Science.gov

Sample records for 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

  1. Parents Returning to Work: Evaluation of Grant Recipient Outcomes 2004-05, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Kellock, Peter; Burke, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The Parents Returning to Work Program (PRTW) is a Victorian government initiative which commenced in 2003. It provides grants to assist eligible parents who wish to return to paid employment after a period of caring for children to participate in training that will increase their work skills and job prospects. This evaluation aimed to review the…

  2. Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide Listing: 1990-91 thru 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The nationwide Teacher Shortage Area (TSA) lists for the 2004-05 and 2005-06 school years have been completed and are listed by state in this document. A state that desires to propose teacher shortage areas for designation must submit the information required under the program regulations for the following programs: (1) Targeted teacher deferment…

  3. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This document presents results of the 2005-06 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 75 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections, including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased, current…

  4. School Finance 2005?06. Budget Sets Off Public Battle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    For the past year, the issue of public education funding has been particularly contentious in California. A pitched political battle between education advocates and the administration of Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger began with a December 2004 preview of the governor's budget proposal for 2005?06. The fight continued through a spring filled with…

  5. ARL Annual Salary Survey, 2006-07. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2006-07" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,824…

  6. Career and Technical Education. Secondary Programs, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simchock, Stephen, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This publication provides information relating to secondary occupational career and technical education program enrollments within Pennsylvania's public secondary schools. For school year 2004-05, Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) used the Career and Technical Education Information System (CATS) to collect individual student enrollment…

  7. Distance Education at Postsecondary Institutions: 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-044

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsad, Basmat; Lewis, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    This report provides national estimates on distance education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions in the 2006-07 academic year. While this report covers many of the topics in the previous three reports, the data are not comparable. The definition of distance education in the 2006-07 study reflected two major changes from earlier studies.…

  8. Decay mechanism of the 2004/05 Kuroshio large meander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Norihisa; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Hideyuki; Fujii, Yosuke; Kamachi, Masafumi

    2011-10-01

    The decay mechanism of the 2004/05 Kuroshio large meander (LM) is examined using a data assimilation/prediction system. Assimilation results reveal detailed variations of the Kuroshio path during the LM period. The Kuroshio takes the typical LM in September 2004 to January 2005. The LM then moves eastward and starts crossing the Izu Ridge (IR) in late January 2005. A minor path transition occurs again in June 2005. As a result, the meandering path straddles the IR, and subsequently the meander amplitude decreases rapidly, resulting in the disappearance of the LM. Prediction results suggest that these path transitions are caused by disturbances propagating along the Kuroshio. The assimilation results also indicate that the LM weakens after the first transition in late January 2005 and thus the transition triggers the subsequent LM decay. We propose three possible mechanisms for the weakening of the LM. (1) Extraction of high potential vorticity (PV) water from the LM by disturbances coming from the upstream of the Kuroshio. (2) Generation and propagation of the costal trapped waves, which are induced as a result of interaction of cold eddy of the LM and the IR, and extract potential energy from the LM. (3) Outflow of high-PV water of the LM to the downstream passing through a southern gate of the IR south of Hachijo-jima, which works after the meandering path straddles the IR. The mechanisms 2 and 3 are closely related to the existence of the IR, suggesting that the LM decay is prescribed by the IR.

  9. Evaluation of the Waterford Early Reading Program in Kindergarten, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; Price-Johnson, Connie

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), a technology-based program for early elementary grades, was provided through Arizona all day kindergarten funds to kindergarten students in 15 Title I elementary schools in the Tucson Unified School District (TUSD) in the 2005-06 school year. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the…

  10. 2005-06 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2006

    2006-01-01

    On March 8, 2005, the Ministry of Advanced Education sent British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, (BCCAT) a management letter setting out the expectations of the Ministry of Advanced Education for the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer in 2005-06. This Annual Report is presented to specify how BCCAT has addressed those expectations…

  11. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Academic Year Report: 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Academic Year Report 2005-06 provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and students. Additional demographic…

  12. The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    New Jersey's urban--or "Abbott"--schools have improved at the preschool and elementary school level, but lag when it comes to middle and high school performance. These are the key findings of an Abbott Indicators Project report entitled, "The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges." The report was prepared by Education Law Center and…

  13. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Lancaster. Sector: Two-Year Institutions--Branches of the University of SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  14. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2005/06.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Lo, S V

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong domestic health spending between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2005/06, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider, and function on an annual basis. In fiscal year 2005/06, total health expenditure was HK$71 557 million. In real terms, it grew 6.5% per annum on average throughout the study period, whereas gross domestic product grew 4.1%, indicating a growing percentage of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.5% in 1989/90 to 5.1% in 2005/06. This increase was largely funded by public spending, which rose 8.2% per annum on average in real terms, compared with 5.1% for private spending. This represents a growing share of public spending from 40.2% to 51.6% of total health expenditure during the period. Public spending was the dominant source of health financing in 2005/06, whereas private household out-of-pocket expenditure accounted for the second largest share (34.5%), followed by employer-provided group medical benefits (7.5%), privately purchased insurance (5.1%), and other private sources (1.3%). Of the HK$71 557 million total health expenditure in 2005/06, HK$68 810 million (96.2%) was on current expenditure and HK$2746 million (3.8%) on capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Services of curative care accounted for the largest share (67.3%) and were made up of ambulatory services (35.7%), in-patient services (27.7%), day patient hospital services (3.4%), and home care (0.6%). The second largest share was spending on medical goods outside the patient care setting (10.8%). In terms of health care providers, hospitals (44.0%) accounted for the largest share of total health expenditure in 2005/06, followed by providers of ambulatory health care (31.4%). We observed a system-wide trend towards service consolidation at institutions (as opposed to free-standing ambulatory clinics, most of which are staffed by solo practitioners). Not taking capital expenses

  15. Communicable Diseases Network Australia National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee annual report, 2005-06.

    PubMed

    Liu, Conan; Johansen, Cheryl; Kurucz, Nina; Whelan, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the epidemiology of mosquito-borne disease in Australia for the mosquito-borne disease season 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006, in which the second largest number of notifications since 1995-96 was reported. Ross River virus (RRV) infections (66%), Barmah Forest virus (BFV) infections (23%) and malaria (9%) were the most common mosquito-borne diseases reported in 2005-06. National RRV notifications were the fifth largest on record. The Northern Territory had the highest rate of RRV notifications and the peak notification rate (in January 2006) was the third highest since 2000. National BFV notification rates were the highest on record. The Northern Territory also reported the highest BFV notification rate this season, peaking in February-March 2006, which was the highest reported BFV notification rate on record. BFV notification rates were significantly higher in teenagers compared to previous seasons. There were 731 notifications of malaria in 2005-06 of which none was reported as locally acquired. This was the third highest reporting period for malaria notifications since 2000. In contrast to previous years in which Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species, Plasmodium falciparum was reported as the infecting species in 45 per cent of the malaria notifications and Plasmodium vivax for 42 per cent of cases. Young adults in the 20-24 year age group had the highest number of cases and children in the 5-9 year age group accounted for 22 per cent of notifications. There were two cases of Kunjin virus (KUNV) infection and one case of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infection reported in 2005-06, all from Western Australia. Sentinel chicken surveillance data for flaviviruses and sentinel pig surveillance data for Japanese encephalitis virus are reported. There were 200 notifications of dengue virus (DENV) infection in 2005-06, of which 46 per cent (n = 92) was reported as having been acquired overseas. Dengue serotypes 2 and 3 were detected

  16. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes--United States, 2005-06 school year.

    PubMed

    2006-09-29

    Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries. PMID:17008865

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF US HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS-RELATED LIGAMENTOUS ANKLE INJURIES, 2005/06-2010/11

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, David M.; Collins, Christy L.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe ankle injury epidemiology among US high school athletes in 20 sports. Design Descriptive prospective epidemiology study. Setting Sports injury data for the 2005/06–2010/11 academic years were collected using an internet-based injury surveillance system, Reporting Information Online (RIO). Participants A nationwide convenience sample of US high schools. Assessment of Risk Factors Injuries sustained as a function of sport and gender. Main Outcome Measures Ankle sprain rates and patterns, outcomes, and mechanisms. Results From 2005/06–2010/11, certified athletic trainers reported 5,373 ankle sprains in 17,172,376 athlete exposures [AEs], for a rate of 3.13 ankle sprains per 10,000 AEs. Rates were higher for girls than boys (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17–1.34) in gender-comparable sports and higher in competition than practice for boys (RR 3.42, 95% CI 3.20–3.66) and girls (RR 2.71, 95% CI 2.48–2.95). The anterior talofibular ligament was most commonly injured (involved in 85.3% of sprains). Overall, 49.7% of sprains resulted in loss of participation from 1–6 days. While 0.5% of all ankle sprains required surgery, 6.6% of those involving the deltoid ligament required surgery. Athletes were wearing ankle braces in 10.6% of all sprains. The most common injury mechanism was contact with another person (42.4% of all ankle sprains). Conclusions Ankle sprains are a serious problem in high school sports, with high rates of recurrent injury and loss of participation from sport. PMID:23328403

  18. School-Based Health Centers: National Census School Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juszczak, Linda; Schlitt, John; Moore, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care conducted the 2004-05 Census, the tenth count of school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986, to: (1) provide a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collect up-to-date data on demographics, staffing services, operations,…

  19. Bandwith Implementation Plan, 2004-05: Learning in an Online World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    The July 2003 meeting of the Ministerial Council for Education, Employment Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA) endorsed the "National Bandwidth Action Plan--Learning in an online world 2003-06" as the basis for the development of the "National Implementation Plan." The "National Implementation Plan 2004-05" provides the detail critical to…

  20. 2006/07 Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Yarbrough, David W; Miller, William A; Petrie, Thomas; Childs, Phillip W; Syed, Azam M

    2008-12-01

    Most recent improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that in the near future, residences will be routinely constructed to operate with very low heating and cooling loads. In that light, the application of novel building materials containing active thermal components (e.g., phase change materials [PCMs,] sub-venting, radiant barriers, and integrated hydronic systems) is like a final step in achieving relatively significant heating and cooling energy savings from technological improvements in the building envelope. It is expected that optimized building envelope designs using PCMs for energy storage can effectively bring notable savings in energy consumption and reductions in peak hour power loads. During 2006/07, a research team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a series of laboratory and field tests of several wall and roof assemblies using PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. This report summarizes the test results from the perspective of energy performance. The ORNL team is working on both inorganic and organic PCMs; this report discusses only paraffinic PCMs. A limited economical analysis also is presented. PCMs have been tested as a thermal mass component in buildings for at least 40 years. Most of the research studies found that PCMs enhanced building energy performance. In the case of the application of organic PCMs, problems such as high initial cost and PCM leaking (surface sweating) have hampered widespread adoption. Paraffinic hydrocarbon PCMs generally performed well, with the exception that they increased the flammability of the building envelope.

  1. Channel morphodynamics in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Channel morphodynamics in response to flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam are examined in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River. Measures include changes in channel morphology and indicators of sediment transport in four 6 kilometer long reaches located downstream from Gavins Point Dam, near Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri. Each of the four reaches was divided into 300 transects with a 20-meter spacing and surveyed during the summer in 2006 and 2007. A subset of 30 transects was randomly selected and surveyed 7-10 times in 2006-07 over a wide range of discharges including managed and natural flow events. Hydroacoustic mapping used a survey-grade echosounder and a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System to evaluate channel change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to evaluate bed-sediment velocity. Results indicate varying amounts of deposition, erosion, net change, and sediment transport in the four Lower Missouri River reaches. The Yankton reach was the most stable over monthly and annual time-frames. The Kenslers Bend and Little Sioux reaches exhibited substantial amounts of deposition and erosion, although net change was generally low in both reaches. Total, or gross geomorphic change was greatest in the Kenslers Bend reach. The Miami reach exhibited varying rates of deposition and erosion, and low net change. The Yankton, Kenslers Bend, and Miami reaches experienced net erosion during the time period that bracketed the managed May 2006 spring rise event from Gavins Point Dam.

  2. Channel Morphodynamics in Four Reaches of the Lower Missouri River, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Channel morphodynamics in response to flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam are examined in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River. Measures include changes in channel morphology and indicators of sediment transport in four 6 kilometer long reaches located downstream from Gavins Point Dam, near Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri. Each of the four reaches was divided into 300 transects with a 20-meter spacing and surveyed during the summer in 2006 and 2007. A subset of 30 transects was randomly selected and surveyed 7-10 times in 2006-07 over a wide range of discharges including managed and natural flow events. Hydroacoustic mapping used a survey-grade echosounder and a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System to evaluate channel change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to evaluate bed-sediment velocity. Results indicate varying amounts of deposition, erosion, net change, and sediment transport in the four Lower Missouri River reaches. The Yankton reach was the most stable over monthly and annual time-frames. The Kenslers Bend and Little Sioux reaches exhibited substantial amounts of deposition and erosion, although net change was generally low in both reaches. Total, or gross geomorphic change was greatest in the Kenslers Bend reach. The Miami reach exhibited varying rates of deposition and erosion, and low net change. The Yankton, Kenslers Bend, and Miami reaches experienced net erosion during the time period that bracketed the managed May 2006 spring rise event from Gavins Point Dam.

  3. Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion at Mount St Helens in 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.; Dzurisin, D.; Gardner, C.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Lisowski, M.; Major, J.J.; Malone, S.D.; Messerich, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Pallister, J.S.; Qamar, A.I.; Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The 2004-05 eruption of Mount St Helens exhibited sustained, near-equilibrium behaviour characterized by relatively steady extrusion of a solid dacite plug and nearly periodic shallow earthquakes. Here we present a diverse data set to support our hypothesis that these earthquakes resulted from stick-slip motion along the margins of the plug as it was forced incrementally upwards by ascending, solidifying, gas-poor magma. We formalize this hypothesis with a dynamical model that reveals a strong analogy between behaviour of the magma-plug system and that of a variably damped oscillator. Modelled stick-slip oscillations have properties that help constrain the balance of forces governing the earthquakes and eruption, and they imply that magma pressure never deviated much from the steady equilibrium pressure. We infer that the volcano was probably poised in a near-eruptive equilibrium state long before the onset of the 2004-05 eruption. ??2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF KNEE INJURIES AMONG US HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES, 2005/06–2010/11

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, David M.; Collins, Christy L.; Best, Thomas M.; Flanigan, David C.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose US high school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually. Detailed patterns of knee injuries, among the most costly sports injuries, remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that patterns of knee injuries in US high school sports differ by sport and gender. Methods US High school sports-related injury data were collected for 20 sports using the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School RIO™. Knee injury rates, rate ratios, and injury proportion ratios were calculated. Results From 2005/06–2010/11, 5,116 knee injuries occurred during 17,172,376 athlete exposures (AEs) for an overall rate of 2.98 knee injuries per 10,000 AEs. Knee injuries were more common in competition than practice (RR 3.53, 95% CI 3.34–3.73). Football had the highest knee injury rate (6.29 per 10,000 AEs) followed by girls’ soccer (4.53) and girls’ gymnastics (4.23). Girls had significantly higher knee injury rates than boys in gender-comparable sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, baseball/softball, lacrosse, swimming and diving, and track and field) (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39–1.65). The most commonly involved structure was the MCL (reported in 36.1% of knee injuries), followed by the patella/patellar tendon (29.5%), ACL (25.4%), meniscus (23.0%), LCL (7.9%), and PCL (2.4%). Girls were significantly more likely to sustain ACL injuries in gender-comparable sports (RR 2.38, 95% CI 1.91–2.95). Overall, 21.2% of knee injuries were treated with surgery; girls were more often treated with surgery than boys in gender-comparable sports (IPR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11–1.53). Conclusions Knee injury patterns differ by sport and gender. Continuing efforts to develop preventive interventions could reduce the burden of these injuries. PMID:23059869

  5. Hong Kong's domestic health spending--financial years 1989/90 through 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Leung, G M; Tin, K Y K; Yeung, G M K; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Fung, A Y K; Lo, S V

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong's domestic health spending between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2004/05, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider and function on an annual basis. Total expenditure on health was HK$67,807 million in fiscal year 2004/05. In real terms, total expenditure on health showed positive growth averaging 7% per annum throughout the period covered in this report while gross domestic product grew at 4% per annum on average, indicating a growing percentage of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.5% in 1989/90 to 5.2% in 2004/05. This increase was largely driven by the rise in public spending, which rose 9% per annum on average in real terms over the period, compared with 5% for private spending. This represents a growing share of public spending from 40% to 55% of total expenditure on health during the period. While public spending was the dominant source of health financing in 2004/05, private household out-of-pocket expenditure accounted for the second largest share of total health spending (32%). The remaining sources of health finance were employer-provided group medical benefits (8%), privately purchased insurance (5%), and other private sources (1%). Of the $67,807 million total health expenditure in 2004/05, current expenditure comprised $65,429 million (96%) while $2378 million (4%) were capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Services of curative care accounted for the largest share of total health spending (67%) which were made up of ambulatory services (35%), in-patient curative care (28%), day patient hospital services (3%), and home care (1%). The next largest share of total health expenditure was spent on medical goods outside the patient care setting (10%). Analysed by health care provider, hospitals accounted for the largest share (46%) and providers of ambulatory health care the second largest share (30%) of total health spending in 2004/05. We

  6. Hong Kong's domestic health spending--financial years 1989/90 through 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Leung, G M; Tin, K Y K; Yeung, G M K; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Fung, A Y K; Lo, S V

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong's domestic health spending between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2004/05, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider and function on an annual basis. Total expenditure on health was HK$67,807 million in fiscal year 2004/05. In real terms, total expenditure on health showed positive growth averaging 7% per annum throughout the period covered in this report while gross domestic product grew at 4% per annum on average, indicating a growing percentage of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.5% in 1989/90 to 5.2% in 2004/05. This increase was largely driven by the rise in public spending, which rose 9% per annum on average in real terms over the period, compared with 5% for private spending. This represents a growing share of public spending from 40% to 55% of total expenditure on health during the period. While public spending was the dominant source of health financing in 2004/05, private household out-of-pocket expenditure accounted for the second largest share of total health spending (32%). The remaining sources of health finance were employer-provided group medical benefits (8%), privately purchased insurance (5%), and other private sources (1%). Of the $67,807 million total health expenditure in 2004/05, current expenditure comprised $65,429 million (96%) while $2378 million (4%) were capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Services of curative care accounted for the largest share of total health spending (67%) which were made up of ambulatory services (35%), in-patient curative care (28%), day patient hospital services (3%), and home care (1%). The next largest share of total health expenditure was spent on medical goods outside the patient care setting (10%). Analysed by health care provider, hospitals accounted for the largest share (46%) and providers of ambulatory health care the second largest share (30%) of total health spending in 2004/05. We

  7. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2005-06 (Fiscal Year 2006). First Look. NCES 2008-345

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2008-01-01

    This brief publication contains basic revenue and expenditure data, by state, for public elementary and secondary education for school year 2005-06. It contains state-level data on revenues by source and expenditures by function, including expenditures per pupil. It presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2005-06

  8. Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05

    PubMed Central

    Yung, CF; Ramsay, M

    2016-01-01

    Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in the 1980s. A simple statistical model, based on analysing time trends for diagnosed complications in hospital databases with routine laboratory surveillance data, found that the actual morbidity was much higher. There were 2.5 times (166 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1970s cohort and 2.0 times (708 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1980s cohort than complications coded to mumps in hospital databases. Our study demonstrated that the mumps outbreak in England 2004/05 resulted in a substantial increase in hospitalised mumps complications, and the model we used can improve the ascertainment of morbidity from a mumps outbreak. PMID:27562958

  9. Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Yung, C F; Ramsay, M

    2016-08-18

    Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in the 1980s. A simple statistical model, based on analysing time trends for diagnosed complications in hospital databases with routine laboratory surveillance data, found that the actual morbidity was much higher. There were 2.5 times (166 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1970s cohort and 2.0 times (708 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1980s cohort than complications coded to mumps in hospital databases. Our study demonstrated that the mumps outbreak in England 2004/05 resulted in a substantial increase in hospitalised mumps complications, and the model we used can improve the ascertainment of morbidity from a mumps outbreak. PMID:27562958

  10. Influenza vaccine scarcity 2004-05: implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Schoch-Spana, Monica; Fitzgerald, Joseph; Kramer, Bradley R

    2005-01-01

    In the event of a bioterrorist event or a pandemic flu outbreak, it might be necessary to ration vaccine or other treatments. In this article, researchers examine how medical and public health decision makers negotiated the unanticipated 2004-05 influenza vaccine shortage, using the regional hospital system headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as the focal study site. This account of that case study describes the circumstances that contributed to the national and local vaccine shortage; the improvisation by health policymakers, hospital administrators, physicians, and nurses to prevent influenza cases despite the shortfall; and some of the legal, fiscal, logistical, social, and political pressures that local health professionals faced in deciding who should receive the limited supply of influenza vaccine. This instance of an acute vaccine shortage provided an opportunity to examine the practical and ethical dilemmas of managing medical resources during a public health emergency.

  11. Chloride Concentrations in Ground Water in East and West Baton Rouge Parishes, Louisiana, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelace, John K.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing chloride concentrations are a threat to fresh ground-water sources in East Baton Rouge and West Baton Rouge Parishes, Louisiana. Large withdrawals at Baton Rouge have lowered water levels and altered flow patterns in most of the 10 aquifers that underlie the area. Prior to development, freshwater flowed southward to the Baton Rouge fault, an east-west trending growth fault that extends through Baton Rouge and across southeastern Louisiana. Aquifers south of the fault generally contain saltwater. Ground-water withdrawals north of the fault have created gradients favorable for the movement of saltwater from south of the fault into freshwater areas north of the fault. Water samples were collected from 152 wells during 2004-05 to document chloride concentrations in aquifers underlying East and West Baton Rouge Parishes. The background concentration for chloride in fresh ground water in the Baton Rouge area north of the Baton Rouge fault is generally less than 10 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in one or more samples from wells north of the fault screened in the '600-foot', '1,000-foot', '1,200-foot', '1,500-foot', '1,700-foot', '2,000-foot', '2,400-foot', and '2,800-foot' sands. Comparison of the 2004-05 data with historical data indicated that chloride concentrations are increasing at wells in the '600-foot', '1,000-foot', '1,200-foot', '1,500-foot', '2,000-foot', '2,400-foot', and '2,800-foot' sands north of the Baton Rouge fault.

  12. Assessment of Contaminant Exposure and Effects on Ospreys Nesting along the Lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Branden L.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Davis, Jay W.; Schulz, Edmund P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contaminants on osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the lower Duwamish River (LDR), Washington, and used the upper reach of the Willamette River (WR), Oregon, as a reference site. Osprey eggs and nestling blood (plasma) were collected at nests along the LDR (11 eggs, 7 plasmas) and WR (10 eggs, 6 plasmas) in 2006-07 and analyzed for contaminants. Additionally, hematology and serum chemistries were determined in the blood/plasma samples of nestlings (about 35-45 days old) and were used as potential indicators of stress induced by contaminant exposure. Detailed foraging information for ospreys nesting along the LDR was collected and evaluated to better understand contaminant profiles observed in the eggs and plasma. Additional residue data from 26 osprey eggs collected and analyzed in 2002-03 from nests along the LDR, Snohomish River Estuary (SRE) and Lake Washington (LW) in the Puget Sound (PS) region also were evaluated.

  13. How Segregated are Michigan's Schools? Changes in Enrollment from 1992-93 to 2004-05. Policy Report 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landauer-Menchik, Bettie

    2006-01-01

    A 2002 study, "Race in American Public Schools: Rapidly Resegregating School Districts," identified Michigan as the state with the most segregated schools in the nation. The present data brief looks at changes in the distribution of Michigan's African American students between 1992-93 and 2004-05 to determine if African American students are more…

  14. Colorado Higher Education Capital Improvements Program 1995 through 2004-05. Presented to the Legislative Capital Development Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    This report presents the recommendations of the Colorado Commission on Higher Education (CCHE) for $474.4 million in state-funded capital development needs and $461.4 million in non-state funded improvements from 1995-96 through 2004-05. These 272 projects are part of the Capital Improvements Program, which determines when new facilities are…

  15. Rapid liquid chromatography for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis using superficially porous chromatography with AOAC Official Method 2005.06.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Robert G; Turner, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, oysters, cockles, hard clams, razors, and king scallops is monitored in England, Scotland, and Wales by AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-with fluorescence detection (FLD). One of the commonly perceived disadvantages of using this method is the long turnaround time and low throughput in a busy laboratory environment. The chromatographic analysis of each sample typically utilizes a 15 min cycle time to achieve toxin oxidation product separation and column equilibration prior to subsequent analysis. A standard RP C18 analytical column, used successfully in recent years, achieves good separation with a long column lifetime. The analysis of a 40 sample qualitative screening batch takes approximately 18 h, including blanks, standards, and other QC samples. The availability of superficially porous column technology has offered the potential to reduce analysis time while retaining column performance on existing hardware. In this study, AOAC Official Method 2005.06 with LC-FLD was transferred to two different commercially available superficially porous columns, and the method performance characteristics were evaluated. Both columns separated all toxins adequately with cycle times less than half that of the existing method. Linearity for each toxin was acceptable up to two times the European maximum permitted limit of 800 microg di-HCl saxitoxin equivalent/kg flesh. LOD and LOQ values were substantially improved for the majority of toxins, with gonyautoxin 1&4 and neosaxitoxin showing up to a two- and fourfold improvement, respectively, depending on the column used. Quantification results obtained from parallel analysis of contaminated samples were acceptable on both columns. Comparative screen results gave a slight increase in the occurrence of contaminated samples, which was attributed to the improved detection limit for most toxins. Issues with rapidly increasing back pressure, however, were identified with both

  16. Rapid liquid chromatography for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis using superficially porous chromatography with AOAC Official Method 2005.06.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Robert G; Turner, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, oysters, cockles, hard clams, razors, and king scallops is monitored in England, Scotland, and Wales by AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-with fluorescence detection (FLD). One of the commonly perceived disadvantages of using this method is the long turnaround time and low throughput in a busy laboratory environment. The chromatographic analysis of each sample typically utilizes a 15 min cycle time to achieve toxin oxidation product separation and column equilibration prior to subsequent analysis. A standard RP C18 analytical column, used successfully in recent years, achieves good separation with a long column lifetime. The analysis of a 40 sample qualitative screening batch takes approximately 18 h, including blanks, standards, and other QC samples. The availability of superficially porous column technology has offered the potential to reduce analysis time while retaining column performance on existing hardware. In this study, AOAC Official Method 2005.06 with LC-FLD was transferred to two different commercially available superficially porous columns, and the method performance characteristics were evaluated. Both columns separated all toxins adequately with cycle times less than half that of the existing method. Linearity for each toxin was acceptable up to two times the European maximum permitted limit of 800 microg di-HCl saxitoxin equivalent/kg flesh. LOD and LOQ values were substantially improved for the majority of toxins, with gonyautoxin 1&4 and neosaxitoxin showing up to a two- and fourfold improvement, respectively, depending on the column used. Quantification results obtained from parallel analysis of contaminated samples were acceptable on both columns. Comparative screen results gave a slight increase in the occurrence of contaminated samples, which was attributed to the improved detection limit for most toxins. Issues with rapidly increasing back pressure, however, were identified with both

  17. Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2008-353

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillwell, Robert; Hoffman, Lee

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the number of high school graduates, the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR), and dropout data for grades 9 through 12 for public schools in school year 2005-06. The counts of graduates, dropouts, and enrollments by grade (which serve as the denominators for the graduation and dropout rates) are from the Common Core of…

  18. Dual Credit in Oregon: An Analysis of Students Taking Dual Credit in High School in 2005-06 with Subsequent Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jonathan; North, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A dual credit course is a college/university level course that is taught at a high school, by a high school teacher, in partnership with a community college (CCWD) or Oregon University System (OUS) institution. Successful completion of a dual credit course counts as credit for both high school and college. In 2005-06, about 12,000 students took…

  19. Numbers and Types of Public Elementary and Secondary Schools from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2007-354

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lee

    2007-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools in the United States and other jurisdictions in the 2005-06 school year, using data from the Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. Data are presented on: (1) the number of operating public…

  20. Progress without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Don; Veliz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This first-of-its-kind report on gender and high school sports participation, "Progress Without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06," flows from an analysis of high schools that is unprecedented in its national and historical scope. It uses merged data from the Civil…

  1. Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2005 and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2007-150

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Miller, Elise

    2007-01-01

    This report presents information from the Winter 2005-06 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) web-based data collection. Tabulations represent data requested from all postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV federal student financial aid programs. The tables in this publication include data on the number of staff…

  2. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2005-06. NCES 2007-361

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolle, Kacey Lee; Guerino, Paul; Dinkes, Rachel; Chandler, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This report presents findings on crime and violence in U.S. public schools, using data from the 2005-06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006). Developed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and supported by the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools of the U.S. Department of Education, SSOCS asks public school principals…

  3. Creating a University System for the 21st Century. Student Affordability Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Historically, tuition and mandatory fee rates of all North Dakota University System (NDUS) institutions (except the 2-year campuses) have been less than their regional counterparts. Average tuition and fee increases at NDUS institutions were significantly higher than their regional counterparts in 2004-05, 2005-06 and 2006-07, as a result, the gap…

  4. Applying the ECTS System to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rosario Merida; Romero, Julia Angulo; Del Pino, Carmen Gil

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the research conducted as part of a Pilot Experiment regarding the application of the ECTS to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree taught at the University of Cordoba (Spain). It analyses the Experiment, which was carried out in the Education Faculty over the course of three academic years (2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07).…

  5. Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2010-313

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillwell, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the number of high school graduates, the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR), and dropout data for grades 9 through 12 for public schools in school year 2006-07. The counts of graduates, dropouts, and enrollments by grade (which serve as the denominators for the graduation and dropout rates) are from the National Center…

  6. Are Student Protests in Arab States Caused by Economic and Political Grievances? Empirical Evidence from the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Mason, Jessica; Seybolt, Taylor; DeLuca, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of protests by students (age 18 and older) in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen by using subsamples of students from nationally representative and acclaimed public opinion data (the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"). We find between 22.1% (Jordan) and 54.7% (Yemen) participated in either the signing of petitions, or…

  7. Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2006, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2008-172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.; Miller, Elise

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions, such as Puerto Rico. This report presents information from the Winter 2006-07 IPEDS web-based data collection. Tabulations represent data…

  8. Parent and Family Involvement in Education, 2006-07 School Year, From the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007. First Look. NCES 2008-050

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrold, Kathleen; O'Donnell, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on parents' and families' involvement in their children's education in the United States according to parents' reports for the 2006-07 school year. It also incorporates basic demographic information about children, parent/guardian characteristics, and household characteristics. The data come from the Parent and Family…

  9. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2006-07 (Fiscal Year 2007). First Look. NCES 2009-338

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2006-07 (fiscal year 2007, or FY 07). The School District Finance Survey is a district-level survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) by state education agencies (SEAs) in the 50 states and the District of…

  10. Shell anomalies observed in a population of Archaias angulatus (Foraminifera) from the Florida Keys (USA) sampled in 1982-83 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souder, H.C.; McCloskey, B.; Hallock, P.; Byrne, R.

    2010-01-01

    Archived specimens of Archaias angulatus collected live at a depth of < 2. m in John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, Key Largo, Florida, in June, September and December 1982, and March 1983, were compared to specimens collected live from the same site and months in 2006-07. Shells were examined using light microscopy for anomalous features, which were then documented using scanning electron microscopy. Seven different types of morphological abnormalities and five different surface texture anomalies were observed. Physical abnormalities included profoundly deformed, curled, asymmetrical, and uncoiled shells, irregular suture lines, surface protrusions, and breakage/repair. Textural anomalies observed were surface pits, dissolution features, microborings, microbial biofilms, and the presence of epibionts including bryzoans, cyanobacteria and foraminifers. The same kinds of features were found in this A. angulatus population in both 1982-83 collections and 2006-07 collections. Within-date variability was higher in specimens collected in 1982-83, while between-date variability was higher in 2006-07; overall the range of variability was similar. Given that the site was originally chosen for study because these foraminifers were so abundant, the lack of significant change indicates that the variability of the geochemical habitat is still within the range that A. angulatus can thrive. ?? 2010.

