Science.gov

Sample records for 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

  1. Parents Returning to Work: Evaluation of Grant Recipient Outcomes 2004-05, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Kellock, Peter; Burke, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The Parents Returning to Work Program (PRTW) is a Victorian government initiative which commenced in 2003. It provides grants to assist eligible parents who wish to return to paid employment after a period of caring for children to participate in training that will increase their work skills and job prospects. This evaluation aimed to review the…

  2. Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide Listing: 1990-91 thru 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The nationwide Teacher Shortage Area (TSA) lists for the 2004-05 and 2005-06 school years have been completed and are listed by state in this document. A state that desires to propose teacher shortage areas for designation must submit the information required under the program regulations for the following programs: (1) Targeted teacher deferment…

  3. ARL Annual Salary Survey 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2005-06" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,655…

  4. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Clemson University. Sector: Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  5. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Columbia. Sector: Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  6. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Medical University of South Carolina. Sector: Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  7. ARL Annual Salary Survey, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Ed.; Young, Mark, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2004-05" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. The ARL represents the interests of libraries that serve major North American research institutions. The Association operates as a forum for the exchange of ideas and as an agent for…

  8. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This document presents results of the 2005-06 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 75 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections, including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased, current…

  9. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Presented herein are data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 65 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2005-06, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 245,212 volumes, spent a total of $239,944,918, and employed 2,524 FTE…

  10. School Finance 2005?06. Budget Sets Off Public Battle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    For the past year, the issue of public education funding has been particularly contentious in California. A pitched political battle between education advocates and the administration of Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger began with a December 2004 preview of the governor's budget proposal for 2005?06. The fight continued through a spring filled with…

  11. ARL Annual Salary Survey, 2006-07. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2006-07" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,824…

  12. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Aiken. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  13. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Upstate. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  14. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Winthrop University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  15. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Francis Marion University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  16. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Coastal Carolina University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  17. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. College of Charleston. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  18. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Lander University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  19. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Beaufort. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  20. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. The Citadel. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  1. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. South Carolina State University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  2. School Finance 2006-07: State Leaders Settle Up with Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian; Perry, Mary

    2006-01-01

    EdSource's annual public education budget report, "School Finance 2006-07: State Leaders Settle Up with Education," offers a comprehensive look at this year's funding decisions for schools, recent budget history, and how the state's schools are funded. In contrast with last year's budget battles, the process for 2006-07 notably lacked…

  3. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Academic Year Report: 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Academic Year Report 2005-06 provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and students. Additional demographic…

  4. The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    New Jersey's urban--or "Abbott"--schools have improved at the preschool and elementary school level, but lag when it comes to middle and high school performance. These are the key findings of an Abbott Indicators Project report entitled, "The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges." The report was prepared by…

  5. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Lancaster. Sector: Two-Year Institutions--Branches of the University of SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  6. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Salkehatchie. Sector: Two-Year Institutions--Branches of the University of SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  7. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Union. Sector: Two-Year Institutions--Branches of the University of SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  8. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Sumter. Sector: Two-Year Institutions--Branches of the University of SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  9. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2005/06.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Lo, S V

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong domestic health spending between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2005/06, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider, and function on an annual basis. In fiscal year 2005/06, total health expenditure was HK$71 557 million. In real terms, it grew 6.5% per annum on average throughout the study period, whereas gross domestic product grew 4.1%, indicating a growing percentage of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.5% in 1989/90 to 5.1% in 2005/06. This increase was largely funded by public spending, which rose 8.2% per annum on average in real terms, compared with 5.1% for private spending. This represents a growing share of public spending from 40.2% to 51.6% of total health expenditure during the period. Public spending was the dominant source of health financing in 2005/06, whereas private household out-of-pocket expenditure accounted for the second largest share (34.5%), followed by employer-provided group medical benefits (7.5%), privately purchased insurance (5.1%), and other private sources (1.3%). Of the HK$71 557 million total health expenditure in 2005/06, HK$68 810 million (96.2%) was on current expenditure and HK$2746 million (3.8%) on capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Services of curative care accounted for the largest share (67.3%) and were made up of ambulatory services (35.7%), in-patient services (27.7%), day patient hospital services (3.4%), and home care (0.6%). The second largest share was spending on medical goods outside the patient care setting (10.8%). In terms of health care providers, hospitals (44.0%) accounted for the largest share of total health expenditure in 2005/06, followed by providers of ambulatory health care (31.4%). We observed a system-wide trend towards service consolidation at institutions (as opposed to free-standing ambulatory clinics, most of which are staffed by solo practitioners). Not taking capital expenses

  10. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2004-05 school year alone, approximately $74 billion in new aid was…

  11. Physician acceptance of new Medicare patients stabilizes in 2004-05.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Peter; Staiti, Andrea; Ginsburg, Paul B

    2006-01-01

    Despite an earlier Medicare payment rate reduction, the proportion of U.S. physicians accepting Medicare patients stabilized in 2004-05, with nearly three-quarters saying their practices were open to all new Medicare patients, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). In 2004-05, 72.9 percent of physicians reported accepting all new Medicare patients, statistically unchanged from 71.1 percent in 2000-01. Only 3.4 percent of physicians reported that their practices were completely closed to new Medicare patients in 2004-05, also statistically unchanged from 2000-01. These trends indicate the decline in Medicare physician access observed between 1996-97 and 2000-01 leveled off in 2004-05. In fact, Medicare beneficiaries' access to primary care physicians increased between 2000-01 and 2004-05, reversing an earlier decline. Among privately insured patients, trends in physician access are similar to those for Medicare patients, suggesting that overall health system dynamics have played a larger role in physician decisions about accepting Medicare patients than have Medicare payment policies.

  12. Public, Private and Nonpublic Schools High School Graduates, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Joanne R., Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of statistical information covering Pennsylvania high school graduates in public, private and nonpublic schools for the 2004-05 school year. Information is provided on race/ethnicity, gender and intended post-high school activity of graduates, including those who are college-bound. Information is also…

  13. School-Based Health Centers: National Census School Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juszczak, Linda; Schlitt, John; Moore, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care conducted the 2004-05 Census, the tenth count of school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986, to: (1) provide a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collect up-to-date data on demographics, staffing services, operations,…

  14. 2006/07 Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Yarbrough, David W; Miller, William A; Petrie, Thomas; Childs, Phillip W; Syed, Azam M

    2008-12-01

    Most recent improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that in the near future, residences will be routinely constructed to operate with very low heating and cooling loads. In that light, the application of novel building materials containing active thermal components (e.g., phase change materials [PCMs,] sub-venting, radiant barriers, and integrated hydronic systems) is like a final step in achieving relatively significant heating and cooling energy savings from technological improvements in the building envelope. It is expected that optimized building envelope designs using PCMs for energy storage can effectively bring notable savings in energy consumption and reductions in peak hour power loads. During 2006/07, a research team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a series of laboratory and field tests of several wall and roof assemblies using PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. This report summarizes the test results from the perspective of energy performance. The ORNL team is working on both inorganic and organic PCMs; this report discusses only paraffinic PCMs. A limited economical analysis also is presented. PCMs have been tested as a thermal mass component in buildings for at least 40 years. Most of the research studies found that PCMs enhanced building energy performance. In the case of the application of organic PCMs, problems such as high initial cost and PCM leaking (surface sweating) have hampered widespread adoption. Paraffinic hydrocarbon PCMs generally performed well, with the exception that they increased the flammability of the building envelope.

  15. Channel morphodynamics in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Channel morphodynamics in response to flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam are examined in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River. Measures include changes in channel morphology and indicators of sediment transport in four 6 kilometer long reaches located downstream from Gavins Point Dam, near Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri. Each of the four reaches was divided into 300 transects with a 20-meter spacing and surveyed during the summer in 2006 and 2007. A subset of 30 transects was randomly selected and surveyed 7-10 times in 2006-07 over a wide range of discharges including managed and natural flow events. Hydroacoustic mapping used a survey-grade echosounder and a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System to evaluate channel change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to evaluate bed-sediment velocity. Results indicate varying amounts of deposition, erosion, net change, and sediment transport in the four Lower Missouri River reaches. The Yankton reach was the most stable over monthly and annual time-frames. The Kenslers Bend and Little Sioux reaches exhibited substantial amounts of deposition and erosion, although net change was generally low in both reaches. Total, or gross geomorphic change was greatest in the Kenslers Bend reach. The Miami reach exhibited varying rates of deposition and erosion, and low net change. The Yankton, Kenslers Bend, and Miami reaches experienced net erosion during the time period that bracketed the managed May 2006 spring rise event from Gavins Point Dam.

  16. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2005-06 (Fiscal Year 2006). First Look. NCES 2008-345

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2008-01-01

    This brief publication contains basic revenue and expenditure data, by state, for public elementary and secondary education for school year 2005-06. It contains state-level data on revenues by source and expenditures by function, including expenditures per pupil. It presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2005-06

  17. Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion at Mount St Helens in 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.; Dzurisin, D.; Gardner, C.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Lisowski, M.; Major, J.J.; Malone, S.D.; Messerich, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Pallister, J.S.; Qamar, A.I.; Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The 2004-05 eruption of Mount St Helens exhibited sustained, near-equilibrium behaviour characterized by relatively steady extrusion of a solid dacite plug and nearly periodic shallow earthquakes. Here we present a diverse data set to support our hypothesis that these earthquakes resulted from stick-slip motion along the margins of the plug as it was forced incrementally upwards by ascending, solidifying, gas-poor magma. We formalize this hypothesis with a dynamical model that reveals a strong analogy between behaviour of the magma-plug system and that of a variably damped oscillator. Modelled stick-slip oscillations have properties that help constrain the balance of forces governing the earthquakes and eruption, and they imply that magma pressure never deviated much from the steady equilibrium pressure. We infer that the volcano was probably poised in a near-eruptive equilibrium state long before the onset of the 2004-05 eruption. ??2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion at Mount St Helens in 2004-05.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Richard M; Dzurisin, Daniel; Gardner, Cynthia A; Gerlach, Terrence M; LaHusen, Richard G; Lisowski, Michael; Major, Jon J; Malone, Stephen D; Messerich, James A; Moran, Seth C; Pallister, John S; Qamar, Anthony I; Schilling, Steven P; Vallance, James W

    2006-11-23

    The 2004-05 eruption of Mount St Helens exhibited sustained, near-equilibrium behaviour characterized by relatively steady extrusion of a solid dacite plug and nearly periodic shallow earthquakes. Here we present a diverse data set to support our hypothesis that these earthquakes resulted from stick-slip motion along the margins of the plug as it was forced incrementally upwards by ascending, solidifying, gas-poor magma. We formalize this hypothesis with a dynamical model that reveals a strong analogy between behaviour of the magma-plug system and that of a variably damped oscillator. Modelled stick-slip oscillations have properties that help constrain the balance of forces governing the earthquakes and eruption, and they imply that magma pressure never deviated much from the steady equilibrium pressure. We infer that the volcano was probably poised in a near-eruptive equilibrium state long before the onset of the 2004-05 eruption.

  19. Middle School Mathematics: 2006-07 to 2008-09. Impact Evaluation. E&R Report No. 10.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeplow, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-07, seven Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) middle schools piloted Algebraic Thinking as an alternate approach to teaching middle school mathematics. Algebraic Thinking was developed to help students in grade 6 reach higher mathematics courses by combining the regular and advanced middle school mathematics courses into one…

  20. Extreme subsurface warm events in the South China Sea during 1998/99 and 2006/07: observations and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fuan; Zeng, Lili; Liu, Qin-Yan; Zhou, Wen; Wang, Dongxiao

    2017-03-01

    Conductivity-temperature-depth observations, objectively analyzed data, and model output are used to investigate the variability of subsurface temperature in the South China Sea (SCS) during 1948-2010. Two extreme subsurface warm events are identified during 1998/99 and 2006/07, with no corresponding extreme surface warming except in 1998. Mixed-layer heat budget analysis reveals that the lack of significant heat input from surface net heat flux or from current advection is responsible for the absence of extreme surface warming during 1999, and 2006/07. The surface net heat flux alone cannot explain the first phases of subsurface warming during 1998/99 and 2006/07. Warm advection from the southern SCS in 1998/99 and from the Kuroshio intrusion in 2006/07, induced by anomalous ocean currents, is likely the major contributor to warming of the subsurface water. During the second phase of warming, the surface net heat flux plays a damping role to cool the subsurface water, and the warm advection induced by anomalous SCS western boundary currents from the southern SCS leads to extremely warm subsurface water anomalies. The results show the importance of the Pacific western boundary currents, especially the Kuroshio, in maintaining extreme subsurface warm events in the SCS.

  1. Hong Kong's domestic health spending--financial years 1989/90 through 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Leung, G M; Tin, K Y K; Yeung, G M K; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Fung, A Y K; Lo, S V

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong's domestic health spending between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2004/05, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider and function on an annual basis. Total expenditure on health was HK$67,807 million in fiscal year 2004/05. In real terms, total expenditure on health showed positive growth averaging 7% per annum throughout the period covered in this report while gross domestic product grew at 4% per annum on average, indicating a growing percentage of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.5% in 1989/90 to 5.2% in 2004/05. This increase was largely driven by the rise in public spending, which rose 9% per annum on average in real terms over the period, compared with 5% for private spending. This represents a growing share of public spending from 40% to 55% of total expenditure on health during the period. While public spending was the dominant source of health financing in 2004/05, private household out-of-pocket expenditure accounted for the second largest share of total health spending (32%). The remaining sources of health finance were employer-provided group medical benefits (8%), privately purchased insurance (5%), and other private sources (1%). Of the $67,807 million total health expenditure in 2004/05, current expenditure comprised $65,429 million (96%) while $2378 million (4%) were capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Services of curative care accounted for the largest share of total health spending (67%) which were made up of ambulatory services (35%), in-patient curative care (28%), day patient hospital services (3%), and home care (1%). The next largest share of total health expenditure was spent on medical goods outside the patient care setting (10%). Analysed by health care provider, hospitals accounted for the largest share (46%) and providers of ambulatory health care the second largest share (30%) of total health spending in 2004/05. We

  2. Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Yung, C F; Ramsay, M

    2016-08-18

    Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in the 1980s. A simple statistical model, based on analysing time trends for diagnosed complications in hospital databases with routine laboratory surveillance data, found that the actual morbidity was much higher. There were 2.5 times (166 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1970s cohort and 2.0 times (708 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1980s cohort than complications coded to mumps in hospital databases. Our study demonstrated that the mumps outbreak in England 2004/05 resulted in a substantial increase in hospitalised mumps complications, and the model we used can improve the ascertainment of morbidity from a mumps outbreak.

  3. Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05

    PubMed Central

    Yung, CF; Ramsay, M

    2016-01-01

    Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in the 1980s. A simple statistical model, based on analysing time trends for diagnosed complications in hospital databases with routine laboratory surveillance data, found that the actual morbidity was much higher. There were 2.5 times (166 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1970s cohort and 2.0 times (708 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1980s cohort than complications coded to mumps in hospital databases. Our study demonstrated that the mumps outbreak in England 2004/05 resulted in a substantial increase in hospitalised mumps complications, and the model we used can improve the ascertainment of morbidity from a mumps outbreak. PMID:27562958

  4. Extension of the validation of AOAC Official Method 2005.06 for dc-GTX2,3: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Gigirey, Begoña; Rodríguez-Velasco, María L; Gago-Martínez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    AOAC Official Method(SM) 2005.06 for the determination of saxitoxin (STX)-group toxins in shellfish by LC with fluorescence detection with precolumn oxidation was previously validated and adopted First Action following a collaborative study. However, the method was not validated for all key STX-group toxins, and procedures to quantify some of them were not provided. With more STX-group toxin standards commercially available and modifications to procedures, it was possible to overcome some of these difficulties. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins conducted an interlaboratory exercise to extend AOAC Official Method 2005.06 validation for dc-GTX2,3 and to compile precision data for several STX-group toxins. This paper reports the study design and the results obtained. The performance characteristics for dc-GTX2,3 (intralaboratory and interlaboratory precision, recovery, and theoretical quantification limit) were evaluated. The mean recoveries obtained for dc-GTX2,3 were, in general, low (53.1-58.6%). The RSD for reproducibility (RSD(r)%) for dc-GTX2,3 in all samples ranged from 28.2 to 45.7%, and HorRat values ranged from 1.5 to 2.8. The article also describes a hydrolysis protocol to convert GTX6 to NEO, which has been proven to be useful for the quantification of GTX6 while the GTX6 standard is not available. The performance of the participant laboratories in the application of this method was compared with that obtained from the original collaborative study of the method. Intralaboratory and interlaboratory precision data for several STX-group toxins, including dc-NEO and GTX6, are reported here. This study can be useful for those laboratories determining STX-group toxins to fully implement AOAC Official Method 2005.06 for official paralytic shellfish poisoning control. However the overall quantitative performance obtained with the method was poor for certain toxins.

  5. Rapid liquid chromatography for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis using superficially porous chromatography with AOAC Official Method 2005.06.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Robert G; Turner, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, oysters, cockles, hard clams, razors, and king scallops is monitored in England, Scotland, and Wales by AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-with fluorescence detection (FLD). One of the commonly perceived disadvantages of using this method is the long turnaround time and low throughput in a busy laboratory environment. The chromatographic analysis of each sample typically utilizes a 15 min cycle time to achieve toxin oxidation product separation and column equilibration prior to subsequent analysis. A standard RP C18 analytical column, used successfully in recent years, achieves good separation with a long column lifetime. The analysis of a 40 sample qualitative screening batch takes approximately 18 h, including blanks, standards, and other QC samples. The availability of superficially porous column technology has offered the potential to reduce analysis time while retaining column performance on existing hardware. In this study, AOAC Official Method 2005.06 with LC-FLD was transferred to two different commercially available superficially porous columns, and the method performance characteristics were evaluated. Both columns separated all toxins adequately with cycle times less than half that of the existing method. Linearity for each toxin was acceptable up to two times the European maximum permitted limit of 800 microg di-HCl saxitoxin equivalent/kg flesh. LOD and LOQ values were substantially improved for the majority of toxins, with gonyautoxin 1&4 and neosaxitoxin showing up to a two- and fourfold improvement, respectively, depending on the column used. Quantification results obtained from parallel analysis of contaminated samples were acceptable on both columns. Comparative screen results gave a slight increase in the occurrence of contaminated samples, which was attributed to the improved detection limit for most toxins. Issues with rapidly increasing back pressure, however, were identified with both

  6. Assessment of Contaminant Exposure and Effects on Ospreys Nesting along the Lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Branden L.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Davis, Jay W.; Schulz, Edmund P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contaminants on osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the lower Duwamish River (LDR), Washington, and used the upper reach of the Willamette River (WR), Oregon, as a reference site. Osprey eggs and nestling blood (plasma) were collected at nests along the LDR (11 eggs, 7 plasmas) and WR (10 eggs, 6 plasmas) in 2006-07 and analyzed for contaminants. Additionally, hematology and serum chemistries were determined in the blood/plasma samples of nestlings (about 35-45 days old) and were used as potential indicators of stress induced by contaminant exposure. Detailed foraging information for ospreys nesting along the LDR was collected and evaluated to better understand contaminant profiles observed in the eggs and plasma. Additional residue data from 26 osprey eggs collected and analyzed in 2002-03 from nests along the LDR, Snohomish River Estuary (SRE) and Lake Washington (LW) in the Puget Sound (PS) region also were evaluated.

  7. Obesity in K-8 students - New York City, 2006-07 to 2010-11 school years.

    PubMed

    2011-12-16

    Overweight and obese children are more likely to develop risk factors that can lead to respiratory, metabolic, and cardiovascular illness. The increase in prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States since the 1960s has been well documented. In New York City, in 1996, an estimated 19.7% of third grade children and 21.2% of sixth grade children in public and private schools were found to be overweight; in 2003, an estimated 43% of the city's public elementary school students were found to be overweight, and 24% of these students were obese. To update city data on childhood obesity and evaluate public health interventions, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene analyzed body mass index (BMI) data for public schoolchildren in kindergarten through eighth grade (K-8), using data from the 2006-07 to 2010-11 school years. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, overall, the prevalence of obesity in grades K-8 decreased 5.5%, from 21.9% in 2006-07 to 20.7% in 2010-11. Obesity decreased significantly among children in all age groups and in all socioeconomic and racial/ethnic populations; however, the decrease was smaller among black (1.9%) and Hispanic (3.4%) children than among Asian/Pacific Islander (7.6%) and white (12.5%) children. Despite the decreases in obesity, continued public health interventions are needed to further reduce the prevalence of obesity and to eliminate disparities among schoolchildren in New York City.

  8. Influenza Vaccination Coverage During Pregnancy - Selected Sites, United States, 2005-06 Through 2013-14 Influenza Vaccine Seasons.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Stephen; Van Bennekom, Carla M; Mitchell, Allen A

    2016-12-09

    Seasonal influenza vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women because of their increased risk for influenza-associated complications. In addition, receipt of influenza vaccine by women during pregnancy has been shown to protect their infants for several months after birth (1). As part of its case-control surveillance study of medications and birth defects, the Birth Defects Study of the Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University has recorded data on vaccinations received during pregnancy since the 2005-06 influenza vaccination season. Among the 5,318 mothers of infants without major structural birth defects (control newborns) in this population, seasonal influenza vaccination coverage was approximately 20% in the seasons preceding the 2009-10 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza season. During the 2009-10 influenza vaccination season, influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women increased to 33%, and has increased modestly since then, to 41% during the 2013-14 season. Among pregnant women who received influenza vaccine during the 2013-14 season, 80% reported receiving their vaccine in a traditional health care setting, (e.g., the office of their obstetrician or primary care physician or their prenatal clinic) and 20% received it in a work/school, pharmacy/supermarket, or government setting. Incorporating routine administration of seasonal influenza vaccination into the management of pregnant women by their health care providers might increase coverage with this important public health intervention.

  9. Progress without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Don; Veliz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This first-of-its-kind report on gender and high school sports participation, "Progress Without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06," flows from an analysis of high schools that is unprecedented in its national and historical scope. It uses merged data from the Civil…

  10. Dual Credit in Oregon: An Analysis of Students Taking Dual Credit in High School in 2005-06 with Subsequent Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jonathan; North, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A dual credit course is a college/university level course that is taught at a high school, by a high school teacher, in partnership with a community college (CCWD) or Oregon University System (OUS) institution. Successful completion of a dual credit course counts as credit for both high school and college. In 2005-06, about 12,000 students took…

  11. Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2005 and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2007-150

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Miller, Elise

    2007-01-01

    This report presents information from the Winter 2005-06 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) web-based data collection. Tabulations represent data requested from all postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV federal student financial aid programs. The tables in this publication include data on the number of staff…

  12. The State of Charter Schools in Colorado, 2004-05: The Characteristics, Status, and Performance Record of Colorado Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSchryver, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This report presents and analyzes data from the 2004-05 school year related to the characteristics of charter schools in Colorado, including student achievement and school performance. The purpose, methodology and growth of charter schools in the state is discussed, followed by an overview of the background and mandates of the Colorado Charter…

  13. How Segregated are Michigan's Schools? Changes in Enrollment from 1992-93 to 2004-05. Policy Report 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landauer-Menchik, Bettie

    2006-01-01

    A 2002 study, "Race in American Public Schools: Rapidly Resegregating School Districts," identified Michigan as the state with the most segregated schools in the nation. The present data brief looks at changes in the distribution of Michigan's African American students between 1992-93 and 2004-05 to determine if African American students…

  14. Trends in Campus Policing: A Comparison of the 1994-95 and 2004-05 BJS Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In 1995, to determine the nature of law enforcement services provided on college and university campuses, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) surveyed 4-year institutions of higher education with 2,500 or more students. An update to this original study covering the 2004-05 school year was recently completed, providing a unique opportunity to…

  15. Frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus isolated from 2001-02 to 2004-05 in Nara Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kitahori, Yoshiteru; Nakano, Mamoru; Inoue, Yumiko

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses in Nara Prefecture during four epidemic seasons from 2001-02 to 2004-05. Point mutations within the M2 gene were identified using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Five viruses (3.4%) with point mutation were observed from 145 strains analyzed. Three viruses (2.0%) possessed a change at position 31 (AGT-->AAT, Ser to Asn), one virus (0.7%) showed a change at position 26 (CTT-->TTT, Leu to Phe), one virus (0.7%) showed a change at position 27 (GTT-->ATT, Val to Ile), and none showed a change at position 30. All of these changes were the transition type of mutation. These results indicated that the possible circulation of drug-resistant viruses to the community was not supported by the findings obtained during the 2004-05 season in Nara.

  16. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    measurement because water levels in the well are often perturbed as a result of pumpage from nearby production wells and do not reflect baseline conditions within the aquifer.Twenty five wells were measured on a periodic or quarterly basis in 2004-05. These wells are completed in the glacial, Saginaw, and Marshall aquifers, and the Coldwater confining unit. Although each quarterly measurement only provides a “snapshot” water level (measured in feet below land surface), the data adequately define the generalized water-level trend in the aquifer near the well. Water levels in 15 quarterlymeasured wells had a net rise ranging from 0.20 to 1.31 ft for the period from January 2004 to December 2005, while water levels in 10 of the wells had a net decline ranging from 0.07 to 0.99 ft over the same period (fig. 3; table 1). Period-of-record (the time period when water levels have been measured by U.S. Geological Survey or their cooperators) minimum depths to water (high-water levels) were measured in March 2004 in two quarterly-measured wells completed in the Marshall aquifer in Lake and Hume Townships. Period-of-record maximum depths to water were measured in September 2005 in three wells completed in the Marshall aquifer near Bad Axe. Water levels in those three wells recovered about 3 to 5 ft between September and December 2005. No period-of-record minimum or maximum depths to water were measured for the period from January 2004 through December 2005 in wells completed in either the glacial and Saginaw aquifers, or the Coldwater confining unit. Hydrographs showing water levels measured in each well are presented for the 25 wells measured on a quarterly basis.Water-level trends measured for the period from January 2004 through December 2005 in other wells in Lower Michigan have similarities to those measured in Huron County wells. Several external factors influence water-level trends including proximity to nearby production wells, amount and timing of precipitation events

  17. Are Student Protests in Arab States Caused by Economic and Political Grievances? Empirical Evidence from the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Mason, Jessica; Seybolt, Taylor; DeLuca, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of protests by students (age 18 and older) in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen by using subsamples of students from nationally representative and acclaimed public opinion data (the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"). We find between 22.1% (Jordan) and 54.7% (Yemen) participated in either the signing of petitions, or…

  18. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2006-07 (Fiscal Year 2007). First Look. NCES 2009-338

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2006-07 (fiscal year 2007, or FY 07). The School District Finance Survey is a district-level survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) by state education agencies (SEAs) in the 50 states and the District of…

  19. Parent and Family Involvement in Education, 2006-07 School Year, From the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007. First Look. NCES 2008-050

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrold, Kathleen; O'Donnell, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on parents' and families' involvement in their children's education in the United States according to parents' reports for the 2006-07 school year. It also incorporates basic demographic information about children, parent/guardian characteristics, and household characteristics. The data come from the Parent and Family…

  20. A Closer Look at the Student Achievement Trends in the District of Columbia between 2006-07 and 2012-13. CALDER Working Paper No. 119

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özek, Umut

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a closer look at the student achievement trends in the District of Columbia between 2006-07 and 2012-13. We have three main conclusions. First, we find that overall, math scores in the District have improved. The improvements in reading scores during this time frame, however, were primarily limited to the first year after…

  1. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-305

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Noel, Amber; Hoffman, Lee

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2006-07, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by State…

  2. Applying the ECTS System to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rosario Merida; Romero, Julia Angulo; Del Pino, Carmen Gil

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the research conducted as part of a Pilot Experiment regarding the application of the ECTS to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree taught at the University of Cordoba (Spain). It analyses the Experiment, which was carried out in the Education Faculty over the course of three academic years (2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07).…

  3. Shell anomalies observed in a population of Archaias angulatus (Foraminifera) from the Florida Keys (USA) sampled in 1982-83 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souder, H.C.; McCloskey, B.; Hallock, P.; Byrne, R.

    2010-01-01

    Archived specimens of Archaias angulatus collected live at a depth of < 2. m in John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, Key Largo, Florida, in June, September and December 1982, and March 1983, were compared to specimens collected live from the same site and months in 2006-07. Shells were examined using light microscopy for anomalous features, which were then documented using scanning electron microscopy. Seven different types of morphological abnormalities and five different surface texture anomalies were observed. Physical abnormalities included profoundly deformed, curled, asymmetrical, and uncoiled shells, irregular suture lines, surface protrusions, and breakage/repair. Textural anomalies observed were surface pits, dissolution features, microborings, microbial biofilms, and the presence of epibionts including bryzoans, cyanobacteria and foraminifers. The same kinds of features were found in this A. angulatus population in both 1982-83 collections and 2006-07 collections. Within-date variability was higher in specimens collected in 1982-83, while between-date variability was higher in 2006-07; overall the range of variability was similar. Given that the site was originally chosen for study because these foraminifers were so abundant, the lack of significant change indicates that the variability of the geochemical habitat is still within the range that A. angulatus can thrive. ?? 2010.

  4. Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2005 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2004-05. First Look. NCES 2007-167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.

    2006-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2005 collection, which included two survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2005-06 academic year, and Completions covering the period July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005. These data were collected through the IPEDS…

  5. Increasing socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India: trends between 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Kumari, Divya; Singh, Aditya

    2015-10-01

    This article examines the trends and pattern in socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight and wasting among children aged <3 years in urban India over a 14-year period. We use three successive rounds of the National Family Health Survey data conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06. The selected socioeconomic predictors are household wealth and mother's education level. We use principal component analysis to compute a separate wealth index for urban India for all three rounds of the survey. We have used descriptive statistics, concentration index and pooled logistic regression to analyse the data. The results show that between 1992-93 and 2005-06, the prevalence of childhood undernutrition has declined across household wealth quintiles and educational level of mothers. However, the pace of decline is much higher among the better-off socioeconomic groups than among the least-affluent groups. The result of pooled logistic regression analysis shows that the socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India has increased over the study period. The salient findings of this study call for separate programmes targeting the children of lower socioeconomic groups in urban population of India.

  6. Organic compounds assessed in Chattahoochee River water used for public supply near Atlanta, Georgia, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W. Brian; Younker, Cristal L.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program characterized the occurrence of 266 organic compounds in source water and finished water from the Chattahoochee River, which is the main water-supply source for the Atlanta metropolitan area. Source water is stream water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment, and finished water is water that has passed through treatment processes prior to distribution. Samples were collected approximately monthly during 2004-05 and included 15 paired source-water and finished-water samples. Samples were collected during winter-spring high flow and summer-fall low flow, but storm events were not targeted during this Source Water-Quality Assessment (SWQA) study. Samples were analyzed for pesticides and degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, disinfection by-products, personal care and domestic-use products, and other organic compounds. Community water systems are required to monitor regulated organic compounds under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1998); however, most compounds included in this study are not regulated by Federal drinking-water standards (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). The Chattahoochee River study is part of an ongoing NAWQA investigation of community water systems across the United States. Additional details about the national study are given in Carter and others (2007).

  7. Predictors of reported influenza vaccination in HIV-infected women in the United States, 2006-07 and 2007-08 seasons

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Keri N.; Anastos, Kathryn; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Celentano, David D.; Sharp, Gerald B.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; French, Audrey L.; Diamond, Don J.; Holman, Susan; Young, Mary; Gange, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cumulative incidence of self-reported influenza vaccination (“vaccination coverage”) and investigate predictors in HIV-infected women. Methods In an ongoing cohort study of HIV-infected women in five US cities, data from two influenza seasons (2006-07 n=1,209 and 2007-08 n=1,161) were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals ([,]) from Poisson regression with robust variance models using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results In our study, 55% and 57% of HIV-infected women reported vaccination during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 seasons, respectively. Using data from both seasons, older age, non-smoking status, CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) count ≥200 cells/mm3, and reporting at least one recent healthcare visit was associated with increased vaccination coverage. In the 2007-08 season, a belief in the protection of the vaccine (aPR=1.38 [1.18, 1.61]) and influenza vaccination in the previous season (aPR=1.66 [1.44, 1.91]) most strongly predicted vaccination status. Conclusion Interventions to reach unvaccinated HIV-infected women should focus on changing beliefs about the effectiveness of influenza vaccination and target younger women, current smokers, those without recent healthcare visits, or a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3. PMID:20303362

  8. Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC

  9. Inequities Persist for Women and Non-Tenure-Track Faculty. The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Many faculty members were optimistic about their economic prospects for 2004-05. They saw signs of--or at least hope for--economic recovery all around and were ending a year in which overall average faculty salaries had grown by the smallest percentage in decades. Following the pattern of recent years, this annual report first examines the…

  10. A Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2000/01 to 2004/05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia on the basis of transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2000/01 through 2004/05 academic years. Data are provided that indicates the number of transfer students, where they…

  11. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2004-05. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-335

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofano, Anthony; Sable, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership, that is, the number of students enrolled at the beginning of the school year) for the 2004-05 school year in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Bureau of Indian Education, the…

  12. Single-laboratory validation of a refined AOAC HPLC method 2005.06 for oysters, cockles, and clams in U.K. shellfish.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G; Rapkova-Dhanji, Monika; Norton, Deirdre M; Algoet, Myriam; Lees, David N

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, a refined HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 was developed and validated for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in mussels. A single-laboratory validation study of this method was undertaken here for the analysis of PSP toxins in oysters, cockles, clams, and razor clams. The method was characterized for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, repeatability, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty of measurement. Validation data were utilized to determine method performance characteristics for non-mussel bivalves for all commercially available certified reference toxins, extending the method to dcNEO and dcGTX2,3, where available. A period of parallel testing of oysters, cockles, and clams enabled a comparison of sample toxicities obtained using mouse bioassay (MBA) and HPLC methodologies, although only a very low number of PSP-positive samples were obtained through the United Kingdom official control monitoring program. Results from the MBA and HPLC methods were well-correlated for PSP-negative samples, but the low number of naturally contaminated PSP-positive samples has prevented any comparative statistical assessment of method performance for non-mussels between the two official methods. However, some evidence for potentially significant differences in total saxitoxin equivalents obtained by the two methods in some species has highlighted the need for further comparative testing in non-mussel samples to be conducted prior to implementation of the HPLC method in routine official control monitoring programs.

  13. Comparison of AOAC 2005.06 LC official method with other methodologies for the quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK shellfish species.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G; Rapkova, Monika; Higman, Wendy; Algoet, Myriam; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Cordova, Marco; Caceres, Catherine; van de Riet, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Ryan; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael; Lees, David N

    2011-01-01

    A refined version of the pre-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (ox-LC-FLD) official method AOAC 2005.06 was developed in the UK and validated for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK shellfish. Analysis was undertaken here for the comparison of PSP toxicities determined using the LC method for a range of UK bivalve shellfish species against the official European reference method, the PSP mouse bioassay (MBA, AOAC 959.08). Comparative results indicated a good correlation in results for some species (mussels, cockles and clams) but a poor correlation for two species of oysters (Pacific oysters and native oysters), where the LC results in terms of total saxitoxin equivalents were found to be on average more than double the values determined by MBA. With the potential for either LC over-estimation or MBA under-estimation, additional oyster and mussel samples were analysed using MBA and ox-LC-FLD together with further analytical and functional methodologies: a post-column oxidation LC method (LC-ox-FLD), an electrophysiological assay and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Results highlighted a good correlation among non-bioassay results, indicating a likely cause of difference was the under-estimation in the MBA, rather than an over-estimation in the LC results.

  14. Statewide Educational Accountability Under the No Child Left Behind Act: A Report on 2006 Amendments to State Plans. A Summary of State Requests in 2005-06 for Amendments to Their Educational Accountability Systems Under NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Ellen; Erpenbach, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes requests submitted by states in 2005-06 to amend their educational accountability plans under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 as well as the related decisions of the U.S. Department of Education (ED). This fourth installment of the Council of Chief State School Officers' (CCSSO's) annual review of changes to…

  15. Self-Reported Experience of Racial Discrimination and Health Care Use in New Zealand: Results From the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether reported experience of racial discrimination in health care and in other domains was associated with cancer screening and negative health care experiences. Methods. We used 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey data (n = 12 488 adults). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship of reported experience of racial discrimination in health care (unfair treatment by a health professional) and in other domains (personal attack, unfair treatment in work and when gaining housing) to breast and cervical cancer screening and negative patient experiences adjusted for other variables. Results. Racial discrimination by a health professional was associated with lower odds of breast (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.14, 0.996) and cervical cancer (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.30, 0.87) screening among Maori women. Racial discrimination by a health professional (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.14) and racial discrimination more widely (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.35, 1.79) were associated with negative patient experiences for all participants. Conclusions. Experience of racial discrimination in both health care and other settings may influence health care use and experiences of care and is a potential pathway to poor health. PMID:22420811

  16. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  17. Electron donor concentrations in sediments and sediment properties at the agricultural chemicals team research site near New Providence, Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maharjan, Bijesh; Korom, Scott F.; Smith, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of electron donors in aquifer sediments are important to the understanding of the fate and transport of redox-sensitive constituents in groundwater, such as nitrate. For a study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 50 sediment samples were collected from below the water table from 11 boreholes at the U.S. Geological Survey Agricultural Chemicals Team research site near New Providence, Iowa, during 2006-07. All samples were analyzed for gravel, sand (coarse, medium, and fine), silt, clay, Munsell soil color, inorganic carbon content, and for the following electron donors: organic carbon, ferrous iron, and inorganic sulfide. A subset of 14 sediment samples also was analyzed for organic sulfur, but all of these samples had concentrations less than the method detection limit; therefore, the presence of this potential electron donor was not considered further. X-ray diffraction analyses provided important semi-quantitative information of well-crystallized dominant minerals within the sediments that might be contributing electron donors.

  18. Integrating Radiometric, Geophysical and Thermal Signals of Volcanic Unrest and Eruption in 2005-06 at 9 deg 50'N EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Tolstoy, M.; Fornari, D. J.; Dziak, R. P.; Soule, S. A.; Waldhauser, F.; von Damm, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005-06, volcanic eruptions at the East Pacific Rise near 9° 50'N produced extensive lava flows along 18 km of the ridge crest, impacting the local hydrothermal system and seafloor vent ecology. The timing and duration of the volcanic episode are constrained by ocean bottom seismograph data (from instruments deployed near the ridge axis between 9° 50'N and 51'N), regional, eastern equatorial Pacific hydro-acoustic data, a time series of in situ hydrothermal fluid temperature data, and high resolution 210Po-210Pb radiometric ages of newly erupted lavas. Each of these methods provide unambiguous signals of volcanic unrest in the same localized area of seafloor and over the same time frame, yet differ in detail as to when and where activity was most intense. We summarize these observations, and discuss how the important differences in spatial-temporal signals from these methods can be integrated to better understand the timing and dynamics of this volcanic episode. Lava ages indicate that the eruption initiated in late June/early July 2005 over most of the eruptive fissure system and culminated in Jan. 2006. ~80% of the lava volume is inferred to have erupted by Sept. 2005, based on geologic mapping and ages of samples collected from the lava flow field. By Oct. 2005 eruptive activity focused to one or two small fissure segments near 9° 50.4'N. Fluid temperatures measured at the M vent chimney (9° 50.6'N) were stable at ~360°C from Apr. 2004 to Aug. 2005, followed by several sharp ~50°C drops and rapid recoveries to ~360°C over the next few months, a subsequent nearly instantaneous fall to below detection limits (150°C) on 11 Jan. 2006, a sudden climb above ~360°C nearly two weeks later, and an increase to ~380°C on 1 Mar., after which recording ceased. Ocean bottom seismographs show a steady increase in seismicity over 2+ years leading to a period of intense tremor and seismic activity culminating on 22 Jan. 2006, followed by a rapid decline in

  19. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Fajã Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Antão, and Ribeira Fajã on São Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development.Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Fajã indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Fajã tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Fajã have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s.Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground

  20. Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  1. Under-Five Child Mortality and Morbidity Associated with Consanguineous Child Marriage in Pakistan: Retrospective Analysis using Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-91, 2006-07, 2012-13.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mudasir; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Chaudhry, Ashraf; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2017-01-02

    Objective To assess the combined effect of consanguineous and child marriages (CCM) on children health, which has not previously been explored, either globally or locally. Methods We analyzed secondary data from a series of cross-sectional, nationally representative Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys 1990-91, 2006-07, and 2012-13. A total of 5406 mothers with 10,164 children were included in the analysis. Child health was assessed by variables such as history of diarrhea, acute respiratory infection (ARI), ARI with fever, Under-5 child mortality (U5CM) and small-size birth (SSB). Associations among variables were assessed by calculating unadjusted Odd Ratios (OR) and adjusted OR (AOR). Results A majority (n = 6,247, 61%) of the births were to mothers having CCM as compare to non-CCM (3917, 39%). There was a significant association between CCM and U5CM during 1990-91 (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.49) and 2006-07 (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.51), and infant mortality in 1990-91 (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.85) and 2006-07 (AOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.17-2.21). A significant association was also found between CCM and SSB infants in the period 2006-07 (AOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.42) and 2012-13 (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46). We noted no effect of CCM on diarrhea, ARI, and ARI with fever. Conclusion CCM increases the likelihood of U5CM, infant mortality and SSB infants. Further quantitative and qualitative research should be conducted to assess the effects of environmental, congenital and genetic factors on the health of children born to mothers in CCM.

  2. Refinement of AOAC Official Method 2005.06 liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method to improve performance characteristics for the determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in king and queen scallops.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detection (FLD) method is an official alternative to the mouse bioassay for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. To validate the method for species of relevance to the UK official control monitoring program, the method performance characteristics were tested for whole king and queen scallops. Validation showed that, while the performance was generally acceptable for the quantitation of non-N-hydroxylated toxins, poor toxin recovery and sensitivity was evident for the analysis of N-hydroxylated toxins following periodate oxidation. These effects occurred in a range of scallop samples with variable temporal and spatial sources. The effects were also noted in other laboratories following a small interlaboratory study. As a result, the method was refined to improve the recovery and sensitivity of analysis following the periodate oxidation step in the PSP method for scallops. Performance improved through alterations to the preparation of the periodate oxidant, use of higher volumes for C18 cleanup, and injection volumes in combination with the use of a king scallop matrix modifier for oxidation of N-hydroxylated toxin calibration standards. A single-laboratory validation of the refined method showed that the selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, recovery, and precision were acceptable and similar to values reported previously for AOAC Official Method 2005.06 in other bivalve species. Results showed the method to be rugged for all parameters investigated, including small changes to the composition of the new periodate reagent utilized in the refined method. The refined scallops LC method was subsequently compared with the European reference method. PSP-positive scallops showed an excellent agreement between the methods for queen and Atlantic scallops, with a small level of positive bias in the LC results for whole king scallops. These differences were related solely to the use of

  3. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD.

