a nurse or other advanced personnel to supplement the standard EMT-B flight medic. PMID:22748416

  9. Physical functioning among mid-life women: associations with trajectory of depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, MaryFran R; Harlow, Sioban; Jannausch, Mary; Zheng, Huiyong; Bromberger, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    During midlife, physical functioning limitations emerge and depressive symptoms are highly prevalent. We examined the relationship between physical functioning and depressive symptoms in the Michigan Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) cohort of midlife women (n=377). Seven performance-based physical functioning measures quantifying strength, balance, coordination, flexibility and range of motion and perceived physical functioning, assessed with the SF-36 physical functioning sub-score, were included. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) identified concurrent depressive symptom trajectory from 2000/01 through 2005/06 and history of depressive symptoms from 1996/7 through 1999/00. Longitudinal mixed-effects regression modeling was used to evaluate relationships. Median age of participants was 50 years. As age increased, higher CES-D scores were associated with performance-based functions including slower timed walk sit-to-stand, and stair climb after adjusting for five-year history of depressive symptoms and relevant covariates. As age increased, those with higher CES-D scores were more likely to have perceived limitations in physical functioning, though the association was weak. History of depressive symptoms was not significant in any model. These findings suggest that higher concurrent depressive symptoms are modestly associated with slower movement and a perception of poorer functioning. In contrast, history of depressive symptoms played little or no role in current physical functioning of mid-life women. When evaluating physical function, women's current mental health status should be considered. PMID:20692082

  10. Urban and Rural Differences in Sedentary Behavior among American and Canadian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Valerie; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2011-01-01

    We examined relationships between urban-rural status and three screen time behaviors (television, computer, video games), and the potential mediating effect of parent and peer support on these relationships. Findings are based on American (n=8563) and Canadian (n=8990) youth in grades 6–10 from the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey. Weekly hours of individual screen time behaviors were calculated. Urban-rural status was defined using the Beale coding system. Parent and peer support variables were derived from principal component analysis. In comparison to the referent group (non-metro adjacent), American youth in the most rural areas were more likely to be high television users and less likely to be high computer users. Conversely, Canadian youth in medium and large metropolitan areas were less likely to be high television users and more likely to be high computer users. Parent and peer support did not strongly mediate the relationships between urban-rural status and screen time. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to reduce screen time may be most effective if they consider residential location and the specific screen time behavior. PMID:21565545

  11. Grouper spawning aggregations: Be careful what you measure and how you measure it: A rebuttal of Golbuu and Friedlander (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Patrick L.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Donaldson, Terry J.

    2013-05-01

    Golbuu and Friedlander (2011, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 92:223) used faulty methods, improper interpretation of historical data, and assumptions of little or no validity to conclude that despite protected status spawning aggregations of three groupers in Palau, western Caroline Islands declined between 1995-96 and 2005-06. Alternate survey methods indicated no drastic declines in these aggregations over the same period. Golbuu and Friedlander (2011) failed to document the overall distribution of fishes in their aggregations, used poorly-located inadequate transects to sample the overall aggregation area, and did not identify and sample peak aggregations days. The use of visual length estimates as the basis for biomass values may introduce errors. Comparison of aggregation persistence between reference ("fished out") and protected sites is not possible because equivalent protected and exploited sites are not available. Different species at multi-species spawning aggregation sites commonly occupy somewhat discrete locations, with the densest concentrations (core areas) of one often being separated from those for another. There is usually a single peak day each month of a lunar-based aggregation, but it requires multiple days data collection to determine that peak. The shortcomings identified provide important lessons for the study of fish spawning aggregations and signal caution about the incomplete documentation of sampling methodology. Overly simplistic aggregation sampling methodologies may be superficially credible, but are not reflective of a complicated reality. Monitoring needs to produce a definitive repeatable baseline against which data can be gathered authoritatively in the future.

  12. [Time trends in sex differences in adolescents' health behaviour from 2001 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Bucksch, J; Finne, E; Glücks, S; Kolip, P

    2012-07-01

    Health behaviours are influenced by gender-specific conceptions and norms of the society. These conceptions and norms are changing over time. The aim of this analysis is to describe gender differences in health behaviour of adolescents and to interpret these gender differences in terms of theories of social construction.We used the national German data of the Health-Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) studies conducted in the years 2001/02, 2005/06 und 2009/10 with respect to the following health behaviours: tobacco use, binge drinking, diet, fruit and vegetable consumption, daily breakfast and physical activity. We describe the difference in frequencies between girls and boys and used a series of logistic regressions to test the significance of the gender difference in health behaviours with survey year as the predictor.There is only a small difference -between girls and boys with respect to tobacco use and binge drinking. For binge drinking girls nearly converge with the figures of boys. Relatively stable gender differences over time are existing for diet, nutrition and physical activity.From a theoretical gender perspective it might be possible that with respect to risky behaviours like tobacco use and alcohol consumption a clear gender specific connotation has changed over time. In other words risk behaviours become less important in presenting oneself as masculine. A gender sensible development of preventive interventions should consider the changes over time of gender-related -social constructions. PMID:22836893

  13. Husband's preference for a son and women's nutrition: examining the role of actual and desired family composition on women's anaemia and body mass index in India.

    PubMed

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Subramanian, S V; McCormick, Marie C; Silverman, Jay G

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the husband's preference for a son, sex composition of children and risk of anaemia and underweight among married Indian women. Information was collected regarding 29,517 couples having at least one child in the nationally representative 2005-06 National Family Health Survey of India. The exposures were husband's preference for a son and sex composition of children: sons only, daughters only and mixed. Outcome included maternal underweight and moderate/severe anaemia. Husband's preference for a son was not found to be associated with his wife's risk of anaemia or underweight. Sex composition of the children was modestly associated with increased odds of anaemia among women from households with daughters only as compared with those with sons only [AOR: 1.19; 95% CI 1.04, 1.35]. The findings from this population-based study of socio-cultural norms around preference for a son and married Indian women's nutritional status do not support the hypothesis that husband's preference for sons influences the nutritional status of their wives. However, having daughters only is associated with maternal anaemia for reasons that remain to be established. PMID:22150711

  14. Health inequalities among urban children in India: a comparative assessment of Empowered Action Group (EAG) and South Indian states.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, P; Jain, Kshipra; Goli, Srinivas; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2013-03-01

    As India rapidly urbanizes, within urban areas socioeconomic disparities are rising and health inequality among urban children is an emerging challenge. This paper assesses the relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the less developed Empowered Action Group (EAG) states and more developed South Indian states in urban India using data from the 2005-06 National Family Health Survey. Focusing on urban health from varying regional and developmental contexts, socioeconomic inequalities in child health are examined first using Concentration Indices (CIs) and then the contributions of socioeconomic factors to the CIs of health variables are derived. The results reveal, in order of importance, pronounced contributions of household economic status, parent's illiteracy and caste to urban child health inequalities in the South Indian states. In contrast, parent's illiteracy, poor economic status, being Muslim and child birth order 3 or more are major contributors to health inequalities among urban children in the EAG states. The results suggest the need to adopt different health policy interventions in accordance with the pattern of varying contributions of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the more developed South Indian states and less developed EAG states. PMID:22643297

  15. Monitoring of wet season rice crop at state and national level in India using multidate synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manab; Patnaik, Chakrapani; Panigrahy, Sushma; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2006-12-01

    Rice crop grown during the monsoon (wet) season is the most important food grain in India. The crop is grown under varied cultural and management practices. The present paper highlights the results of rice monitoring being carried out for the past five years (2001-02 to 2005-06) using multi-date RADARSAT ScanSAR Narrow-B data. 30 ScanSAR scenes covering thirteen states account for 95 percent of national crop area. 90 scenes are analysed to assess the national wet season rice crop. A stratified sampling plan is used to analyse 5*5 km segments accounting for 15 per cent of the crop area in each of the study states. A decision-rule classifier has been developed based on a Radiative Transfer (RT) model developed and calibrated using large number of rice sites in India and controlled field experiments. This procedure accounts for change in backscatter as a result of transplanting of rice and crop growth in multi-date data to classify rice areas. Results indicate more than 93 per cent accuracy of area estimation at state level and 97 per cent at national level. It is feasible to assess deviations in crop planting operation (late or early) for a given area.

  16. Varicella routine vaccination and the effects on varicella epidemiology – results from the Bavarian Varicella Surveillance Project (BaVariPro), 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiology were investigated. Methods Data on varicella vaccinations, cases and complications were collected from annual parent surveys (2006-2011), monthly paediatric practice surveillance (Oct 2006 - Sep 2011; five varicella seasons) and paediatric hospital databases (2005-2009) in the area of Munich (about 238,000 paediatric inhabitants); annual incidences of cases and hospitalisations were estimated. Results Varicella vaccination coverage (1st dose) in children 18-36 months of age increased in two steps (38%, 51%, 53%, 53%, 66% and 68%); second-dose coverage reached 59% in the 2011 survey. A monthly mean of 82 (62%) practices participated; they applied a total of 50,059 first-dose and 40,541 second-dose varicella vaccinations, with preferential use of combined MMR-varicella vaccine after recommendation of two doses, and reported a total of 16,054 varicella cases <17 years of age. The mean number of cases decreased by 67% in two steps, from 6.6 (95%CI 6.1-7.0) per 1,000 patient contacts in season 2006/07 to 4.2 (95%CI 3.9-4.6) in 2007/08 and 4.0 (95%CI 3.6-4.3) in 2008/09, and further to 2.3 (95%CI 2.0-2.6) in 2009/10 and 2.2 (95%CI 1.9-2.5) in 2010/11. The decrease occurred in all paediatric age groups, indicating herd protection effects. Incidence of varicella was estimated as 78/1,000 children <17 years of age in 2006/07, and 19/1,000 in 2010/11. Vaccinated cases increased from 0.3 (95%0.2-0.3) per 1,000 patient contacts in 2006/07 to 0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.5) until 2008/09 and decreased to 0.2 (95%CI 0.2-0.3) until 2010/11. The practices treated a total of 134 complicated cases, mainly with skin complications. The paediatric hospitals recorded a total of 178 varicella patients, including 40 (22.5%) with neurological complications and one (0.6%) fatality due

  17. Some seasonal characteristics in atmospheric methane concentration in the beginning of the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Anna; Ginzburg, Alexander; Fedorova, Evgeniya

    2010-05-01

    Global average value of atmospheric methane concentrations have been increasing during the XX century, but this growth nearly stopped with the beginning of the 2000th. Such "stable" situation is the proper time for studying the seasonal cycle and extreme changes of air methane concentration. One of the most interesting periods for such investigations is autumn and winter 2006/07 [1] when a number of weather abnormalities (warm air temperature up to above 0°C, almost permanent cloudiness and absence of snow cover, and so on) in Moscow region created very specific conditions for air methane existence. Temporal variations in air methane concentration within the Moscow city have been studied using the data of observations at 12 stations of Moscow municipal environmental monitoring agency "Mosecomonitoring" in 2004-2008 [2]. It was found that near-surface air concentration of methane was much higher this time than few years before and after. The values of cold season methane concentrations in Moscow region have been compared with similar data measured in the North of Kola Peninsula (at WMO GAW station "Teriberka"), in the Sankt Petersburg region (the two stations of Roshydromet), in Finland and Hungary (the stations of NOAA GMD Carbon Cycle Sampling Network). Winter maxima (more or less) of methane concentrations were revealed almost each year at all these stations, but not everywhere they were simultaneous and as high as those had been found in Moscow. The reasons of winter 2006/07 high methane concentrations in Moscow and other regions of Northern Eurasia may be special weather conditions which could cause both decrease of air methane sinks and increase of methane emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Perhaps, the late growth of global atmospheric methane concentration after 2007 [3] was partly produced by those seasonal anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere. References: 1. E. Fedorova, A. Ginzburg, A. Vinogradova. Seasonal variations of atmospheric