  11. Increasing socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India: trends between 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Kumari, Divya; Singh, Aditya

    2015-10-01

    This article examines the trends and pattern in socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight and wasting among children aged <3 years in urban India over a 14-year period. We use three successive rounds of the National Family Health Survey data conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06. The selected socioeconomic predictors are household wealth and mother's education level. We use principal component analysis to compute a separate wealth index for urban India for all three rounds of the survey. We have used descriptive statistics, concentration index and pooled logistic regression to analyse the data. The results show that between 1992-93 and 2005-06, the prevalence of childhood undernutrition has declined across household wealth quintiles and educational level of mothers. However, the pace of decline is much higher among the better-off socioeconomic groups than among the least-affluent groups. The result of pooled logistic regression analysis shows that the socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India has increased over the study period. The salient findings of this study call for separate programmes targeting the children of lower socioeconomic groups in urban population of India.

  12. Organic compounds assessed in Chattahoochee River water used for public supply near Atlanta, Georgia, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W. Brian; Younker, Cristal L.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program characterized the occurrence of 266 organic compounds in source water and finished water from the Chattahoochee River, which is the main water-supply source for the Atlanta metropolitan area. Source water is stream water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment, and finished water is water that has passed through treatment processes prior to distribution. Samples were collected approximately monthly during 2004-05 and included 15 paired source-water and finished-water samples. Samples were collected during winter-spring high flow and summer-fall low flow, but storm events were not targeted during this Source Water-Quality Assessment (SWQA) study. Samples were analyzed for pesticides and degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, disinfection by-products, personal care and domestic-use products, and other organic compounds. Community water systems are required to monitor regulated organic compounds under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1998); however, most compounds included in this study are not regulated by Federal drinking-water standards (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). The Chattahoochee River study is part of an ongoing NAWQA investigation of community water systems across the United States. Additional details about the national study are given in Carter and others (2007).

  13. A Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2000/01 to 2004/05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia on the basis of transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2000/01 through 2004/05 academic years. Data are provided that indicates the number of transfer students, where they…

  14. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2004-05 (Fiscal Year 2005). First Look. NCES 2007-355

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei; Gaviola, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This brief publication contains data on revenues and expenditures per pupil made by school districts for school year 2004-05. Median per pupil revenue and expenditure data are reported by state, as well as values at the 5th and 95th percentiles. Data for charter schools are reported separately. There are also discussions on the different types of…

  15. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2004-05. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-335

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofano, Anthony; Sable, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership, that is, the number of students enrolled at the beginning of the school year) for the 2004-05 school year in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Bureau of Indian Education, the…

  16. Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC

  17. Drosophila Aging 2005/06

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hui-Ying; Bodmer, Rolf; Perrin, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila continues to be a model system of choice to study the genetics of aging. It has a short lifespan and small genome size, but nevertheless contains a complex organ and endocrine system that allows studying the role of conserved signal transduction pathways with sophisticated genetic tools. Oxidative stress and metabolic changes along with intersecting signaling systems Insulin Receptor (InR), Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) have emerged as some of the major players in aging. Sleep and organ-specific aging has also been the subject of recent progress in understanding aging. PMID:17126511

  18. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  19. Electron donor concentrations in sediments and sediment properties at the agricultural chemicals team research site near New Providence, Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maharjan, Bijesh; Korom, Scott F.; Smith, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of electron donors in aquifer sediments are important to the understanding of the fate and transport of redox-sensitive constituents in groundwater, such as nitrate. For a study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 50 sediment samples were collected from below the water table from 11 boreholes at the U.S. Geological Survey Agricultural Chemicals Team research site near New Providence, Iowa, during 2006-07. All samples were analyzed for gravel, sand (coarse, medium, and fine), silt, clay, Munsell soil color, inorganic carbon content, and for the following electron donors: organic carbon, ferrous iron, and inorganic sulfide. A subset of 14 sediment samples also was analyzed for organic sulfur, but all of these samples had concentrations less than the method detection limit; therefore, the presence of this potential electron donor was not considered further. X-ray diffraction analyses provided important semi-quantitative information of well-crystallized dominant minerals within the sediments that might be contributing electron donors.

  20. The relationship between socially-assigned ethnicity, health and experience of racial discrimination for Māori: analysis of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In New Zealand, there are significant and long-standing inequalities in a range of health outcomes, risk factors and healthcare measures between Māori (indigenous peoples) and Pākehā (European). This study expands our understanding of racism as a determinant of such inequalities to examine the concept of socially-assigned ethnicity (how an individual is classified by others ethnically/racially) and its relationship to health and racism for Māori. There is some evidence internationally that being socially-assigned as the dominant ethnic group (in this case European) offers health advantage. Methods We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey for adult participants who self-identified their ethnicity as Māori (n = 3160). The association between socially-assigned ethnicity and individual experience of racial discrimination, and socially-assigned ethnicity and health (self-rated health, psychological distress [Kessler 10-item scale]) was assessed using logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively. Results Māori who were socially-assigned as European-only had significantly lower experience of racial discrimination (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.78) than Māori who were socially-assigned as non-European. Being socially-assigned as European-only was also associated with health advantage compared to being socially-assigned non-European: more likely to respond with self-rated very good/excellent health (age, sex adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.74), and lower Kessler 10 scores (age, sex adjusted mean difference = -0.66, 95% C I = -1.22, -0.10). These results were attenuated following adjustment for socioeconomic measures and experience of racial discrimination. Conclusions Results suggest that, in a race conscious society, the way people’s ethnicities are viewed by others is associated with tangible health risk or advantage, and this is consistent with an

  1. Factors associated with non-utilization of child immunization in Pakistan: evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The proportion of incompletely immunized children in Pakistan varies from 37-58%, and this has recently resulted in outbreaks of measles and polio. The aim of this paper is to determine the factors associated with incomplete immunization among children aged 12-23 months in Pakistan. Methods Secondary analysis was conducted on nationally representative cross-sectional survey data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-07. The analysis was limited to ever-married mothers who had delivered their last child during the 23 months immediately preceding the survey (n = 2,435). ‘Complete immunization’ was defined as the child having received twelve doses of five vaccines, and ‘incomplete immunization’ was defined if he/she had missed at least one of these twelve doses. The association between child immunization status and determinants of non-utilization of vaccines was assessed by calculating unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals using a multivariable binary logistic regression. Results The findings of this research showed that nearly 66% of children were incompletely immunized against seven preventable childhood diseases. The likelihood of incomplete immunization was significantly associated with the father’s occupation as a manual worker (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.10-1.97), lack of access to information (AOR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.66), non-use of antenatal care (AOR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.07-1.66), children born in Baluchistan region (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.12-2.70) and delivery at home (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.14-1.69). Conclusions Despite governmental efforts to increase rates of immunization against childhood diseases, the proportion of incompletely immunized children in Pakistan is still high. Targeted interventions are needed to increase the immunization rates in Pakistan. These interventions need to concentrate on people with low socioeconomic and educational status in order to improve their knowledge

  2. Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  3. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Faja Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Ant?o, and Ribeira Faj? on S?o Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development. Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Faj? indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Faj? tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Faj? have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s. Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground

  4. Hydrology and water quality in the Green River and surrounding agricultural areas near Green River in Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for municipal and industrial purposes by about 27 million people and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of land in the Western United States. Water users in the Upper Colorado River Basin consume water from the Colorado River and its tributaries, reducing the amount of water in the river. In addition, application of water to agricultural land within the basin in excess of crop needs can increase the transport of dissolved solids to the river. As a result, dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River have increased, affecting downstream water users. During 2004-05, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, investigated the occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids in water from the agricultural areas near Green River, Utah, and in the adjacent reach of the Green River, a principle tributary of the Colorado River. The flow-weighted concentration of dissolved solids diverted from the Green River for irrigation during 2004 and 2005 was 357 milligrams per liter and the mean concentration of water collected from seeps and drains where water was returning to the river during low-flow conditions was 4,170 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from the shallow part of the ground-water system ranged from 687 to 55,900 milligrams per liter. Measurable amounts of dissolved solids discharging to the Green River are present almost exclusively along the river banks or near the mouths of dry washes that bisect the agricultural areas. The median dissolved-solids load in discharge from the 17 drains and seeps visited during the study was 0.35 ton per day. Seasonal estimates of the dissolved-solids load discharging from the study area ranged from 2,800 tons in the winter to 6,400 tons in the spring. The estimate of dissolved solids discharging from the study area annually is 15,700 tons. Water samples collected from selected sites within

  5. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    , was not necessarily an important factor affecting spatial differences of metals deposition in snow along the road in CAKR during winter 2005?06. The average metal content of particulates in 2005?06 snow samples was slightly less than that of snow samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in CAKR at three near-road locations in April 2003. Mean metals concentrations in 2006 snow particulates were about three times greater than in the road bed soils that were sampled in 2005; however, the fraction of annual metals loadings occurring in winter as compared to the remainder of the year was not readily determined by these data. Although procedures have been implemented in recent years to reduce the quantities of metal-enriched fugitive dusts, particulates dispersed near the road during the winter of 2005?06 were enriched in metals and these particulates contributed considerable metal loadings to the nearby terrain.

  6. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Facilities Performance Indicators Survey" ("FPI") supersedes and builds upon the two major surveys APPA conducted in the past: the Comparative Costs and Staffing (CCAS) survey and the Strategic Assessment Model (SAM). The "FPI" covers all the materials collected in CCAS and SAM, along with some select new data points and improved survey…

  7. NSHE Diversity Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report includes information on Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) student enrollments in the context of Nevada's changing demographics. In addition, the report provides data on the recruitment and performance of NSHE students within defined ethnic/racial categories. As required by Board policy, the report also provides data on the…

  8. NSHE Diversity Report, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report is prepared annually by the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) to provide an overview of: (1) the enrollment of members of racial/ethnic groups as students at NSHE institutions; (2) graduation rates for each institution broken down by each racial/ethnic group; and (3) the number of women and members of racial/ethnic groups…

  9. Perspectives. Fall-Winter 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Technical Assistance Center (NETAC), Rochester Institute of Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers' individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. The issue focuses on the following topics: (1) IDEA and transition to life beyond high school (Sharaine J. Rawlinson); (2) PEPNet…

  10. Rapid ascent and emplacement of basaltic lava during the 2005-06 eruption of the East Pacific Rise at ca. 9°51‧N as inferred from CO2 contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. E.; Jackson, B. A.; Gonnermann, H.; Soule, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    Eruption rates at the mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are believed to strongly control the morphology and length of lava flows emplaced along the ridge axis, and thus the structure and porosity of the upper oceanic crust. Eruption rate also represents one of the few tools to gain insight into the driving pressures within sub-ridge magmatic systems. As eruption rate is inferred to vary systematically along the global mid-ocean ridge system, understanding of how to assess eruption rate in submarine systems and how it maps to observable features of the ridge axis would provide a powerful tool to understand Earth's largest magmatic system. Eruption rates at MORs are poorly constrained, however, because of a lack of direct observations, preventing the duration of an eruption to be quantified. This study uses decompression experiments of MORB samples and numerical modeling of CO2 degassing to reconstruct the timescales for magma ascent and lava emplacement during the 2005-06 eruption of the East Pacific Rise at ca. 9°51‧N. Samples collected from the lava flow are all supersaturated in dissolved CO2 contents, but CO2 decreases with distance from the vent, presumably as a consequence of progressive CO2 diffusion into growing bubbles. Samples collected at the vent contain ∼105 vesicles per cm3. Pieces of these samples were experimentally heated to 1225 °C at high pressure and then decompressed at controlled rates. Results, plus those from numerical modeling of diffusive bubble growth, indicate that magma rose from the axial magma chamber to the seafloor in ≤1 h and at a rate of ≥2-3 km h-1. Our modeling, as validated by experimental decompression of MORB samples with ∼106 vesicles cm-3, also suggests that CO2 degassed from the melt within ∼10-100 min as the vesicular lava traveled ∼1.7 km along the seafloor, implying a volumetric flow rate on order of 103-4 m3 s-1. Given an ascent rate of ≥0.2 m s-1, the width of a rectangular dike feeding the lava would have been

  11. NSHE Diversity Report, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report presents statistical data on student diversity and minority enrollment distributions in the eight institutions comprising the Nevada System of Higher Education in order to meet the goal of the NSHE Master Plan in achieving opportunity and accessible education for all. The report is divided into three sections. Section I: Performance…

  12. Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical

  13. Alberta Advanced Education Annual Report 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the "Government Accountability Act." The Public Accounts consist of the annual report of the Government of Alberta and the annual reports of each of the 24 ministries. The annual report of the Government of Alberta released June 26, 2006 contains…

  14. 2005-06 NCAA[R] Gender-Equity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHass, Denise

    2008-01-01

    This report provides summary information concerning personnel, revenues, expenses and other comparative variables of men's and women's intercollegiate athletics programs at NCAA member institutions for the 2005-2006 fiscal year. The summary information may be used to help track gender-equity issues at the collegiate level. This report is the…

  15. High School Counselor's Handbook: 2004-05 Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document provides useful information to help high school and TRIO counselors advise students about financial aid for postsecondary education. This document focuses on the federal student aid programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education. It includes general information about postsecondary opportunities, and the application process…

  16. Academic Competitiveness and National SMART Grant Programs: 2006-07 and 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Berkner, Lutz; Li, Xiaojie; Woo, Jennie; Lee, John; Topper, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Education is vitally interested in whether the financial incentives provided by the grants affect student behavior. That is, will the Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACGs) induce more economically disadvantaged high school students to complete a rigorous high school program and enroll and succeed in postsecondary education? Will…

  17. Potentiometric Surface of the Ozark Aquifer near Springfield, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.; Mugel, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A study of the water resources of the Springfield, Missouri, area in the 1970s determined that a cone of depression, formed by ground-water pumping, had developed in the Ozark aquifer beneath the city (Emmett and others, 1978). Continued ground-water usage in the 1970s and 1980s caused concern that ground-water resources would not be sufficient to meet the future needs of Springfield, Missouri, during periods of drought. As a result, a ground-water flow model of the Springfield area was developed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to assess the future role of ground water as a water source for the area (Imes, 1989). Results of the USGS model led to a decision by the City Utilities of Springfield to primarily rely on surface water from Stockton Lake as a source of city drinking water. Municipal and industrial ground-water usage continues in Springfield, but at lower rates than previously experienced (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). Rapid growth in the area has caused commercial, industrial, and domestic water use to increase. Population growth has been especially rapid in Nixa, Ozark, and Republic, and water use in the vicinity of these cities has grown an estimated 39 percent since 1990 (Dintelmann and others, 2006). Unlike Springfield, ground water is the primary source of water for these cities. The increased stress on the Ozark aquifer, the primary aquifer in the study area, has raised new concerns about possible further water-level declines in the areas of increased ground-water use. Although there continues to be new development in the Ozark aquifer, since 1987 no new water-supply wells that produce water from the Springfield Plateau aquifer have been allowed to be constructed in most of Greene and northern Christian counties (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). There is concern that if the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer continues to decline, increased leakage of contaminants into the Ozark aquifer from the overlying Springfield Plateau aquifer could occur (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). To address this concern, the USGS, in cooperation with Greene County, Missouri, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, constructed a map of the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer for 2006?2007. The map can be compared to previously constructed potentiometric-surface maps by Emmett and others (1978) and Imes (1989) to evaluate changes in ground-water flow directions, but the comparison is beyond the scope of this report.

  18. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Fuller, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS initially operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham (H5r), Fairhaven (H9r), Grant (H2r), and Lake Townships (H25Ar) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report (fig. 1). The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only wells H9r and H25Ar retained continuous water-level recorders, while wells H2r and H5r reverted to quarterly or periodic measurement status due to budget constraints. The decision of which two wells to discontinue was based on an analysis of the intrinsic value to Huron County of data from each well. Well H2r was selected for periodic measurement at that time because it is completed in the glacial aquifer, which is absent in much of Huron County and well H5r, which is completed in the Marshall aquifer, was selected because the water level in the well is often perturbed as a result of pumpage from nearby production wells and does not always reflect baseline conditions within the aquifer. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level in 24 of the wells on a quarterly basis. USGS personnel accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel on a semi-annual basis to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made at Essexville and Harbor Beach (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2008), and monthly precipitation measured in Harbor Beach, Sebewaing, and Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Danny Costello, written commun., 2007-08). In December 2007, the water level in Lake Huron dropped to a new monthly mean low of 576.38 ft for the period from 1988 through 2007 (the previous low-water level of 576.57 ft was measured in March 2003). The net decline in the water level of Lake Huron from January 2006 through December 2007 was 0.68 ft. In 2006, annual precipitation measured at Harbor Beach was 3.2 in. above the long-term average of 31.1 in., with 10.6 in. measured during the 2006 growing season (May through August). In 2007, annual precipitation measured at Harbor Beach was 1.4 in. below normal, with 9.7 in. measured during the growing season. In the two wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders, the water level rose 0.32 ft from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007 in well H9r, but declined 1.11 ft in well H25Ar. Curiously, well H9r is drilled adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and, as previously noted, there was a 0.68 ft decline in the water level in Saginaw Bay during that period. Twenty four wells were measured on a quarterly or periodic basis from December 2005 through December 2007 (well H26 was destroyed during summer 2007 reducing the total number of wells from 25). These wells are completed in the glacial, Saginaw and Marshall aquifers, and the Coldwater confining unit. Although each quarterly or periodic measurement only provides a 'snapshot' water level (measured in ft below land surface, and altitude, in ft above sea level), the data adequately define the generalized water-level trend in the aquifer near the well. Water levels in 6 quarterly-measured wells had net rises ranging from 0.09 to 1.45 ft for the period, while water levels in 18 of the wells had net declines ranging from 0.26 to 2

  19. 2006-07 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report outlines accomplishments relative to items listed in the February 23, 2006 Management Letter from the Assistant Deputy Minister of Advance Education to the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT). A major focus of BCCAT during this year was the redesign and launch of BCCAT.bc.ca, implementing a number of…

  20. Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 2006-07. Research Report 1-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xiaoyun

    2007-01-01

    The University of North Carolina presents the thirty-ninth annual "Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolinaa." This abstract covers the breadth of higher education activities in the State in their quantitative aspect, from simple counts of enrollment and degrees conferred to complex analyses of the flow of student transfers among…

  1. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed criterion in all but four stream samples (266 of 270). Similarly, only 2 of 84 Missouri River samples had total phosphorus concentrations less than the proposed criterion. The proposed total nitrogen criterion for the Corn Belt and Northern Great Plains ecoregion was surpassed in 80 percent of the water samples collected from the stream sites. Samples with total nitrogen concentrations greater than the proposed criterion were most common at Papillion Creek and Big Papillion Creek sites, where the proposed criterion was surpassed in 90 and 96 percent of the samples collected, respectively. Elevated concentrations of total nitrogen were less common at the Missouri River sites, with 33 percent of the samples analyzed having concentrations that surpassed the proposed nutrient criterion for total nitrogen. The three constituents with measured concentrations greater than their respective health-based screening levels were nickel, zinc, and dichlorvos. Differences in water quality during the beginning, middle, and end of the combined sewer overflow discharge and the stream hydrograph rise, peak, and recession were investigated. Concentrations from the ending part of the combined sewer overflow hydrograph were significantly different than those from the beginning and middle parts for 3 and 11 constituents, respectively. No constituents were significantly different between the beginning and middle parts of the combined sewer overflow discharge hydrograph. For the stream site upstream from combined sewer overflow outfalls on Cole Creek, the constituents with geometric mean values for the hydrograph rise that were at least twice those for the values of the peak and recession were specific conductance, magnesium, nitrite, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), methyl salicylate, p-cresol, and Escherichia coli. Similarly, the constituents where the hydrograph peak was at least twice that for the rise and recession at the upstream Cole Creek site were total suspended solids, silver, an

  2. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Outcomes for the Third Year (2006-07)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, set forth a vision for technology immersion in public schools. Senate Bill 396 called for the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to establish a pilot project to "immerse" schools in technology by providing a wireless mobile computing device for each teacher and student,…

  3. Public Secondary School Dropouts in Pennsylvania 2005-06: Report to the General Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Joanne R., Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Act 49 of 1987 requires the Secretary of Education to provide the General Assembly with an annual report on public school dropouts in Pennsylvania. The purpose of this report is to document the actual number of students who drop out each year and to provide various characteristics about these students. The type of data collected about each dropout…

  4. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T.; Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

  5. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  6. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: 2005-06 Transfer Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  7. Ecological assessment of streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005–06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring.The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report.The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River.Macroinvertebrate communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale. Macroinvertebrate communities at sites with mountainous headwaters and snowmelt-driven hydrology, such as Clear Creek, Crazy Woman Creek, and Goose Creek, showed similarity with communities from the main-stem Tongue River. The data also indicated similarity among sites on the main-stem Powder River and among small tributaries of the Tongue River. Data analyses using macroinvertebrate observed/expected models and multimetric indices developed by the States of Wyoming and Montana indicated a tendency toward declining biological condition in the downstream direction along the Tongue River. Biological condition for the main-stem Powder River generally improved downstream, from below Salt Creek to near the Wyoming/Montana border, followed by a general decline downstream from the border to the confluence with the Yellowstone River. The biological condition generally was not significantly different between 2005 and 2006, although streamflow was less in 2006 because of drought.Algal communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale with slight differences from the pattern observed in the macroinvertebrate communities. Although the algal communities from Clear Creek and Goose Creek were similar to those from the main-stem Tongue River, as was true of the macroinvertebrate communities, the algal communities from Crazy Woman Creek had more similarity to those of main-stem Powder River sites than to the Tongue River sites, contrary to the macroinvertebrates. Ordination of algal communities, as well as diatom metrics including salinity and dominant taxa, indicated substantial variation at two sites along the main stem of the Powder River.Fish communities of the PRB were most diverse in the Tongue River drainage. In part due to the effects of Tongue River Reservoir, 15 species of fish were found in the Tongue River drainage that were not found in the Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, or Little Powder River drainages. The number of introduced species and relative abundance of introduced species of fish were higher in the Tongue River and other drainages than at sites on the main-stem Powder River. Although non-native species were identified in the Powder River, the native fish community is largely intact. Western silvery minnow and sturgeon chub—species of special concern—were identified only at sites on the main-stem Powder River and were most common in the Montana segment of the main stem. Fish and habitat sampling on the main-stem Powder River indicated affinity of some species for certain habitats such as pools, runs, riffles, backwaters, or shoals.

  8. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia, 1993-94 to 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's (BC's) public post-secondary institutions. In March 2003, BCCAT prepared a report detailing the…

  9. Influenza vaccine effectiveness among US military basic trainees, 2005-06 season.

    PubMed

    Strickler, Jennifer K; Hawksworth, Anthony W; Myers, Christopher; Irvine, Marina; Ryan, Margaret A K; Russell, Kevin L

    2007-04-01

    Virtually all US military basic trainees receive seasonal influenza vaccine. Surveillance data collected from December 2005 through March 2006 were evaluated to estimate effectiveness of the influenza vaccine at 6 US military basic training centers. Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza was 92% (95% confidence interval 85%-96%).

  10. 2005-06 Overview of M-DCPS Academic Performance. Research Capsule. Volume 0602

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS) earned a performance grade of "B" for the second year in a row and was just seven points short of the points required to earn an "A." This Research Capsule summarizes several key elements that contributed to the district's achievement. Results indicate that, in most cases, students' levels of academic…

  11. Intersectional inequalities in immunization in India, 1992-93 to 2005-06: a progress assessment.

    PubMed

    Joe, William

    2015-05-01

    Immunization in India is marked with stark disparities across gender, caste, wealth and place of residence with severe shortfalls among those disadvantaged in more than one dimension. In this regard, an explicit recognition of intersectionality and intersectional inequalities has 2-fold relevance; one, being the pathway of health inequality and the other being its role as a deterrent of progress particularly at higher (better) levels of health. Against this backdrop, this study examines intersectional inequalities in immunization in India and also suggests a level-sensitive progress assessment method. The study uses group analogue of Gini coefficient for highlighting the magnitude of intersectional inequality and for comprehending its association with immunization level. The results unravel the plight of vulnerable intersectional groups and draw attention to disquieting shortfalls among female SCST (scheduled castes and tribes) children from rural areas. There is also some evidence to indicate leveraging among rural males in matters of immunization and it is further discerned that such gender advantage is greater among rural non-SCST community than the rural SCST group. In concluding, the study calls for intensive immunization planning to improve coverage among vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas.

  12. Ground-Water Quality in the St. Lawrence River Basin, New York, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Clean Water Act requires that States monitor and report on the quality of ground water and surface water. To satisfy part of these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have developed a program in which ground-water quality is assessed in 2 to 3 of New York State's 14 major river basins each year. To characterize the quality of ground water in the St. Lawrence River Basin in northern New York, water samples were collected from 14 domestic and 11 production wells between August 2005 and January 2006. Eight of the wells were finished in sand and gravel and 17 wells were finished in bedrock. Ground-water samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 229 constituents and physical properties, including inorganic constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Sixty-six constituents were detected above laboratory reporting levels. Concentrations of most compounds at most sites were within drinking water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and New York State Department of Health, but a few compounds exceeded drinking water standards at some sites. Water in the basin is generally hard to very hard (hardness equal to 121 mg/L as CaCO3 or greater); hardness and alkalinity were generally higher in the St. Lawrence Valley than in the Adirondack Mountains. The cation with the highest median concentration was calcium; the anion with the highest median concentration was bicarbonate. The concentration of chloride in one sample exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard; the concentration of sulfate in one sample also exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard. Nitrate was the predominant nutrient detected but no sample exceeded the 10 mg/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level. The trace elements detected with the highest median concentrations were strontium, barium, and iron. Concentration of trace elements in several samples exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standards, including aluminum (50 micrograms per liter, 4 samples), iron (300 micrograms per liter, 5 samples), and manganese (50 micrograms per liter, 4 samples). The concentration of uranium in one sample from a domestic well finished in crystalline bedrock was three times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter. The median concentration of radon-222 was 600 picoCuries per liter, but concentrations as high as 18,800 picoCuries per liter were detected; two wells with high radon concentrations also had high uranium concentrations. Radon-222 is not currently regulated, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picoCuries per liter along with an Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level of 4,000 picoCuries per liter, to be in effect in states that have programs to address radon in indoor air. Concentrations of radon-222 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level in 60 percent of samples and exceeded the proposed Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level in 8 percent of samples. Six pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected; all were amide or triazine herbicides or degradates. Five volatile organic compounds were detected, including disinfection byproducts such as trichloromethane and gasoline components or additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether. No pesticides, pesticide degradates, or volatile organic compounds were detected above established limits. Coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, were detected in three wells finished in carbonate bedrock.

  13. Classroom Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Teaching Ideas, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the four issues in the 23rd volume of "Classroom Notes Plus." Each issue of "Classroom Notes Plus" contains descriptions of original, unpublished teaching practices, and of adapted ideas. The August 2005 (v23 n1) issue includes: Sharing Responses to Literature via Exit Slips (Barb Wagner); Letting Learners Teach…

  14. Higher Education: Building Connecticut's Workforce. Report on 2005-06 Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisa, Cynthia; Placzek, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The Departments of Labor and Higher Education, working in close collaboration with the constituent units of public higher education, present this comprehensive report on the employment of graduates of the public colleges and universities. This report summarizes the employment and compensation experience of students who graduated from the State's…

  15. Public Secondary School Dropouts in Pennsylvania, 2004-05. Report to the General Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Richard A., Comp.

    2006-01-01

    Act 49 of 1987 requires the Secretary of Education to provide the General Assembly with an annual report on public school dropouts in Pennsylvania. The purpose of this report is to document the actual number of students who drop out each year and to provide various characteristics about these students. The type of data collected about each dropout…

  16. Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. NCJ 219374

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaves, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    This publication reports on the first survey of campus law enforcement agencies conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics since 1994-1995. The report presents data covering the 2004-2005 school year. Agencies serving 4-year U.S. universities and colleges with a fall 2004 enrollment of 2,500 or more, and those serving 2-year public colleges…

  17. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was measured in Lake Huron. There was almost no net change in the water level of Lake Huron from January 2004 through December 2005. In 2004, annual precipitation measured in Port Hope was about 3.7 inches above normal, but precipitation measured in Bad Axe was about 1.4 inches below normal. About 14.5 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2004 summer growing season (May through August), which is about the same as was measured in Port Hope during the same period. Provisional precipitation totals for 2005 were 30.7 inches for January through November in Port Hope, and about 31.7 inches for the year in Bad Axe. About 10.6 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2005 summer growing season, which is about 0.2 inches more than was recorded at Port Hope during the same period. Two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders are completed in the Saginaw and Marshall aquifers in Fairhaven and Lake Townships, respectively. From January 2004 through December 2005, the net rise in the water level in the Fairhaven Township well was 0.71 ft, and the net rise in the Lake Township well was 0.98 ft. The Fairhaven Township well is drilled adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and, as previously noted, there was almost no net change in the water level in Saginaw Bay over the same period. Hydrographs showing water levels are presented for the two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders. Continuous-data recorders were discontinued in the Grant and Bingham Township wells at the end of 2003 due to budget constraints. The decision of which two wells to discontinue was based on an analysis of the intrinsic value to Huron County of data from each well. The Grant Township well was selected for periodic or quarterly measurement at that time because it is completed in the glacial aquifer, which is little used for drinking water purposes or absent in much of Huron County. The Bingham Township well, which is completed in the Marshall aquifer, was selected for

  18. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary: In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was measured in Lake Huron. There was almost no net change in the water level of Lake Huron from January 2004 through December 2005. In 2004, annual precipitation measured in Port Hope was about 3.7 inches above normal, but precipitation measured in Bad Axe was about 1.4 inches below normal. About 14.5 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2004 summer growing season (May through August), which is about the same as was measured in Port Hope during the same period. Provisional precipitation totals for 2005 were 30.7 inches for January through November in Port Hope, and about 31.7 inches for the year in Bad Axe. About 10.6 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2005 summer growing season, which is about 0.2 inches more than was recorded at Port Hope during the same period. Two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders are completed in the Saginaw and Marshall aquifers in Fairhaven and Lake Townships, respectively. From January 2004 through December 2005, the net rise in the water level in the Fairhaven Township well was 0.71 ft, and the net rise in the Lake Township well was 0.98 ft. The Fairhaven Township well is drilled adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and, as previously noted, there was almost no net change in the water level in Saginaw Bay over the same period. Hydrographs showing water levels are presented for the two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders. Continuous-data recorders were discontinued in the Grant and Bingham Township wells at the end of 2003 due to budget constraints. The decision of which two wells to discontinue was based on an analysis of the intrinsic value to Huron County of data from each well. The Grant Township well was selected for periodic or quarterly measurement at that time because it is completed in the glacial aquifer, which is little used for drinking water purposes or absent in much of Huron County. The Bingham Township well, which is completed in the Marshall aquif

  19. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2004-05. Facilities Core Data Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of "Facilities Performance Indicators" is to provide a representative set of statistics about facilities in educational institutions. The second iteration of the web-based Facilities Core Data Survey was posted and available to facilities professionals at more than 3,000 institutions in the Fall of 2005. The website offered a printed…

  20. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Annual Accountability Report, Fiscal Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (CHE) serves as the coordinating board for South Carolina's 33 public institutions of higher learning and is responsible for serving a dual role within state government acting both as an advocate for higher education as well as an oversight entity on behalf of the General Assembly. The agency's…

  1. Ground-Water Quality in the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, New York, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hetcher-Aguila, Kari K.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 production wells and 13 private residential wells throughout the upper Susquehanna River Basin (upstream from the Pennsylvania border) during the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 and analyzed to describe the chemical quality of ground water in the upper basin. Wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and highest vulnerability to contamination, and to provide a representative sampling from the entire (4,516 square-mile) upper basin. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients, inorganic constituents, metals, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions that were detected in the greatest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, the concentrations of which were greater in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The metals barium, boron, cobalt, copper, and nickel were detected in every sample; the metals with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, manganese, strontium, and lithium. The pesticide compounds detected most frequently were atrazine, deethylatrazine, alachlor ESA, and two degradation products of metolachlor (metolachlor ESA and metolachlor OA); the compounds detected in highest concentration were metolachlor ESA and OA. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 11 samples, and concentrations of 3 of these compounds exceeded 1 microgram per liter (?g/L). Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasollline additive, was not detected in any sample. Several analytes were found in concentrations that exceeded Federal and New York State water-quality standards, which are typically identical. Chloride concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in two samples, and sulfate concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L in one sample. Sodium concentrations exceeded the USEPA Drinking Water Advisory of 60 mg/L in six samples. Nitrate concentrations exceeded the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L in one sample and approached this limit (at 9.84 mg/L) in another sample. Barium concentrations exceeded the MCL of 2,000 ?g/L in one sample. Iron concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L in five samples, and manganese concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in 14 samples. Arsenic was detected in seven samples, and the MCL for arsenic (10 ?g/L) was exceeded in two samples. Radon-222 exceeded the proposed MCL of 300 picocuries per liter in 24 samples. Any detection of total coliform or fecal coliform bacteria is considered a violation of New York State health regulations; in this study, total coliform was detected in six samples and fecal coliform was detected in one sample, but Escherichia coli (E. coli) was not detected in any sample.