  4. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    , was not necessarily an important factor affecting spatial differences of metals deposition in snow along the road in CAKR during winter 2005?06. The average metal content of particulates in 2005?06 snow samples was slightly less than that of snow samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in CAKR at three near-road locations in April 2003. Mean metals concentrations in 2006 snow particulates were about three times greater than in the road bed soils that were sampled in 2005; however, the fraction of annual metals loadings occurring in winter as compared to the remainder of the year was not readily determined by these data. Although procedures have been implemented in recent years to reduce the quantities of metal-enriched fugitive dusts, particulates dispersed near the road during the winter of 2005?06 were enriched in metals and these particulates contributed considerable metal loadings to the nearby terrain.

  5. [Characterization of a nonspecific inhibitor found in human sera raised against the 2006/07 influenza vaccine strain A/Hiroshima/52/2005 (H3N2) virus].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akiko; Morikawa, Saeko; Kase, Tetsuo; Irie, Sin; Hirota, Yoshio

    2012-07-01

    The serology of influenza viruses typically uses hemagglutination inhibition (HI) or the neutralization test (NT). However, the sera of many humans and animals contain nonspecific inhibitors of hemagglutinin that must be inactivated or removed from the serum before use in the HI assay. Any nonspecific inhibitor in human serum is typically inactivated by pre-treatment with receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE). However, during the 2006/07 influenza circulating season, we observed that influenza vaccine strain A/Hiroshima/52/ 2005 (H3N2) exhibited susceptibility to an RDE-resistant inhibitor in human serum. We report herein on a preliminary characterization of this inhibitor, including the development of a novel inhibitor-inactivating technique for pre-treatment of human serum to be used for HI with the A/Hiroshima/52/2005 (H3N2) virus.

  6. Hydrology and water quality in the Green River and surrounding agricultural areas near Green River in Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for municipal and industrial purposes by about 27 million people and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of land in the Western United States. Water users in the Upper Colorado River Basin consume water from the Colorado River and its tributaries, reducing the amount of water in the river. In addition, application of water to agricultural land within the basin in excess of crop needs can increase the transport of dissolved solids to the river. As a result, dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River have increased, affecting downstream water users. During 2004-05, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, investigated the occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids in water from the agricultural areas near Green River, Utah, and in the adjacent reach of the Green River, a principle tributary of the Colorado River.The flow-weighted concentration of dissolved solids diverted from the Green River for irrigation during 2004 and 2005 was 357 milligrams per liter and the mean concentration of water collected from seeps and drains where water was returning to the river during low-flow conditions was 4,170 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from the shallow part of the ground-water system ranged from 687 to 55,900 milligrams per liter.Measurable amounts of dissolved solids discharging to the Green River are present almost exclusively along the river banks or near the mouths of dry washes that bisect the agricultural areas. The median dissolved-solids load in discharge from the 17 drains and seeps visited during the study was 0.35 ton per day. Seasonal estimates of the dissolved-solids load discharging from the study area ranged from 2,800 tons in the winter to 6,400 tons in the spring. The estimate of dissolved solids discharging from the study area annually is 15,700 tons.Water samples collected from selected sites within

  7. NSHE Diversity Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report includes information on Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) student enrollments in the context of Nevada's changing demographics. In addition, the report provides data on the recruitment and performance of NSHE students within defined ethnic/racial categories. As required by Board policy, the report also provides data on the…

  8. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Facilities Performance Indicators Survey" ("FPI") supersedes and builds upon the two major surveys APPA conducted in the past: the Comparative Costs and Staffing (CCAS) survey and the Strategic Assessment Model (SAM). The "FPI" covers all the materials collected in CCAS and SAM, along with some select new data points and improved survey…

  9. Rapid ascent and emplacement of basaltic lava during the 2005-06 eruption of the East Pacific Rise at ca. 9°51‧N as inferred from CO2 contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. E.; Jackson, B. A.; Gonnermann, H.; Soule, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    Eruption rates at the mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are believed to strongly control the morphology and length of lava flows emplaced along the ridge axis, and thus the structure and porosity of the upper oceanic crust. Eruption rate also represents one of the few tools to gain insight into the driving pressures within sub-ridge magmatic systems. As eruption rate is inferred to vary systematically along the global mid-ocean ridge system, understanding of how to assess eruption rate in submarine systems and how it maps to observable features of the ridge axis would provide a powerful tool to understand Earth's largest magmatic system. Eruption rates at MORs are poorly constrained, however, because of a lack of direct observations, preventing the duration of an eruption to be quantified. This study uses decompression experiments of MORB samples and numerical modeling of CO2 degassing to reconstruct the timescales for magma ascent and lava emplacement during the 2005-06 eruption of the East Pacific Rise at ca. 9°51‧N. Samples collected from the lava flow are all supersaturated in dissolved CO2 contents, but CO2 decreases with distance from the vent, presumably as a consequence of progressive CO2 diffusion into growing bubbles. Samples collected at the vent contain ∼105 vesicles per cm3. Pieces of these samples were experimentally heated to 1225 °C at high pressure and then decompressed at controlled rates. Results, plus those from numerical modeling of diffusive bubble growth, indicate that magma rose from the axial magma chamber to the seafloor in ≤1 h and at a rate of ≥2-3 km h-1. Our modeling, as validated by experimental decompression of MORB samples with ∼106 vesicles cm-3, also suggests that CO2 degassed from the melt within ∼10-100 min as the vesicular lava traveled ∼1.7 km along the seafloor, implying a volumetric flow rate on order of 103-4 m3 s-1. Given an ascent rate of ≥0.2 m s-1, the width of a rectangular dike feeding the lava would have been

  10. Alberta Advanced Education Annual Report 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the "Government Accountability Act." The Public Accounts consist of the annual report of the Government of Alberta and the annual reports of each of the 24 ministries. The annual report of the Government of Alberta released June 26, 2006…

  11. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program: annual report, 2006-07.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Cannan, David; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Bishop, Ruth F; Barnes, Graeme L

    2007-12-01

    The National Rotavirus Reference Centre, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, conducts a laboratory based rotavirus surveillance program. This report describes the serotypes of rotavirus strains responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2007. One thousand and two faecal samples from across Australia were examined using a combined approach of monoclonal antibody immunoassays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and polyacrylamide gel analysis. Serotype G1 was the dominant serotype nationally, representing 36.7% of all strains, followed by serotype G9 (31.1%), and serotype G3 (23.3%). Serotype G2 represented less than 5% of strains, while no serotype G4 strains were identified. All G1, G3 and G9 strains assayed for P genotype contained the P[8] genotype, bar one G1 strain, which possessed a P[6]. Uncommon rotavirus genotypes, G8 (n = 1) and G12 (n = 2) were identified in children with acute gastroenteritis during this study period.

  12. High School Counselor's Handbook: 2004-05 Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document provides useful information to help high school and TRIO counselors advise students about financial aid for postsecondary education. This document focuses on the federal student aid programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education. It includes general information about postsecondary opportunities, and the application process…

  13. Adult Education Annual Report to Congress. 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The state-administered grant program authorized under the "Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA)", enacted as Title II of the "Workforce Investment Act (WIA)" of 1998, is the major source of federal support for adult basic education and literacy education programs. When "AEFLA" was authorized in 1998,…

  14. Ground-Water Quality in the St. Lawrence River Basin, New York, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Clean Water Act requires that States monitor and report on the quality of ground water and surface water. To satisfy part of these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have developed a program in which ground-water quality is assessed in 2 to 3 of New York State's 14 major river basins each year. To characterize the quality of ground water in the St. Lawrence River Basin in northern New York, water samples were collected from 14 domestic and 11 production wells between August 2005 and January 2006. Eight of the wells were finished in sand and gravel and 17 wells were finished in bedrock. Ground-water samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 229 constituents and physical properties, including inorganic constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Sixty-six constituents were detected above laboratory reporting levels. Concentrations of most compounds at most sites were within drinking water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and New York State Department of Health, but a few compounds exceeded drinking water standards at some sites. Water in the basin is generally hard to very hard (hardness equal to 121 mg/L as CaCO3 or greater); hardness and alkalinity were generally higher in the St. Lawrence Valley than in the Adirondack Mountains. The cation with the highest median concentration was calcium; the anion with the highest median concentration was bicarbonate. The concentration of chloride in one sample exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard; the concentration of sulfate in one sample also exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard. Nitrate was the predominant nutrient detected but no sample exceeded the 10 mg/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level. The trace elements detected with the highest median concentrations were strontium, barium, and iron. Concentration of trace elements in several samples exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standards, including aluminum (50 micrograms per liter, 4 samples), iron (300 micrograms per liter, 5 samples), and manganese (50 micrograms per liter, 4 samples). The concentration of uranium in one sample from a domestic well finished in crystalline bedrock was three times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter. The median concentration of radon-222 was 600 picoCuries per liter, but concentrations as high as 18,800 picoCuries per liter were detected; two wells with high radon concentrations also had high uranium concentrations. Radon-222 is not currently regulated, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picoCuries per liter along with an Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level of 4,000 picoCuries per liter, to be in effect in states that have programs to address radon in indoor air. Concentrations of radon-222 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level in 60 percent of samples and exceeded the proposed Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level in 8 percent of samples. Six pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected; all were amide or triazine herbicides or degradates. Five volatile organic compounds were detected, including disinfection byproducts such as trichloromethane and gasoline components or additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether. No pesticides, pesticide degradates, or volatile organic compounds were detected above established limits. Coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, were detected in three wells finished in carbonate bedrock.

  15. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia, 1993-94 to 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's (BC's) public post-secondary institutions. In March 2003, BCCAT prepared a report detailing the…

  16. Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education Biennial Report, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the Commission's tasks and progress in fulfilling the goals of the "Comprehensive Statewide Plan for Postsecondary Education." The "Plan" identifies goals that lead to an educationally and economically sound, vigorous, and synchronized system of higher education. The "Plan," considered a…

  17. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2005-06

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006 and Food ...

  18. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T.; Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

  19. Ecological assessment of streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005–06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring.The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report.The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River.Macroinvertebrate communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale. Macroinvertebrate communities at sites with mountainous headwaters and snowmelt-driven hydrology, such as Clear Creek, Crazy Woman Creek, and Goose Creek, showed similarity with communities from the main-stem Tongue River. The data also indicated similarity among sites on the main-stem Powder River and among small tributaries of the Tongue River. Data analyses using macroinvertebrate observed/expected models and multimetric indices developed by the States of Wyoming and Montana indicated a tendency toward declining biological condition in the downstream direction along the Tongue River. Biological condition for the main-stem Powder River generally improved downstream, from below Salt Creek to near the Wyoming/Montana border, followed by a general decline downstream from the border to the confluence with the Yellowstone River. The biological condition generally was not significantly different between 2005 and 2006, although streamflow was less in 2006 because of drought.Algal communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale with slight differences from the pattern observed in the macroinvertebrate communities. Although the algal communities from Clear Creek and Goose Creek were similar to those from the main-stem Tongue River, as was true of the macroinvertebrate communities, the algal communities from Crazy Woman Creek had more similarity to those of main-stem Powder River sites than to the Tongue River sites, contrary to the macroinvertebrates. Ordination of algal communities, as well as diatom metrics including salinity and dominant taxa, indicated substantial variation at two sites along the main stem of the Powder River.Fish communities of the PRB were most diverse in the Tongue River drainage. In part due to the effects of Tongue River Reservoir, 15 species of fish were found in the Tongue River drainage that were not found in the Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, or Little Powder River drainages. The number of introduced species and relative abundance of introduced species of fish were higher in the Tongue River and other drainages than at sites on the main-stem Powder River. Although non-native species were identified in the Powder River, the native fish community is largely intact. Western silvery minnow and sturgeon chub—species of special concern—were identified only at sites on the main-stem Powder River and were most common in the Montana segment of the main stem. Fish and habitat sampling on the main-stem Powder River indicated affinity of some species for certain habitats such as pools, runs, riffles, backwaters, or shoals.

  20. Classroom Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Teaching Ideas, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the four issues in the 23rd volume of "Classroom Notes Plus." Each issue of "Classroom Notes Plus" contains descriptions of original, unpublished teaching practices, and of adapted ideas. The August 2005 (v23 n1) issue includes: Sharing Responses to Literature via Exit Slips (Barb Wagner); Letting Learners Teach…

  1. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Fuller, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS initially operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham (H5r), Fairhaven (H9r), Grant (H2r), and Lake Townships (H25Ar) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report (fig. 1). The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only wells H9r and H25Ar retained continuous water-level recorders, while wells H2r and H5r reverted to quarterly or periodic measurement status due to budget constraints. The decision of which two wells to discontinue was based on an analysis of the intrinsic value to Huron County of data from each well. Well H2r was selected for periodic measurement at that time because it is completed in the glacial aquifer, which is absent in much of Huron County and well H5r, which is completed in the Marshall aquifer, was selected because the water level in the well is often perturbed as a result of pumpage from nearby production wells and does not always reflect baseline conditions within the aquifer. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level in 24 of the wells on a quarterly basis. USGS personnel accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel on a semi-annual basis to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for groundwater levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the meanmonthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made at Essexville and Harbor Beach (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2008), and monthly precipitation measured in Harbor Beach, Sebewaing, and Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Danny Costello, written commun., 2007-08). In December 2007, the water level in Lake Huron dropped to a new monthly mean low of 576.38 ft for the period from 1988 through 2007 (the previous lowwater level of 576.57 ft was measured in March 2003). The net decline in the water level of Lake Huron from January 2006 through December 2007 was 0.68 ft. In 2006, annual precipitation measured at Harbor Beach was 3.2 in. above the long-term average of 31.1 in., with 10.6 in. measured during the 2006 growing season (May through August). In 2007, annual precipitation measured at Harbor Beach was 1.4 in. below normal, with 9.7 in. measured during the growing season. In the two wells equipped with continuous waterlevel recorders, the water level rose 0.32 ft from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007 in well H9r, but declined 1.11 ft in well H25Ar. Curiously, well H9r is drilled adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and, as previously noted, there was a 0.68 ft decline in the water level in Saginaw Bay during that period. Twenty four wells were measured on a quarterly or periodic basis from December 2005 through December 2007 (well H26 was destroyed during summer 2007 reducing the total number of wells from 25). These wells are completed in the glacial, Saginaw and Marshall aquifers, and the Coldwater confining unit. Although each quarterly or periodic measurement only provides a “snapshot” water level (measured in ft below land surface, and altitude, in ft above sea level), the data adequately define the generalized water-level trend in the aquifer near the well. Water levels in 6 quarterly-measured wells had net rises ranging from 0.09 to 1.45 ft for the period, while water levels in 18 of the wells had net declines ranging from 0.26 to 2.19 ft (tables 1 and 2; fig. 3). Period-of-record (the time period during which water levels have been measured by U.S. Geological Survey or their cooperators) minimum depths to water (high-water levels) were measured in March and December 2006 in two quarterly-measured wells completed in the Saginaw aquifer in Oliver and Sebewaing Townships, respectively. A period-of-record minimum depth to water was also recorded June 5, 2007 in well H9r, completed in the Michigan Formation/Marshall aquifer in Fairhaven Township. Period-of-record maximum depths to water were measured in September 2007 in two wells completed in the Marshall aquifer in Oliver and Dwight Townships. Notably, water levels in those two wells recovered about 1 to 3 ft between September and December 2007. No period-of-record minimum or maximum depths to water were measured in wells completed in either the glacial aquifer or the Coldwater confining unit from December 2005 through December 2007. Several external factors influence water-level trends including proximity to nearby production wells, amount and timing of precipitation events, evapotranspiration and type of prevalent ground cover, proximity of aquifer to the surface, and hydraulic characteristics of overlying geologic materials.

  2. Academic Competitiveness and National SMART Grant Programs: 2006-07 and 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Berkner, Lutz; Li, Xiaojie; Woo, Jennie; Lee, John; Topper, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Education is vitally interested in whether the financial incentives provided by the grants affect student behavior. That is, will the Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACGs) induce more economically disadvantaged high school students to complete a rigorous high school program and enroll and succeed in postsecondary education? Will…

  3. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed criterion in all but four stream samples (266 of 270). Similarly, only 2 of 84 Missouri River samples had total phosphorus concentrations less than the proposed criterion. The proposed total nitrogen criterion for the Corn Belt and Northern Great Plains ecoregion was surpassed in 80 percent of the water samples collected from the stream sites. Samples with total nitrogen concentrations greater than the proposed criterion were most common at Papillion Creek and Big Papillion Creek sites, where the proposed criterion was surpassed in 90 and 96 percent of the samples collected, respectively. Elevated concentrations of total nitrogen were less common at the Missouri River sites, with 33 percent of the samples analyzed having concentrations that surpassed the proposed nutrient criterion for total nitrogen. The three constituents with measured concentrations greater than their respective health-based screening levels were nickel, zinc, and dichlorvos. Differences in water quality during the beginning, middle, and end of the combined sewer overflow discharge and the stream hydrograph rise, peak, and recession were investigated. Concentrations from the ending part of the combined sewer overflow hydrograph were significantly different than those from the beginning and middle parts for 3 and 11 constituents, respectively. No constituents were significantly different between the beginning and middle parts of the combined sewer overflow discharge hydrograph. For the stream site upstream from combined sewer overflow outfalls on Cole Creek, the constituents with geometric mean values for the hydrograph rise that were at least twice those for the values of the peak and recession were specific conductance, magnesium, nitrite, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), methyl salicylate, p-cresol, and Escherichia coli. Similarly, the constituents where the hydrograph peak was at least twice that for the rise and recession at the upstream Cole Creek site were total suspended solids, silver, an

  4. Leprosy elimination campaign in Qazvin province, Islamic Republic of Iran (2006-07).

    PubMed

    Qasemi-Barqi, R; Bijani, B; Pahlevan, A A

    2011-12-01

    Multi-drug therapy (MDT) and Leprosy Elimination Campaigns (LEC) are the major strategies for eliminating leprosy. We report the results of a LEC conducted in 2006 in Qazvin. A total of 1987 individuals (1379 household contacts of 319 registered leprosy patients and 608 people from 3 endemic villages with a high prevalence of leprosy) were examined for detection of new cases of leprosy. All new cases were given MDT and were reviewed after a year. There were 256 suspected cases of leprosy, 13 of whom were confirmed as new cases (7 were classified as multibacillary leprosy). None had visible deformity nor was < 20 years old. All patients completed the recommended MDT course. The few cases detected suggest that in low prevalence areas, a long-term approach of integrated leprosy services and disability management may be more appropriate than LEC as a leprosy elimination strategy.

  5. Potentiometric Surface of the Ozark Aquifer near Springfield, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.; Mugel, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A study of the water resources of the Springfield, Missouri, area in the 1970s determined that a cone of depression, formed by ground-water pumping, had developed in the Ozark aquifer beneath the city (Emmett and others, 1978). Continued ground-water usage in the 1970s and 1980s caused concern that ground-water resources would not be sufficient to meet the future needs of Springfield, Missouri, during periods of drought. As a result, a ground-water flow model of the Springfield area was developed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to assess the future role of ground water as a water source for the area (Imes, 1989). Results of the USGS model led to a decision by the City Utilities of Springfield to primarily rely on surface water from Stockton Lake as a source of city drinking water. Municipal and industrial ground-water usage continues in Springfield, but at lower rates than previously experienced (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). Rapid growth in the area has caused commercial, industrial, and domestic water use to increase. Population growth has been especially rapid in Nixa, Ozark, and Republic, and water use in the vicinity of these cities has grown an estimated 39 percent since 1990 (Dintelmann and others, 2006). Unlike Springfield, ground water is the primary source of water for these cities. The increased stress on the Ozark aquifer, the primary aquifer in the study area, has raised new concerns about possible further water-level declines in the areas of increased ground-water use. Although there continues to be new development in the Ozark aquifer, since 1987 no new water-supply wells that produce water from the Springfield Plateau aquifer have been allowed to be constructed in most of Greene and northern Christian counties (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). There is concern that if the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer continues to decline, increased leakage of contaminants into the Ozark aquifer from the overlying Springfield Plateau aquifer could occur (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). To address this concern, the USGS, in cooperation with Greene County, Missouri, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, constructed a map of the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer for 2006?2007. The map can be compared to previously constructed potentiometric-surface maps by Emmett and others (1978) and Imes (1989) to evaluate changes in ground-water flow directions, but the comparison is beyond the scope of this report.

  6. 2006-07 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report outlines accomplishments relative to items listed in the February 23, 2006 Management Letter from the Assistant Deputy Minister of Advance Education to the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT). A major focus of BCCAT during this year was the redesign and launch of BCCAT.bc.ca, implementing a number of…

  7. 2006-07 north metropolitan Perth breastfeeding cohort study: how long are mothers breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Forde, Karen A; Miller, Laura J

    2010-07-01

    Information about local breastfeeding rates and predictors of breastfeeding outcomes can assist with improving health planning and community support. Longitudinal infant feeding data were collected during scheduled contacts with a Community Child Health Nurse and a telephone survey at 6 months for 3828 infants in Perth, Western Australia. Breastfeeding rates were below recommended targets. Regression analyses identified several significant protective and risk predictors of breastfeeding outcomes. Factors that increased the likelihood of use of artificial baby milk in hospital were low birth weight, multiple births, private hospital, primiparity and mother of Asian ethnicity. At 6 months, factors that reduced the likelihood of breastfeeding were young mother, no tertiary education, multiple births, use of artiicial baby milk in hospital, low birth weight and mother seeking postnatal professional breastfeeding advice within 14 days. A strong commitment by health leaders and professionals is required across the continuum of care to provide timely and consistent support to maintain breastfeeding.

  8. Impact. Volume 19 Number 3 Fall-Winter 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly publication focuses on Supporting Success in School and Beyond for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Editorial introduction notes that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are reported as the sixth most commonly classified disability among young people receiving special education services in American schools, and it…

  9. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was measured in Lake Huron. There was almost no net change in the water level of Lake Huron from January 2004 through December 2005. In 2004, annual precipitation measured in Port Hope was about 3.7 inches above normal, but precipitation measured in Bad Axe was about 1.4 inches below normal. About 14.5 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2004 summer growing season (May through August), which is about the same as was measured in Port Hope during the same period. Provisional precipitation totals for 2005 were 30.7 inches for January through November in Port Hope, and about 31.7 inches for the year in Bad Axe. About 10.6 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2005 summer growing season, which is about 0.2 inches more than was recorded at Port Hope during the same period. Two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders are completed in the Saginaw and Marshall aquifers in Fairhaven and Lake Townships, respectively. From January 2004 through December 2005, the net rise in the water level in the Fairhaven Township well was 0.71 ft, and the net rise in the Lake Township well was 0.98 ft. The Fairhaven Township well is drilled adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and, as previously noted, there was almost no net change in the water level in Saginaw Bay over the same period. Hydrographs showing water levels are presented for the two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders. Continuous-data recorders were discontinued in the Grant and Bingham Township wells at the end of 2003 due to budget constraints. The decision of which two wells to discontinue was based on an analysis of the intrinsic value to Huron County of data from each well. The Grant Township well was selected for periodic or quarterly measurement at that time because it is completed in the glacial aquifer, which is little used for drinking water purposes or absent in much of Huron County. The Bingham Township well, which is completed in the Marshall aquifer, was selected for

  10. Ground-Water Quality in the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, New York, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hetcher-Aguila, Kari K.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 production wells and 13 private residential wells throughout the upper Susquehanna River Basin (upstream from the Pennsylvania border) during the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 and analyzed to describe the chemical quality of ground water in the upper basin. Wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and highest vulnerability to contamination, and to provide a representative sampling from the entire (4,516 square-mile) upper basin. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients, inorganic constituents, metals, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions that were detected in the greatest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, the concentrations of which were greater in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The metals barium, boron, cobalt, copper, and nickel were detected in every sample; the metals with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, manganese, strontium, and lithium. The pesticide compounds detected most frequently were atrazine, deethylatrazine, alachlor ESA, and two degradation products of metolachlor (metolachlor ESA and metolachlor OA); the compounds detected in highest concentration were metolachlor ESA and OA. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 11 samples, and concentrations of 3 of these compounds exceeded 1 microgram per liter (?g/L). Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasollline additive, was not detected in any sample. Several analytes were found in concentrations that exceeded Federal and New York State water-quality standards, which are typically identical. Chloride concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in two samples, and sulfate concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L in one sample. Sodium concentrations exceeded the USEPA Drinking Water Advisory of 60 mg/L in six samples. Nitrate concentrations exceeded the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L in one sample and approached this limit (at 9.84 mg/L) in another sample. Barium concentrations exceeded the MCL of 2,000 ?g/L in one sample. Iron concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L in five samples, and manganese concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in 14 samples. Arsenic was detected in seven samples, and the MCL for arsenic (10 ?g/L) was exceeded in two samples. Radon-222 exceeded the proposed MCL of 300 picocuries per liter in 24 samples. Any detection of total coliform or fecal coliform bacteria is considered a violation of New York State health regulations; in this study, total coliform was detected in six samples and fecal coliform was detected in one sample, but Escherichia coli (E. coli) was not detected in any sample.

  11. Vaccination coverage among callers to a state influenza hotline--Connecticut, 2004-05 influenza season.

    PubMed

    2005-03-04

    In response to the influenza vaccine shortage in the United States, the Connecticut Department of Public Health (DPH) operated a telephone hotline during October 22, 2004-January 15, 2005. The purpose of the hotline was to address questions from the public regarding the availability of influenza vaccine, reduce the number of telephone inquiries to physicians and local health departments (LHDs), and advise callers regarding which groups were most at risk and in need of influenza vaccination. Caller information was collected and shared daily with LHDs, which were encouraged to follow up with callers as their resources allowed. This report summarizes results of a retrospective survey of callers to the DPH influenza vaccine hotline during November 2004. The results indicated that vaccination coverage varied by age group and that persons receiving follow-up calls from LHDs were more likely to receive vaccination. State health departments might consider a hotline as a method for educating the public regarding influenza vaccination and a follow-up system as a means to improve vaccination coverage, especially among those at greatest risk.

  12. School Finance 2004?05: Districts Receive An Increase Despite A State Budget Squeeze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary; Edwards, Brian; Oregon, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Another year of financial difficulty for the state of California led to the suspension of the minimum-funding guarantee that has provided some financial protection for schools in recent years. In a negotiation with education leaders Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger managed to craft the suspension in a way that protected education's interests at the…

  13. Policies and Procedures for Accommodations and Alternate Assessment to the MEA, 2004-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Learning Results" legislation clearly articulates that all students will be included in state assessment at the fourth grade, eighth grade, and eleventh grade levels. The Maine Educational Assessment (MEA) has been revised to measure the standards detailed in Maine's "Learning Results." All students in Maine will participate in the state level…

  14. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Annual Accountability Report, Fiscal Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (CHE) serves as the coordinating board for South Carolina's 33 public institutions of higher learning and is responsible for serving a dual role within state government acting both as an advocate for higher education as well as an oversight entity on behalf of the General Assembly. The agency's…

  15. Mobility of Adult Basic Education Students in BC: The 2004-05 Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    2008-01-01

    British Columbia offers multiple educational pathways to address the literacy and academic needs of its adult population. In BC, Adult Basic Education (ABE) is offered through two public systems: the secondary system offers the Adult Graduation program in various school district facilities, typically through Continuing Education, and the public…

  16. Characterization of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, have been identified as contributing dissolved solids to Flaming Gorge Reservoir. Concentrations of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, ranged from 35 to 7,410 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids load in seeps and drains in the study area that discharge to Flaming Gorge Reservoir ranged from less than 0.1 to 113 tons per day. The most substantial source of dissolved solids discharging from the study area to the reservoir was Birch Spring Draw. The mean daily dissolved-solids load near the mouth of Birch Spring Draw was 65 tons per day.The estimated annual dissolved-solids load imported to the study area by Sheep Creek and Peoples Canals is 1,330 and 13,200 tons, respectively. Daily dissolved-solid loads discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the period July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005, ranged from 72 to 241 tons per day with a mean of 110 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the same period was 40,200 tons. Of this 40,200 tons of dissolved solids, about 9,000 tons may be from a regional source that is not associated with agricultural activities. The salt-loading factor is 3,670 milligrams per liter or about 5.0 tons of dissolved solids per acre-foot of deep percolation in Lucerne Valley and 1,620 milligrams per liter or 2.2 tons per acre-foot in South Valley.The variation of δ87Sr with strontium concentration indicates some general patterns that help to define a conceptual model of the processes affecting the concentration of strontium and the δ87Sr isotopic ratio in area waters. As excess irrigation water percolates through soils derived from Mancos Shale, the δ87Sr isotopic ratio (0.21 to 0.69 permil) approaches one that is typical of deep percolation from irrigation on Mancos Shale. The boron concentration and δ11B value for the water sample from Antelope Wash, being distinctly different from water samples from other sites, is evidence that water in Antelope Wash may contain a substantial component of regional ground-water flow.

  17. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples from the Ogallala and the Brule sand. Median concentrations of nitrate varied by aquifer-2.6 milligrams per liter (Ogallala), 2.1 milligrams per liter (Brule), and 1.3 milligrams per liter (Brule sand). The chemistry of the ground water in the study area indicates that ground water flows from recharge areas in both the tableland areas and Lodgepole Creek Valley to discharge areas beyond the study area. Recharging water that percolates into the Ogallala in the tableland areas either enters the Ogallala aquifer, flows along the Ogallala-Brule contact, or enters Brule fractures or sand. Although limited in amount, ground water flowing along the Ogallala-Brule contact or in the Brule fractures or sand appears to be the predominant means by which water moves from the tableland areas to Lodgepole Creek Valley. Apparent ground-water ages from chlorofluorocarbon and sulfur hexafluoride data generally were similar. Age of ground water for most monitoring wells located in Lodgepole Creek Valley ranged from the mid- to late 1960s to the early 1990s. Ages of ground water in samples from monitoring wells located in tableland draw areas ranged from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s. Water in the Brule (areas without known secondary permeability structures) or deeper Brule sand aquifer was substantially older than water in the Ogallala aquifer and probably was recharged between 10,000 to 30,000 years before present. The stable isotopic data indicate that the ground water in the study area probably originated from precipitation. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek and the tableland areas are similar in chemistry. However, there appears to be limited interaction between ground water within the Ogallala to the north of Sidney and Lodgepole Creek Valley. Available data indicate that although some of the ground water in the Ogallala likely flows across the Ogallala-Brule contact, most of it does not move toward Lodgepole Creek.

  18. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2004-05. Facilities Core Data Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of "Facilities Performance Indicators" is to provide a representative set of statistics about facilities in educational institutions. The second iteration of the web-based Facilities Core Data Survey was posted and available to facilities professionals at more than 3,000 institutions in the Fall of 2005. The website offered a printed…

  19. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13...

  20. Collaboration between School and Parents to Foster Information Literacy: Learning in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Siu Cheung; Li, Kai Ming

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate current parental support for student learning with information technology (IT) in Hong Kong. A total of 3340 and 3656 parents and 539 and 440 primary school heads responded to two surveys in 2005/06 and 2006/07, respectively, in this cross-sectional study. The results show a persistent positive perception of…

  1. High School Attrition Rates across Texas Education Service Center Regions: 2009-10. IDRA Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roy L.

    2011-01-01

    Attrition rates are an indicator of a school's holding power, or ability to keep students enrolled in school and learning until they graduate. This study examines regional trends in Texas for the number and percent of students lost from public high school enrollment prior to graduation. A comparative analysis of 1985-86, 2005-06, 2006-07,…

  2. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in Los Angeles Unified School District: A District and Neighborhood Matched Comparison Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The study examined whether charter schools have higher growth in student achievement than traditional public schools. The study analyzed data on 79 charter schools and 593 traditional public elementary, middle, and high schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District from 2005-06 to 2006-07. School-level academic achievement was measured using…

  3. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of Second-Year (2005-06) Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Huntsberger, Briana

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), a project sponsored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), leverages federal Title II, Part D funds to support a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student…

  4. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of Second-Year (2005-06) Implementation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Center for Educational Research, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), a project sponsored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), leverages federal Title II, Part D funds to support a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student…

  5. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona-2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area averages about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2005 to September 2006. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2005, ground-water withdrawals in the Black Mesa area totaled 7,330 acre-feet, including ground-water withdrawals for industrial (4,480 acre-feet) and municipal (2,850 acre-feet) uses. From 2004 to 2005, total withdrawals increased by less than 2 percent, industrial withdrawals increased by approximately 3 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 0.35 percent. From 2005 to 2006, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 10 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.5 foot. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 12 of 15 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.4 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2006, the median water-level change for 29 wells was -8.5 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.2 foot for 13 wells in the unconfined areas and -46.6 feet for 16 wells in the confined area. Ground-water discharges were measured once in 2005 and once in 2006 at Moenkopi School Spring and Burro Spring. Discharge decreased by 3.5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring and by 15 percent at Burro Spring. During the period of record at each spring, discharges fluctuated; a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash (1976 to 2005), Dinnebito Wash (1993 to 2005), Polacca Wash (1994 to 2005), Pasture Canyon Spring (August 2004 to December 2005), and Laguna Creek (1996 to 2005). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring and Laguna Creek was discontinued at the end of December 2005. In 2006, water samples were collected from 6 wells and 2 springs in the Black Mesa area and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 111 to 588 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 5 of the wells and both of the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Trends in the chemistry of water samples from the 6 wells show the Pi?on NTUA 1 and Peabody 9 wells increasing in dissolved solids, Forest Lake NTUA 1 and Peabody 2 wells decreasing in dissolved solids, and Kykotsmovi PM2 and Keams Canyon PM2 wells show a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for the 2 springs.

  6. Relations Among the Use, Occurrence, and Flux of Azoxystrobin, Propiconazole, and Other Fungicides in US Streams, 2005-06

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglin, W. A.; Sandstrom, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    Fungicides account for 10 percent of global pesticide use (0.25 million metric tons per year), and 6 percent of US use (33 thousand metric tons per year). Some fungicides such as chlorothalonil have been in use for decades (first US registration in 1966), while others such as azoxystrobin were introduced in the last decade (first US sales in 1996). Fungicide fate and transport is not well understood, but recent investigations have detected fungicides in precipitation, groundwater, streams, and streambed sediment. The occurrence of Asian soybean rust in the Southern US is of concern because of the increase in fungicide use that would result if it spreads to the Central US during the growing season. In the Central US many growers have never used fungicides to protect soybeans. The purpose of this study is to collect baseline data on fungicide occurrence in streams prior to the spread of Asian rust to soybeans in the Central US and the anticipated increase in fungicide use to control the rust. These data are then used to investigate relations among the occurrence and flux of fungicides in US streams, and the use of those products within the associated drainage basins. Water samples from streams in the Southern and Central US were collected in 2005 (26 sites, 40 samples) and 2006 (16 sites, 41 samples), and analyzed for up to 11 fungicides. This is the first study to monitor for several of these fungicides in environmental samples from locations in this region of the US. Chlorothalonil was used in all study basins but only detected in one sample from 2006. Azoxystrobin was detected in one or more samples from 12 of 26 sites in 2005 and 10 of 16 sites in 2006. Estimated daily fluxes of azoxystrobin ranged from zero to 440 grams/day but were not significantly correlated (p value = 0.3) with estimated azoxystrobin use in the upstream watershed. Estimated daily fluxes of propiconizole ranged from zero to 360 grams/day and were correlated (p value = <0.0001) with estimated propiconizole use. Results indicate that fungicides can readily enter aquatic systems where they may have toxic effects, and that their occurrence and flux in streams may be correlated with regional patterns of fungicide use.

  7. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Running Start: 2005-06 Annual Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Running Start program; data about student participation rates and academic performance; updates on savings to families, taxpayers and the state; and new information about national trends in dual-credit programs. Running Start is a program that allows 11th and 12th grade students to take college courses at…

  8. Adding Up the Numbers: The Education Budget under Mayoral Control. Update and Summary of 2005-06 EPP Bulletins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    For more than a century, a succession of New York City (NYC) mayors have claimed that they were reducing administrative overhead in the school system and driving more resources to instruction. These claims have been dutifully reported by the press with rarely any effort to verify them. For the last 50 years, the salaries of teachers were increased…

  9. Findings from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey: School Year 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2008-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank; Cornman, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey (TCS), which collected data for school year 2005-2006. This pilot collection is a research and development effort to see if it is possible to collect and publish teacher-level data from the administrative records residing in state departments of education. Seven states…

  10. A Rapid Method for the Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Utilizing Standard Pressure HPLC: Refinement of AOAC 2005.06.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Robert G; Punn, Rubi; Algoet, Myriam; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Superficially porous column technologies have previously been shown to provide faster chromatographic analysis of toxin oxidation products when analyzing shellfish for paralytic shellfish toxins. While sub 3 μm fused core columns have facilitated enhanced method performance, including significantly lower analysis times and lower LOD, they were also found to last for only a few hundred injections before pressure increases rendered them unusable with standard HPLC. Recently 5 μm superficially porous columns have become commercially available. In this study, a 5 μm fused core column was used to develop a fast chromatographic method for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, with performance characteristics and column lifetime being assessed. The 5 μm column was found to be able to perform approximately 3000 injections without significant increases in back pressure or reduction in performance. Data generated using the column were found to be equivalent to that determined using current HPLC column technologies for both screening and quantitation methods. Furthermore, an increase in sensitivity for all toxins tested under the routine monitoring program for British waters was observed and the overall run time of the analysis halved. Overall, the 5 μm fused core column provided a significant increase in sample throughput, a reduction in mobile phase consumption, and an increase in method sensitivity.

  11. Modeling Water Temperature in the Yakima River, Washington, from Roza Diversion Dam to Prosser Dam, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Frank D.; Curran, Christopher A.; Mastin, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic water-temperature model was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey for use by the Bureau of Reclamation for studying the effect of potential water management decisions on water temperature in the Yakima River between Roza and Prosser, Washington. Flow and water temperature data for model input were obtained from the Bureau of Reclamation Hydromet database and from measurements collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during field trips in autumn 2005. Shading data for the model were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in autumn 2006. The model was calibrated with data collected from April 1 through October 31, 2005, and tested with data collected from April 1 through October 31, 2006. Sensitivity analysis results showed that for the parameters tested, daily maximum water temperature was most sensitive to changes in air temperature and solar radiation. Root mean squared error for the five sites used for model calibration ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 degrees Celsius (?C) and mean error ranged from ?1.3 to 1.6?C. The root mean squared error for the five sites used for testing simulation ranged from 1.6 to 2.2?C and mean error ranged from 0.1 to 1.3?C. The accuracy of the stream temperatures estimated by the model is limited by four errors (model error, data error, parameter error, and user error).

  12. The Division III Financial Aid Reporting Process: Findings and Review Results, 2005-06 through 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report marks the completion of the 2008-09 reporting cycle and the fourth year of the Division III Financial Aid Reporting Program. The report examines findings for all reporting institutions from each of the four reporting cycles, and details the outcomes of the Division III Financial Aid Committee's 2008-09 review process. Four calculations…

  13. Financial Inequality in Higher Education: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2007-01-01

    Financial inequality is growing in U.S. higher education. In this report, the author observes increasing differences between the endowments of rich and poor institutions, between the salaries of college and university presidents and their faculties, between the salaries of athletic coaches and professors, and between well and poorly compensated…

  14. Water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for Highland and Marchand Bayous, Galveston County, Texas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Dexter W.; Mabe, Jeffrey A.; Turco, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate and fish data were collected from the same five sites identified for habitat evaluation. Three assessments were done to account for seasonal differences in biotic distribution. Stream-habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were assessed at each site three times during the study to evaluate aquatic life use. A total of 5,126 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified at all sites. During the study, 34 species of fish representing 28 families were collected from all the sites. 

  15. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

  16. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading from Surface Water and Groundwater to Sweitzer Lake, Colorado, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. Sweitzer Lake was placed on the State 303(d) list as impaired with respect to dissolved selenium. In Colorado, the Water Quality Control Division of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment is required to develop total maximum daily loads of selenium for the 303(d) list segments. The U.S. Geological survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading from surface water and ground water to Sweitzer Lake to support the total maximum daily loads development process. Surface-water and groundwater data were collected to quantify selenium concentrations and loads to Sweitzer Lake from October 2006 to October 2007. These data were used to determine the amount of selenium load (pounds annually) that would need to be reduced for the contributing sources (surface water and groundwater) to meet the State chronic aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium, herein referred to as 'a load reduction.' Selenium concentration data were also compared to the State acute aquatic-life standard of 18.4 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium. Both surface-water and groundwater-quality samples collected during this study were found to exceed the chronic standard. Surface-water quantity and quality data were collected at Garnet Canal Diversion and Diversion Drain. Groundwater flux data were collected at 10 seepage-meter sires in Sweitzer Lake, and groundwater-quality data were collected at a groundwater seep and inferred from a January 2007 sample collected at Garnet Canal Diversion. Selenium concentrations and loads were greater at Garnet Canal Diversion than those observed at Diversion Drain. Approximately one-third of Garnet Canal Diversion-s Streamflow originates from Loutzenhizer Arroyo. Selenium concentrations observed during previous studies at Loutzenhizer Arroyo indicate high selenium concentrations and high selenium loads. All selenium concentrations in samples from Garnet Canal Diversion were greater than the chronic standard and were less that the acute standard during the irrigation season. Seventy-three percent of the annual selenium load at Garnet Canal Diversion would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. All daily mean selenium concentrations and selenium-concentration samples were greater than the chronic standard at Diversion Drain, but less than the acute standard during the irrigation season. Forty percent of the mean annual selenium loads at Diversion Drain would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. Estimated groundwater selenium loads and reductions of selenium loads to Sweitzer Lake were estimated using ranges of lake-bottom areas with positive groundwater flux and groundwater selenium concentrations. Estimated annual groundwater selenium load reductions ranged from 0.900 pound of the 1.17 pounds of annual load to 86.3 points of the 88.3 pounds of annual load for the selenium concentration scenarios over the range of lake-bottom areas. Groundwater selenium load and load reductions determined from this study identify the probably minimum and maximum values for these parameters. Further data collection and analysis could refine the range of groundwater selenium loads and load reductions.

  17. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured once in 2006 and once in 2007 at Moenkopi School Spring. Flow decreased by 18.9 percent at Moenkopi School Spring. During the period of record, flow fluctuated, and a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi (1976 to 2006), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs (1993 to 2006), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa (1994 to 2006), and Pasture Canyon Springs (August 2004 to December 2006). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained even, showing neither a significant increase nor decrease in flows. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring for a trend to be apparent. In 2007, water samples were collected from 1 well and 1 spring in the Black Mesa area and were analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at Peabody well 5 for the period of record, and there is an apparent increasing trend. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record.