  18. Recent trends in hormone therapy utilization and breast cancer incidence rates in the high incidence population of Marin County, California

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent declines in invasive breast cancer have been reported in the US, with many studies linking these declines to reductions in the use of combination estrogen/progestin hormone therapy (EPHT). We evaluated the changing use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, mammography screening rates, and the decline in breast cancer incidence specifically for Marin County, California, a population with historically elevated breast cancer incidence rates. Methods The Marin Women's Study (MWS) is a community-based, prospective cohort study launched in 2006 to monitor changes in breast cancer, breast density, and personal and biologic risk factors among women living in Marin County. The MWS enrolled 1,833 women following routine screening mammography between October 2006 and July 2007. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included items regarding historical hormone therapy regimen (estrogen only, progesterone only, EPHT), age of first and last use, total years of use, and reason(s) for stopping, as well as information regarding complementary hormone use. Questionnaire items were analyzed for 1,083 non-Hispanic white participants ages 50 and over. Breast cancer incidence rates were assessed overall and by tumor histology and estrogen receptor (ER) status for the years 1990-2007 using data from the Northern California Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. Results Prevalence of EPHT use among non-Hispanic white women ages 50 and over declined sharply from 21.2% in 1998 to 6.7% by 2006-07. Estrogen only use declined from 26.9% in 1998 to 22.4% by 2006-07. Invasive breast cancer incidence rates declined 33.4% between 2001 and 2004, with drops most pronounced for ER+ cancers. These rate reductions corresponded to declines of about 50 cases per year, consistent with population attributable fraction estimates for EPHT-related breast cancer. Self-reported screening mammography rates did not change during this period. Use of

  19. Trajectory and Microphysical Modeling of TTL Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, R.; Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.

    2014-12-01

    Processes that influence H2O concentrations in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and consequently regulate stratospheric humidity are investigated in simulations of clouds along backward trajectories of TTL parcels initialized with H2O measurements from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Trajectories are calculated using offline calculations of seasonal mean radiative heating rates in the tropics merged with MERRA extratropical heating rates and ERA-Interim temperature and wind data that have been modified to enhance wave-driven variability in the TTL. We also examine the impact of convective influence along parcel trajectories on cloud formation and dehydration. The distribution of 100 hPa H2O mixing ratios simulated on the final day of the trajectories in boreal winter 2006-07 resembles that of MLS with distinct minima over the western and eastern tropical Pacific, but exhibits an overall dry bias of approximately 20%. Averaged over the tropics, subgrid-scale waves dehydrate the 100 hPa level by ~0.5 ppmv, while convection and cloud microphysical processes moisten by ~0.5 and ~0.7 ppmv, respectively. These three processes combined increase the tropical mean H2O estimate by roughly 20% compared to that based solely on the Lagrangian Dry Point of the trajectories. Possible causes of the model dry bias and TTL cirrus statistics in comparison to those of recent aircraft campaigns will also be discussed.

  20. Clothed particle representation in quantum field theory: mass renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korda, V. Yu.; Shebeko, A. V.

    2007-06-01

    The method of unitary clothing transformations is used to handling the so-called clothed particle representation (CPR) (see [A.V. Shebeko and M.I. Shirokov, Phys. Part. Nucl. 32 (2001) 31; nucl-th/0102037, V.Yu. Korda and A.V. Shebeko, Phys. Rev. D 70 (2004) 085011, V.Yu. Korda, L. Canton and A.V. Shebeko, doi:10.1016/j.aop.2006.07.010, Ann. Phys. (2006) in press; nucl-th/060325] and refs. therein), where the total field Hamiltonian H and the three boost operators in the instant form of relativistic dynamics take on the same sparse structure in the Hilbert space of hadronic states. In this approach the mass counterterms are cancelled by commutators of the generators of clothing transformations and the field interaction operator. This allows the pion and nucleon mass shifts to be expressed through the corresponding three-dimensional integrals whose integrands are proved to be dependent on certain covariant combinations of the relevant three-momenta. The property provides the momentum independence of mass renormalization.

  1. Care Management Processes Used Less Often For Depression Than For Other Chronic Conditions In US Primary Care Practices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Tara F; Ramsay, Patricia P; Casalino, Lawrence P; Bao, Yuhua; Pincus, Harold A; Shortell, Stephen M

    2016-03-01

    Primary care physicians play an important role in the diagnosis and management of depression. Yet little is known about their use of care management processes for depression. Using national survey data for the period 2006-13, we assessed the use of five care management processes for depression and other chronic illnesses among primary care practices in the United States. We found significantly less use for depression than for asthma, congestive heart failure, or diabetes in 2012-13. On average, practices used fewer than one care management process for depression, and this level of use has not changed since 2006-07, regardless of practice size. In contrast, use of diabetes care management processes has increased significantly among larger practices. These findings may indicate that US primary care practices are not well equipped to manage depression as a chronic illness, despite the high proportion of depression care they provide. Policies that incentivize depression care management, including additional quality metrics, should be considered. PMID:26953291

  2. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  3. Physical Activity Matters: Associations Among Body Mass Index, Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life Trajectories Over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Feeny, David; Garner, Rochelle; Bernier, Julie; Thompson, Amanda; McFarland, Bentson H.; Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; Ross, Nancy A.; Blanchard, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the associations among body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) trajectories among adults. Methods Self-reported data were drawn from the Canadian National Population Health Survey, with respondents being interviewed every two years between 1996/97 and 2006/07. Using growth curve modeling, HRQL trajectories for individuals aged 18 and over were associated with measures of BMI and LTPA. Growth models were constructed separately for males and females. Results Findings suggested that, for males, BMI categories had little impact on baseline HRQL, and no impact on the rate of change in HRQL. Among women, higher BMI categories were associated with significantly lower baseline HRQL. However, BMI had no impact on the rate of change of HRQL. Conversely, for both men and women and regardless of BMI category, LTPA had significant impacts on baseline HRQL, as well as the rate of change in HRQL. Individuals who were inactive or sedentary had much steeper declines in HRQL as they aged, as compared to individuals who were active in their leisure time. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of LTPA in shaping trajectories of HRQL. PMID:24176861

  4. Trends and costs of high concentration fluoride toothpaste prescribing in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Duane, B G; Richards, D; Young, L; Archibald, B

    2014-05-01

    Within Scotland there has been a significant increase in the prescription of 2,800 ppm and 5,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. The objective of this paper was to analyse the trends in high concentration fluoride toothpaste (HCFT) in the five Scottish South East and Tayside (SEAT) health boards and consider the options for future national management of this prescribing. A retrospective analysis of routine prescribing data for the years 2006-2012 was carried out in primary care dental practices in Scotland. The cost of HCFT prescribing in the five Scottish health boards has increased from £15,243 (4,147 items) in 2006/07 to £206,529 (24,113 items), in 2011/12. Out of 2,430 dental list numbers, 100 list numbers (4.1%) accounted for 70% of the total prescribing costs (£144,367). The public dental service employs 153 (6%) of dentists working in Scotland, who in turn prescribe 11.6% HCFT. There is a need to ensure that the prescription of HCFT is both encouraged as best practice care but also managed appropriately to ensure that its delivery is targeted at those who are most in need. PMID:24852995

  5. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation. PMID:22312795

  6. Subtropical Low Cloud Responses to Central and Eastern Pacific El Nino Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, A. D.; Bennartz, R.; Jiang, J. H.; Kato, S.; Olson, W. S.; Pinker, R. T.; Su, H.; Taylor, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern Pacific El Niño event in 2006-2007 and the central Pacific El Niño event during 2009-2010 exhibit opposite responses in the top of atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effects. These responses are driven by differences in large-scale circulation that result in significant low cloud anomalies in the subtropical southeastern Pacific. Both the vertical profile of cloud fraction and cloud water content are reduced during the eastern Pacific El Niño; however, the shift in the distribution of cloud characteristics and the physical processes underlying these changes need further analysis. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Clouds and Radiation Working Group will use a synthesis of NEWS data products, A-Train satellite measurements, reanalysis, and modeling approaches to further explore the differences in the low cloud response to changes in the large-scale forcing, as well as try to understand the physical mechanism driving the observed changes in the low clouds for the 2006/07 and 2009/10 distinct El Niño events. The distributions of cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties over the southeast Pacific will first be compared for these two events using a combination of MODIS, CloudSat/CALIPSO, and CERES data. Satellite and reanalysis estimates of changes in the vertical temperature and moisture profiles, lower tropospheric stability, winds, and surface heat fluxes are then used to identify the drivers for observed differences in the clouds and TOA radiative effects.

  7. Cohort profile: the Young Lives study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Inka; Ariana, Proochista; Petrou, Stavros; Penny, Mary E; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, S; Woldehanna, Tassew; Escobal, Javier A; Plugge, Emma; Boyden, Jo

    2013-06-01

    Young Lives is an international longitudinal study investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty in four low-income countries [Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam] over a 15-year period. In each country, the cohort is comprised of ≈ 2000 children aged between 6 and 18 months and up to 1000 children aged between 7 and 8 years, recruited in 2002 and sampled from 20 sentinel sites. The first survey data collection from primary caregivers and older children took place in 2002, the second in 2006-07 and the third in 2009-10. Data on the community contexts were collected to complement the household surveys. To elaborate and extend the quantitative data, longitudinal qualitative research with a subgroup of the children was carried out in 2007, 2008 and 2010-11. Topic areas covered included nutrition, health and well-being, cognitive and physical development, health behaviours and education, as well as the social, demographic and economic status of the household. Survey data from the study are archived in the International Section of the UK Public Data Archive. PMID:22617687

  8. Surface energy budget and mass balance of Zhadang Glacier in the central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Acharya, K.; Yu, Z.; Su, F.; liang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    It is difficult to clearly investigate the surface energy budget and glacier evolution under the changed climate environments, especially on accounts of limited data set. We attempted to calculate the summer mass balance of Zhadang Glacier (5710 m above sea level), located in the central Tibetan Plateau. This small and high-altitude glacier has been retreating during the previous decades. Energy balance was calculated on a 30 m square grid on the glacier for the summer periods in 2007 and 2008. On average, net radiation contributed more than 96% of the energy gain while only less than 4% was supplied by the sensible heat flux. Most energy loss on the glacier was contributed by the turbulent heat fluxes and only roughly 30% of the total energy was available for melting. A large deficit and a surplus summer mass balance were obtained for years 2006/07 and 2007/08, respectively. The switch in mass balance from negative to positive in the summer of 2008 is caused by early precipitation (mostly snow) resulting in low temperature on the glacier. Low temperature produces less energy that contributes to melting, whereas increased snow accumulation produces higher surface albedo reflecting away incoming solar radiation. The high sensitivity of air temperature may imply that the low temperature was more important than the increased precipitation in the mass balance switch in Zhadang Glacier. Despite a continuous negative mass balance for several decades in Zhadang Glacier 2008 may have brought a temporary relief.