  2. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples from the Ogallala and the Brule sand. Median concentrations of nitrate varied by aquifer-2.6 milligrams per liter (Ogallala), 2.1 milligrams per liter (Brule), and 1.3 milligrams per liter (Brule sand). The chemistry of the ground water in the study area indicates that ground water flows from recharge areas in both the tableland areas and Lodgepole Creek Valley to discharge areas beyond the study area. Recharging water that percolates into the Ogallala in the tableland areas either enters the Ogallala aquifer, flows along the Ogallala-Brule contact, or enters Brule fractures or sand. Although limited in amount, ground water flowing along the Ogallala-Brule contact or in the Brule fractures or sand appears to be the predominant means by which water moves from the tableland areas to Lodgepole Creek Valley. Apparent ground-water ages from chlorofluorocarbon and sulfur hexafluoride data generally were similar. Age of ground water for most monitoring wells located in Lodgepole Creek Valley ranged from the mid- to late 1960s to the early 1990s. Ages of ground water in samples from monitoring wells located in tableland draw areas ranged from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s. Water in the Brule (areas without known secondary permeability structures) or deeper Brule sand aquifer was substantially older than water in the Ogallala aquifer and probably was recharged between 10,000 to 30,000 years before present. The stable isotopic data indicate that the ground water in the study area probably originated from precipitation. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek and the tableland areas are similar in chemistry. However, there appears to be limited interaction between ground water within the Ogallala to the north of Sidney and Lodgepole Creek Valley. Available data indicate that although some of the ground water in the Ogallala likely flows across the Ogallala-Brule contact, most of it does not move toward Lodgepole Creek.

  3. Characterization of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of Agricultural Lands near Manila, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, have been identified as contributing dissolved solids to Flaming Gorge Reservoir. Concentrations of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, ranged from 35 to 7,410 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids load in seeps and drains in the study area that discharge to Flaming Gorge Reservoir ranged from less than 0.1 to 113 tons per day. The most substantial source of dissolved solids discharging from the study area to the reservoir was Birch Spring Draw. The mean daily dissolved-solids load near the mouth of Birch Spring Draw was 65 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load imported to the study area by Sheep Creek and Peoples Canals is 1,330 and 13,200 tons, respectively. Daily dissolved-solid loads discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the period July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005, ranged from 90 to 289 tons per day with a mean of 142 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the same period was 51,900 tons. Of this 51,900 tons of dissolved solids, about 9,000 tons may be from a regional source that is not associated with agricultural activities. The salt-loading factor is 3,670 milligrams per liter or about 5.0 tons of dissolved solids per acre-foot of deep percolation in Lucerne Valley and 1,620 milligrams per liter or 2.2 tons per acre-foot in South Valley. The variation of 87Sr with strontium concentration indicates some general patterns that help to define a conceptual model of the processes affecting the concentration of strontium and the 87Sr isotopic ratio in area waters. As excess irrigation water percolates through soils derived from Mancos Shale, the 87Sr isotopic ratio (0.21 to 0.69 permil) approaches one that is typical of deep percolation from irrigation on Mancos Shale. The boron concentration and 11B value for the water sample from Antelope Wash, being distinctly different from water samples from other sites, is evidence that water in Antelope Wash may contain a substantial component of regional ground-water flow.

  4. Characteristics of California School Districts in Program Improvement: 2008 Update. REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Huang, Chun-Wei; Huang, Min; Derby, Kenwyn

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive analysis updates an earlier study of California's Title I school districts in program improvement (July 2008 "Characteristics of California School Districts in Program Improvement. Issues & Answers"), which was based on performance data for 2005/06, with another year of data. By 2006/07 more school districts were in program…

  5. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13...

  6. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in Los Angeles Unified School District: A District and Neighborhood Matched Comparison Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The study examined whether charter schools have higher growth in student achievement than traditional public schools. The study analyzed data on 79 charter schools and 593 traditional public elementary, middle, and high schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District from 2005-06 to 2006-07. School-level academic achievement was measured using…

  7. Water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for Highland and Marchand Bayous, Galveston County, Texas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Dexter W.; Mabe, Jeffrey A.; Turco, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate and fish data were collected from the same five sites identified for habitat evaluation. Three assessments were done to account for seasonal differences in biotic distribution. Stream-habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were assessed at each site three times during the study to evaluate aquatic life use. A total of 5,126 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified at all sites. During the study, 34 species of fish representing 28 families were collected from all the sites. 

  8. Transport and Sources of Suspended Sediment in the Mill Creek Watershed, Johnson County, Northeast Kansas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, evaluated suspended-sediment transport and sources in the urbanizing, 57.4 mi2 Mill Creek watershed from February 2006 through June 2007. Sediment transport and sources were assessed spatially by continuous monitoring of streamflow and turbidity as well as sampling of suspended sediment at nine sites in the watershed. Within Mill Creek subwatersheds (2.8-16.9 mi2), sediment loads at sites downstream from increased construction activity were substantially larger (per unit area) than those at sites downstream from mature urban areas or less-developed watersheds. Sediment transport downstream from construction sites primarily was limited by transport capacity (streamflow), whereas availability of sediment supplies primarily influenced transport downstream from mature urban areas. Downstream sampling sites typically had smaller sediment loads (per unit area) than headwater sites, likely because of sediment deposition in larger, less sloping stream channels. Among similarly sized storms, those with increased precipitation intensity transported more sediment at eight of the nine monitoring sites. Storms following periods of increased sediment loading transported less sediment at two of the nine monitoring sites. In addition to monitoring performed in the Mill Creek watershed, sediment loads were computed for the four other largest watersheds (48.6-65.7 mi2) in Johnson County (Blue River, Cedar, Indian, and Kill Creeks) during the study period. In contrast with results from smaller watersheds in Mill Creek, sediment load (per unit area) from the most urbanized watershed in Johnson County (Indian Creek) was more than double that of other large watersheds. Potential sources of this sediment include legacy sediment from earlier urban construction, accelerated stream-channel erosion, or erosion from specific construction sites, such as stream-channel disturbance during bridge renovation. The implication of this finding is that sediment yields from larger watersheds may remain elevated after the majority of urban development is complete. Surface soil, channel-bank, suspended-sediment, and streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for grain size, nutrients, trace elements, and radionuclides in the Mill Creek watershed to characterize suspended sediment between surface or channel-bank sources. Although concentrations and activities of cobalt, nitrogen, selenium, total organic carbon, cesium-137, and excess lead-210 had significant differences between surface and channel-bank samples, biases resulting from urban construction, additional sorption of constituents during sediment transport, and inability to accurately represent erosion from rills and gullies precluded accurate characterization of suspended-sediment source.

  9. Ground-Water Data and Flow Directions in the Vicinity of Swamp Road, Licking County, Ohio, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is proposing to build a dry dam on the South Fork Licking River to mitigate flood impacts. Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of impounded floodwaters on ground-water conditions in the Swamp Road neighborhood. To obtain a better understanding of existing ground-water conditions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NRCS, installed three monitoring wells and collected ground-water-quality samples on two occasions from these and four residential wells. In addition, transducers were placed in these seven wells to obtain hourly water-level measurements from August, 2006 to early March, 2007. Intermittent water levels also were measured in another seven residential wells in the area. Water-quality samples were collected in September 2006 and January 2007. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, inorganic elements, and fecal-indicator bacteria. In general, the ground-water quality was very hard with large iron concentrations of 1,700 ?g/L and above. Although the aquifer underlying the Swamp Road area is confined, the continuous water-level records indicate a rapid response to precipitation. Comparison of the well hydrographs with the stage hydrograph for the nearby South Fork Licking River indicates a hydraulic connection between the river and the aquifer. In the vicinity of Swamp Road, the ground-water-flow direction was southeast during the duration of the study. The ground-water-level elevations were above the planned maximum elevation for water impounded by the dam, thus the impounded floodwater should have minimal impact on ground-water conditions along Swamp Road.

  10. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured once in 2006 and once in 2007 at Moenkopi School Spring. Flow decreased by 18.9 percent at Moenkopi School Spring. During the period of record, flow fluctuated, and a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi (1976 to 2006), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs (1993 to 2006), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa (1994 to 2006), and Pasture Canyon Springs (August 2004 to December 2006). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained even, showing neither a significant increase nor decrease in flows. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring for a trend to be apparent. In 2007, water samples were collected from 1 well and 1 spring in the Black Mesa area and were analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at Peabody well 5 for the period of record, and there is an apparent increasing trend. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record.

  11. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  12. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading from Surface Water and Groundwater to Sweitzer Lake, Colorado, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. Sweitzer Lake was placed on the State 303(d) list as impaired with respect to dissolved selenium. In Colorado, the Water Quality Control Division of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment is required to develop total maximum daily loads of selenium for the 303(d) list segments. The U.S. Geological survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading from surface water and ground water to Sweitzer Lake to support the total maximum daily loads development process. Surface-water and groundwater data were collected to quantify selenium concentrations and loads to Sweitzer Lake from October 2006 to October 2007. These data were used to determine the amount of selenium load (pounds annually) that would need to be reduced for the contributing sources (surface water and groundwater) to meet the State chronic aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium, herein referred to as 'a load reduction.' Selenium concentration data were also compared to the State acute aquatic-life standard of 18.4 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium. Both surface-water and groundwater-quality samples collected during this study were found to exceed the chronic standard. Surface-water quantity and quality data were collected at Garnet Canal Diversion and Diversion Drain. Groundwater flux data were collected at 10 seepage-meter sires in Sweitzer Lake, and groundwater-quality data were collected at a groundwater seep and inferred from a January 2007 sample collected at Garnet Canal Diversion. Selenium concentrations and loads were greater at Garnet Canal Diversion than those observed at Diversion Drain. Approximately one-third of Garnet Canal Diversion-s Streamflow originates from Loutzenhizer Arroyo. Selenium concentrations observed during previous studies at Loutzenhizer Arroyo indicate high selenium concentrations and high selenium loads. All selenium concentrations in samples from Garnet Canal Diversion were greater than the chronic standard and were less that the acute standard during the irrigation season. Seventy-three percent of the annual selenium load at Garnet Canal Diversion would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. All daily mean selenium concentrations and selenium-concentration samples were greater than the chronic standard at Diversion Drain, but less than the acute standard during the irrigation season. Forty percent of the mean annual selenium loads at Diversion Drain would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. Estimated groundwater selenium loads and reductions of selenium loads to Sweitzer Lake were estimated using ranges of lake-bottom areas with positive groundwater flux and groundwater selenium concentrations. Estimated annual groundwater selenium load reductions ranged from 0.900 pound of the 1.17 pounds of annual load to 86.3 points of the 88.3 pounds of annual load for the selenium concentration scenarios over the range of lake-bottom areas. Groundwater selenium load and load reductions determined from this study identify the probably minimum and maximum values for these parameters. Further data collection and analysis could refine the range of groundwater selenium loads and load reductions.

  13. Higher Education Capital Improvements, 1997-98 through 2006-07. Status Report Presented to the Legislative Capital Development Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    This report summarizes a $1,219.6 million ten-year higher education capital improvement program in Colorado for 354 projects, including academic facilities, building safety and protection systems, research and clinical space, student housing, auxiliary services, and athletics. Summary text and graphs describe the purpose of the capital…

  14. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

  15. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona-2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area averages about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2005 to September 2006. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2005, ground-water withdrawals in the Black Mesa area totaled 7,330 acre-feet, including ground-water withdrawals for industrial (4,480 acre-feet) and municipal (2,850 acre-feet) uses. From 2004 to 2005, total withdrawals increased by less than 2 percent, industrial withdrawals increased by approximately 3 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 0.35 percent. From 2005 to 2006, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 10 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.5 foot. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 12 of 15 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.4 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2006, the median water-level change for 29 wells was -8.5 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.2 foot for 13 wells in the unconfined areas and -46.6 feet for 16 wells in the confined area. Ground-water discharges were measured once in 2005 and once in 2006 at Moenkopi School Spring and Burro Spring. Discharge decreased by 3.5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring and by 15 percent at Burro Spring. During the period of record at each spring, discharges fluctuated; a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash (1976 to 2005), Dinnebito Wash (1993 to 2005), Polacca Wash (1994 to 2005), Pasture Canyon Spring (August 2004 to December 2005), and Laguna Creek (1996 to 2005). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring and Laguna Creek was discontinued at the end of December 2005. In 2006, water samples were collected from 6 wells and 2 springs in the Black Mesa area and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 111 to 588 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 5 of the wells and both of the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Trends in the chemistry of water samples from the 6 wells show the Pi?on NTUA 1 and Peabody 9 wells increasing in dissolved solids, Forest Lake NTUA 1 and Peabody 2 wells decreasing in dissolved solids, and Kykotsmovi PM2 and Keams Canyon PM2 wells show a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for the 2 springs.

  16. Modeling Water Temperature in the Yakima River, Washington, from Roza Diversion Dam to Prosser Dam, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Frank D.; Curran, Christopher A.; Mastin, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic water-temperature model was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey for use by the Bureau of Reclamation for studying the effect of potential water management decisions on water temperature in the Yakima River between Roza and Prosser, Washington. Flow and water temperature data for model input were obtained from the Bureau of Reclamation Hydromet database and from measurements collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during field trips in autumn 2005. Shading data for the model were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in autumn 2006. The model was calibrated with data collected from April 1 through October 31, 2005, and tested with data collected from April 1 through October 31, 2006. Sensitivity analysis results showed that for the parameters tested, daily maximum water temperature was most sensitive to changes in air temperature and solar radiation. Root mean squared error for the five sites used for model calibration ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 degrees Celsius (?C) and mean error ranged from ?1.3 to 1.6?C. The root mean squared error for the five sites used for testing simulation ranged from 1.6 to 2.2?C and mean error ranged from 0.1 to 1.3?C. The accuracy of the stream temperatures estimated by the model is limited by four errors (model error, data error, parameter error, and user error).

  17. The Division III Financial Aid Reporting Process: Findings and Review Results, 2005-06 through 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report marks the completion of the 2008-09 reporting cycle and the fourth year of the Division III Financial Aid Reporting Program. The report examines findings for all reporting institutions from each of the four reporting cycles, and details the outcomes of the Division III Financial Aid Committee's 2008-09 review process. Four calculations…

  18. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of Second-Year (2005-06) Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Huntsberger, Briana

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), a project sponsored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), leverages federal Title II, Part D funds to support a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student…

  19. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Running Start: 2005-06 Annual Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Running Start program; data about student participation rates and academic performance; updates on savings to families, taxpayers and the state; and new information about national trends in dual-credit programs. Running Start is a program that allows 11th and 12th grade students to take college courses at…

  20. Adding Up the Numbers: The Education Budget under Mayoral Control. Update and Summary of 2005-06 EPP Bulletins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    For more than a century, a succession of New York City (NYC) mayors have claimed that they were reducing administrative overhead in the school system and driving more resources to instruction. These claims have been dutifully reported by the press with rarely any effort to verify them. For the last 50 years, the salaries of teachers were increased…

  1. Survivor needs or logistical convenience? Factors shaping decisions to deliver relief to earthquake-affected communities, Pakistan 2005-06.

    PubMed

    Benini, Aldo; Conley, Charles; Dittemore, Brody; Waksman, Zachary

    2009-03-01

    In Bureaucratizing the Good Samaritan, Waters (2001) argues that bureaucratic rationality distracts humanitarian agencies from the needs of the people they are supposed to assist, in favour of other values that their institutional frameworks dictate. We test his claim by investigating the response to the Pakistan 2005 earthquake. One of us (Dittemore) worked with the United Nations Joint Logistics Centre in the theatre, managing a relief cargo shipment database. The response, known as 'Operation Winter Race', was hampered by extreme logistical challenges, but ultimately succeeded in averting a second disaster resulting from cold and starvation. We use statistical models to probe whether survivor needs significantly guided decisions to deliver relief to affected communities. Needs assessments remained incomplete and incoherent. We measure needs through proxy indicators and integrate them, on a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, with logistics and relief delivery data. We find that, despite strong logistics effects, needs orientations were significant. However, the strength of decision factors varies between commodity types (food versus clothing and shelter versus reconstruction materials) as well as over the different phases of the response. This study confirms Thomas's observation that logistics databases are rich 'repositories of data that can be analyzed to provide post-event learning' (Thomas, 2003, p. 4). This article is an invitation for others to engage in creative humanitarian data management.

  2. Findings from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey: School Year 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2008-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank; Cornman, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey (TCS), which collected data for school year 2005-2006. This pilot collection is a research and development effort to see if it is possible to collect and publish teacher-level data from the administrative records residing in state departments of education. Seven states…

  3. Relations Among the Use, Occurrence, and Flux of Azoxystrobin, Propiconazole, and Other Fungicides in US Streams, 2005-06

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglin, W. A.; Sandstrom, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    Fungicides account for 10 percent of global pesticide use (0.25 million metric tons per year), and 6 percent of US use (33 thousand metric tons per year). Some fungicides such as chlorothalonil have been in use for decades (first US registration in 1966), while others such as azoxystrobin were introduced in the last decade (first US sales in 1996). Fungicide fate and transport is not well understood, but recent investigations have detected fungicides in precipitation, groundwater, streams, and streambed sediment. The occurrence of Asian soybean rust in the Southern US is of concern because of the increase in fungicide use that would result if it spreads to the Central US during the growing season. In the Central US many growers have never used fungicides to protect soybeans. The purpose of this study is to collect baseline data on fungicide occurrence in streams prior to the spread of Asian rust to soybeans in the Central US and the anticipated increase in fungicide use to control the rust. These data are then used to investigate relations among the occurrence and flux of fungicides in US streams, and the use of those products within the associated drainage basins. Water samples from streams in the Southern and Central US were collected in 2005 (26 sites, 40 samples) and 2006 (16 sites, 41 samples), and analyzed for up to 11 fungicides. This is the first study to monitor for several of these fungicides in environmental samples from locations in this region of the US. Chlorothalonil was used in all study basins but only detected in one sample from 2006. Azoxystrobin was detected in one or more samples from 12 of 26 sites in 2005 and 10 of 16 sites in 2006. Estimated daily fluxes of azoxystrobin ranged from zero to 440 grams/day but were not significantly correlated (p value = 0.3) with estimated azoxystrobin use in the upstream watershed. Estimated daily fluxes of propiconizole ranged from zero to 360 grams/day and were correlated (p value = <0.0001) with estimated propiconizole use. Results indicate that fungicides can readily enter aquatic systems where they may have toxic effects, and that their occurrence and flux in streams may be correlated with regional patterns of fungicide use.

  4. Evaluation of a School Systems Plan to Utilize Teachers' Perceptions of Principal Leadership to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ed

    2009-01-01

    This study examines fourth grade student achievement in relation to teacher perceptions of principal leadership and other selected variables in a large urban school district in Georgia. Student achievement was measured by performance on the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 school years. The…

  5. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  6. Inquiry-Learning with WebLab: Undergraduate Attitudes and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Judith; Mitchell, Rudolph; del Alamo, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    The Microelectronics WebLab at MIT allows students to do actual (not simulated) laboratory research on state-of-the art equipment through the Internet. This study assesses the use of WebLab in a junior-level course on microelectronic devices and circuits in 2004-05 and 2005-06. In quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews, students and…

  7. An Action-Research Programme with Secondary Education Teachers on Teaching and Learning Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingos-Grilo, Paula; Reis-Grilo, Carlos; Ruiz, Constantino; Mellado, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We describe part of an action-research programme in Spain which was based on metacognitive reflection. The participants were four science teachers in a secondary school during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 academic years. During the study, they each analysed their own pupils' alternative ideas on photosynthesis and their teaching methods as recorded in…

  8. Monitoring and evaluation of seasonal snow cover in Kashmir valley using remote sensing, GIS and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, H. S.; Thakur, N. K.; Kumar, Rajeev; Kumar, Manoj

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a vital natural resource in the Himalaya. Monitoring of the areal extent of seasonal snow cover is important for both climatological studies as well as hydrological applications. In the present paper, snow cover monitoring was carried out to evaluate the region-wise accumulation and ablation pattern of snow cover in Pir Panjal and Shamshawari ranges of Kashmir valley. The study was carried out for the winter period between November and April of 2004-05, 2005-06 and 2006-07, using multi-temporal WiFS sensor data of IRS-1C/1D satellites. The study shows reduction in the areal extent of seasonal snow cover and rising trend of maximum temperature in three winters for the entire Kashmir valley. This has been validated with 20 years (1988-89 to 2007-08) climatic conditions prevailed in both ranges of Kashmir valley. Region-wise study shows the spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow cover within Kashmir valley. Advance melting was observed in Banihal and Naugam/Tangdhar regions than Gurez and Machhal regions. Different geographical parameters of these regions were studied to evaluate the influence on snow cover and it was observed that altitude and position of region with respect to mountain range are the deciding factors for retaining the seasonal snow cover for longer duration. Such region-wise study of snow cover monitoring, can provide vital inputs for planning the hydropower projects, development in habitat areas, recreational and strategic planning in the region.

  9. Misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-provided meals based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Finney, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have relied on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation, few studies have evaluated parental response accuracy. We investigated misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-meal programs based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records using cross-sectional study data collected for 3 school years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07) for 1,100 fourth-grade children (87% black; 52% girls) from 18 schools total in one district. Parents reported children's usual school-meal participation on paper consent forms. The district provided administrative daily records of individual children's school-meal participation. Researchers measured children's weight and height. "Usual participation" in breakfast/lunch was defined as ≥50% of days. Parental responses misclassified 16.3%, 12.8%, 19.8%, and 4.7% of children for participation in breakfast, classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch, respectively. Parental responses misclassified more children for participation in cafeteria than classroom breakfast (P=0.0008); usual-participant misclassification probabilities were less than nonusual-participant misclassification probabilities for classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch (P<0.0001 for each) (two-proportion z tests). Parental responses concerning children's participation were more accurate for lunch than breakfast; parents overstated breakfast participation (both classroom and cafeteria) and lunch participation. Breakfast participation misclassification was not related to body mass index (P=0.41), sex (P=0.40), age (P=0.63), or socioeconomic status (P=0.21) (multicategory logistic regression controlling for school year, breakfast location, and school). Relying on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation may hamper researchers' abilities to detect relationships that have policy implications for the child nutrition community. The use of

  10. A Study of States' Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. NCSER 2011-3001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollmer, Julie; Cronin, Roberta; Brauen, Marsha; Howell, Bethany; Fletcher, Philip; Gonin, Rene; Jenkins, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The Study of Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) examined how states monitored the implementation of IDEA by local special education and early intervention services programs. State monitoring and improvement practices in 2004-05 and 2006-07 were the focus of the study. Prior to the…

  11. Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were collected following USGS protocols.

  12. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2004, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,210 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,370 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,840 acre-feet. From 2003 to 2004, total withdrawals decreased by less than 1 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 2 percent, and municipal withdrawals increased by 2 percent. From 2004 to 2005, annually measured water levels declined in 6 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 12 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2005, the median water-level change for 33 wells was -9.0 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.6 foot for 16 wells in the unconfined areas and -32.0 feet for 17 wells in the confined area. Discharges were measured once in 2004 and once in 2005 at four springs. Discharge increased by 8 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, decreased by 5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring, increased by 71 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and stayed the same at Burro Spring. For the period of record at each spring, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2004 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2004 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2004 at Dinnebito Wash, 1994 to 2004 at Polacca Wash, and August 2004 to December 2004 at Pasture Canyon Spring. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2005, water samples were collected from 11 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 122 to 639 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 9 of the wells and from all the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are some long-term trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells having more than 10 years of data and from 2 springs. Rough Rock PM5, Keams Canyon PM2, Second Mesa PM2, and Kayenta PM2 show an increasing trend in dissolved solids; Forest Lake NTUA1 and PWCC 2 show a decreasing trend in dissolved solids; and Kykostmovi PM2 shows a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for 2 springs.

  13. Surface-Water Exchange through Culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Stewart, Marc A.; Nowacki, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic data between June 2004 and December 2005 to investigate the temporal and spatial nature of flow exchanges through culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park. Continuous data collected during the study measured flow velocity, water level, salinity, conductivity, and water-temperature in or near seven culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. The two culverts east of Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road flowed into Taylor Slough Basin from 87 to 96 percent of the study period, whereas flows through five culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond flowed into Shark River Slough Basin from 70 to 99 percent of the study period. Synoptic flow discharges measured at all culverts during three intensive field efforts revealed a net discharge into Taylor Slough Basin from Shark River Slough Basin through culverts between Royal Palm Road and Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road, and into Shark River Slough Basin from Taylor Slough Basin through culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. Data collected during the study and presented in this report provided additional knowledge of the magnitude, direction, and nature of flow exchanges through the road culverts.

  14. Home Education in Pennsylvania, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John S., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    The 2006-07 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 22,136. The total was comprised of 11,422 males and 10,714 females. There was a decrease of 276 students, or 1.2%, from the 2005-06 total of 22,412. It was the fourth year in a row that home education enrollments decreased and only the fifth year overall since the passage of Act 169…

  15. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  16. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  17. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  18. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  19. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Third-Year (2006-07) Traits of Higher Technology Immersion Schools and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Sheehan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, called for the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to establish a pilot project to "immerse" schools in technology by providing a wireless mobile computing device for each teacher and student, technology-based learning resources, training for teachers to integrate technology…

  20. Algal community characteristics and response to nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in streams in the Ozark Plateaus, Southern Missouri, 1993-95 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient and algae data were collected in the 1990s and 2000s by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Water- Quality Assessment program in the Ozark Highlands, southern Missouri. These data were collected at sites of differing drainage area, land use, nutrient concentrations, and physiography. All samples were collected at sites with a riffle/pool structure and cobble/gravel bed material. A total of 60 samples from 45 sites were available for analyses to determine relations between nutrient concentrations and algal community structure in this region. This information can be used by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to develop the State's nutrient criteria plan. Water samples collected for this study had total nitrogen concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 4.41 milligram per liter (mg/L) with a median of 0.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.78 mg/L with a median of 0.007 mg/L. These nutrient concentrations were transformed into nutrient categories consisting of varying percentiles of data. Algal community data were entered into the U.S. Geological Survey's Algae Data Analysis System for the computation of more than 250 metrics. These metrics were correlated with nutrient categories, and four metrics with the strongest relation with the nutrient data were selected. These metrics were Organic Nitrogen Tolerance, Oxygen Tolerance, Bahls Pollution Class, and the Saprobien index with the 25th and 80th percentile nutrient categories. These data indicate that near the 80th percentile (Total Nitrogen = 0.84 mg/L, Total Phosphorus = 0.035 mg/L) the algae communities significantly changed from nitrogen-fixing species dominance to those species more tolerant of eutrophic conditions.

  1. Water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for West Fork Double Bayou, Cotton Bayou, and Hackberry Gully, Chambers County, Texas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Dexter W.; Turco, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data from two sites at West Fork Double Bayou, two sites at Cotton Bayou, and one site at Hackberry Gully in Chambers County, Texas, during July 2006-August 2007. Water-quality data-collection surveys consisted of synoptic 24-hour continuous measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen at the five sites and periodically collected samples at four sites analyzed for several properties and constituents of interest. Stream-habitat data were collected at each of four sites three times during the study. At each site, a representative stream reach was selected and within this reach, five evenly spaced stream transects were determined. At each transect, stream attributes (wetted channel width, water depth, bottom material, instream cover) and riparian attributes (bank slope and erosion potential, width of natural vegetation, type of vegetation, percentage tree canopy) were measured. Benthic macroinvertebrate and fish data were collected from the same reaches identified for habitat evaluation. A total of 2,572 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified from the four reaches; insect taxa were more abundant than non-insect taxa at all reaches. A total of 1,082 fish, representing 30 species and 13 families, were collected across all reaches. Stream-habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were assessed at the four sites to evaluate aquatic life use. Habitat quality index scores generally indicated 'intermediate' aquatic life use at most reaches. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics scores indicated generally 'intermediate' aquatic life use for the West Fork Double Bayou reaches and generally 'high' aquatic life use for the Cotton Bayou and Hackberry Gully reaches. Index of biotic integrity scores for fish indicated generally 'high' aquatic life use at one West Fork Double Bayou reach; 'intermediate' aquatic life use at the other West Fork Double Bayou reach; and generally 'intermediate' aquatic life use at the Cotton Bayou and Hackberry Gully reaches.

  2. An Evaluation of the Data from the Teacher Compensation Survey: School Year 2006-07. Research and Development Report. NCES 2010-329

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Johnson, Frank; Zhou, Lei; Honegger, Steven; Noel, Amber M.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are the largest component of school spending, with more funding being allocated to teacher salaries than to any other education expense (Loeb, Miller, and Strunk 2009). Teacher and staff salaries and benefits consume up to 80 percent of current expenditures (Aud et al. 2010). Yet, there is not a wealth of data on teacher compensation.…

  3. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2006-07 (Fiscal Year 2007): First Look. NCES 2009-337

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings on public education revenues and expenditures using fiscal year 2007 (FY 07) data from the National Public Education Financial Survey (NPEFS) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. Programs covered in the NPEFS include regular, special, and vocational education; charter schools that reported data to the state…

  4. Quality Characteristics of Ground Water in the Ozark Aquifer of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.; Coiner, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of water quantity and quality concerns within the Ozark aquifer, the State of Kansas in 2004 issued a moratorium on most new appropriations from the aquifer until results were made available from a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kansas Water Office. The purposes of the study were to develop a regional ground-water flow model and a water-quality assessment of the Ozark aquifer in northwestern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma (study area). In 2006 and 2007, water-quality samples were collected from 40 water-supply wells completed in the Ozark aquifer and spatially distributed throughout the study area. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and selected isotopes. This report presents the results of the water-quality assessment part of the cooperative study. Water-quality characteristics were evaluated relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations were exceeded for dissolved solids (11 wells), sulfate and chloride (2 wells each), fluoride (3 wells), iron (4 wells), and manganese (2 wells). Maximum Contaminant Levels were exceeded for turbidity (3 wells) and fluoride (1 well). The Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for lead (0 milligrams per liter) was exceeded in water from 12 wells. Analyses of isotopes in water from wells along two 60-mile long ground-water flow paths indicated that water in the Ozark aquifer was at least 60 years old but the upper age limit is uncertain. The source of recharge water for the wells along the flow paths appeared to be of meteoric origin because of isotopic similarity to the established Global Meteoric Water Line and a global precipitation relation. Additionally, analysis of hydrogen-3 (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) indicated that there was possible leakage of younger ground water into the lower part of the Ozark aquifer. This may be caused by cracks or fissures in the confining unit that separates the upper and lower parts of the aquifer, poorly constructed or abandoned wells, or historic mining activities. Analyses of major ions in water from wells along the flow paths indicated a transition from freshwater in the east to saline water in the west. Generally, ground water along flow paths evolved from a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type to a sodium calcium bicarbonate or a sodium calcium chloride bicarbonate type as water moved from recharge areas in Missouri into Kansas. Much of this evolution occurred within the last 20 to 25 miles of the flow paths along a water-quality transition zone near the Kansas-Missouri State line and west. The water quality of the Kansas part of the Ozark aquifer is degraded compared to the Missouri part. Geophysical and well-bore flow information and depth-dependent water-quality samples were collected from a large-capacity (1,900-2,300 gallons per minute) municipal-supply well to evaluate vertical ground-water flow accretion and variability in water-quality characteristics at different levels. Although the 1,050-foot deep supply well had 500 feet of borehole open to the Ozark aquifer, 77 percent of ground-water flow entering the borehole came from two 20-foot thick rock layers above the 1,000-foot level. For the most part, water-quality characteristics changed little from the deepest sample to the well-head sample, and upwelling of saline water from deeper geologic formations below the well was not evident. However, more saline water may be present below the bottom of the well.