  18. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  19. Ground-Water Data and Flow Directions in the Vicinity of Swamp Road, Licking County, Ohio, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is proposing to build a dry dam on the South Fork Licking River to mitigate flood impacts. Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of impounded floodwaters on ground-water conditions in the Swamp Road neighborhood. To obtain a better understanding of existing ground-water conditions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NRCS, installed three monitoring wells and collected ground-water-quality samples on two occasions from these and four residential wells. In addition, transducers were placed in these seven wells to obtain hourly water-level measurements from August, 2006 to early March, 2007. Intermittent water levels also were measured in another seven residential wells in the area. Water-quality samples were collected in September 2006 and January 2007. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, inorganic elements, and fecal-indicator bacteria. In general, the ground-water quality was very hard with large iron concentrations of 1,700 ?g/L and above. Although the aquifer underlying the Swamp Road area is confined, the continuous water-level records indicate a rapid response to precipitation. Comparison of the well hydrographs with the stage hydrograph for the nearby South Fork Licking River indicates a hydraulic connection between the river and the aquifer. In the vicinity of Swamp Road, the ground-water-flow direction was southeast during the duration of the study. The ground-water-level elevations were above the planned maximum elevation for water impounded by the dam, thus the impounded floodwater should have minimal impact on ground-water conditions along Swamp Road.

  20. Transport and Sources of Suspended Sediment in the Mill Creek Watershed, Johnson County, Northeast Kansas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, evaluated suspended-sediment transport and sources in the urbanizing, 57.4 mi2 Mill Creek watershed from February 2006 through June 2007. Sediment transport and sources were assessed spatially by continuous monitoring of streamflow and turbidity as well as sampling of suspended sediment at nine sites in the watershed. Within Mill Creek subwatersheds (2.8-16.9 mi2), sediment loads at sites downstream from increased construction activity were substantially larger (per unit area) than those at sites downstream from mature urban areas or less-developed watersheds. Sediment transport downstream from construction sites primarily was limited by transport capacity (streamflow), whereas availability of sediment supplies primarily influenced transport downstream from mature urban areas. Downstream sampling sites typically had smaller sediment loads (per unit area) than headwater sites, likely because of sediment deposition in larger, less sloping stream channels. Among similarly sized storms, those with increased precipitation intensity transported more sediment at eight of the nine monitoring sites. Storms following periods of increased sediment loading transported less sediment at two of the nine monitoring sites. In addition to monitoring performed in the Mill Creek watershed, sediment loads were computed for the four other largest watersheds (48.6-65.7 mi2) in Johnson County (Blue River, Cedar, Indian, and Kill Creeks) during the study period. In contrast with results from smaller watersheds in Mill Creek, sediment load (per unit area) from the most urbanized watershed in Johnson County (Indian Creek) was more than double that of other large watersheds. Potential sources of this sediment include legacy sediment from earlier urban construction, accelerated stream-channel erosion, or erosion from specific construction sites, such as stream-channel disturbance during bridge renovation. The implication of this finding is that sediment yields from larger watersheds may remain elevated after the majority of urban development is complete. Surface soil, channel-bank, suspended-sediment, and streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for grain size, nutrients, trace elements, and radionuclides in the Mill Creek watershed to characterize suspended sediment between surface or channel-bank sources. Although concentrations and activities of cobalt, nitrogen, selenium, total organic carbon, cesium-137, and excess lead-210 had significant differences between surface and channel-bank samples, biases resulting from urban construction, additional sorption of constituents during sediment transport, and inability to accurately represent erosion from rills and gullies precluded accurate characterization of suspended-sediment source.

  1. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  2. An Action-Research Programme with Secondary Education Teachers on Teaching and Learning Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingos-Grilo, Paula; Reis-Grilo, Carlos; Ruiz, Constantino; Mellado, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We describe part of an action-research programme in Spain which was based on metacognitive reflection. The participants were four science teachers in a secondary school during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 academic years. During the study, they each analysed their own pupils' alternative ideas on photosynthesis and their teaching methods as recorded in…

  3. Inquiry-Learning with WebLab: Undergraduate Attitudes and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Judith; Mitchell, Rudolph; del Alamo, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    The Microelectronics WebLab at MIT allows students to do actual (not simulated) laboratory research on state-of-the art equipment through the Internet. This study assesses the use of WebLab in a junior-level course on microelectronic devices and circuits in 2004-05 and 2005-06. In quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews, students and…

  4. Misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-provided meals based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Finney, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have relied on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation, few studies have evaluated parental response accuracy. We investigated misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-meal programs based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records using cross-sectional study data collected for 3 school years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07) for 1,100 fourth-grade children (87% black; 52% girls) from 18 schools total in one district. Parents reported children's usual school-meal participation on paper consent forms. The district provided administrative daily records of individual children's school-meal participation. Researchers measured children's weight and height. "Usual participation" in breakfast/lunch was defined as ≥50% of days. Parental responses misclassified 16.3%, 12.8%, 19.8%, and 4.7% of children for participation in breakfast, classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch, respectively. Parental responses misclassified more children for participation in cafeteria than classroom breakfast (P=0.0008); usual-participant misclassification probabilities were less than nonusual-participant misclassification probabilities for classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch (P<0.0001 for each) (two-proportion z tests). Parental responses concerning children's participation were more accurate for lunch than breakfast; parents overstated breakfast participation (both classroom and cafeteria) and lunch participation. Breakfast participation misclassification was not related to body mass index (P=0.41), sex (P=0.40), age (P=0.63), or socioeconomic status (P=0.21) (multicategory logistic regression controlling for school year, breakfast location, and school). Relying on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation may hamper researchers' abilities to detect relationships that have policy implications for the child nutrition community. The use of

  5. Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were collected following USGS protocols.

  6. Surface-Water Exchange through Culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Stewart, Marc A.; Nowacki, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic data between June 2004 and December 2005 to investigate the temporal and spatial nature of flow exchanges through culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park. Continuous data collected during the study measured flow velocity, water level, salinity, conductivity, and water-temperature in or near seven culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. The two culverts east of Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road flowed into Taylor Slough Basin from 87 to 96 percent of the study period, whereas flows through five culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond flowed into Shark River Slough Basin from 70 to 99 percent of the study period. Synoptic flow discharges measured at all culverts during three intensive field efforts revealed a net discharge into Taylor Slough Basin from Shark River Slough Basin through culverts between Royal Palm Road and Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road, and into Shark River Slough Basin from Taylor Slough Basin through culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. Data collected during the study and presented in this report provided additional knowledge of the magnitude, direction, and nature of flow exchanges through the road culverts.

  7. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2004, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,210 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,370 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,840 acre-feet. From 2003 to 2004, total withdrawals decreased by less than 1 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 2 percent, and municipal withdrawals increased by 2 percent. From 2004 to 2005, annually measured water levels declined in 6 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 12 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2005, the median water-level change for 33 wells was -9.0 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.6 foot for 16 wells in the unconfined areas and -32.0 feet for 17 wells in the confined area. Discharges were measured once in 2004 and once in 2005 at four springs. Discharge increased by 8 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, decreased by 5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring, increased by 71 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and stayed the same at Burro Spring. For the period of record at each spring, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2004 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2004 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2004 at Dinnebito Wash, 1994 to 2004 at Polacca Wash, and August 2004 to December 2004 at Pasture Canyon Spring. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2005, water samples were collected from 11 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 122 to 639 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 9 of the wells and from all the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are some long-term trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells having more than 10 years of data and from 2 springs. Rough Rock PM5, Keams Canyon PM2, Second Mesa PM2, and Kayenta PM2 show an increasing trend in dissolved solids; Forest Lake NTUA1 and PWCC 2 show a decreasing trend in dissolved solids; and Kykostmovi PM2 shows a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for 2 springs.

  8. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona--2004-05

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-27

    aquifer, Black Mesa area, Arizona, 2004 …………………………………… 7 Figure 5. MAp showing water-level changes in N aquifer wells from the prestress period to 2005...area, Arizona, 2004 ……………………………………………………………………… 8 Table 4. Withdrawals from the N aquifer by water-use category for 1965-2004 and for other periods ...Black Mesa, Arizona …………………………………………… 8 Table 5. Water-level changes in wells completed in the N aquifer, Black Mesa area, Arizona, prestress period

  9. Numbers and Rates of Public High School Dropouts: School Year 2004-05. First Look (NCES 2008-305)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Gaviola, Nick; Hoffman, Lee

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual universe collection of public elementary and secondary education data that is administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its data collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for the CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings…

  10. A Study of States' Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. NCSER 2011-3001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollmer, Julie; Cronin, Roberta; Brauen, Marsha; Howell, Bethany; Fletcher, Philip; Gonin, Rene; Jenkins, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The Study of Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) examined how states monitored the implementation of IDEA by local special education and early intervention services programs. State monitoring and improvement practices in 2004-05 and 2006-07 were the focus of the study. Prior to the…

  11. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  12. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  13. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  14. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  15. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Two Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program is part of a long history of performance pay programs and policies in Texas. The GEEG program was state-funded and provided grants to schools to implement three-year locally-designed performance pay plans. During the 2005-06, 2006-07, and 2007-08 school years, the GEEG program operated in 99…

  16. Chloride concentrations and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer long tributary to the Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, conducted a study to determine the interaction of local surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek. In conjunction with the surface water and groundwater interaction study, samples were collected for analysis of chloride and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Chloride concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 26.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) near Teton Village, 1.2 to 4.9 mg/L near Resor's Bridge, and 1.8 to 5.0 mg/L near Wilson. Stable isotope data for hydrogen and oxygen in water samples collected in and near the three cross sections on Fish Creek are shown in relation to the Global Meteoric Water Line and the Local Meteoric Water Line.

  17. Variations in Magmatic He, CO2 and δ13 C during the 2005-06 Seafloor Eruption Near 9°50'N on the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. W.; Michael, P. J.; Rubin, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    We report dissolved (glass) CO2 concentrations, plus vesicle He and C isotope compositions and He and CO2 abundances, for a suite of 23 basalt glasses from the 2005-2006 eruption on the East Pacific Rise. This sample suite provides a unique opportunity to study magma recharge along the mid-ocean ridge, to quantify degassing prior to and during eruption, and to evaluate the extent to which mantle carbon is incorporated into hydrothermal fluids and ultimately into seafloor ecosystems. Our work covers the full spatial and temporal extent of the months-long eruption (ages from 210Po-210Pb dating), and is complementary to a previous study of volatile changes with distance from the vent during part of the eruptive episode (Soule et al. 2013; EPSL). Vesicle 3He/4He is uniform at 8.56±0.04(1σ) RA. Vesicle He and CO2 abundances vary by factors of 17 and 230, respectively. The variability in CO2/He ratio is evidence for kinetic fractionation of He from CO2 during vesiculation, and reveals the potential for using vesicle CO2/He as a relative geo-speedometer for the rate of magma ascent and lava emplacement. Nearly all samples lie in a narrow range of 280-370 ppm for total CO2 (vesicles+glass) suggesting saturation at a depth of ~1.5 km in the crust, similar to the depth of the seismically imaged magma lens. Vesicle CO2/He co-varies positively with the fraction of CO2 contained in vesicles (r2=0.94) and negatively with vesicle δ13C (r2=0.83). The δ13C ranges from -2.6 to -5 per mil, and straddles the value for CO2 in EPR vent fluids (M. Lilley, pers. comm.). The C isotope results are consistent with vapor phase 13C-enrichment during CO2 exsolution from a basaltic melt, as determined experimentally (Javoy et al. 1978; Contrib Mineral Petrol). Collectively the observations are explained by quasi-closed-system degassing, where melt ascent from the magma lens was sufficiently rapid that minimal bubble loss occurred during the eruption and flow of lava onto the seafloor.

  18. Nutrient and biological conditions of selected small streams in the Edwards Plateau, central Texas, 2005-06, and implications for development of nutrient criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabe, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    During the summers of 2005 and 2006 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, evaluated nutrient and biological conditions in small streams in parts of the Edwards Plateau of Central Texas. Land-cover analysis was used to select 15 small streams that represented a gradient of conditions with the potential to affect nutrient concentrations across the study area, which comprises two of four subregions of the Edwards Plateau ecoregion. All 15 streams were sampled for water properties, nutrients, algae, benthic invertebrates, and fish in summer 2005, and eight streams were resampled in summer 2006. Streams that did not receive wastewater effluent had relatively low nutrient concentrations and were classified as oligotrophic; streams receiving wastewater effluent had relatively high nutrient concentrations and were classified as eutrophic. Nutrient concentrations measured in the least-disturbed streams closely matched the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency nutrient criteria recommendations based on estimated reference concentrations. Nitrogen/phosphorus ratios indicated streams not affected by wastewater effluent might be limited by phosphorus concentrations. Algal indicators of nutrient condition were closely related to dissolved nitrogen concentrations and streamflow conditions. Ambient dissolved nitrogen concentrations (nitrite plus nitrate) were positively correlated with benthic algal chlorophyll-a concentrations. The correlation of benthic algal chlorophyll-a with instantaneous nitrite plus nitrate load was stronger than correlations with ambient nutrients. Increased nutrient concentrations were associated with increased macroalgae cover, wider diel dissolved oxygen ranges, and reduced diel dissolved oxygen minimums. Benthic invertebrate aquatic life use scores generally were classified as High to Exceptional in study streams despite the influence of urbanization or wastewater effluent. Reductions in aquatic life use scores appeared to be related to extremely low flow conditions and the loss of riffle habitats. Benthic invertebrate aquatic life use scores and several of the metrics used to compute composite aquatic life use scores tended to increase with increasing total nitrogen concentrations. Fish community aquatic life use scores generally were classified as High or Exceptional with the exception of a few samples collected from streams receiving wastewater effluent that were classified as Intermediate. Fish community aquatic life use scores and several fish community metrics were positively correlated with nutrient concentrations and macroalgae cover. The majority of the positive correlations among nutrient concentrations, macroalgae cover, and fish metrics were strongly influenced by relatively high nutrient concentrations. Both benthic and planktonic chlorophyll-a measures were related to nutrients, but this study indicates that benthic chlorophyll-a was the better choice for monitoring nutrient enrichment because (1) the relation between benthic chlorophyll-a and nutrients was stronger, and (2) a strong relation between benthic chlorophyll-a and nutrients persisted after removal of the sites influenced by wastewater effluent, which indicates superior ability of benthic chlorophyll-a to discriminate between conditions at lower nutrient concentrations. The transect-based algal abundance estimate technique is a useful tool for identifying eutrophic conditions, assessing nuisance algal growth, and making broad comparisons among sites, but it appears to lack the fine resolution to identify lesser degrees of nutrient enrichment. Several individual benthic invertebrate and fish metrics were correlated with nutrient conditions, but correlations were generally positive and the reverse of what would be expected when nutrient enrichment causes a proliferation of algal growth and stream degradation. However, the benthic invertebrate functional feeding group metrics showed some

  19. Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998. Report to Congress on State Performance, Program Year 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998" (commonly referred to as "Perkins," "Perkins III," or "the Act" and referred to hereafter as Perkins III) requires, in Sec. 113(c)(3)(C), that the secretary provide the appropriate committees of Congress copies of annual reports received by…

  20. UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-06 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

    2006-11-30

    The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a “Research to Development to Application” structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction.

  1. Deaths averted by influenza vaccination in the U.S. during the seasons 2005/06 through 2013/14☆

    PubMed Central

    Foppa, Ivo M.; Cheng, Po-Yung; Reynolds, Sue B.; Shay, David K.; Carias, Cristina; Bresee, Joseph S.; Kim, Inkyu K.; Gambhir, Manoj; Fry, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Excess mortality due to seasonal influenza is substantial, yet quantitative estimates of the benefit of annual vaccination programs on influenza-associated mortality are lacking. Methods We estimated the numbers of deaths averted by vaccination in four age groups (0.5 to 4, 5 to 19, 20 to 64 and ≥65 yrs.) for the nine influenza seasons from 2005/6 through 2013/14. These estimates were obtained using a Monte Carlo approach applied to weekly U.S. age group-specific estimates of influenza-associated excess mortality, monthly vaccination coverage estimates and summary seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates to obtain estimates of the number of deaths averted by vaccination. The estimates are conservative as they do not include indirect vaccination effects. Results From August, 2005 through June, 2014, we estimated that 40,127 (95% confidence interval [CI] 25,694 to 59,210) deaths were averted by influenza vaccination. We found that of all studied seasons the most deaths were averted by influenza vaccination during the 2012/13 season (9398; 95% CI 2,386 to 19,897) and the fewest during the 2009/10 pandemic (222; 95% CI 79 to 347). Of all influenza-associated deaths averted, 88.9% (95% CI 83 to 92.5%) were in people ≥65 yrs. old. Conclusions The estimated number of deaths averted by the US annual influenza vaccination program is considerable, especially among elderly adults and even when vaccine effectiveness is modest, such as in the 2012/13 season. As indirect effects (“herd immunity”) of vaccination are ignored, these estimates represent lower bound estimates and are thus conservative given valid excess mortality estimates PMID:25812842

  2. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2005-06 (Fiscal Year 2006). First Look. NCES 2008-328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2008-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings on public education…

  3. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2005-06. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-339

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofano, Anthony; Sable, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  4. Quality Characteristics of Ground Water in the Ozark Aquifer of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.; Coiner, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of water quantity and quality concerns within the Ozark aquifer, the State of Kansas in 2004 issued a moratorium on most new appropriations from the aquifer until results were made available from a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kansas Water Office. The purposes of the study were to develop a regional ground-water flow model and a water-quality assessment of the Ozark aquifer in northwestern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma (study area). In 2006 and 2007, water-quality samples were collected from 40 water-supply wells completed in the Ozark aquifer and spatially distributed throughout the study area. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and selected isotopes. This report presents the results of the water-quality assessment part of the cooperative study. Water-quality characteristics were evaluated relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations were exceeded for dissolved solids (11 wells), sulfate and chloride (2 wells each), fluoride (3 wells), iron (4 wells), and manganese (2 wells). Maximum Contaminant Levels were exceeded for turbidity (3 wells) and fluoride (1 well). The Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for lead (0 milligrams per liter) was exceeded in water from 12 wells. Analyses of isotopes in water from wells along two 60-mile long ground-water flow paths indicated that water in the Ozark aquifer was at least 60 years old but the upper age limit is uncertain. The source of recharge water for the wells along the flow paths appeared to be of meteoric origin because of isotopic similarity to the established Global Meteoric Water Line and a global precipitation relation. Additionally, analysis of hydrogen-3 (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) indicated that there was possible leakage of younger ground water into the lower part of the Ozark aquifer. This may be caused by cracks or fissures in the confining unit that separates the upper and lower parts of the aquifer, poorly constructed or abandoned wells, or historic mining activities. Analyses of major ions in water from wells along the flow paths indicated a transition from freshwater in the east to saline water in the west. Generally, ground water along flow paths evolved from a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type to a sodium calcium bicarbonate or a sodium calcium chloride bicarbonate type as water moved from recharge areas in Missouri into Kansas. Much of this evolution occurred within the last 20 to 25 miles of the flow paths along a water-quality transition zone near the Kansas-Missouri State line and west. The water quality of the Kansas part of the Ozark aquifer is degraded compared to the Missouri part. Geophysical and well-bore flow information and depth-dependent water-quality samples were collected from a large-capacity (1,900-2,300 gallons per minute) municipal-supply well to evaluate vertical ground-water flow accretion and variability in water-quality characteristics at different levels. Although the 1,050-foot deep supply well had 500 feet of borehole open to the Ozark aquifer, 77 percent of ground-water flow entering the borehole came from two 20-foot thick rock layers above the 1,000-foot level. For the most part, water-quality characteristics changed little from the deepest sample to the well-head sample, and upwelling of saline water from deeper geologic formations below the well was not evident. However, more saline water may be present below the bottom of the well.

  5. Water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for West Fork Double Bayou, Cotton Bayou, and Hackberry Gully, Chambers County, Texas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Dexter W.; Turco, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data from two sites at West Fork Double Bayou, two sites at Cotton Bayou, and one site at Hackberry Gully in Chambers County, Texas, during July 2006-August 2007. Water-quality data-collection surveys consisted of synoptic 24-hour continuous measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen at the five sites and periodically collected samples at four sites analyzed for several properties and constituents of interest. Stream-habitat data were collected at each of four sites three times during the study. At each site, a representative stream reach was selected and within this reach, five evenly spaced stream transects were determined. At each transect, stream attributes (wetted channel width, water depth, bottom material, instream cover) and riparian attributes (bank slope and erosion potential, width of natural vegetation, type of vegetation, percentage tree canopy) were measured. Benthic macroinvertebrate and fish data were collected from the same reaches identified for habitat evaluation. A total of 2,572 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified from the four reaches; insect taxa were more abundant than non-insect taxa at all reaches. A total of 1,082 fish, representing 30 species and 13 families, were collected across all reaches. Stream-habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were assessed at the four sites to evaluate aquatic life use. Habitat quality index scores generally indicated 'intermediate' aquatic life use at most reaches. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics scores indicated generally 'intermediate' aquatic life use for the West Fork Double Bayou reaches and generally 'high' aquatic life use for the Cotton Bayou and Hackberry Gully reaches. Index of biotic integrity scores for fish indicated generally 'high' aquatic life use at one West Fork Double Bayou reach; 'intermediate' aquatic life use at the other West Fork Double Bayou reach; and generally 'intermediate' aquatic life use at the Cotton Bayou and Hackberry Gully reaches.

  6. Algal community characteristics and response to nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in streams in the Ozark Plateaus, Southern Missouri, 1993-95 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient and algae data were collected in the 1990s and 2000s by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Water- Quality Assessment program in the Ozark Highlands, southern Missouri. These data were collected at sites of differing drainage area, land use, nutrient concentrations, and physiography. All samples were collected at sites with a riffle/pool structure and cobble/gravel bed material. A total of 60 samples from 45 sites were available for analyses to determine relations between nutrient concentrations and algal community structure in this region. This information can be used by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to develop the State's nutrient criteria plan. Water samples collected for this study had total nitrogen concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 4.41 milligram per liter (mg/L) with a median of 0.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.78 mg/L with a median of 0.007 mg/L. These nutrient concentrations were transformed into nutrient categories consisting of varying percentiles of data. Algal community data were entered into the U.S. Geological Survey's Algae Data Analysis System for the computation of more than 250 metrics. These metrics were correlated with nutrient categories, and four metrics with the strongest relation with the nutrient data were selected. These metrics were Organic Nitrogen Tolerance, Oxygen Tolerance, Bahls Pollution Class, and the Saprobien index with the 25th and 80th percentile nutrient categories. These data indicate that near the 80th percentile (Total Nitrogen = 0.84 mg/L, Total Phosphorus = 0.035 mg/L) the algae communities significantly changed from nitrogen-fixing species dominance to those species more tolerant of eutrophic conditions.

  7. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Third-Year (2006-07) Traits of Higher Technology Immersion Schools and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Sheehan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, called for the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to establish a pilot project to "immerse" schools in technology by providing a wireless mobile computing device for each teacher and student, technology-based learning resources, training for teachers to integrate…

  8. Water-quality, sediment-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for Mustang Bayou near Houston, Texas, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneck-Fahrer, Debra A.; East, Jeffery W.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data from six sites (downstream order M6-M1) primarily in Brazoria County southeast of Houston, Texas, during September 2004-August 2005 and collected bed sediment data from one site in September 2005. Water-quality data collection consisted of continuously monitored (for periods of 24 hours to several days, six times) water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen and periodically collected samples of several properties and constituents. Monitored dissolved oxygen measurements were below minimum and 24-hour criteria at all sites except M2. Nitrogen compounds, phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, E. coli, chloride, sulfate, solids, suspended sediment concentration, and pesticides were assessed at all sites. Concentrations of nitrogen compounds and phosphorus did not exceed Texas State screening levels. Biochemical oxygen demand was less than 4.0 milligrams per liter at all sites except M6, where the maximum concentration was 8.1 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of chlorophyll-a were less than the State screening level at all sites except M6, where four of eight samples equaled or exceeded the screening level. Twenty of 48 samples from Mustang Bayou had E. coli densities that exceeded the State single-sample water-quality standard. Median chloride concentrations from each site were between 42.2 and 123 milligrams per liter. Fifteen pesticide compounds (six herbicides and nine insecticides) were detected in 24 water samples. The most frequently detected pesticide was atrazine, which was found in every sample. Other frequently detected pesticides were 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT), prometon, tebuthiuron, fipronil, and the pesticide degradates, fipronil sulfide and fipronil sulfone. Sediment samples were collected from the stream bottom at M1 and analyzed for concentrations of trace elements (metals), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. No organochlorine pesticides or polychlorinated biphenyls were detected. No concentrations of metals exceeded State screening levels. Measurable concentrations of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were detected, and three other PAH compounds were detected but not quantified by the laboratory. Stream habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were surveyed at each site three times during the study to evaluate aquatic life use. Characteristics of habitat measured during each survey were scored using a habitat quality index. Average aquatic-life-use scores were 'limited' for M3-M6 and 'intermediate' for M1 and M2. A total of 2,557 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified from Mustang Bayou. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were scored using indexes specified by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Average aquatic-life-use scores were 'limited' at M1, 'intermediate' at M3-M6, and 'high' at M2. Forty-six species of fish representing 20 families were collected from Mustang Bayou. A total of 4,115 fish were collected. Sunfish (Centrarchidae) was the most abundant family, accounting for about 28 percent. Aquatic-life-use scores at sites in Mustang Bayou were determined using the regional index of biotic integrity for ecoregion 34 and were 'high' for all sites.

  9. Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod to examine the utility of passive diffusion sampling for long-term monitoring of concentrations of perchlorate and explosive compounds in ground water. The diffusion samplers were constructed of 1-inch-diameter rigid, porous polyethylene tubing. The results of laboratory tests in which diffusion samplers were submerged in containers filled with ground water containing perchlorate, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) indicate that concentrations inside the diffusion samplers equilibrated with concentrations in the containers within the 19-day-long test period. Field tests of the diffusion samplers were conducted in 15 wells constructed of 2- or 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe with 10-foot-long slotted screens. Concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX in the diffusion samplers placed in the wells for 42 to 52 days were compared to concentrations in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling from 53 days before to 109 days after retrieval of the diffusion samples. The results of the field tests indicate generally good agreement between the pumped and diffusion samples for concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX. The concentration differences indicate no systematic bias related to contaminant type or concentration levels.

  10. Maine's Personalized Alternate Assessment Portfolio (PAAP) Rubrics, 2004-05 Rubric Levels 1-4 for English Language Arts (Reading and Writing), Mathematics, and Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The PAAP Rubrics are designed for planning and implementation of the State's alternate assessment to the MEA, the PAAP. The PAAP has been designed to allow participation in the MEA for those students who require accommodations so significant that they would compromise the validity of the assessment (i.e., student would need accommodations that are…

  11. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Final Outcomes for a Four-Year Study (2004-05 to 2007-08)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, was based on the assumption that the use of technology in Texas public schools could be achieved more effectively by "immersing" schools in technology rather than by introducing technology resources, such as hardware, software, digital content, and educator…

  12. Stasis and Change: Faculty Satisfaction, Stress and University Priorities. An Analysis of the 1998-99 and 2004-05 HERI Faculty Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimer, Christina

    2006-01-01

    HERI Faculty Surveys administered in Fall 1998 and Spring 2005 at California State University-Fresno were analyzed to assess change in faculty satisfaction, stress, and perceived importance of University priorities by academic rank, gender, and race/ethnicity. Each survey sample was weighted to match its population then analyzed separately using…

  13. Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998. Report to Congress on State Performance, Program Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998" requires that the Secretary provide the appropriate committees of Congress copies of annual reports received by the department from each eligible agency that receives funds under the Act. Congress has made "accountability for results" a central focus of the…

  14. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2004-05 (Fiscal Year 2005). First Look. NCES 2007-356

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei; Honegger, Steven; Gaviola, Nick

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings on public education…

  15. Mercury, Methylmercury, and Other Constituents in Sediment and Water from Seasonal and Permanent Wetlands in the Cache Creek Settling Basin and Yolo Bypass, Yolo County, California, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Alpers, Charles; Fleck, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This report presents surface water and surface (top 0-2 cm) sediment geochemical data collected during 2005-2006, as part of a larger study of mercury (Hg) dynamics in seasonal and permanently flooded wetland habitats within the lower Sacramento River basin, Yolo County, California. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I represented reconnaissance sampling and included three locations within the Cache Creek drainage basin; two within the Cache Creek Nature Preserve (CCNP) and one in the Cache Creek Settling Basin (CCSB) within the creek's main channel near the southeast outlet to the Yolo Bypass. Two additional downstream sites within the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) were also sampled during Phase I, including one permanently flooded wetland and one seasonally flooded wetland, which had began being flooded only 1-2 days before Phase I sampling. Results from Phase I include: (a) a negative correlation between total mercury (THg) and the percentage of methylmercury (MeHg) in unfiltered surface water; (b) a positive correlation between sediment THg concentration and sediment organic content; (c) surface water and sediment THg concentrations were highest at the CCSB site; (d) sediment inorganic reactive mercury (Hg(II)R) concentration was positively related to sediment oxidation-reduction potential and negatively related to sediment acid volatile sulfur (AVS) concentration; (e) sediment Hg(II)R concentrations were highest at the two YBWA sites; (f) unfiltered surface water MeHg concentration was highest at the seasonal wetland YBWA site, and sediment MeHg was highest at the permanently flooded YBWA site; (g) a 1,000-fold increase in sediment pore water sulfate concentration was observed in the downstream transect from the CCNP to the YBWA; (h) low sediment pore water sulfide concentrations (<1 umol/L) across all sites; and (i) iron (Fe) speciation data suggest a higher potential for microbial Fe(III)-reduction in the YBWA compared to the CCSB. Phase II sampling did not include the original three Cache Creek sites, but instead focused on the original two sites within the YBWA and a similarly paired set of seasonally and permanently flooded wetland sites within the CCSB. Sediment sampling at the YBWA and CCSB occurred approximately 28 days and 52 days, respectively, after the initial flooding of the respective seasonal wetlands, and again towards the end of the seasonal flooding period (end of May 2006). Results from Phase II sampling include: (a) sediment MeHg concentration and the percentage of THg as MeHg (%MeHg) in unfiltered surface waters were generally higher in the YBWA compared to the CCSB; (b) suspended sediment concentration (SCC) in surface water was positively correlated with both THg and MeHg in unfiltered water across all sites, although the relationship between SCC and MeHg differed for the two regions, suggesting local MeHg sources; (c) MeHg concentration in unfiltered surface water was positively correlated to sediment MeHg concentrations across all sites, supporting the suggestion of unique local (sediment) sources of MeHg to the water column; (d) THg concentration in filtered water was positively correlated with both total Fe and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), offering additional support for the role of these constituents in the partitioning of THg between particulate and dissolved phases; (e) flooding of the YBWA seasonal wetland resulted in a rapid and significant (5-fold) rise in sediment MeHg concentration within 3-4 weeks following inundation; and (f) temporal changes in sediment S and Fe speciation suggest that rates of both microbial sulfate reduction and Fe(III)-reduction were significantly higher at YBWA, compared to CCSB, during the period between flooding and drying. The geochemical data presented in this report indicate that (a) strong spatial and temporal differences in Hg speciation and transformations can occur within the range of wetland habitats found in the lower Sacramento

  16. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment, High School Completions, and Staff from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2007-352

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Garofano, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual universe collection of public elementary and secondary education data that is administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its data collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for the CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings…

  17. Water-Quality and Biological Assessment of the Iowa River and Tributaries Within and Contiguous to the Meskwaki Settlement of the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace metals, wastewater, or fuel contaminants were found to exceed drinking-water regulations for the USEPA or State of Iowa targeted constituents. Bacteria densities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) ranged from less than 10 to more than 600,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters of water and were largest following intense rainfall runoff. The largest densities were recorded in samples collected from the tributaries, most notably from Cattail Creek downstream from the tribal headquarters area and Onion Creek downstream from the sewage lagoons. Arsenic and nickel concentrations in bottom sediment from Onion Creek exceeded the USEPA threshold effects level in a composite sample collected during the habitat assessment in July 2007. Suspended-sediment concentration was estimated in terms of total suspended solids. Overall, Onion and Bennett Creeks were the least turbid, whereas the ephemeral Cattail Creek had the most turbid samples. Aquatic-community data were collected at four sites on the Meskwaki Settlement during the summer of 2007 to provide a baseline biological assessment of stream conditions. This assessment was based on sampling of the fish, benthic macroinvertebrate, and periphyton communities along with physical habitat characteristics. Individual biological metrics were derived from the data collected during the community surveys. These metrics were used to calculate Indexes of Biological Integrity (IBIs). The calculated values from the IBIs provided a numerical value that was used to provide an assessment of the biological condition at each biological sampling site. The fish community samples indicated that all of the sampling sites would be considered in fair condition, with one exception being a collection site on the Iowa River at Highway 49 near Tama, Iowa, which was classified in poor condition. The benthic macroinvertebrate IBI indicated a classification of good for three of the four biological sampling sites, with the Iowa River near Montour, Iowa,

  18. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum-based flocculent used in the lower reservoir. Suspended-sediment concentrations and turbidity measurements were largest at the site downstream from the lower reservoir. This is because of the large amounts of debris deposited in the lower reservoir from the breach, which in turn were redeposited into the East Fork Black River during releases. When these constituents were plotted over time, the concentrations decreased and were similar to the other two sites in the study. Trend analyses were studied at one site with historical data. No major trends were discovered for streamflow, turbidity, suspended-sediment concentrations, or suspended-sediment discharges before or after the event. Although long-term effects of the elevated turbidity, major trace metals, and suspended sediments in the study area as a result of the reservoir embankment breach are not expected, there could possibly be other effects not measured during this study that could potentially affect the surface-water quality, such as loss of riparian habitat, changes in biological ecosystems, and large-scale reworking of sediments.

  19. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Physical Aquatic Habitat Availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6-263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6-673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9-748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8-808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities. A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties. To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach-average basis, annual topographic change contributed little to habitat area variation. Net erosion occurred at Yankton (the upstream reach) and because erosion was distributed uniformly, there was little affect on many habitat metrics. Topographic change was spatially nonuniform at Little Sioux and Kenslers Bend reaches. Shallow water habitat units and some reach-scale patch statistics (edge density, patch density, and Simpson's Diversity Index) were affected by these changes. Erosion dominated at the downstream reach but habitat metrics did not vary substantially from 2006 to 2007. Among habitat metrics that were explored, zones of convergent flow were identified as areas that most closely correspond to spawning habitats of other sturgeon species, as identified in the scientific literature, and that are consistent with sparse data on pallid sturgeon spawning locations in the Lower Missouri River. Areas of convergent zone habitat varied little with discharges that would be associated with spring pulsed flows, and relations with discharge changed negligibly between 2006 and 2007. Other habitat measures show how physical habitat varies with discharge and among the four reaches. Wake habitats defined by velocity gradients seem to correspond with migration pathways of adult pallid sturgeon. Habitats with low Froude-number correspond to low energy areas that may accumulate passively transporting particles, organic matter, and larval fish. Among the modeled reaches, Yankton had substantially longer water residence time for equivalent flow exceedances than the other three modeled reaches. Longer residence times result from greater flow resistance in the relatively wide, shallow channel and may be associated with longer residence times of passively transported particulate materials.

  20. Fulfilling the Covenant--The Way Forward: 2004-05 Annual Report to the President on the Results of Participation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in Federal Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is the third annual report of the President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), appointed by George W. Bush under Presidential Executive Order 13256. The report for fiscal years 2004-2005 details the performance of the 32 designated federal agencies and departments during 2004-2005, and…

  1. Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget, 2nd Edition. An Analysis of Fiscal-Year 2003-04 Appropriations and Recommendations for 2004-05. Revision of the March 2003 Study. A Mackinac Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFaive, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    As the debate rages in Lansing over the size and scope of the 2004-2005 Fiscal Year state budget, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy is republishing and updating budget cutting ideas from its March 2003 study, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's Budget." The 2003 study made over 200 recommendations…

  2. Changes in the Characteristics, Services, and Performance of Preschoolers with Disabilities from 2003-04 to 2004-05. Wave 2 Overview Report from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS). NCSER 2008-3011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elaine; Daley, Tamara; Shimshak, Amy; Riley, Jarnee; Keller, Brad; Jenkins, Frank; Markowitz, Joy; Rosenquist, Celia

    2008-01-01

    PEELS involves a nationally representative sample of children, 3 to 5 years of age when they entered the study, with diverse disabilities who are receiving preschool special education services in a variety of settings. Topics covered in the report include declassification (children leaving special education), reclassification (movement from one…

  3. Modeling Overwintering Survival of Declining Landbirds: The 2004-05 Annual Report of the Monitoring Avian Winter Survival (MAWS) Program on four DoD Installations in Southeastern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-28

    findings agree with work that suggests that winter habitat quality affects the physical condition and spring departure schedules of American Redstarts ...Science 282:1884-1886. Marra, P.P. and R.T. Homes. 2001. Consequences of dominance-mediated habitat segregation in American Redstarts during the non

  4. An Analysis of the New Jersey Public School District School Bond Referendum Process: A Historical Case Study of the Egg Harbor Township School District Bond Referendum of 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a historical case study of the Egg Harbor Township School District bond referendum that passed with an exceptionally high 92 percent of votes in January 2005. The methodology used in this study resulted in both an examination of the components of the New Jersey Public School District bond referendum process as well as an…

  5. Overview of Public Elementary and Secondary Students, Staff, Schools, School Districts, Revenues, and Expenditures: School Year 2004-05 and Fiscal Year 2004. E.D. TAB. NCES 2007-309

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Hill, Jason

    2006-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is a universe collection of public elementary and secondary education data that is administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The CCD is a system of five surveys, three nonfiscal and two fiscal. The nonfiscal surveys are the: (1) Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey; (2) Local…

  6. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary.

  7. Net Costs Due to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination — United States, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Reed, Carrie; Kim, Inkyu K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Meltzer, Martin I.; Finelli, Lyn; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality across all age groups, and influenza vaccination was recommended in 2010 for all persons aged 6 months and above. We estimated the averted costs due to influenza vaccination, taking into account the seasonal economic burden of the disease. Methods We used recently published values for averted outcomes due to influenza vaccination for influenza seasons 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09, and age cohorts 6 months-4 years, 5-19 years, 20-64 years, and 65 years and above. Costs were calculated according to a payer and societal perspective (in 2009 US$), and took into account medical costs and productivity losses. Results When taking into account direct medical costs (payer perspective), influenza vaccination was cost saving only for the older age group (65≥) in seasons 2005-06 and 2007-08. Using the same perspective, influenza vaccination resulted in total costs of $US 1.7 billion (95%CI: $US 0.3–4.0 billion) in 2006-07 and $US 1.8 billion (95%CI: $US 0.1–4.1 billion) in 2008-09. When taking into account a societal perspective (and including the averted lost earnings due to premature death) averted deaths in the older age group influenced the results, resulting in cost savings for all ages combined in season 07-08. Discussion Influenza vaccination was cost saving in the older age group (65≥) when taking into account productivity losses and, in some seasons, when taking into account medical costs only. Averted costs vary significantly per season; however, in seasons where the averted burden of deaths is high in the older age group, averted productivity losses due to premature death tilt overall seasonal results towards savings. Indirect vaccination effects and the possibility of diminished case severity due to influenza vaccination were not considered, thus the averted burden due to influenza vaccine may be even greater than reported. PMID:26230271

  8. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Chylek, Petr; Liston, Glen; Steffen, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  9. Tribal Colleges and Universities: Education as the Engine for Economic Development in Indian Country. A Report to the President. 2004-05 Annual Performance Report on the Results of Federal Agency Actions to Assist Tribal Colleges and Universities and Recommendations to Strengthen Implementation of Executive Order 13270

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) are unique institutions of postsecondary education. They serve specific Native American communities that have unique social and cultural ways of relating to each other, while they also provide valuable links to the mainstream society. In arguably the richest nation in the world, many Native Americans remain…

  10. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  11. Monitoring and adaptive resistance management in Australia for Bt-cotton: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rod; Olsen, Karen

    2007-07-01

    In the mid-1990 s the Australian Cotton industry adopted an insect-resistant variety of cotton (Ingard) which expresses the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that is specific to a group of insects including the target Helicoverpa armigera. A conservative resistance management plan (RMP), that restricted the area planted to Ingard, was implemented to preserve the efficacy of Cry1Ac until two-gene transgenic cotton was available. In 2004/05 Bollgard II replaced Ingard as the transgenic cotton available in Australia. It improves on Ingard by incorporating an additional insecticidal protein (Cry2Ab). If an appropriate refuge is grown, there is no restriction on the area planted to Bollgard II. In 2004/05 and 2005/06 the Bollgard II acreage represented approximately 80 of the total area planted to cotton in Australia. The sensitivity of field-collected populations of H. armigera to Bt products was assayed before and subsequent to the widespread deployment of Ingard cotton. In 2002 screens against Cry2Ab were developed in preparation for replacement of Ingard with Bollgard II. There have been no reported field failures of Bollgard II due to resistance. However, while alleles that confer resistance to H. armigera in the field are rare for Cry1Ac, they are surprisingly common for Cry2Ab. We present an overview of the current approach adopted in Australia to monitor and adaptively manage resistance to Bt-cotton in field populations of H. armigera and discuss the implications of our findings to date. We also highlight future challenges for resistance management in Australia, many of which extend to other Bt-crop and pest systems.

  12. NLEP--current situation and strategy during the 11th plan period (2007-2012).

    PubMed

    Dhillon, G P S

    2006-12-01

    National Leprosy Control Programme was established in 1955 based on dapsone domiciliary treatment. The multidrug therapy came into wide use from 1982. Based on the recommendations of the high power committee established by the Government of India, the NLEP was launched in 1983 with the objective to arrest the disease activity in all the known cases of leprosy. In order to strengthen the process of elimination of the disease in this country, the first World Bank supported project was introduced in 1993. The 2nd phase of the elimination project was started in 2001-02 and ended in December 2004. The prevalence rate of leprosy was found to be 0.95/10,000 population by December 2005, a success in the elimination of leprosy. On 30th September 2006 the rate on record is 0.89/10,000 population, a further decline. During 2005-06 the annual new case detection rate was 14.27 per 100,000 population which was 23.4 during 2004-05, a reduction of 39.0%. During the 11th plan period (April 2007 to March 2012) the government proposes to carry on the leprosy programme with the same intensity further to achieve annual new case detection rate less than 10 cases per 100,000 population.