  9. Exploring the Potential of a School Impact on Pupil Weight Status: Exploratory Factor Analysis and Repeat Cross-Sectional Study of the National Child Measurement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew James; Wyatt, Katrina M.; Williams, Craig A.; Logan, Stuart; Henley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Schools are common sites for obesity prevention interventions. Although many theories suggest that the school context influences weight status, there has been little empirical research. The objective of this study was to explore whether features of the school context were consistently and meaningfully associated with pupil weight status (overweight or obese). Exploratory factor analysis of routinely collected data on 319 primary schools in Devon, England, was used to identify possible school-based contextual factors. Repeated cross-sectional multilevel analysis of five years (2006/07-2010/11) of data from the National Child Measurement Programme was then used to test for consistent and meaningful associations. Four school-based contextual factors were derived which ranked schools according to deprivation, location, resource and prioritisation of physical activity. None of which were meaningfully and consistently associated with pupil weight status, across the five years. The lack of consistent associations between the factors and pupil weight status suggests that the school context is not inherently obesogenic. In contrast, incorporating findings from education research indicates that schools may be equalising weight status, and obesity prevention research, policy and practice might need to address what is happening outside schools and particularly during the school holidays. PMID:26700027

  10. Predictors of the Existence of Congregational HIV Programs: Similarities and Differences Compared with Other Health Programs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Malcolm V.; Haas, Ann; Griffin, Beth Ann; Fulton, Brad; Kanouse, David E.; Bogart, Laura M.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identify and compare predictors of the existence of congregational HIV and other health programs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting United States. Participants A nationally-representative sample of 1,506 U.S. congregations surveyed in the National Congregations Study (2006-07). Measures Key informants at each congregation completed in-person and telephone interviews on congregational HIV and other health programs and various congregation characteristics (response rate = 78%). County-level HIV prevalence and population health data from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's 2007 County Health Rankings were linked to the congregational data. Analysis Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors that predict congregational health programs relative to no health programs; and of HIV programs relative to other health activities. Results Most congregations (57.5%) had at least one health-related program; many fewer (5.7%) had an HIV program. Predictors of health vs. HIV programs differed. The number of adults in the congregation was a key predictor of health programs, while having an official statement welcoming gay persons was a significant predictor of HIV programs (p<.05). Other significant characteristics varied by size of congregation and type of program (HIV vs. other health). Conclusion Organizations interested in partnering with congregations to promote health or prevent HIV should consider congregational size as well as other factors that predict involvement. Results of this study can inform policy interventions to increase the capacity of religious congregations to address HIV and health. PMID:25162322

  11. Comparison of Home Advantage in College and Professional Team Sports in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (p<0.015). The mean difference was 3.73 home winning percentage points, being greatest for baseball, basketball, and hockey (all p<0.001). Plausible explanations for these results include differences in college and professional competition in terms of familiarity with local conditions, referee bias, territoriality and psychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage. PMID:26898053

  12. Bodyweight, Gender, and Quality of Life: A Population-based Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Feeny, David H.; Thompson, Amanda; Bernier, Julie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; Orpana, Heather; Ross, Nancy A.; Blanchard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of the paper is to describe trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQL) associated with categories of body mass index (BMI): underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese class I, and obese classes II and III. Methods Data come from the longitudinal Canadian National Population Health Survey. Analyses are based on data for 3864 males and 4745 females who were 40+ in 1998/99 and followed through 2006/07. HRQL was measured with the Health Utilities Index Mark 3. Multi-level growth modeling was used. Results HRQL declined with age. For males, there was a large HRQL decrement for being underweight; trajectories for all other BMI categories were very similar. For females being underweight was associated with higher HRQL at younger ages but lower at older ages. Otherwise for females, HRQL was ordered from highest to lowest: normal, overweight, obese class I, and obese classes II and III. Conclusions Given that excess weight is a risk factor for mortality and the development of chronic conditions, the HRQL results for males are surprising. The HRQL results for females may reflect both the importance of body image on mental health and the health effects of excess weight. PMID:21842378

  13. The Great Recession And Increased Cost Sharing In European Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Raffaele; Lee, John Tayu; Hone, Thomas; Filippidis, Filippos T; Millett, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    European health systems are increasingly adopting cost-sharing models, potentially increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for patients who use health care services or buy medications. Government policies that increase patient cost sharing are responding to incremental growth in cost pressures from aging populations and the need to invest in new health technologies, as well as to general constraints on public expenditures resulting from the Great Recession (2007-09). We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to examine changes from 2006-07 to 2013 in out-of-pocket expenditures among people ages fifty and older in eleven European countries. Our results identify increases both in the proportion of older European citizens who incurred out-of-pocket expenditures and in mean out-of-pocket expenditures over this period. We also identified a significant increase over time in the percentage of people who incurred catastrophic health expenditures (greater than 30 percent of the household income) in the Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain. Poorer populations were less likely than those in the highest income quintile to incur an out-of-pocket expenditure and reported lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures, which suggests that measures are in place to provide poorer groups with some financial protection. These findings indicate the substantial weakening of financial protection for people ages fifty and older in European health systems after the Great Recession. PMID:27385235

  14. Examining the dimensions and correlates of workplace stress among Australian veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although stress is known to be a common occupational health issue in the veterinary profession, few studies have investigated its broad domains or the internal validity of the survey instrument used for assessment. Methods We analysed data from over 500 veterinarians in Queensland, Australia, who were surveyed during 2006-07. Results The most common causes of stress were reported to be long hours worked per day, not having enough holidays per year, not having enough rest breaks per day, the attitude of customers, lack of recognition from the public and not having enough time per patient. Age, gender and practice type were statistically associated with various aspects of work-related stress. Strong correlations were found between having too many patients per day and not having enough time per patient; between not having enough holidays and long working hours; and also between not enough rest breaks per day and long working hours. Factor analysis revealed four dimensions of stress comprising a mixture of career, professional and practice-related items. The internal validity of our stress questionnaire was shown to be high during statistical analysis. Conclusion Overall, this study suggests that workplace stress is fairly common among Australian veterinarians and represents an issue that occupies several distinct areas within their professional life. PMID:19995450

  15. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2011-06-01

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita , Radiation MeasurementsRMEAEP1350-4487 41, 1080 (2006).10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.07.013]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).APHYEE0927-650510.1016/j.astropartphys.2008.07.007] a little better than DPMJET-III [S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 75, 043005 (2007).10.1103/PhysRevD.75.043005][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 75, 043006 (2007).10.1103/PhysRevD.75.043006]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  16. Predictors of participation in preventive health examinations in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventive health check-ups in Austria are offered free of charge to all insured adults (98% of the population) and focus on early detection of chronic diseases, primary prevention, and health counseling. The study aims to explore predictors of compliance with the recommended interval of preventive health check-up performance. Methods Source of data was the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006/07 (15,474 subjects). Participation in a preventive health examination during the last three years was used as dependent variable. Socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were used as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Results show that 41.6% of men and 41.8% of women had attended a preventive health check-up within the last three years. In multivariate analysis, subjects ≥40 years, with higher education, higher income or born in Austria were significantly more likely to attend a preventive health check-up. Furthermore, a chronic disease was associated with a higher attendance rate (OR: 1.21; CI: 1.07-1.36 in men; OR: 1.19; CI: 1.06-1.33 in women). Conclusions Attendance rates for health check-ups in the general Austrian population are comparatively high but not equally distributed among subgroups. Health check-ups must increase among people at a young age, with a lower socio-economic status, migration background and in good health. PMID:24308610

  17. Design for a region-wide adaptive search for the ivorybilled woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Mordecai, Rua S.; Mattsson, B.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Pacifici, K.; Peterson, J.T.; Moore, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a survey design and field protocol for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) search effort that will: (1) allow estimation of occupancy, use, and detection probability for habitats at two spatial scales within the bird?s former range, (2) assess relationships between occupancy, use, and habitat characteristics at those scales, (3) eventually allow the development of a population viability model that depends on patch occupancy instead of difficult-to-measure demographic parameters, and (4) be adaptive, allowing newly collected information to update the above models and search locations. The approach features random selection of patches to be searched from a sampling frame stratified and weighted by patch quality, and requires multiple visits per patch. It is adaptive within a season in that increased search activity is allowed in and around locations of strong visual and/or aural evidence, and adaptive among seasons in that habitat associations allow modification of stratum weights. This statistically rigorous approach is an improvement over simply visiting the ?best? habitat in an ad hoc fashion because we can learn from prior effort and modify the search accordingly. Results from the 2006-07 search season indicate weak relationships between occupancy and habitat (although we suggest modifications of habitat measurement protocols), and a very low detection probability, suggesting more visits per patch are required. Sample size requirements will be discussed.

  18. An agricultural drought index to incorporate the irrigation process and reservoir operations: A case study in the Tarim River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zehua; Hao, Zhenchun; Shi, Xiaogang; Déry, Stephen J.; Li, Jieyou; Chen, Sichun; Li, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    To help the decision making process and reduce climate change impacts, hydrologically-based drought indices have been used to determine drought severity in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) over the past decades. As the major components of the surface water balance, however, the irrigation process and reservoir operations have not been incorporated into drought indices in previous studies. Therefore, efforts are needed to develop a new agricultural drought index, which is based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module. The new drought index was derived from the simulated soil moisture data from a retrospective VIC simulation from 1961 to 2007 over the irrigated area in the TRB. The physical processes in the coupled VIC model allow the new agricultural drought index to take into account a wide range of hydrologic processes including the irrigation process and reservoir operations. Notably, the irrigation process was found to dominate the surface water balance and drought evolution in the TRB. Furthermore, the drought conditions identified by the new agricultural drought index presented a good agreement with the historical drought events that occurred in 1993-94, 2004, and 2006-07, respectively. Moreover, the spatial distribution of coupled VIC model outputs using the new drought index provided detailed information about where and to what extent droughts occurred.

  19. Diet of a piscivorous seabird reveals spatiotemporal variation in abundance of forage fishes in the Monterey Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Lisa A.; Harvey, James T.

    2015-06-01

    Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) diet was investigated using regurgitated pellets (n = 285) collected on 19 sampling days at three locations during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 nonbreeding seasons in the Monterey Bay region. The efficacy of using nested sieves and the all-structure technique to facilitate prey detection in the pellets was evaluated, but this method did not increase prey enumeration and greatly decreased efficiency. Although 29 prey species were consumed, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) dominated and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus) also was important in the diet. Few rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) and market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) were consumed compared with great prevalence in previous studies during the 1970s. El Niño and La Niña during the study provided a unique opportunity to examine predator response to variation in prey availability. Patterns of prey number and diversity were not consistent among locations. Greatest number and diversity of prey occurred at locations within Monterey Bay during La Niña, results not evident at the outer coast location. Short-term specialization occurred but mean prey diversity indicated a generalist feeding mode. This study demonstrated the importance of periodic sampling at multiple locations within a region to detect spatiotemporal variability in the diet of opportunistic generalists.