  5. Chloride concentrations and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer long tributary to the Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, conducted a study to determine the interaction of local surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek. In conjunction with the surface water and groundwater interaction study, samples were collected for analysis of chloride and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Chloride concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 26.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) near Teton Village, 1.2 to 4.9 mg/L near Resor's Bridge, and 1.8 to 5.0 mg/L near Wilson. Stable isotope data for hydrogen and oxygen in water samples collected in and near the three cross sections on Fish Creek are shown in relation to the Global Meteoric Water Line and the Local Meteoric Water Line.

  6. Nutrient and biological conditions of selected small streams in the Edwards Plateau, central Texas, 2005-06, and implications for development of nutrient criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabe, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    During the summers of 2005 and 2006 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, evaluated nutrient and biological conditions in small streams in parts of the Edwards Plateau of Central Texas. Land-cover analysis was used to select 15 small streams that represented a gradient of conditions with the potential to affect nutrient concentrations across the study area, which comprises two of four subregions of the Edwards Plateau ecoregion. All 15 streams were sampled for water properties, nutrients, algae, benthic invertebrates, and fish in summer 2005, and eight streams were resampled in summer 2006. Streams that did not receive wastewater effluent had relatively low nutrient concentrations and were classified as oligotrophic; streams receiving wastewater effluent had relatively high nutrient concentrations and were classified as eutrophic. Nutrient concentrations measured in the least-disturbed streams closely matched the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency nutrient criteria recommendations based on estimated reference concentrations. Nitrogen/phosphorus ratios indicated streams not affected by wastewater effluent might be limited by phosphorus concentrations. Algal indicators of nutrient condition were closely related to dissolved nitrogen concentrations and streamflow conditions. Ambient dissolved nitrogen concentrations (nitrite plus nitrate) were positively correlated with benthic algal chlorophyll-a concentrations. The correlation of benthic algal chlorophyll-a with instantaneous nitrite plus nitrate load was stronger than correlations with ambient nutrients. Increased nutrient concentrations were associated with increased macroalgae cover, wider diel dissolved oxygen ranges, and reduced diel dissolved oxygen minimums. Benthic invertebrate aquatic life use scores generally were classified as High to Exceptional in study streams despite the influence of urbanization or wastewater effluent. Reductions in aquatic life use scores appeared to be related to extremely low flow conditions and the loss of riffle habitats. Benthic invertebrate aquatic life use scores and several of the metrics used to compute composite aquatic life use scores tended to increase with increasing total nitrogen concentrations. Fish community aquatic life use scores generally were classified as High or Exceptional with the exception of a few samples collected from streams receiving wastewater effluent that were classified as Intermediate. Fish community aquatic life use scores and several fish community metrics were positively correlated with nutrient concentrations and macroalgae cover. The majority of the positive correlations among nutrient concentrations, macroalgae cover, and fish metrics were strongly influenced by relatively high nutrient concentrations. Both benthic and planktonic chlorophyll-a measures were related to nutrients, but this study indicates that benthic chlorophyll-a was the better choice for monitoring nutrient enrichment because (1) the relation between benthic chlorophyll-a and nutrients was stronger, and (2) a strong relation between benthic chlorophyll-a and nutrients persisted after removal of the sites influenced by wastewater effluent, which indicates superior ability of benthic chlorophyll-a to discriminate between conditions at lower nutrient concentrations. The transect-based algal abundance estimate technique is a useful tool for identifying eutrophic conditions, assessing nuisance algal growth, and making broad comparisons among sites, but it appears to lack the fine resolution to identify lesser degrees of nutrient enrichment. Several individual benthic invertebrate and fish metrics were correlated with nutrient conditions, but correlations were generally positive and the reverse of what would be expected when nutrient enrichment causes a proliferation of algal growth and stream degradation. However, the benthic invertebrate functional feeding group metrics showed some

  7. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2005-06. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-339

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofano, Anthony; Sable, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  8. An Exploratory Evaluation of the Data from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey: School Year 2005-06. Research and Development Report. NCES 2008-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank; Cornman, Stephen Q.

    2008-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents summary data from the Pilot Teacher…

  9. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2005-06 (Fiscal Year 2006). First Look. NCES 2008-328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2008-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings on public education…

  10. UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-06 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

    2006-11-30

    The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a “Research to Development to Application” structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction.

  11. Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998. Report to Congress on State Performance, Program Year 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998" (commonly referred to as "Perkins," "Perkins III," or "the Act" and referred to hereafter as Perkins III) requires, in Sec. 113(c)(3)(C), that the secretary provide the appropriate committees of Congress copies of annual reports received by the U.S. Department of Education…

  12. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Final Outcomes for a Four-Year Study (2004-05 to 2007-08)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, was based on the assumption that the use of technology in Texas public schools could be achieved more effectively by "immersing" schools in technology rather than by introducing technology resources, such as hardware, software, digital content, and educator training,…

  13. Survey of Programs and Courses Offered in Nebraska by Out-of-State Institutions, 2003-04 and 2004-05. Annual Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the following data: (1) Summary of the Number of Courses and the Number of Students served in Nebraska by Out-of-State Institutions: 2000-2005; (2) Number of Students Admitted into Out-of-State Programs for 2003-2004 and 2004-2005; (3) Enrollment in Courses Offered in Nebraska by Out-of-State Institutions: Fall 2003-Spring…

  14. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2004-05 (Fiscal Year 2005). First Look. NCES 2007-356

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei; Honegger, Steven; Gaviola, Nick

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings on public education…

  15. Water-quality, sediment-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for Mustang Bayou near Houston, Texas, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneck-Fahrer, Debra A.; East, Jeffery W.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data from six sites (downstream order M6-M1) primarily in Brazoria County southeast of Houston, Texas, during September 2004-August 2005 and collected bed sediment data from one site in September 2005. Water-quality data collection consisted of continuously monitored (for periods of 24 hours to several days, six times) water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen and periodically collected samples of several properties and constituents. Monitored dissolved oxygen measurements were below minimum and 24-hour criteria at all sites except M2. Nitrogen compounds, phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, E. coli, chloride, sulfate, solids, suspended sediment concentration, and pesticides were assessed at all sites. Concentrations of nitrogen compounds and phosphorus did not exceed Texas State screening levels. Biochemical oxygen demand was less than 4.0 milligrams per liter at all sites except M6, where the maximum concentration was 8.1 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of chlorophyll-a were less than the State screening level at all sites except M6, where four of eight samples equaled or exceeded the screening level. Twenty of 48 samples from Mustang Bayou had E. coli densities that exceeded the State single-sample water-quality standard. Median chloride concentrations from each site were between 42.2 and 123 milligrams per liter. Fifteen pesticide compounds (six herbicides and nine insecticides) were detected in 24 water samples. The most frequently detected pesticide was atrazine, which was found in every sample. Other frequently detected pesticides were 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT), prometon, tebuthiuron, fipronil, and the pesticide degradates, fipronil sulfide and fipronil sulfone. Sediment samples were collected from the stream bottom at M1 and analyzed for concentrations of trace elements (metals), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. No organochlorine pesticides or polychlorinated biphenyls were detected. No concentrations of metals exceeded State screening levels. Measurable concentrations of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were detected, and three other PAH compounds were detected but not quantified by the laboratory. Stream habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were surveyed at each site three times during the study to evaluate aquatic life use. Characteristics of habitat measured during each survey were scored using a habitat quality index. Average aquatic-life-use scores were 'limited' for M3-M6 and 'intermediate' for M1 and M2. A total of 2,557 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified from Mustang Bayou. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were scored using indexes specified by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Average aquatic-life-use scores were 'limited' at M1, 'intermediate' at M3-M6, and 'high' at M2. Forty-six species of fish representing 20 families were collected from Mustang Bayou. A total of 4,115 fish were collected. Sunfish (Centrarchidae) was the most abundant family, accounting for about 28 percent. Aquatic-life-use scores at sites in Mustang Bayou were determined using the regional index of biotic integrity for ecoregion 34 and were 'high' for all sites.

  16. Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod to examine the utility of passive diffusion sampling for long-term monitoring of concentrations of perchlorate and explosive compounds in ground water. The diffusion samplers were constructed of 1-inch-diameter rigid, porous polyethylene tubing. The results of laboratory tests in which diffusion samplers were submerged in containers filled with ground water containing perchlorate, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) indicate that concentrations inside the diffusion samplers equilibrated with concentrations in the containers within the 19-day-long test period. Field tests of the diffusion samplers were conducted in 15 wells constructed of 2- or 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe with 10-foot-long slotted screens. Concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX in the diffusion samplers placed in the wells for 42 to 52 days were compared to concentrations in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling from 53 days before to 109 days after retrieval of the diffusion samples. The results of the field tests indicate generally good agreement between the pumped and diffusion samples for concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX. The concentration differences indicate no systematic bias related to contaminant type or concentration levels.

  17. Water-Quality and Biological Assessment of the Iowa River and Tributaries Within and Contiguous to the Meskwaki Settlement of the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace metals, wastewater, or fuel contaminants were found to exceed drinking-water regulations for the USEPA or State of Iowa targeted constituents. Bacteria densities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) ranged from less than 10 to more than 600,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters of water and were largest following intense rainfall runoff. The largest densities were recorded in samples collected from the tributaries, most notably from Cattail Creek downstream from the tribal headquarters area and Onion Creek downstream from the sewage lagoons. Arsenic and nickel concentrations in bottom sediment from Onion Creek exceeded the USEPA threshold effects level in a composite sample collected during the habitat assessment in July 2007. Suspended-sediment concentration was estimated in terms of total suspended solids. Overall, Onion and Bennett Creeks were the least turbid, whereas the ephemeral Cattail Creek had the most turbid samples. Aquatic-community data were collected at four sites on the Meskwaki Settlement during the summer of 2007 to provide a baseline biological assessment of stream conditions. This assessment was based on sampling of the fish, benthic macroinvertebrate, and periphyton communities along with physical habitat characteristics. Individual biological metrics were derived from the data collected during the community surveys. These metrics were used to calculate Indexes of Biological Integrity (IBIs). The calculated values from the IBIs provided a numerical value that was used to provide an assessment of the biological condition at each biological sampling site. The fish community samples indicated that all of the sampling sites would be considered in fair condition, with one exception being a collection site on the Iowa River at Highway 49 near Tama, Iowa, which was classified in poor condition. The benthic macroinvertebrate IBI indicated a classification of good for three of the four biological sampling sites, with the Iowa River near Montour, Iowa,

  18. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum-based flocculent used in the lower reservoir. Suspended-sediment concentrations and turbidity measurements were largest at the site downstream from the lower reservoir. This is because of the large amounts of debris deposited in the lower reservoir from the breach, which in turn were redeposited into the East Fork Black River during releases. When these constituents were plotted over time, the concentrations decreased and were similar to the other two sites in the study. Trend analyses were studied at one site with historical data. No major trends were discovered for streamflow, turbidity, suspended-sediment concentrations, or suspended-sediment discharges before or after the event. Although long-term effects of the elevated turbidity, major trace metals, and suspended sediments in the study area as a result of the reservoir embankment breach are not expected, there could possibly be other effects not measured during this study that could potentially affect the surface-water quality, such as loss of riparian habitat, changes in biological ecosystems, and large-scale reworking of sediments.

  19. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Physical Aquatic Habitat Availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6-263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6-673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9-748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8-808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities. A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties. To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach-average basis, annual topographic change contributed little to habitat area variation. Net erosion occurred at Yankton (the upstream reach) and because erosion was distributed uniformly, there was little affect on many habitat metrics. Topographic change was spatially nonuniform at Little Sioux and Kenslers Bend reaches. Shallow water habitat units and some reach-scale patch statistics (edge density, patch density, and Simpson's Diversity Index) were affected by these changes. Erosion dominated at the downstream reach but habitat metrics did not vary substantially from 2006 to 2007. Among habitat metrics that were explored, zones of convergent flow were identified as areas that most closely correspond to spawning habitats of other sturgeon species, as identified in the scientific literature, and that are consistent with sparse data on pallid sturgeon spawning locations in the Lower Missouri River. Areas of convergent zone habitat varied little with discharges that would be associated with spring pulsed flows, and relations with discharge changed negligibly between 2006 and 2007. Other habitat measures show how physical habitat varies with discharge and among the four reaches. Wake habitats defined by velocity gradients seem to correspond with migration pathways of adult pallid sturgeon. Habitats with low Froude-number correspond to low energy areas that may accumulate passively transporting particles, organic matter, and larval fish. Among the modeled reaches, Yankton had substantially longer water residence time for equivalent flow exceedances than the other three modeled reaches. Longer residence times result from greater flow resistance in the relatively wide, shallow channel and may be associated with longer residence times of passively transported particulate materials.

  20. Mercury, Methylmercury, and Other Constituents in Sediment and Water from Seasonal and Permanent Wetlands in the Cache Creek Settling Basin and Yolo Bypass, Yolo County, California, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Alpers, Charles; Fleck, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This report presents surface water and surface (top 0-2 cm) sediment geochemical data collected during 2005-2006, as part of a larger study of mercury (Hg) dynamics in seasonal and permanently flooded wetland habitats within the lower Sacramento River basin, Yolo County, California. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I represented reconnaissance sampling and included three locations within the Cache Creek drainage basin; two within the Cache Creek Nature Preserve (CCNP) and one in the Cache Creek Settling Basin (CCSB) within the creek's main channel near the southeast outlet to the Yolo Bypass. Two additional downstream sites within the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) were also sampled during Phase I, including one permanently flooded wetland and one seasonally flooded wetland, which had began being flooded only 1-2 days before Phase I sampling. Results from Phase I include: (a) a negative correlation between total mercury (THg) and the percentage of methylmercury (MeHg) in unfiltered surface water; (b) a positive correlation between sediment THg concentration and sediment organic content; (c) surface water and sediment THg concentrations were highest at the CCSB site; (d) sediment inorganic reactive mercury (Hg(II)R) concentration was positively related to sediment oxidation-reduction potential and negatively related to sediment acid volatile sulfur (AVS) concentration; (e) sediment Hg(II)R concentrations were highest at the two YBWA sites; (f) unfiltered surface water MeHg concentration was highest at the seasonal wetland YBWA site, and sediment MeHg was highest at the permanently flooded YBWA site; (g) a 1,000-fold increase in sediment pore water sulfate concentration was observed in the downstream transect from the CCNP to the YBWA; (h) low sediment pore water sulfide concentrations (<1 umol/L) across all sites; and (i) iron (Fe) speciation data suggest a higher potential for microbial Fe(III)-reduction in the YBWA compared to the CCSB. Phase II sampling did not include the original three Cache Creek sites, but instead focused on the original two sites within the YBWA and a similarly paired set of seasonally and permanently flooded wetland sites within the CCSB. Sediment sampling at the YBWA and CCSB occurred approximately 28 days and 52 days, respectively, after the initial flooding of the respective seasonal wetlands, and again towards the end of the seasonal flooding period (end of May 2006). Results from Phase II sampling include: (a) sediment MeHg concentration and the percentage of THg as MeHg (%MeHg) in unfiltered surface waters were generally higher in the YBWA compared to the CCSB; (b) suspended sediment concentration (SCC) in surface water was positively correlated with both THg and MeHg in unfiltered water across all sites, although the relationship between SCC and MeHg differed for the two regions, suggesting local MeHg sources; (c) MeHg concentration in unfiltered surface water was positively correlated to sediment MeHg concentrations across all sites, supporting the suggestion of unique local (sediment) sources of MeHg to the water column; (d) THg concentration in filtered water was positively correlated with both total Fe and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), offering additional support for the role of these constituents in the partitioning of THg between particulate and dissolved phases; (e) flooding of the YBWA seasonal wetland resulted in a rapid and significant (5-fold) rise in sediment MeHg concentration within 3-4 weeks following inundation; and (f) temporal changes in sediment S and Fe speciation suggest that rates of both microbial sulfate reduction and Fe(III)-reduction were significantly higher at YBWA, compared to CCSB, during the period between flooding and drying. The geochemical data presented in this report indicate that (a) strong spatial and temporal differences in Hg speciation and transformations can occur within the range of wetland habitats found in the lower Sacramento

  1. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment, High School Completions, and Staff from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2007-352

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Garofano, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual universe collection of public elementary and secondary education data that is administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its data collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for the CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings…

  2. An Analysis of the New Jersey Public School District School Bond Referendum Process: A Historical Case Study of the Egg Harbor Township School District Bond Referendum of 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a historical case study of the Egg Harbor Township School District bond referendum that passed with an exceptionally high 92 percent of votes in January 2005. The methodology used in this study resulted in both an examination of the components of the New Jersey Public School District bond referendum process as well as an…

  3. Fulfilling the Covenant--The Way Forward: 2004-05 Annual Report to the President on the Results of Participation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in Federal Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is the third annual report of the President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), appointed by George W. Bush under Presidential Executive Order 13256. The report for fiscal years 2004-2005 details the performance of the 32 designated federal agencies and departments during 2004-2005, and…

  4. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary.

  5. Net Costs Due to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination — United States, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Reed, Carrie; Kim, Inkyu K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Meltzer, Martin I.; Finelli, Lyn; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality across all age groups, and influenza vaccination was recommended in 2010 for all persons aged 6 months and above. We estimated the averted costs due to influenza vaccination, taking into account the seasonal economic burden of the disease. Methods We used recently published values for averted outcomes due to influenza vaccination for influenza seasons 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09, and age cohorts 6 months-4 years, 5-19 years, 20-64 years, and 65 years and above. Costs were calculated according to a payer and societal perspective (in 2009 US$), and took into account medical costs and productivity losses. Results When taking into account direct medical costs (payer perspective), influenza vaccination was cost saving only for the older age group (65≥) in seasons 2005-06 and 2007-08. Using the same perspective, influenza vaccination resulted in total costs of $US 1.7 billion (95%CI: $US 0.3–4.0 billion) in 2006-07 and $US 1.8 billion (95%CI: $US 0.1–4.1 billion) in 2008-09. When taking into account a societal perspective (and including the averted lost earnings due to premature death) averted deaths in the older age group influenced the results, resulting in cost savings for all ages combined in season 07-08. Discussion Influenza vaccination was cost saving in the older age group (65≥) when taking into account productivity losses and, in some seasons, when taking into account medical costs only. Averted costs vary significantly per season; however, in seasons where the averted burden of deaths is high in the older age group, averted productivity losses due to premature death tilt overall seasonal results towards savings. Indirect vaccination effects and the possibility of diminished case severity due to influenza vaccination were not considered, thus the averted burden due to influenza vaccine may be even greater than reported. PMID:26230271

  6. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Chylek, Petr; Liston, Glen; Steffen, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  7. Trends in influenza vaccination coverage in Portugal from 1998 to 2010: effect of major pandemic threats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccination is the key measure available for prevention of the public health burden of annual influenza epidemics. This article describes national trends in seasonal influenza vaccine (IV) coverage in Portugal from 1998/99 to 2010/11, analyzes progress towards meeting WHO 2010 coverage goals, and addresses the effect of major public health threats of the last 12 years (SARS in 2003/04, influenza A (H5N1) in 2005/06, and the influenza A (H1N1)2009 pandemic) on vaccination trends. Methods The National Institute of Health surveyed (12 times) a random sample of Portuguese families. IV coverage was estimated and was adjusted for age distribution and country region. Independence of age and sex coverage distribution was tested using a modified F-statistic with a 5% significance level. The effect of SARS, A (H5N1), and the A (H1N1)2009 pandemic was tested using a meta-regression model. The model was adjusted for IV coverage in the general population and in the age groups. Results Between 1998/99 and 2010/11 IV, coverage in the general population varied between 14.2% (CI 95%: 11.6%–16.8%) and 17.5% (CI 95%: 17.6%–21.6%). There was no trend in coverage (p = 0.097). In the younger age group (<15 years) a declining trend was identified until 2008/09 (p = 0.005). This trend reversed in 2009/10. There was also a gradual and significant increase in seasonal IV coverage in the elderly (p for trend < 0.001). After 2006/07, IV coverage remained near 50%. Adjusting for baseline trends, there was significantly higher coverage in the general population in 2003/04 (p = 0.032) and 2005/06 (p = 0.018). The high coverage observed in the <15-year age group in season 2009/10 was also significant (p = 0.015). Conclusions IV coverage in the elderly population displayed an increasing trend, but the 75% WHO 2010 target was not met. This result indicates that influenza vaccination strategy should be improved to meet the ambitious WHO coverage goals. The

  8. Tribal Colleges and Universities: Education as the Engine for Economic Development in Indian Country. A Report to the President. 2004-05 Annual Performance Report on the Results of Federal Agency Actions to Assist Tribal Colleges and Universities and Recommendations to Strengthen Implementation of Executive Order 13270

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) are unique institutions of postsecondary education. They serve specific Native American communities that have unique social and cultural ways of relating to each other, while they also provide valuable links to the mainstream society. In arguably the richest nation in the world, many Native Americans remain…

  9. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  10. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary. PMID:24661742

  11. The Whipple Strip Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertzman, M. P.

    As part of the normal operation of the Whipple 10m Gamma Ray telescope, ten minute drift scan “zenith” runs are made each night of observation for use as calibration. Most of the events recorded during a zenith run are due to the background of cosmic ray showers. However, it would be possible for a hitherto unknown source of gamma rays to drift through the field. This paper reports the results of a search for serendipitous high energy gamma ray sources in the Whipple 10m nightly calibration zenith data. From 2000-2004 nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 89 º. A 2- D analysis of these drift scan runs produces a strip of width ~ 3.5º in declination and spanning the full range of right ascension. In the 2004-05 observing season the calibration runs were taken at elevations of 86° and 83°. Beginning in the 2005-06 season, the nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 80º. Collectively, these drift scans cover a strip approximately 12.5º wide in declination, centered at declination 37.18º, and spanning the full range of RA. The analysis procedures developed for drift scan data, the sensitivity of the method, and the results will be presented.

  12. Family Doctor Responses to Changes in Incentives for Influenza Immunization under the U.K. Quality and Outcomes Framework Pay-for-Performance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Doran, Tim; Gravelle, Hugh; Goudie, Rosalind; Siciliani, Luigi; Sutton, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of setting higher targets, in a primary care pay-for-performance scheme, on rates of influenza immunization and exception reporting. Study Setting The U.K. Quality and Outcomes Framework links financial rewards for family practices to four separate influenza immunization rates for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and stroke. There is no additional payment for immunization rates above an upper threshold. Patients for whom immunization would be inappropriate can be excepted from the practice for the calculation of the practice immunization rate. Data Practice-level information on immunizations and exceptions extracted from electronic records of all practices in England 2004/05 to 2009/10 (n = 8,212–8,403). Study Design Longitudinal random effect multilevel linear regressions comparing changes in practice immunization and exception rates for the four chronic conditions before and after the increase in the upper threshold immunization rate for CHD patients in 2006/07. Principal Findings The 5 percent increase in the upper payment threshold for CHD was associated with increases in the proportion of immunized CHD patients (0.41 percent, CI: 0.25–0.56 percent), and exception was reported (0.26 percent, CI: 0.12–0.40 percent). Conclusions Making quality targets more demanding can not only lead to improvement in quality of care but can also have other consequences. PMID:22171997

  13. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  14. Storm activity in North Atlantic and precipitation anomalies in European region during winter seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N. A.; Vyazilova, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the storm activity influence on the formation of wet and dry zone in North Atlantic and European region during winter seasons 1994/95, 2006/07 and 2007/08 years with positive mode of NAO, 1995/96, 2000/01 and 2005/06 years with negative mode of NAO. The study of storm activity includes the analyses of cyclonic intensity and cyclone track number. Analyses of cyclonic intensity based on calculation cyclone centers number (CCN) and sum of cyclone centers MSLP anomalies (CCMA). This analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm and the 6-hourly MSLP from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses 2 from 1979 to 2009. Precipitation anomalies were calculated from CMAP archive. Analyses had included the calculation of cyclone track number in all region [30°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E]and selected latitude zone for long cyclones (with lifetime more 2 day) and short cyclones (with lifetime less 2 day). The study had shown the special features of CCN and CCMA patterns in region for long and short cyclones. The study shows, that every winter season short cyclone track number twice as much long cyclone track number. However, the contribution of long cyclones in main determines the CCMA in region. Study had shown that winter seasons with positive NAO mode Nord Europe were outstanding by strong positive precipitation anomalies and strong cyclonic intensity, and during winter seasons with negative NAO mode in this region were observed negative precipitation anomalies and weak cyclonic activity. Standartizide anomalies of integral CCMA for selected latitude zone [55°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E] had shown the intensification of cyclonic activity over North Atlantic and North European region in last years.

  15. Comparison of bed planting-furrow irrigation with conventional planting-flood irrigation in durum wheat (T. durum Desf) in southeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozberk, Irfan; Coskun, Yalçin; Ilkhan, Ali; Köten, Mehmet; Karli, Bahri; Ryan, John

    2009-05-15

    There is no clear consensus regarding the advantages of bed planting with furrow irrigation over conventionally irrigated cropping. This 3-year study from Southeastern Turkey aimed to assess the limits to some input savings in bed planting-furrow irrigation in terms of yields and profitability of durum wheat. Field trials were carried out using a randomized complete block design with six treatments and tree replications: T1: Conventional Planting-Flood Irrigation (CP-FI) with recommended practices for seed rate, chemical fertilizers and chemical weed control; T2: Bed Planting and Furrow Irrigation (BP-FI) with recommended input rates as in T2; T3: BP-FI with 10% input reduction; T4: BP-FI with 20% input reduction; T5: BP-FI with 30% input reduction; T6: BP-FI with 40% input reduction. The trial had four replications at each location over three cropping seasons, i.e., Akçakale (2004-05, 2005-06) and Koruklu (2006-2007). Individual and combined analysis of variance were performed for grain yields, market prices based on quality assessment, protein content and both 1000-kernel and hectoliter weights. Profitability was assessed with partial budget analysis. Except for yields, there was little effect of treatments on the other variables. Based on yields and economic analysis, the conventional system with flood irrigation was superior to the bed and furrow system, even when the inputs were reduced in such a system. The work demonstrates the site-specific nature of any new technology as there are several local biological and economical factors to be considered.

  16. Population dynamics and secondary production of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: A comparison between Merja Zerga (Moroccan Atlantic Coast) and Arcachon Bay (French Atlantic Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gam, Mériame; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Bazairi, Hocein

    2010-04-01

    Cockle ( Cerastoderma edule) population dynamics were studied at the southern limit of the distribution of this marine bivalve in Merja Zerga, Morocco. Parameters such as growth, mortality, and production were compared with those of a population at Arcachon Bay (France) a site in the center of the cockle's range. At each sampling period between two and three cohorts were simultaneously observed at each site and the average total abundance was usually higher at Merja Zerga. Recruitment occurred at both sites in spring when temperature rose above 19 °C, independently of the month. In Merja Zerga, winter recruitment was also observed at one occasion, following high sediment disturbance. The first year (2005-06) at Merja Zerga, the mortality rate was close to nil for juveniles and was Z = 1.5 yr - 1 for adults, providing a high production (64 g dry weight m - 2 yr - 1 ). At Arcachon during the same period, the juvenile mortality rate was Z = 10.9 yr - 1 , the adult mortality rate was 3.4 yr - 1 and production was 26 gDW m -2 yr - 1 . The second year (2006-07), mortality after recruitment was much higher ( Z = 8.6 yr - 1 , for juveniles) and similar to what was observed at Arcachon ( Z = 8.4 yr - 1 ). Mortality rate of adults was higher at Merja Zerga ( Z = 3.0 yr - 1 ) than at Arcachon ( Z = 1.5 yr - 1 ). Production was lower at Arcachon than at Merja Zerga although growth performances were higher at Arcachon. The higher growth performance at Arcachon ( Φ' = 3.3) was mainly due to high asymptotic length ( L∞ = 38 mm) and was related to low intraspecific competition compared to Merja Zerga where cockle abundance was higher ( Φ' = 3.1, L∞ = 31 mm). P/B was low in both sites and slightly higher at Arcachon (1.1-1.5 against 1.0-1.1 yr - 1 ). At Arcachon, recruitment was correlated with temperature, a peak occurring when temperature rose above 19 °C (June-July). At Merja Zerga, recruitment was already 2-3 months earlier but was not significantly correlated to

  17. Trends and economic stress: a challenge to universal access to antiretroviral treatment in India.

    PubMed

    Dhamija, P; Bansal, D; Medhi, B

    2009-07-01

    The prospects for expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings have greatly improved as a result of global and national efforts to reduce the cost of antiretroviral drugs (ARV), growing availability of cheaper generics, and increased financing available from the Global Funds like Medicines Sans Frontieres. Indian health set-up provides drugs free-of-cost to HIV infected patients through government network and also through open-market to those who intend to have personalized care. Post-2005, implementation of WTO agreement on TRIPS is expected to have a significant impact on pricing and availability of generic ARV. The study has been planned to explore the trends and gaps in availability & accessibility of ARV in India. The trends in per-patient-per-year (PPPY) cost of individual ARV and treatment regimes were also explored. The epidemiological data demonstrated stabilization of the epidemic in India. Most ARV are available in India by the generic manufacturers with a median drug lag period of 2.05 years (Range 0.75-6.51 years). There is a significant price difference in drugs available from generic and originator companies. Prices for patented and generic ARV in India reflect price negotiations that have taken place since the introduction of drugs in the country, still most of the ARVs are available at a much higher cost in the market [median 2.6 times (range 1-7)]. The per-patient per year (PPPY) cost of providing first-line regime in 2008 has decreased 2.75 times from that in 2003. The analysis shows the stabilization of prices of all drugs after 2006. HIV spending in India has seen a growth of 26 percent and 28 percent in 2005-06 and 2006-07 respectively. Still, the expected expenditure to cover the whole patient population needing therapy is considerably higher than the actual expenditure incurred for providing ARV. Despite the price reductions and availability of ARV at a lower cost through agencies like MSF, there is a large gap

  18. Effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV Vaccine Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leah M.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Strumpf, Erin C.; Lévesque, Linda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in some jurisdictions is partly attributed to fears that vaccination may increase risky sexual behaviour. We assessed the effect of HPV vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Ontario. Methods: Using Ontario’s administrative health databases, we identified a population-based cohort of girls in grade 8 in the 2 years before (2005/06 and 2006/07) and after (2007/08 and 2008/09) implementation of Ontario’s grade 8 HPV vaccination program. For each girl, we then obtained data on vaccine receipt in grades 8 and 9 and data on indicators of sexual behaviour (pregnancy and non–HPV-related sexually transmitted infections) in grades 10–12. Using a quasi-experimental method known as regression discontinuity, we estimated, for each outcome, the risk difference (RD) and relative risk (RR) attributable to vaccination and to program eligibility. Results: The cohort comprised 260 493 girls, of whom 131 781 were ineligible for the program and 128 712 were eligible. We identified 15 441 (5.9%) cases of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection and found no evidence that vaccination increased the risk of this composite outcome: RD per 1000 girls −0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] −10.71 to 9.49) and RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Similarly, we found no discernible effect of program eligibility: RD per 1000 girls −0.25 (95% CI −4.35 to 3.85) and RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.06). The findings were similar when outcomes were assessed separately. Interpretation: We present strong evidence that HPV vaccination does not have any significant effect on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls. These results suggest that concerns over increased promiscuity following HPV vaccination are unwarranted and should not deter from vaccinating at a young age. PMID:25487660

  19. Four-Year Follow-Up of the Community Intervention "10 000 Steps Ghent"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien A.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M.; Brown, Wendy J.; Cardon, Greet M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the 4-year follow-up effects of the "10 000 steps Ghent" project, which had shown increases in pedometer steps after the first year of implementation (2005-06). All adults who had participated in 2005-06 (n = 866) were recontacted in 2009 and invited to complete the International Physical Activity…

  20. 29 CFR 18.1103 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Applicability § 18.1103 Title. These rules may be known as the United States Department of Labor Rules of Evidence and cited as 29 CFR 18.__ (1989). ... 29 Labor 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Title. 18.1103 Section 18.1103 Labor Office of...