  13. Individual and institutional push and pull factors as predictors of retirement timing in Europe: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    De Preter, Hanne; Van Looy, Dorien; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2013-12-01

    The number of retired people in Europe has increased significantly in recent decades. It remains unclear, however, whether individuals are more likely to be pulled toward retirement by their expectations about life after retirement than they are to be pushed out of the labour market due to poor health or dislike of one's job. The fact that retirement timing differs rather considerably between European countries suggests that not only micro, but also macro push (i.e. labour market constraints) and pull (i.e. economic incentives) factors influence retirement decisions. This duality heightens the need to determine the influence of micro-level and macro-level push and pull indicators on the retirement timing of older workers (50+) in Europe. Results are obtained performing multilevel event history analysis using longitudinal micro data from the first (2004/05) and second (2006/07) waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and macro data derived from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Eurostat. The results indicate that at the individual level, older workers are pushed out due to health problems as well as being attracted towards retirement to spend time with their grandchildren. At the institutional level, financial incentives such as a high implicit tax on continued work and high expenditures on early exit schemes make retirement attractive, whereas the institutional push context is of lesser importance.

  14. Fitness profiling in soccer: physical and physiologic characteristics of elite players.

    PubMed

    Sporis, Goran; Jukic, Igor; Ostojic, Sergej M; Milanovic, Dragan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether players in different positional roles have a different physical and physiologic profile. For the purpose of this study, physiologic measurements were taken of 270 soccer players during the precompetitive period of 2005/06 and the precompetitive period of 2006/07. According to the positional roles, players were categorized as defenders (n = 80), midfielders (n = 80), attackers (n = 80), and goalkeepers (n = 30). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was use to determinate differences between team positions. Goalkeepers are the tallest and the heaviest players in the team. They are also the slowest players in the team when sprinting ability over 10 and 20 meters is required. Attackers were the quickest players in the team when looking at sprint values over 5, 10, and 20 meters. There were statistically significant differences between attacker and defenders when measuring vertical jump height by squat jump. Goalkeepers were able to perform better on explosive power tests (squat jump and countermovement jump) than players in the field. Midfielders had statistically significant superior values of relative oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate, maximal running speed, and blood lactate than defenders and attackers. Defenders had more body fat than attackers and midfielders (p < 0.05). Coaches are able to use this information to determine which type of profile is needed for a specific position. It is obvious that players in different positions have different physical and physiologic profiles. Experienced coaches can use this information in the process of designing a training program to maximize the fitness development of soccer players with one purpose only, to achieve success in soccer.

  15. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  16. Four years of mass balance on Chhota Shigri Glacier, Himachal Pradesh, India, a new benchmark glacier in the western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagnon, Patrick; Linda, Anurag; Arnaud, Yves; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Parmanand; Vincent, Christian; Pottakkal, Jose George; Berthier, Etienne; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Hasnain, Syed Iqbal; Chevallier, Pierre

    Little is known about the Himalayan glaciers, although they are of particular interest in terms of future water supply, regional climate change and sea-level rise. In 2002, a long-term monitoring programme was started on Chhota Shigri Glacier (32.2°N, 77.5°E; 15.7 km2, 6263-4050 m a.s.l., 9 km long) located in Lahaul and Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. This glacier lies in the monsoon-arid transition zone (western Himalaya) which is alternately influenced by Asian monsoon in summer and the mid-latitude westerlies in winter. Here we present the results of a 4 year study of mass balance and surface velocity. Overall specific mass balances are mostly negative during the study period and vary from a minimum value of -1.4 m w.e. in 2002/03 and 2005/06 (equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) ˜5180 m a.s.l.) to a maximum value of +0.1 m w.e. in 2004/05 (ELA 4855 m a.s.l.). Chhota Shigri Glacier seems similar to mid-latitude glaciers, with an ablation season limited to the summer months and a mean vertical gradient of mass balance in the ablation zone (debris-free part) of 0.7 m w.e. (100 m)-1, similar to those reported in the Alps. Mass balance is strongly dependent on debris cover, exposure and the shading effect of surrounding steep slopes.

  17. Rain simulator as a standardized laboratory measurement of soil structural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Luz; Cancelo González, Javier; Benito, Elena; Álvarez, Manuel; Barral, Maria Teresa; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulations are used since the 30's by scientist and technicians to study the soil erosion and soil hydrology. The basis of the rainfall simulation is that can reproduce the natural soil degradation processes, more accurately than the traditional methods used for the determination of structural stability. A rainfall simulator was built in 2006 based on those made by Guitián and Méndez (1961), and Morin (1967), to obtain standardized laboratory measurements of soil structural stability and a final implementation were made in the rainfall simulator to incorporate a intermittent fan-like water yet system with four sieves of 250 micrometres where the soil samples can be placed, and allow the simultaneous measurement of soil losses in the samples. Data obtained in the rainfall simulator, using different soils of the study basins, are related with the Ig Henin index and the results of the Emerson structural stability test. At the same time with the laboratory test, 10 water sampling surveys were carried out during the hydrological years 2004/05 and 2005/06, in two basins located in the humid region of NW Spain belonging to the Anllons River basin, one of the main basins of Galicia-Costa, that has been subject of detailed hydrological studies since 2000 (Rial, M., 2007 and Devesa, R., 2009) and had continuous records of streamflow. The selected subbasins have 57,62 and 50,05 square kilometres respectively, and presents significative geological differences; being one of them formed, mainly, by schists and a lower area with granites and, the other one formed mainly by gabbros. The suspended sediments in the samples were separated by centrifugation and weighted in the laboratory to study the possible relationship between soil losses in the rainfall simulations and the sediment fluxes in the river. The analysis revealed a good relationship between the sediments delivery to the streams and soil losses measured in the rainfall simulations.

  18. Population dynamics and secondary production of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: A comparison between Merja Zerga (Moroccan Atlantic Coast) and Arcachon Bay (French Atlantic Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gam, Mériame; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Bazairi, Hocein

    2010-04-01

    Cockle ( Cerastoderma edule) population dynamics were studied at the southern limit of the distribution of this marine bivalve in Merja Zerga, Morocco. Parameters such as growth, mortality, and production were compared with those of a population at Arcachon Bay (France) a site in the center of the cockle's range. At each sampling period between two and three cohorts were simultaneously observed at each site and the average total abundance was usually higher at Merja Zerga. Recruitment occurred at both sites in spring when temperature rose above 19 °C, independently of the month. In Merja Zerga, winter recruitment was also observed at one occasion, following high sediment disturbance. The first year (2005-06) at Merja Zerga, the mortality rate was close to nil for juveniles and was Z = 1.5 yr - 1 for adults, providing a high production (64 g dry weight m - 2 yr - 1 ). At Arcachon during the same period, the juvenile mortality rate was Z = 10.9 yr - 1 , the adult mortality rate was 3.4 yr - 1 and production was 26 gDW m -2 yr - 1 . The second year (2006-07), mortality after recruitment was much higher ( Z = 8.6 yr - 1 , for juveniles) and similar to what was observed at Arcachon ( Z = 8.4 yr - 1 ). Mortality rate of adults was higher at Merja Zerga ( Z = 3.0 yr - 1 ) than at Arcachon ( Z = 1.5 yr - 1 ). Production was lower at Arcachon than at Merja Zerga although growth performances were higher at Arcachon. The higher growth performance at Arcachon ( Φ' = 3.3) was mainly due to high asymptotic length ( L∞ = 38 mm) and was related to low intraspecific competition compared to Merja Zerga where cockle abundance was higher ( Φ' = 3.1, L∞ = 31 mm). P/B was low in both sites and slightly higher at Arcachon (1.1-1.5 against 1.0-1.1 yr - 1 ). At Arcachon, recruitment was correlated with temperature, a peak occurring when temperature rose above 19 °C (June-July). At Merja Zerga, recruitment was already 2-3 months earlier but was not significantly correlated to

  19. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases in Brazilian children: follow-up at school age of two Brazilian birth cohorts of the 1990's

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few cohort studies have been conducted in low and middle-income countries to investigate non-communicable diseases among school-aged children. This article aims to describe the methodology of two birth cohorts, started in 1994 in Ribeirão Preto (RP), a more developed city, and in 1997/98 in São Luís (SL), a less developed town. Methods Prevalences of some non-communicable diseases during the first follow-up of these cohorts were estimated and compared. Data on singleton live births were obtained at birth (2858 in RP and 2443 in SL). The follow-up at school age was conducted in RP in 2004/05, when the children were 9-11 years old and in SL in 2005/06, when the children were 7-9 years old. Follow-up rates were 68.7% in RP (790 included) and 72.7% in SL (673 participants). The groups of low (<2500 g) and high (≥ 4250 g) birthweight were oversampled and estimates were corrected by weighting. Results In the more developed city there was a higher percentage of non-nutritive sucking habits (69.1% vs 47.9%), lifetime bottle use (89.6% vs 68.3%), higher prevalence of primary headache in the last 15 days (27.9% vs 13.0%), higher positive skin tests for allergens (44.3% vs 25.3%) and higher prevalence of overweight (18.2% vs 3.6%), obesity (9.5% vs 1.8%) and hypertension (10.9% vs 4.6%). In the less developed city there was a larger percentage of children with below average cognitive function (28.9% vs 12.2%), mental health problems (47.4% vs 38.4%), depression (21.6% vs 6.0%) and underweight (5.8% vs 3.6%). There was no difference in the prevalence of bruxism, recurrent abdominal pain, asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness between cities. Conclusions Some non-communicable diseases were highly prevalent, especially in the more developed city. Some high rates suggest that the burden of non-communicable diseases will be high in the future, especially mental health problems. PMID:21693042

  20. 75 FR 3127 - Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft, Inc. Model 600 S2D and S2R Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...-036-AD; Amendment 39-16150; AD 2009-26-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft...: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) to supersede AD (AD) 2006-07-15... previously held by Quality Aerospace, Inc. and Ayres Corporation). AD 2006-07-15 currently...

  1. 29 CFR 18.1103 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Applicability § 18.1103 Title. These rules may be known as the United States Department of Labor Rules of Evidence and cited as 29 CFR 18.__ (1989). ... 29 Labor 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Title. 18.1103 Section 18.1103 Labor Office of...

  2. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  3. Provisional Reconstruction Teams: An Operational Imperative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    Quarterly: Winter 2005-06 p. 45 17 Mark Sedra , “Civil-Military Relations in Afghanistan: the Provincial Reconstruction Team Debate,” Policy...Transformation, Parameters, Winter 2005-06, p. 1 27 Mark Sedra , “Civil-Military Relations in Afghanistan: the Provincial Reconstruction Team Debate,” Policy...the Children, Provincial Reconstruction Teams and Humanitarian–Military Relations in Afghanistan, 1 St John’s Lane London EC1M 4AR UK, 2004 Sedra

  4. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy.

  5. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    plantation in 2006, changes in chlorinated VOC concentrations at the piezometers were highly variable. At piezometer P1-9, the 2006 total chlorinated VOC concentration as well as the concentrations of cis-DCE and VC were measured at their highest levels to date; contaminant concentrations substantially decreased at piezometer P1-9 between June 2004 and June 2005. The reasons for the 2004-05 decrease in concentrations or the 2005-06 increase in concentrations are unknown. At piezometer P1-10, the consistent temporal trend of decreasing chlorinated VOC concentrations measured since 1999 ended, and the concentration of total chlorinated VOC in 2006 was the highest measured since 1999. The reductive dechlorination end-product ethene was measured at concentrations as high as 1,300 micrograms per liter in the upper aquifer beneath the southern plantation, which is reliable evidence that reductive dechlorination of VOCs is ongoing.

  6. Two mechanisms of stratospheric ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere, studied using data assimilation of Odin/SMR atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, Kazutoshi; Pérot, Kristell; Murtagh, Donal; Orsolini, Yvan

    2017-02-01

    Observations from the Odin/Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) instrument have been assimilated into the DIAMOND model (Dynamic Isentropic Assimilation Model for OdiN Data), in order to estimate the chemical ozone (O3) loss in the stratosphere. This data assimilation technique is described in Sagi and Murtagh (2016), in which it was used to study the inter-annual variability in ozone depletion during the entire Odin operational time and in both hemispheres. Our study focuses on the Arctic region, where two O3 destruction mechanisms play an important role, involving halogen and nitrogen chemical families (i.e. NOx = NO and NO2), respectively. The temporal evolution and geographical distribution of O3 loss in the low and middle stratosphere have been investigated between 2002 and 2013. For the first time, this has been done based on the study of a series of winter-spring seasons over more than a decade, spanning very different dynamical conditions. The chemical mechanisms involved in O3 depletion are very sensitive to thermal conditions and dynamical activity, which are extremely variable in the Arctic stratosphere. We have focused our analysis on particularly cold and warm winters, in order to study the influence this has on ozone loss. The winter 2010/11 is considered as an example for cold conditions. This case, which has been the subject of many studies, was characterised by a very stable vortex associated with particularly low temperatures, which led to an important halogen-induced O3 loss occurring inside the vortex in the lower stratosphere. We found a loss of 2.1 ppmv at an altitude of 450 K in the end of March 2011, which corresponds to the largest ozone depletion in the Northern Hemisphere observed during the last decade. This result is consistent with other studies. A similar situation was observed during the winters 2004/05 and 2007/08, although the amplitude of the O3 destruction was lower. To study the opposite situation, corresponding to a warm and

  7. Gender Differences in Motor Skill Proficiency from Childhood to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lisa M.; van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J.; Brooks, Lyndon O.; Beard, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Students' proficiency in three object control and three locomotor skills were assessed in 2000 (M age = 10.06 years, SD = 0.63) in New South Wales, Australia and in 2006-07 (M age = 16.44 years, SD = 0.64). In 2006-07, 266 students, 138 girls (51.9%) and 128 boys (48.1%), had at least one skill reassessed. Boys were more object control proficient…

  8. Project Title: Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alan A. Chen

    2008-03-27

    the understanding the origin of galactic {sup 26}Al, a target radioisotope for gamma ray astronomy; the {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reaction in turn is the trigger reaction for the transition into the Hot-CNO cycles in novae and X-ray bursts. A graduate student of mine, who has been supported part-time by this grant, completed the evaluation of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction as part of his plans to measure this reaction at TRIUMF for his Ph.D. thesis project. I also hired a part-time undergraduate student for the 2004-05 academic year to assist with the evaluations, including that of the {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reaction. Year 3 (2005-06): The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti and {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reactions - This year's progress was closely coupled to new results coming from our collaboration on the DRAGON spectrometer team at TRIUMF. The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti and {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reactions were both measured, and significant modifications to their respective reaction rates were required. Both are required input toward predicting the respective amounts of Titanium-44 and Aluminum-26 produced in our galaxy, in supernovae, massive stars, and nova explosions. The {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reaction rate was successfully completed. The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction in particular served as the Ph.D. thesis for Christian Ouellet, and therefore the evaluation of this rate fell naturally within his thesis project. Christian successfully defended his thesis in 2007 and is now working for me on the McMaster DOE-funded Nuclear Data Project. In light of the recent data from his thesis, Christian is now putting the final touches on this evaluation, and will disseminate it through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reaction rate database.

  9. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  10. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  11. Characteristics of PETE Doctoral Level Institutions: Descriptions of Programs, Faculty and Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    The present study of Doctoral PETE programs provided an extensive description of demographic data which included: (a) doctoral program characteristics, (b) faculty, and (c) doctoral graduates. Several data sets from the academic years of 2005-06 and 2008-09 as well as selected summary data from 1996-97 through 2008-09 were used to make comparisons…

  12. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... current test procedures for water heaters already fully account for and incorporate measurement of standby... residential direct heating equipment and pool heaters to provide for measurement of standby mode and off mode..., ``Household electrical appliances-- Measurement of standby power'' (First Edition 2005-06), as well...

  13. Sedimentation History Of Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife And Fish Refuge, Wisconsin, 1846-2006. Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5209

    EPA Science Inventory

    The history of overbank sedimentation in the vicinity of Halfway Creek Marsh near La Crosse, Wisconsin, was examined during 2005-06 by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Wisconsin-Madison as part of a broader study of sediment and nutrient loadings to the Upper Mississi...

  14. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  15. The Development of PIPA: An Integrated and Automated Pipeline for Genome-Wide Protein Function Annotation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-25

    bacterial genome annotation. Nucleic Acids Res 2005/06/28 edition. 2005, 33(Web Server issue):W455-9. 14. Meyer F, Goesmann A, McHardy AC, Bartels D...GO.evi dence.shtml] 37. Jain AK Murthy MN, Flynn PJ: Data Clustering: A Review. ACM Computing Surveys 1999, 31(3):264-323. 38. Chenna R, Sugawara H

  16. Governing Urban School Districts: Efforts in Los Angeles to Effect Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Epstein, Diana; Vuollo, Mirka

    2006-01-01

    Many urban school district students are dropping out and few of the remaining ones reach state or district achievement goals. These problems make governing urban schools both difficult and important. In 2005-06, the governance structure of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) was examined, debated, criticized, and praised by several…

  17. Fwd: Half Empty or Half Full? Florida's Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten Standards. Volume: 2, Number: 1. Arresting Insights in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, when its voters approved a ballot measure calling for universal pre- Kindergarten by 2005-06, Florida joined a handful of states in which all children are eligible for free, publicly funded education in the year prior to Kindergarten. The passage of the referendum--which received more votes than Governor Jeb Bush garnered in his victory…

  18. East-West Cooperative: Influx of Chinese Students in America Helps Promote a Global Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    American degrees have become increasingly fashionable among members of China's rapidly growing middle class who are eager for their children to study American business practices, become well-rounded by getting a higher education degree steeped in the liberal arts and master the English language. In a five-year period beginning in 2005-06, the…

  19. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program was federally- and state-funded and provided three-year grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans from the 2005-06 to 2007-08 school years. GEEG was implemented in 99 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. Performance pay for teachers entered Texas state…

  20. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program was federally- and state-funded and provided three-year grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans from the 2005-06 to 2007-08 school years. GEEG was implemented in 99 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. This report builds on the previous GEEG evaluation…

  1. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2005-06 school year alone, approximately $78 billion in new aid was…

  2. Attitudes to the Uses of Animals in Higher Education: Has Anything Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Lynda; Downie, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Bioscience staff and students at Glasgow University in session 2005-06 were questioned on their attitudes to animal uses in higher education, as follow-up to a similar survey 20 years before. Disapproval by students of animal use was generally reduced compared to 20 years ago, but students remained in a "moral bind", recognising the…

  3. Measuring Child Poverty in South Africa: Sensitivity to the Choice of Equivalence Scale and an Updated Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streak, Judith Christine; Yu, Derek; Van der Berg, Servaas

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers evidence on the sensitivity of child poverty in South Africa to changes in the adult equivalence scale (AES) and updates the child poverty profile based on the Income and Expenditure Survey 2005/06. Setting the poverty line at the 40th percentile of households calculated with different AESs the scope and composition of child…

  4. Health Care Changes for Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Sannicandro, Thomas; Parish, Susan L; Son, Esther; Powell, Robyn M

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study compared health care utilization of children with special health care needs in 2005/06 and 2009/10. Methods Using data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, this study compared the health care utilization of children with special health care needs in 2005/06 (n = 40,723) and 2009/10 (n = 40,242). Descriptive statistics characterize the sample during the 2005/06 and 2009/10 surveys. Logistic regression models examined the unmet needs for specific health care and support services, delayed care, coordinated care, and medical home. Results Compared to 2005/06, in 2009/10 children with special health care needs had greater unmet dental and therapy needs and less care coordination of health services as well as access to medical home services. Conclusions These findings indicate that additional measures are needed to improve the health care access of children with special health care needs.

  5. Medical Residency Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, Beth; Gallucci, Chrysan; Swanson, Judy; Van Lare, Michelle; Yoon, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Highline School District, located roughly 10 miles south of Seattle, Washington, has begun to implement a residency model for professional learning. Like the medical model, current teachers often traveled from other schools to be "in residency" at a previously selected classroom for six half-day sessions during the 2005-06 school year. Some…

  6. Feeling the Heat: The Impact of Rising Energy Costs on Colleges & Universities in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Chris; Johnson, Gina

    2006-01-01

    This report is the result of a survey conducted in late 2005 of higher education institution chief financial officers throughout the U.S. Midwest region concerning their plans to manage what was expected to be a substantial increase in the price of energy in advance of the 2005-06 heating season. Although the winter turned out to be one of the…

  7. Development of the DHQ II and C-DHQ II Nutrient & Food Group Database

    Cancer.gov

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ II, is based on a compilation of national 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 2001-02, 2003-04, and 2005-06.

  8. Trends in Technology Planning and Funding in Florida K-12 Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert Dieter; Hohlfeld, Tina N; Barron, Ann E.; Kemker, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This empirical research investigates trends in technology planning and funding in Florida's K-12 public schools between the 2003-04 and 2005-06 academic years. Survey items that focused on funding and planning issues on Florida's statewide school technology integration survey were analyzed using logistic models. Results indicate a significant…

  9. California's Impending College Graduate Crisis and What Needs to Be Done about It. Policy Brief 10-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In 2005-06 almost half of the pupils in California's public schools were Latinos, but Latinos only received about 15 percent of the BA degrees awarded by public and private colleges in the state. Texas has a comparable Latino population, but does significantly better than California in getting Latino students through college. The implication of…

  10. Exploring Students' Experiences with the California High School Exit Examination February 2006 to May 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vang, Mao Justice

    2009-01-01

    The California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) is a graduation requirement that includes passing a two part exam: English-language arts (ELA) and mathematics. Students take the exam for the first time in 10th grade. In 2005-06, the passing rates were about 77% for ELA and 75% for math. This study uses student level data to focus on the…

  11. Department Raps States on Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education has notified 10 states that it intends to withhold a portion of their state administrative funds under the Title I program for failing to comply fully with the testing provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act by the end of the 2005-06 school year. Those funds would instead be diverted directly to school…

  12. Effects of State Tests on Classroom Test Items in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom tests from nine eighth-grade mathematics teachers were collected from the 2003-04 and 2005-06 school years. These years represent one school year prior to the eighth-grade Ohio Achievement Test (OAT) in mathematics being implemented and the year after the eighth-grade OAT in mathematics was implemented, respectively. In addition,…

  13. 37th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2005-2006 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 37th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2005-06. Data highlights of the survey include: (1) In the 2005-2006 academic year, the states…

  14. Does Your Organization Welcome Participants with Disabilities? A New Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Fred; Shea, Mary McAllister

    2009-01-01

    During the 2005-06 school year, more than 6.7 million children with disabilities received special education and related services in our public schools; this represents more than a 20 percent increase over the previous decade (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). These children, who are typically at risk for chronic physical, developmental,…

  15. Why Am I Here? Student Choice in the Biosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduate recruitment is a significant activity for all universities. This brief report sets out the results of a survey regarding the course and institutional choices of the 2005-06 entry cohort of bioscience students in four universities. The key findings show that enjoyment of the subject and the wish to learn more are the primary reasons…

  16. Has NCLB Encouraged Educational Triage? Accountability and the Distribution of Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Dale; Springer, Matthew G.

    2017-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has been criticized for encouraging schools to neglect students whose performance exceeds the proficiency threshold or lies so far below it that there is no reasonable prospect of closing the gap during the current year. We examine this hypothesis using longitudinal data from 2002-03 through 2005-06. Our…

  17. An Evaluation of Colorado's College Opportunity Fund and Related Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the State of Colorado enacted legislation that fundamentally changed the mechanisms through which it financed its public higher education system, beginning with the 2005-06 academic year. Rather than appropriating funds directly to institutions, the legislation created the College Opportunity Fund (COF), the principal…

  18. A Comparison of Supply and Demand for PETE Professionals in Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the supply and demand issues of D-PETE professionals in higher education. The three concerns addressed were: (a) doctoral graduates and their respective job placements in the academic years of 1996-97 through 2008-09, (b) an examination of two targeted academic years (2005-06 and 2008-09) to determine the supply of entry level…

  19. Do Future Teachers Choose Wisely? A Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Personality Preference Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Bill; Peltier, Gary; Hill, Gus

    2005-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires that all teachers in core academic subjects to be "highly qualified" by the end of the 2005-06 school year. New teacher leave the profession at an alarming rate--research indicates that 50% have left within five years of their first job. This article explores the personality types of pre-service…

  20. Understanding the International Teaching Assistant Training Program: A Case Study at a Northwestern Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Cai Jun; Bergerson, Amy Aldous

    2008-01-01

    Recruiting and educating international students is a growing characteristic of the landscape of American higher education. "Open Doors 2006" indicated that 564,766 international students were enrolled in American higher education institutions in 2005-06 and that international students currently represent 3.9% of the total enrollment.…

  1. Completing the Educational Exhibits Supporting the Initial Planetarium Show at Griffith Observatory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-18

    impact of the inspirational storytelling of the new planetarium show which was funded by the FY2004-05 grant. It provides an aha! moment to all who...Supporting the Initial Planetarium Show at Griffith Observatory (2) Type of report. Final Educational Activity Report (3) Name of the principal... planetarium show which was funded by the FY2004-05 grant. It provides an aha! moment to all who encounter the exhibit as the motion and nature of the sky are

  2. Enrollment Projections for Presentation & Discussion: 2008-09 Pupil Population Estimating Conference. Research Brief. Volume 0704

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie; Froman, Terry; Romanik, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Research Services calculates enrollment projections on an annual basis. These projections are presented each year at the district's Pupil Population Estimating Conference. For this year's projections, two years of trend data (2006-07 and 2007-08) were used to project student enrollment for 2008-09. Projections are provided by individual grade…

  3. Learning to Leverage New Media: The Israeli Defense Forces in Recent Conflicts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    At the weekly Cabinet Meeting 17.7.06, 28 February 2009 <www.pmo.gov.il/PMOEng/Archive/Cabinet/2006/07/ govmes160706.htm>. 36. Nathan Jeffay...1860, 27 January 2009 <http://daccessdds. un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N09/204/32/PDF/N0920432.pdf?OpenElement>. 38. Gwen Ackerman and Saud Abu, Ramadan

  4. West Virginia's Progress toward Universal Prekindergarten. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  5. West Virginia's Progress Toward Universal Prekindergarten. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  6. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school"…

  7. WWC Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in New Jersey." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effect of 60 New Jersey charter schools on annual student achievement growth in reading and math. The study was based on data from a large sample of students in grades 3-8 during 5 school years (2006-07 through 2010-11). The study authors matched charter school students to students attending traditional public schools based…

  8. Student Progress and Goal Attainment Report: Adult School Programs in California. Program Year July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 285 adult schools in California enrolled 1,206,864 adult learners supported through state apportionment funds in program year 2006-07. This report presents the results of data collected by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) from all learners enrolled in California adult schools. The report analysis was prepared by…

  9. Developing and Sustaining Leadership Learning Communities: Implications of NPQICL Rollout for Public Policy Local Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Margy; Chandler, Rachel; John, Karen; Reid, Lindsay; Thorpe, Sheila; Everitt, John

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the UK government launched a new programme for early years leaders in England--the National Professional Qualification in Integrated Centre Leadership (NPQICL). In collaboration with the National College for School Leadership, Pen Green led the development, pilot and rollout of this M-level training programme, which by 2006-07 involved 17…

  10. Updating a Searchable Database of Dropout Prevention Programs and Policies in Nine Low-Income Urban School Districts in the Northeast and Islands Region. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myint-U, Athi; O'Donnell, Lydia; Phillips, Dawna

    2012-01-01

    This technical brief describes updates to a database of dropout prevention programs and policies in 2006/07 created by the Regional Education Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands and described in the Issues & Answers report, "Piloting a searchable database of dropout prevention programs in nine low-income urban school districts in the…

  11. The Achievement Progress of English Learner Students in Utah. REL 2016-155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Eric; Huang, Min; Tran, Loan; Yu, Airong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative progress of English learner students in Utah in English language proficiency (ELP) and in academic content knowledge in both English language arts (ELA) and mathematics. This study identified students in grades kindergarten, 3, and 6 who were designated as English learner students in 2006/07

  12. An Analysis of Students' Opinions about Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul; Ozdemir, Soner Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    This study examines views of students related to Blended Learning Environment (BLE). The sample group of the study consisted of 36 students enrolled in social science teacher education programme at Ahi Evran University, Education Faculty during the 2006/07 Fall Semester. This approach has been carried out both online and face to face (F2F)…

  13. School District Wellness Policies: Evaluating Progress and Potential for Improving Children's Health Five Years after the Federal Mandate. Brief Report. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie; Resnick, Elissa; Schneider, Linda; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Adcock, Tessa; Carrion, Violeta; Chaloupka, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This brief report updates data published in August 2010 from the most comprehensive, ongoing nationwide analysis of written wellness policies. It includes data from the 2006-07 through the 2010-11 school years, which were the first five years following the required implementation date for wellness policies. The major findings and trends presented…

  14. Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Gronberg, Timothy J.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Stecher, Brian M.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program was state-funded and provided annual grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans during the 2006-07 to 2009-10 school year. TEEG was implemented each year (i.e., Cycle) in approximately 1,000 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. Performance pay for teachers…

  15. School Policies and Practices to Improve Health and Prevent Obesity: National Secondary School Survey Results. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides updated results from one of the most comprehensive studies of health-related policies and practices in U.S. public middle and high schools to date, which was released in August 2011. The major findings and trends presented in this report describe issues relevant to childhood obesity for four school years, from 2006-07 to…

  16. An Examination of Inter-District Public School Transfers in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, David M.; Statz, Bambi; Skidmore, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Using data for all Wisconsin school districts over the 2003/04 through 2006/07 school years, we evaluate the state of Wisconsin's Open Enrollment (inter-district transfer) program to determine which school district characteristics influence parental transfer decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study of school choice in a public school…

  17. An Examination of the Movement of Educators within Wisconsin. Stated Briefly. REL 2017-195

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Ehlert, Mark; Lindsay, Jim; Wan, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    This brief examines the mobility of public school teachers and principals (including assistant principals) in Wisconsin and presents annual and five-year mobility rates between 2006/07 and 2010/11. An average of 8.0 percent of teachers changed schools between consecutive years, and 19.4 percent changed schools within a five-year span. Teachers…

  18. A Profile of Successful Pell Grant Recipients: Time to Bachelor's Degree and Early Graduate School Enrollment. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2009-156

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Christina Chang; Horn, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2006-07, the federal government awarded over $13 billion in Pell Grants to more than 5 million undergraduate students (U.S. Department of Education 2007). The goal of the Pell Grant program is to help students with financial need enroll in and graduate from college by providing them with a basic foundation of financial aid, to which they may…

  19. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  20. Evaluation of New Texas Charter Schools: Second Interim Report (2007-10). Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) was awarded Charter School Program (CSP) funding in 2007, and specified that the required evaluation would focus on the experiences and outcomes of new charter schools authorized to begin serving students across 4 school years: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10. TEA categorizes charter schools in terms of…

  1. Career-Related Learning Standards and Extended Application Standard: Guide for Schools to Build Relevant and Rigorous Collections of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to assist teachers and administrators in the implementation of relevant and rigorous collections of evidence for the Certificate of Advanced Mastery (CAM) Career-Related Learning Standards (CRLS) and Extended Application Standard (EA). This guide also provides necessary information to help schools meet the 2006-07

  2. Model Wellness Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, PL 105-268, the U.S. Congress established a new requirement for all local agencies with a federally funded National School Lunch program. The local agencies are required to develop and implement wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity by the start of the 2006-07

  3. A Fifty-State Survey of School Finance Policies and Programs: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.; Jordan, Teresa S.

    2009-01-01

    This overview provides a synthesis of a comprehensive survey of school finance programs in the 50 states conducted in 2006-07. Information was provided by chief state school finance officers or persons with expertise in a state's public school funding-allocation system. Brief descriptions of the major Pre-K-12 funding formulae, district-based…

  4. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether offering financial incentives to teachers of fifth- through eighth-grade math students improved their students' achievement on the math section of the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. The study took place in the Metropolitan Nashville Public School District during the 2006-07 through 2008-09 school years. It…

  5. Teacher Attitudes about Performance Incentives in Texas: Early Reactions to the GEEG Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. Findings are based on surveys administered to GEEG teachers during the 2006-07 school year, the…

  6. Characteristics of Career Academies in 12 Florida School Districts. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; D'Souza, Stephanie; Bozick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes career academies in 12 Florida school districts in the 2006/07 school year. It examines their structure and career clusters, the high schools offering them, and the students enrolled. This study is one of the first to investigate both career academy structure and clusters using multiple data sources. It provides state…

  7. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Final Report. NCEE 2012-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis; Finney, Pamela B.; Bell, Steve; Turner, Herb; Jaciw, Andrew P.; Zacamy, Jenna L.; Gould, Laura Feagans

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experiment conducted in Alabama beginning in the 2006/07 school year, to determine the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI), which aims to improve mathematics and science achievement in the state's K-12 schools. This study is the first randomized controlled trial…

  8. The Achievement Progress of English Learner Students in Nevada. REL 2016-154

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Eric; Huang, Min; Tran, Loan; Yu, Airong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative progress of English learner students in Nevada in English language proficiency (ELP) and in academic content knowledge in both reading and mathematics. This study identified students in grades kindergarten, 3, and 6 who were designated as English learner students in 2006/07 and examined their…

  9. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in the District of Columbia. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 131

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment trends between 2002/03 and 2008/09 and achievement trends between 2006/07 and 2008/09 in the District of Columbia. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in District of Columbia public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and…

  10. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in the District of Columbia. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 131

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment trends between 2002/03 and 2008/09 and achievement trends between 2006/07 and 2008/09 in the District of Columbia. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in District of Columbia public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and…

  11. On the Relationship of SAPS to Storm-Enhanced Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics , 69, (2007) © 2007 Elsevier Science B.V. *Massachusetts...TERRESTRIALPHYSICS ELSEVIER Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics 69 (2007) 303--313 www.elevier.comlIocate/jastp 0o On the relationship of SAPS to...2006.07.021 304 J. C Foster et al. / Journal of " Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial

  12. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Fifth Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This report features analyses of student achievement growth four years after the authors carefully assembled longitudinal study panels of MPCP and Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) students in 2006-07. The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides…

  13. 38th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2006-2007 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 38th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2006-07. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2006-2007 academic year, the states…

  14. Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2006; Graduation Rates, 2000 & 2003 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2006. First Look. NCES 2008-173

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.; Miller, Elise S.

    2008-01-01

    This First Look report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) spring 2007 data collection, which included four components: Student Financial Aid for full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students for the 2006-07 academic year; Enrollment for fall 2006 and 12-month counts for…

  15. Alabama Department of Education Quick Facts, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics; Alabama public schools 2007-08; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data; public school size and enrollment; transportation; school meals; school personnel, 2007-2008; graduation requirements; student assessment; additional enrollment; and dropouts, 2006-07.

  16. Projections of California Teacher Retirements: A County and Regional Perspective. REL 2017-181

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Makkonen, Reino; Jaquet, Karina

    2016-01-01

    This report projects California teacher retirements at the state and county levels for 2014/15-2023/24, updating a previously published report that projected California teacher retirements for 2006/07-2015/16. The current study finds that 25 percent of California teachers who were teaching in 2013/14 are projected to retire over 2014/15-2023/24.…

  17. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  18. Meeting Oregon's New High School Math Graduation Requirements: Examining Student Enrollment and Teacher Availability. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Sage, Nicole; Ishimaru, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Disaggregating the data across four school variables--size, locale, racial/ethnic minority population, and population eligible for free or reduced-price lunch--this study examines the extent to which Oregon grade 9-12 students enrolled in high school math courses during 2006/07 and 2007/08 would not have been on track to graduate had the new…

  19. Snapshots of Indiana's Full-Day Kindergarten Programs before and after the State's Funding Increase for the Program. REL Technical Brief. REL 2009-No. 013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Rachel; Kochanek, Julie; Mathers, Carrie; Burke, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The Indiana General Assembly increased the state grant funds for full-day kindergarten from $8.5 million for 2006/07 to $33.5 million for 2007/08. Following the increase in funding, the Indiana Department of Education and the Indiana State Board of Education requested assistance from Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest to analyze Indiana…

  20. A Description of Foundation Skills Interventions for Struggling Middle-Grade Readers in Four Urban Northeast and Islands Region School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 042

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorfass, Judith; Urbano, Carole

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted during the 2006/07 academic year, describes how four midsize urban school districts in the Northeast and Islands Region--Worcester, Massachusetts; Nashua, New Hampshire; Yonkers, New York; and Providence, Rhode Island--were providing foundation skills assessments and programs to struggling middle-grade readers. Researchers…

  1. Forward Thinking: Out-of-the-Box Ideas for Surviving the Budget Crunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Back in 2006, the stock market was rising, unemployment was still relatively low, and most of the country was not yet worried about a recession. But officials at San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) were closely monitoring the economy, and they saw clouds on the horizon. By the end of the 2006-07 academic year, the district, which serves…

  2. Characteristics of Career Academies in 12 Florida School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; D'Souza, Stephanie; Bozick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes career academies in 12 Florida school districts in the 2006/07 school year. It examines their structure and career clusters, the high schools offering them, and the students enrolled. This study is driven by three research questions: (1) How many career academies were there, and of what types? (2) What were the…

  3. Degrees Conferred by Connecticut Institutions of Higher Education Highlights, 2007-08. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the degrees conferred by Connecticut institutions of higher education in 2007-08. Connecticut colleges and universities awarded 36,634 degrees in 2007-08 (up 1.6% over 2006-07), the state's seventh consecutive year of growth and a 28 percent increase since 1998. Once again, the top five degree-producing disciplines were…

  4. Storming the Ivory Tower: The Military’s Return to American Campuses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    arguments. 6. Brooks Mather Kelley, Yale: A History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1974), p. 348; George Henry Nettleton , Yale in the World War...opposition that would de- velop in later years. Winter 2006-07 55 8. Nettleton , “Memorandum on the Attitude of the University in the Present Crisis,” 27

  5. Modification of sorghum proteins for enhanced functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is the third most widely produced crop in the United States (U.S.) and fifth in the world during fiscal year 2006/07(USDA-FAS, 2007). The use of sorghum in foods faces functional and nutritional constraints due, mainly, to the rigidity of the protein bodies. The disruption and modificatio...

  6. Effects of the California High School Exit Exam on Student Persistence, Achievement, and Graduation. Policy Brief 09-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Kurlaender, Michal

    2009-01-01

    In this policy brief the authors summarize the findings from a study investigating the impact of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) on California's lowest performing students. Utilizing longitudinal data from four large urban school districts, the authors compare students scheduled to graduate just before (2005) and after (2006-07) the…

  7. Agriculture and Provincial Reconstruction Teams: Assessing the Effectiveness of Agricultural Advisor Projects in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    information that inform an MOP or MOE.20 20U.S. Army, Field Manual (FM) 3-07, Stability Operations...Assessment. Washington, DC: USAID, June 2006. U.S. Army. Field Manual (FM) 3-07, Stability Operations. Washington, DC: Department of the Army...9Michael McNerney, “Stabilization and Reconstruction in Afghanistan: Are PRTs a Model or a Muddle?” Parameters (Winter 2005-06): 34. to date it

  8. Exploring the ’Right Size’ for China’s Military: PLA Missions, Functions, and Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    in Chinese defense spending —a decade and a half of double-digit growth, and a 15 percent expenditure increase from 2005-06—suggest a major effort to...Sustained and large increases in China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) defense budget are likely in coming years as increasing national...modernization efforts are linked to national requirements, and examined what such development reveals about China’s national defense strategies. Current trends

  9. Determination of In Situ-Generated Dimethyldioxirane From an Aqueous Matrix Using Selected Ion Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    public release; distribution unlimited. Published in Journal of Chromatography A, 1089 (2005) 211-218. AIRBASE TECHNOLOGIES DIVISION...area code) Journal of Chromatography A, 1089 (2005) 211–218 Determination of in situ-generated dimethyldioxirane from an aqueous matrix using...see front matter © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. oi:10.1016/j.chroma.2005.06.018 212 C.A. Delcomyn et al. / J. Chromatogr. A 1089 (2005

  10. Non-Formal Education and Livelihood Skills for Marginalised Street and Slum Youth in Uganda. Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Building Capacities for Non formal Education and Life Skills Programmes project in Uganda was implemented by Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) with financial and technical support from UNESCO--Section for Literacy and non Formal Education in 2004-05; aiming at assisting vulnerable and marginalised youth affected by HIV/AIDS and other risk…

  11. Title III Accountability: Behind the Numbers. ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Andrea; Taylor, James; Hurlburt, Steven; Soga, Kay

    2010-01-01

    "Title III Accountability: Behind the Numbers" (2010) summarizes data reported by states in their Consolidated State Performance Reports (CSPRs) for 2004-05 through 2007-08. The CSPRs are annual reports required under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) that states use to submit information to the U.S. Department of…

  12. Shifting Trends in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Janie; Winkler, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines trends in the number of special-education students and personnel at both the national and state levels from 2000-01 to 2009-10. It finds that the overall population of special-education students, after decades of increases, peaked in the 2004-05 school year and has declined since. But within this population, individual…

  13. Commission Review of New Academic and Vocational Programs Proposed by the Public Higher Education Systems, 2004-2005. Commission Report 05-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of program reviews conducted by the Commission during the reporting period 2004-05. Also included is a new section on major issues and implications, in which the Commission: (1) discusses a model for enhancing the evaluation of joint doctoral program in educational leadership; and (2) summarizes key issues…

  14. Mapping 2005 State Proficiency Standards onto the NAEP Scales. Research and Development Report. NCES 2007-482

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of applying a methodology for mapping state proficiency standards in reading and mathematics onto the appropriate National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scale, employing data from the 2004-05 academic year. The mapping exercise was carried out for both grades 4 and 8. For each of the four subject and…

  15. Performance indicators for information technology services at four community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Pegi; Dimnik, Gerry; Burns, Rodney; Bowie, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    During the 2004/05 fiscal year, the Directors of Information Technology Services (ITS) at four Toronto-area hospitals agreed to participate in a detailed benchmarking exercise looking at ITS costs and services in their organizations. The indicators presented in this article highlight some of the findings from this data analysis.