  20. Water-level altitudes 2007 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper Aquifers and compaction 1973-2006 in the Chicot and Evangeline Aquifers, Houston-Galveston Region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2007-01-01

    This report, done in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, the City of Houston, the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports that depicts water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, and compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston, Texas, region. The report contains 18 sheets and 17 tables: 3 sheets are maps showing current-year (2007) water-level altitudes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 1-year (2006-07) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 5-year (2002-07) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 4 sheets are maps showing long-term (1990-2007 and 1977-2007) water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, respectively; 1 sheet is a map showing long-term (2000-2007) water-level change for the Jasper aquifer; 2 sheets are revisions of previously published water-level-altitude maps for the Jasper aquifer for 2000 and 2002, respectively; 1 sheet is a map showing site locations of borehole extensometers; and 1 sheet comprises graphs showing measured compaction of subsurface material at the sites from 1973 or later through 2006, respectively. Tables listing the data used to construct the aquifer-data maps and the compaction graphs also are included.

  1. Investigating gravity waves evidences in the Venus upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Altieri, Francesca; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Grassi, Davide

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to investigate gravity waves properties in the upper mesosphere of Venus, through the O2 nightglow observations acquired with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS on board Venus Express. Gravity waves are important dynamical features that transport energy and momentum. They are related to the buoyancy force, which lifts air particles. Then, the vertical displacement of air particles produces density changes that cause gravity to act as restoring force. Gravity waves can manifest through fluctuations on temperature and density fields, and hence on airglow intensities. We use the O2 nightglow profiles showing double peaked structures to study the influence of gravity waves in shaping the O2 vertical profiles and infer the waves properties. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation. Here we propose a statistical discussion of the gravity waves characteristics, namely vertical wavelength and wave amplitude, with respect to local time and latitude. The method is applied to about 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, and acquired with the VIRTIS/Venus Express spectrometer, during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15.

  2. Evolution of match performance parameters for various playing positions in the English Premier League.

    PubMed

    Bush, Michael; Barnes, Chris; Archer, David T; Hogg, Bob; Bradley, Paul S

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate position-specific evolution of physical and technical performance parameters in the English Premier League (EPL). Match performance observations (n=14700) were collected using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system across seven seasons (2006-07 to 2012-13). Data were analyzed relative to five playing positions: central defenders (n=3792), full backs (n=3420), central midfielders (n=3200), wide midfielders (n=2136) and attackers (n=2152). High-intensity running distance increased in the final season versus the first season in all playing positions (p<.05, ES: 0.9-1.3) with full backs displaying the greatest increase (∼36% higher in 2012-13). Similar trends were observed for sprint distance with full backs demonstrating the most pronounced increase across the seven seasons (36-63%, p<.001, ES: 0.8-1.3). Central players (central defenders and midfielders) illustrated the most pronounced increases in total passes and pass success rate (p<.05, ES: 0.7-0.9) whilst wide players (full backs and wide midfielders) demonstrated only small-moderate increases in total passes and pass success rate (p<.05, ES: 0.6-0.8). The data demonstrates that evolving tactics in the EPL have impacted on the physical demands of wide players and the technical requirements of central players. These findings could be used for talent identification or position-specific physical and technical training. PMID:25461429

  3. Early diffusion of gene expression profiling in breast cancer patients associated with areas of high income inequality.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ninez A; Ko, Michelle; Liang, Su-Ying; Armstrong, Joanne; Toscano, Michele; Chanfreau-Coffinier, Catherine; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-04-01

    With the Affordable Care Act reducing coverage disparities, social factors could prominently determine where and for whom innovations first diffuse in health care markets. Gene expression profiling is a potentially cost-effective innovation that guides chemotherapy decisions in early-stage breast cancer, but adoption has been uneven across the United States. Using a sample of commercially insured women, we evaluated whether income inequality in metropolitan areas was associated with receipt of gene expression profiling during its initial diffusion in 2006-07. In areas with high income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was higher than elsewhere, but it was associated with a 10.6-percentage-point gap between high- and low-income women. In areas with low rates of income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was lower, with no significant differences by income. Even among insured women, income inequality may indirectly shape diffusion of gene expression profiling, with benefits accruing to the highest-income patients in the most unequal places. Policies reducing gene expression profiling disparities should address low-inequality areas and, in unequal places, practice settings serving low-income patients. PMID:25847643

  4. Family planning, fertility awareness and knowledge about Italian legislation on assisted reproduction among Italian academic students.

    PubMed

    Rovei, Valentina; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Lantieri, Teresa; Casano, Simona; Revelli, Alberto; Massobrio, Marco

    2010-06-01

    Over the last century, most industrialized countries have experienced a progressive increase in maternal age at first pregnancy and a reduction of fertility rate, with important social and economic consequences. Moreover in Italy a very restrictive law on assisted reproductive technologies was introduced in 2004, limiting its effectiveness and causing a strong public debate that unfortunately focused more on the political and ethical implications of the law than on the medical and technical aspects of assisted reproduction. The present study performed an epidemiological investigation among the students of Turin University in the year 2006/07 in order to assess three aspects: the factors affecting the decision to become parents, their level of consciousness about human reproduction and their level of knowledge about the legal rules that regulate assisted reproduction in Italy. The study also wanted to clarify how the sex (male or female) and the type of education (sciences or humanities) could affect their opinions and knowledge in this area. It was observed that young people consider parenthood an important part of their life, but knowledge about human fertility and legal rules regulating assisted reproduction is rather poor, regardless of sex and type of education. PMID:20418165

  5. Characterization of conserved properties of hemagglutinin of H5N1 and human influenza viruses: possible consequences for therapy and infection control

    PubMed Central

    Veljkovic, Veljko; Veljkovic, Nevena; Muller, Claude P; Müller, Sybille; Glisic, Sanja; Perovic, Vladimir; Köhler, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemics caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) are a continuing threat to human health and to the world's economy. The development of approaches, which help to understand the significance of structural changes resulting from the alarming mutational propensity for human-to-human transmission of HPAIV, is of particularly interest. Here we compare informational and structural properties of the hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 virus and human influenza virus subtypes, which are important for the receptor/virus interaction. Results Presented results revealed that HA proteins encode highly conserved information that differ between influenza virus subtypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, H7N7 and defined an HA domain which may modulate interaction with receptor. We also found that about one third of H5N1 viruses which are isolated during the 2006/07 influenza outbreak in Egypt possibly evolve towards receptor usage similar to that of seasonal H1N1. Conclusion The presented results may help to better understand the interaction of influenza virus with its receptor(s) and to identify new therapeutic targets for drug development. PMID:19351406

  6. Fluid Impact as a Source Mechanism for Surf Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Garces, M.; McNamara, S.; Aucan, J.; Merrifield, M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to provide infrasonic estimates of breaking ocean wave height and period in shallow reefs, steep rocky coastlines, and sand beaches has been demonstrated in previous work. Yet defining the source process and isolating the source pressure function remained elusive because of ambiguity introduced by complex coastlines and multiple breaker zones. Due to the steep bathymetry and its proximity to land, the Temae reef in the northeast coast of Moorea island, French Polynesia, provided a well constrained experimental environment where individual breaking waves could be identified and recorded. Synchronous wave height, infrasonic, seismic, and visual recordings of individual waves breaking against the shallow reef ledge were made and correlated. We characterize a possible fluid impact source mechanism for surf infrasound, demonstrate the capability to acoustically track alongshore traveling (peeling) plunging waves, and confirm a relationship between ocean wave height and infrasonic amplitude. Depending on the swell and coastal conditions, estimates of ocean wave period are also possible. We also present preliminary results on near-real-time remote infrasonic monitoring of the surf zone on the North Shore of Oahu, Hawaii, during the 2006-07 Winter high surf season.

  7. Psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. PMID:23380485

  8. Relative age effects in professional German soccer: a historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cobley, Stephen P; Schorer, Joerg; Baker, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment (dis)advantages which occur as a result of physical and cognitive differences within annual age-grouped cohorts. The present study tracked the existence of RAEs in professional German soccer by examining RAEs in players, head coaches and referees who represented professional soccer clubs or officiated in the Bundesliga from 1963/64 to 2006/07. An additional objective was to consider the social-cultural mechanisms responsible for RAEs, so for a similar period, population and soccer participation information was also obtained. When players were categorised into half decade groups, chi-square analyses predominantly showed RAEs across the history of the Bundesliga, irrespective of dates used for annual age grouping in junior/youth soccer. RAEs were also apparent for head coaches but not for referees. Participation data indicated consistent and progressive growth from 1950 to 1990. RAEs influence the likelihood of attaining professional player and coaching status in German soccer. With many coaches being former players, inequalities associated with annual age-grouping appear to extend beyond a playing career. Officiating was not affected, with referees suggested to emerge from an alternative development pathway. Increased popularity of soccer may have propagated RAEs over time, through intensification of competition and selection mechanisms. PMID:19040189

  9. Brittle fractures in AND-1B core, McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica: A record of Neogene rifting or glaciotectonic deformation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T.; Paulsen, T.; Millan, C.; Lauefer, A.; McKay, R.; Team, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The ANDRILL geological drilling program retrieved a 1285-m-long core (AND1B) from beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, in 2006-07. The drillsite is inferred to lie within the Terror Rift, a regional Neogene rift basin in the western Ross Sea, hence normal faulting and related tectonic deformation is expected to be present in the core. Sequence stratigraphic analysis has identified ~60 unconformity-bounded cycles in the core, with each base interpreted to mark erosion and subglacial deposition by an advancing Ross Ice Sheet, hence glaciotectonic deformation is also expected in the core. Systematic fracture logging of the AND-1B core identified 1,475 'natural fractures', i.e. pre-existing fractures in the rock intersected by coring. The most abundant natural fractures are normal faults and calcite veins; reverse faults, brecciated zones, and sedimentary intrusions are also present. Here we compare fracture distribution, density, type and orientation (where known) to the positions of glacial erosion surfaces in the core, together with initial information on the conditions of deformation from microstructural analysis, to discriminate rift-related from glaciotectonic formation of natural fractures in AND-1B core.

  10. Nutrition and health: different forms of diet and their relationship with various health parameters among Austrian adults.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie Tatjana; Freidl, Wolfgang; Großschädel, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Stronegger, Willibald J; Rásky, Eva

    2014-02-01

    Population-based studies report a beneficial health effect and a lower mortality rate for diets rich in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between various forms of diet and health-related variables. The sample for this study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006/07 (N = 15,474). Multivariate analyses of variance adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) were conducted to examine health-related behavior, health, and quality of life depending on different forms of diet. Additionally, differences in the SES and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed. Our results show that a vegetarian diet is associated with a better health-related behavior, a lower BMI, and a higher SES. Subjects eating a carnivorous diet less rich in meat self-report poorer health, a higher number of chronic conditions, an enhanced vascular risk, as well as lower quality of life. In conclusion, our results have shown that consuming a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with better health and health-related behavior. Therefore, public health programs are needed for reducing the health risks associated with a carnivorous diet. PMID:24343044

  11. Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: what female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization. PMID:19962636

  12. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  13. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  14. Dynamics investigation in the Venus upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, A.; Altieri, F.; Shakun, A.; Zasova, L.; Piccioni, G.; Bellucci, G.