  1. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  2. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy.

  3. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy. PMID:24958010

  4. Changes of Soil-Water-Plants relationships at abandoned field hillslopes along a pluviometric gradient in the South of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    . Final results shows the direct dependence of the soil water content from the rainfall events, as it is usual in Mediterranean. The presence of a period of drought (2004-06) during the monitoring let us to observe the incidence of reduction in the rainfall volumes. 2002-03 and 2003-04 years registered normal volumes of rainfalls and the soil water content followed the climatic gradient of the region: a decrease with the reduction of the rainfalls. Oppositely, during 2004-05 and 2005-06 years, the drought period, it was observed a significant reduction of soil water content for all hillslopes along the pluviometric gradient, although the effects were more evident at the hillslope in transition between sub-humid and semi-arid conditions. The lack of water into the soil caused the reduction of water available for vegetation. This led to a change in the vegetation pattern under different climatic conditions: a decrease in vegetal cover, the number of plants, and herbaceous growth; and an increase in the bare soil exposed to raindrop impacts and runoff. Hence, decreases in soil moisture content causes changes in the vegetal cover that could reduce the organic matter supply making soil aggregates more unstable with reduced soil permeability and water supply for vegetation, enhancing a positive feedback process of degradation. The observed changes related to increasing aridity during the drought period will lead the hillslopes eco-geomorphological system towards a more unstable equilibrium and special attention must be given to areas between sub-humid and semi-arid conditions because they could be used as sensitive indicators of the ecogeomorphological system responses in the Climate Change context.

  5. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    plantation in 2006, changes in chlorinated VOC concentrations at the piezometers were highly variable. At piezometer P1-9, the 2006 total chlorinated VOC concentration as well as the concentrations of cis-DCE and VC were measured at their highest levels to date; contaminant concentrations substantially decreased at piezometer P1-9 between June 2004 and June 2005. The reasons for the 2004-05 decrease in concentrations or the 2005-06 increase in concentrations are unknown. At piezometer P1-10, the consistent temporal trend of decreasing chlorinated VOC concentrations measured since 1999 ended, and the concentration of total chlorinated VOC in 2006 was the highest measured since 1999. The reductive dechlorination end-product ethene was measured at concentrations as high as 1,300 micrograms per liter in the upper aquifer beneath the southern plantation, which is reliable evidence that reductive dechlorination of VOCs is ongoing.

  6. Menthol Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2006/07. 2008, National Cancer Institute and Centers ... 07): http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/tus-cps/ . U.S. Department of Commerce Census Bureau, Menthol Cigarette ...

  7. Gender Differences in Motor Skill Proficiency from Childhood to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lisa M.; van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J.; Brooks, Lyndon O.; Beard, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Students' proficiency in three object control and three locomotor skills were assessed in 2000 (M age = 10.06 years, SD = 0.63) in New South Wales, Australia and in 2006-07 (M age = 16.44 years, SD = 0.64). In 2006-07, 266 students, 138 girls (51.9%) and 128 boys (48.1%), had at least one skill reassessed. Boys were more object control proficient…

  8. Project Title: Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alan A. Chen

    2008-03-27

    the understanding the origin of galactic {sup 26}Al, a target radioisotope for gamma ray astronomy; the {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reaction in turn is the trigger reaction for the transition into the Hot-CNO cycles in novae and X-ray bursts. A graduate student of mine, who has been supported part-time by this grant, completed the evaluation of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction as part of his plans to measure this reaction at TRIUMF for his Ph.D. thesis project. I also hired a part-time undergraduate student for the 2004-05 academic year to assist with the evaluations, including that of the {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reaction. Year 3 (2005-06): The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti and {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reactions - This year's progress was closely coupled to new results coming from our collaboration on the DRAGON spectrometer team at TRIUMF. The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti and {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reactions were both measured, and significant modifications to their respective reaction rates were required. Both are required input toward predicting the respective amounts of Titanium-44 and Aluminum-26 produced in our galaxy, in supernovae, massive stars, and nova explosions. The {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reaction rate was successfully completed. The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction in particular served as the Ph.D. thesis for Christian Ouellet, and therefore the evaluation of this rate fell naturally within his thesis project. Christian successfully defended his thesis in 2007 and is now working for me on the McMaster DOE-funded Nuclear Data Project. In light of the recent data from his thesis, Christian is now putting the final touches on this evaluation, and will disseminate it through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reaction rate database.

  9. California's Impending College Graduate Crisis and What Needs to Be Done about It. Policy Brief 10-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In 2005-06 almost half of the pupils in California's public schools were Latinos, but Latinos only received about 15 percent of the BA degrees awarded by public and private colleges in the state. Texas has a comparable Latino population, but does significantly better than California in getting Latino students through college. The implication of…

  10. Changes in Family Literacy Funding and Welfare Policy: Consequences for Pennsylvania Family Literacy Programs. Research Brief #5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Gungor, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    Due to federal budget cuts in 2005-06, 11 family literacy programs in Pennsylvania switched from federal Even Start to state (Act 143) funding. Simultaneously, state welfare requirements stipulated that in most circumstances adult education is not an allowable work activity for welfare recipients over age 20. This study examined how these policy…

  11. Effects of State Tests on Classroom Test Items in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom tests from nine eighth-grade mathematics teachers were collected from the 2003-04 and 2005-06 school years. These years represent one school year prior to the eighth-grade Ohio Achievement Test (OAT) in mathematics being implemented and the year after the eighth-grade OAT in mathematics was implemented, respectively. In addition,…

  12. Knowledge or Skills--The Way to a Meaningful Degree? An Investigation into the Importance of Key Skills within an Undergraduate Degree and the Effect This Has on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Stuart; Feltham, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The grades attained by students studying biological science at level 1, at Liverpool John Moores University, UK, were examined between the academic years 2003/04 - 2005/06. The marks attained in the study skills module, and the mean level 1 mark (number of modules, n = 10) were also analysed. The data were divided into two groups: those relating…

  13. Department Raps States on Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education has notified 10 states that it intends to withhold a portion of their state administrative funds under the Title I program for failing to comply fully with the testing provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act by the end of the 2005-06 school year. Those funds would instead be diverted directly to school…

  14. Do Future Teachers Choose Wisely? A Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Personality Preference Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Bill; Peltier, Gary; Hill, Gus

    2005-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires that all teachers in core academic subjects to be "highly qualified" by the end of the 2005-06 school year. New teacher leave the profession at an alarming rate--research indicates that 50% have left within five years of their first job. This article explores the personality types of pre-service teachers and…

  15. Report on Transfers from Community Colleges at Virginia Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the total number of Virginia Community College System (VCCS) transfer students each institution of higher education enrolled, and graduated from 2001-02 to 2005-06. The number of VCCS transfer students admitted to each higher education institution is not included because the State Council of Higher Education does not require…

  16. A Comparison of Supply and Demand for PETE Professionals in Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the supply and demand issues of D-PETE professionals in higher education. The three concerns addressed were: (a) doctoral graduates and their respective job placements in the academic years of 1996-97 through 2008-09, (b) an examination of two targeted academic years (2005-06 and 2008-09) to determine the supply of entry level…

  17. Wanted: Well-Rounded Students Who Can Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, G. Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The author states that the U.S. is at risk of falling behind in the global economic competition because too few of the young people are choosing to study fields like engineering and science. A 2005-06 Lemelson-MIT Invention Index survey found that while American teenagers are comfortable with rapid technological change and optimistic about the…

  18. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  19. 77 FR 8927 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... (September 13, 2006), 71 FR 55037 (September 20, 2006) (SR-CHX-2005-06). III. Discussion The Commission finds... FR 312 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal The Exchange proposes to add Interpretation and.... Introduction On December 16, 2011, the Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc. (``CHX'' or the ``Exchange'') filed...

  20. Feeling the Heat: The Impact of Rising Energy Costs on Colleges & Universities in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Chris; Johnson, Gina

    2006-01-01

    This report is the result of a survey conducted in late 2005 of higher education institution chief financial officers throughout the U.S. Midwest region concerning their plans to manage what was expected to be a substantial increase in the price of energy in advance of the 2005-06 heating season. Although the winter turned out to be one of the…

  1. Does Your Organization Welcome Participants with Disabilities? A New Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Fred; Shea, Mary McAllister

    2009-01-01

    During the 2005-06 school year, more than 6.7 million children with disabilities received special education and related services in our public schools; this represents more than a 20 percent increase over the previous decade (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). These children, who are typically at risk for chronic physical, developmental,…

  2. Attitudes to the Uses of Animals in Higher Education: Has Anything Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Lynda; Downie, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Bioscience staff and students at Glasgow University in session 2005-06 were questioned on their attitudes to animal uses in higher education, as follow-up to a similar survey 20 years before. Disapproval by students of animal use was generally reduced compared to 20 years ago, but students remained in a "moral bind", recognising the interest and…

  3. Governing Urban School Districts: Efforts in Los Angeles to Effect Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Epstein, Diana; Vuollo, Mirka

    2006-01-01

    Many urban school district students are dropping out and few of the remaining ones reach state or district achievement goals. These problems make governing urban schools both difficult and important. In 2005-06, the governance structure of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) was examined, debated, criticized, and praised by several…

  4. Campus Cultures Fostering Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 and 2005-06 workshops sponsored by the Council of Independent Colleges and the National Institute for Technology & Liberal Education have generated much data that can be used to describe aspects of the campus cultures at some 130 institutions that foster information literacy. These data are particularly informative regarding collaboration…

  5. Development of the DHQ II and C-DHQ II Nutrient & Food Group Database

    Cancer.gov

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ II, is based on a compilation of national 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 2001-02, 2003-04, and 2005-06.

  6. 34 CFR 200.1 - State responsibilities for developing challenging academic standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; and (3) Include at least mathematics, reading/language arts, and, beginning in the 2005-2006 school... at least reading/language arts, mathematics, and, beginning in the 2005-06 school year, science...) Are aligned with the State's academic content standards; (2) Promote access to the general...

  7. An Evaluation of Colorado's College Opportunity Fund and Related Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the State of Colorado enacted legislation that fundamentally changed the mechanisms through which it financed its public higher education system, beginning with the 2005-06 academic year. Rather than appropriating funds directly to institutions, the legislation created the College Opportunity Fund (COF), the principal…

  8. 77 FR 60489 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    .... 67672 (August 15, 2012) 77 FR 50750 (August 22, 2012) (SR-NYSEAmex-2012-29). The Exchange began trading... Release No. 51041 (January 14, 2005), 70 FR 3408 (January 24, 2005) (SR-CBOE-2005-06). \\8\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64928 (July 20, 2011), 76 FR 44633 (July 26, 2011) (SR-CBOE-2011-065)....

  9. Sedimentation History Of Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife And Fish Refuge, Wisconsin, 1846-2006. Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5209

    EPA Science Inventory

    The history of overbank sedimentation in the vicinity of Halfway Creek Marsh near La Crosse, Wisconsin, was examined during 2005-06 by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Wisconsin-Madison as part of a broader study of sediment and nutrient loadings to the Upper Mississi...

  10. East-West Cooperative: Influx of Chinese Students in America Helps Promote a Global Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    American degrees have become increasingly fashionable among members of China's rapidly growing middle class who are eager for their children to study American business practices, become well-rounded by getting a higher education degree steeped in the liberal arts and master the English language. In a five-year period beginning in 2005-06, the…

  11. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program was federally- and state-funded and provided three-year grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans from the 2005-06 to 2007-08 school years. GEEG was implemented in 99 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. This report builds on the previous GEEG evaluation…

  12. WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Impact of Two Professional Development Interventions on Early Reading Instruction and Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the "Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling" ("LETRS)" professional development curriculum on the reading achievement of second graders. The authors examined data on more than 5,000 second graders from ninety elementary schools in four states during the 2005-06 school year. Study schools were…

  13. 76 FR 24951 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... options on SPDRs ). \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 51071 (January 21, 2005), 70 FR 4911... order''). See also Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 51043 (January 14, 2005), 70 FR 3402 (January 24, 2005) (SR-Amex-2005-06) (approval order); 51041 (January 14, 2005), 70 FR 3408 (January 24, 2005)...

  14. Changes in Student Choices and Graduate Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an comprehensive analysis of the way recession is impacting upon graduate outcomes. Data used in this report reflects the current level of applications to higher education (HE) for 2010 entry, but, due to data collection timing differences, the employment and training destinations of the graduating cohorts of 2005/06-2008/09.…

  15. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  16. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program was federally- and state-funded and provided three-year grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans from the 2005-06 to 2007-08 school years. GEEG was implemented in 99 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. Performance pay for teachers entered Texas state…

  17. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  18. Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis. Working Paper 2008-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Chingos, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We use value-added models to calculate measures of effectiveness for new elementary school teachers in Florida between 2001-02 and 2005-06, then compare the attrition and mobility patterns of more and less effective teachers overall and across various types of schools. While we do not find evidence that schools are disproportionately losing their…

  19. Teacher Pensions and Retirement Behavior: How Teacher Pension Rules Affect Behavior, Mobility, and Retirement. Working Paper 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Ehlert, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines late career mobility and retirement decisions for a cohort of mid-career Missouri public school teachers. Specifically, the paper follows a cohort of teachers whose combined age and experience totaled 45 or more years in fall 1991 through the 2005-06 school year. Like many public employee pensions, Missouri has a system that…

  20. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  1. Phylogenetic diversity and microsphere array-based genotyping of human pathogenic Fusaria, including isolates from the multistate contact lens-associated U.S. keratitis outbreaks of 2005 and 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005-06, outbreaks of Fusarium keratitis associated with soft contact lens use occurred in multiple U.S. states and Puerto Rico. A case-control study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) showed a significant association between infections and the use of one particula...

  2. Measuring Child Poverty in South Africa: Sensitivity to the Choice of Equivalence Scale and an Updated Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streak, Judith Christine; Yu, Derek; Van der Berg, Servaas

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers evidence on the sensitivity of child poverty in South Africa to changes in the adult equivalence scale (AES) and updates the child poverty profile based on the Income and Expenditure Survey 2005/06. Setting the poverty line at the 40th percentile of households calculated with different AESs the scope and composition of child…

  3. School Segregation under Color-Blind Jurisprudence: The Case of North Carolina. Working Papers Series. SAN08-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2008-01-01

    Using detailed administrative data for the public K-12 schools of North Carolina, we measure racial segregation in the public schools of North Carolina. With data for the 2005/06 school year, we update previously published calculations that measure segregation in terms of unevenness in racial enrollment patterns both between schools and within…

  4. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  5. Developing and Sustaining Leadership Learning Communities: Implications of NPQICL Rollout for Public Policy Local Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Margy; Chandler, Rachel; John, Karen; Reid, Lindsay; Thorpe, Sheila; Everitt, John

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the UK government launched a new programme for early years leaders in England--the National Professional Qualification in Integrated Centre Leadership (NPQICL). In collaboration with the National College for School Leadership, Pen Green led the development, pilot and rollout of this M-level training programme, which by 2006-07 involved 17…

  6. Degrees Conferred by Connecticut Institutions of Higher Education Highlights, 2007-08. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the degrees conferred by Connecticut institutions of higher education in 2007-08. Connecticut colleges and universities awarded 36,634 degrees in 2007-08 (up 1.6% over 2006-07), the state's seventh consecutive year of growth and a 28 percent increase since 1998. Once again, the top five degree-producing disciplines were…

  7. From the outside Looking in: A Study of Australian Employers' Perceptions of Graduates from Outdoor Education Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munge, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted in 2006-07 exploring the perspectives that some Australian employers have of graduates from an outdoor education degree program. Similar studies have been conducted in the US and the UK; however no such study has been conducted in Australia. This study clarifies some of the tensions that exist in the…

  8. Student Attainment and the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    In this report the authors examine high school completion and postsecondary enrollment (a.k.a. "educational attainment") of the cohort of 9th grade students who were in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) at the beginning of their state-mandated evaluation of the MPCP in 2006. After tracking the MPCP 9th graders following the 2006-07 year…

  9. Alabama Department of Education Quick Facts, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics; Alabama public schools 2007-08; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data; public school size and enrollment; transportation; school meals; school personnel, 2007-2008; graduation requirements; student assessment; additional enrollment; and dropouts, 2006-07.

  10. Achievement Gap Patterns of Grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Reading and Math. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven; Greenough, Richard; Sage, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a summary of a larger report that focuses on student proficiency reading and math from 2003-04 to 2006-07. The report compares gaps in performance on state achievement tests between grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native students and all other grade 8 students in 26 states serving large populations of American Indian and…

  11. Achievement Gap Patterns of Grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven; Greenough, Richard; Sage, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on student proficiency in reading and math from 2003-04 to 2006-07, this report compares gaps in performance on state achievement tests between grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native students and all other grade 8 students in 26 states serving large populations of American Indian and Alaska Native students. In response to a request by…

  12. Meeting Oregon's New High School Math Graduation Requirements: Examining Student Enrollment and Teacher Availability. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Sage, Nicole; Ishimaru, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Disaggregating the data across four school variables--size, locale, racial/ethnic minority population, and population eligible for free or reduced-price lunch--this study examines the extent to which Oregon grade 9-12 students enrolled in high school math courses during 2006/07 and 2007/08 would not have been on track to graduate had the new…

  13. A Fifty-State Survey of School Finance Policies and Programs: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.; Jordan, Teresa S.

    2009-01-01

    This overview provides a synthesis of a comprehensive survey of school finance programs in the 50 states conducted in 2006-07. Information was provided by chief state school finance officers or persons with expertise in a state's public school funding-allocation system. Brief descriptions of the major Pre-K-12 funding formulae, district-based…

  14. Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Final Report. NCEE 2012-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis; Finney, Pamela B.; Bell, Steve; Turner, Herb; Jaciw, Andrew P.; Zacamy, Jenna L.; Gould, Laura Feagans

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experiment conducted in Alabama beginning in the 2006/07 school year, to determine the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI), which aims to improve mathematics and science achievement in the state's K-12 schools. This study is the first randomized controlled trial…

  16. A Decade of Results: A Case for School District Consolidation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Betty; Cox, Becky

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the results of consolidation on the Hamilton County Department of Education, an urban school district located in Tennessee. The purpose of the study was to analyze the longitudinal effects by comparing and contrasting the district's pre-consolidation data from 1997-98 to its post-consolidation figures for 2006-07. More…

  17. Forward Thinking: Out-of-the-Box Ideas for Surviving the Budget Crunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Back in 2006, the stock market was rising, unemployment was still relatively low, and most of the country was not yet worried about a recession. But officials at San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) were closely monitoring the economy, and they saw clouds on the horizon. By the end of the 2006-07 academic year, the district, which serves…

  18. Evaluation of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Secondary 1 Program) by the Program Participants: Findings Based on the Full Implementation Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 207 schools (N = 33,693 students) participated in the Secondary 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Full Implementation Phase (2006-07). Participants responded to a Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form A) to assess their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness after program completion. Utilizing the…

  19. Characteristics of Career Academies in 12 Florida School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; D'Souza, Stephanie; Bozick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes career academies in 12 Florida school districts in the 2006/07 school year. It examines their structure and career clusters, the high schools offering them, and the students enrolled. This study is driven by three research questions: (1) How many career academies were there, and of what types? (2) What were the…

  20. "Don't You Pick and Refuse Me"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clunis, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In 2006-07, the author had the task of teaching the first substantially separate class at her school. Before this year, all of Mission Hill's students had been included in the classrooms. They have always had children with special needs, but before last year, they never had a classroom in which the students were told they had to be separate. Added…

  1. A Description of Foundation Skills Interventions for Struggling Middle-Grade Readers in Four Urban Northeast and Islands Region School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 042

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorfass, Judith; Urbano, Carole

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted during the 2006/07 academic year, describes how four midsize urban school districts in the Northeast and Islands Region--Worcester, Massachusetts; Nashua, New Hampshire; Yonkers, New York; and Providence, Rhode Island--were providing foundation skills assessments and programs to struggling middle-grade readers. Researchers…

  2. An Examination of Inter-District Public School Transfers in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, David M.; Statz, Bambi; Skidmore, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Using data for all Wisconsin school districts over the 2003/04 through 2006/07 school years, we evaluate the state of Wisconsin's Open Enrollment (inter-district transfer) program to determine which school district characteristics influence parental transfer decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study of school choice in a public school…

  3. Mutual Comparison Reception Model (MCRM) of Concept Development in Secondary Science Learning: A Variation to Brunarian Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, K. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is the outcome of an experiential learning episode encountered by a teacher educator (the author) with a group of student-teachers under his mentorship during a session of the practice teaching programme (2006-07) at the secondary school level. The crisis faced by a student teacher in connection with the development of a lesson template…

  4. West Virginia's Progress toward Universal Prekindergarten. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  5. West Virginia's Progress Toward Universal Prekindergarten. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  6. Aboriginal Report--Charting Our Path: Public Post-Secondary System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an update on initiatives, activities and performance information regarding public post-secondary Aboriginal students in British Columbia between 2003-04 and 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations…

  7. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded…

  8. Guide for Accredited Private School Education Planning and Results Reporting. Requirements for Three-Year Education Plans for 2007/08-2009/10 and Annual Education Results Reports for November 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Guide to Accredited Private School Education Planning and Results Reporting, 2007-2010 provides the provincial requirements for: 1) Private school authority three-year education plans for 2007-2010. These plans cover the 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10 school years. 2) Private school authority annual education results report for the 2006/07

  9. Prekindergarten Participation Rates in West Virginia. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraghty, Thomas M.; Holian, Laura; Gyekye, Adwoa

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, in response to concerns of state policymakers, Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia published "West Virginia's progress toward universal prekindergarten" (Cavalluzzo et al. 2009), which covered school years 2002/03-2006/07. This follow-up brief updates that report with data for 2007/08-2010/11. It compares the shares of preK seats…

  10. Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Gronberg, Timothy J.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Stecher, Brian M.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program was state-funded and provided annual grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans during the 2006-07 to 2009-10 school year. This report builds on the previous TEEG evaluation reports, presenting findings from three years of the TEEG program. Overall, the report discusses the…

  11. School Policies and Practices to Improve Health and Prevent Obesity: National Secondary School Survey Results. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides updated results from one of the most comprehensive studies of health-related policies and practices in U.S. public middle and high schools to date, which was released in August 2011. The major findings and trends presented in this report describe issues relevant to childhood obesity for four school years, from 2006-07 to…

  12. Student Progress and Goal Attainment Report: Adult School Programs in California. Program Year July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 285 adult schools in California enrolled 1,206,864 adult learners supported through state apportionment funds in program year 2006-07. This report presents the results of data collected by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) from all learners enrolled in California adult schools. The report analysis was prepared by…

  13. Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Hamilton, Laura; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ballou, Dale; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Pepper, Matthew; Lockwood, J. R.; Stecher, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Project on Incentives in Teaching (POINT) was a three-year study conducted in the Metropolitan Nashville School System from 2006-07 through 2008-09, in which middle school mathematics teachers voluntarily participated in a controlled experiment to assess the effect of financial rewards for teachers whose students showed unusually large gains…

  14. Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Gronberg, Timothy J.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Stecher, Brian M.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program was state-funded and provided annual grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans during the 2006-07 to 2009-10 school year. TEEG was implemented each year (i.e., Cycle) in approximately 1,000 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. Performance pay for teachers…

  15. Modification of sorghum proteins for enhanced functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is the third most widely produced crop in the United States (U.S.) and fifth in the world during fiscal year 2006/07(USDA-FAS, 2007). The use of sorghum in foods faces functional and nutritional constraints due, mainly, to the rigidity of the protein bodies. The disruption and modificatio...

  16. Engagement as a Core University Leadership Position and Advancement Strategy: Perspectives from an Engaged Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Mark N.; McVeety, Cassie S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, Portland State University (PSU) has received consistent national accolades for its innovative, engaged approaches to student learning. More recently, PSU has expanded its emphasis on engaged research and has more intentionally highlighted its institutional partnerships and impact on the region. A current (2006-07)…

  17. Teacher Attitudes about Performance Incentives in Texas: Early Reactions to the GEEG Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. Findings are based on surveys administered to GEEG teachers during the 2006-07 school year, the…

  18. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether offering financial incentives to teachers of fifth- through eighth-grade math students improved their students' achievement on the math section of the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. The study took place in the Metropolitan Nashville Public School District during the 2006-07 through 2008-09 school years. It…

  19. School District Wellness Policies: Evaluating Progress and Potential for Improving Children's Health Five Years after the Federal Mandate. Brief Report. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie; Resnick, Elissa; Schneider, Linda; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Adcock, Tessa; Carrion, Violeta; Chaloupka, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This brief report updates data published in August 2010 from the most comprehensive, ongoing nationwide analysis of written wellness policies. It includes data from the 2006-07 through the 2010-11 school years, which were the first five years following the required implementation date for wellness policies. The major findings and trends presented…

  20. Evaluation of New Texas Charter Schools: Second Interim Report (2007-10). Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) was awarded Charter School Program (CSP) funding in 2007, and specified that the required evaluation would focus on the experiences and outcomes of new charter schools authorized to begin serving students across 4 school years: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10. TEA categorizes charter schools in terms of…

  1. Characteristics of Career Academies in 12 Florida School Districts. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; D'Souza, Stephanie; Bozick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes career academies in 12 Florida school districts in the 2006/07 school year. It examines their structure and career clusters, the high schools offering them, and the students enrolled. This study is one of the first to investigate both career academy structure and clusters using multiple data sources. It provides state…

  2. Quality Assurance in Higher Education Institutions: Exit Survey among Universiti Putra Malaysia Graduating Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konting, Mohd Majid; Kamaruddin, Norfaryanti; Man, Nor Azirawani

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the exit survey of graduating students at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). The results gathered from 1,823 final year students of the 2006/07 session indicate that overall, the students' satisfaction level is moderately high (3.55 ± 0.79). The students' perception on the attributes of graduates resulting from learning outcomes…

  3. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  4. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Fifth Year Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP), which provides vouchers for low-income students to attend private schools. The study examined the four-year academic achievement growth of more than 600 students who were given a voucher in the 2006-07 school year, compared to the academic achievement growth of a…

  5. WWC Review of the Report "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Fifth Year Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this report examined the effectiveness of the "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program" ("MPCP"), which provides vouchers for low-income students to attend private schools. The study analyzed data on about 600 students who were given "MPCP" vouchers in the 2006-07 school year. The authors created a comparison group of similar size…

  6. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Fifth Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This report features analyses of student achievement growth four years after the authors carefully assembled longitudinal study panels of MPCP and Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) students in 2006-07. The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides…

  7. Results of the first beam time with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeßler, Stefan; Ayala Guardia, Fidel; Borg, Michael; Eberhardt, Klaus; Heil, Werner; Konrad, Gertrud; Muñoz Horta, Raquel; Sobolev, Yuri; Konorov, Igor; Petzoldt, Gerd; Simson, Martin; Zimmer, Oliver; Glück, Ferenc; Rich, Dennis

    2007-10-01

    With the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT we aim to measure the proton spectrum in free neutron beta decay precisely. This allows us to determine the neutrino electron correlation coefficient a. We had our first test beam time in 2005/06 at the new neutron source FRM-II in Garching. In my talk I want to talk about the results, the systematic effects we found and the ways how to deal with them in later beam times.

  8. Matrix effects on a cell-based assay used for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalve shellfish samples.

    PubMed

    Aballay-Gonzalez, Ambbar; Ulloa, Viviana; Rivera, Alejandra; Hernández, Víctor; Silva, Macarena; Caprile, Teresa; Delgado-Rivera, Lorena; Astuya, Allisson

    2016-05-01

    Detecting marine biotoxins such as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is essential to ensuring the safety of seafood. The mouse bioassay is the internationally accepted method for monitoring PSTs, but technical and ethical issues have led to a search for new detection methods. The mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (Neuro-2a CBA) using ouabain and veratridine (O/V) has proven useful for the detection of PSTs. However, CBAs are sensitive to shellfish-associated matrix interferences. As the extraction method highly influences matrix interferences, this study compared three extraction protocols: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2005.06, AOAC 2011.02 and an alternative liquid-liquid method. These methods were used to assess the matrix effect of extracts from four commercially important bivalve species (Chilean mussel, Magellan mussel, clam and Pacific oyster) in Neuro-2a CBA. Extracts from all three protocols caused a toxic effect in Neuro-2a cells (without O/V) when tested at a concentration of 25 mg of tissue-equivalent (TE) ml(-1). The greatest toxicity was obtained through the AOAC 2011.02 protocol, especially for the Chilean mussel and Pacific oyster extracts. Similar toxicity levels (less than 15%) were observed in all extracts at 3.1 mg TE ml(-1). When assessed in Neuro-2a CBA, AOAC 2005.06 extracts presented the lowest matrix interferences, while the highest interferences were observed for AOAC 2011.02 in Magellan mussel and clam extracts. Finally, the AOAC 2005.06 and alternative protocols were compared using Chilean mussel samples fortified with 40 and 80 µg STX per 100 g meat. The AOAC 2005.06 method demonstrated better results. In conclusion, the AOAC 2005.06 extracts exhibited the fewest interferences in the Neuro-2a CBA. Therefore, this extraction method should be considered for the implementation of Neuro-2a CBA as a high-throughput screening methodology for PST detection.

  9. Child malnutrition in Haiti: progress despite disasters.

    PubMed

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Pierre, Joseline Marhone; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    Undernutrition, a chief child killer in developing countries, has been a major public health problem in Haiti. Following the 2010 disasters (earthquake and cholera) and the intensive relief efforts to address them, we sought to determine the trends of child undernutrition in Haiti using data from the 2005-06 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (HDHS) and from a Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) survey in 2012. Growth data analyses included 2,463 (HDHS) and 4,727 (SMART) children ages 0-59 months. We calculated the prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight for each survey using World Health Organization 2006 growth standards. To account for sampling design, probability weights were applied to all analyses. Statistical significance was determined by non-overlapping confidence intervals around estimates. Stunting prevalence declined from 28.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.9, 31.3) in 2005-06 to 22.2% (95% CI = 20.2, 24.3) in 2012; wasting, from 10.1% (95% CI = 8.2, 12.7) to 4.3% (95% CI = 3.6, 5.2); and underweight, from 17.7 % (95% CI = 15.6, 20.1) to 10.5% (95% CI = 9.3, 11.9). Additionally, stunting declined more in rural areas, from 33.6% (95% CI = 30.1, 37.2) in 2005-06 to 25% (95% CI = 23.4, 26.7) in 2012, than in urban areas, from 18.6% (95% CI = 15.3, 22.5) in 2005-06 to 18.4% (95% CI = 16.7, 20.1) in 2012, for reasons that remain unknown. Results of the 2012 HDHS confirmed the observed trends. Thus, undernutrition among Haitian children under 5 declined significantly between 2005-06 and 2012. Our results should be interpreted in view of investments and changes that occurred in different sectors (within and outside health and nutrition) before and after the earthquake.

  10. Matrix effects on a cell-based assay used for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalve shellfish samples.