  16. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  17. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  18. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  19. Toast of the Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolbright, Cynthia; Martin, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes, the key to solving an old problem is a fresh perspective. This was the case for the annual fund for The Catholic University of America (CUA), which underwent a transformation that nearly doubled the fund between 2004 and 2008. In 2004-05, the annual giving program at CUA raised $454,789 in unrestricted gifts from 1,760 donors. By…

  20. A Teacher for Every Classroom: New Teachers in the Baltimore City Public Schools, 1999-2005. Brief Report Update, May 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Katz, Gregory; Vaughn, E. Sidney

    2006-01-01

    This brief report provides an update to the analysis of five cohorts of new teachers in the Baltimore City Public School System (1999-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04). Presented here are updated retention figures using Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS) teacher data for 2004-05, comparing teachers with different certification…

  1. Strengths and Limitations of Ontario Post-Secondary Education Accessibility Plans: A Review of One University Accessibility Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opini, Bathseba M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the strengths and limitations of the Ontarians with Disabilities Act (ODA) accessibility plan prepared by one post-secondary education institution in Ontario, Canada, during the 2004/05 academic year. The paper focuses on ways the intersectionality between disability and gender is not voiced in the plan and its implications for…

  2. Bridging the Experiential Learning Gap: An Evaluation of the Impacts of Ulster University's Senior Student Tutoring Scheme on First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004-05 first year students at the School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University have engaged with senior student tutors (SSTs) in workshop activities aimed at preparations for their written examinations. Using a pedagogical action research methodology we evaluated the role of SSTs in bridging the experiential learning gap between…

  3. Grow Your Own School Leaders: A Case Study of Principal Development in Philadelphia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Education Collaborative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2004-05, the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) began a groundbreaking partnership with the Eli Broad Foundation to develop the Academy for Leadership in Philadelphia Schools (ALPS), one of several Broad-funded, alternative principal development programs initiated across the country. The ALPS effort was designed to respond to two challenges:…

  4. Fourth Year Evaluation Report for the Cornerstone Literacy Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Dana; Hanlon, Ellie

    2006-01-01

    Cornerstone is a national initiative designed to improve the quality of literacy instruction in low-performing, high-poverty elementary schools. The 2004-05 school year marked the fifth year of the implementation of the Cornerstone National Literacy Initiative. By the end of this fifth year, Cornerstone activities were being carried out in 22…

  5. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  6. Beginning With the End in Mind: Post-Conflict Operations and Campaign Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Military Studies guest speaker program, 2004-05 academic year. 74 Andrew Steel and Andrew Marriot , “Briefing on Peace Support Operations,” (United...truth/interviews/perito.html. Steel, Andrew, Grp Cpt and Marriot , Andrew LTC. Briefing on Peace Support Operations. Ministry of Defence, United

  7. Trends in Bullying at School among Students Ages 12 to 18. Data Point. NCES 2016-004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cidade, Melissa; Lessne, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of students ages 12 through 18, were used to examine trends in bullying at school. The SCS study is completed every other year. Data from five consecutive surveys are included in this report: school years 2004-05,…

  8. The Effect of Special-Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program. Civic Report No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of exposure to a voucher program for disabled students in Florida on the academic performance of disabled students who remain in the public school system. The authors utilize student-level data on the universe of public school students in the state of Florida from 2000-01 through 2004-05 to study the effect of the…

  9. Measuring Efficiencies of Academic Departments within a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauer, Loren W.; Fried, Harold O.; Fry, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Technical and allocative efficiencies of 26 academic departments in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University are computed using Data Envelopment Analysis over 2004/05. Allocations of faculty time between teaching, research, and extension vary by department and are used as unique prices in calculating allocative…

  10. Role of Parental Education in Schooling and Child Labour Decision: Urban India in the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Diganta; Das, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th (1999-2000) and the 61st (2004-05) rounds, to show that even with a significant wage incentive for schooling of urban children, the school drop out rate and child labour incidence are not small over this period. The parents' level of education…

  11. 36th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2004-2005 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 36th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2004-05. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2004-2005 academic year, the states…

  12. Truth or Consequences: The State Budget for 2004-2005 and Its Impact on Texans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresette, Patrick; Castro, Eva De Luna; Dunkelberg, Anne; Hagert, Celia

    2004-01-01

    This report analyzes the Texas state budget for 2004-05, discusses the impact of the fiscal and policy decisions that were made, and serves as a roadmap to the service restorations that must be considered as the economy and state revenues rebound. In addition to the analysis of budget and policy changes in the body of the report, useful…

  13. CA District Uses RTI to Boost Achievement for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The 2004-05 school year didn't start off well for the Sanger Unified School District. The district, located east of Fresno, had entered its first year of "program improvement"--a gentler way of saying that Sanger was among the 98 lowest-performing districts in the state based on success criteria in the No Child Left Behind law. The…

  14. Project Early Kindergarten Evaluation: Results through 2009-10 of a Saint Paul Public Schools Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Jennifer; Gozali-Lee, Edith; Mueller, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Project Early Kindergarten (PEK) aims to improve the school-readiness of Saint Paul children and help close the achievement gap through offering high-quality educational experiences for preschool children. This report comes at the conclusion of the sixth year of PEK. Following an initial planning year (2004-05), PEK has served children through the…

  15. Science Education and ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    The number of students who learn English as a second language (ESL) in U.S. schools has grown significantly in the past decade. This segment of the student population increased by 56% between the 1994-95 and 2004-05 school years (NCLR 2007). As the ESL student population increases, many science teachers struggle to tailor instructional materials,…

  16. Post-Primary Education and Capabilities: Insights from Young Women in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Shelley K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…

  17. Organisation and Management of a Complete Bachelor Degree Offered Online at the University of Milan for Ten Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milani, Manuela; Papini, Sabrina; Scaccia, Daniela; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting some reflections on organisation and management of SSRI online: an e-learning initiative started at the University of Milan (Italy) in the academic year 2004/05 and offered to students over the last ten years. The initiative consisted in implementing the online version of an already existing three-year bachelor…

  18. Trends in the Participation and Performance of Students with Disabilities. Technical Report 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Quenemoen, Rachel; Altman, Jason; Cuthbert, Marge

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the participation and performance trends over time for students with disabilities, progressing from school year 2001-02, a base year for determining AYP goals under NCLB, through school year 2004-05, the third year that states reported after the NCLB baseline year (VanGetson & Thurlow, 2007). Within…

  19. Not Just New--Newly Reborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Career and technical education has always been able to change with the times. New technologies and new educational challenges have made such change necessary. Sometimes a school must reinvent itself and undergo a rebirth as part of that adaptation. That is what has happened at the former St. Louis Career Academy. In the 2004-05 school year, the…

  20. WWC Quick Review of the Report "National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from a Random Assignment Experiment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether having a teacher with National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification improves student achievement. The study analyzed data on about 3,800 second through fifth grade students taught by 198 teachers in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Study data were from 2003-04 and 2004-05. The authors…

  1. Runoff simulations from the Greenland ice sheet at Kangerlussuaq from 2006-2007 to 2007/08. West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Hasholt, Bent; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Liston, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on runoff from a large sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) - the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland - for the runoff observation period 2006/07 to 2007/08. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff. Independent in situ end-of-winter snow depth and high-resolution runoff observations were used for validation of simulated accumulation and ablation processes. Runoff was modeled on both daily and hourly time steps, filling a data gap of runoff exiting part of the GrIS. Using hourly meteorological driving data instead of smoothed daily-averaged data produced more realistic meteorological conditions in relation to snow and melt threshold surface processes, and produced 6-17% higher annual cumulative runoff. The simulated runoff series yielded useful insights into the present conditions of inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Kangerlussuaq runoff, and provided an acceptable degree of agreement between simulated and observed runoff. The simulated spatial runoff distributions, in some areas of the GrIS terminus, were as high as 2,750 mm w.eq. of runoff for 2006/07, while only 900 mm w.eq was simulated for 2007/08. The simulated total runoff from Kangerlussuaq was 1.9 km{sup 3} for 2006/07 and 1.2 km{sup 3} for 2007/08, indicating a reduction of 35-40% caused by the climate conditions and changes in the GrIS freshwater storage. The reduction in runoff from 2006/07 to 2007/08 occurred simultaneously with the reduction in the overall pattern of satellite-derived GrIS surface melt from 2007 to 2008.

  2. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Supreme Court's preview is presented in this article. During the 2006-07 Supreme Court term, it was the 5-4 decisions that garnered the most attention. Twenty-four of the term's 72 cases were decided by this narrowest of margins--the highest percentage of 5-4 opinions in a decade--even as the share of unanimous opinions fell "below levels seen…

  3. Eighteen-year study of South Australian dolphins shows variation in lung nematodes by season, year, age class, and location.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Lavery, Trish J

    2010-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, carcasses of opportunistically collected short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis; n=238), Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus; n=167), and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus; n=15) were examined for parasites and life history data. Three species of lung nematodes (Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Stenurus ovatus, Pharurus alatus) were identified in surface nodules, subsurface lesions, or airways. Nematode burdens were light to heavy and, in many cases, would have compromised the dolphins' health. The number of dolphins infected was related to species, year, season, age class, and geographic region. Nematodes were found in all three species but were more prevalent in short-beaked common dolphins (mean annual prevalence=26%) than in bottlenose dolphins (12%). There was a significant increase in prevalence of nematodes in short-beaked common dolphins in 2005-06 (63%) compared to 1990-2004 (14%), with a peak in April-June. More young short-beaked common dolphins were infected than subadults and adults and, during the unusual infection event, there were more dependent calves (<130 cm) than juveniles. There were also more infections in dependent bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) calves but no increase in overall prevalence was detected during 2005-06. Because neonates of both short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins were infected, mother-to-calf transmission is suspected for these species in South Australia. Numbers of infections in short-beaked common dolphins were higher in Gulf St Vincent than elsewhere in South Australia, particularly in 2005-06. The cause of the unusual infection event in short-beaked common dolphins is unknown. We discuss the influence of dolphin diet, life history, and external factors.

  4. Tier-specific evolution of match performance characteristics in the English Premier League: it's getting tougher at the top.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Archer, David T; Hogg, Bob; Schuth, Gabor; Bush, Michael; Carling, Chris; Barnes, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of physical and technical performances in the English Premier League (EPL), with special reference to league ranking. Match performance observations (n = 14,700) were collected using a multiple-camera computerised tracking system across seven consecutive EPL seasons (2006-07 to 2012-13). Final league rankings were classified into Tiers: (A) 1st-4th ranking (n = 2519), (B) 5th-8th ranking (n = 2965), (C) 9th-14th ranking (n = 4448) and (D) 15th-20th ranking (n = 4768). Teams in Tier B demonstrated moderate increases in high-intensity running distance while in ball possession from the 2006-07 to 2012-13 season (P < 0.001; effect size [ES]: 0.68), with Tiers A, C and D producing less pronounced increases across the same period (P < 0.005; ES: 0.26, 0.41 and 0.33, respectively). Large increases in sprint distance were observed from the 2006-07 to 2012-13 season for Tier B (P < 0.001; ES: 1.21), while only moderate increases were evident for Tiers A, C and D (P < 0.001; ES: 0.75, 0.97 and 0.84, respectively). Tier B demonstrated large increases in the number of passes performed and received in 2012-13 compared to 2006-07 (P < 0.001; ES: 1.32-1.53) with small-to-moderate increases in Tier A (P < 0.001; ES: 0.30-0.38), Tier C (P < 0.001; ES: 0.46-0.54) and Tier D (P < 0.001; ES: 0.69-0.87). The demarcation line between 4th (bottom of Tier A) and 5th ranking (top of Tier B) in the 2006-07 season was 8 points, but this decreased to just a single point in the 2012-13 season. The data demonstrate that physical and technical performances have evolved more in Tier B than any other Tier in the EPL and could indicate a narrowing of the performance gap between the top two Tiers.

  5. Rapid Survey of Wasting and Stunting in Children: Whats New, Whats Old and Whats the Buzz?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Sinha, Dipa; Yumnam, Veda

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide Rapid Survey on Children (RSoC), conducted by the Ministry of Women and Child Development and UNICEF in 2013-14 showed a marked improvement in the status of the child malnutrition over the third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) that was conducted in 2005-06. Despite some impressive gains in the anthropometric indicators of malnutrition, the absolute levels remain high, and of concern. Despite these gains, the feeding indicators remain stagnant. The programmatic responses need to adopt a multi-sectoral comprehensive approach with regular and comprehensive nutrition surveillance and recognize the epidemiological diversity.

  6. Map showing Features and Displacements of the Scenic Drive Landslide, La Honda, California, During the Period March 31, 2005-November 5, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wheeler, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Scenic Drive landslide in La Honda, San Mateo County, California began movement during the El Ni?o winter of 1997-98. Recurrent motion occurred during the mild El Ni?o winter of 2004-2005 and again during the winter of 2005-06. This report documents the changing geometry and motion of the Scenic Drive landslide in 2005-2006, and it documents changes and persistent features that we interpret to reflect underlying structural control of the landslide. We have also compared the displacement history to near-real time rainfall history at a continuously recording gauge for the period October 2004-November 2006.

  7. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  8. Environmental variability in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy): Focusing on the response of microbial activities and prokaryotic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Gabriella; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Decembrini, Franco; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Maimone, Giovanna; De Pasquale, Francesca; Monticelli, Luis Salvador; Zaccone, Renata; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    The response of both microbial activities and prokaryotic abundances to environmental variability was studied in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy) during two yearly surveys (1997-'98 and 2005-'06). The total enzymatic (leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase) and respiratory activity rates as well as of the abundances of total prokaryotes, culturable heterotrophic bacteria, faecal coliforms and enterococci were measured in surface waters of four brackish ponds, together with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen determinations. The seasonal and interannual patterns of microbial parameters were investigated in relation to environmental variations.

  9. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Mistura, Lorenza; D’Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI) from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI) was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions. PMID:27792160

  10. Trends in hospital librarianship and hospital library services: 1989 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Patricia L.; Funk, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The research studied the status of hospital librarians and library services to better inform the Medical Library Association's advocacy activities. Methods: The Vital Pathways Survey Subcommittee of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians distributed a web-based survey to hospital librarians and academic health sciences library directors. The survey results were compared to data collected in a 1989 survey of hospital libraries by the American Hospital Association in order to identify any trends in hospital libraries, roles of librarians, and library services. A web-based hospital library report form based on the survey questions was also developed to more quickly identify changes in the status of hospital libraries on an ongoing basis. Results: The greatest change in library services between 1989 and 2005/06 was in the area of access to information, with 40% more of the respondents providing access to commercial online services, 100% more providing access to Internet resources, and 28% more providing training in database searching and use of information resources. Twenty-nine percent (n = 587) of the 2005/06 respondents reported a decrease in staff over the last 5 years. Conclusions: Survey data support reported trends of consolidation of hospitals and hospital libraries and additions of new services. These services have likely required librarians to acquire new skills. It is hoped that future surveys will be undertaken to continue to study these trends. PMID:19851491

  11. Scientist to Expose Students to Wetlands Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Marco Giardino, chief of the Applications Integration Division for NASA Stennis Space Center's Earth Science Applications Directorate, has been chosen by the JASON Project to be one of six host researchers for Disappearing Wetlands, which will run through the 2004-05 school year. In the photo, Giardino (left) interprets satellite imagery on the way to an archeological site near Lake Salvador, La., in November 2002. With him is his local guide, Michael Comardelle.

  12. Teacher Absences: Types, Frequency, and Impact on Student Achievement, Wake County Public School System, 2007-08. Measuring Up. E&R Report No. 09.37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speas, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007-08, the WCPSS teacher absence rate was 10.3 days, slightly higher than a national rate of 9.5 days in 2004-05 but lower than the 11.3 to 14.6 days reported in large school districts more recently. In comparison with other studies, WCPSS teachers averaged smaller proportions of personal and sick leave days, slightly more annual leave days,…

  13. Sources of inoculum for Phytophthora ramorum in a redwood forest.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J M; Patterson, H A; Rizzo, D M

    2008-08-01

    ABSTRACT Sources of inoculum were investigated for dominant hosts of Phytophthora ramorum in a redwood forest. Infected trunks, twigs, and/or leaves of bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), and redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) were tested in the laboratory for sporangia production. Sporangia occurred on all plant tissues with the highest percentage on bay laurel leaves and tanoak twigs. To further compare these two species, field measurements of inoculum production and infection were conducted during the rainy seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05. Inoculum levels in throughfall rainwater and from individual infections were significantly higher for bay laurel as opposed to tanoak for both seasons. Both measurements of inoculum production from bay laurel were significantly greater during 2004-05 when rainfall extended longer into the spring, while inoculum quantities for tanoak were not significantly different between the 2 years. Tanoak twigs were more likely to be infected than bay laurel leaves in 2003-04, and equally likely to be infected in 2004-05. These results indicate that the majority of P. ramorum inoculum in redwood forest is produced from infections on bay laurel leaves. Years with extended rains pose an elevated risk for tanoak because inoculum levels are higher and infectious periods continue into late spring.

  14. AFRICOM and Australian Military Engagement in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-30

    interests. Since 2001, trade with Africa has grown 10.5% and Australia’s exports to Africa have grown by 54% in the same time frame.55 An area of...Australia’s merchandise exports and imports to Africa also achieved the highest yearly growth over five years.60 This result was also replicated by the...Commonwealth of Australia, Composition of Trade 2006, 67-69. Australia’s merchandise exports to Africa were AUD$3.6b in 2006-07, an increase from AUD$2.3b

  15. Barometer. Acute trusts February 2005.

    PubMed

    2005-03-17

    Almost two thirds of acute trusts rate the quality of commissioning from their PCTs at three out of 10 or less, according to the latest HSJ Barometer survey. This is the lowest score since we began the survey a year ago. Confidence in their performance against the 98 per cent four-hour A&E target fell sharply from a December high to an average of 6.87. The survey also found that fewer than one in seven trusts were confident of winning foundation status by the end of 2006-07.

  16. The New Middle East Security Threat: The Case of Yemen and the GCC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Simmers in Gulf.” International Herald Tribune, July 11, 2006. http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/07/11/ business /pipe.php [Accessed March 2007]. 49...notes that “Arab League statistics show that between 1995 and 2002, the GCC states spent $277 billion on defense and security - around 12.7 per cent...http://www.ppl.nl/books/ ebooks /206-186_CSWMD_OCP3WEB.pdf [Accessed March 2007]. 97 Peter Bergen, Holy War, Inc. (New York: Columbia University

  17. Nutrient conditions during Alexandrium fundyense blooms in the western Gulf of Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Rebecca C.; Loder, Theodore C.; Keafer, Bruce A.

    2005-09-01

    Inorganic nutrients and organic nitrogen were measured in April-June of 1998 and 2000 near Casco Bay, Maine and the adjacent coastal waters as part of the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms—Gulf of Maine (ECOHAB-GOM) program. The samples were collected during development of toxic Alexandrium fundyense blooms [ Keafer, B.A., Churchill, J.H., Anderson, D.M., 2005. Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense in the Casco Bay region of the western Gulf of Maine: advection from offshore source populations and interactions with the Kennebec River plume. Deep Sea Research II, this issue [ doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.06.017

  18. The effect of women's status and community on the gender differential in children's nutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sunita

    2011-09-01

    This study uses the third National Family Health Survey (2005-06) in India to investigate whether differences in women's status, both at the individual and community levels, can explain the persistent gender differential in nutritional allocation among children. The results show that girls are less likely than boys to receive supplemental food and more likely to be malnourished. In general it appears that higher women's status within a community, as well as higher maternal status, have beneficial effects on a daughter's nutritional status. Further, the moderating effects of community appear to be more consistent and stronger than the individual-level characteristics. A positive relationship between the percentage of literate women in a community and the gender differential in malnutrition appears to be an exception to the general findings regarding the beneficial nature of women's status on a daughter's well-being, showing the need for more than just basic adult literacy drives in communities to overcome the problem of daughter neglect.

  19. Tall claims: Mortality selection and the height of children in India.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Harold; Lokshin, Michael; Radyakin, Sergiy

    2011-12-01

    Data from three rounds of nationally representative health surveys in India (1992/93, 1998/99 and 2005/06) are used to assess the impact of selective mortality on children's anthropometrics. The nutritional status of the child population was simulated under the counterfactual scenario that all children who died in the first three years of life were alive at the time of measurement. The simulations demonstrate that the difference in anthropometrics due to selective mortality would be large only if there were very large differences in anthropometrics between the children who died and those who survived. Differences of this size are not substantiated by the research on the degree of association between mortality and malnutrition. The study shows that although mortality risk is higher among malnourished children, selective mortality has only a minor impact on the measured nutritional status of children stratified by gender.

  20. Molecular evidence for tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Jeong, Y E; Yun, S-M; Lee, I Y; Han, M G; Ju, Y R

    2009-03-01

    To investigate whether tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEVs) are present in South Korea, Korean ixodid ticks were tested for TBEV RNA. Ticks (n = 2460) were collected from wild and domestic animals or by flagging at forest and grassland in 12 regions of five provinces in 2005-06. Four species in two genera were identified, yielding 197 sample pools (1-20 ticks per pool); from these, 12 envelope protein gene fragments of TBEV were amplified by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). Ten of the 2104 adult ticks (0.4%) and two of the 356 nymph ticks (0.2%) were positive for the envelope (E) gene of TBEV. Twelve TBEV RNA-positive samples were detected in Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the E genes of the TBEV isolates were clustered with the Western European subtype (98% identity). This study suggests that TBEVs may exist in Korea.

  1. Evaluation of pore-water samplers at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used innovative sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report evaluates a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. The new type of pore-water sampler appears to be an effective approach for long-term monitoring of ground water in the sand and organic-rich mud beneath the drainage ditch.

  2. AXARM: An Extensible Remote Assistance and Monitoring Tool for ND Telerehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Antonio; Marzo, Jose L.; Vallejo, Xavier

    AXARM is a multimedia tool for rehabilitation specialists that allow remote assistance and monitoring of patients activities. This tool is the evolution of the work done in 2005-06 between the BCDS research group of UdG and the Multiple Sclerosis Foundation (FEM in Spanish) in Girona under the TRiEM project. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease (ND) that can provoke significant exhaustion in patients even just by going to the medical centre for rehabilitation or regular checking visits. The tool presented in this paper allows the medical staff to remotely carry on patient consults and activities from their home, minimizing the displacements to medical consulting. AXARM has a hybrid P2P architecture and consists essentially of a cross-platform videoconference system, with audio/video recording capabilities. The system can easily be extended to include new capabilities like, among others, asynchronous activities whose result can later be analyzed by the medical personnel.

  3. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  4. High incidence of amantadine-resistant influenza AH3 viruses isolated during the 2005-2006 winter season in Nara, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masaki; Inoue, Yumiko; Kitahori, Yoshiteru

    2007-02-01

    We examined the incidence of amantadine-resistant influenza AH3 viruses isolated in Nara Prefecture during the 2005-06 winter season. The genetic analyses of the M2 ion channel protein were conducted using reverse transcriptase PCR and direct sequencing. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) strains were identified as amantadine-resistant, and this incidence was remarkably higher than those previously recored in Nara Prefecture. Genetic analyses of the viruses revealed that all the anti-drug strains contained a change at position 31 (AGT-->AAT, Ser31Asn) in the M2 gene. One of the 13 amantadine-resistant strains also contained a change at position 27 (GTT-->GCT, Val27Ala). Our data indicate that there has been a significant increase of drug-resistant influenza AH3 viruses in Nara Prefecture, and raise concern about the spread of resistant influenza AH3 viruses in Japan.

  5. Does health insurance ensure equitable health outcomes? An analysis of hospital services usage in urban India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mousumi; Husain, Zakir

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and the usage of in-patient services, and analyze the impact of introducing health insurance in India - a major developing country with poor health outcomes. In contrast to results of similar works undertaken for developed countries, our results reveal that the positive relation between usage of in-patient services and SES persists even in the presence of health insurance. This implies that health insurance is unable to eliminate the inequities in accessing healthcare services that stem from disparities in SES. In fact, insurance aggravates inequity in the healthcare market. The study is based on unit-level data from the 2005-06 Morbidity and Health Care Survey undertaken by National Sample Survey Organization.

  6. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.5 QC Longwave 3 hourly Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2.5_QCLW_3HRLY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    This data set contains average surface downward longwave flux, surface net longwave flux, and surface longwave cloud radiative forcing at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire glob between 07/01/1983 and 06/30/2005. These LW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Quality-Check LW (QCLW) algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=3-hourly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=3-hourly].

  7. Assessment of an ensemble system that assimilates Jason-1/Envisat altimeter data in a probabilistic model of the North Atlantic ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candille, G.; Brankart, J. M.; Brasseur, P.

    2014-12-01

    A realistic circulation model of the North Atlantic ocean at 1/4° resolution (NATL025 NEMO configuration) has been adapted to explicitly simulate model uncertainties. This is achieved by introducing stochastic perturbations in the equation of state to represent the effect of unresolved scales on the model dynamics. The main motivation for this work is to develop ensemble data assimilation methods, assimilating altimetric data from past missions JASON-1 and ENVISAT. The assimilation experiment is designed to better control the Gulf Stream circulation for years 2005/06, focusing on frontal regions which are predominantly affected by unresolved dynamical scales. An ensemble based on such stochastic perturbations is first produced and evaluated using along-track altimetry observations. The Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) scheme is applied in order to obtain an ensemble of continuous trajectories all over the 2005/06 assimilation period. These three elements - stochastic parameterization, ensemble simulation and 4-D observation operator - are then used together to perform a 4-D analysis of along-track altimetry over 10 day windows. Finally, the results of this experiment are objectively evaluated using the standard probabilistic approach developed for meteorological applications (Toth et al., 2003; Candille et al., 2007). The results show that the free ensemble - before starting the assimilation process - correctly reproduces the statistical variability over the Gulf Stream area: the system is then pretty reliable but not informative (null probabilistic resolution). Updating the free ensemble with altimetric data leads to a better reliability with an information gain around 30% (for 10 day forecasts of the SSH variable). Diagnoses on fully independent data (i.e. data that are not assimilated, like temperature and salinity profiles) provide more contrasted results when the free and updated ensembles are compared.

  8. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  9. Biology and life cycles of pelagic tunicates in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Dubischar, C. D.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Strass, V.; Cisewski, B.; Siegel, V.; von Harbou, L.; Gurney, L.; Kitchener, J.; Bathmann, U.

    2011-07-01

    Four grid surveys were carried out in the top 200 m layer of the Lazarev Sea during fall 2004, summer 2005-06, winter 2006 and summer 2007-08 onboard the R.V. Polarstern as a part of the German SO-GLOBEC. The distribution, abundance and biology of two species of salps, Salpa thompsoni and Ihlea racovitzai, were investigated. With the exception of fall 2004, I. racovitzai dominated the salp community although being represented by low densities (<20 ind. 1000 m -3). S. thompsoni was scarce during the summers of 2005-06 and 2007-08 and almost absent from the region during winter 2006. Nevertheless, it was modestly numerous during fall 2004 reaching densities of up to 33 ind. 1000 m -3 in the south-western stations of the grid. The data on the seasonal population structure and life cycle of I. racovitzai showed that this species followed the generalized pattern typical of S. thompsoni, i.e. sexual/asexual reproduction and spawning during fall. I. racovitzai densities were the lowest during summer, increased during fall and peaked in during winter. Numerous offspring were produced by I. racovitzai during fall, just before the area became ice-covered. Conversely, S. thompsoni was not able to complete its life cycle in the Lazarev Sea, with a high occurrence of stage X (unfertilized) aggregates present. Highest S. thompsoni densities in summer and fall, and its disappearance in winter are indicative of a population of the expatriate origin that is sustained by advection.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Copepod Abundance along the 20°S Monitoring Transect in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System from 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Maya; Kreiner, Anja; van der Plas, Anja K.; Louw, Deon C.; Horaeb, Richard; Auel, Holger; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Long-term data sets are essential to understand climate-induced variability in marine ecosystems. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of longer-term temporal and spatial variations in zooplankton abundance and copepod community structure in the northern Benguela upwelling system from 2005 to 2011. Samples were collected from the upper 200 m along a transect at 20°S perpendicular to the coast of Namibia to 70 nm offshore. Based on seasonal and interannual trends in surface temperature and salinity, three distinct time periods were discernible with stronger upwelling in spring and extensive warm-water intrusions in late summer, thus, high temperature amplitudes, in the years 2005/06 and 2010/11, and less intensive upwelling followed by weaker warm-water intrusions from 2008/09 to 2009/10. Zooplankton abundance reflected these changes with higher numbers in 2005/06 and 2010/11. In contrast, zooplankton density was lower in 2008/09 and 2009/10, when temperature gradients from spring to late summer were less pronounced. Spatially, copepod abundance tended to be highest between 30 and 60 nautical miles off the coast, coinciding with the shelf break and continental slope. The dominant larger calanoid copepods were Calanoides carinatus, Metridia lucens and Nannocalanus minor. On all three scales studied, i.e. spatially from the coast to offshore waters as well as temporally, both seasonally and interannually, maximum zooplankton abundance was not coupled to the coldest temperature regime, and hence strongest upwelling intensity. Pronounced temperature amplitudes, and therefore strong gradients within a year, were apparently important and resulted in higher zooplankton abundance. PMID:24844305

  11. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (< 0.7 μm). Similar trends were observed with most of the heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  12. How does high stakes testing influence teachers' classroom instruction?: Institutional pressures and classroom instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Mika Yoder

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how a total of eight math and science elementary school teachers changed their classroom instruction in response to high stakes and low stakes testing in one school district. The district introduced new assessment in the school year of 2005--06 to meet the requirement set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)---that the assessment should be aligned with the state academic standards. I conducted interviews with teachers and school administrators at two elementary schools, district officials, and a representative of a non-profit organization during the school year 2007--08 to examine how the new assessment introduced in 2005--06 had shaped classroom instruction. Concepts from New Institutional Theory and cognitive approaches to policy implementation guided the design of this study. This study focused on how materials and activities associated with high stakes testing promoted ideas about good instruction, and how these ideas were carried to teachers. The study examined how teachers received messages about instruction and how they responded to the messages. The study found that high stakes testing influenced teachers' classroom instruction more than low stakes testing; however, the instructional changes teachers made in response to state testing was at the content level. The teachers' instructional strategies did not change. The teachers' instructional changes varied with the degree of implementation of existing math curriculum and with the degree of support they received in understanding the meaning of assessment results. The study concluded that, among the six teachers I studied, high stakes testing was not a sufficient intervention for changing teachers' instructional strategies. The study also addressed the challenges of aligning instructional messages across assessment, standards, and curriculum.

  13. Influenza vaccine effectiveness among adult patients in a University of Lyon hospital (2004-2009).

    PubMed

    Amour, Sélilah; Voirin, Nicolas; Regis, Corinne; Bouscambert-Duchamp, Maude; Comte, Brigitte; Coppéré, Brigitte; Pires-Cronenberger, Silene; Lina, Bruno; Vanhems, Philippe

    2012-01-20

    The aim of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized patients. A case-control investigation was based on the prospective surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) during five flu seasons. We compared influenza-positive cases and influenza-negative controls. Unadjusted overall IVE was 62% (95% confidence interval 24% to 81%). We found that IVE was lower during the 2004-05 flu season (11%; 95% CI -232% to 76%) when the vaccine and circulating viruses were mismatched. Expansion of the study to other hospitals could provide IVE estimates earlier in the season, for different age groups and emerging virus strains.

  14. Know Your Enemy, Know Yourself: Understanding the Enemy in the War on Terror

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    58 Terry Robertson , “A Perfect Storm: A Case Study Analysis of the Defeat of Tom Daschle by John Thune in the 2004 South Dakota Senate Race...59 Robertson , 333. 60 Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “Daschel, Democratic Senate Leader, Is Beaten,” New York Times, 3 November 2004, http... Seymour M. Hersh, “Torture at Abu Ghraib,” The New Yorker, 10 May 2004, http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/05/10/040510fa_fact?currentPage=1

  15. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in pooled human serum by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aleysha; Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Harden, Fiona A; Hobson, Peter; White, Nicole M; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Mueller, Jochen F

    2017-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades in Australia with cessation of selected persistent and bioaccumulative OCPs ranging from the 1970s to as recently as 2007. The specific aims of this study were to use samples representative of an Australian population to assess age and gender differences in the concentration of OCPs in human blood sera and to investigate temporal trends in these chemicals. Serum was collected from de-identified, surplus pathology samples over five time periods (2002/03, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13), with 183 serum pools made from 12,175 individual samples; 26 pools in 2002/03, 85 pools in 2006/07 and 24 pools each in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), γ -hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) (γ-HCH), oxy-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and Mirex. Stratification criteria included gender and age (0-4; 5-15; 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >60 years) with age additionally stratified by adults >16 years and children 0-4 and 5-15 years. All pools from all collection periods had detectable concentrations of OCPs with a detection frequency of >60% for HCB, β-HCH, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. The overall OCP concentrations increased with age with the highest concentrations in the >60 years groups. Females did not have higher mean OCP concentrations than males except for HCB concentrations (p=0.0006). Temporal trends showed overall decreasing serum concentrations by collection period with the exception of an increase in OCP concentrations between 2006/07 and 2008/09. Excluding this data point, HCB decreased from year to year by 7-76%; β-HCH concentrations decreased by 14 - 38%; trans-nonachlor concentrations decreased by 10 - 65%; p,p'-DDE concentrations decreased by 6 - 52%; and p,p'-DDT concentrations decreased by 7 - 30%. The results indicate that OCP concentrations have decreased over time as is to be

  16. Participation in and attitude towards the national immunization program in the Netherlands: data from population-based questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the determinants of participation and attitude towards the National Immunisation Program (NIP) may be helpful in tailoring information campaigns for this program. Our aim was to determine which factors were associated with nonparticipation in the NIP and which ones were associated with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. Further, we analyzed possible changes in opinion on vaccination over a 10 year period. Methods We used questionnaire data from two independent, population-based, cross-sectional surveys performed in 1995-96 and 2006-07. For the 2006-07 survey, logistic regression modelling was used to evaluate what factors were associated with nonparticipation and with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression modelling to compare the results between the two surveys. Results Ninety-five percent of parents reported that they or their child (had) participated in the NIP. Similarly, 95% reported they intended to accept remaining vaccinations. Ethnicity, religion, income, educational level and anthroposophic beliefs were important determinants of nonparticipation in the NIP. Parental concerns that played a role in whether or not they would accept remaining vaccinations included safety of vaccinations, maximum number of injections, whether vaccinations protect the health of one's child and whether vaccinating healthy children is necessary. Although about 90% reported their opinion towards vaccination had not changed, a larger proportion of participants reported to be less inclined to accept vaccination in 2006-07 than in 1995-96. Conclusion Most participants had a positive attitude towards vaccination, although some had doubts. Groups with a lower income or educational level or of non-Western descent participated less in the NIP than those with a high income or educational level or indigenous Dutch and have been less well identified previously. Particular

  17. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater.

  18. Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the seventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) Nomination and election of the Executive Council members for the 2006-07 term, (2) Finalize and release the 2006 Request for Proposals (RFP), (3) Invoice and recruit members, (4) Plan for the spring meeting, (5) Improving communication efforts, and (6) Continue distribution of the DVD entitled: ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''.

  19. Evaluation of project P.A.T.H.S. (Secondary 1 Program) by the program participants: findings based on the Full Implementation Phase.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Sun, Rachel C F

    2008-01-01

    A total of 207 schools (N = 33,693 students) participated in the Secondary 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Full Implementation Phase (2006-07). Participants responded to a Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form A) to assess their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness after program completion. Utilizing the consolidated reports submitted to the funding body, the Research Team aggregated the consolidated data to form an overall profile of the perceptions of the program participants. Results showed that a high proportion of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, and roughly four-fifths regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides additional support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  20. Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Toms, L.-M.L.; Thompson, J.; Rotander, A.; Hobson, P.; Calafat, A.M.; Kato, K.; Ye, X.; Broomhall, S.; Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002–2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends. Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n = 26); 2008/09 (n = 24) and 2010/11 (n = 24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n = 84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <16 years (2002/03 only); 0–4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5–15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16–30; 31–45; 46–60; and >60 years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3–19.2 ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4–17.4 ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8–7.3 ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1–6.5 ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <1 ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2–5.7 ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4–5.4 ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5–15 year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0–4 year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA). This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends

  1. Modern thermokarst lake dynamics in the continuous permafrost zone, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, G.; Arp, C.D.; Jones, M.C.; Walter, Anthony K.M.; Romanovsky, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying changes in thermokarst lake extent is of importance for understanding the permafrost-related carbon budget, including the potential release of carbon via lake expansion or sequestration as peat in drained lake basins. We used high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery from 1950/51, 1978, and 2006/07 to quantify changes in thermokarst lakes for a 700 km2 area on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The number of water bodies larger than 0.1 ha increased over the entire observation period (666 to 737 or +10.7%); however, total surface area decreased (5,066 ha to 4,312 ha or -14.9%). This pattern can largely be explained by the formation of remnant ponds following partial drainage of larger water bodies. Thus, analysis of large lakes (>40 ha) shows a decrease of 24% and 26% in number and area, respectively, differing from lake changes reported from other continuous permafrost regions. Thermokarst lake expansion rates did not change substantially between 1950/51 and 1978 (0.35 m/yr) and 1978 and 2006/07 (0.39 m/yr). However, most lakes that drained did expand as a result of surface permafrost degradation before lateral drainage. Drainage rates over the observation period were stable (2.2 to 2.3 per year). Thus, analysis of decadal-scale, high spatial resolution imagery has shown that lake drainage in this region is triggered by lateral breaching and not subterranean infiltration. Future research should be directed toward better understanding thermokarst lake dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution as these systems have implications for landscape-scale hydrology and carbon budgets in thermokarst lake-rich regions in the circum-Arctic.

  2. How much money is spent on vaccines across Western European countries?

    PubMed Central

    Ethgen, Olivier; Baron-Papillon, Florence; Cornier, Murielle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prevention programs, particularly vaccinations, remain highly vulnerable to budget cuts because their benefits may not be immediately identifiable. Seven Western European countries were selected (Germany, England, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Portugal) constituting a good mix of vaccine procurement modalities, with the objective to document the proportion of healthcare spending devoted to vaccines and its evolution. A data search was performed using the OECD online databases and official national sources from 2008 (2006 for England). No country spent more than 0.5% of its healthcare budget on vaccines. The proportion ranged from 0.25% in Spain (2012) and France (2013) to 0.47% in Germany (2014). Whereas healthcare spending increased in all countries but Spain (with increases ranging from +2.6% per year in France between 2008 and 2013 to +8.1% per year in England between 2006/07 and 2009/10), vaccine spending diminished markedly in Germany (−6.2% per year from 2008 to 2014), Spain (−6.7% per year from 2008 to 2012) and France (−4.2% per year from 2008 to 2013). Only Sweden (+5.9% per year from 2011 to 2013) and England (+18.9% per year from 2006/07 to 2009/10) increased their spending on vaccines. Vaccination involves relatively low levels of healthcare investment in Western Europe relative to the far-reaching public health benefits that it provides. We found a net trend toward a decrease in such spending in recent years, with the exception of Sweden and England. Vaccination budgets should be preserved or even increased to sustain a life-course approach to immunization with sufficient coverage rates. PMID:27224429

  3. Shoreline Changes in Point Pelee, Canada: An Airphoto-based Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BaMasoud, Abdullah

    Shoreline retreat has significant consequences for Point Pelee National Park's (PPNP) ecological and economic systems. In this study, the shoreline changes of PPNP are examined in terms of their rates, their relationship to natural and anthropogenic influences, and methods for predicting shoreline positions. The rates of shoreline change are analyzed for the period 1959-2004 using ortho-airphotos. The eastern shoreline of the Park exhibited varying recession in both rising and falling Lake Erie water level, especially in the Northeast Beach, where it averaged -3.14 m·y-1. The western shoreline of the Park generally exhibited accretion and had an inverse relationship with Lake Erie water levels. Longer duration of ice coverage during winter, favourable topography, and sedimentary conditions led to the observed difference in shoreline response. Unlike the shoreline net advance observed in 1959-2004, the western shore of PPNP on average exhibited net retreat in the winter of 2005/06. Compared to the winter of 2003/04, changes in Lake Erie water levels, winter wind regime and human-made structures and interferences were negligible during 2004-2006 within the Colchester-to-Southeast Shoal littoral cell in western Lake Erie, where western PPNP is located. However, the winter of 2005/06 exhibited overall low ice cover conditions unlike the typical freeze-up conditions in western Lake Erie. The 2005/06 shoreline retreat on the western shore is attributed to the low winter ice cover conditions during that winter. While less-than-average ice cover does not in its own cause erosion, in certain areas it increases the opportunity for sediment removal by waves by removing a significant source of protection during winter. The episode illustrates the potential impacts of ice-free and low ice cover winters on the western shore of the park and shores under similar conditions. Accuracy of predictions of future shoreline positions is important for the park management. Three methods

  4. Fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing concepts: An adaptation for the Komati Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, Enoch M.; Dhlamini, Sidney; Mthimkhulu, Sindy

    This paper presents an adaptation of fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing (FWARCS) concepts for application in the Komati Basin, a river system shared between South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. Many traditional methods for allocating water are based on volume-per-unit-time allocation that is supplied at some level of assurance and managed using priority-based reservoir and river system operating rules, as well as on the “use it or lose it” principle, which is considered exclusive by water users as it leaves them out of the management of their water allocations. In the Komati Basin, these traditional methods of water allocation led to frequent conflicts among users and with water managers. However, the introduction of the modified FWARCS, which assigns available water in the system to water users according to the proportions of their water entitlements and allows water to be banked in reservoirs, appears to be a solution to some of these problems. This method allows water users to decide when and how much of that entitlement they may use. Since the implementation of the modified FWARCS technique in the Komati Basin in 2002, the regulation, transparency and efficiency of operating the system improved and subsequently the number of disputes over water has declined. South Africa improved from an overuse of 8.2 Mm 3 in 2002/03 water year to realize a saving of 29.5 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Similarly, Swaziland improved from an overuse of 3.9 Mm 3 in 2002/03 to achieve a saving of 14.6 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Users have recognised and embraced the transparency and flexibility of the modified FWARCS. They choose, as the need and opportunity arise, when and how much water they utilise, whether to “bank” and/or “trade” the water they save subject to the conditions of their entitlements. The implementation of the modified FWARCS was also made successful by the existence of proper institutional structures, appropriate decision support tools, good water

  5. Bank erosion of navigation canals in the western and central Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Wilson, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Erosion of navigation canal banks is a direct cause of land loss, but there has been little quantitative analysis to determine why certain major canals exhibit faster widening rates (indicative of erosion) than others in the coastal zones of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. We hypothesize that navigation canals exhibit varying rates of erosion based on soil properties of the embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region (derived from digital versions of state geologic maps), and the presence or absence of canal bank armaments (that is, rock rip-rap, concrete bulkheads, or other shoreline protection structures). The first objective of this project was to map the shoreline position and substrate along both banks of the navigation canals, which were digitized from 3 different time periods of aerial photography spanning the years of 1978/79 to 2005/06. The second objective was to quantify the erosion rates of the navigation canals in the study area and to determine whether differences in erosion rates are related to embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region, or soil type. To measure changes in shoreline position over time, transects spaced at 50-m (164-ft) intervals were intersected with shorelines from all three time periods, and an annual rate of change was calculated for each transect. Mean annual rates of shoreline change ranged from 1.75 m/year (5.74 ft/year) on the west side of the Atchafalaya River, La., where there was shoreline advancement or canal narrowing, to -3.29 m/year (-10.79 ft/year) on the south side of the Theodore Ship Channel, Ala., where there was shoreline retreat or erosion. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in shoreline retreat rates according to geologic region and marsh vegetation type, and a weak relationship with soil organic content. This information can be used to better estimate future land loss rates associated with navigation canals and to prioritize the location of

  6. Investigations into matrix components affecting the performance of the official bioassay reference method for quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in oysters.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Algoet, Myriam; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Cordova, Marco; Caceres, Catherine; Murphy, Cory J; Casey, Melanie; Lees, David N

    2012-02-01

    Significant differences previously observed in the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in oysters using official method AOAC 2005.06 and 959.08 were investigated in detail with regard to possible matrix effects. Method AOAC 2005.06 gave results 2-3 times higher than the mouse bioassay method, 959.08, differences thought to be due to underestimation of PSTs by the mouse bioassay. In order to prove the cause of these large differences, work was conducted here to examine the presence and effects of matrix components on the performance of each of the two assays. A range of oyster, cockle and mussel samples were extracted using the AOAC 959.08 hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction method and analysed for PSP by both MBA and LC-FLD. In addition, extracts were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for metals as well as being subjected to a range of nutritional testing methods. Whilst there was no evidence for effect of nutritional components on either assay, ICP-MS analysis revealed a relationship between samples exhibiting the largest differences in relative method performance, specifically those with the largest LC-FLD/MBA toxicity ratio, and samples containing the highest concentrations of zinc and manganese. In order to prove the potential effect of the metals on either the LC-FLD and/or MBA assays, HCl extracts of a range of shellfish were subjected to a number of matrix modifications. Firstly, a number of PSP-positive oyster samples were processed to reduce the concentrations of metals within the extracts, without significantly reducing the concentrations of PSTs. Secondly, a range of mussel and cockle extracts, plus a standard solution of saxitoxin di-hydrochloride were spiked at variable concentrations of zinc. All treated and non-treated extracts, plus a number of controls were subjected to ICP-MS, LC-FLD and MBA testing. Results proved the absence of any effect of metals on the performance of the LC-FLD, whilst

  7. Density currents in the Chicago River: Characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Carlos M.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2008-01-01

    Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.