    The O_2 nightglow emissions in the infrared spectral range are important features to investigate dynamics at the mesospheric altitudes, in the planetary atmosphere. In this work, we analyzed the profiles obtained at limb by the VIRTIS spectrometer on board the Venus Express mission, acquired during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15 to investigate possible gravity waves characteristics at the airglow altitudes. Indeed, several profiles present double peaked structures that can be interpreted as due to gravity waves. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O_2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation, in order to support this thesis and derive the waves properties. We discuss results from 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, focusing on vertical wavelength and wave amplitude of the possible gravity waves. On average, the double peaked profiles are compatible with the effects of gravity waves with a vertical wavelength ranging between 7 and 16 km, and wave amplitude of 3-14%. A comparison with gravity waves properties in the Mars and Earth's atmospheres, using the same theory, is also proposed \\citep{altieri_2014}. \\ The research is supported by ASI (contract ASI-INAF I/050/10/0).

  15. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  16. Parasite diversity as an indicator of environmental change? An example from tropical grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) mariculture in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palm, H W; Kleinertz, S; Rückert, S

    2011-11-01

    Fish parasites are used to monitor long-term change in finfish grouper mariculture in Indonesia. A total of 210 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus were sampled in six consecutive years between 2003/04 and 2008/09 and examined for parasites. The fish were obtained from floating net cages of a commercially run mariculture facility that opened in 2001. The fauna was species rich, consisting of ten ecto- and 18 endoparasite species. The ectoparasite diversity and composition was relatively stable, with the monogeneans Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. (83-100% prevalence, Berger-Parker Index of 0·82-0·97) being the predominant taxon. Tetraphyllidean larvae Scolex pleuronectis and the nematodes Terranova sp. and Raphidascaris sp. 1 were highly abundant in 2003/04-2005/06 (max. prevalence S. pleuronectis 40%, Terranova sp. 57%, Raphidascaris sp. 1 100%), and drastically reduced until 2008/09. These parasites together with the prevalence of Trichodina spp., ecto-/endoparasite ratio and endoparasite diversity illustrate a significant change in holding conditions over the years. This can be either referred to a definite change in management methods such as feed use and fish treatment, or a possible transition of a relatively undisturbed marine environment into a more affected habitat. By visualizing all parameters within a single diagram, we demonstrate that fish parasites are useful bioindicators to monitor long-term change in Indonesian grouper mariculture. This also indicates that groupers can be used to monitor environmental change in the wild. Further taxonomic and systematic efforts in less sampled regions significantly contributes to this new application, supporting fish culture and environmental impact monitoring also in other tropical marine habitats. PMID:21320385

  17. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  18. Parents’ Support and Knowledge of Their Daughters’ Lives and Females’ Early Sexual Initiation in Nine European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Context The association between early sexual initiation and parenting practices (e.g., support and knowledge) has not been tested in multiple European population-based samples using the same instrument. Methods Data provided by females (age 14-16) participating in the 2005-06 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey conducted in Austria, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Lithuania, Romania, Spain and Ukraine were used (n=7,466). The dependent variable was early sexual initiation (<16). The main independent variables were maternal and paternal support and knowledge of daily activities. Univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were run with standard error corrections and weights. Results Prevalence of early sexual initiation ranged from a low of 7% (Romania) to a high of 35% (Iceland). In bivariate analyses, maternal and paternal support were significantly negatively related to adolescent females’ early sexual initiation in a majority of countries. In models with demographic controls, parental support was significantly negatively related to early sexual initiation (AOR = 0.80 maternal, 0.74 paternal). After adding parental knowledge, early sexual initiation was no longer associated with parental support, but was significantly negatively related to parental knowledge (AOR = 0.69 maternal and paternal). These patterns held across countries. Conclusions Negative associations between parental support and early initiation were largely explained by parental knowledge, suggesting either that knowledge is more important than support or that knowledge mediates the association between support and early initiation. Providers should counsel parents regarding the importance of knowledge of their daughters’ daily lives, which may be enhanced through developing supportive relationships. PMID:22958661

  19. Awareness of Memory Ability and Change: (In)Accuracy of Memory Self-Assessments in Relation to Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about subjective assessments of memory abilities and decline among middle-aged adults or their association with objective memory performance in the general population. In this study we examined self-ratings of memory ability and change in relation to episodic memory performance in two national samples of middle-aged and older adults from the Midlife in the United States study (MIDUS II in 2005-06) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; every two years from 2002 to 2012). MIDUS (Study 1) participants (N=3,581) rated their memory compared to others their age and to themselves five years ago; HRS (Study 2) participants (N=14,821) rated their current memory and their memory compared to two years ago, with up to six occasions of longitudinal data over ten years. In both studies, episodic memory performance was the total number of words recalled in immediate and delayed conditions. When controlling for demographic and health correlates, self-ratings of memory abilities, but not subjective change, were related to performance. We examined accuracy by comparing subjective and objective memory ability and change. More than one third of the participants across the studies had self-assessments that were inaccurate relative to their actual level of performance and change, and accuracy differed as a function of demographic and health factors. Further understanding of self-awareness of memory abilities and change beginning in midlife may be useful for identifying early warning signs of decline, with implications regarding policies and practice for early detection and treatment of cognitive impairment. PMID:25821529

  20. Microbial colonization of post eruptive vents on the EPR at 9N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetriani, C.

    2008-12-01

    The overarching goal of this project is to understand the role of microbial colonists at newly formed vents as "mediators" in the transfer of energy from the geothermal source to the higher trophic levels, and their role in altering fluid chemistry and in "conditioning" the vent environment for metazoans to settle. Following the 2005-06 volcanic eruption along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) ridge crest between 9°N and 9°N, we had several opportunities to investigate the microbial colonization of the post-eruptive vents: in 2006 (about six months after the eruption), in January 2007 (one year after the eruption), and in December 2007/January 2008 (two years after the eruption). In order to investigate microbial colonization, we designed and deployed several experimental microbial colonizers on active diffuse flow vents characterized by different temperatures (approximate range 20-60°C) chemical (different redox conditions), and biological (e.g., presence or absence of metazoan colonists) regimes. Analyses of the 16S rRNA and fuctional gene transcripts from the colonizing communities indicated that Epsilonproteobacteria represented the dominant and active fraction of the chemosynthetic early microbial colonists, and that they expressed in-situ the genes involved in carbon dioxide fixation and nitrate respiration. However, data from our semi quantitative culture experiments indicated that Epsilonproteobacteria were not the only microorganisms that attached to basalts or to the experimental colonizers during the early phases of colonization. Sulfur dependent, chemosynthetic members of the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria were isolated from up to 10-5 dilutions of original samples along with heterotrophic Gammaproteobacteria capable of growth on n-alkanes as their sole carbon source. We propose a model that links the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids to the colonization of newly formed vents and suggests a role for chemosynthetic and heterotrophic bacteria in the

  1. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  2. Improving the Accuracy of the AFWA-NASA (ANSA) Blended Snow-Cover Product over the Lower Great Lakes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Kumar, Sujay; Chien, Janety Y. L.; Riggs, George A.

    2012-01-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) -- NASA blended snow-cover product, called ANSA, utilizes Earth Observing System standard snow products from the Moderate- Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) to map daily snow cover and snow-water equivalent (SWE) globally. We have compared ANSA-derived SWE with SWE values calculated from snow depths reported at 1500 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) co-op stations in the Lower Great Lakes Basin. Compared to station data, the ANSA significantly underestimates SWE in densely-forested areas. We use two methods to remove some of the bias observed in forested areas to reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the ANSA- and station-derived SWE. First, we calculated a 5- year mean ANSA-derived SWE for the winters of 2005-06 through 2009-10, and developed a five-year mean bias-corrected SWE map for each month. For most of the months studied during the five-year period, the 5-year bias correction improved the agreement between the ANSA-derived and station-derived SWE. However, anomalous months such as when there was very little snow on the ground compared to the 5-year mean, or months in which the snow was much greater than the 5-year mean, showed poorer results (as expected). We also used a 7-day running mean (7DRM) bias correction method using days just prior to the day in question to correct the ANSA data. This method was more effective in reducing the RMSE between the ANSA- and co-op-derived SWE values, and in capturing the effects of anomalous snow conditions.

  3. Modeling Winter Rainfall in Northwest India using a Hidden Markov Model: Understanding Occurrence of Different States and their Dynamical Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, I.; Robertson, A. W.; Lall, U.; Cane, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    A multiscale-modeling framework for daily rainfall is considered and diagnostic results are presented for an application to the winter season in Northwest India. The daily rainfall process is considered to follow a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), with the hidden states assumed to be an unknown random function of slowly varying climatic modulation of the winter jet stream and moisture transport dynamics. The data used are from 14 stations over the Satluj River basin in northwest India in winter (Dec-Jan-Feb-Mar). The period considered is 1977/78-2005/06. The HMM identifies four discrete weather states, which are used to describe daily rainfall variability over the study region. The first hidden state has low rainfall occurrence and intensity, the second has modest occurrence and low intensity, the third has high occurrence but low to modest intensity and the fourth has high frequency and intensity of daily rainfall. Each state was found to be associated with a distinct atmospheric circulation pattern, with States 3 and 4 characterized by a zonally oriented wave train extending across Eurasia between 20N-40N, identified with ';Western Disturbances'. State 1, by contrast, is characterized by a lack of synoptic wave activity. The occurrence of State 4 is strongly conditioned by the El Nino and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomena in winter, which is demonstrated using large-scale correlation maps based on mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and sea surface temperature (SST). This suggests that there is a tendency of higher frequency of the wet days and intense Western Disturbances in winter during El Nino and positive IOD years. These findings, derived from daily rainfall station records, help clarify the sequence of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude storms bringing winter rainfall over Northwest India, and their association with potentially predictable low frequency modes on seasonal time scales and longer.

  4. Modeling winter rainfall in Northwest India using a hidden Markov model: understanding occurrence of different states and their dynamical connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Indrani; Robertson, Andrew W.; Lall, Upmanu; Cane, Mark A.

    2015-02-01

    A multiscale-modeling framework for daily rainfall is considered and diagnostic results are presented for an application to the winter season in Northwest India. The daily rainfall process is considered to follow a hidden Markov model (HMM), with the hidden states assumed to be an unknown random function of slowly varying climatic modulation of the winter jet stream and moisture transport dynamics. The data used are from 14 stations over Satluj River basin in winter (December-January-February-March). The period considered is 1977/78-2005/06. The HMM identifies four discrete weather states, which are used to describe daily rainfall variability over study region. Each state was found to be associated with a distinct atmospheric circulation pattern, with the driest and drier states, State 1 and 2 respectively, characterized by a lack of synoptic wave activity. In contrast, the wetter and wettest states, States 3 and 4 respectively, are characterized by a zonally oriented wave train extending across Eurasia between 20N and 40N, identified with `western disturbances' (WD). The occurrence of State 4 is strongly conditioned by the El Nino and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomena in winter, which is demonstrated using large-scale correlation maps based on mean sea level pressure and sea surface temperature. This suggests that there is a tendency of higher frequency of the wet days and intense WD activities in winter during El Nino and positive IOD years. These findings, derived from daily rainfall station records, help clarify the sequence of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude storms bringing winter rainfall over Northwest India, and their association with potentially predictable low frequency modes on seasonal time scales and longer.

  5. Revised East-West Antarctic plate motions since the Middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J.; Damaske, D.