    PubMed

    Aballay-Gonzalez, Ambbar; Ulloa, Viviana; Rivera, Alejandra; Hernández, Víctor; Silva, Macarena; Caprile, Teresa; Delgado-Rivera, Lorena; Astuya, Allisson

    2016-05-01

    Detecting marine biotoxins such as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is essential to ensuring the safety of seafood. The mouse bioassay is the internationally accepted method for monitoring PSTs, but technical and ethical issues have led to a search for new detection methods. The mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (Neuro-2a CBA) using ouabain and veratridine (O/V) has proven useful for the detection of PSTs. However, CBAs are sensitive to shellfish-associated matrix interferences. As the extraction method highly influences matrix interferences, this study compared three extraction protocols: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2005.06, AOAC 2011.02 and an alternative liquid-liquid method. These methods were used to assess the matrix effect of extracts from four commercially important bivalve species (Chilean mussel, Magellan mussel, clam and Pacific oyster) in Neuro-2a CBA. Extracts from all three protocols caused a toxic effect in Neuro-2a cells (without O/V) when tested at a concentration of 25 mg of tissue-equivalent (TE) ml(-1). The greatest toxicity was obtained through the AOAC 2011.02 protocol, especially for the Chilean mussel and Pacific oyster extracts. Similar toxicity levels (less than 15%) were observed in all extracts at 3.1 mg TE ml(-1). When assessed in Neuro-2a CBA, AOAC 2005.06 extracts presented the lowest matrix interferences, while the highest interferences were observed for AOAC 2011.02 in Magellan mussel and clam extracts. Finally, the AOAC 2005.06 and alternative protocols were compared using Chilean mussel samples fortified with 40 and 80 µg STX per 100 g meat. The AOAC 2005.06 method demonstrated better results. In conclusion, the AOAC 2005.06 extracts exhibited the fewest interferences in the Neuro-2a CBA. Therefore, this extraction method should be considered for the implementation of Neuro-2a CBA as a high-throughput screening methodology for PST detection. PMID:27002718

  11. Grow Your Own School Leaders: A Case Study of Principal Development in Philadelphia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Education Collaborative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2004-05, the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) began a groundbreaking partnership with the Eli Broad Foundation to develop the Academy for Leadership in Philadelphia Schools (ALPS), one of several Broad-funded, alternative principal development programs initiated across the country. The ALPS effort was designed to respond to two challenges:…

  12. Exploring Adjustment: The Social Situation of Chinese Students in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurling, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of the social situations of first year Chinese students in one UK University. The study used in-depth interviews and constructivist grounded theory to investigate the social situations of 19 foundation, undergraduate and postgraduate students in 2004-05. This exploratory approach was informed by Siu's "The…

  13. Bridging the Experiential Learning Gap: An Evaluation of the Impacts of Ulster University's Senior Student Tutoring Scheme on First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004-05 first year students at the School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University have engaged with senior student tutors (SSTs) in workshop activities aimed at preparations for their written examinations. Using a pedagogical action research methodology we evaluated the role of SSTs in bridging the experiential learning gap between…

  14. 78 FR 21441 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... periods of market stress. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 53539 (March 22, 2006), 71 FR 16353 (March 31, 2006) (SR-NYSE-2004-05); Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58265 (July 30, 2008), 73 FR...), 77 FR 33498 (June 6, 2012) (``LULD Release''). Nevertheless, the Exchange proposes to phase out...

  15. The BC Provincial Education Number (PEN): Considerations for Assigning the PEN to Post-Secondary Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has had a long-standing interest in measures of student mobility and the potential of the Provincial Education Number (PEN) being applied in post-secondary institutions at the applicant stage. The Admissions Committee of BCCAT included a project in its 2004/05 Work Plan to conduct a thorough…

  16. Challenges of University Adjustment in the UK: A Study of East Asian Master's Degree Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master's level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004-05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East…

  17. Organisation and Management of a Complete Bachelor Degree Offered Online at the University of Milan for Ten Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milani, Manuela; Papini, Sabrina; Scaccia, Daniela; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting some reflections on organisation and management of SSRI online: an e-learning initiative started at the University of Milan (Italy) in the academic year 2004/05 and offered to students over the last ten years. The initiative consisted in implementing the online version of an already existing three-year bachelor…

  18. Non-Formal Education and Livelihood Skills for Marginalised Street and Slum Youth in Uganda. Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Building Capacities for Non formal Education and Life Skills Programmes project in Uganda was implemented by Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) with financial and technical support from UNESCO--Section for Literacy and non Formal Education in 2004-05; aiming at assisting vulnerable and marginalised youth affected by HIV/AIDS and other risk…

  19. 77 FR 51596 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; NYSE MKT LLC; Order Granting Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ....19b-4. \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 67317 (June 29, 2012), 77 FR 40133 (SR-NYSE-2012-19) and 67318 (June 29, 2012), 77 FR 40129 (SR-NYSEMKT-2012-13) (hereinafter referred to collectively... (March 22, 2006), 71 FR 16353 (March 31, 2006) (SR-NYSE-2004-05) (Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

  20. Science Education and ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    The number of students who learn English as a second language (ESL) in U.S. schools has grown significantly in the past decade. This segment of the student population increased by 56% between the 1994-95 and 2004-05 school years (NCLR 2007). As the ESL student population increases, many science teachers struggle to tailor instructional materials,…

  1. Post-Primary Education and Capabilities: Insights from Young Women in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Shelley K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…

  2. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  3. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  4. The Effect of Special-Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program. Civic Report No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of exposure to a voucher program for disabled students in Florida on the academic performance of disabled students who remain in the public school system. The authors utilize student-level data on the universe of public school students in the state of Florida from 2000-01 through 2004-05 to study the effect of the…

  5. Trends in Bullying at School among Students Ages 12 to 18. Data Point. NCES 2016-004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cidade, Melissa; Lessne, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of students ages 12 through 18, were used to examine trends in bullying at school. The SCS study is completed every other year. Data from five consecutive surveys are included in this report: school years 2004-05,…

  6. Yaffa: A School of Their Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Gal; Massalha, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This article is a product of in-depth research in "Yaffa, The Arab Democratic School" that was carried out in 2004/05, as part of a study on alternative Arab education in Israel. Its aim, beyond telling the story of Yaffa, is to explicate the motivations that underlay this initiative, and to examine parental choice amongst the disadvantaged. We…

  7. Mapping 2005 State Proficiency Standards onto the NAEP Scales. Research and Development Report. NCES 2007-482

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of applying a methodology for mapping state proficiency standards in reading and mathematics onto the appropriate National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scale, employing data from the 2004-05 academic year. The mapping exercise was carried out for both grades 4 and 8. For each of the four subject and…

  8. Measuring Efficiencies of Academic Departments within a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauer, Loren W.; Fried, Harold O.; Fry, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Technical and allocative efficiencies of 26 academic departments in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University are computed using Data Envelopment Analysis over 2004/05. Allocations of faculty time between teaching, research, and extension vary by department and are used as unique prices in calculating allocative…

  9. Shifting Trends in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Janie; Winkler, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines trends in the number of special-education students and personnel at both the national and state levels from 2000-01 to 2009-10. It finds that the overall population of special-education students, after decades of increases, peaked in the 2004-05 school year and has declined since. But within this population, individual…

  10. 76 FR 16019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... any other location, and the use of cell phones, Blackberrys, and similar devices by DMM's while on the... 22, 2006), 71 FR 16353 (March 31, 2006) (SR-NYSE-2004-05). \\9\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58845 (Oct. 24, 2008), 73 FR 64379 (Oct. 29. 2008) (SR-NYSE-2008-46). 2. Statutory Basis The...

  11. 76 FR 16026 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... the DMM unit and any other location, and the use of cell phones, Blackberrys, and similar devices by... (Nov. 26, 2008), 73 FR 73683 (Dec. 3, 2008) (SR-NYSEALTR-2008-10). The NYSE included the relevant... 22, 2006), 71 FR 16353 (March 31, 2006) (SR-NYSE-2004-05). In connection with the adoption of the...

  12. Sustaining the Impact: A Follow-Up of the Teachers Who Participated in the Math-in-CTE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Pearson, Donna

    2007-01-01

    During the 2004-05 school year, the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education conducted a study entitled "Building Academic Skills in Context: Testing the Value of Enhanced Math Learning in Career and Technical Education," commonly referred to as the Math-in-CTE study. This was a random-assignment experiment that tested the…

  13. Moving into Students' Spaces: The Impact of Location of Academic Advising on Student Engagement among Undecided Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss-Arms, Janet; Cabrera, Alberto F.; Brower, Aaron M.

    2008-01-01

    University stakeholders recognize the importance of exposing all students to academic advising as a means to enhance their engagement with the institution. Living-learning communities are of particular promise. In this study, conducted at a mid-western land grant university in the 2004-05 academic year, advisees in living-learning communities…

  14. Capacity Building for the Common Good: PSU's Interdisciplinary Minor in Civic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishishiba, Masami; Kecskes, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, Portland State University has furthered its commitment to civic engagement education by adopting an integrated approach to its general education curriculum. As an outgrowth to this initiative, the minor in Civic Leadership was developed in 2004-05. This interdisciplinary minor was designed with the intent to further…

  15. Truth or Consequences: The State Budget for 2004-2005 and Its Impact on Texans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresette, Patrick; Castro, Eva De Luna; Dunkelberg, Anne; Hagert, Celia

    2004-01-01

    This report analyzes the Texas state budget for 2004-05, discusses the impact of the fiscal and policy decisions that were made, and serves as a roadmap to the service restorations that must be considered as the economy and state revenues rebound. In addition to the analysis of budget and policy changes in the body of the report, useful…

  16. Not Just New--Newly Reborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Career and technical education has always been able to change with the times. New technologies and new educational challenges have made such change necessary. Sometimes a school must reinvent itself and undergo a rebirth as part of that adaptation. That is what has happened at the former St. Louis Career Academy. In the 2004-05 school year, the…

  17. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  18. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  19. A Teacher for Every Classroom: New Teachers in the Baltimore City Public Schools, 1999-2005. Brief Report Update, May 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Katz, Gregory; Vaughn, E. Sidney

    2006-01-01

    This brief report provides an update to the analysis of five cohorts of new teachers in the Baltimore City Public School System (1999-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04). Presented here are updated retention figures using Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS) teacher data for 2004-05, comparing teachers with different certification…

  20. Preparing Students for the Job Market: An Evaluation of One District's Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Elaine; Goodin, Penny; Nichols, W. Randolph

    2006-01-01

    In the 2004-05 school year, at a time of nationwide debate regarding the rigor of the high school diploma and the value of school-to-work programs, Chesapeake Public Schools (CPS) conducted an evaluation of the preparation of their students for the job market. The results of the evaluation did not substantiate widespread concern that the high…

  1. Fiscal Profiles, 2004: The Thirteenth Annual in a Series of Factsheets about the Financing of California Higher Education. Commission Report 04-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report contains and analyzes statistical information about the financing of California postsecondary education from the 1965-66 fiscal year through 2004-05. In addition, there is information on California public elementary and secondary education financing as well as State government in general. The Commission compiles, disseminates and…

  2. Runoff simulations from the Greenland ice sheet at Kangerlussuaq from 2006-2007 to 2007/08. West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Hasholt, Bent; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Liston, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on runoff from a large sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) - the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland - for the runoff observation period 2006/07 to 2007/08. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff. Independent in situ end-of-winter snow depth and high-resolution runoff observations were used for validation of simulated accumulation and ablation processes. Runoff was modeled on both daily and hourly time steps, filling a data gap of runoff exiting part of the GrIS. Using hourly meteorological driving data instead of smoothed daily-averaged data produced more realistic meteorological conditions in relation to snow and melt threshold surface processes, and produced 6-17% higher annual cumulative runoff. The simulated runoff series yielded useful insights into the present conditions of inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Kangerlussuaq runoff, and provided an acceptable degree of agreement between simulated and observed runoff. The simulated spatial runoff distributions, in some areas of the GrIS terminus, were as high as 2,750 mm w.eq. of runoff for 2006/07, while only 900 mm w.eq was simulated for 2007/08. The simulated total runoff from Kangerlussuaq was 1.9 km{sup 3} for 2006/07 and 1.2 km{sup 3} for 2007/08, indicating a reduction of 35-40% caused by the climate conditions and changes in the GrIS freshwater storage. The reduction in runoff from 2006/07 to 2007/08 occurred simultaneously with the reduction in the overall pattern of satellite-derived GrIS surface melt from 2007 to 2008.

  3. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Supreme Court's preview is presented in this article. During the 2006-07 Supreme Court term, it was the 5-4 decisions that garnered the most attention. Twenty-four of the term's 72 cases were decided by this narrowest of margins--the highest percentage of 5-4 opinions in a decade--even as the share of unanimous opinions fell "below levels seen…

  4. Mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) from Salmonella Typhimurium dt40 in Japan, winter 2008-09.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Katsumi; Kubo, Midori; Une, Yumi; Kato, Yukio; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Teraoka, Hiroki; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen

    2014-07-01

    An outbreak of salmonellosis in wild passerines caused mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) in Hokkaido, Japan, 2005-06; however, the etiology was poorly understood. In winter 2008-09, sparrow mortality again occurred in Hokkaido, and 202 deaths in 100 incidents at 94 sites were reported. We conducted a comprehensive investigation to evaluate the cause and impact on sparrow populations. We collected 26 carcasses at 13 sites, including a zoological park. In addition, Salmonella screening of zoo animals was conducted as a biosecurity measure. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from multiple organs in all examined sparrows; they were diagnosed with septicemic salmonellosis. Eleven sites (85%) were related to wild bird feeding and six of eight sparrow fecal samples, including from the zoo, were S. Typhimurium-positive. No infection was detected in zoo animals. Isolates belonged to three phage types: DT40 (88%), DT110 (8%), and DT120 (4%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were the same in all isolates, regardless of phage type. Biochemical characteristics and antibiotic-resistance profiles of DT40 were similar in all isolates, indicating a single origin. The mortality was likely associated with that in 2005-06 because the isolates had the same profiles. Tissue levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium (the main components of chemical deicer suspected to be the major cause of poisoning deaths in 2005-06 mortality) were not higher in the affected sparrows. We conclude that an emerging epidemic infection with S. Typhimurium DT40 related to bird feeding was the cause of sparrow mortality in 2008-09 and suggest that this causative strain is host-adapted to sparrows in Japan. The mortality might have had some impact on the local population, but its influence was limited.

  5. Environmental variability in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy): Focusing on the response of microbial activities and prokaryotic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Gabriella; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Decembrini, Franco; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Maimone, Giovanna; De Pasquale, Francesca; Monticelli, Luis Salvador; Zaccone, Renata; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    The response of both microbial activities and prokaryotic abundances to environmental variability was studied in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy) during two yearly surveys (1997-'98 and 2005-'06). The total enzymatic (leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase) and respiratory activity rates as well as of the abundances of total prokaryotes, culturable heterotrophic bacteria, faecal coliforms and enterococci were measured in surface waters of four brackish ponds, together with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen determinations. The seasonal and interannual patterns of microbial parameters were investigated in relation to environmental variations.

  6. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  7. Map showing Features and Displacements of the Scenic Drive Landslide, La Honda, California, During the Period March 31, 2005-November 5, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wheeler, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Scenic Drive landslide in La Honda, San Mateo County, California began movement during the El Ni?o winter of 1997-98. Recurrent motion occurred during the mild El Ni?o winter of 2004-2005 and again during the winter of 2005-06. This report documents the changing geometry and motion of the Scenic Drive landslide in 2005-2006, and it documents changes and persistent features that we interpret to reflect underlying structural control of the landslide. We have also compared the displacement history to near-real time rainfall history at a continuously recording gauge for the period October 2004-November 2006.

  8. Trends in hospital librarianship and hospital library services: 1989 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Patricia L.; Funk, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The research studied the status of hospital librarians and library services to better inform the Medical Library Association's advocacy activities. Methods: The Vital Pathways Survey Subcommittee of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians distributed a web-based survey to hospital librarians and academic health sciences library directors. The survey results were compared to data collected in a 1989 survey of hospital libraries by the American Hospital Association in order to identify any trends in hospital libraries, roles of librarians, and library services. A web-based hospital library report form based on the survey questions was also developed to more quickly identify changes in the status of hospital libraries on an ongoing basis. Results: The greatest change in library services between 1989 and 2005/06 was in the area of access to information, with 40% more of the respondents providing access to commercial online services, 100% more providing access to Internet resources, and 28% more providing training in database searching and use of information resources. Twenty-nine percent (n = 587) of the 2005/06 respondents reported a decrease in staff over the last 5 years. Conclusions: Survey data support reported trends of consolidation of hospitals and hospital libraries and additions of new services. These services have likely required librarians to acquire new skills. It is hoped that future surveys will be undertaken to continue to study these trends. PMID:19851491

  9. Becoming a nurse in Italy: a multi-method study on expenditures by families and students.

    PubMed

    Palese, A; Achil, I; Bulfone, G; Bulfone, T; Caporale, L; Comisso, I; Comand, F; Fabris, S; Urli, N; Zanini, A; Zuliani, S; Bortoluzzi, G

    2012-11-01

    Potential nursing students and their families are faced with difficult decisions regarding the amount of time and money required to complete the nursing programme and the availability of funds to cover the costs and this seems to have received little no attention to date. With the aim of describing the costs incurred by Italian nursing students and/or their families per academic year and compare cost trends incurred from 2004-05 to 2010-11, a multi-centre qualitative/quantitative study design was adopted. Italian Nursing students attending the first, second and third academic years in 2004-05 and those attending the first, second and third academic years in 2010-11 were eligible. Five hundred and six students were involved: 215 (out of 300 eligible, 71.6%) attended the bachelor's degree in nursing in 2004-05 and 291 (out of 383 eligible, 75.9%) in 2010-11. On an annual basis, the average annual expenditures increased by 12% for nursing education from 2004-05 to 2010-11. Given that qualification as a nurse requires at least three years, and considering inflation, for a student who matriculated in 2005 an average of 2485.7€ per year (7457.0€ in total) was required. Data suggest that students have modified their spending behaviour (limiting lunches at public bars, buying books and photocopies) in order to handle the rise of non-discretionary costs, such as tuition fees and the costs of attending lectures and hospital/district trainings. Policies supporting nursing education in general and for those students who are motivated but unable to undertake the course for economic reasons are urgently needed. PMID:22503295

  10. Becoming a nurse in Italy: a multi-method study on expenditures by families and students.

    PubMed

    Palese, A; Achil, I; Bulfone, G; Bulfone, T; Caporale, L; Comisso, I; Comand, F; Fabris, S; Urli, N; Zanini, A; Zuliani, S; Bortoluzzi, G

    2012-11-01

    Potential nursing students and their families are faced with difficult decisions regarding the amount of time and money required to complete the nursing programme and the availability of funds to cover the costs and this seems to have received little no attention to date. With the aim of describing the costs incurred by Italian nursing students and/or their families per academic year and compare cost trends incurred from 2004-05 to 2010-11, a multi-centre qualitative/quantitative study design was adopted. Italian Nursing students attending the first, second and third academic years in 2004-05 and those attending the first, second and third academic years in 2010-11 were eligible. Five hundred and six students were involved: 215 (out of 300 eligible, 71.6%) attended the bachelor's degree in nursing in 2004-05 and 291 (out of 383 eligible, 75.9%) in 2010-11. On an annual basis, the average annual expenditures increased by 12% for nursing education from 2004-05 to 2010-11. Given that qualification as a nurse requires at least three years, and considering inflation, for a student who matriculated in 2005 an average of 2485.7€ per year (7457.0€ in total) was required. Data suggest that students have modified their spending behaviour (limiting lunches at public bars, buying books and photocopies) in order to handle the rise of non-discretionary costs, such as tuition fees and the costs of attending lectures and hospital/district trainings. Policies supporting nursing education in general and for those students who are motivated but unable to undertake the course for economic reasons are urgently needed.

  11. Scientist to Expose Students to Wetlands Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Marco Giardino, chief of the Applications Integration Division for NASA Stennis Space Center's Earth Science Applications Directorate, has been chosen by the JASON Project to be one of six host researchers for Disappearing Wetlands, which will run through the 2004-05 school year. In the photo, Giardino (left) interprets satellite imagery on the way to an archeological site near Lake Salvador, La., in November 2002. With him is his local guide, Michael Comardelle.

  12. Within-Gender Changes in HIV Prevalence among Adults between 2005/6 and 2010/11 in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Dzangare, Janet; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Kilmarx, Peter H.; Postma, Maarten J.; Ngwende, Stella; Mandisarisa, John; Nyika, Ponesai; Mvere, David A.; Mugurungi, Owen; Tshimanga, Mufuta; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Zimbabwe has reported significant declines in HIV prevalence between 2005/06 and 2010/11 Demography and Health Surveys; a within-gender analysis to identify the magnitude and factors associated with this change, which can be masked, is critical for targeting interventions. Methods We analyzed change in HIV prevalence for 6,947 women and 5,848 men in the 2005/06 survey and 7,313 women and 6,250 men in 2010/11 surveys using 2005/06 as referent. The data was analyzed taking into consideration the survey design and therefore the svy, mean command in Stata was used in both linear and logistic regression. Results There were similar proportional declines in prevalence at national level for males (15% p=0.011) and females (16%,p=0.008). However, there were variations in decline by provincial setting, demographic variables of age, educational level and some sexual risk behaviours. In logistic regression analysis, statistically significant declines were observed among men in Manicaland, Mashonaland East and Harare (p<0.01) and for women in Manicaland, Mashonaland Central and Harare (p<0.01). Although not statistically significant, numerical increases were observed among men in Matebeleland North, Matebeleland South, Midlands and for both men and women in Bulawayo. Young women in the age range 15-34 experienced a decline in prevalence (p<0.01) while older men 30-44 had a statistically significant decline (p<0.01). Having a secondary and above education, regardless of employment status for both men and women recorded a significant decline. For sexual risk behaviours, currently in union for men and women and not in union for women there was a significant decline in prevalence. Conclusion Zimbabwe has reported a significant decline among both men and women but there are important differentials across provinces, demographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviours that suggest that the epidemic in Zimbabwe is heterogeneous and therefore interventions must be

  13. 3D multi-channel seismic imaging of melt-rich lenses beneath and off the East Pacific Rise Integrated Study Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Mutter, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Melt has a particularly strong effect on shear velocity, and therefore affects the amplitude versus offset behavior of P- and S-converted waves reflected off a crustal melt lens. The first 3D multi-streamer seismic reflection experiment conducted aboard R/V Langseth (Cruise MGL0812) collected a very dense dataset along and across the northern East Pacific Rise (EPR, ~9°34'N-9°58'N). In addition to P waves reflecting off the top of the axial magma chamber (AMC), this dataset contains evidence for the S-converted phase PAMCS, which allows us to qualitatively image melt-rich sections of the AMC (i.e., portions of the melt lens in which crystals are disconnected and cannot transmit shear stresses) by producing and comparing P- and S-wave partial-offset stacks. Reflection images obtained from a subset of data collected along the ridge crest between 9°42'N-9°54'N show a prominent melt-rich zone at ~9°42'N-9°44'N, ~10-12 km to the south of the southern end of the 2005-06 volcanic eruption. The preliminary images also show evidence for two other melt-rich sections where abundant hydrothermal activity has been documented: at ~9°47'N-9°48'N (southern edge of the 2005-06 eruption), and at ~9°50'N-9°52'N (near the center of the 2005-06 eruption), although data from these two areas require more analysis to confirm this finding. The melt-rich zones are ~2-4 km long and spaced every ~10-15 km along the ridge axis. We will also present results from data collected over melt lenses located several kilometers off-axis (see Canales et al., this meeting). This high resolution imaging of the distribution of crustal melt bodies and correlation with seafloor hydrothermal and biological activity will provide a key piece of information that is currently missing from our knowledge of the EPR mantle-to-microbe system.

  14. Meteorology and air pollution in an alpine Valley during two strikingly different winter periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgeri, F.; Schäfer, K.; Obleitner, F.

    2009-04-01

    During winter essentially, Alpine valleys are frequently prone to enhanced air pollution inducing serious impairments of human health and of sustainable development in these regions. This is mainly due to particular topographic and meteorological effects, which are investigated within this study. The focus of this contribution is based on comparison of consistent data collected during two winters with strikingly different characteristics. The measurements were performed in context of specific campaigns covering the full winter periods 2005/06 and 2007/08 and a cross section in the lower Inn valley (Austria). Notably, the concentrations of air pollutant species matters and the meteorological parameters were measured at the same places employing almost identical instrumentation during both periods. Meteorological analysis is mainly based on data from routine synoptic stations and automatic weather stations located at different elevations in a cross section of the valley, which is supported by mixing-height data derived from SODAR and ceilometers operated at the valley bottom. Air pollution analysis consider NO, NO2 and PM10 and is based on data from routine monitoring stations, a passive sampler network and differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) yielding quasi-continuous information about the small scale gradients of the nitrogen compounds. Partly these measurements are strongly influenced by a nearby motorway. The analysis shows that both winter periods differed significant from the climatology. In 2005/06 there was a long-lasting snow cover and the meteorological regime was characterized by outstandingly low air temperatures (-1.5°C compared to the long-term average) in response to persistent high-pressure periods during the central winter months. Mixing processes were inhibited due to the inherent inversion conditions and low-lying mixing heights which both support high concentrations of the investigated air pollutants. In contrast to the first

  15. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India. PMID:25487194

  16. Household wealth and child health in India.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  17. Dental school vacant budgeted faculty positions, academic years 2008-09 to 2010-11.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Gwen E; McAllister, Dora Elías; Anderson, Eugene L; Valachovic, Richard W

    2014-04-01

    The annual turnover of dental school faculty creates a varying number of vacant budgeted positions from year to year. The American Dental Education Association (ADEA) conducts an annual survey to determine the status and characteristics of these vacant faculty positions. The number of vacant budgeted faculty positions in U.S. dental schools increased throughout the 1990s, with a peak of 417 positions in 2005-06. Since that time, there has been a decrease in the number of estimated vacancies, falling to 227 in 2010-11. The 2008-09 to 2010-11 faculty vacancy surveys explored these decreases, along with information relevant to the number and characteristics of dental faculty vacancies, including data on the distribution of full-time, part-time, and volunteer faculty, reasons for faculty separations, and sources of new faculty.

  18. AXARM: An Extensible Remote Assistance and Monitoring Tool for ND Telerehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Antonio; Marzo, Jose L.; Vallejo, Xavier

    AXARM is a multimedia tool for rehabilitation specialists that allow remote assistance and monitoring of patients activities. This tool is the evolution of the work done in 2005-06 between the BCDS research group of UdG and the Multiple Sclerosis Foundation (FEM in Spanish) in Girona under the TRiEM project. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease (ND) that can provoke significant exhaustion in patients even just by going to the medical centre for rehabilitation or regular checking visits. The tool presented in this paper allows the medical staff to remotely carry on patient consults and activities from their home, minimizing the displacements to medical consulting. AXARM has a hybrid P2P architecture and consists essentially of a cross-platform videoconference system, with audio/video recording capabilities. The system can easily be extended to include new capabilities like, among others, asynchronous activities whose result can later be analyzed by the medical personnel.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Copepod Abundance along the 20°S Monitoring Transect in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System from 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Maya; Kreiner, Anja; van der Plas, Anja K.; Louw, Deon C.; Horaeb, Richard; Auel, Holger; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Long-term data sets are essential to understand climate-induced variability in marine ecosystems. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of longer-term temporal and spatial variations in zooplankton abundance and copepod community structure in the northern Benguela upwelling system from 2005 to 2011. Samples were collected from the upper 200 m along a transect at 20°S perpendicular to the coast of Namibia to 70 nm offshore. Based on seasonal and interannual trends in surface temperature and salinity, three distinct time periods were discernible with stronger upwelling in spring and extensive warm-water intrusions in late summer, thus, high temperature amplitudes, in the years 2005/06 and 2010/11, and less intensive upwelling followed by weaker warm-water intrusions from 2008/09 to 2009/10. Zooplankton abundance reflected these changes with higher numbers in 2005/06 and 2010/11. In contrast, zooplankton density was lower in 2008/09 and 2009/10, when temperature gradients from spring to late summer were less pronounced. Spatially, copepod abundance tended to be highest between 30 and 60 nautical miles off the coast, coinciding with the shelf break and continental slope. The dominant larger calanoid copepods were Calanoides carinatus, Metridia lucens and Nannocalanus minor. On all three scales studied, i.e. spatially from the coast to offshore waters as well as temporally, both seasonally and interannually, maximum zooplankton abundance was not coupled to the coldest temperature regime, and hence strongest upwelling intensity. Pronounced temperature amplitudes, and therefore strong gradients within a year, were apparently important and resulted in higher zooplankton abundance. PMID:24844305

  20. Biology and life cycles of pelagic tunicates in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Dubischar, C. D.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Strass, V.; Cisewski, B.; Siegel, V.; von Harbou, L.; Gurney, L.; Kitchener, J.; Bathmann, U.

    2011-07-01

    Four grid surveys were carried out in the top 200 m layer of the Lazarev Sea during fall 2004, summer 2005-06, winter 2006 and summer 2007-08 onboard the R.V. Polarstern as a part of the German SO-GLOBEC. The distribution, abundance and biology of two species of salps, Salpa thompsoni and Ihlea racovitzai, were investigated. With the exception of fall 2004, I. racovitzai dominated the salp community although being represented by low densities (<20 ind. 1000 m -3). S. thompsoni was scarce during the summers of 2005-06 and 2007-08 and almost absent from the region during winter 2006. Nevertheless, it was modestly numerous during fall 2004 reaching densities of up to 33 ind. 1000 m -3 in the south-western stations of the grid. The data on the seasonal population structure and life cycle of I. racovitzai showed that this species followed the generalized pattern typical of S. thompsoni, i.e. sexual/asexual reproduction and spawning during fall. I. racovitzai densities were the lowest during summer, increased during fall and peaked in during winter. Numerous offspring were produced by I. racovitzai during fall, just before the area became ice-covered. Conversely, S. thompsoni was not able to complete its life cycle in the Lazarev Sea, with a high occurrence of stage X (unfertilized) aggregates present. Highest S. thompsoni densities in summer and fall, and its disappearance in winter are indicative of a population of the expatriate origin that is sustained by advection.

  1. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future. PMID:27002810

  2. How does high stakes testing influence teachers' classroom instruction?: Institutional pressures and classroom instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Mika Yoder

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how a total of eight math and science elementary school teachers changed their classroom instruction in response to high stakes and low stakes testing in one school district. The district introduced new assessment in the school year of 2005--06 to meet the requirement set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)---that the assessment should be aligned with the state academic standards. I conducted interviews with teachers and school administrators at two elementary schools, district officials, and a representative of a non-profit organization during the school year 2007--08 to examine how the new assessment introduced in 2005--06 had shaped classroom instruction. Concepts from New Institutional Theory and cognitive approaches to policy implementation guided the design of this study. This study focused on how materials and activities associated with high stakes testing promoted ideas about good instruction, and how these ideas were carried to teachers. The study examined how teachers received messages about instruction and how they responded to the messages. The study found that high stakes testing influenced teachers' classroom instruction more than low stakes testing; however, the instructional changes teachers made in response to state testing was at the content level. The teachers' instructional strategies did not change. The teachers' instructional changes varied with the degree of implementation of existing math curriculum and with the degree of support they received in understanding the meaning of assessment results. The study concluded that, among the six teachers I studied, high stakes testing was not a sufficient intervention for changing teachers' instructional strategies. The study also addressed the challenges of aligning instructional messages across assessment, standards, and curriculum.

  3. Participation in and attitude towards the national immunization program in the Netherlands: data from population-based questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the determinants of participation and attitude towards the National Immunisation Program (NIP) may be helpful in tailoring information campaigns for this program. Our aim was to determine which factors were associated with nonparticipation in the NIP and which ones were associated with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. Further, we analyzed possible changes in opinion on vaccination over a 10 year period. Methods We used questionnaire data from two independent, population-based, cross-sectional surveys performed in 1995-96 and 2006-07. For the 2006-07 survey, logistic regression modelling was used to evaluate what factors were associated with nonparticipation and with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression modelling to compare the results between the two surveys. Results Ninety-five percent of parents reported that they or their child (had) participated in the NIP. Similarly, 95% reported they intended to accept remaining vaccinations. Ethnicity, religion, income, educational level and anthroposophic beliefs were important determinants of nonparticipation in the NIP. Parental concerns that played a role in whether or not they would accept remaining vaccinations included safety of vaccinations, maximum number of injections, whether vaccinations protect the health of one's child and whether vaccinating healthy children is necessary. Although about 90% reported their opinion towards vaccination had not changed, a larger proportion of participants reported to be less inclined to accept vaccination in 2006-07 than in 1995-96. Conclusion Most participants had a positive attitude towards vaccination, although some had doubts. Groups with a lower income or educational level or of non-Western descent participated less in the NIP than those with a high income or educational level or indigenous Dutch and have been less well identified previously. Particular

  4. Optimization of the trienzyme extraction for the microbiological assay of folate in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liwen; Eitenmiller, Ronald R

    2007-05-16

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the trienzyme digestion for the extraction of folate from vegetables. Trienzyme extraction is a combined enzymatic digestion by protease, alpha-amylase, and conjugase (gamma-glutamyl hydrolase) to liberate the carbohydrate and protein-bound folates from food matrices for total folate analysis. It is the extraction method used in AOAC Official Method 2004.05 for assay of total folate in cereal grain products. Certified reference material (CRM) 485 mixed vegetables was used to represent the matrix of vegetables. Regression and ridge analysis were performed by statistical analysis software. The predicted second-order polynomial model was adequate (R2 = 0.947), without significant lack of fit (p > 0.1). Both protease and alpha-amylase have significant effects on the extraction. Ridge analysis gave an optimum trienzyme digestion time: Pronase, 1.5 h; alpha-amylase, 1.5 h; and conjugase, 3 h. The experimental value for CRM 485 under this optimum digestion was close to the predicted value from the model, confirming the validity and adequacy of the model. The optimized trienzyme digestion condition was applied to five vegetables and yielded higher folate levels than the trienzyme digestion parameters employed in AOAC Official Method 2004.05.