  8. Does diet mediate associations of volume and bouts of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health indicators in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Valerie; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.; Salmon, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Examine the mediating role of diet in the relationship between volume and duration of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Methods Adolescents (12‐19 years) participating in the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were examined. Cardiometabolic health indicators were body mass index z‐scores (zBMI) (n = 1,797) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 812). An ActiGraph hip‐worn accelerometer was used to derive total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration. Dietary intake was assessed using two 24‐hour dietary recalls. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine five dietary mediators [total energy intake, discretionary foods, sugar‐sweetened beverages (SSB), fruits and vegetables, and dietary quality] of the relationship between total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI and MetS. Results Total sedentary time was inversely associated with zBMI (β = −1.33; 95% CI −2.53 to −0.13) but attenuated after adjusting for moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity. No significant associations were observed between usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI or either sedentary measure with MetS. None of the five dietary variables mediated any of the relationships examined. Conclusions Further studies are needed to explore associations of specific time periods (e.g., after school) and bout durations with both cardiometabolic health indicators and dietary behaviors. PMID:28120527

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CRUSTAL MAGMA BODY IN THE 2005-2006 ERUPTION AREA AT 9°50'N ON THE EAST PACIFIC RISE FROM 3D MULTI-CHANNEL SEISMIC DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Canales, J.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Aghaei, O.; Xu, M.; Han, S.; Stowe, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2008 a large 3D multi-channel seismic dataset (expedition MGL0812) was collected over the 9°50’N Integrated Study Site at the East Pacific Rise, providing insight into the architecture of the magmatic system and its relationship with hydrothermal activity and volcanic/dyking events associated with the 2005-06 eruption. The main area of 3D coverage is located between 9°42’N and 9°57’N, spanning ~28km along-axis, and was acquired along 94 (1 partial) prime lines shot across-axis and each ~24km-long. Pre-processing of the data acquired in this area is now well under way, with significant efforts targeted at amplitude spike removal. Current work focuses on setting up the 3D processing sequence up to the stack stage for a small group of inlines (axis-perpendicular grid lines spaced 37.5m apart) located over the “bull’s eye” site at 9°50’N, a sequence that will subsequently be applied to the whole dataset. At the meeting we will present stacked and migrated sections - inlines, crosslines, time slices - obtained through 3D processing. We will discuss results focusing on the characteristics of the axial magma body, whose detailed structure and along-axis segmentation will be resolved by the 3D data.

  10. STATE-LEVEL DIETARY DIVERSITY AS A CONTEXTUAL DETERMINANT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2017-02-20

    This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.

  11. Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data sets contain global 3-hourly, daily and monthly averages of surface longwave and shortwave radiative properties, cloud amount, and meteorological properties computed using models. The main input data for these models include cloud information, top-of-atmosphere radiances and profiles of atmospheric water vapor and temperature. Some of the input data include Earth Radiation Budget Energy (ERBE) top-of-atmosphere clear-sky albedo and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) radiances and cloud amount. SRB parameters derived for the renewable energy community are also available from the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set. Other SRB data are available from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). [Mission Objectives] The objective of the SRB Project is to produce and archive a global data set of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) surface and top of the atmosphere parameters. The data generated in the SRB project may be used in conjunction with other data sets to facilitate the development of renewable energy resources and increase understanding of radiative properties within the meteorological community. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  12. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  13. Faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jeff; Shachar, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    This research study investigated the relationship between faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership and the effects of moderating demographic and institutional characteristics. Data for this study were collected utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X and the self-designed Demographic and Institution Questionnaire. The study working sample included 184 graduate occupational therapy faculty members from 98 (65%) of all accredited academic occupational therapy programs in the United States for the 2005-06 academic year. Major findings from the study indicate that, in general, transformational leadership had a significant (p < 0.001) positive predictive relationship with the leadership outcomes whereas transactional leadership had a significant (p < 0.001) negative predictive relationship. The contingent reward leadership attribute (although belonging to the transactional leadership construct) was found to be a positive predictor of leadership outcomes. Demographic and institutional characteristics did not have a significant (p > 0.01) influence on perceived leadership styles and leadership outcomes. The results of this research show that the most effective occupational therapy leaders in academia have been found to be those who adopt and utilize a full range of leadership styles that combine both transformational and transactional contingent reward leadership styles and suggest common effectiveness for other allied health fields.

  14. Pegaso: Long durations balloons from polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G. R.; di Stefano, G. D. S.; di Felice, F. D. F.; Masi, S. M.; Cardillo, A. C.; Musso, I. M.; Ibba, R. I.; Palangio, P. P.; Caprara, F. C.; Peterzen, S. P.; Pegaso Group

    Launched from the Mario Zuccelli Station Baia Terra Nova in Antarctica during the 2005 06 austral summer the PEGASO-D payload lifted into the stratospheric anticyclone over the southern polar region This effort marks the first Long Duration Scientific payload to be launched from this location and is the fourth such payload launched in the polar regions Performing in the framework of the NOBILE AMUNDSEN collaborative LDB development between ASI-ARR The Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology INGV with the sponsorship of the Italian Antarctic Program PNRA and the Italian Space Agency ASI designed and built the Ultra-Light system together with three Universities in Italy The Pegaso program has been created to investigate the Earth magnetic field and provide a precursor series of small payload launches for the bigger LDB program such as OLIMPO BOOMERanG and BArSPOrt through this collaboration between ASI and ARR The Italian scientific community aware of the big advantages that LDB balloons can offer to their experiments proposed to extend the LDB program to Southern polar regions besides performing launches from the newly initiated Nobile Amundsen Stratospheric Balloon Center in Svalbard Norway Three PEGASO Polar Explorer for Geomagnetics And other Scientific Observations payloads have been launched from the Svalbard No in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range ASI and ISTAR Operations and logistics during the past two northern summers These stratospheric altitude m 35000 small 10kmc balloons have floated in the stratosphere between 14 to

  15. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). PMID:26610567

  16. Turning points in nonlinear business cycle theories, financial crisis and the 2007-2008 downturn.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Ragiv G

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews three nonlinear dynamical business cycle theories of which only one (The Goodwin model) reflects the stylized facts of observed business cycles and has a plausible turning point mechanism. The paper then examines the US (and now global) financial crisis of 2008 and the accompanying downturn in the US. The paper argues that a skewed income distribution could not sustain effective demand and that over the 2001-2006 expansion demand was maintained through massive amounts of credit, with more than 50 percent of sales in the US being maintained through credit. A vector autoregression model confirms the crucial role played by credit. However legislative changes that dismantled the restrictions placed on the financial sector after the crash of 1929 and the consequent structural changes in the financial sector after 1980 enabled the growth of new debt instruments and credit. But overexpansion of credit when profits and house prices were declining in 2005/06 led to a nonlinear shift due to a new realization of the poor quality of some of this debt, namely mortgage backed securities. Bankruptcies, followed by retrenchment at the banks, then led to the bursting of the credit bubble, with the possibility of a severe recession.

  17. Supporting the Temporal Dimension in Geospatial Information Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, S.; Ressler, J.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005-06, a study on temporal geospatial standards and technology was undertaken by the National Technology Alliance. The project, called Temporal Evaluation and Assessment, examined challenges in accessing, processing, analyzing and visualizing temporal characteristics of geospatial data. Service oriented architecture principles were applied in developing prototype web services based on web standards, including specifications from the Open Geospatial Consortium. The prototypes were tested through a series of demonstrations. Questions addressed included detection , data modeling and depiction of change in features over time, both static and moving; collection and reporting sensor observations; use of web services with temporal interfaces; application of the Geography Markup Language (GML) to temporal features; comparison of imagery changes over time; search and retrieval of spatiotemporal data from multiple sources. Some of the key results from these demonstrations were in the areas of spatiotemporal data modeling, multi- source analysis of temporal images, features, moving features and sensor time-value data, exchange formats and workflow for feature updates, the use of catalogs to search and retrieve spatiotemporal data sources. The recommendations from the temporal evaluation were provided to standards organizations and technology developers. This paper describes the results of the research, the state of standards and technology, and future recommendations for using spatiotemporal data in a service oriented architecture.

  18. Husband's preference for a son and women's nutrition: examining the role of actual and desired family composition on women's anaemia and body mass index in India.

    PubMed

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Subramanian, S V; McCormick, Marie C; Silverman, Jay G

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the husband's preference for a son, sex composition of children and risk of anaemia and underweight among married Indian women. Information was collected regarding 29,517 couples having at least one child in the nationally representative 2005-06 National Family Health Survey of India. The exposures were husband's preference for a son and sex composition of children: sons only, daughters only and mixed. Outcome included maternal underweight and moderate/severe anaemia. Husband's preference for a son was not found to be associated with his wife's risk of anaemia or underweight. Sex composition of the children was modestly associated with increased odds of anaemia among women from households with daughters only as compared with those with sons only [AOR: 1.19; 95% CI 1.04, 1.35]. The findings from this population-based study of socio-cultural norms around preference for a son and married Indian women's nutritional status do not support the hypothesis that husband's preference for sons influences the nutritional status of their wives. However, having daughters only is associated with maternal anaemia for reasons that remain to be established.

  19. Marriage and parenthood in relation to obesogenic neighborhood trajectories: The CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Howard, Annie Green; Meyer, Katie; Lewis, Cora E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Laroche, Helena H; Gunderson, Erica P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-07-01

    Marriage and parenthood are associated with weight gain and residential mobility. Little is known about how obesity-relevant environmental contexts differ according to family structure. We estimated trajectories of neighborhood poverty, population density, and density of fast food restaurants, supermarkets, and commercial and public physical activity facilities for adults from a biracial cohort (CARDIA, n=4,174, aged 25-50) over 13 years (1992-93 through 2005-06) using latent growth curve analysis. We estimated associations of marriage, parenthood, and race with the observed neighborhood trajectories. Married participants tended to live in neighborhoods with lower poverty, population density, and availability of all types of food and physical activity amenities. Parenthood was similarly but less consistently related to neighborhood characteristics. Marriage and parenthood were more strongly related to neighborhood trajectories in whites (versus blacks), who, in prior studies, exhibit weaker associations between neighborhood characteristics and health. Greater understanding of how interactive family and neighborhood environments contribute to healthy living is needed.

  20. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

  1. Exposure to domestic violence between parents: a perspective from Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vameghi, Meroe; Feizzadeh, Ali; Mirabzadeh, Arash; Feizzadeh, Golnaz

    2010-06-01

    Women may bear the brunt of domestic violence, but children are also inflicted by the consequences of violence between their parents. We sought to evaluate the lifetime prevalence of exposure to physical violence between parents among some senior secondary school students in Tehran. The study was conducted on senior secondary school students in all 19 educational districts of the Iranian capital, Tehran, in the academic year of 2005-06 using a multi-stage sampling. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 1,495 students participated in this survey, with the prevalence estimated at 22.8%. More than half of the subjects had witnessed domestic violence between their parents; the prevalence of exposure among the girls was twice that among the boys. The most frequent act of violence was beating the partner with bare hands and the perpetrators of the violent acts were predominantly the fathers. Exposure was long-lasting; and in those with more than one exposure, the mean duration of exposure was 5.1 years. The most prevalent rates of exposure to domestic violence came from Educational Districts 15 and 10. The fact that a considerable portion of the teenagers in the present study had witnessed physical violence between their parents bears testimony to the high frequency of this form of violence in Tehran households. It is noteworthy that the socio-economic status of the families and parental divorce and estrangement increased the likelihood of exposure to domestic violence in our series.

  2. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden.

  3. Inequities in health care needs for children with medical complexity.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Dennis Z; Goudie, Anthony; Cohen, Eyal; Houtrow, Amy; Agrawal, Rishi; Carle, Adam C; Wells, Nora

    2014-12-01

    Children with special health care needs are believed to be susceptible to inequities in health and health care access. Within the group with special needs, there is a smaller group of children with medical complexity: children who require medical services beyond what is typically required by children with special health care needs. We describe health care inequities for the children with medical complexity compared to children with special health care needs but without medical complexity, based on a secondary analysis of data from the 2005-06 and 2009-10 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. The survey examines the prevalence, health care service use, and needs of children and youth with special care needs, as reported by their families. The inequities we examined were those based on race/ethnicity, primary language in the household, insurance type, and poverty status. We found that children with medical complexity were twice as likely to have at least one unmet need, compared to children without medical complexity. Among the children with medical complexity, unmet need was not associated with primary language, income level, or having Medicaid. We conclude that medical complexity itself can be a primary determinant of unmet needs.

  4. Urban and Rural Differences in Sedentary Behavior among American and Canadian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Valerie; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2011-01-01

    We examined relationships between urban-rural status and three screen time behaviors (television, computer, video games), and the potential mediating effect of parent and peer support on these relationships. Findings are based on American (n=8563) and Canadian (n=8990) youth in grades 6–10 from the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey. Weekly hours of individual screen time behaviors were calculated. Urban-rural status was defined using the Beale coding system. Parent and peer support variables were derived from principal component analysis. In comparison to the referent group (non-metro adjacent), American youth in the most rural areas were more likely to be high television users and less likely to be high computer users. Conversely, Canadian youth in medium and large metropolitan areas were less likely to be high television users and more likely to be high computer users. Parent and peer support did not strongly mediate the relationships between urban-rural status and screen time. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to reduce screen time may be most effective if they consider residential location and the specific screen time behavior. PMID:21565545

  5. EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS ON MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICE USE IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess empirically the influence of individual and community (neighbourhood) factors on the use of maternal health care services in India through three outcomes: utilization of full antenatal care (ANC) services, safe delivery and utilization of postnatal care services. Data were from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The study sample constituted ever-married women aged 15-49 from 29 Indian states. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed for the three outcomes of interest accounting for individual- and community-level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. A substantial amount of variation was observed at the community level. About 45%, 51% and 62% of the total variance in the use of full ANC, safe delivery and postnatal care, respectively, could be attributed to differences across the community. There was significant variation in the use of maternal health care services at the individual level, with socioeconomic status and mother's education being the most prominent factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. At the community level, urban residence and poverty concentration were found to be significantly associated with maternal health care service use. The results suggest that an increased focus on community-level interventions could lead to an increase in the utilization of maternal health care services in India.

  6. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  7. Secular trends in plume composition of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilanko, Tehnuka; Oppenheimer, Clive; Kyle, Philip; Burgisser, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Long-lived active lava lakes, such as that in the summit crater of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, provide a rare insight into sustained magma convection and degassing over long timescales. Erebus lava lake has been persistently active since 1972, and potentially for several decades or more previously (Ross, 1847). Since the 1970s, regular scientific expeditions, lasting a few weeks in the austral summers, have made observations of the lake activity. Annual Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic gas measurements began in 2004 (Oppenheimer and Kyle, 2008; Oppenheimer et al., 2009), yielding an extensive, if discontinuous, time series of infrared absorption spectra. These data, once processed, provide insights into temporal evolution of the gas geochemistry in terms of seven molecular species: H2O, CO2, CO, SO2, HCl, HF, and OCS. FTIR spectroscopic data are now available over ten field seasons, totalling roughly 1.8 million spectra and increasing each year. This period spans changes to crater morphology, fluctuations in lava lake surface area (Jones et al., 2014), and two episodes of increased explosive activity (2005-06 and 2013). The dataset captures both long-term degassing trends and short-lived features, such as cyclicity in gas emissions during passive degassing (Ilanko et al., 2015) and compositions released by explosive bubble-burst eruptions. We consider the longer-term changes to gas ratios occurring within (i.e. over days to weeks) and between annual field seasons, their potential causes, and their relationship to observations of eruptive behaviour and crater morphology.

  8. A validity assessment of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™.

    PubMed

    Desiere, Sam; Vellema, Wytse; D'Haese, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Development organisations need easy-to-use and quick-to-implement indicators to quantify poverty when requested to measure program impact. In this paper we assess the validity of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™, a country-specific indicator based on ten closed questions on directly observable household characteristics, by its compliance to the SMART criteria. Each response receives a pre-determined score, such that the sum of these scores can be converted into the likelihood the household is living below the poverty line. We focus on the PPI scorecard for Rwanda, which was validated using two national household surveys conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11. The PPI is Specific, Measurable, Available cost effectively, and Timely available. Yet, its Relevance depends on the way it is used. Although it accurately distinguishes poor from non-poor households, making it a useful reporting tool, its limited sensitivity to changes in poverty status restricts its usefulness for evaluating the impact of development projects.

  9. Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding practices are associated with child nutrition in India: insights from nationally representative data.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Bamezai, Apurva; Subandoro, Ali; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Aguayo, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are critical to child nutrition. The objective of this paper was to examine the associations between age-appropriate IYCF practices and child nutrition outcomes in India using data from ∼18 463 children of 0-23.9 months old from India's National Family Health Survey, 2005-06-3. The outcome measures were child height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), weight-for-height z-score, stunting, underweight and wasting. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used, accounting for the clustered survey data. Regression models were adjusted for child, maternal, and household characteristics, and state and urban/rural residence. The analyses indicate that in India suboptimal IYCF practices are associated with poor nutrition outcomes in children. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were not associated with any of the nutrition outcomes considered. Not consuming any solid or semi-solid foods at 6-8.9 months was associated with being underweight (P < 0.05). The diet diversity score and achieving minimum diet diversity (≥4 food groups) for children 6-23 months of age were most strongly and significantly associated with HAZ, WAZ, stunting and underweight (P < 0.05). Maternal characteristics were also strongly associated with child undernutrition. In summary, poor IYCF practices, particularly poor complementary foods and feeding practices, are associated with poor child nutrition outcomes in India, particularly linear growth.

  10. 2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

  11. Does living in slums or non-slums influence women's nutritional status? Evidence from Indian mega-cities.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Kirti; Keshri, Kunal; Joe, William

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the intra-city distribution of women's nutritional status across eight Indian mega-cities with a specific focus on slum-non-slum divide. The analysis is based on the National Family Health Survey (2005-06) of India and highlights the dual burden of malnutrition among urban women. The results show that one in every two women in mega-cities is malnourished (either undernourished or overnourished), but a biased, analytical focus on citywide averages conceals the nature of the problem. Overnutrition among women is notably higher in non-slum areas whereas underweight persists as a key concern among slum dwellers. Cities located in the Central India (Nagpur and Indore) have the highest proportion of underweight women whereas the cities in South India (Chennai and Hyderabad) show a high prevalence of overweight women across both slum and non-slum areas. The intensity of income-related inequalities in underweight outcome is much greater for non-slum areas, whereas inequalities in overweight outcomes are higher among slums. Furthermore, regression analysis indicates that place of residence as such has no significant impact on women's nutritional status and that this elementary association is primarily a ramification mediated through other key socioeconomic correlates. Results suggest that, it would be rational to develop a comprehensive urban nutritional plan that focuses on dietary planning and behaviour change to address both type of malnutrition at the same time.

  12. Assessment of dietary intake of 10 intense sweeteners by the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Mistura, Lorenza; Goscinny, Séverine; Janvier, Steven; Cuypers, Koenraad; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Catasta, Giovina; Ferrari, Marika; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Van Loco, Joris; Turrini, Aida

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the consumption of foods containing intense sweeteners present on the Italian food market and to investigate whether the Italian general population (aged >3-65+) was at risk for exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 10 intense sweeteners. A food label survey was performed in Rome (Italy), using market share data to identify the brands more representative of the market. A sample of 326 foods (table-top sweeteners included), beverages and food supplements containing intense sweeteners was collected and analyzed in order to establish the concentration levels. Intense sweeteners were only found in foods belonging to 8 sugar-free food categories out of 37 regulated. The dietary exposure was estimated using the tiered approach. Food consumption data from the last Italian national survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06) were combined with Maximum Levels at Tier 2, and with the actual concentration of sweeteners in the collected food products at Tier 3. The estimated exposure among consumers of sweeteners in Italy was well below the ADIs, in both tiers; non-alcoholic beverages, table-top sweeteners and food supplements were main contributors to exposure.

  13. Hydraulic performance of a permeable reactive barrier at Casey Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mumford, K A; Rayner, J L; Snape, I; Stevens, G W

    2014-12-01

    A permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed at Casey Station, Antarctica in 2005/06 to intercept, capture and degrade petroleum hydrocarbons from a decade old fuel spill. A funnel and gate configuration was selected and implemented. The reactive gate was split into five separate cells to enable the testing of five different treatment combinations. Although different treatment materials were used in each cell, each treatment combination contained the following reactive zones: a zone for the controlled release of nutrients to enhance degradation, a zone for hydrocarbon capture and enhanced degradation, and a zone to capture excess nutrients. The materials selected for each of these zones had other requirements, these included; not having any adverse impact on the environment, being permeable enough to capture the entire catchment flow, and having sufficient residence time to fully capture migrating hydrocarbons. Over a five year period the performance of the PRB was extensively monitored and evaluated for nutrient concentration, fuel retention and permeability. At the end of the five year test period the material located within the reactive gate was excavated, total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations present on the material determined and particle size analysis conducted. This work found that although maintaining media reactivity is obviously important, the most critical aspect of PRB performance is preserving the permeability of the barrier itself, in this case by maintaining appropriate particle size distribution. This is particularly important when PRBs are installed in regions that are subject to freeze thaw processes that may result in particle disintegration over time.

  14. A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yasmeen Majid; Khan, Asmat

    2012-09-01

    The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the nonagricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.

  15. Impact of a social-emotional and character development program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2(nd) ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai'i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently.

  16. Urban poverty and utilization of maternal and child health care services in India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ravi; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Drawing upon data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in India during 2005-06, this study compares the utilization of selected maternal and child health care services between the urban poor and non-poor in India and across selected Indian states. A wealth index was created, separately for urban areas, using Principal Component Analysis to identify the urban poor. The findings suggest that the indicators of maternal and child health care are worse among the urban poor than in their non-poor counterparts. For instance, the levels of antenatal care, safe delivery and childhood vaccinations are much lower among the urban poor than non-poor, especially in socioeconomically disadvantageous states. Among all the maternal and child health care indicators, the non-poor/poor difference is most pronounced for delivery care in the country and across the states. Other than poverty status, utilization of antenatal services by mothers increases the chances of safe delivery and child immunization at both national and sub-national levels. The poverty status of the household emerged as a significant barrier to utilization of health care services in urban India.

  17. The Annual Glaciohydrology Cycle in the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Part 2. Observed and Modeled Ice Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgan, William Terence; Rajaram, Harihar; Anderson, Robert S.; Steffen, Konrad; Zwally, H. Jay; Phillips, Thomas; Abdalati, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    Ice velocities observed in 2005/06 at three GPS stations along the Sermeq Avannarleq flowline, West Greenland, are used to characterize an observed annual velocity cycle. We attempt to reproduce this annual ice velocity cycle using a 1-D ice-flow model with longitudinal stresses coupled to a 1-D hydrology model that governs an empirical basal sliding rule. Seasonal basal sliding velocity is parameterized as a perturbation of prescribed winter sliding velocity that is proportional to the rate of change of glacier water storage. The coupled model reproduces the broad features of the annual basal sliding cycle observed along this flowline, namely a summer speed-up event followed by a fall slowdown event. We also evaluate the hypothesis that the observed annual velocity cycle is due to the annual calving cycle at the terminus. We demonstrate that the ice acceleration due to a catastrophic calving event takes an order of magnitude longer to reach CU/ETH ('Swiss') Camp (46km upstream of the terminus) than is observed. The seasonal acceleration observed at Swiss Camp is therefore unlikely to be the result of velocity perturbations propagated upstream via longitudinal coupling. Instead we interpret this velocity cycle to reflect the local history of glacier water balance.

  18. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results. PMID:26568665

  19. Racial/ethnic and gender differences among older adults in nonmonogamous partnerships, time spent single, and HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Leng, Mei; Kim, Junyeop; Cunningham, William Emery

    2011-01-01

    Background A higher frequency of nonmonogamy, due in part to lower marriage prevalence, may contribute to elevated HIV/STD rates among older Blacks. Methods To examine race and gender differences in nonmonogamy, time spent single (i.e., not married or cohabiting), and HIV testing in older adults, we analyzed U.S. population-based data from the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) for 2,825 heterosexual participants ages 57-85 years. Results Blacks spent greater portions of their adult lives single than did Hispanics or Whites and were far more likely to report recent nonmonogamous partnerships (23.4% vs. 10.0% and 8.2%). Among individuals reporting sex in the prior 5 years, nonmonogamous partnerships were strongly associated with time spent single during the period. Control for time spent single and other covariates reduced the association of Black race with nonmonogamous partnerships for men but increased it for women. Less than 20% reported ever testing for HIV; less than 6% had been recommended testing by a provider. Testing rates, highest in Black men and White women, differed little by history of nonmonogamous partnerships within gender strata. Conclusions Singlehood helps to explain higher nonmonogamous partnership rates in older Black men but not older Black women. Older adults rarely receive or are recommended HIV testing, a key strategy for reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22082721

  20. Volcanology and eruptive styles of Barren Island: an active mafic stratovolcano in the Andaman Sea, NE Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Kumar, Alok; Smitha, R. S.

    2009-11-01

    Barren Island (India) is a relatively little studied, little known active volcano in the Andaman Sea, and the northernmost active volcano of the great Indonesian arc. The volcano is built of prehistoric (possibly late Pleistocene) lava flows (dominantly basalt and basaltic andesite, with minor andesite) intercalated with volcaniclastic deposits (tuff breccias, and ash beds deposited by pyroclastic falls and surges), which are exposed along a roughly circular caldera wall. There are indications of a complete phreatomagmatic tephra ring around the exposed base of the volcano. A polygenetic cinder cone has existed at the centre of the caldera and produced basalt-basaltic andesite aa and blocky aa lava flows, as well as tephra, during historic eruptions (1787-1832) and three recent eruptions (1991, 1994-95, 2005-06). The recent aa flows include a toothpaste aa flow, with tilted and overturned crustal slabs carried atop an aa core, as well as locally developed tumuli-like elliptical uplifts having corrugated crusts. Based on various evidence we infer that it belongs to either the 1991 or the 1994-95 eruptions. The volcano has recently (2008) begun yet another eruption, so far only of tephra. We make significantly different interpretations of several features of the volcano than previous workers. This study of the volcanology and eruptive styles of the Barren Island volcano lays the ground for detailed geochemical-isotopic and petrogenetic work, and provides clues to what the volcano can be expected to do in the future.

  1. The impact of prenatal care quality on neonatal, infant and child mortality in Zimbabwe: evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    PubMed

    Makate, Marshall; Makate, Clifton

    2016-12-19

    The impact of the quality of prenatal care on child mortality outcomes has received less attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This study endeavoured to explore the effect of the quality of prenatal care and its individual components on neonatal, infant and under-five mortality. The empirical analysis uses data from the three most recent waves of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 1999, 2005/06 and 2010/11. The results indicate that a one-unit increase in the quality of prenatal care lowers the prospect of neonatal, infant and under-five mortality by approximately 42.33, 30.86 and 28.65%, respectively. These findings remained roughly the same even after adjusting for potential mediating factors. Examining the effect of individual prenatal care components on child mortality revealed that women who receive information on possible complications arising during pregnancy are less liable to experience a neonatal death. Similarly, women who had blood pressure checks and tetanus immunizations were less likely to experience an infant or under-five death. We did not find any statistically meaningful impact on child mortality outcomes of blood and urine sample checks, iron tablet consumption, and the receipt of malarial tablets. Overall, our results suggest the need for public health policymakers to focus on ensuring high-quality prenatal care to enhance the survival prospects of Zimbabwe's infants.

  2. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results.

  3. Examining inter-generational differentials in maternal health care service utilization: insights from the Indian Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the association between age cohort and utilization of maternal health care services in India, before and after adjusting for individual, household and contextual factors. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06, women were classified into three distinct age cohorts based on their age at childbirth: 15-24, 25-34 and 35-49 years. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the influence of women's age cohort on receiving full antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendance (SBA). The analytical sample included the women who delivered their most recent birth at any time in the 5 years preceding the survey. Women belonging to the younger age cohort were found to be disadvantaged in receiving full ANC, whereas increasing age of women was negatively associated with receiving SBA. Low level of education, low mass media exposure, low autonomy, belonging to deprived social groups, poor economic status and residence in the central region were found to be major constraining factors in receiving full ANC and SBA for women in India. The findings support the need for 'age-sensitive' interventions that tailor programmes and incentives to women's health care needs through the reproductive life-stage. Urgent efforts are needed to ensure that women who are illiterate and those belonging to low autonomy and low socioeconomic groups receive the recommended maternal health care benefits.

  4. Five year studies on suspended particulate matter and heavy metals trends in Brass City of India.

    PubMed

    Mahima; Pal, Raina; Singh, D; Tripathi, Anamika; Singh, G S

    2013-10-01

    Moradabad is historically an important city of western Uttar Pradesh which is popularly known as Brass City of India, as about one thousand large and small scale brassware industries are located in and around the city. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) was collected two times in a week using High Volume Samplers (HVS) at six selected sites representing different areas of the city. The result indicates the annual and seasonal variations of SPM from 2005-2010. The highest value (869 μg/m3) was recorded at industrial site, i.e. Mughalpura in June (2008-09) while lowest value (71 μg/m3) at PTC in the month of July (2005-06). Five heavy metals, i.e. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb were also observed at all the sites. Among the metals highest concentration of Zn were recorded at almost all the sites whereas Cu and Zn were found at industrial site, may be attributed to melting of Brass silly to prepare the different Brassware items. Pb and Cd were abundant at commercial site, located nearby Railway station as traffic density remains high during the day and night.

  5. Dopamine transporter comparative molecular modeling and binding site prediction using the LeuT(Aa) leucine transporter as a template.

    PubMed

    Indarte, Martín; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K

    2008-02-15

    Pharmacological and behavioral studies indicate that binding of cocaine and the amphetamines by the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein is principally responsible for initiating the euphoria and addiction associated with these drugs. The lack of an X-ray crystal structure for the DAT or any other member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family has hindered understanding of psychostimulant recognition at the atomic level; structural information has been obtained largely from mutagenesis and biophysical studies. The recent publication of a crystal structure for the bacterial leucine transporter LeuT(Aa), a distantly related NSS family homolog, provides for the first time a template for three-dimensional comparative modeling of NSS proteins. A novel computational modeling approach using the capabilities of the Molecular Operating Environment program MOE 2005.06 in conjunction with other comparative modeling servers generated the LeuT(Aa)-directed DAT model. Probable dopamine and amphetamine binding sites were identified within the DAT model using multiple docking approaches. Binding sites for the substrate ligands (dopamine and amphetamine) overlapped substantially with the analogous region of the LeuT(Aa) crystal structure for the substrate leucine. The docking predictions implicated DAT side chains known to be critical for high affinity ligand binding and suggest novel mutagenesis targets in elucidating discrete substrate and inhibitor binding sites. The DAT model may guide DAT ligand QSAR studies, and rational design of novel DAT-binding therapeutics.

  6. Stream-water quality during storm-runoff events and low-flow periods in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Fuller, Lori M.

    2007-01-01

    This report, a product of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project, describes four water-quality studies in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin from the early 1970's through 2005. All the studies examined water quality of streams in the basin; the most recent studies focused primarily on water quality during high- and low-streamflows. This report explains how storm-runoff and low-flow periods affect water quality in the basin. Included is a summary of stream-water quality findings from the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (1973-95); the National Water-Quality Assessment (1996-98); the Oakland County Land-Use Change study (2001-03); and the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (2004-05).

  7. Evaluation of capillary blood glucose versus a high-risk questionnaire for screening for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Baghli, N A; Al-Turki, K A; Al-Ghamdi, A J; Prasad, K; Taha, A Z; Al-Almaie, S M

    2012-12-04

    This study compared 2 screening tests for detecting undiagnosed diabetes mellitus when applied in a mass-screening campaign in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in 2004-05. Of 15 082 individuals screened, 65.8% were positive by the American Diabetes Association risk-score questionnaire and 71.3% by determination of capillary blood glucose (CBG) using a portable glucometer. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was confirmed in 20.3% of participants and pre-diabetes in 33.9% using fasting venous blood testing. The risk-score questionnaire did not perform well versus fasting and random CBG. Optimal cut-offs for fasting and random CBG were 120 mg/dL and 160 mg/dL respectively. Fasting CBG had higher sensitivity, specificity and discriminating ability than random CBG for detection of diabetes and pre-diabetes in this population.

  8. Data on Mercury in Water, Bed Sediment, and Fish from Streams Across the United States, 1998-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Chasar, Lia C.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Moran, Patrick W.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Wentz, Dennis A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) and Toxic Substances Hydrology Programs conducted the National Mercury Pilot Study in 1998 to examine relations of mercury (Hg) in water, bed sediment and fish in streams across the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and other constituents; fish were analyzed for THg. Similar sampling was conducted at additional streams across the country in 2002 and 2004-05. This report summarizes sample collection and processing protocols, analytical methods, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for stream water, bed sediment, and fish for these national studies. To extend the geographic coverage of the data, this report also includes four regional USGS Hg studies conducted during 1998-2001 and 2004. The environmental data for these national and regional Hg studies are provided in an electronic format.

  9. Varicella routine vaccination and the effects on varicella epidemiology – results from the Bavarian Varicella Surveillance Project (BaVariPro), 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiology were investigated. Methods Data on varicella vaccinations, cases and complications were collected from annual parent surveys (2006-2011), monthly paediatric practice surveillance (Oct 2006 - Sep 2011; five varicella seasons) and paediatric hospital databases (2005-2009) in the area of Munich (about 238,000 paediatric inhabitants); annual incidences of cases and hospitalisations were estimated. Results Varicella vaccination coverage (1st dose) in children 18-36 months of age increased in two steps (38%, 51%, 53%, 53%, 66% and 68%); second-dose coverage reached 59% in the 2011 survey. A monthly mean of 82 (62%) practices participated; they applied a total of 50,059 first-dose and 40,541 second-dose varicella vaccinations, with preferential use of combined MMR-varicella vaccine after recommendation of two doses, and reported a total of 16,054 varicella cases <17 years of age. The mean number of cases decreased by 67% in two steps, from 6.6 (95%CI 6.1-7.0) per 1,000 patient contacts in season 2006/07 to 4.2 (95%CI 3.9-4.6) in 2007/08 and 4.0 (95%CI 3.6-4.3) in 2008/09, and further to 2.3 (95%CI 2.0-2.6) in 2009/10 and 2.2 (95%CI 1.9-2.5) in 2010/11. The decrease occurred in all paediatric age groups, indicating herd protection effects. Incidence of varicella was estimated as 78/1,000 children <17 years of age in 2006/07, and 19/1,000 in 2010/11. Vaccinated cases increased from 0.3 (95%0.2-0.3) per 1,000 patient contacts in 2006/07 to 0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.5) until 2008/09 and decreased to 0.2 (95%CI 0.2-0.3) until 2010/11. The practices treated a total of 134 complicated cases, mainly with skin complications. The paediatric hospitals recorded a total of 178 varicella patients, including 40 (22.5%) with neurological complications and one (0.6%) fatality due

  10. The pervasive effects of racism: experiences of racial discrimination in New Zealand over time and associations with multiple health domains.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-02-01

    Self-reported experience of racial discrimination has been linked to a range of health outcomes in various countries and for different ethnic groups. This study builds on previous work in New Zealand to further investigate the prevalence of self-reported experience of racial discrimination by ethnicity, changes over time and associations with multiple health measures. The study uses data from the 2002/03 (n=12,500) and 2006/07 (n=12,488) New Zealand Health Surveys, nationally representative population-based surveys of adults (15+ years). Reported experience of racial discrimination was measured in both surveys and covered 5 items: experience of an ethnically motivated physical or verbal attack; and unfair treatment because of ethnicity by a health professional, in work, or when gaining housing. Ethnicity was classified as Maori, Pacific, Asian or European. Health indicators included measures of: mental health (SF36 mental health scale, psychological distress, doctor diagnosed mental health condition); physical health (self-rated health, SF36 physical functioning scale, cardiovascular disease); and health risk (smoking, hazardous drinking, excess body fat). Logistic regression was used to examine changes in prevalence of reported experience of racial discrimination over time and associations with health. Reported experience of racial discrimination increased between 2002/03 (28.1% ever) and 2006/07 (35.0% ever) among Asian peoples but remained largely unchanged for other ethnic groupings (Maori 29.5%, Pacific 23.0%, European 13.5%). Experience of racial discrimination was associated with all negative health measures except excess body fat. Where there were significant associations, a dose-response relationship was also evident. We conclude that racial discrimination experienced across a range of settings has the potential to impact on a wide range of health outcomes and risk factors. While ongoing research is needed to understand the multifarious nature of racism

  11. Some seasonal characteristics in atmospheric methane concentration in the beginning of the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Anna; Ginzburg, Alexander; Fedorova, Evgeniya

    2010-05-01

    Global average value of atmospheric methane concentrations have been increasing during the XX century, but this growth nearly stopped with the beginning of the 2000th. Such "stable" situation is the proper time for studying the seasonal cycle and extreme changes of air methane concentration. One of the most interesting periods for such investigations is autumn and winter 2006/07 [1] when a number of weather abnormalities (warm air temperature up to above 0°C, almost permanent cloudiness and absence of snow cover, and so on) in Moscow region created very specific conditions for air methane existence. Temporal variations in air methane concentration within the Moscow city have been studied using the data of observations at 12 stations of Moscow municipal environmental monitoring agency "Mosecomonitoring" in 2004-2008 [2]. It was found that near-surface air concentration of methane was much higher this time than few years before and after. The values of cold season methane concentrations in Moscow region have been compared with similar data measured in the North of Kola Peninsula (at WMO GAW station "Teriberka"), in the Sankt Petersburg region (the two stations of Roshydromet), in Finland and Hungary (the stations of NOAA GMD Carbon Cycle Sampling Network). Winter maxima (more or less) of methane concentrations were revealed almost each year at all these stations, but not everywhere they were simultaneous and as high as those had been found in Moscow. The reasons of winter 2006/07 high methane concentrations in Moscow and other regions of Northern Eurasia may be special weather conditions which could cause both decrease of air methane sinks and increase of methane emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Perhaps, the late growth of global atmospheric methane concentration after 2007 [3] was partly produced by those seasonal anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere. References: 1. E. Fedorova, A. Ginzburg, A. Vinogradova. Seasonal variations of atmospheric

  12. Obesity Metaphors: How Beliefs about the Causes of Obesity Affect Support for Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Colleen L; Brescoll, Victoria L; Brownell, Kelly D; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Context: Relatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesity rates. This article identifies a unique role of metaphor-based beliefs, as distinct from conventional political attitudes, in explaining support for obesity policies. Methods: This article used the Yale Rudd Center Public Opinion on Obesity Survey, a nationally representative web sample surveyed from the Knowledge Networks panel in 2006/07 (N = 1,009). The study examines how respondents' demographic and health characteristics, political attitudes, and agreement with seven obesity metaphors affect support for sixteen policies to reduce obesity rates. Findings: Including obesity metaphors in regression models helps explain public support for policies to curb obesity beyond levels attributable solely to demographic, health, and political characteristics. The metaphors that people use to understand rising obesity rates are strong predictors of support for public policy, and their influence varies across different types of policy interventions. Conclusions: Over the last five years, the United States has begun to grapple with the implications of dramatically escalating rates of obesity. Individuals use metaphors to better understand increasing rates of obesity, and obesity metaphors are independent and powerful predictors of support for public policies to curb obesity. Metaphorical reasoning also offers a potential framework for using strategic issue framing to shift support for obesity policies. PMID:19298414

  13. The Impact of Integrating Crisis Teams into Community Mental Health Services on Emergency Department and Inpatient Demand.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Sean; Lawman, Bronwyn; Reed, Fiona; Hawke, Kari; Plummer, Virginia; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J

    2016-12-01

    This investigation focused on the impact of integrating crisis team members into community mental health services on emergency department and adult mental health inpatient unit demand within an Australian public health service. Mixed methods were used including (a) the comparison of service use data with that of two other comparable services (both of which had community-based crisis teams), (b) surveys of (i) patients and carers and (ii) staff, and (c) focus groups with staff. The numbers of emergency department presentations with mental health conditions and adult mental health inpatient separations increased 13.9 and 5.7 %, respectively, from FY2006/07 to FY2012/13. Between the three services, there were minimal differences in the percentages of presentations with mental health conditions, the distribution of mental health presentations across a 24-h period, and the triage categories assigned to these patients. Survey participants reported that patients used the emergency department due to the urgency of situations, perceptions that gaining access to mental health services would take less time, and the unavailability of mental health services when help is needed. Staff identified several issues (e.g. inappropriate referrals) that may be unnecessary in increasing emergency department demand. The integration of crisis team members into community mental health services does not seem to have produced an increase in emergency department admissions or inpatient separations beyond what might be expected from population growth. The potential may exist, however, to reduce emergency department admissions through addressing the issue of inappropriate referrals.

  14. Determining the validity and reliability of clinical communication assessment tools for dental patients and students.