    2010-12-01

    The middle Cenozoic (43-26 Ma) rifting between East and West Antarctica is defined by an episode of ultraslow seafloor spreading in the Adare Basin, located off northwestern Ross Sea. The absence of fracture zones and the lack of sufficient well-located magnetic anomaly picks have resulted in a poorly constrained kinematic model (Cande et al., 2000). Here we utilize the results from a dense aeromagnetic survey (Damaske et al., 2007) collected as part of GANOVEX IX 2005/06 campaign to re-evaluate the kinematics of the West Antarctic rift system since the Middle Eocene. We identify marine magnetic anomalies (anomalies 12o, 13o, 16y, and 18o) along a total of 25,000 km of the GPS navigated magnetic profiles. The continuation of these anomalies into the Northern Basin has allowed us to use the entire N-S length of this dataset in our calculations. A distinct curvature in the orientation of the spreading axis provides a strong constraint on our calculated kinematic models. The results from two- (East-West Antarctica) and three- (Australia-East Antarctica-West Antarctica) plate solutions agree well and create a cluster of rotation axes located south of the rift system, near the South Pole. These solutions reveal that spreading rate and direction, and therefore motion between East and West Antarctica, were steady between the Middle Eocene and Early Oligocene. Our kinematic solutions confirm the results of Davey and De Santis (2005) that the Victoria Land Basin has accommodated ~95 km of extension since the Middle Eocene. This magnetic pattern also provides valuable constraints on the post-spreading deformation of the Adare Basin (Granot et al., 2010). The Adare Basin has accommodated very little extension since the Late Oligocene (<7 km), but motion has probably increased southward. The details of this younger phase of motion are still crudely constrained.

  6. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584

  7. The Brustkrebs-Studien.de website for breast cancer patients: User acceptance of a German internet portal offering information on the disease and treatment options, and a clinical trials matching service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The internet portal http://www.brustkrebs-studien.de (BKS) was launched in 2000 by the German Society of Senology (DGS) and the Baden-Württemberg Institute for Women's Health (IFG) to provide expert-written information on breast cancer online and to encourage and facilitate the participation of breast cancer patients in clinical trials. We describe the development of BKS and its applications, and report on website statistics and user acceptance. Methods Existing registries, including ClinicalTrials.gov, were analysed before we designed BKS, which combines a trial registry, a knowledge portal, and an online second opinion service. An advisory board guided the process. Log files and patient enquiries for trial participation and second opinions were analysed. A two-week user satisfaction survey was conducted online. Results During 10/2005-06/2010, the portal attracted 702,655 visitors, generating 15,507,454 page views. By 06/2010, the website's active scientific community consisted of 189 investigators and physicians, and the registry covered 163 clinical trial protocols. In 2009, 143 patients requested trial enrolment and 119 sought second opinions or individual treatment advice from the expert panel. During the two-week survey in 2008, 5,702 BKS visitors submitted 507 evaluable questionnaires. Portal acceptance was high. Respondents trusted information correctness (80%), welcomed self-matching to clinical trials (79%) and planned to use the portal in the future (76%) and recommend it to others (81%). Conclusions BKS is an established and trusted breast cancer information platform offering up-to-date resources and protocols to the growing physician and patient community to encourage participation in clinical trials. Further studies are needed to assess potential increases in trial enrolment by eligibility matching services. PMID:21126358

  8. New geophysical views of Mt.Melbourne Volcano (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armadillo, E.; Gambetta, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Bozzo, E.

    2009-05-01

    Mt. Melbourne volcano is located along the transition between the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic Rift System. Recent volcanic activity is suggested by the occurrence of blankets of pyroclastic pumice and scoria fall around the eastern and southern flanks of Mt Melbourne and by pyroclastic layers interbedded with the summit snows. Geothermal activity in the crater area of Mount Melbourne may be linked to the intrusion of dykes within the last 200 years. Geophysical networks suggest that Mount Melbourne is a quiescent volcano, possibly characterised by slow internal dynamics. During the 2002-2003 Italian Antarctic campaign a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was performed within the TIMM (Tectonics and Interior of Mt. Melbourne area) project. This helicopter-borne survey was flown at low-altitude and in drape-mode configuration (305 m above terrain) with a line separation less than 500 m. Our new high-resolution magnetic maps reveal the largely ice-covered magmatic and tectonic patters in the Mt. Melbourne volcano area. Additionally, in the frame of the UK-Italian ISODYN-WISE project (2005-06), an airborne ice-sounding radar survey was flown. We combine the sub-ice topography with images and models of the interior of Mt. Melbourne volcano, as derived from the high resolution aeromagnetic data and land gravity data. Our new geophysical maps and models also provide a new tool to study the regional setting of the volcano. In particular we re-assess whether there is geophysical evidence for coupling between strike-slip faulting, the Terror Rift, and Mount Melbourne volcano.

  9. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  10. Relationship between ridge segmentation and Moho transition zone structure from 3D multichannel seismic data collected over the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise at 9°50'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaei, O.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present stack and migrated stack volumes of a fast-spreading center produced from the high-resolution 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data collected in summer of 2008 over the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°50’N during cruise MGL0812. These volumes give us new insight into the 3D structure of the lower crust and Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) along and across the ridge axis, and how this structure relates to the ridge segmentation at the spreading axis. The area of 3D coverage is between 9°38’N and 9°58’N (~1000 km2) where the documented eruptions of 1990-91 and 2005-06 occurred. This high-resolution survey has a nominal bin size of 6.25 m in cross-axis direction and 37.5 m in along-axis direction. The prestack processing sequence applied to data includes 1D and 2D filtering to remove low-frequency cable noise, offset-dependent spherical divergence correction to compensate for geometrical spreading, surface-consistent amplitude correction to balance abnormally high/low shot and channel amplitudes, trace editing, velocity analysis, normal moveout (NMO), and CMP mute of stretched far offset arrivals. The poststack processing includes seafloor multiple mute to reduce migration noise and poststack time migration. We also will apply primary multiple removal and prestack time migration to the data and compare the results to the migrated stack volume. The poststack and prestack migrated volumes will then be used to detail Moho seismic signature variations and their relationship to ridge segmentation, crustal age, bathymetry, and magmatism. We anticipate that the results will also provide insight into the mantle upwelling pattern, which is actively debated for the study area.

  11. Schistosomiais and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Control in Niger: Cost Effectiveness of School Based and Community Distributed Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Jacqueline; Garba, Amadou; Oliva, Elisa Bosque; Barkire, Arouna; Tinni, Amadou Aboubacar; Djibo, Ali; Mounkaila, Idrissa; Fenwick, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004 Niger established a large scale schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths control programme targeting children aged 5–14 years and adults. In two years 4.3 million treatments were delivered in 40 districts using school based and community distribution. Method and Findings Four districts were surveyed in 2006 to estimate the economic cost per district, per treatment and per schistosomiasis infection averted. The study compares the costs of treatment at start up and in a subsequent year, identifies the allocation of costs by activity, input and organisation, and assesses the cost of treatment. The cost of delivery provided by teachers is compared to cost of delivery by community distributers (CDD). The total economic cost of the programme including programmatic, national and local government costs and international support in four study districts, over two years, was US$ 456,718; an economic cost/treatment of $0.58. The full economic delivery cost of school based treatment in 2005/06 was $0.76, and for community distribution was $0.46. Including only the programme costs the figures are $0.47 and $0.41 respectively. Differences at sub-district are more marked. This is partly explained by the fact that a CDD treats 5.8 people for every one treated in school. The range in cost effectiveness for both direct and direct and indirect treatments is quantified and the need to develop and refine such estimates is emphasised. Conclusions The relative cost effectiveness of school and community delivery differs by country according to the composition of the population treated, the numbers targeted and treated at school and in the community, the cost and frequency of training teachers and CDDs. Options analysis of technical and implementation alternatives including a financial analysis should form part of the programme design process. PMID:22022622

  12. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues. PMID:26120091

  13. Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding practices are associated with child nutrition in India: insights from nationally representative data.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Bamezai, Apurva; Subandoro, Ali; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Aguayo, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are critical to child nutrition. The objective of this paper was to examine the associations between age-appropriate IYCF practices and child nutrition outcomes in India using data from ∼18 463 children of 0-23.9 months old from India's National Family Health Survey, 2005-06-3. The outcome measures were child height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), weight-for-height z-score, stunting, underweight and wasting. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used, accounting for the clustered survey data. Regression models were adjusted for child, maternal, and household characteristics, and state and urban/rural residence. The analyses indicate that in India suboptimal IYCF practices are associated with poor nutrition outcomes in children. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were not associated with any of the nutrition outcomes considered. Not consuming any solid or semi-solid foods at 6-8.9 months was associated with being underweight (P < 0.05). The diet diversity score and achieving minimum diet diversity (≥4 food groups) for children 6-23 months of age were most strongly and significantly associated with HAZ, WAZ, stunting and underweight (P < 0.05). Maternal characteristics were also strongly associated with child undernutrition. In summary, poor IYCF practices, particularly poor complementary foods and feeding practices, are associated with poor child nutrition outcomes in India, particularly linear growth. PMID:23557463

  14. Functional disability and compromised mobility among older women with urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Hanissian, Paul D.; Strohbehn, Kris; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Fried, Terri R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the prevalence of functional disability among older women with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP). Daily UI was defined as answering “daily” to the question, “How frequently...have you had difficulty controlling your bladder, including leaking small amounts of urine, leaking when you cough or sneeze, or not being able to make it to the bathroom on time?” We then explored functional status. Women were asked about seven basic activities of daily living (ADLs). Statistical analyses with percentage estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between functional status and daily UI. Results In total, 1,412 women were included in our analysis. Daily UI was reported by 177 (12.5%) women. Functional dependence or disability with any ADLs was reported in 62.1% (95% CI 54.2%, 70.1%) of women with daily UI. Among women with daily UI, 23.6% (95% CI 16.8%, 30.5%) reported specific difficulty or dependence with using the toilet signifying functional limitations which may contribute to urine leakage. After adjusting for age category, race/ethnicity, education level, and parity, women with daily UI had 3.31 increased odds of functional difficulty or dependence compared with continent older women. Conclusion Over 60% of older women with daily UI reported functional difficulty or dependence and 1/4 of women with daily UI specifically reported difficulty or dependence with using the toilet. PMID:25185600

  15. A paradigm shift in predoctoral dental curricula in Brazil: evaluating the process of change.

    PubMed

    Zilbovicius, Celso; de Araujo, Maria Ercilia; Botazzo, Carlos; Frias, Antônio Carlos; Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Junqueira, Cilene Rennó

    2011-04-01

    In 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Education approved the official curricular guidelines for undergraduate courses in Brazil to be adopted by the nation's 188 dental schools. In 2005-06, the Brazilian Dental Education Association (BDEA) promoted workshops in forty-eight of the schools to verify the degree of transformation of the curriculum based on these guidelines. Among the areas analyzed were course philosophy (variables were v1: knowledge production based on the needs of the Brazilian Public Health System [BPHS]; v2: health determinants; and v3: postgraduate studies and permanent education); pedagogical skills (v4: curricular structure; v5: changes in pedagogic and didactic skills; and v6: course program orientation); and dental practice scenarios (v7: diversity of the scenarios for training/learning; v8: academic health care centers opened to the BPHS; and v9: participation of students in health care delivery for the population). The subjects consisted of faculty members (n=711), students (n=228), and employees (n=14). The results showed an incipient degree of curriculum transformation. The degree of innovation was statistically different depending on the type of university (public or private) for variables 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Private schools reported a higher level of innovation than public institutions. Resistance to transforming the dental curriculum according to the official guidelines may be linked to an ideological conception that supports the private practice model, continues to have faculty members direct all classroom activities, and prevents students from developing an understanding of professional practice as targeted towards the oral health needs of all segments of society. PMID:21460277