  5. Science and block scheduling: An analysis of teacher experiences in Wake County, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carrie Aliceanna

    This study provides an overview of the issues science teachers faced in the 2006-07 school year with the change to the block schedule in Wake County, North Carolina. The purpose of this research was to address gaps in literature related to changes teachers had made in their instruction and interaction with students after the implementation of the block schedule. The mixed methods used were a survey instrument, followed by eight focus group interviews. Data Analysis included t-tests, correlations, and triangulation through a phenomenological approach. Results obtained were a difference in methods used by teachers with End-of-Course tests when compared with Non-End-of-Course tests in the areas of outdoor activities, projects, media center visits, and guest speakers. Teachers with more experience also tended to change instructional methods less on the block schedule. Conclusions drawn include state testing negates some benefits of block scheduling including those to curriculum, learning, and student relationships.

  6. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater.

  7. [Effect of inherent optical parameters on average penetration depth of photon flux and the integral average cosine of underwater light field in lake Taihu during summer].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiao-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Lin

    2010-10-01

    Based on the inherent optical parameters of the water and water quality data in lake Taihu from 2006-07-29 to 2006-08-01, the effect of scattering on the penetration path along the original direction of the flux and the Integral average cosine of underwater light field were study by the radiative transfer theory, and the possible mechanism was analyzed. There were increasing trend from northwest to southeast of them. There were a nonlinear relation between them and concentration of Chl-a, suspended matter, inorganism matter, organism matter. The relation was described by logarithmic function. The study was helpful for bio-optical model and the environmental effects of photosynthetic active radiation in waters.

  8. Selenium-enriched durum wheat improves the nutritional profile of pasta without altering its organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    De Vita, Pasquale; Platani, Cristiano; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Colecchia, Salvatore Antonio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Petrozza, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons (2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10) to evaluate Se-enriched pasta through foliar fertilization at various rates and timing of application on 4 durum wheat varieties. Our findings confirm the effectiveness of foliar Se fertilization to increase Se concentrations in durum wheat grain, even at high Se rates (120gSeha(-1)). Se fortification was significant across different genotypes, with greater Se accumulation in landraces ('Timilia') and obsolete varieties ('Cappelli'), with respect to modern varieties. The Se content in the grain was increased by up to 35-fold that of the untreated control. The Se concentration decreased during milling (11%), while processing and cooking of pasta did not show significant decreases. This biofortification stategy had no effects on grain quality parameters, except for reduced gluten index in the high-gluten variety PR22D89, as well as for the sensorial properties of the spaghetti. PMID:27507488

  9. Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the seventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) Nomination and election of the Executive Council members for the 2006-07 term, (2) Finalize and release the 2006 Request for Proposals (RFP), (3) Invoice and recruit members, (4) Plan for the spring meeting, (5) Improving communication efforts, and (6) Continue distribution of the DVD entitled: ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''.

  10. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater. PMID:25934432

  11. Characteristics of atmospheric Kelvin waves during warm and cold ENSO phases observed with GPS RO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Ladstädter, Florian; Steiner, Andrea; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2015-04-01

    Inter-annual variability in the Earth's troposphere at low and middle latitudes is dominated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. While ENSO emerges from an atmosphere-ocean interaction in the tropical Pacific, it has a significant impact on global weather and climate. Atmospheric wave dynamics plays a crucial role in this context. However, current understanding of this wave dynamics is mostly based on climate model output and reanalysis data. We use observational data from Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) measurements to investigate characteristics of atmospheric Kelvin waves during warm and cold ENSO phases. Due to their high accuracy and vertical resolution, RO data provide reliable and valuable information on wave-induced temperature oscillations with short vertical wavelengths of a few kilometers. After the launch of the six micro-satellites of the Formosat-3/COSMIC mission in April 2006, the number of RO measurements per day increased significantly compared to earlier time periods. With an appropriate binning strategy, the sampling is therefore sufficiently dense from mid-2006 onwards in order to capture the main characteristics of large-scale atmospheric waves. Frequencies and wavelengths of atmospheric Kelvin waves are extracted from space-time spectral analysis for overlapping 60-day time series centered on each month. In this study we focus on the northern hemisphere winter season DJF (December, January, February) using data from DJF 2006/07 to DJF 2011/12. Comparative results are presented for warm ENSO phases, which occurred in DJF 2006/07 and DJF 2009/10, and for cold ENSO phases in DJF 2007/08, DJF 2010/11, and DJF 2011/12.

  12. How much money is spent on vaccines across Western European countries?

    PubMed Central

    Ethgen, Olivier; Baron-Papillon, Florence; Cornier, Murielle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prevention programs, particularly vaccinations, remain highly vulnerable to budget cuts because their benefits may not be immediately identifiable. Seven Western European countries were selected (Germany, England, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Portugal) constituting a good mix of vaccine procurement modalities, with the objective to document the proportion of healthcare spending devoted to vaccines and its evolution. A data search was performed using the OECD online databases and official national sources from 2008 (2006 for England). No country spent more than 0.5% of its healthcare budget on vaccines. The proportion ranged from 0.25% in Spain (2012) and France (2013) to 0.47% in Germany (2014). Whereas healthcare spending increased in all countries but Spain (with increases ranging from +2.6% per year in France between 2008 and 2013 to +8.1% per year in England between 2006/07 and 2009/10), vaccine spending diminished markedly in Germany (−6.2% per year from 2008 to 2014), Spain (−6.7% per year from 2008 to 2012) and France (−4.2% per year from 2008 to 2013). Only Sweden (+5.9% per year from 2011 to 2013) and England (+18.9% per year from 2006/07 to 2009/10) increased their spending on vaccines. Vaccination involves relatively low levels of healthcare investment in Western Europe relative to the far-reaching public health benefits that it provides. We found a net trend toward a decrease in such spending in recent years, with the exception of Sweden and England. Vaccination budgets should be preserved or even increased to sustain a life-course approach to immunization with sufficient coverage rates. PMID:27224429

  13. Modern thermokarst lake dynamics in the continuous permafrost zone, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, G.; Arp, C.D.; Jones, M.C.; Walter, Anthony K.M.; Romanovsky, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying changes in thermokarst lake extent is of importance for understanding the permafrost-related carbon budget, including the potential release of carbon via lake expansion or sequestration as peat in drained lake basins. We used high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery from 1950/51, 1978, and 2006/07 to quantify changes in thermokarst lakes for a 700 km2 area on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The number of water bodies larger than 0.1 ha increased over the entire observation period (666 to 737 or +10.7%); however, total surface area decreased (5,066 ha to 4,312 ha or -14.9%). This pattern can largely be explained by the formation of remnant ponds following partial drainage of larger water bodies. Thus, analysis of large lakes (>40 ha) shows a decrease of 24% and 26% in number and area, respectively, differing from lake changes reported from other continuous permafrost regions. Thermokarst lake expansion rates did not change substantially between 1950/51 and 1978 (0.35 m/yr) and 1978 and 2006/07 (0.39 m/yr). However, most lakes that drained did expand as a result of surface permafrost degradation before lateral drainage. Drainage rates over the observation period were stable (2.2 to 2.3 per year). Thus, analysis of decadal-scale, high spatial resolution imagery has shown that lake drainage in this region is triggered by lateral breaching and not subterranean infiltration. Future research should be directed toward better understanding thermokarst lake dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution as these systems have implications for landscape-scale hydrology and carbon budgets in thermokarst lake-rich regions in the circum-Arctic.

  14. Determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of the geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E.; Kaiser, G.

    2003-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites at the Kourovka Astronomical Observatory. The calculated corrections Delta C_{22} and Delta S_{22} for the geopotential model JGM-3 are equal to Delta C_{22}=(-2.6 ± 1.4) * 10(-10) , Delta S_{22}=(-3.1 ± 0.9) * 10(-10) . From ads Wed Jan 12 06:25:03 2005 Return-Path: Received: (from ads@localhost) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) id j0CBP3DC007102; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:25:03 -0500 (EST) Received: from cfa.harvard.edu (cfa.harvard.edu [131.142.10.1]) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) with ESMTP id j0CBOeKD007030 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:41 -0500 (EST) Received: from uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (mao.gluk.org [194.183.183.193]) by cfa.harvard.edu (8.12.9-20030924/8.12.9/cfunix Mast-Sol 1.0) with ESMTP id j0CBOXgu026863 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:35 -0500 (EST) Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (root@maoling.mao.kiev.ua [194.44.216.101]) by uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (8.11.6/8.11.6) with ESMTP id j0CBOVv08377 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:31 +0200 Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (gallaz@localhost [127.0.0.1]) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) with ESMTP id j0CBOTPb014668 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Received: (from gallaz@localhost) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) id j0CBOTgq014666 for ads@cfa.harvard.edu; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Date: Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 From: "Galina A. Lazorenko" Message-Id: <200501121124.j0CBOTgq014666@maoling.mao.kiev.ua> To: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Virus-Scanned: ClamAV 0.80/650/Mon Jan 3 05:00:02 2005 clamav-milter version 0.80j on maoling.mao.kiev.ua X-Virus-Status: Clean X-Loop: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Loop: ads@head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Checker-Version: SpamAssassin 2.64 (2004-01-11) on head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Level: * X

  15. Gravitational lensing by globular clusters and dwarf galaxies-- the explanation of quasar-galaxy associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, A.; Kim, C.; Sergeev, A.

    2003-04-01

    Quasar-galaxy associations can be explained as gravitational lensing by globular clusters, located in the halos of the foreground galaxies and dwarf galaxies in small groups of galaxies. We propose an observational test for checking this hypothesis. We used the SUPERCOSMOS sky survey to find the overdensities of star-like sources with zero proper motions in the vicinities of the~foreground galaxies from the CfA3 catalog. The results obtained for 19413 galaxies are presented. We show the results of calculations of number densities of star-like sources with zero proper motions in the vicinity of 19413 galaxies. Two different effects can explain the observational data: lensing by globular clusters and lensing by dwarf galaxies. We carried out the CCD 3-color photometry with the 2.0-m telescope of the~Terskol Observatory and the 1.8-m telescope of the Bohyunsan Observatory (South Korea) to select extremely lensed objects around several galaxies for future spectroscopic observations. From ads Wed Jan 12 06:25:17 2005 Return-Path: Received: (from ads@localhost) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) id j0CBPHjt007159; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:25:17 -0500 (EST) Received: from cfa.harvard.edu (cfa.harvard.edu [131.142.10.1]) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) with ESMTP id j0CBOuKD007095 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:56 -0500 (EST) Received: from uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (mao.gluk.org [194.183.183.193]) by cfa.harvard.edu (8.12.9-20030924/8.12.9/cfunix Mast-Sol 1.0) with ESMTP id j0CBOgRv026875 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:51 -0500 (EST) Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (root@maoling.mao.kiev.ua [194.44.216.101]) by uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (8.11.6/8.11.6) with ESMTP id j0CBOdv08381 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:39 +0200 Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (gallaz@localhost [127.0.0.1]) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) with ESMTP id j0CBObPb014682 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:37 +0200 Received: (from gallaz

  16. Investigations into matrix components affecting the performance of the official bioassay reference method for quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in oysters.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Algoet, Myriam; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Cordova, Marco; Caceres, Catherine; Murphy, Cory J; Casey, Melanie; Lees, David N

    2012-02-01

    Significant differences previously observed in the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in oysters using official method AOAC 2005.06 and 959.08 were investigated in detail with regard to possible matrix effects. Method AOAC 2005.06 gave results 2-3 times higher than the mouse bioassay method, 959.08, differences thought to be due to underestimation of PSTs by the mouse bioassay. In order to prove the cause of these large differences, work was conducted here to examine the presence and effects of matrix components on the performance of each of the two assays. A range of oyster, cockle and mussel samples were extracted using the AOAC 959.08 hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction method and analysed for PSP by both MBA and LC-FLD. In addition, extracts were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for metals as well as being subjected to a range of nutritional testing methods. Whilst there was no evidence for effect of nutritional components on either assay, ICP-MS analysis revealed a relationship between samples exhibiting the largest differences in relative method performance, specifically those with the largest LC-FLD/MBA toxicity ratio, and samples containing the highest concentrations of zinc and manganese. In order to prove the potential effect of the metals on either the LC-FLD and/or MBA assays, HCl extracts of a range of shellfish were subjected to a number of matrix modifications. Firstly, a number of PSP-positive oyster samples were processed to reduce the concentrations of metals within the extracts, without significantly reducing the concentrations of PSTs. Secondly, a range of mussel and cockle extracts, plus a standard solution of saxitoxin di-hydrochloride were spiked at variable concentrations of zinc. All treated and non-treated extracts, plus a number of controls were subjected to ICP-MS, LC-FLD and MBA testing. Results proved the absence of any effect of metals on the performance of the LC-FLD, whilst

  17. Bank erosion of navigation canals in the western and central Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Wilson, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Erosion of navigation canal banks is a direct cause of land loss, but there has been little quantitative analysis to determine why certain major canals exhibit faster widening rates (indicative of erosion) than others in the coastal zones of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. We hypothesize that navigation canals exhibit varying rates of erosion based on soil properties of the embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region (derived from digital versions of state geologic maps), and the presence or absence of canal bank armaments (that is, rock rip-rap, concrete bulkheads, or other shoreline protection structures). The first objective of this project was to map the shoreline position and substrate along both banks of the navigation canals, which were digitized from 3 different time periods of aerial photography spanning the years of 1978/79 to 2005/06. The second objective was to quantify the erosion rates of the navigation canals in the study area and to determine whether differences in erosion rates are related to embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region, or soil type. To measure changes in shoreline position over time, transects spaced at 50-m (164-ft) intervals were intersected with shorelines from all three time periods, and an annual rate of change was calculated for each transect. Mean annual rates of shoreline change ranged from 1.75 m/year (5.74 ft/year) on the west side of the Atchafalaya River, La., where there was shoreline advancement or canal narrowing, to -3.29 m/year (-10.79 ft/year) on the south side of the Theodore Ship Channel, Ala., where there was shoreline retreat or erosion. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in shoreline retreat rates according to geologic region and marsh vegetation type, and a weak relationship with soil organic content. This information can be used to better estimate future land loss rates associated with navigation canals and to prioritize the location of

  18. Stream-Water Quality during Storm-Runoff Events and Low-Flow Periods in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Fuller, Lori M.

    2007-01-01

    This report, a product of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project, describes four water-quality studies in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin from the early 1970's through 2005. All the studies examined water quality of streams in the basin; the most recent studies focused primarily on water quality during high- and low-streamflows. This report explains how storm-runoff and low-flow periods affect water quality in the basin. Included is a summary of stream-water quality findings from the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (1973-95); the National Water-Quality Assessment (1996-98); the Oakland County Land-Use Change study (2001-03); and the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (2004-05).

  19. Diffraction imaging: The limits of partial coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Abbey, Brian; Dilanian, Ruben; Balaur, Eugeniu; van Riessen, Grant; Junker, Mark; Tran, Chanh Q.; Jones, Michael W. M.; Peele, Andrew G.; McNulty, Ian; Vine, David J.; Putkunz, Corey T.; Quiney, Harry M.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2012-12-01

    Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) typically requires that the source should be highly coherent both laterally and longitudinally. In this paper, we demonstrate that lateral and longitudinal partial coherence can be successfully included in a CDI reconstruction algorithm simultaneously using experimental x-ray data. We study the interplay between lateral partial coherence and longitudinal partial coherence and their relative influence on CDI. We compare our results against the coherence criteria published by Spence [Spence , UltramicroscopyULTRD60304-399110.1016/j.ultramic.2004.05.005 101, 149 (2004)] and show that for iterative ab initio phase-recovery algorithms based on those typically used in CDI and in cases where the coherence properties are known, we are able to relax the minimal coherence requirements by a factor of 2 both laterally and longitudinally, potentially yielding significant reduction in exposure time.

  20. Tanzanian men’s gender attitudes, HIV knowledge, and risk behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Jordan, Lucy P.; Nsimba, Stephen E.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the 2004-05 Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey to examine whether men’s traditional gender role attitudes contribute to their sexual risk behaviours for HIV. Logistic regression with random effects were used to analyze effects on risk behaviours at last sex (partners being drunk and condom use) with the three most recent sexual relationships. Men’s traditional gender attitudes increased risky sexual behaviours (e.g., not using a condom) even when they had accurate knowledge regarding HIV risks. The impact of men’s gender attitudes and HIV knowledge on risky sexual behaviours did not vary by relationship type. Unexpectedly, condom use was more likely when either partner was drunk compared to neither being drunk, though the protective impact of HIV knowledge remained. Overall, these findings suggest that traditional gender attitudes present barriers to preventing HIV/AIDS that even increased knowledge about HIV risks may not overcome. PMID:26633916

  1. Equity in Irish health care financing: measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Smith, Samantha

    2010-04-01

    This paper employs widely used analytic techniques for measuring equity in health care financing to update Irish results from previous analysis based on data from the late 1980s. Kakwani indices are calculated using household survey data from 1987/88 to 2004/05. Results indicate a marginally progressive financing system overall. However, interpretation of the results for the private sources of health financing is complicated. This problem is not unique to Ireland but it is argued that it may be relatively more important in the context of a complex health financing system, illustrated in this paper by the Irish system. Alternative options for improving the analysis of equity in health care financing are discussed.

  2. Draft genome sequences of two Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates harboring plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Antony T; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Melanie V; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a widespread fish disease causing important economic losses to the fish farming industry. Antibiotic treatments in fish farms may be challenging given the existence of multidrug-resistant isolates of this bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the 2004-05MF26 and 2009-144K3 isolates, which harbor plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance. Both isolates also carry the large plasmid pAsa5, which is known to encode a type three secretion system (TTSS) and the pAsal1 plasmid which has the aopP gene producing a TTSS effector. These two isolates are good representatives of the plasmid diversity in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:25724776

  3. Marriage and parenthood in relation to obesogenic neighborhood trajectories: The CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Howard, Annie Green; Meyer, Katie; Lewis, Cora E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Laroche, Helena H; Gunderson, Erica P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-07-01

    Marriage and parenthood are associated with weight gain and residential mobility. Little is known about how obesity-relevant environmental contexts differ according to family structure. We estimated trajectories of neighborhood poverty, population density, and density of fast food restaurants, supermarkets, and commercial and public physical activity facilities for adults from a biracial cohort (CARDIA, n=4,174, aged 25-50) over 13 years (1992-93 through 2005-06) using latent growth curve analysis. We estimated associations of marriage, parenthood, and race with the observed neighborhood trajectories. Married participants tended to live in neighborhoods with lower poverty, population density, and availability of all types of food and physical activity amenities. Parenthood was similarly but less consistently related to neighborhood characteristics. Marriage and parenthood were more strongly related to neighborhood trajectories in whites (versus blacks), who, in prior studies, exhibit weaker associations between neighborhood characteristics and health. Greater understanding of how interactive family and neighborhood environments contribute to healthy living is needed. PMID:26093081

  4. Five year studies on suspended particulate matter and heavy metals trends in Brass City of India.

    PubMed

    Mahima; Pal, Raina; Singh, D; Tripathi, Anamika; Singh, G S

    2013-10-01

    Moradabad is historically an important city of western Uttar Pradesh which is popularly known as Brass City of India, as about one thousand large and small scale brassware industries are located in and around the city. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) was collected two times in a week using High Volume Samplers (HVS) at six selected sites representing different areas of the city. The result indicates the annual and seasonal variations of SPM from 2005-2010. The highest value (869 μg/m3) was recorded at industrial site, i.e. Mughalpura in June (2008-09) while lowest value (71 μg/m3) at PTC in the month of July (2005-06). Five heavy metals, i.e. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb were also observed at all the sites. Among the metals highest concentration of Zn were recorded at almost all the sites whereas Cu and Zn were found at industrial site, may be attributed to melting of Brass silly to prepare the different Brassware items. Pb and Cd were abundant at commercial site, located nearby Railway station as traffic density remains high during the day and night. PMID:25906589

  5. Monitoring of wet season rice crop at state and national level in India using multidate synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manab; Patnaik, Chakrapani; Panigrahy, Sushma; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2006-12-01

    Rice crop grown during the monsoon (wet) season is the most important food grain in India. The crop is grown under varied cultural and management practices. The present paper highlights the results of rice monitoring being carried out for the past five years (2001-02 to 2005-06) using multi-date RADARSAT ScanSAR Narrow-B data. 30 ScanSAR scenes covering thirteen states account for 95 percent of national crop area. 90 scenes are analysed to assess the national wet season rice crop. A stratified sampling plan is used to analyse 5*5 km segments accounting for 15 per cent of the crop area in each of the study states. A decision-rule classifier has been developed based on a Radiative Transfer (RT) model developed and calibrated using large number of rice sites in India and controlled field experiments. This procedure accounts for change in backscatter as a result of transplanting of rice and crop growth in multi-date data to classify rice areas. Results indicate more than 93 per cent accuracy of area estimation at state level and 97 per cent at national level. It is feasible to assess deviations in crop planting operation (late or early) for a given area.

  6. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  7. Reproductive health financing in Kenya: an analysis of national commitments, donor assistance, and the resources tracking process.

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Pradhan, Jalandhar; Beekink, Erik; Maina, Thomas M; Maina, Beatrice W

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the flow of resources at the country level to reproductive health is essential for effective financing of this key component of health. This paper gives a comprehensive picture of the allocation of resources for reproductive health in Kenya and the challenges faced in the resource-tracking process. Data are drawn from Kenyan budget estimates, reproductive health accounts, and the Resource Flows Project database and compare budgets and spending in 2005-06 with 2009-10. Despite policies and programmes in place since 1994, services for family planning, maternity care and infant and child health face serious challenges. As regards health financing, the government spends less than the average in sub-Saharan Africa, while donor assistance and out-of-pocket expenditure for health are high. Donor assistance to Kenya has increased over the years, but the percentage of funds devoted to reproductive health is lower than it was in 2005. We recommend an increase in the budget and spending for reproductive health in order to achieve MDG targets on maternal mortality and universal access to reproductive health in Kenya. Safety nets for the poor are also needed to reduce the burden of spending by households. Lastly, we recommend the generation of more comprehensive reproductive health accounts on a regular basis.

  8. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden.

  9. A validity assessment of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™.

    PubMed

    Desiere, Sam; Vellema, Wytse; D'Haese, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Development organisations need easy-to-use and quick-to-implement indicators to quantify poverty when requested to measure program impact. In this paper we assess the validity of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™, a country-specific indicator based on ten closed questions on directly observable household characteristics, by its compliance to the SMART criteria. Each response receives a pre-determined score, such that the sum of these scores can be converted into the likelihood the household is living below the poverty line. We focus on the PPI scorecard for Rwanda, which was validated using two national household surveys conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11. The PPI is Specific, Measurable, Available cost effectively, and Timely available. Yet, its Relevance depends on the way it is used. Although it accurately distinguishes poor from non-poor households, making it a useful reporting tool, its limited sensitivity to changes in poverty status restricts its usefulness for evaluating the impact of development projects.

  10. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  11. Turning points in nonlinear business cycle theories, financial crisis and the 2007-2008 downturn.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Ragiv G

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews three nonlinear dynamical business cycle theories of which only one (The Goodwin model) reflects the stylized facts of observed business cycles and has a plausible turning point mechanism. The paper then examines the US (and now global) financial crisis of 2008 and the accompanying downturn in the US. The paper argues that a skewed income distribution could not sustain effective demand and that over the 2001-2006 expansion demand was maintained through massive amounts of credit, with more than 50 percent of sales in the US being maintained through credit. A vector autoregression model confirms the crucial role played by credit. However legislative changes that dismantled the restrictions placed on the financial sector after the crash of 1929 and the consequent structural changes in the financial sector after 1980 enabled the growth of new debt instruments and credit. But overexpansion of credit when profits and house prices were declining in 2005/06 led to a nonlinear shift due to a new realization of the poor quality of some of this debt, namely mortgage backed securities. Bankruptcies, followed by retrenchment at the banks, then led to the bursting of the credit bubble, with the possibility of a severe recession.

  12. A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yasmeen Majid; Khan, Asmat

    2012-09-01

    The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the nonagricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.

  13. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results. PMID:26568665

  14. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

  15. Faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jeff; Shachar, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    This research study investigated the relationship between faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership and the effects of moderating demographic and institutional characteristics. Data for this study were collected utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X and the self-designed Demographic and Institution Questionnaire. The study working sample included 184 graduate occupational therapy faculty members from 98 (65%) of all accredited academic occupational therapy programs in the United States for the 2005-06 academic year. Major findings from the study indicate that, in general, transformational leadership had a significant (p < 0.001) positive predictive relationship with the leadership outcomes whereas transactional leadership had a significant (p < 0.001) negative predictive relationship. The contingent reward leadership attribute (although belonging to the transactional leadership construct) was found to be a positive predictor of leadership outcomes. Demographic and institutional characteristics did not have a significant (p > 0.01) influence on perceived leadership styles and leadership outcomes. The results of this research show that the most effective occupational therapy leaders in academia have been found to be those who adopt and utilize a full range of leadership styles that combine both transformational and transactional contingent reward leadership styles and suggest common effectiveness for other allied health fields. PMID:19157052

  16. Human rights approach to maternal & child health: Has India fared well?

    PubMed Central

    Ram, F.; Singh, Abhishek; Ram, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: The objectives of the study were to examine: right to access maternal health; right to access child health; and right to access improved water and sanitation in India. Methods: We used large-scale data sets like District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007-08 and National Family Health Surveys conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 to fulfil the objectives. The selection of the indicator variables was guided by the Human Rights’ Framework for Health and Convention of the Rights of the Child- Articles 7, 24 and 27. We used univariate and bivariate analysis along with ratio of access among non-poor to access among poor to fulfil the objectives. Results: Evidence clearly suggested gross violation of human rights starting from the birth of an individual. Even after 60 years of independence, significant proportions of women and children do not have access to basic services like improved drinking water and sanitation. Interpretation & conclusions: There were enormous socio-economic and residence related inequalities in maternal and child health indicators included in the study. These inequalities were mostly to the disadvantage of the poor. The fulfilment of the basic human rights of women and children is likely to pay dividends in many other domains related to overall population and health in India. PMID:23703339

  17. Density currents in the Chicago River: Characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Carlos M.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2008-01-01

    Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.

  18. Household Headship and Infant Mortality in India: Evaluating the Determinants and Differentials

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Borkotoky, M Kakoli; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been ample discussion on the levels and trends of infant mortality in India over time, but what remains less explored are, the differentials in infant mortality according to household headship. This paper examined the differences in the determinants of infant mortality between male-headed households (MHH) and female-headed households (FHH). Methods: The study used Cox proportional hazard model to examine the determinants of infant death, and Kaplan-Meier estimation technique to examine the survival pattern during infancy using data from Indian National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The analysis is restricted to women who had at least one live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Results: The study observed that household size and number of children below five are significant risk factors of infant mortality in MHH while length of previous birth interval is the only significant risk factor of infant death in FHH. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The results indicate that children from FHH have higher survival probability at each age than children from MHH irrespective of place of residence and sex of the child.

  19. Influenza Activity - United States, 2015-16 Season and Composition of the 2016-17 Influenza Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Davlin, Stacy L; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Mustaquim, Desiree; Smith, Sophie; Kramer, Natalie; Cohen, Jessica; Cummings, Charisse Nitura; Garg, Shikha; Flannery, Brendan; Fry, Alicia M; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Bresee, Joseph; Wallis, Teresa; Sessions, Wendy; Garten, Rebecca; Xu, Xiyan; Elal, Anwar Isa Abd; Gubareva, Larisa; Barnes, John; Wentworth, David E; Burns, Erin; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel; Brammer, Lynnette

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015-16 influenza season (October 4, 2015-May 21, 2016) in the United States, influenza activity* was lower and peaked later compared with the previous three seasons (2012-13, 2013-14, and 2014-15). Activity remained low from October 2015 until late December 2015 and peaked in mid-March 2016. During the most recent 18 influenza seasons (including this season), only two other seasons have peaked in March (2011-12 and 2005-06). Overall influenza activity was moderate this season, with a lower percentage of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI),(†) lower hospitalization rates, and a lower percentage of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) compared with the preceding three seasons. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated overall, but influenza A(H3N2) viruses were more commonly identified from October to early December, and influenza B viruses were more commonly identified from mid-April through mid-May. The majority of viruses characterized this season were antigenically similar to the reference viruses representing the recommended components of the 2015-16 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine (1). This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2015-16 influenza season (October 4, 2015-May 21, 2016)(§) and reports the vaccine virus components recommended for the 2016-17 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccines. PMID:27281364

  20. [Time trends in sex differences in adolescents' health behaviour from 2001 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Bucksch, J; Finne, E; Glücks, S; Kolip, P

    2012-07-01

    Health behaviours are influenced by gender-specific conceptions and norms of the society. These conceptions and norms are changing over time. The aim of this analysis is to describe gender differences in health behaviour of adolescents and to interpret these gender differences in terms of theories of social construction.We used the national German data of the Health-Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) studies conducted in the years 2001/02, 2005/06 und 2009/10 with respect to the following health behaviours: tobacco use, binge drinking, diet, fruit and vegetable consumption, daily breakfast and physical activity. We describe the difference in frequencies between girls and boys and used a series of logistic regressions to test the significance of the gender difference in health behaviours with survey year as the predictor.There is only a small difference -between girls and boys with respect to tobacco use and binge drinking. For binge drinking girls nearly converge with the figures of boys. Relatively stable gender differences over time are existing for diet, nutrition and physical activity.From a theoretical gender perspective it might be possible that with respect to risky behaviours like tobacco use and alcohol consumption a clear gender specific connotation has changed over time. In other words risk behaviours become less important in presenting oneself as masculine. A gender sensible development of preventive interventions should consider the changes over time of gender-related -social constructions.

  1. Urban poverty and utilization of maternal and child health care services in India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ravi; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Drawing upon data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in India during 2005-06, this study compares the utilization of selected maternal and child health care services between the urban poor and non-poor in India and across selected Indian states. A wealth index was created, separately for urban areas, using Principal Component Analysis to identify the urban poor. The findings suggest that the indicators of maternal and child health care are worse among the urban poor than in their non-poor counterparts. For instance, the levels of antenatal care, safe delivery and childhood vaccinations are much lower among the urban poor than non-poor, especially in socioeconomically disadvantageous states. Among all the maternal and child health care indicators, the non-poor/poor difference is most pronounced for delivery care in the country and across the states. Other than poverty status, utilization of antenatal services by mothers increases the chances of safe delivery and child immunization at both national and sub-national levels. The poverty status of the household emerged as a significant barrier to utilization of health care services in urban India.

  2. Understanding wealth-based inequalities in child health in India: a decomposition approach.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Satvika

    2012-12-01

    India experienced tremendous economic growth since the mid-1980s but this growth was paralleled by sharp rises in economic inequality. Urban areas experienced greater economic growth as well as greater increases in economic inequality than rural areas. During the same period, child health improved on average but socioeconomic differentials in child health persisted. This paper attempts to explain wealth-based inequalities in child mortality and malnutrition using a regression-based decomposition approach. Data for the analysis come from the 1992/93, 1998/99, and 2005/06 Indian National Family Health Surveys. Inequalities in child health are measured using the concentration index. The concentration index for each outcome is then decomposed into the contributions of wealth-based inequality in the observed determinants of child health. Results indicate that mortality inequality declined in urban areas but remained unchanged or increased in rural areas. Malnutrition inequality increased dramatically both in urban and rural areas. The two largest individual/household-level sources of disparities in child health are (i) inequality in the distribution of wealth itself, and (ii) inequality in maternal education. The contributions of observed determinants (i) to neonatal mortality inequality remained unchanged, (ii) to child mortality inequality increased, and (ii) to malnutrition inequality increased. It is possible that the increases in child health inequality reflect urban biases in economic growth, and the mixed performance of public programs that could have otherwise offset the impacts of unequal growth.