    PubMed

    Schönwetter, Dieter J; Wener, Mickey Emmons; Mazurat, Nita

    2012-10-01

    A shortcoming identified in the dental education literature is the scarcity of patient assessment of the quality of communication between student clinicians and patients. This study, the second in a series, attempts to address this scarcity by testing the communication components deemed critical to patients identified in the first article. Two instruments were tested: the Patient Communication Assessment Instrument (PCAI) and the Student Communication Assessment Instrument (SCAI). Item-to-total correlations and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was examined through principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation using a total of 820 participants (410 patients and 410 students), who completed communication skills questionnaires collected in the 2006-07 school year as part of dental and dental hygiene clinical courses. Each component in the assessment instruments demonstrated internal consistency (alpha range=0.779-0.960). Based on a principal components analysis, six new factors were found to be significantly associated with communication skills: being caring and respectful, sharing information, interacting with team members, tending to comfort, professional relationship-building, and appointment preparation/follow-up. Correlational analysis demonstrated a core of critical instrument items to be considered for future assessment of the quality of communication between student clinicians and patients. Adequate estimates of reliability and validity for the PCAI and SCAI were demonstrated. Further research is needed in other countries and cultures to test and confirm the constructs.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of the AFWA-NASA (ANSA) Blended Snow-Cover Product over the Lower Great Lakes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Riggs, George A.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Montesano, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) - NASA (ANSA) blended-snow product utilizes EOS standard snow products from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) to map daily snow cover and snow-water equivalent (SWE) globally. We have compared ANSA-derived SWE. with SWE values calculated from snow depths reported at approx.1500 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) coop stations in the Lower Great Lakes basin. Our preliminary results show that conversion of snow depth to SWE is very sensitive to the choice of snow density (we used either 0.2 or 03 as conversion factors). We found overall better agreement between the ANSA-derived SWE and the co-op station data when we use a snow density of 0.3 to convert the snow depths to SWE. In addition, we show that the ANSA underestimates SWE in densely-forested areas, using January and February 2008 ANSA and co-op data. Furthermore, apparent large SWE changes from one day to the next may be caused by thaw-re-freeze events, and do not always represent a real change in SWE. In the near future we will continue the analysis in the 2006-07 and 2007-08 snow seasons.

  16. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation.

  17. Drop-out and admission cancel rate among the students in a selected medical college.

    PubMed

    Wahed, F; Latif, S A; Mahamud, M M; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Sultana, S Z; Hossain, M B

    2011-04-01

    A record based descriptive type of study was carried out among the under-graduate students of Mymensingh Medical College from the session 1966-67 to 2006-07. The academic years were divided into four decades and admission was followed into three categories such as retained, cancellation and drop-out. Total number of the students was 5892. Among them 3848(65.30%) were male and 2044(34.69%) were female. Out of 5892 students drop-out was 282(4.78%) and admission cancel was 304(5.15%). It was also found that drop-out in male was 232(6.02%) and in female was 50(2.44%) and admission cancel in male was 266(5.87%) and in female was 78(3.81%). The difference was found statistically significant (p<0.001). It was observed that gradually the drop-out and admission cancel rate is decreasing from the very beginning to till now. It was also observed that all drop-out and admission cancellation were in first & second year students. There was no continuation of their class roll numbers in third year registration.

  18. Design of a Web Page as a complement of educative innovation through MOODLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendiola Ubillos, M. A.; Aguado Cortijo, Pedro L.

    2010-05-01

    In the context of Information Technology to impart knowledge and to establish MOODLE system as a support and complementary tool to on-site educational methodology (b-learning) a Web Page was designed in Agronomic and Food Industry Crops (Plantas de interés Agroalimentario) during 2006-07 course. This web was inserted in the Thecnical University of Madrid (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid) computer system to facilitate to the students the first contact with the contents of this subject. In this page the objectives and methodology, personal work planning, subject program given plus the activities are showed. At another web site, the evaluation criteria and recommended bibliography are located. The objective of this web page has been to make more transparent and accessible the necessary information in the learning process and presenting it in a more attractive frame. This page has been update and modified in each academic course offered since its first implementation. We had added in some cases new specific links to increase its useful. At the end of each course a test is applied to the students that take this subject. We have asked which elements would like to modify, delete and add to this web page. In this way the direct users give their point of view and help to improve the web page each course.

  19. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Rásky, Éva; Großschädl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  20. Dynamics investigation in the Venus upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, A.; Altieri, F.; Shakun, A.; Zasova, L.; Piccioni, G.; Bellucci, G.

    The O_2 nightglow emissions in the infrared spectral range are important features to investigate dynamics at the mesospheric altitudes, in the planetary atmosphere. In this work, we analyzed the profiles obtained at limb by the VIRTIS spectrometer on board the Venus Express mission, acquired during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15 to investigate possible gravity waves characteristics at the airglow altitudes. Indeed, several profiles present double peaked structures that can be interpreted as due to gravity waves. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O_2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation, in order to support this thesis and derive the waves properties. We discuss results from 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, focusing on vertical wavelength and wave amplitude of the possible gravity waves. On average, the double peaked profiles are compatible with the effects of gravity waves with a vertical wavelength ranging between 7 and 16 km, and wave amplitude of 3-14%. A comparison with gravity waves properties in the Mars and Earth's atmospheres, using the same theory, is also proposed \\citep{altieri_2014}. \\ The research is supported by ASI (contract ASI-INAF I/050/10/0).

  1. Gravity waves study from the nighglow emissions in the Venus upper atmosphere observed by VIRTIS-Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Zasova, Ludmila; Shakun, Alexey; Altieri, Francesca; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    The O _{2} nightglow emissions in the infrared spectral range are important features to investigate dynamics at the mesospheric altitudes, in the Venus atmosphere. We analyzed the profiles obtained at limb by the VIRTIS spectrometer on board the Venus Express mission, acquired during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15. Several profiles present double peaked structures that can be interpreted as due to gravity waves. In analogy to the Earth’s and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O _{2} nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation, in order to support this thesis and derive the waves properties. In the present work, we discus the gravity waves characteristics, namely vertical wavelength and wave amplitude, with respect to local time and latitude. The method is applied to about 30 profiles showing double peaked structures. On average, the double peaked profiles are compatible with the effects of gravity waves with a vertical wavelength ranging between 7 and 16 km, and wave amplitude of 3-14%. A comparison with gravity waves properties in the Mars and Earth’s atmospheres, using the same theory, is also proposed.

  2. Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: what female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization.

  3. Income and nutritional status of the fishing community residing in coastal bay of Bengal: a case study.

    PubMed

    Pal, Baidyanath; Chattopadhyay, Manabendu; Maity, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Barun; Gupta, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    This is part of a project on the disadvantaged, marginalized, vulnerable/weaker section of the population and their survival strategy. The paper presents the results of a survey carried out during 2006-07 with the objective of throwing light on the life and living conditions of an economically weaker community such as 'fishing community' residing in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal in West Bengal and Orissa, India, in the context of global scenario. Various scientists have conducted quite a large number of studies to ascertain the income and nutritional status of people in rural India. Very few attempts, however, have been made to investigate in detail regarding the living standards of some specific communities, which are very often referred to, as the 'weaker section' of the people. The people belonging to fishing community are, by and large, not only economically weak in terms of earning and availability of work, the majority of them are not able to procure the minimum nourishment. The present study shows that some notable elements of living conditions such as food, shelter, health etc. matters much more than the conventional income or calorie deficiency. Commonly, the social scientists equate poverty with income or calorie deficiency which may not be the case as is evident from this study. We have hinted some measures to be undertaken to ameliorate the sufferings of the fishing community.

  4. Examining the dimensions and correlates of workplace stress among Australian veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although stress is known to be a common occupational health issue in the veterinary profession, few studies have investigated its broad domains or the internal validity of the survey instrument used for assessment. Methods We analysed data from over 500 veterinarians in Queensland, Australia, who were surveyed during 2006-07. Results The most common causes of stress were reported to be long hours worked per day, not having enough holidays per year, not having enough rest breaks per day, the attitude of customers, lack of recognition from the public and not having enough time per patient. Age, gender and practice type were statistically associated with various aspects of work-related stress. Strong correlations were found between having too many patients per day and not having enough time per patient; between not having enough holidays and long working hours; and also between not enough rest breaks per day and long working hours. Factor analysis revealed four dimensions of stress comprising a mixture of career, professional and practice-related items. The internal validity of our stress questionnaire was shown to be high during statistical analysis. Conclusion Overall, this study suggests that workplace stress is fairly common among Australian veterinarians and represents an issue that occupies several distinct areas within their professional life. PMID:19995450

  5. Early diffusion of gene expression profiling in breast cancer patients associated with areas of high income inequality.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ninez A; Ko, Michelle; Liang, Su-Ying; Armstrong, Joanne; Toscano, Michele; Chanfreau-Coffinier, Catherine; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-04-01

    With the Affordable Care Act reducing coverage disparities, social factors could prominently determine where and for whom innovations first diffuse in health care markets. Gene expression profiling is a potentially cost-effective innovation that guides chemotherapy decisions in early-stage breast cancer, but adoption has been uneven across the United States. Using a sample of commercially insured women, we evaluated whether income inequality in metropolitan areas was associated with receipt of gene expression profiling during its initial diffusion in 2006-07. In areas with high income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was higher than elsewhere, but it was associated with a 10.6-percentage-point gap between high- and low-income women. In areas with low rates of income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was lower, with no significant differences by income. Even among insured women, income inequality may indirectly shape diffusion of gene expression profiling, with benefits accruing to the highest-income patients in the most unequal places. Policies reducing gene expression profiling disparities should address low-inequality areas and, in unequal places, practice settings serving low-income patients.

  6. Exploring the Potential of a School Impact on Pupil Weight Status: Exploratory Factor Analysis and Repeat Cross-Sectional Study of the National Child Measurement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew James; Wyatt, Katrina M.; Williams, Craig A.; Logan, Stuart; Henley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Schools are common sites for obesity prevention interventions. Although many theories suggest that the school context influences weight status, there has been little empirical research. The objective of this study was to explore whether features of the school context were consistently and meaningfully associated with pupil weight status (overweight or obese). Exploratory factor analysis of routinely collected data on 319 primary schools in Devon, England, was used to identify possible school-based contextual factors. Repeated cross-sectional multilevel analysis of five years (2006/07-2010/11) of data from the National Child Measurement Programme was then used to test for consistent and meaningful associations. Four school-based contextual factors were derived which ranked schools according to deprivation, location, resource and prioritisation of physical activity. None of which were meaningfully and consistently associated with pupil weight status, across the five years. The lack of consistent associations between the factors and pupil weight status suggests that the school context is not inherently obesogenic. In contrast, incorporating findings from education research indicates that schools may be equalising weight status, and obesity prevention research, policy and practice might need to address what is happening outside schools and particularly during the school holidays. PMID:26700027

  7. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  8. Water-level altitudes 2007 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper Aquifers and compaction 1973-2006 in the Chicot and Evangeline Aquifers, Houston-Galveston Region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2007-01-01

    This report, done in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, the City of Houston, the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports that depicts water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, and compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston, Texas, region. The report contains 18 sheets and 17 tables: 3 sheets are maps showing current-year (2007) water-level altitudes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 1-year (2006-07) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 5-year (2002-07) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 4 sheets are maps showing long-term (1990-2007 and 1977-2007) water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, respectively; 1 sheet is a map showing long-term (2000-2007) water-level change for the Jasper aquifer; 2 sheets are revisions of previously published water-level-altitude maps for the Jasper aquifer for 2000 and 2002, respectively; 1 sheet is a map showing site locations of borehole extensometers; and 1 sheet comprises graphs showing measured compaction of subsurface material at the sites from 1973 or later through 2006, respectively. Tables listing the data used to construct the aquifer-data maps and the compaction graphs also are included.

  9. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  10. Women's and men's career choices in astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand gender differences in persistence and attrition from astronomy and physics, the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students follows a cohort of people who were graduate students in astronomy or astrophysics during 2006-07. The first survey was conducted during 2007-08 and the second during 2012-13, when many of the respondents had left graduate school and were working. For respondents who had completed PhDs and were not postdocs, we tested the effects of four major concepts on attrition from physics and astronomy. These concepts included: the imposter syndrome, mentoring and advising during graduate school, work-family balance, and being female. We hypothesized that women would be more likely than men to work outside of astronomy and physics. However, results from the study show that there is no direct independent effect of being female on attrition. Rather, women are more likely to leave astronomy because they are more likely than men to (1) experience difficulties related to the need to find a job for a spouse or partner in the same geographical area, and (2) report less than satisfactory advising during graduate school. This research identifies specific areas of concern that can be addressed by the scientific community to increase the retention of all people, but especially women, in astronomy, physics, and related fields. Funded by National Science Foundation AST-1347723.

  11. Using community triage centres or non-traditional care facilities during a flu pandemic or other infectious disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Bone, Eric; Grono, Shawn; Johnson, David H; Johnson, Marcia

    2008-04-01

    One assumption of pandemic planning is that, during an influenza outbreak, acute care facilities may be quickly overrun with patients and as such must prepare in advance. In order to operationalise one component of a pandemic plan, Capital Health in Edmonton, Alberta, piloted a mobile triage centre facility (portable isolation containment systems) and tested pandemic influenza triage and assessment guidelines in the winter of 2006-07. The mobile model provided emergency department surge capacity for communicable disease emergencies with scalable deployment capabilities. The deployable module has several advantages over a fixed structure like a community facility. The triage facility is a location for short-term treatments, such as intravenous therapy, prescriptions, medication distribution, and self-care education, which are needed during a pandemic influenza outbreak. Decanting infectious patients away from the emergency department protects a highly-vulnerable hospitalised group from viral transmission. Based on the pilot, it is found that community triage centres are a viable support option for emergency departments in an urban setting during pandemic influenza.

  12. Improving medical student attitudes toward older patients through a "council of elders" and reflective writing experience.

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Glenda R; Counsell, Steven R; Sennour, Youcef; Schubert, Cathy C; Frank, Kathryn I; Wu, Jingwei; Frankel, Richard M; Litzelman, Debra K; Bogdewic, Stephen P; Inui, Thomas S

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to reduce "agism" which is prevalent among medical trainees, a new geriatrics educational experience for medical students aimed at improving attitudes toward older patients was developed. Each 90-minute Older Adult Session included four components: initial reflective writing exercise; introduction to the session; 75-minute dialogue with the "Council of Elders," a group of active, "well" older adults; and final reflective writing exercise. The new session was provided to 237 first- and second-year medical students during the 2006/07 academic year at Indiana University School of Medicine. Session evaluation included comparing scores on the 14-item Geriatrics Attitude Scale administered before and after the session, identifying attitude changes in the reflective writing exercises, and a student satisfaction survey. Student responses on the Geriatrics Attitude Scale after the session were significantly improved in seven of 14 items, demonstrating better attitudes toward being with and listening to older people and caring for older patients. Analysis of the reflective writings revealed changing of negative to positive or reinforced positive attitudes in 27% of medical students, with attitudes not discernable in the remaining 73% (except one student, in whom positive attitudes changed to negative). Learner satisfaction with the Older Adult Session was high, with 98% agreeing that the session had a positive effect on insight into the care of older adults. A Council of Elders coupled with a reflective writing exercise is a promising new approach to improving attitudes of medical students toward their geriatric patients.

  13. [Use of simulation-based methodologies for teaching and learning in Portuguese medical schools].

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Ana; Campos, D Ayres de; Bernardes, João

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of medical simulation is for students and healthcare professionals to learn, individually or as team members. A questionnaire was developed on the use of medical simulators or simulation-based techniques applied to Medicine, and sent to the directors of all medical schools in Portugal (n = 7). The aim was to contribute to a better understanding of teaching through the use of simulation applied to Medicine. In the curricular year of 2006-07 all medical schools used simulators, or techniques of medical simulation, in their pre-graduate training in Medicine. A small number of other initiatives in pre-and post-graduate medical training were also reported. Despite these activities, there is still a large potential for expansion of simulation-based teaching methodologies in Portuguese medical schools. The growing number of students admitted to medical courses, together with the increase in medico-legal conflicts, leads to a need for curricular developments and adjustments in teaching methodologies.

  14. Predictors of the Existence of Congregational HIV Programs: Similarities and Differences Compared with Other Health Programs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Malcolm V.; Haas, Ann; Griffin, Beth Ann; Fulton, Brad; Kanouse, David E.; Bogart, Laura M.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identify and compare predictors of the existence of congregational HIV and other health programs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting United States. Participants A nationally-representative sample of 1,506 U.S. congregations surveyed in the National Congregations Study (2006-07). Measures Key informants at each congregation completed in-person and telephone interviews on congregational HIV and other health programs and various congregation characteristics (response rate = 78%). County-level HIV prevalence and population health data from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's 2007 County Health Rankings were linked to the congregational data. Analysis Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors that predict congregational health programs relative to no health programs; and of HIV programs relative to other health activities. Results Most congregations (57.5%) had at least one health-related program; many fewer (5.7%) had an HIV program. Predictors of health vs. HIV programs differed. The number of adults in the congregation was a key predictor of health programs, while having an official statement welcoming gay persons was a significant predictor of HIV programs (p<.05). Other significant characteristics varied by size of congregation and type of program (HIV vs. other health). Conclusion Organizations interested in partnering with congregations to promote health or prevent HIV should consider congregational size as well as other factors that predict involvement. Results of this study can inform policy interventions to increase the capacity of religious congregations to address HIV and health. PMID:25162322

  15. Evolution of match performance parameters for various playing positions in the English Premier League.

    PubMed

    Bush, Michael; Barnes, Chris; Archer, David T; Hogg, Bob; Bradley, Paul S

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate position-specific evolution of physical and technical performance parameters in the English Premier League (EPL). Match performance observations (n=14700) were collected using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system across seven seasons (2006-07 to 2012-13). Data were analyzed relative to five playing positions: central defenders (n=3792), full backs (n=3420), central midfielders (n=3200), wide midfielders (n=2136) and attackers (n=2152). High-intensity running distance increased in the final season versus the first season in all playing positions (p<.05, ES: 0.9-1.3) with full backs displaying the greatest increase (∼36% higher in 2012-13). Similar trends were observed for sprint distance with full backs demonstrating the most pronounced increase across the seven seasons (36-63%, p<.001, ES: 0.8-1.3). Central players (central defenders and midfielders) illustrated the most pronounced increases in total passes and pass success rate (p<.05, ES: 0.7-0.9) whilst wide players (full backs and wide midfielders) demonstrated only small-moderate increases in total passes and pass success rate (p<.05, ES: 0.6-0.8). The data demonstrates that evolving tactics in the EPL have impacted on the physical demands of wide players and the technical requirements of central players. These findings could be used for talent identification or position-specific physical and technical training.

  16. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  17. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  18. Design for a region-wide adaptive search for the ivorybilled woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Mordecai, Rua S.; Mattsson, B.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Pacifici, K.; Peterson, J.T.; Moore, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a survey design and field protocol for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) search effort that will: (1) allow estimation of occupancy, use, and detection probability for habitats at two spatial scales within the bird?s former range, (2) assess relationships between occupancy, use, and habitat characteristics at those scales, (3) eventually allow the development of a population viability model that depends on patch occupancy instead of difficult-to-measure demographic parameters, and (4) be adaptive, allowing newly collected information to update the above models and search locations. The approach features random selection of patches to be searched from a sampling frame stratified and weighted by patch quality, and requires multiple visits per patch. It is adaptive within a season in that increased search activity is allowed in and around locations of strong visual and/or aural evidence, and adaptive among seasons in that habitat associations allow modification of stratum weights. This statistically rigorous approach is an improvement over simply visiting the ?best? habitat in an ad hoc fashion because we can learn from prior effort and modify the search accordingly. Results from the 2006-07 search season indicate weak relationships between occupancy and habitat (although we suggest modifications of habitat measurement protocols), and a very low detection probability, suggesting more visits per patch are required. Sample size requirements will be discussed.

  19. Diet of a piscivorous seabird reveals spatiotemporal variation in abundance of forage fishes in the Monterey Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Lisa A.; Harvey, James T.

    2015-06-01

    Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) diet was investigated using regurgitated pellets (n = 285) collected on 19 sampling days at three locations during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 nonbreeding seasons in the Monterey Bay region. The efficacy of using nested sieves and the all-structure technique to facilitate prey detection in the pellets was evaluated, but this method did not increase prey enumeration and greatly decreased efficiency. Although 29 prey species were consumed, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) dominated and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus) also was important in the diet. Few rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) and market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) were consumed compared with great prevalence in previous studies during the 1970s. El Niño and La Niña during the study provided a unique opportunity to examine predator response to variation in prey availability. Patterns of prey number and diversity were not consistent among locations. Greatest number and diversity of prey occurred at locations within Monterey Bay during La Niña, results not evident at the outer coast location. Short-term specialization occurred but mean prey diversity indicated a generalist feeding mode. This study demonstrated the importance of periodic sampling at multiple locations within a region to detect spatiotemporal variability in the diet of opportunistic generalists.

  20. Investigating gravity waves evidences in the Venus upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Altieri, Francesca; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Grassi, Davide

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to investigate gravity waves properties in the upper mesosphere of Venus, through the O2 nightglow observations acquired with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS on board Venus Express. Gravity waves are important dynamical features that transport energy and momentum. They are related to the buoyancy force, which lifts air particles. Then, the vertical displacement of air particles produces density changes that cause gravity to act as restoring force. Gravity waves can manifest through fluctuations on temperature and density fields, and hence on airglow intensities. We use the O2 nightglow profiles showing double peaked structures to study the influence of gravity waves in shaping the O2 vertical profiles and infer the waves properties. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation. Here we propose a statistical discussion of the gravity waves characteristics, namely vertical wavelength and wave amplitude, with respect to local time and latitude. The method is applied to about 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, and acquired with the VIRTIS/Venus Express spectrometer, during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15.

  1. Effects of 5 rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on filaria-specific IgG4 titers in urine: 6-year follow-up study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Makoto; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Takagi, Hidekazu; Samarawickrema, Wilfred A; Nagaoka, Fumiaki; Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-12-01

    ELISA for filaria-specific IgG4 in urine (urine ELISA) was applied to children in 7 schools in Sri Lanka, before and after 5 rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA). The pre-treatment IgG4 prevalence in 2002 was 3.20%, which decreased to 0.91% in 2003 after the first MDA (P<0.001), and finally to 0.36% in 2007 after the 5th MDA. Among 5-10 year-old children, the prevalence decreased from 3.37% in 2002 to 0.51% in 2003 (P=0.009). A pattern of IgG4 titer distribution according to age and its yearly change could also provide useful information in drug efficacy analysis. In 2008, new samples from eleven 2006/07 urine ELISA-positive students and their family members (total n=56) were examined by ICT antigen test, microfilaria test, and urine ELISA. No infection was confirmed among them. Urine ELISA will be useful in monitoring elimination/resurgence in a post-MDA low endemic situation.

  2. An agricultural drought index to incorporate the irrigation process and reservoir operations: A case study in the Tarim River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zehua; Hao, Zhenchun; Shi, Xiaogang; Déry, Stephen J.; Li, Jieyou; Chen, Sichun; Li, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    To help the decision making process and reduce climate change impacts, hydrologically-based drought indices have been used to determine drought severity in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) over the past decades. As the major components of the surface water balance, however, the irrigation process and reservoir operations have not been incorporated into drought indices in previous studies. Therefore, efforts are needed to develop a new agricultural drought index, which is based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module. The new drought index was derived from the simulated soil moisture data from a retrospective VIC simulation from 1961 to 2007 over the irrigated area in the TRB. The physical processes in the coupled VIC model allow the new agricultural drought index to take into account a wide range of hydrologic processes including the irrigation process and reservoir operations. Notably, the irrigation process was found to dominate the surface water balance and drought evolution in the TRB. Furthermore, the drought conditions identified by the new agricultural drought index presented a good agreement with the historical drought events that occurred in 1993-94, 2004, and 2006-07, respectively. Moreover, the spatial distribution of coupled VIC model outputs using the new drought index provided detailed information about where and to what extent droughts occurred.

  3. Brittle fractures in AND-1B core, McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica: A record of Neogene rifting or glaciotectonic deformation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T.; Paulsen, T.; Millan, C.; Lauefer, A.; McKay, R.; Team, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The ANDRILL geological drilling program retrieved a 1285-m-long core (AND1B) from beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, in 2006-07. The drillsite is inferred to lie within the Terror Rift, a regional Neogene rift basin in the western Ross Sea, hence normal faulting and related tectonic deformation is expected to be present in the core. Sequence stratigraphic analysis has identified ~60 unconformity-bounded cycles in the core, with each base interpreted to mark erosion and subglacial deposition by an advancing Ross Ice Sheet, hence glaciotectonic deformation is also expected in the core. Systematic fracture logging of the AND-1B core identified 1,475 'natural fractures', i.e. pre-existing fractures in the rock intersected by coring. The most abundant natural fractures are normal faults and calcite veins; reverse faults, brecciated zones, and sedimentary intrusions are also present. Here we compare fracture distribution, density, type and orientation (where known) to the positions of glacial erosion surfaces in the core, together with initial information on the conditions of deformation from microstructural analysis, to discriminate rift-related from glaciotectonic formation of natural fractures in AND-1B core.

  4. Comparison of Home Advantage in College and Professional Team Sports in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (p<0.015). The mean difference was 3.73 home winning percentage points, being greatest for baseball, basketball, and hockey (all p<0.001). Plausible explanations for these results include differences in college and professional competition in terms of familiarity with local conditions, referee bias, territoriality and psychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage.

  5. Scottish Stroke Research Network: the first three years.

    PubMed

    McCormick, K; Langhorne, P; Graham, F E J; McFarlane, C

    2010-08-01

    Research networks were introduced in the UK to facilitate and improve clinical research and stroke was seen as a priority topic for local research network development. The Scottish Stroke Research Network (SSRN) is one of 11 stroke research networks in the UK. In this article we review the progress of the Scottish Stroke Research Network in the three years since inception. Between 2006-2009 the number of active hospital research sites has increased from 10 to 22 expanding to involve 20 stroke research nurses. There was a corresponding 58% increase in recruitment of participants into stroke studies, from 376 in 2006/07 to 594 in 2008/09. The majority (17/20) of our current studies are interventional. Data from one of these, the CLOTs trial (Clots in Legs Or sTocking after Stroke), demonstrates that the annual recruitment in Scotland increased from a median of 94 (range 6-122) patients per year in the six years before the SSRN, to 140 (135-158) patients per year after SSRN involvement. We currently screen about 50% of Scottish stroke patients and approximately 5% of Scottish stroke patients are participating in research studies that we support. The SSRN has made good progress in the first three years. Increasing the recruitment of screened patients remains a challenge.

  6. Impact of availability and use of ART/PMTCT services on fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Lindsay E.; Makumbi, Frederick E.; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess fertility desires by availability and use of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai, Uganda. Design Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Methods Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai was defined in three periods: 1) Pre-ART/PMTCT (<2005), 2) ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-06), and 3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by chi-square. “Modified” Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRR were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. Results 4,227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout (adjusted PRR: 1.08, CI: 1.04-1.13) and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, CI: 1.08-1.14) compared to pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and non-users in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, CI: 0.62-1.14) and one year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, CI: 0.83-1.94). Conclusion Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women. PMID:25835605

  7. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  8. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  9. Hydrological classification of natural flow regimes to support environmental flow assessments in intensively regulated Mediterranean rivers, Segura River Basin (Spain).

    PubMed

    Belmar, Oscar; Velasco, Josefa; Martinez-Capel, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hydrological classification constitutes the first step of a new holistic framework for developing regional environmental flow criteria: the "Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)". The aim of this study was to develop a classification for 390 stream sections of the Segura River Basin based on 73 hydrological indices that characterize their natural flow regimes. The hydrological indices were calculated with 25 years of natural monthly flows (1980/81-2005/06) derived from a rainfall-runoff model developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Public Works. These indices included, at a monthly or annual basis, measures of duration of droughts and central tendency and dispersion of flow magnitude (average, low and high flow conditions). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated high redundancy among most hydrological indices, as well as two gradients: flow magnitude for mainstream rivers and temporal variability for tributary streams. A classification with eight flow-regime classes was chosen as the most easily interpretable in the Segura River Basin, which was supported by ANOSIM analyses. These classes can be simplified in 4 broader groups, with different seasonal discharge pattern: large rivers, perennial stable streams, perennial seasonal streams and intermittent and ephemeral streams. They showed a high degree of spatial cohesion, following a gradient associated with climatic aridity from NW to SE, and were well defined in terms of the fundamental variables in Mediterranean streams: magnitude and temporal variability of flows. Therefore, this classification is a fundamental tool to support water management and planning in the Segura River Basin. Future research will allow us to study the flow alteration-ecological response relationship for each river type, and set the basis to design scientifically credible environmental flows following the ELOHA framework.

  10. Improving the Accuracy of the AFWA-NASA (ANSA) Blended Snow-Cover Product over the Lower Great Lakes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Kumar, Sujay; Chien, Janety Y. L.; Riggs, George A.

    2012-01-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) -- NASA blended snow-cover product, called ANSA, utilizes Earth Observing System standard snow products from the Moderate- Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) to map daily snow cover and snow-water equivalent (SWE) globally. We have compared ANSA-derived SWE with SWE values calculated from snow depths reported at 1500 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) co-op stations in the Lower Great Lakes Basin. Compared to station data, the ANSA significantly underestimates SWE in densely-forested areas. We use two methods to remove some of the bias observed in forested areas to reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the ANSA- and station-derived SWE. First, we calculated a 5- year mean ANSA-derived SWE for the winters of 2005-06 through 2009-10, and developed a five-year mean bias-corrected SWE map for each month. For most of the months studied during the five-year period, the 5-year bias correction improved the agreement between the ANSA-derived and station-derived SWE. However, anomalous months such as when there was very little snow on the ground compared to the 5-year mean, or months in which the snow was much greater than the 5-year mean, showed poorer results (as expected). We also used a 7-day running mean (7DRM) bias correction method using days just prior to the day in question to correct the ANSA data. This method was more effective in reducing the RMSE between the ANSA- and co-op-derived SWE values, and in capturing the effects of anomalous snow conditions.

  11. Academic career development in geriatric fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Medina-Walpole, Annette; Fonzi, Judith; Katz, Paul R

    2007-12-01

    Career development is rarely formalized in the curricula of geriatric fellowship programs, and the training of new generations of academic leaders is challenging in the 1 year of fellowship training. To effectively prepare fellows for academic leadership, the University of Rochester's Division of Geriatrics, in collaboration with the Warner School of Graduate Education, created a yearlong course to achieve excellence in teaching and career development during the 1-year geriatric fellowship. Nine interdisciplinary geriatric medicine, dentistry, and psychiatry fellows completed the course in its initial year (2005/06). As participants, fellows gained the knowledge and experience to successfully develop and implement educational initiatives in various formats. Fellows acquired teaching and leadership skills necessary to succeed as clinician-educators in an academic setting and to communicate effectively with patients, families, and colleagues. Fellows completed a series of individual and group education projects, including academic portfolio development, curriculum vitae revision, abstract submission and poster presentation at national meetings, lay lecture series development, and geriatric grand rounds presentation. One hundred percent of fellows reported that the course positively affected their career development, with six of nine fellows choosing academic careers. The course provided opportunities to teach and assess all six of the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education core competencies. This academic career development course was intended to prepare geriatric fellows as the next generation of academic leaders as clinician-teacher-scholars. It could set a new standard for academic development during fellowship training and provide a model for national dissemination in other geriatric and subspecialty fellowship programs.

  12. An international survey of pain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A common belief is that pain is uncommon and short lived in adolescents. However, the burden of pain in adolescents is unclear because of limitations in previous research. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of headache, stomach-ache and backache in adolescents and to explore the extent to which these three forms of pain coexist based upon a representative sample of adolescents from 28 countries. Methods Data were analysed from three consecutive waves (1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06) of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children: WHO Collaborative Cross-National survey (HBSC). Prevalence estimates are based upon adolescents who reported experiencing headache, stomach-ache or backache at least monthly for the last 6 months. Results There were a total of 404,206 participants with a mean (±SD) age of 13.6 (±1.7) years (range 9.8 to 17.3 years). The prevalence of headache was 54.1%, stomach-ache 49.8%, backache 37%, and at least one of the three pains 74.4%. Girls had a higher prevalence of the three pains than boys and the prevalence of pain increased with age. Headache, stomach-ache and backache frequently coexist, for example, of those with headache: 21.2% had headache alone, 31% suffered from both headache and stomach-ache, 12.1% suffered from backache and headache, and 35.7% had all three pains. Conclusions Somatic pain is very common in adolescents, more often coexisting than occurring in isolation. Our data supports the need for further research to improve the understanding of these pains in adolescents. PMID:24885027

  13. Residential proximity to urban centres, local-area walkability and change in waist circumference among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Niyonsenga, Theo; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Paquet, Catherine; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Consistent associations have been observed between macro-level urban sprawl and overweight/obesity, but whether residential proximity to urban centres predicts adiposity change over time has not been established. Further, studies of local-area walkability and overweight/obesity have generated mixed results. This study examined 4-year change in adults' waist circumference in relation to proximity to city centre, proximity to closest suburban centre, and local-area walkability. Data were from adult participants (n=2080) of a cohort study on chronic conditions and health risk factors in Adelaide, Australia. Baseline data were collected in 2000-03 with a follow-up in 2005-06. Multilevel regression models examined in 2015 the independent and joint associations of the three environmental measures with change in waist circumference, accounting for socio-demographic covariates. On average, waist circumference rose by 1.8cm over approximately 4years. Greater distance to city centre was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference. Participants living in distal areas (20km or further from city centre) had a greater increase in waist circumference (mean increase: 2.4cm) compared to those in proximal areas (9km or less, mean increase: 1.2cm). Counterintuitively, living in the vicinity of a suburban centre was associated with a greater increase in adiposity. Local-area walkability was not significantly associated with the outcome. Residential proximity to city centre appears to be protective against excessive increases in waist circumference. Controlled development and targeted interventions in the urban fringe may be needed to tackle obesity. Additional research needs to assess behaviours that mediate relationships between sprawl and obesity.

  14. Sedentary time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in US adults: NHANES 2003–06

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Genevieve N.; Matthews, Charles E.; Dunstan, David W.; Winkler, Elisabeth A.H.; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Aims Prolonged sedentary time is ubiquitous in developed economies and is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile and premature mortality. This study examined the associations of objectively assessed sedentary time and breaks (interruptions) in sedentary time with continuous cardio-metabolic and inflammatory risk biomarkers, and whether these associations varied by sex, age, and/or race/ethnicity. Methods and results Cross-sectional analyses with 4757 participants (≥20 years) from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). An Actigraph accelerometer was used to derive sedentary time [<100 counts per minute (cpm)] and breaks in sedentary time. Independent of potential confounders, including moderate-to-vigorous exercise, detrimental linear associations (P for trends <0.05) of sedentary time with waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-%B, and HOMA-%S were observed. Independent of potential confounders and sedentary time, breaks were beneficially associated with waist circumference and C-reactive protein (P for trends <0.05). There was limited evidence of meaningful differences in associations with biomarkers by age, sex, or race/ethnicity. Notable exceptions were sex-differences in the associations of sedentary time and breaks with HDL-cholesterol, and race/ethnicity differences in the association of sedentary time with waist circumference with associations detrimental in non-Hispanic whites, null in Mexican Americans, and beneficial in non-Hispanic blacks. Conclusion These are the first population-representative findings on the deleterious associations of prolonged sedentary time with cardio-metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. The findings suggest that clinical communications and preventive health messages on reducing and breaking up sedentary time may be beneficial for cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:21224291

  15. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues.

  16. Microbial colonization of post eruptive vents on the EPR at 9N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetriani, C.

    2008-12-01

    The overarching goal of this project is to understand the role of microbial colonists at newly formed vents as "mediators" in the transfer of energy from the geothermal source to the higher trophic levels, and their role in altering fluid chemistry and in "conditioning" the vent environment for metazoans to settle. Following the 2005-06 volcanic eruption along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) ridge crest between 9°N and 9°N, we had several opportunities to investigate the microbial colonization of the post-eruptive vents: in 2006 (about six months after the eruption), in January 2007 (one year after the eruption), and in December 2007/January 2008 (two years after the eruption). In order to investigate microbial colonization, we designed and deployed several experimental microbial colonizers on active diffuse flow vents characterized by different temperatures (approximate range 20-60°C) chemical (different redox conditions), and biological (e.g., presence or absence of metazoan colonists) regimes. Analyses of the 16S rRNA and fuctional gene transcripts from the colonizing communities indicated that Epsilonproteobacteria represented the dominant and active fraction of the chemosynthetic early microbial colonists, and that they expressed in-situ the genes involved in carbon dioxide fixation and nitrate respiration. However, data from our semi quantitative culture experiments indicated that Epsilonproteobacteria were not the only microorganisms that attached to basalts or to the experimental colonizers during the early phases of colonization. Sulfur dependent, chemosynthetic members of the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria were isolated from up to 10-5 dilutions of original samples along with heterotrophic Gammaproteobacteria capable of growth on n-alkanes as their sole carbon source. We propose a model that links the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids to the colonization of newly formed vents and suggests a role for chemosynthetic and heterotrophic bacteria in the

  17. The Chemistry of Hydrothermal Plumes Along the Galapagos Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Baker, E.; Lebon, G.; Walker, S.; Haymon, R.; Nakamura, K.; Lupton, J.

    2006-12-01

    During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 300 n.m.-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot between 94.5° and 89.5°W. Hydrothermal plumes were located by placing a variety of sensors on the clump weight of the DSL-120, which was towed approximately 100 m above the seafloor. These sensors included the vents in situ analyzer (nee SUAVE), which measured Fe, Mn, and pH; a redox potential (Eh) sensor; an optical backscatter sensor; a METs methane analyzer; and a CTD. These sensors were uploaded in real time allowing us to monitor for plumes during the tow. In addition, the tow line of the DSL-120 carried a vertical array of optical backscatter sensors (MAPRs). Almost all of the plumes found were identified solely from the data uploaded to the ship in real time and were confirmed from the vertical MAPR array. The MAPR array provided information on the rise height and vertical extent of the plumes. Many plumes were then also located and sampled by vertical and towed CTD hydrocasts. The CTD hydrocast samples were sampled for Fe, Mn, pH, helium isotopes, methane, and total suspended matter composition. Many of the plumes were characterized by fairly low amounts of total dissolved metals and variable Fe:Mn ratios. Plumes over the discovered black smoker vents carried elevated total dissolved metals and Fe:Mn ratios typical of other midocean ridge plumes. Data will be presented on the chemical makeup of the plumes from the sensors on the DSL-120 clump weight and from the CTD hydrocast samples.

  18. Delayed or forgone care and dissatisfaction with care for children with special health care needs: the role of perceived cultural competency of health care providers.

    PubMed

    Kerfeld, Cheryl I; Hoffman, Jeanne M; Ciol, Marcia A; Kartin, Deborah

    2011-05-01

    To better understand if reported delayed/forgone care and dissatisfaction with care for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) are associated with the parent's perception of health care providers' cultural competency. National survey. Fifty United States and the District of Columbia yielding 750 families per state and District of Columbia with CSHCN ≤ 18 years participated in the 2005-06 National Survey of CSHCN. Outcome measures were delayed/forgone care in the past 12 months (yes or no) and dissatisfaction (very dissatisfied to very satisfied). Demographic/clinical characteristics and the parent's perception of health care providers' cultural competency were examined. Perception of cultural competency was defined by questions related to time spent with child, respect for family values, listening to the family, sense of partnership, and information provided. Delayed/forgone care and dissatisfaction with care were associated with perceived health care provider cultural competency. Parents whose children were older, whose children's condition affected their ability to do things, whose interviews were not conducted in English, and were from certain racial and ethnic groups reported more delayed or forgone care and were more dissatisfied with their children's health care. Delayed/forgone care and dissatisfaction with care were associated with perceived cultural competency of health care providers. This did not appear to differ consistently by racial or ethnic group. Further research using more refined instruments and longitudinal designs is needed to assess the effects of health care providers' cultural competency and other cultural factors on the delayed/forgone care for CSHCN and on the dissatisfaction with care of parents with CSHCN.

  19. Identifying demographic and psychosocial factors related to the escalation of smoking behavior among Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shete, Sahil S; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2017-02-21

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States; smoking in Mexican American adolescents, a rapidly growing population, remains a major concern. Factors associated with escalation or progression along the smoking trajectory have not been studied in adolescent Mexican Americans. A better understanding of escalation is needed for cancer prevention and overall health. N=1,328 Mexican American adolescents joined a cohort in 2005-06. At baseline participants provided demographic, acculturation and psychosocial data, and reported their smoking status using the Minnesota Smoking Index. Those that never tried a cigarette or only had a few puffs in their life were included in this study. The primary outcome of interest, escalation in smoking status, was defined as moving up the Minnesota Smoking Index by 2010-2011. The current analysis is based on 973 participants of whom 48.2% were male, mean age=11.8 (SD=0.8), and 26.0% were born in Mexico. By 2010-2011, 283 (29%) escalated their smoking status and 690 (71%) remained the same. Being older (OR=1.30; CI=1.07-1.57), male (OR=1.88, CI=1.40-2.53), having higher levels of anxiety (OR=1.03, CI=1.02-1.05), intending to smoke (OR=1.70, CI=1.18-2.46), having friends who smoke (OR=1.73, CI=1.12-2.70) and having parents' friends who smoke (OR=1.38, CI=1.02-1.88) increased risk for smoking escalation. Higher levels of subjective social status (OR=0.91, CI=0.83-0.99) were protective against smoking escalation. Contrasting previous work in smoking experimentation, parents' friends influence was a stronger predictor than the family household influence. Preventative interventions for Mexican American youth could address this risk factor to reduce smoking escalation.

  20. Assessing the effect of the 2001-06 Mexican health reform: an interim report card.

    PubMed

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Lozano, Rafael; González-Pier, Eduardo; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Feehan, Dennis M; Lee, Diana K; Hernández-Llamas, Hector; Murray, Christopher J L

    2006-11-25

    Since 2001, Mexico has been designing, legislating, and implementing a major health-system reform. A key component was the creation of Seguro Popular, which is intended to expand insurance coverage over 7 years to uninsured people, nearly half the total population at the start of 2001. The reform included five actions: legislation of entitlement per family affiliated which, with full implementation, will increase public spending on health by 0.8-1.0% of gross domestic product; creation of explicit benefits packages; allocation of monies to decentralised state ministries of health in proportion to number of families affiliated; division of federal resources flowing to states into separate funds for personal and non-personal health services; and creation of a fund to protect families against catastrophic health expenditures. Using the WHO health-systems framework, we used a wide range of datasets to assess the effect of this reform on different dimensions of the health system. Key findings include: affiliation is preferentially reaching the poor and the marginalised communities; federal non-social security expenditure in real per-head terms increased by 38% from 2000 to 2005; equity of public-health expenditure across states improved; Seguro Popular affiliates used more inpatient and outpatient services than uninsured people; effective coverage of 11 interventions has improved between 2000 and 2005-06; inequalities in effective coverage across states and wealth deciles has decreased over this period; catastrophic expenditures for Seguro Popular affiliates are lower than for uninsured people even though use of services has increased. We present some lessons for Mexico based on this interim evaluation and explore implications for other countries considering health reforms.