  16. Impact of the Spanish Smoke-Free Legislation on Adult, Non-Smoker Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Cross-Sectional Surveys before (2004) and after (2012) Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Sureda, Xisca; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez, Cristina; Carabasa, Esther; López, María J.; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A.; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues). In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds). The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05) and after the second law (2011–12). Methods Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004–2005 and 2011–2012) of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years) non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles) and salivary cotinine concentration. Results Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8) in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0) in 2011–12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (−15.1%, p<0.05) in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (−12.6%, p = 0.11) at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (−36.5%, p<0.001) during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (−69.9%, p<0.001) in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001). Conclusions Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home. PMID:24586774

  17. Trends in tooth loss in relation to socio-economic status among Swedish women, aged 38 and 50 years: repeated cross-sectional surveys 1968-2004

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral diseases are a health problem worldwide. Differences in oral health status may vary with geographical locations, but also within the same country and between groups with different social backgrounds. The specific aims were to describe secular trends in oral health status regarding number of remaining teeth and also to describe differences in socio-economic status, among 38- and 50-year-old women, over a 36-year period. Methods Cross-sectional health surveys were performed at four occasions; 1968/69 (n = 746), 1980/81 (n = 532), 1992/93 (n = 165) and 2004/05 (n = 500), including randomly selected women aged 38 and 50 years. The number of teeth was determined using panoramic radiographs and self-reported measures of marital status, social class, educational level, and income were recorded. Results The mean number of teeth among women has increased significantly. The educational level has increased while fewer women are married/cohabiting over time. There has been a shift in the social group the women belong to, where proportionally more women were categorized in a higher social group in 2004/05 than in 1968/69. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between fewer teeth and a lower social group, and among the 50-year-old women, this was irrespective of examination year. However, multivariate analyses showed that the risk to be edentulous or not, or to have fewer remaining teeth was significantly higher for women of lower social group, or living alone, in all studies over the 36 year-period. This was independent of age group, even though the risk diminished over the study period. Conclusions Cohort comparisons of women aged 38 and 50 years during 36 years showed that dental status improved, with (i) a decreasing prevalence of edentulism and, (ii) an increasing number of remaining teeth in dentate individuals over time. Differences due to social group and education were still present, with more remaining teeth in the women in

  18. Knowledge and Behavioural Factors Associated with Gender Gap in Acquiring HIV Among Youth in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Shraboni; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years) clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Design and Methods Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years), interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson’s Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, P<0.001). Women who had first sex under age 15 (7.3%), had more than 2 sexual partners (9.2%) and did not use condom during last sex (6.4%) were more HIV-positive. Higher risk was found among women (6.3%) than men (2.2%). Significantly (P<0.01) less percentage (81.3%) of women as compared to men (83.8%) perceived that the probability of HIV transmission may be reduced by correct and consistent use of the condom during sex. Conclusions Hence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies and programmes to raise awareness on sexual health and risky behaviour, particularly targeting the youth, which will reduce the gender gap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda. Significance for public health The present study represents the evidence of a recent increase in HIV infection in Uganda from the latest round of AIDs indicator survey. This manuscript describes how young women (15-24 years-old) are disproportionately HIV-infected compared to young men in Uganda. They are more vulnerable to HIV than young men. Moreover, it is also observed that young

  19. Is it worthwhile to invest in home care?

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Josée G; Forget, Evelyn L; Dahl, Matt; Martens, Patricia J; O'Neil, John D

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of the First Nations and Inuit Home and Community Care Program (FNIHCCP) on the rates of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) in the province of Manitoba. A population-based time trend analysis was conducted using the de-identified administrative data housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, including data from 1984/85 to 2004/05. Findings show a significant decline in the rates of hospitalization (all conditions) following the introduction of the FNIHCCP in communities served by health offices (p<0.0001), health centres (p<0.0001) and nursing stations (p=0.0022). Communities served by health offices or health centres also experienced a significant reduction in rates of hospitalization for chronic conditions (p<0.0001).The results of this study suggest that investment in home care resulted in a significant decline in rates of avoidable hospitalization, especially in communities that otherwise had limited access to primary healthcare. PMID:22548097

  20. A short medical school course on responding to bioterrorism and other disasters.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Alan R; Oliver, Sandra; Jenkins, Donald; Ruscio, Bruce; Green, J Ben; Colenda, Christopher

    2005-09-01

    The events of 9/11 highlighted the limitations of the United States health care system in responding to large-scale public health emergencies. The key for an effective response to any mass casualty event is preparedness; thus, the education of medical students has become a priority. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) recommended that the nation's medical schools should thoroughly educate students about the public health and emergency services systems to ensure coordinated responses to weapons of mass destruction or other public health threats. In response, The Texas A&M University System Health Science Center College of Medicine, partnering with the Defense Institute for Medical Operations (DIMO), developed a one-week block of required (but not graded) instruction, the "Leadership Course in Disaster Response," first given in 2003-04 to 72 second-year students and taught by six military experts from DIMO. The course goal is to (1) educate students on resources available for regional disaster response; (2) define principles of resource management in disaster response; (3) identify specific agents associated with bioterrorism; and (4) understand the psychosocial aspects of disasters. The course was well received, and the 2004-05 session was improved, based on student and faculty feedback. The authors describe the details of the course (specifically, how the course was tailored to fit the AAMC guidelines), changes in students' knowledge and attitudes, and how the course was improved. PMID:16123460

  1. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  2. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A contamination of retail foods and intake of these mycotoxins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Nakajima, M; Tabata, S; Ishikuro, E; Tanaka, T; Norizuki, H; Itoh, Y; Aoyama, K; Fujita, K; Kai, S; Sato, T; Saito, S; Yoshiike, N; Sugita-Konishi, Y

    2008-09-01

    A survey was undertaken of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), G2 (AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), and fumonisin B1 (FB1), B2 (FB2) and B3 (FB3) contamination of various retail foods in Japan during 2004-05. The mycotoxins were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Aflatoxins (AFs) were detected in ten of 21 peanut butter and in 22 of 44 bitter chocolate samples; the highest level of AFB1, 2.59 microg kg(-1), was found in peanut butter. Aflatoxin contamination was not observed in corn products (n = 55), corn (n = 110), peanuts (n = 120), buckwheat flour (n = 23), dried buckwheat noodles (n = 59), rice (n = 83) or sesame oil (n = 20). OTA was detected in 120 out of 192 samples of oatmeal, wheat flour, rye, buckwheat flour, raw coffee, roasted coffee, raisin, beer, wine and bitter chocolate, but not in rice or corn products. OTA levels in the positive samples were below 13 microg kg(-1). AFs and OTA intakes through the consumption of foods containing cacao were estimated using the data for mycotoxin contamination in bitter chocolate and those for the consumption of foods containing cacao in Japan. PMID:19238621

  3. Warm Atlantic water drives Greenland Ice Sheet discharge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, P.; Heywood, K. J.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Syvitski, J. P.; Benham, T. J.; Mugford, R. I.; Joughin, I.; Luckman, A.

    2008-12-01

    Greenland outlet glaciers terminating in fjords experience seasonal fluctuations as well as abrupt episodes of rapid retreat and speed-up. The cause of abrupt speed-up events is not firmly established, but synchronous occurrences suggest that it is related to Arctic warming. Here, we report major warming of water masses in Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord, East Greenland, immediately prior to the fast retreat and speed-up of Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier in 2004-05. Our hydrographic data show that this event occurred when Atlantic water entered the fjord and increased temperature of surface water by 4°C and deep water by 1°C. On the basis of meteorological records and satellite-derived sea surface temperatures, which fluctuate by up to 4°C in periods of 2-3 years, we infer that inflow of Atlantic water is controlled by the direction and intensity of prevailing winds that force coastal and offshore currents. Our results demonstrate that Greenland Ice Sheet discharge dynamics are modulated by North Atlantic climate variability, which is identified by shifts in the position of atmospheric low pressure over the Labrador and Irminger seas. A persisting westerly position of the Icelandic Low since 1999 may explain why winters in Greenland have been particularly mild during the last decade and it is feasible that widespread and synchronous discharge fluctuations from outlet glaciers, which resulted in high rates of ice loss in southeast Greenland, are a consequence of this synoptic condition.

  4. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (∼5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < .01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  5. A Model for the Passive Infrared Detection of Naval Targets through FLIR: Model Description and Preliminary Results Applicable in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagaras, S. E.; Uzunoglu, N. K.

    2008-06-01

    The maritime environment is a very unique system with respect to the environmental conditions that affect the transmission of electromagnetic energy, and especially the part of the spectrum that falls in the infrared band. This paper proposes an end-to-end model for the detection of ships at the environmental conditions of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, with the use of a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system. The model: a) covers the issues regarding the detection and classification of simple model targets in various states of temperature conditions, by applying the Moser and O’Neill criteria, b) takes into account existing environmental conditions, by using data obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) and the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) for the years 2004-05, and c) uses the LOWTRAN 7 code for the calculation of the transmission through the maritime atmosphere. In the calculation of the atmospheric transmission, turbulence is taken into account through the introduction of a Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), to model the specific phenomenon. The FLIR system is also modeled as a series of MTF functions, with each one of those covering the characteristics of major subsystems of the detection device. Finally, the observer’s MTF is included in the model, and the probability of completing the specific task is calculated and presented for a range of observer to target distances.

  6. Energy demand and environmental implications in urban transport — Case of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar

    A simple model of passenger transport in the city of Delhi has been developed using a computer-based software called—Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) and the associated Environmental Database (EDB) model. The hierarchical structure of LEAP represents the traffic patterns in terms of passenger travel demand, mode (rail/road), type of vehicle and occupancy (persons per vehicle). Transport database in Delhi together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand and energy consumption calculations. Emission factors corresponding to the actual vehicle types and driving conditions in Delhi is introduced into the EDB and linked to the energy consumption values for estimating total emission of CO, HC, NO x, SO 2 Pb and TSP. The LEAP model is used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year-1990/91 and extrapolate for the future—1994/95, 2000/01, 2004/05 and 2009/10, respectively. The model is run under five alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement in the transport sector of Delhi and also reduce emission. The prime objective is to arrive at an optimal transport policy which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution.