  1. [Assessing the effect of the 2001-06 Mexican health reform: an interim report card].

    PubMed

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Lozano, Rafael; González-Pier, Eduardo; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Feehan, Dennis M; Lee, Diana K; Hernández-Llamas, Héctor; Murray, Christopher J L

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, Mexico has been designing, legislating, and implementing a major health-system reform. A key component was the creation of Seguro Popular, which is intended to expand insurance coverage over seven years to uninsured people, nearly half the total population at the start of 2001. The reform included five actions: legislation of entitlement per family affiliated which, with full implementation, will increase public spending on health by 0.8-1.0% of gross domestic product; creation of explicit benefits packages; allocation of monies to decentralised state ministries of health in proportion to number of families affiliated; division of federal resources flowing to states into separate funds for personal and non-personal health services; and creation of a fund to protect families against catastrophic health expenditures. Using the WHO health-systems framework, a wide range of datasets to assess the effect of this reform on different dimensions of the health system was used. Key findings include: affiliation is preferentially reaching the poor and the marginalised communities; federal non-social security expenditure in real per-head terms increased by 38% from 2000 to 2005; equity of public-health expenditure across states improved; Seguro Popular affilates used more inpatient and outpatient services than uninsured people; effective coverage of 11 interventions has improved between 2000 and 2005-06; inequalities in effective coverage across states and wealth deciles has decreased over this period; catastrophic expenditures for Seguro Popular affiliates are lower than for uninsured people even though use of services has increased. We present some lessons for Mexico based on this interim evaluation and explore implications for other countries considering health reforms.

  2. An internet based learning tool in orthopaedic surgery: preliminary experiences and results.

    PubMed

    Citak, Musa; Calafi, Afshin; Kendoff, Daniel; Kupka, Thomas; Haasper, Carl; Behrends, Marianne; Krettek, Christian; Matthies, Herbert K; Hüfner, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Today universities can offer a variety of educational resources to their students through the internet. These may include lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, or even an entire recording of a lecture in video format. At the Hannover Medical School (Hannover, Germany), the Trauma Surgery Department in collaboration with the Institute of Medical Informatics has developed an alternative method of "E-learning". We created a web-based multimedia resource center for Trauma Surgery using the Content-Management-System (CMS) Schoolbook application, which was initially developed by the Institute of Medical Informatics. The so called "Trauma Surgery Schoolbook" was first adopted in October of 2005 and has since been used and evaluated by medical students at our institution. The evaluation results for the academic year 2005/06 are reported in this paper. The majority of students enrolled in the Trauma Surgery rotation utilized the Schoolbook, which they regarded as a helpful and effective study tool. Our students embraced the possibility of being able to prepare for lectures and use the Schoolbook for independent home studying purposes. Over time, there was a steady increase in the utilization of the Schoolbook by the students from 67% in the first trimester to 93% in the third trimester. The majority of the surveyed students (79.6%) found the Schoolbook to be constructive and helpful. 8.1% did not have any opinion, and only 12.3% found it to not be helpful. The instructors also found this web-based training program to be both constructive and practical, and were able to utilize its multimedia components to complement their lectures. Overall, our experience with this computer-aided learning program demonstrated that web-based technologies can improve the quality of medical education, benefiting both the students and the instructors.

  3. Parasite diversity as an indicator of environmental change? An example from tropical grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) mariculture in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palm, H W; Kleinertz, S; Rückert, S

    2011-11-01

    Fish parasites are used to monitor long-term change in finfish grouper mariculture in Indonesia. A total of 210 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus were sampled in six consecutive years between 2003/04 and 2008/09 and examined for parasites. The fish were obtained from floating net cages of a commercially run mariculture facility that opened in 2001. The fauna was species rich, consisting of ten ecto- and 18 endoparasite species. The ectoparasite diversity and composition was relatively stable, with the monogeneans Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. (83-100% prevalence, Berger-Parker Index of 0·82-0·97) being the predominant taxon. Tetraphyllidean larvae Scolex pleuronectis and the nematodes Terranova sp. and Raphidascaris sp. 1 were highly abundant in 2003/04-2005/06 (max. prevalence S. pleuronectis 40%, Terranova sp. 57%, Raphidascaris sp. 1 100%), and drastically reduced until 2008/09. These parasites together with the prevalence of Trichodina spp., ecto-/endoparasite ratio and endoparasite diversity illustrate a significant change in holding conditions over the years. This can be either referred to a definite change in management methods such as feed use and fish treatment, or a possible transition of a relatively undisturbed marine environment into a more affected habitat. By visualizing all parameters within a single diagram, we demonstrate that fish parasites are useful bioindicators to monitor long-term change in Indonesian grouper mariculture. This also indicates that groupers can be used to monitor environmental change in the wild. Further taxonomic and systematic efforts in less sampled regions significantly contributes to this new application, supporting fish culture and environmental impact monitoring also in other tropical marine habitats.

  4. Liquid chromatographic post-column oxidation method for analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, clams, scallops, and oysters: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Van de Riet, Jeffrey M; Gibbs, Ryan S; Chou, Faith W; Muggah, Patricia M; Rourke, Wade A; Burns, Garth; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the LC post-column oxidation analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST): saxitoxin (STX); neosaxitoxin (NEO); gonyautoxins (GTX) 1-5; decarbamoyl gonyautoxins (dcGTX) 2 and 3; decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX); and N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2 and 3 (C1 and C2) in mussels (Mytilus edulis), soft shell clams (Mya arenaria), scallops (Placopectin magellanicus), and oysters (Crassostrea virginicus). The instrumental technique was developed for the analysis of PST in shellfish as an alternative to the precolumn oxidation method, AOAC Official Method 2005.06, and a replacement for the current AOAC biological method 959.08. The method used reversed-phase LC with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection. Test materials for method recovery were prepared by fortification of blank material with a cocktail of PST. Materials used to determine method repeatability and intermediate precision were prepared by blending blank material with naturally incurred material. The target total toxicity levels evaluated in the study were 0.40, 0.80, and 1.60 mg STX x diHCl equivalents per kilogram [(eq/kg) 1%, 1, and 2 times the regulatory limit]. Linearity, recovery, and within-laboratory precision parameters of the method were evaluated. Correlation coefficients of the calibration curves for all toxins studied were > 0.99. Total toxin recovery ranged from 94 to 106% at the three levels of interest. Repeatability and intermediate precision RSD ranged from 2 to 7% and 2 to 8%, respectively. The method LOD and LOQ (assuming the presence of all toxins) were determined to be equivalent to 0.18 and 0.39 mg STX x diHCl eq/kg. The method is intended for a regulatory framework and will be submitted for an AOAC collaborative study.

  5. Should legislation regarding maximum Pb and Cd levels in human food also cover large game meat?

    PubMed

    Taggart, Mark A; Reglero, Manuel M; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Game meat may be contaminated with metals and metalloids if animals reside in anthropogenically polluted areas, or if ammunition used to kill the game contaminates the meat. Muscle tissue from red deer and wild boar shot in Ciudad Real province (Spain) in 2005-06 was analysed for As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd. Samples were collected from hunting estates within and outside an area that has been historically used for mining, smelting and refining various metals and metalloids. Meat destined for human consumption, contained more Pb, As and Se (red deer) and Pb (boar) when harvested from animals that had resided in mined areas. Age related accumulation of Cd, Zn and As (in deer) and Cd, Cu and Se (in boar) was also observed. Two boar meat samples contained high Pb, at 352 and 2408 μg/g d.w., and these were likely to have been contaminated by Pb ammunition. Likewise, 19-84% of all samples (depending on species and sampling area) had Pb levels > 0.1 μg/g w.w., the EU maximum residue level (MRL) for farm reared meat. Between 9 and 43% of samples exceeded comparable Cd limits. Such data highlight a discrepancy between what is considered safe for human consumption in popular farmed meat (chicken, beef, lamb), and what in game may often exist. A risk assessment is presented which describes the number of meals required to exceed current tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Cd, and the potential contribution of large game consumption to such intake limit criteria.

  6. A paradigm shift in predoctoral dental curricula in Brazil: evaluating the process of change.

    PubMed

    Zilbovicius, Celso; de Araujo, Maria Ercilia; Botazzo, Carlos; Frias, Antônio Carlos; Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Junqueira, Cilene Rennó

    2011-04-01

    In 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Education approved the official curricular guidelines for undergraduate courses in Brazil to be adopted by the nation's 188 dental schools. In 2005-06, the Brazilian Dental Education Association (BDEA) promoted workshops in forty-eight of the schools to verify the degree of transformation of the curriculum based on these guidelines. Among the areas analyzed were course philosophy (variables were v1: knowledge production based on the needs of the Brazilian Public Health System [BPHS]; v2: health determinants; and v3: postgraduate studies and permanent education); pedagogical skills (v4: curricular structure; v5: changes in pedagogic and didactic skills; and v6: course program orientation); and dental practice scenarios (v7: diversity of the scenarios for training/learning; v8: academic health care centers opened to the BPHS; and v9: participation of students in health care delivery for the population). The subjects consisted of faculty members (n=711), students (n=228), and employees (n=14). The results showed an incipient degree of curriculum transformation. The degree of innovation was statistically different depending on the type of university (public or private) for variables 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Private schools reported a higher level of innovation than public institutions. Resistance to transforming the dental curriculum according to the official guidelines may be linked to an ideological conception that supports the private practice model, continues to have faculty members direct all classroom activities, and prevents students from developing an understanding of professional practice as targeted towards the oral health needs of all segments of society.

  7. Ethnic differences in sexual behaviour among unmarried adolescents and young adults in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sambisa, William; Curtis, Sian L; Stokes, C Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the social and cultural contextual determinants of sexual behaviour of adolescents and young adults is an essential step towards curtailing the spread of HIV. This study examined the effects of one cultural factor, ethnicity, on sexual abstinence, faithfulness, condom use at last sex, and risky sex among young people in Zimbabwe. Data from the cross-sectional, population-based 2005-06 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey were used. Net of the effect of sociodemographic and social-cognitive factors, and using multinomial logistic regression, ethnicity was found to have a strong and consistent effect on sexual behaviour among youth. In addition, the study found that there were ethnic-specific and within-gender differences in sexual behaviour, for both men and women. Shona youth were more likely to be abstinent than Ndebele youth. Compared with Shona youth, Ndebele youth were more likely to have engaged in risky sex. However, Ndebele men were more likely have used condoms at last sex, compared with Shona men. For both men and women, sexual behaviour was more socially controlled. School attendance and religion exerted protective effects on sexual abstinence. For men only, those living in rural areas were less likely to be faithful and more likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviour than those living in urban areas. The study attests to the fact that ethnic norms and ideologies of sexuality need to be identified and more thoroughly understood. In addition, the study provides evidence that in order to promote safe and healthy sexuality among young people in Zimbabwe, cultural, social and gender-specific approaches to the development of HIV prevention strategies should be seriously considered. Current success in the Abstinence, Being faithful and Condom use (ABC) approach could be strengthened by recognizing and responding to cultural forces that reproduce and perpetuate risky sexual behaviours.

  8. Paralytic shellfish poisoning due to ingestion of Gymnodinium catenatum contaminated cockles--application of the AOAC HPLC official method.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana Margarida; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mestre, Tiago; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Coelho, Miguel; Peralta, Rita; Vale, Paulo

    2012-04-01

    The potent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum have appeared irregularly since the onset in 1986 of a monitoring program aimed at preventing contaminated bivalves from the Portuguese coast to reaching the consumer. In years where high contamination levels were attained, sporadic episodes of human poisonings were also recorded, as in 1994. The reappearance of high contamination led to the appearance of new cases during 2007. This study reports details of toxin ingestion, symptomatology and toxin presence in the fluids of one of these victims, an adult male who ingested several kilograms of cockles. In cockle samples collected the week before and during the week when the intoxication took place, the major PSTs detected by the HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 belonged to the sulfamate (81-68 molar percent) and decarbamoyl groups (19-32 molar percent), comprising GTX5, GTX6, C1,2, C3,4, dcNeo, and dcSTX. In the patient urine sample sulfamate and decarbamoyl derivatives were also found, comprising by GTX5 (28%), GTX6 (25%), dcSTX (24%) and dcNeo (22%), but no C toxins and no dcGTX2,3 were detected. Compared to the cockle samples, there was an increase in the proportion of dcSTX, dcNeo and GTX5 (molar percentage) in the urine sample, but not of GTX6. Overall, compounds which had the presence of an O-sulfate at C11 were absent in urine while being relatively abundant in the bivalve (36.5-47.0 molar percent). In blood plasma PSTs were not detected.

  9. Interlaboratory comparison of two AOAC liquid chromatographic fluorescence detection methods for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis through characterization of an oyster reference material.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Rourke, Wade A; Higman, Wendy A

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory ring trial was designed and conducted by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Science to investigate a range of issues affecting the analysis of a candidate Pacific oyster paralytic shellfish toxin reference material. A total of 21 laboratories participated in the study and supplied results using one or more of three instrumental methods, specifically precolumn oxidation (Pre-COX) LC with fluorescence detection (FLD; AOAC Official Method 2005.06), postcolumn oxidation (PCOX) LC-FLD (AOAC Official Method 2011.02), and hydrophilic interaction LC/MS/MS. Each participant analyzed nine replicate samples of the oyster tissue in three separate batches of three samples over a period of time longer than 1 week. Results were reported in a standardized format, reporting both individual toxin concentrations and total sample toxicity. Data were assessed to determine the equivalency of the two AOAC LC methods and the LC/MS/MS method as well as an assessment of intrabatch and interbatch repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility of each method. Differences among the results reported using the three methods were shown to be statistically significant, although visual comparisons showed an overlap between results generated by the majority of tests, the exception being the Pre-COX quantitation of N-hydroxylated toxins in post ion-exchange fractions. Intralaboratory repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility were acceptable for most of the results, with the exception of results generated from fractions. The results provided good evidence for the acceptable performance of the PCOX method for the quantitation of C toxins. Overall the study showed the usefulness of interlaboratory analysis for the characterization of paralytic shellfish poisoning matrix reference materials, highlighting some issues that may need to be addressed with further method assessment at individual participant laboratories.

  10. The Brustkrebs-Studien.de website for breast cancer patients: User acceptance of a German internet portal offering information on the disease and treatment options, and a clinical trials matching service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The internet portal http://www.brustkrebs-studien.de (BKS) was launched in 2000 by the German Society of Senology (DGS) and the Baden-Württemberg Institute for Women's Health (IFG) to provide expert-written information on breast cancer online and to encourage and facilitate the participation of breast cancer patients in clinical trials. We describe the development of BKS and its applications, and report on website statistics and user acceptance. Methods Existing registries, including ClinicalTrials.gov, were analysed before we designed BKS, which combines a trial registry, a knowledge portal, and an online second opinion service. An advisory board guided the process. Log files and patient enquiries for trial participation and second opinions were analysed. A two-week user satisfaction survey was conducted online. Results During 10/2005-06/2010, the portal attracted 702,655 visitors, generating 15,507,454 page views. By 06/2010, the website's active scientific community consisted of 189 investigators and physicians, and the registry covered 163 clinical trial protocols. In 2009, 143 patients requested trial enrolment and 119 sought second opinions or individual treatment advice from the expert panel. During the two-week survey in 2008, 5,702 BKS visitors submitted 507 evaluable questionnaires. Portal acceptance was high. Respondents trusted information correctness (80%), welcomed self-matching to clinical trials (79%) and planned to use the portal in the future (76%) and recommend it to others (81%). Conclusions BKS is an established and trusted breast cancer information platform offering up-to-date resources and protocols to the growing physician and patient community to encourage participation in clinical trials. Further studies are needed to assess potential increases in trial enrolment by eligibility matching services. PMID:21126358

  11. Functional disability and compromised mobility among older women with urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Hanissian, Paul D.; Strohbehn, Kris; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Fried, Terri R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the prevalence of functional disability among older women with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP). Daily UI was defined as answering “daily” to the question, “How frequently...have you had difficulty controlling your bladder, including leaking small amounts of urine, leaking when you cough or sneeze, or not being able to make it to the bathroom on time?” We then explored functional status. Women were asked about seven basic activities of daily living (ADLs). Statistical analyses with percentage estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between functional status and daily UI. Results In total, 1,412 women were included in our analysis. Daily UI was reported by 177 (12.5%) women. Functional dependence or disability with any ADLs was reported in 62.1% (95% CI 54.2%, 70.1%) of women with daily UI. Among women with daily UI, 23.6% (95% CI 16.8%, 30.5%) reported specific difficulty or dependence with using the toilet signifying functional limitations which may contribute to urine leakage. After adjusting for age category, race/ethnicity, education level, and parity, women with daily UI had 3.31 increased odds of functional difficulty or dependence compared with continent older women. Conclusion Over 60% of older women with daily UI reported functional difficulty or dependence and 1/4 of women with daily UI specifically reported difficulty or dependence with using the toilet. PMID:25185600

  12. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  13. Parents’ Support and Knowledge of Their Daughters’ Lives and Females’ Early Sexual Initiation in Nine European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Context The association between early sexual initiation and parenting practices (e.g., support and knowledge) has not been tested in multiple European population-based samples using the same instrument. Methods Data provided by females (age 14-16) participating in the 2005-06 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey conducted in Austria, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Lithuania, Romania, Spain and Ukraine were used (n=7,466). The dependent variable was early sexual initiation (<16). The main independent variables were maternal and paternal support and knowledge of daily activities. Univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were run with standard error corrections and weights. Results Prevalence of early sexual initiation ranged from a low of 7% (Romania) to a high of 35% (Iceland). In bivariate analyses, maternal and paternal support were significantly negatively related to adolescent females’ early sexual initiation in a majority of countries. In models with demographic controls, parental support was significantly negatively related to early sexual initiation (AOR = 0.80 maternal, 0.74 paternal). After adding parental knowledge, early sexual initiation was no longer associated with parental support, but was significantly negatively related to parental knowledge (AOR = 0.69 maternal and paternal). These patterns held across countries. Conclusions Negative associations between parental support and early initiation were largely explained by parental knowledge, suggesting either that knowledge is more important than support or that knowledge mediates the association between support and early initiation. Providers should counsel parents regarding the importance of knowledge of their daughters’ daily lives, which may be enhanced through developing supportive relationships. PMID:22958661

  14. New geophysical views of Mt.Melbourne Volcano (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armadillo, E.; Gambetta, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Bozzo, E.

    2009-05-01

    Mt. Melbourne volcano is located along the transition between the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic Rift System. Recent volcanic activity is suggested by the occurrence of blankets of pyroclastic pumice and scoria fall around the eastern and southern flanks of Mt Melbourne and by pyroclastic layers interbedded with the summit snows. Geothermal activity in the crater area of Mount Melbourne may be linked to the intrusion of dykes within the last 200 years. Geophysical networks suggest that Mount Melbourne is a quiescent volcano, possibly characterised by slow internal dynamics. During the 2002-2003 Italian Antarctic campaign a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was performed within the TIMM (Tectonics and Interior of Mt. Melbourne area) project. This helicopter-borne survey was flown at low-altitude and in drape-mode configuration (305 m above terrain) with a line separation less than 500 m. Our new high-resolution magnetic maps reveal the largely ice-covered magmatic and tectonic patters in the Mt. Melbourne volcano area. Additionally, in the frame of the UK-Italian ISODYN-WISE project (2005-06), an airborne ice-sounding radar survey was flown. We combine the sub-ice topography with images and models of the interior of Mt. Melbourne volcano, as derived from the high resolution aeromagnetic data and land gravity data. Our new geophysical maps and models also provide a new tool to study the regional setting of the volcano. In particular we re-assess whether there is geophysical evidence for coupling between strike-slip faulting, the Terror Rift, and Mount Melbourne volcano.

  15. Trends and disparities in sepsis hospitalisations in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ore, Timothy

    2015-12-14

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with sepsis admitted to hospitals in Victoria, Australia, during the period 2004-14. The data include incidence, severity and mortality.Methods In all, 44 222 sepsis hospitalisations were identified between 2004-05 and 2013-14 from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset. The dataset contains clinical and demographic information on all admissions to acute public and private hospitals. Using the International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision) Australian Modification codes, incidence rates, severity of disease and mortality were calculated.Results Sepsis hospitalisation rates per 10 000 population increased significantly (P < 0.01) over the period, from 6.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.6-7.8) to 10.0 (95% CI 9.1-11.1), an annual growth rate of 3.8%. The age-standardised in-hospital death rates per 100 000 population grew significantly (P < 0.01) from 9.2 (95% CI 7.8-10.4) in 2004-05 to 13.0 (95% CI 11.7-14.6) in 2013-14, an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Among people under 45 years of age, the 0-4 years age group had the highest hospitalisation rate (3.0 per 10 000 population; 95% CI 2.7-3.4). Nearly half (46.2%) of all sepsis hospitalisations were among patients born overseas, with a rate of 14.5 per 10 000 population (95% CI 12.4-16.2) in that group compared with a rate of 5.9 per 10 000 population (95% CI 5.3-6.7) for patients born in Australia. The age-standardised sepsis hospitalisation rate was 2.6-fold greater in the lowest compared with highest socioeconomic areas (12.7 per 10 000 population (95% CI 11.2-13.8) vs 4.8 per 10 000 population (95% CI 4.1-5.7), respectively).Conclusion This paper shows a significant upward trend in both sepsis separation rates and in-hospital death rates over the period; unlike sepsis, in-hospital death rates from all diagnoses fell over the same period. The results can be used to stimulate review of

  16. Trends and predicted trends in presentations of older people to Australian emergency departments: effects of demand growth, population aging and climate change.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Ellen; Martin-Khan, Melinda G; Scott, Justin; Samanta, Mayukh; Gray, Leonard C

    2016-07-29

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to describe trends in and age and gender distributions of presentations of older people to Australian emergency departments (EDs) from July 2006 to June 2011, and to develop ED utilisation projections to 2050.Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected in the National Non-admitted Patient Emergency Department Care Database was undertaken to assess trends in ED presentations. Three standard Australian Bureau of Statistics population growth models, with and without adjustment for current trends in ED presentation growth and effects of climate change, were examined with projections of ED presentations across three age groups (0-64, 65-84 and ≥85 years) to 2050.Results From 2006-07 to 2010-11, ED presentations increased by 12.63%, whereas the Australian population over this time increased by only 7.26%. Rates of presentation per head of population were greatest among those aged ≥85 years. Projections of ED presentations to 2050 revealed that overall ED presentations are forecast to increase markedly, with the rate of increase being most marked for older people.Conclusion Growth in Australian ED presentations from 2006-07 to 2010-11 was greater than that expected from population growth alone. The predicted changes in demand for ED care will only be able to be optimally managed if Australian health policy, ED funding instruments and ED models of care are adjusted to take into account the specific care and resource needs of older people.What is known about the topic? Rapid population aging is anticipated over coming decades. International studies and specific local-level Australian studies have demonstrated significant growth in ED presentations. There have been no prior national-level Australian studies of ED presentation trends by age group.What does this paper add? The present study examined national ED presentation trends from July 2006 to June 2011, with specific emphasis on trends in presentation by age group

  17. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  18. A systematic review of lifestyle counseling for diverse patients in primary care.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Cathy L; Jefferson, Melanie S; Rice, LaShanta J; Nemeth, Lynne S; Wessell, Andrea M; Nietert, Paul J; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita

    2017-03-23

    Prior research and systematic reviews have examined strategies related to weight management, less is known about lifestyle and behavioral counseling interventions optimally suited for implementation in primary care practices generally, and among racial and ethnic patient populations. Primary care practitioners may find it difficult to access and use available research findings on effective behavioral and lifestyle counseling strategies and to assess their effects health behaviors among their patients. This systematic review compiled existing evidence from randomized trials to inform primary care providers about which lifestyle and behavioral change interventions are shown to be effective for changing patients' diet, physical activity and weight outcomes. Searches identified 444 abstracts from all sources (01/01/2004-05/15/2014). Duplicate abstracts were removed, selection criteria applied and dual abstractions conducted for 106 full text articles. As of June 12, 2015, 29 articles were retained for inclusion in the body of evidence. Randomized trials tested heterogeneous multi-component behavioral interventions for an equally wide array of outcomes in three population groups: diverse patient populations (23 studies), African American patients only (4 studies), and Hispanic/Mexican American/Latino patients only (2 studies). Significant and consistent findings among diverse populations showed that weight and physical activity related outcomes were more amenable to change via lifestyle and behavioral counseling interventions than those associated with diet modification. Evidence to support specific interventions for racial and ethnic minorities was promising, but insufficient based on the small number of studies.

  19. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season.

  20. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (∼5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < .01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  1. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  2. Hidden Variables and Placebo Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2006-03-01

    God's response to prayers and placebo leads to a question. How does He respond deterministically? He may be controlling at least one of the two variables of the uncertainty principle by extending His invisible soul to each body particle locally. Amazingly, many Vedic verses support this answer. One describes the size of the soul as arithmetically matching the size of the nucleons as if a particle is a soul. One gives a name meaning particle soul (anu-atma), consistent with particle's indeterministic behavior like that of (soulful) bird’s flying in any directions irrespective of the direction of throw. One describes souls as eternal consistent with the conservation of baryon number. One links the souls to the omnipresent (param- atma) like Einstein Rosen bridges link particles to normal spacetime. One claims eternal coexistence of matter and soul as is inflationary universe in physics/0210040 V2. The implicit scientific consistency of such verses makes the relationship of particle source of consciousness to the omnipresent Supreme analogous to the relationship of quantum source of gravitons in my gr-qc/0507130 to normal spacetime This frees us from the postulation of quantum wormholes and quantum foam. Dr. Hooft's view in ``Does God play dice,'' Physicsword, Dec 2005 seems consistent with my progressive conference presentations in Russia, Europe, India, and USA (Hindu University) in 2004/05. I see implications for nanoscience.

  3. Extending health insurance to the poor in India: An impact evaluation of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana on out of pocket spending for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Karan, Anup; Yip, Winnie; Mahal, Ajay

    2017-03-27

    India launched the 'Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana' (RSBY) health insurance scheme for the poor in 2008. Utilising 3 waves (1999-2000, 2004-05 and 2011-12) of household level data from nationally representative surveys of the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) (N = 346,615) and district level RSBY administrative data on enrolment, we estimated causal effects of RSBY on out-of-pocket expenditure. Using 'difference-in-differences' methods on households in matched districts we find that RSBY did not affect the likelihood of inpatient out-of-pocket spending, the level of inpatient out of pocket spending or catastrophic inpatient spending. We also do not find any statistically significant effect of RSBY on the level of outpatient out-of-pocket expenditure and the probability of incurring outpatient expenditure. In contrast, the likelihood of incurring any out of pocket spending (inpatient and outpatient) rose by 30% due to RSBY and was statistically significant. Although out of pocket spending levels did not change, RSBY raised household non-medical spending by 5%. Overall, the results suggest that RSBY has been ineffective in reducing the burden of out-of-pocket spending on poor households.

  4. Neonatal mortality in New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) at Sandy Bay, Enderby Island, Auckland Islands from 1998 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Pomroy, W E; López-Villalobos, N; Gibbs, N J; Chilvers, B L; Wilkinson, I S

    2007-07-01

    As part of a health survey of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands (50 degrees 30'S, 166 degrees 17'E), neonatal mortality was closely monitored at the Sandy Bay colony for seven consecutive years. Throughout the breeding seasons 1998-99 to 2004-05, more than 400 postmortem examinations were performed on pups found dead at this site. The primary causes of death were categorized as trauma (35%), bacterial infections (24%), hookworm infection (13%), starvation (13%), and stillbirth (4%). For most pups, more than one diagnosis was recorded. Every year, two distinct peaks of trauma were observed: the first associated with mature bulls fighting within the harem and the second with subadult males abducting pups. In 2001-02 and 2002-03, epidemics caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae increased mortality by three times the mean in nonepidemic years (10.2%). The increased mortality was attributed directly to acute suppurative infection due to the bacterium and also to an increase in traumatic deaths of debilitated pups. Parasitic infection with the hookworm Uncinaria spp. was a common finding in all pups older than three weeks of age and debilitation by the parasite may have contributed to increased susceptibility to other pathogens such as Klebsiella sp. or Salmonella sp. This study provides valuable quantitative data on the natural causes of neonatal mortality in New Zealand sea lions that can be used in demographic models for management of threatened species.

  5. Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Björn; Lundberg, Angela

    2010-02-15

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings.

  6. Energy demand and environmental implications in urban transport — Case of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar

    A simple model of passenger transport in the city of Delhi has been developed using a computer-based software called—Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) and the associated Environmental Database (EDB) model. The hierarchical structure of LEAP represents the traffic patterns in terms of passenger travel demand, mode (rail/road), type of vehicle and occupancy (persons per vehicle). Transport database in Delhi together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand and energy consumption calculations. Emission factors corresponding to the actual vehicle types and driving conditions in Delhi is introduced into the EDB and linked to the energy consumption values for estimating total emission of CO, HC, NO x, SO 2 Pb and TSP. The LEAP model is used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year-1990/91 and extrapolate for the future—1994/95, 2000/01, 2004/05 and 2009/10, respectively. The model is run under five alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement in the transport sector of Delhi and also reduce emission. The prime objective is to arrive at an optimal transport policy which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution.

  7. Evidence-based practice in school substance use prevention: fidelity of implementation under real-world conditions.

    PubMed

    Ennett, S T; Haws, S; Ringwalt, C L; Vincus, A A; Hanley, S; Bowling, J M; Rohrbach, L A

    2011-04-01

    Fidelity of program implementation under real-world conditions is a critical issue in the dissemination of evidence-based school substance use prevention curricula. Program effects are diminished when programs are implemented with poor fidelity. We assessed five domains of fidelity--adherence, exposure (dosage), quality of delivery, participant responsiveness and program differentiation (lack of contamination from other programs)--in a subset of respondents (N = 342) from a national random sample of public schools with middle school grades (N = 1721). Respondents taught 1 of 10 evidence-based universal substance use prevention programs as their primary program during the 2004-05 school year. Their responses to survey questions about their recent implementation practices indicated that fidelity was high for quality of delivery and participant responsiveness, low for program differentiation and modest for adherence and exposure--the two core domains of fidelity. Results suggest the need for continued emphasis on fidelity in program materials, trainings and on-going technical support. Particular attention should be paid to supporting use of interactive delivery strategies.

  8. No exodus: physicians and managed care networks.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Ann S; Reschovsky, James D

    2006-05-01

    After remaining stable since 1996-97, the percentage of U.S. physicians who do not contract with managed care plans rose from 9.2 percent in 2000-01 to 11.5 percent in 2004-05, according to a national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). While physicians have not left managed care networks in large numbers, this small but statistically significant increase could signal a trend toward greater out-of-pocket costs for patients and a decline in patient access to physicians. The increase in physicians without managed care contracts was broad-based across specialties and other physician and practice characteristics. Compared with physicians who have one or more managed care contracts, physicians without managed care contracts are more likely to have practiced for more than 20 years, work part time, lack board certification, practice solo or in two-physician groups, and live in the western United States. The study also found substantial variation in the proportion of physicians without managed care contracts across communities, suggesting that local market conditions influence decisions to contract with managed care plans.

  9. Negotiating ethno-cultural identity: the experience of Greek and Jewish youth in Halifax.

    PubMed

    Byers, Michele; Tastsoglou, Evangelia

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the lived experiences of young people growing up Greek Canadian and Jewish Canadian in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It is based on data collected in a pilot study conducted with second-generation Greek and second-, third-, and fourth-generation Jewish youth in Halifax in 2004-05. Most of the existing research on the second generation and beyond lumps together the experiences of different ethnocultural groups. Perhaps even more importantly, the existing research tends to focus almost exclusively on the second- (or third- or fourth-) generation's experiences in major urban centres. In this paper we forge new paths by exploring the experiences of ethnic youth in a smaller Canadian urban centre within a region with low concentrations of immigrant populations and ethnic groups. We thus argue for the importance and effects of the specific place of settlement on ethno-cultural identity. Family and community expectations, relations, and practices, and negotiating family and community norms within the context of the institutional norms and practices in the areas of education, employment, gender, and family relations within the broader frame of Canadian society are highlighted. A comparative analysis between the two groups is adopted throughout.

  10. Bioindicators in the MIDUS National Study: Protocol, Measures, Sample, and Comparative Context

    PubMed Central

    Love, Gayle Dienberg; Seeman, Teresa E.; Weinstein, Maxine; Ryff, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives MIDUS is a national study of health and aging among individuals aged 25 to 74 at baseline(1995/96). Longitudinal survey assessments (2004/05), were followed by biological assessments on a subsample aged 35–85. To facilitate public use, we describe the protocol, measures, and sample. Methods Respondents traveled to clinics for a two-day data collection protocol that included fasting blood specimens, 12-hour urine specimen, medical history, physical exam, bone densitometry, a laboratory challenge (heart rate variability, blood pressure, respiration, salivary cortisol). Results Response rates for the biological protocol (N = 1,255) were 39.3%, or 43.1% (adjusting for those who could not be located or contacted). Reasons for non-participation were travel, family obligations, and being too busy. Respondents were comparable to the recruitment pool on most demographic characteristics and health assessments. Discussion Strengths of the protocol vis-à-vis other similar studies include opportunities to link biological factors with diverse content from other MIDUS projects. PMID:20876364

  11. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  12. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  13. Lagrangian Simulations of polar ozone loss: from box model to 3-d CTM CLaMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooss, J.; Konopka, P.; Gunther, G.; Walter, R.; Müller, R.

    2005-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ozone hole in 1985, simulations of polar ozone loss improved persistently over the years. Especially using the Lagrangian view in which chemical processes are simulated for air parcels that move in location has been demonstrated to be a successful method. We describe the development of Lagrangian simulations of polar ozone loss starting with chemical box model simulations along particular trajectories up to the 3-dimensional version of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). Besides chemistry and Lagrangian advection CLaMS contains sophisticated modules for mixing and denitrification. We show CLaMS simulations for the Arctic winters 2002/03, 2004/05 and for the Antarctic winter 2003. The focus will be on chemical ozone loss and denitrification. The processes involved in denitrification, especially the nucleation of NAT particles are not fully understood. From comparisons of the simulated denitrification with observations we conclude that the sensitivity of denitrification on key assumptions is largest at the time of onset of the denitrification. Further we show that besides possible inconsistencies in the ozone loss rates in early winter the ozone depletion over the winter is simulated in agreement with the observations. Overall, CLaMS simulations reproduce the inhomogeneity of chemical ozone loss within the polar vortex well.

  14. An Earthquake Prediction System Using The Time Series Analyses of Earthquake Property And Crust Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Fumihide; Takeo, Makoto

    2004-12-09

    We have developed a short-term deterministic earthquake (EQ) forecasting system similar to those used for Typhoons and Hurricanes, which has been under a test operation at website http://www.tec21.jp/ since June of 2003. We use the focus and crust displacement data recently opened to the public by Japanese seismograph and global positioning system (GPS) networks, respectively. Our system divides the forecasting area into the five regional areas of Japan, each of which is about 5 deg. by 5 deg. We have found that it can forecast the focus, date of occurrence and magnitude (M) of an impending EQ (whose M is larger than about 6), all within narrow limits. We have two examples to describe the system. One is the 2003/09/26 EQ of M 8 in the Hokkaido area, which is of hindsight. Another is a successful rollout of the most recent forecast on the 2004/05/30 EQ of M 6.7 off coast of the southern Kanto (Tokyo) area.

  15. Population genetic structure of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India as inferred from EPIC-PCR DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Behere, Gajanan Tryambak; Tay, Wee Tek; Russell, Derek Alan; Kranthi, Keshav Raj; Batterham, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is an important pest of cotton and other agricultural crops in the Old World. Its wide host range, high mobility and fecundity, and the ability to adapt and develop resistance against all common groups of insecticides used for its management have exacerbated its pest status. An understanding of the population genetic structure in H. armigera under Indian agricultural conditions will help ascertain gene flow patterns across different agricultural zones. This study inferred the population genetic structure of Indian H. armigera using five Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC)-PCR markers. Nested alternative EPIC markers detected moderate null allele frequencies (4.3% to 9.4%) in loci used to infer population genetic structure but the apparently genome-wide heterozygote deficit suggests in-breeding or a Wahlund effect rather than a null allele effect. Population genetic analysis of the 26 populations suggested significant genetic differentiation within India but especially in cotton-feeding populations in the 2006-07 cropping season. In contrast, overall pair-wise F(ST) estimates from populations feeding on food crops indicated no significant population substructure irrespective of cropping seasons. A Baysian cluster analysis was used to assign the genetic make-up of individuals to likely membership of population clusters. Some evidence was found for four major clusters with individuals in two populations from cotton in one year (from two populations in northern India) showing especially high homogeneity. Taken as a whole, this study found evidence of population substructure at host crop, temporal and spatial levels in Indian H. armigera, without, however, a clear biological rationale for these structures being evident.

  16. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; van Beurden, Eric; Beard, John R

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile), physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test). Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw), and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57%) were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4%) with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs). Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6%) students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3%) for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18) of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30) of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth. PMID:18687148

  17. The effects of bovine necrotic vulvo-vaginitis on reproductive and production performance of Israeli 1st calf heifers.

    PubMed

    Goshen, T; Ben-Gera, J; Koren, O; Bdolah-Abram, T; Elad, D

    2012-04-01

    Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is a syndrome unique to Israel characterized by necrotic lesion in the caudal vagina mainly in first calf heifers after calving, associated with Porphyromonas levii. The objectives of this study were to analyze the impact of BNVV on reproductive performance, milk production and survival in the heard of first calf dairy heifers in affected farms, and to verify if the effects of BNVV are severity-dependent. For assessment of the severity level a scale of 4 degrees was formed, and cows were scored 4 to 6 d after calving. Data were obtained from two dairy farms during 2006-07, consisting of 603 lactations. The incidence and the severity of BNVV declined between 2006 and 2007, and severe BNVV tended to be more prevalent in the summer. The odds to conceive in the first artificial insemination of BNVV cow tended to be lower than healthy cows (OR = 0.676, P = 0.052). Cows with BNVV had longer empty period (145.8 d vs. 135.1 d of healthy cows, P = 0.031), but only severe BNVV had a negative effect on the odds of the cow to be empty at 150 d in milk (DIM) (OR = 2.05, P = 0.052). Severe BNVV also affected the mean survival time to conception (155.9 d vs. 142.3 d, P = 0.042). All BNVV severity degrees had a negative effect on milk production. The effect on milk production was not limited only to the beginning of the lactation, cows with BNVV produced 338.1 kg milk less than healthy cows (P = 0.016) in 305 d corrected lactation. The effect on milk production was not severity depended. No effect on survival time in the herd was demonstrated.

  18. Different outcomes for different health measures in immigrants: evidence from a longitudinal analysis of the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006).

    PubMed

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2012-02-01

    The response of immigrants to new societies is dynamic. There may be an initial period of happiness followed by peaks of stressful periods. These reactions along with socio-economic changes are likely to influence their health, which may start converging towards the average health of the host population. We used a longitudinal analysis to assess the differences in health outcomes (mental health and self-rated health), separately in men and women, in Canadian born and immigrants over a 12-year period (and the associated socio-economic factors). We used random effects logistic regression models for evaluation of these health outcomes in 3,081 men and 4,187 women from the National Population Health Survey (1994/95 to 2006/07). After adjusting for all the covariates, non-white immigrants were less likely to have severe psychological distress compared with the Canadian born individuals [odds ratio (OR) Men: 0.49, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.24-1.00, Women-OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32-0.92]. Immigrant women (white and non-white) were more likely to rate their health as poor through this 12-year period than the Canadian born women (White-OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.17-2.64; Non-white-OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.01-3.28). Immigrants in the lowest income adequacy category reported higher psychological distress and poorer health than those in the highest income categories. We did not find any significant differences in the mental health and self-rated health of Canadian men and white male immigrants throughout this 12-year period. Though, non-white immigrant women were less likely to have severe psychological distress through this 12 year period, they were the ones most likely to rate their health as poor.

  19. Dengue virus type 3 adaptive changes during epidemics in São Jose de Rio Preto, Brazil, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julian; Mondini, Adriano; Bosch, Irene; Schimdt, Diane J; Schimitt, Diane; Calzavara-Silva, Carlos E; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Nogueira, Maurício L

    2013-01-01

    Global dengue virus spread in tropical and sub-tropical regions has become a major international public health concern. It is evident that DENV genetic diversity plays a significant role in the immunopathology of the disease and that the identification of polymorphisms associated with adaptive responses is important for vaccine development. The investigation of naturally occurring genomic variants may play an important role in the comprehension of different adaptive strategies used by these mutants to evade the human immune system. In order to elucidate this role we sequenced the complete polyprotein-coding region of thirty-three DENV-3 isolates to characterize variants circulating under high endemicity in the city of São José de Rio Preto, Brazil, during the onset of the 2006-07 epidemic. By inferring the evolutionary history on a local-scale and estimating rates of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonimous (dN) substitutions, we have documented at least two different introductions of DENV-3 into the city and detected 10 polymorphic codon sites under significant positive selection (dN/dS > 1) and 8 under significant purifying selection (dN/dS < 1). We found several polymorphic amino acid coding sites in the envelope (15), NS1 (17), NS2A (11), and NS5 (24) genes, which suggests that these genes may be experiencing relatively recent adaptive changes. Furthermore, some polymorphisms correlated with changes in the immunogenicity of several epitopes. Our study highlights the existence of significant and informative DENV variability at the spatio-temporal scale of an urban outbreak.

  20. The effect of fungicides on seed yield and disease control in Italian ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Rijckaert, G

    2009-01-01

    Under Belgian climatic conditions, the incidence of fungal diseases like mildew, crown rust and stem rust is much lower in seed crops of Italian ryegrass than crops of perennial ryegrass, because of the cleaning effect of the preceding forage cut and the much quicker growing rate of Italian ryegrass. However, in some mild and warm seasons, above diseases can give detrimental effects on seed yield, so a preventive fungicide programme would be very recommended in order to obtain consistently high seed yields over the years. Six different fungicides and an untreated control were tested on two tetraploid varieties of Italian ryegrass, namely cv. Meroa and cv. Salomé (more tolerant to crown rust); one fungicide application took place at early ear emergence for all three trials (2006-07-08). Only in the 2007-trial with very severe rust pressure, the most efficient fungicides increased seed yield by 22-25 % against the control (100%) and the tebuconazol-treatment (106.6%). Yield differences could be attributed to a healthier seed crop, i.e., less withered flag leaf and to a higher thousand seed weight. As both years 2006 and 2008 had very little disease pressure throughout the season, the best treatments (Allegro and Opera) resulted in a moderate seed yield increase of 6-7% in 2006, while 2008 did not give any yield response at all between the fungicide treatments and the untreated check. Seed yield, yield components and disease development are discussed and explained in relation to the seasonal meteorological conditions.