  7. Prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum comparison of betadine, erythromycin and no prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zamani; Khadije, Daneshjou; Elahe, Amini; Mohammad, Milani; Fateme, Zamani; Narges, Zamani

    2007-12-01

    Ophthalmia neonatorum is a form of bacterial conjunctivitis contracted by newborns during delivery and occurs during the first month of life. Etiologic factors include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, viruses and chemicals. Its prevalence differs in different parts of the world and is dependent mainly upon socioeconomic conditions, level of knowledge about general health, standard of maternal healthcare as well as the type of prophylactic program used. This randomized clinical trial was performed during the years 2004-05 in the Delivery Section of Vali-e-Asr Hospital on 330 neonates who were divided into three equal groups of 110; Group A received betadine eye drops, Group B received Erythromycin eye drops and Group C (control group) received no treatment. Results showed that clinical conjunctivitis occurred in 52 subjects (17%), 58% of whom constituted males. On the whole, 9% of the infected newborns were from group A, 18.4% from group B and 22.4% from group C. It was concluded that 2.5% sterile betadine eye drops had a pronounced effect on ophthalmia neonatorum (p = 0.030). PMID:18055489

  8. Pandemic Influenza Planning in Nursing Homes: Are We Prepared?

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Cinti, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza or Influenza A (H5N1) is caused by a viral strain that occurs naturally in wild birds, but to which humans are immunologically naïve. If an influenza pandemic occurs, it is expected to have dire consequences, including millions of deaths, social disruption, and enormous economic consequences. The Department of Health and Human Resources plan, released in November 2005, clearly affirms the threat of a pandemic. Anticipating a disruption in many factions of society, every segment of the healthcare industry, including nursing homes, will be affected and will need to be self-sufficient. Disruption of vaccine distribution during the seasonal influenza vaccine shortage during the 2004/05 influenza season is but one example of erratic emergency planning. Nursing homes will have to make vital decisions and provide care to older adults who will not be on the initial priority list for vaccine. At the same time, nursing homes will face an anticipated shortage of antiviral medications and be expected to provide surge capacity for overwhelmed hospitals. This article provides an overview of current recommendations for pandemic preparedness and the potential effect of a pandemic on the nursing home industry. It highlights the need for collaborative planning and dialogue between nursing homes and various stakeholders already heavily invested in pandemic preparedness. PMID:17767687

  9. Problem of small numbers in reporting of cancer incidence and mortality rates in Indian cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Takiar, Ramnath; Nadayil, Deenu; Nandakumar, A

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines the problem of small numbers (<20 cases) associated with many sites of cancers in Indian cancer registries. The cancer incidence data of 14 Population Based Cancer Registries for the periods of 2001-03 and 2004-05 were utilized for the analysis. Nine out of 14 registries had more than 50% of their sites being associated with small numbers while seven registries had 50% of their sites having as low as 5 cases. Sites associated with small numbers showed a lot of variation and significant differences in their incidence rates within two years duration which are not feasible. The percentage age distribution was also found to vary with different periods. The paper has effectively shown the effect of population size on incidence rates. For a registry of population size 300,000, the incidence rate of 6 can very well be unstable. There are many registries in the world with their population size less than 200,000. Even in the case of registries with high population (>or= 500,000) the practice is to report the cancer incidence by different ethnic groups with populations less than 200,000 and thereby introduce the problem of small numbers in reporting the incidences of various cancer sites. To overcome this problem, pooling of data over broad age groups or ten years age groups or 3 to 5 years periods is one immediate solution. PMID:19827889

  10. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  11. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  12. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season. PMID:18178886

  13. Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Björn; Lundberg, Angela

    2010-02-15

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings. PMID:19939438

  14. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives. PMID:20688680

  15. Episodic riverine influence on surface DIC in the coastal Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Joseph; Vandemark, Douglas; Hunt, Christopher; Campbell, Janet; Jonsson, Bror; Mahadevan, Amala; McGillis, Wade; Xue, Huijie

    2009-03-01

    Anomalously high precipitation and river discharge during the spring of 2005 caused considerable freshening and depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters along the coastal Gulf of Maine. Surface pCO 2 and total alkalinity (TA) were monitored by repeated underway sampling of a cross-shelf transect in the western Gulf of Maine (GOM) during 2004-05 to examine how riverine fluxes, mixing, and subsequent biological activity exert control on surface DIC in this region. Most of the variability in surface DIC concentration was attributable to mixing of low DIC river water with higher DIC, saline GOM waters, but net biological uptake of DIC was significant especially during the spring and summer seasons. The extent and persistence of the coastal freshwater intrusion exerted considerable influence on net carbon dynamics. Integrated over the 10-m surface layer of our study region (˜5 × 10 4 km 2), net biological DIC uptake was 0.48 × 10 8 mol C during April-July of 2004 compared to 1.33 × 10 8 mol C during April-July of 2005. We found the temporal signature and magnitude of DIC cycling to be different in adjacent plume-influenced and non-plume regions. Extreme events such as the freshwater anomaly observed in 2005 will affect mean estimates of coastal carbon fluxes, thus budgets based on short time series of observations may be skewed and should be viewed with caution.

  16. Hidden Variables and Placebo Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2006-03-01

    God's response to prayers and placebo leads to a question. How does He respond deterministically? He may be controlling at least one of the two variables of the uncertainty principle by extending His invisible soul to each body particle locally. Amazingly, many Vedic verses support this answer. One describes the size of the soul as arithmetically matching the size of the nucleons as if a particle is a soul. One gives a name meaning particle soul (anu-atma), consistent with particle's indeterministic behavior like that of (soulful) bird’s flying in any directions irrespective of the direction of throw. One describes souls as eternal consistent with the conservation of baryon number. One links the souls to the omnipresent (param- atma) like Einstein Rosen bridges link particles to normal spacetime. One claims eternal coexistence of matter and soul as is inflationary universe in physics/0210040 V2. The implicit scientific consistency of such verses makes the relationship of particle source of consciousness to the omnipresent Supreme analogous to the relationship of quantum source of gravitons in my gr-qc/0507130 to normal spacetime This frees us from the postulation of quantum wormholes and quantum foam. Dr. Hooft's view in ``Does God play dice,'' Physicsword, Dec 2005 seems consistent with my progressive conference presentations in Russia, Europe, India, and USA (Hindu University) in 2004/05. I see implications for nanoscience.

  17. An Earthquake Prediction System Using The Time Series Analyses of Earthquake Property And Crust Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Fumihide; Takeo, Makoto

    2004-12-09

    We have developed a short-term deterministic earthquake (EQ) forecasting system similar to those used for Typhoons and Hurricanes, which has been under a test operation at website http://www.tec21.jp/ since June of 2003. We use the focus and crust displacement data recently opened to the public by Japanese seismograph and global positioning system (GPS) networks, respectively. Our system divides the forecasting area into the five regional areas of Japan, each of which is about 5 deg. by 5 deg. We have found that it can forecast the focus, date of occurrence and magnitude (M) of an impending EQ (whose M is larger than about 6), all within narrow limits. We have two examples to describe the system. One is the 2003/09/26 EQ of M 8 in the Hokkaido area, which is of hindsight. Another is a successful rollout of the most recent forecast on the 2004/05/30 EQ of M 6.7 off coast of the southern Kanto (Tokyo) area.

  18. By Air and Land: Estimating Post-Fire Debris-Flow Susceptibility through High-Resolution Radar Reflectivity and Tipping-Bucket Gage Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, M. N.; Schmidt, K. M.; Jorgensen, D. P.; Stock, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Wildfires often increase the occurrence of post-fire hazardous flash floods and debris flows from steeplands during intense rainfall. Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds have been used to forecast when this hazard increases rapidly; one threshold for Southern California is 15 mm/hr. However, such thresholds are usually developed with point measurements that only capture a small portion of the landscape. In an attempt to limit potential loss of life, the USGS is collaborating with NOAA on a demonstration early-warning system. To address the lack of spatial rainfall coverage, NOAA deployed a small mobile radar truck (SMART-R) to the Day fire in the western Transverse Range during the 2006-07 winter, and to the Canyon and Corral fires in the Santa Monica Mountains near Malibu during the 2007-08 winter. The SMART-R's C-band Doppler radar can be used to estimate rainfall rates over entire burned areas. On topography susceptible to debris flows within these 3 fires, the USGS installed a dense array of ground-based instruments, including 8 tipping- bucket rain gages in the Day fire, and 3 each in the Canyon and Corral fires. After converting hourly time- step grids of SMART-R reflectivity (150 m node spacing) into precipitation estimates, we compared the gage data to its spatially coincident SMART-R cell.Results from the Day fire indicate that SMART-R derived seasonal and event-based rainfall totals were typically greater than gage totals during the 2006-07 winter of record-low rainfall. Both data sets, however, reflected similar spatial patterns of rainfall intensity. In contrast, for the Malibu fires there is no systematic agreement in spatial pattern or rainfall mismatch; the difference between the two data sets. Of the 9 storms recorded during this 2007-08 winter, SMART-R estimates of rainfall totals exceeded the gage totals for only 3, underestimating totals for the remaining 6. The mismatch magnitudes also exceed that of the previous winter recorded at the Day

  19. Emergency department visits, ambulance calls, and mortality associated with an exceptional heat wave in Sydney, Australia, 2011: a time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From January 30-February 6, 2011, New South Wales was affected by an exceptional heat wave, which broke numerous records. Near real-time Emergency Department (ED) and ambulance surveillance allowed rapid detection of an increase in the number of heat-related ED visits and ambulance calls during this period. The purpose of this study was to quantify the excess heat-related and all-cause ED visits and ambulance calls, and excess all-cause mortality, associated with the heat wave. Methods ED and ambulance data were obtained from surveillance and administrative databases, while mortality data were obtained from the state death registry. The observed counts were compared with the average counts from the same period from 2006/07 through 2009/10, and a Poisson regression model was constructed to calculate the number of excess ED visits, ambulance and deaths after adjusting for calendar and lag effects. Results During the heat wave there were 104 and 236 ED visits for heat effects and dehydration respectively, and 116 ambulance calls for heat exposure. From the regression model, all-cause ED visits increased by 2% (95% CI 1.01-1.03), all-cause ambulance calls increased by 14% (95% CI 1.11-1.16), and all-cause mortality increased by 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22). Those aged 75 years and older had the highest excess rates of all outcomes. Conclusions The 2011 heat wave resulted in an increase in the number of ED visits and ambulance calls, especially in older persons, as well as an increase in all-cause mortality. Rapid surveillance systems provide markers of heat wave impacts that have fatal outcomes. PMID:22273155

  20. JEODI Workshop: Arctic site survey challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokat, W.; Backman, J.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Mikkelsen, N.; Thiede, J.

    2003-04-01

    In past decades the geoscientific activities in the High Arctic were rather low compared to other areas on the globe. The remoteness of the region and the difficult logistical conditions made Arctic research very expensive and the results unpredictable. In the late 80's this situation changed to the better since modern research icebreaker became available to the scientific community. These research platforms provided opportunities in terms of equipment, which was standard in other regions. Where necessary techniques were adapted allowing to conduct the experiments even in difficult ice conditions, e.g. multi-channel seismic. In the last decade the Arctic Ocean were identified to play a key role in our understanding of the Earth's climate. An urgent need for scientific deep drill holes in the central Arctic was obvious to better understand the climate evolution of the past in a regional and global sense. However, to select and prepare the drilling experiments sufficient site survey data, especially seismic data, are needed. These problems were addressed during a recent JEODI workshop in Copenhagen. The participants recommended dedicated expeditions tothe Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, the Lomonosov Ridge and the Gakkel Ridge to provide a critical amount of geophysical data for future drilling efforts. An international expedition to the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge was proposed as part of the International Geophysical Polar Year 2006/07 to investigate the least known oceanic ridge of the world's ocean. Besides scientific targets in the High Arctic it became obvious during the workshop that in the marginal seas and plateaux sufficient geophysical data exist to submit drilling proposals like for the Yermak Plateau, the Chukchi Plateau/Northwind Ridge and Laptew Sea continental margin. These proposals would perfectly complement the highly ranked drilling proposal on Lomonosov Ridge, which hopefully can be drilled in 2004 within the ODP/IODP programme. This presentation will provide