  3. The Annual Glaciohydrology Cycle in the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Part 2. Observed and Modeled Ice Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgan, William Terence; Rajaram, Harihar; Anderson, Robert S.; Steffen, Konrad; Zwally, H. Jay; Phillips, Thomas; Abdalati, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    Ice velocities observed in 2005/06 at three GPS stations along the Sermeq Avannarleq flowline, West Greenland, are used to characterize an observed annual velocity cycle. We attempt to reproduce this annual ice velocity cycle using a 1-D ice-flow model with longitudinal stresses coupled to a 1-D hydrology model that governs an empirical basal sliding rule. Seasonal basal sliding velocity is parameterized as a perturbation of prescribed winter sliding velocity that is proportional to the rate of change of glacier water storage. The coupled model reproduces the broad features of the annual basal sliding cycle observed along this flowline, namely a summer speed-up event followed by a fall slowdown event. We also evaluate the hypothesis that the observed annual velocity cycle is due to the annual calving cycle at the terminus. We demonstrate that the ice acceleration due to a catastrophic calving event takes an order of magnitude longer to reach CU/ETH ('Swiss') Camp (46km upstream of the terminus) than is observed. The seasonal acceleration observed at Swiss Camp is therefore unlikely to be the result of velocity perturbations propagated upstream via longitudinal coupling. Instead we interpret this velocity cycle to reflect the local history of glacier water balance.

  4. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    PubMed

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone.

  5. Impact of forage clipping treatments on performance of winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, S A; Ullah, H; Mohammad, F; Khalil, I H; Alam, M; Shahwar, D; Malik, M F A; Jamal, Y

    2013-01-01

    Farmers in northern parts of Pakistan face severe shortage of green forage for their livestock during the harsh winter season. Winter wheat has the potential to be used as a dual-purpose crop for forage plus grain production in these areas. Ten elite winter wheat lines from Oklahoma State University were evaluated at Hazara Research Station Abbottabad under unclipped and clipped treatment level during 2005-06. The material was planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications, with a row length of four meters and a row to row space of 25 cm. Data were recorded on green forage yield, plant height, spike length, spikelets/spike, days to maturity, spike weight, biological weight, and grain yield. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among genotypes for all traits except spike length. Similarly all traits except spikelets/spike exhibited significant differences between unclipped and clipped treatment levels. Genotype x clipping interaction was non-significant for all traits except grain yield. Overall, winter wheat lines OK98G508W and OK00611W performed better for important traits such as early maturity, biological yield and grain yield, although over-environment testing is needed before recommendations can be made to the farmers. PMID:24301789

  6. 2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

  7. Volcanology and eruptive styles of Barren Island: an active mafic stratovolcano in the Andaman Sea, NE Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Kumar, Alok; Smitha, R. S.

    2009-11-01

    Barren Island (India) is a relatively little studied, little known active volcano in the Andaman Sea, and the northernmost active volcano of the great Indonesian arc. The volcano is built of prehistoric (possibly late Pleistocene) lava flows (dominantly basalt and basaltic andesite, with minor andesite) intercalated with volcaniclastic deposits (tuff breccias, and ash beds deposited by pyroclastic falls and surges), which are exposed along a roughly circular caldera wall. There are indications of a complete phreatomagmatic tephra ring around the exposed base of the volcano. A polygenetic cinder cone has existed at the centre of the caldera and produced basalt-basaltic andesite aa and blocky aa lava flows, as well as tephra, during historic eruptions (1787-1832) and three recent eruptions (1991, 1994-95, 2005-06). The recent aa flows include a toothpaste aa flow, with tilted and overturned crustal slabs carried atop an aa core, as well as locally developed tumuli-like elliptical uplifts having corrugated crusts. Based on various evidence we infer that it belongs to either the 1991 or the 1994-95 eruptions. The volcano has recently (2008) begun yet another eruption, so far only of tephra. We make significantly different interpretations of several features of the volcano than previous workers. This study of the volcanology and eruptive styles of the Barren Island volcano lays the ground for detailed geochemical-isotopic and petrogenetic work, and provides clues to what the volcano can be expected to do in the future.

  8. Turning points in nonlinear business cycle theories, financial crisis and the 2007-2008 downturn.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Ragiv G

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews three nonlinear dynamical business cycle theories of which only one (The Goodwin model) reflects the stylized facts of observed business cycles and has a plausible turning point mechanism. The paper then examines the US (and now global) financial crisis of 2008 and the accompanying downturn in the US. The paper argues that a skewed income distribution could not sustain effective demand and that over the 2001-2006 expansion demand was maintained through massive amounts of credit, with more than 50 percent of sales in the US being maintained through credit. A vector autoregression model confirms the crucial role played by credit. However legislative changes that dismantled the restrictions placed on the financial sector after the crash of 1929 and the consequent structural changes in the financial sector after 1980 enabled the growth of new debt instruments and credit. But overexpansion of credit when profits and house prices were declining in 2005/06 led to a nonlinear shift due to a new realization of the poor quality of some of this debt, namely mortgage backed securities. Bankruptcies, followed by retrenchment at the banks, then led to the bursting of the credit bubble, with the possibility of a severe recession. PMID:19781138

  9. Exposure to domestic violence between parents: a perspective from Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vameghi, Meroe; Feizzadeh, Ali; Mirabzadeh, Arash; Feizzadeh, Golnaz

    2010-06-01

    Women may bear the brunt of domestic violence, but children are also inflicted by the consequences of violence between their parents. We sought to evaluate the lifetime prevalence of exposure to physical violence between parents among some senior secondary school students in Tehran. The study was conducted on senior secondary school students in all 19 educational districts of the Iranian capital, Tehran, in the academic year of 2005-06 using a multi-stage sampling. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 1,495 students participated in this survey, with the prevalence estimated at 22.8%. More than half of the subjects had witnessed domestic violence between their parents; the prevalence of exposure among the girls was twice that among the boys. The most frequent act of violence was beating the partner with bare hands and the perpetrators of the violent acts were predominantly the fathers. Exposure was long-lasting; and in those with more than one exposure, the mean duration of exposure was 5.1 years. The most prevalent rates of exposure to domestic violence came from Educational Districts 15 and 10. The fact that a considerable portion of the teenagers in the present study had witnessed physical violence between their parents bears testimony to the high frequency of this form of violence in Tehran households. It is noteworthy that the socio-economic status of the families and parental divorce and estrangement increased the likelihood of exposure to domestic violence in our series.

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CRUSTAL MAGMA BODY IN THE 2005-2006 ERUPTION AREA AT 9°50'N ON THE EAST PACIFIC RISE FROM 3D MULTI-CHANNEL SEISMIC DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Canales, J.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Aghaei, O.; Xu, M.; Han, S.; Stowe, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2008 a large 3D multi-channel seismic dataset (expedition MGL0812) was collected over the 9°50’N Integrated Study Site at the East Pacific Rise, providing insight into the architecture of the magmatic system and its relationship with hydrothermal activity and volcanic/dyking events associated with the 2005-06 eruption. The main area of 3D coverage is located between 9°42’N and 9°57’N, spanning ~28km along-axis, and was acquired along 94 (1 partial) prime lines shot across-axis and each ~24km-long. Pre-processing of the data acquired in this area is now well under way, with significant efforts targeted at amplitude spike removal. Current work focuses on setting up the 3D processing sequence up to the stack stage for a small group of inlines (axis-perpendicular grid lines spaced 37.5m apart) located over the “bull’s eye” site at 9°50’N, a sequence that will subsequently be applied to the whole dataset. At the meeting we will present stacked and migrated sections - inlines, crosslines, time slices - obtained through 3D processing. We will discuss results focusing on the characteristics of the axial magma body, whose detailed structure and along-axis segmentation will be resolved by the 3D data.

  11. Time trends in type 2 diabetes patients' disease management and outcomes: evidence from two KORA surveys in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schunk, M; Schweikert, B; Gapp, O; Reitmeir, P; Meisinger, C; Mielck, A; Holle, R

    2009-02-01

    To explore time trends in diabetes management and intermediate health outcomes of people with type 2 diabetes, data from two population-based survey studies were compared. The surveys were conducted in the Augsburg region of Southern Germany in 1997/98 and in 2004/05, and included physical examinations, interviews, self-administered questionnaires and laboratory tests. Data from 334 participants aged 40-84 were analysed, including a longitudinal sub-sample of 50 persons. Results show significant time trends towards improvements over the seven year period. Controlling for age, sex, education and duration of diabetes, people felt better informed about diabetes (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.87; 95% CI: 1.12, 3.14) and stated greater adherence to the treatment plan (OR 4.42; CI: 2.62, 7.45) as well as higher participation in diabetes education programmes (OR 2.20; CI: 1.44, 3.38). Mean haemoglobin A1c levels decreased by -0.97% from 7.3% to 6.3% (CI:-0.66%, -1.28%). Physical activity (> or =1 h/week) was more frequent (OR 2.75; CI: 1.65, 4.59), although Body Mass Index increased by 1.43 kg/m (2) (CI: 0.86, 2.00). The positive changes in disease management and metabolic outcomes for type 2 diabetic patients between 1997/98 and 2004/05 indicate a shift towards greater patient involvement in diabetes care and possibly more efficient medical management practices.

  12. Varicella routine vaccination and the effects on varicella epidemiology – results from the Bavarian Varicella Surveillance Project (BaVariPro), 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiology were investigated. Methods Data on varicella vaccinations, cases and complications were collected from annual parent surveys (2006-2011), monthly paediatric practice surveillance (Oct 2006 - Sep 2011; five varicella seasons) and paediatric hospital databases (2005-2009) in the area of Munich (about 238,000 paediatric inhabitants); annual incidences of cases and hospitalisations were estimated. Results Varicella vaccination coverage (1st dose) in children 18-36 months of age increased in two steps (38%, 51%, 53%, 53%, 66% and 68%); second-dose coverage reached 59% in the 2011 survey. A monthly mean of 82 (62%) practices participated; they applied a total of 50,059 first-dose and 40,541 second-dose varicella vaccinations, with preferential use of combined MMR-varicella vaccine after recommendation of two doses, and reported a total of 16,054 varicella cases <17 years of age. The mean number of cases decreased by 67% in two steps, from 6.6 (95%CI 6.1-7.0) per 1,000 patient contacts in season 2006/07 to 4.2 (95%CI 3.9-4.6) in 2007/08 and 4.0 (95%CI 3.6-4.3) in 2008/09, and further to 2.3 (95%CI 2.0-2.6) in 2009/10 and 2.2 (95%CI 1.9-2.5) in 2010/11. The decrease occurred in all paediatric age groups, indicating herd protection effects. Incidence of varicella was estimated as 78/1,000 children <17 years of age in 2006/07, and 19/1,000 in 2010/11. Vaccinated cases increased from 0.3 (95%0.2-0.3) per 1,000 patient contacts in 2006/07 to 0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.5) until 2008/09 and decreased to 0.2 (95%CI 0.2-0.3) until 2010/11. The practices treated a total of 134 complicated cases, mainly with skin complications. The paediatric hospitals recorded a total of 178 varicella patients, including 40 (22.5%) with neurological complications and one (0.6%) fatality due

  13. Reflections on academic careers by current dental school faculty.

    PubMed

    Rogér, James M; Wehmeyer, Meggan M H; Milliner, Matthew S

    2008-04-01

    During the inaugural year (2006-07) of the Academic Dental Careers Fellowship Program (ADCFP), 110 faculty members at ten different dental schools were interviewed by dental students who were participating as ADCFP fellows in this year-long program designed to introduce them to faculty roles and activities and help them gain an appreciation for the rewards and issues associated with academic life. The goals, format, and components of the ADCFP are described in a companion article in this issue of the Journal of Dental Education. One of the fellows' assignments during the ADCFP was to interview faculty at various academic ranks who had differing degrees of work emphasis in teaching, research, service/patient care, and administration. Sixty-nine (63 percent of the total) of these interviews were reviewed and analyzed by the authors, who were student fellows in the ADCFP during 2006-07. The purpose of these interviews was to provide the fellows with insight into the positive aspects and challenges in becoming and remaining a dental school faculty member. This aggregate perspective of the interviews conducted at ten dental schools highlights the motivations and challenges that confront a dentist during the process of choosing a career in academic dentistry and determining if dental education is a good fit for each individual who elects to pursue this pathway. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed several factors consistently identified by faculty across the schools as being positive influences on the quality of the academic work environment and career satisfaction: mentorship and student interaction, opportunities for scholarship (research and discovery), job diversity, intellectual challenge, satisfaction with the nature of academic work, lifestyle/family compatibility, flexibility, lifelong learning, professional duty, and lab responsibility. A series of negative themes were also consistently identified: bureaucracy/administrative burdens and barriers, time

  14. Maternal and child health in Brazil: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Aquino, Estela M L; do Carmo Leal, Maria; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Barros, Fernando C; Szwarcwald, Celia L

    2011-05-28

    In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4% a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68% of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37% in 1974-75 to 7% in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4%, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988

  15. The pervasive effects of racism: experiences of racial discrimination in New Zealand over time and associations with multiple health domains.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-02-01

    Self-reported experience of racial discrimination has been linked to a range of health outcomes in various countries and for different ethnic groups. This study builds on previous work in New Zealand to further investigate the prevalence of self-reported experience of racial discrimination by ethnicity, changes over time and associations with multiple health measures. The study uses data from the 2002/03 (n=12,500) and 2006/07 (n=12,488) New Zealand Health Surveys, nationally representative population-based surveys of adults (15+ years). Reported experience of racial discrimination was measured in both surveys and covered 5 items: experience of an ethnically motivated physical or verbal attack; and unfair treatment because of ethnicity by a health professional, in work, or when gaining housing. Ethnicity was classified as Maori, Pacific, Asian or European. Health indicators included measures of: mental health (SF36 mental health scale, psychological distress, doctor diagnosed mental health condition); physical health (self-rated health, SF36 physical functioning scale, cardiovascular disease); and health risk (smoking, hazardous drinking, excess body fat). Logistic regression was used to examine changes in prevalence of reported experience of racial discrimination over time and associations with health. Reported experience of racial discrimination increased between 2002/03 (28.1% ever) and 2006/07 (35.0% ever) among Asian peoples but remained largely unchanged for other ethnic groupings (Maori 29.5%, Pacific 23.0%, European 13.5%). Experience of racial discrimination was associated with all negative health measures except excess body fat. Where there were significant associations, a dose-response relationship was also evident. We conclude that racial discrimination experienced across a range of settings has the potential to impact on a wide range of health outcomes and risk factors. While ongoing research is needed to understand the multifarious nature of racism

  16. Invasive meningococcal disease in England and Wales: implications for the introduction of new vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Flood, Jessica S; Ramsay, Mary E; Campbell, Helen; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Mallard, Richard H; Guiver, Malcolm; Newbold, Lynne S; Borrow, Ray

    2012-05-21

    A number of meningococcal vaccines have either been recently licensed or are in late-phase clinical trials. To inform national vaccination policy, it is important to define the burden of disease and the potential impact of any new vaccine. This study describes the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease across all age groups in England and Wales for recent epidemiological years between 2006 and 2010. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) conducts enhanced national meningococcal surveillance through a combination of clinical and laboratory reporting. Between 2006/07 and 2010/11, the average annual incidence of invasive meningococcal disease across all age groups was 2.0/100,000. Capsular group B (MenB) accounted for 87% (4777/5471) cases, with an overall incidence of 1.8/100,000. The highest MenB incidence observed among infants (36.2/100,000) where cases increased from birth to 5 months of age then gradually declined. An annual average of 245 MenB cases occurred in infants (135 in those aged ≤ 6 months) representing 26% (and 14%) of all MenB cases, respectively. After infancy, MenB rates declined until the age of 12 years, rising to a second smaller peak at 18 years. MenB case fatality ratio (CFR) was 5.2% (247/4777 cases) overall and was highest among ≥ 65 year-olds (28/161; 17.4%). The largest number of deaths (n=125), however, occurred among <5 year-olds. Clonal complexes cc269 and cc41/44 each accounted for around a third of cases across the age groups. Other capsular groups rarely caused invasive disease, although capsular group Y (MenY) cases more than doubled from 35 in 2006/07 to 86 in 2010/11. Thus, universal meningococcal vaccination with an effective broad-spectrum formulation has potential to prevent most disease, particularly if the vaccine is immunogenic early in infancy, but, there is currently little justification for routine quadrivalent ACWY conjugate vaccination in the UK, although the increase in MenY disease warrants continued

  17. Some seasonal characteristics in atmospheric methane concentration in the beginning of the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Anna; Ginzburg, Alexander; Fedorova, Evgeniya

    2010-05-01

    Global average value of atmospheric methane concentrations have been increasing during the XX century, but this growth nearly stopped with the beginning of the 2000th. Such "stable" situation is the proper time for studying the seasonal cycle and extreme changes of air methane concentration. One of the most interesting periods for such investigations is autumn and winter 2006/07 [1] when a number of weather abnormalities (warm air temperature up to above 0°C, almost permanent cloudiness and absence of snow cover, and so on) in Moscow region created very specific conditions for air methane existence. Temporal variations in air methane concentration within the Moscow city have been studied using the data of observations at 12 stations of Moscow municipal environmental monitoring agency "Mosecomonitoring" in 2004-2008 [2]. It was found that near-surface air concentration of methane was much higher this time than few years before and after. The values of cold season methane concentrations in Moscow region have been compared with similar data measured in the North of Kola Peninsula (at WMO GAW station "Teriberka"), in the Sankt Petersburg region (the two stations of Roshydromet), in Finland and Hungary (the stations of NOAA GMD Carbon Cycle Sampling Network). Winter maxima (more or less) of methane concentrations were revealed almost each year at all these stations, but not everywhere they were simultaneous and as high as those had been found in Moscow. The reasons of winter 2006/07 high methane concentrations in Moscow and other regions of Northern Eurasia may be special weather conditions which could cause both decrease of air methane sinks and increase of methane emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Perhaps, the late growth of global atmospheric methane concentration after 2007 [3] was partly produced by those seasonal anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere. References: 1. E. Fedorova, A. Ginzburg, A. Vinogradova. Seasonal variations of atmospheric

  18. Spatio-temporal Variability in Midwinter Snowmelt Generated by Ground Heat Flux: Implications for Catchment Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. S.; Moore, R. D.; Weiler, M.

    2008-12-01

    Ground heat flux is commonly ignored in the modelling of snowpack energy exchanges and snowmelt runoff due to its perceived insignificance relative to other energy sources. Snowmelt at the base of a snowpack was continuously measured during the winters of 2006/07 and 2007/08 with 4 m2 lysimeters at six sites within a 3.5 km2 continental, mountainous catchment in southeast British Columbia. Soil wetness and soil, air, and snow temperatures were also continuously measured at each site. During the 2006/07 winter season, accumulated snowmelt during a three month midwinter period with sub- zero air temperatures ranged from 11 to 107 mm, comprising 3 to 36 % as much as the annual peak snow water accumulation. Daily snowmelt regularly exceeded 1 mm at several sites while daily maximum air temperatures were well below 0°C suggesting that ground heat flux generated the midwinter snowmelt (i.e. ground melt). Temporal variability of melt was strongly associated with air temperature, even at sub-zero temperatures. Spatial variability of melt was strongly associated with soil wetness, and wetness levels at wetter sites were maintained or increased through ground melt inputs. During the 2007/08 midwinter period, accumulated ground melt did not exceed 10 mm due to extensive soil freezing prior to snowpack development. The results suggest that a positive feedback response loop exists between soil wetness, ground heat flux, and ground melt due to the association between soil thermal conductivity and soil wetness. Pre-winter soil wetness and soil temperature, and winter meteorology influence the amount of midwinter ground melt because they control the relative amounts of ground heat flux that are used for melt, soil warming, or snowpack heat conduction. Pre-winter soil hydro-thermal dynamics and midwinter ground melt might be important controls on the spatial pattern of winter/spring catchment wetness and subsequent runoff response if antecedent soil conditions and ground melt

  19. Inter-epidemic Transmission of Rift Valley Fever in Livestock in the Kilombero River Valley, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sumaye, Robert D.; Geubbels, Eveline; Mbeyela, Edgar; Berkvens, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, evidence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) transmission during inter-epidemic periods in parts of Africa has increasingly been reported. The inter-epidemic transmissions generally pass undetected where there is no surveillance in the livestock or human populations. We studied the presence of and the determinants for inter-epidemic RVF transmission in an area experiencing annual flooding in southern Tanzania. Methodology A cross-sectional sero-survey was conducted in randomly selected cattle, sheep and goats in the Kilombero river valley from May to August 2011, approximately four years after the 2006/07 RVF outbreak in Tanzania. The exposure status to RVF virus (RVFV) was determined using two commercial ELISA kits, detecting IgM and IgG antibodies in serum. Information about determinants was obtained through structured interviews with herd owners. Findings An overall seroprevalence of 11.3% (n = 1680) was recorded; 5.5% in animals born after the 2006/07 RVF outbreak and 22.7% in animals present during the outbreak. There was a linear increase in prevalence in the post-epidemic annual cohorts. Nine inhibition-ELISA positive samples were also positive for RVFV IgM antibodies indicating a recent infection. The spatial distribution of seroprevalence exhibited a few hotspots. The sex difference in seroprevalence in animals born after the previous epidemic was not significant (6.1% vs. 4.6% for females and males respectively, p = 0.158) whereas it was significant in animals present during the outbreak (26.0% vs. 7.8% for females and males respectively, p<0.001). Animals living >15 km from the flood plain were more likely to have antibodies than those living <5 km (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.04–3.56). Species, breed, herd composition, grazing practices and altitude were not associated with seropositivity. Conclusion These findings indicate post-epidemic transmission of RVFV in the study area. The linear increase in seroprevalence in the post

  20. An agricultural drought index to incorporate the irrigation process and reservoir operations: A case study in the Tarim River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zehua; Hao, Zhenchun; Shi, Xiaogang; Déry, Stephen J.; Li, Jieyou; Chen, Sichun; Li, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    To help the decision making process and reduce climate change impacts, hydrologically-based drought indices have been used to determine drought severity in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) over the past decades. As the major components of the surface water balance, however, the irrigation process and reservoir operations have not been incorporated into drought indices in previous studies. Therefore, efforts are needed to develop a new agricultural drought index, which is based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module. The new drought index was derived from the simulated soil moisture data from a retrospective VIC simulation from 1961 to 2007 over the irrigated area in the TRB. The physical processes in the coupled VIC model allow the new agricultural drought index to take into account a wide range of hydrologic processes including the irrigation process and reservoir operations. Notably, the irrigation process was found to dominate the surface water balance and drought evolution in the TRB. Furthermore, the drought conditions identified by the new agricultural drought index presented a good agreement with the historical drought events that occurred in 1993-94, 2004, and 2006-07, respectively. Moreover, the spatial distribution of coupled VIC model outputs using the new drought index provided detailed information about where and to what extent droughts occurred.

  1. Care Management Processes Used Less Often For Depression Than For Other Chronic Conditions In US Primary Care Practices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Tara F; Ramsay, Patricia P; Casalino, Lawrence P; Bao, Yuhua; Pincus, Harold A; Shortell, Stephen M

    2016-03-01

    Primary care physicians play an important role in the diagnosis and management of depression. Yet little is known about their use of care management processes for depression. Using national survey data for the period 2006-13, we assessed the use of five care management processes for depression and other chronic illnesses among primary care practices in the United States. We found significantly less use for depression than for asthma, congestive heart failure, or diabetes in 2012-13. On average, practices used fewer than one care management process for depression, and this level of use has not changed since 2006-07, regardless of practice size. In contrast, use of diabetes care management processes has increased significantly among larger practices. These findings may indicate that US primary care practices are not well equipped to manage depression as a chronic illness, despite the high proportion of depression care they provide. Policies that incentivize depression care management, including additional quality metrics, should be considered. PMID:26953291

  2. Adult antarctic krill feeding at abyssal depths.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Tyler, Paul A

    2008-02-26

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a large euphausiid, widely distributed within the Southern Ocean [1], and a key species in the Antarctic food web [2]. The Discovery Investigations in the early 20(th) century, coupled with subsequent work with both nets and echosounders, indicated that the bulk of the population of postlarval krill is typically confined to the top 150 m of the water column [1, 3, 4]. Here, we report for the first time the existence of significant numbers of Antarctic krill feeding actively at abyssal depths in the Southern Ocean. Biological observations from the deep-water remotely operated vehicle Isis in the austral summer of 2006/07 have revealed the presence of adult krill (Euphausia superba Dana), including gravid females, at unprecedented depths in Marguerite Bay, western Antarctic Peninsula. Adult krill were found close to the seabed at all depths but were absent from fjords close inshore. At all locations where krill were detected they were seen to be actively feeding, and at many locations there were exuviae (cast molts). These observations revise significantly our understanding of the depth distribution and ecology of Antarctic krill, a central organism in the Southern Ocean ecosystem.

  3. Trajectory and Microphysical Modeling of TTL Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, R.; Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.

    2014-12-01

    Processes that influence H2O concentrations in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and consequently regulate stratospheric humidity are investigated in simulations of clouds along backward trajectories of TTL parcels initialized with H2O measurements from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Trajectories are calculated using offline calculations of seasonal mean radiative heating rates in the tropics merged with MERRA extratropical heating rates and ERA-Interim temperature and wind data that have been modified to enhance wave-driven variability in the TTL. We also examine the impact of convective influence along parcel trajectories on cloud formation and dehydration. The distribution of 100 hPa H2O mixing ratios simulated on the final day of the trajectories in boreal winter 2006-07 resembles that of MLS with distinct minima over the western and eastern tropical Pacific, but exhibits an overall dry bias of approximately 20%. Averaged over the tropics, subgrid-scale waves dehydrate the 100 hPa level by ~0.5 ppmv, while convection and cloud microphysical processes moisten by ~0.5 and ~0.7 ppmv, respectively. These three processes combined increase the tropical mean H2O estimate by roughly 20% compared to that based solely on the Lagrangian Dry Point of the trajectories. Possible causes of the model dry bias and TTL cirrus statistics in comparison to those of recent aircraft campaigns will also be discussed.

  4. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of the AFWA-NASA (ANSA) Blended Snow-Cover Product over the Lower Great Lakes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Riggs, George A.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Montesano, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) - NASA (ANSA) blended-snow product utilizes EOS standard snow products from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) to map daily snow cover and snow-water equivalent (SWE) globally. We have compared ANSA-derived SWE. with SWE values calculated from snow depths reported at approx.1500 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) coop stations in the Lower Great Lakes basin. Our preliminary results show that conversion of snow depth to SWE is very sensitive to the choice of snow density (we used either 0.2 or 03 as conversion factors). We found overall better agreement between the ANSA-derived SWE and the co-op station data when we use a snow density of 0.3 to convert the snow depths to SWE. In addition, we show that the ANSA underestimates SWE in densely-forested areas, using January and February 2008 ANSA and co-op data. Furthermore, apparent large SWE changes from one day to the next may be caused by thaw-re-freeze events, and do not always represent a real change in SWE. In the near future we will continue the analysis in the 2006-07 and 2007-08 snow seasons.

  6. Dynamics investigation in the Venus upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, A.; Altieri, F.; Shakun, A.; Zasova, L.; Piccioni, G.; Bellucci, G.

    The O_2 nightglow emissions in the infrared spectral range are important features to investigate dynamics at the mesospheric altitudes, in the planetary atmosphere. In this work, we analyzed the profiles obtained at limb by the VIRTIS spectrometer on board the Venus Express mission, acquired during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15 to investigate possible gravity waves characteristics at the airglow altitudes. Indeed, several profiles present double peaked structures that can be interpreted as due to gravity waves. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O_2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation, in order to support this thesis and derive the waves properties. We discuss results from 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, focusing on vertical wavelength and wave amplitude of the possible gravity waves. On average, the double peaked profiles are compatible with the effects of gravity waves with a vertical wavelength ranging between 7 and 16 km, and wave amplitude of 3-14%. A comparison with gravity waves properties in the Mars and Earth's atmospheres, using the same theory, is also proposed \\citep{altieri_2014}. \\ The research is supported by ASI (contract ASI-INAF I/050/10/0).

  7. Predictors of participation in preventive health examinations in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventive health check-ups in Austria are offered free of charge to all insured adults (98% of the population) and focus on early detection of chronic diseases, primary prevention, and health counseling. The study aims to explore predictors of compliance with the recommended interval of preventive health check-up performance. Methods Source of data was the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006/07 (15,474 subjects). Participation in a preventive health examination during the last three years was used as dependent variable. Socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were used as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Results show that 41.6% of men and 41.8% of women had attended a preventive health check-up within the last three years. In multivariate analysis, subjects ≥40 years, with higher education, higher income or born in Austria were significantly more likely to attend a preventive health check-up. Furthermore, a chronic disease was associated with a higher attendance rate (OR: 1.21; CI: 1.07-1.36 in men; OR: 1.19; CI: 1.06-1.33 in women). Conclusions Attendance rates for health check-ups in the general Austrian population are comparatively high but not equally distributed among subgroups. Health check-ups must increase among people at a young age, with a lower socio-economic status, migration background and in good health. PMID:24308610

  8. Design for a region-wide adaptive search for the ivorybilled woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Mordecai, Rua S.; Mattsson, B.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Pacifici, K.; Peterson, J.T.; Moore, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a survey design and field protocol for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) search effort that will: (1) allow estimation of occupancy, use, and detection probability for habitats at two spatial scales within the bird?s former range, (2) assess relationships between occupancy, use, and habitat characteristics at those scales, (3) eventually allow the development of a population viability model that depends on patch occupancy instead of difficult-to-measure demographic parameters, and (4) be adaptive, allowing newly collected information to update the above models and search locations. The approach features random selection of patches to be searched from a sampling frame stratified and weighted by patch quality, and requires multiple visits per patch. It is adaptive within a season in that increased search activity is allowed in and around locations of strong visual and/or aural evidence, and adaptive among seasons in that habitat associations allow modification of stratum weights. This statistically rigorous approach is an improvement over simply visiting the ?best? habitat in an ad hoc fashion because we can learn from prior effort and modify the search accordingly. Results from the 2006-07 search season indicate weak relationships between occupancy and habitat (although we suggest modifications of habitat measurement protocols), and a very low detection probability, suggesting more visits per patch are required. Sample size requirements will be discussed.

  9. Water-level altitudes 2007 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper Aquifers and compaction 1973-2006 in the Chicot and Evangeline Aquifers, Houston-Galveston Region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2007-01-01

    This report, done in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, the City of Houston, the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports that depicts water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, and compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston, Texas, region. The report contains 18 sheets and 17 tables: 3 sheets are maps showing current-year (2007) water-level altitudes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 1-year (2006-07) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 5-year (2002-07) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 4 sheets are maps showing long-term (1990-2007 and 1977-2007) water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, respectively; 1 sheet is a map showing long-term (2000-2007) water-level change for the Jasper aquifer; 2 sheets are revisions of previously published water-level-altitude maps for the Jasper aquifer for 2000 and 2002, respectively; 1 sheet is a map showing site locations of borehole extensometers; and 1 sheet comprises graphs showing measured compaction of subsurface material at the sites from 1973 or later through 2006, respectively. Tables listing the data used to construct the aquifer-data maps and the compaction graphs also are included.

  10. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  11. Using community triage centres or non-traditional care facilities during a flu pandemic or other infectious disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Bone, Eric; Grono, Shawn; Johnson, David H; Johnson, Marcia

    2008-04-01

    One assumption of pandemic planning is that, during an influenza outbreak, acute care facilities may be quickly overrun with patients and as such must prepare in advance. In order to operationalise one component of a pandemic plan, Capital Health in Edmonton, Alberta, piloted a mobile triage centre facility (portable isolation containment systems) and tested pandemic influenza triage and assessment guidelines in the winter of 2006-07. The mobile model provided emergency department surge capacity for communicable disease emergencies with scalable deployment capabilities. The deployable module has several advantages over a fixed structure like a community facility. The triage facility is a location for short-term treatments, such as intravenous therapy, prescriptions, medication distribution, and self-care education, which are needed during a pandemic influenza outbreak. Decanting infectious patients away from the emergency department protects a highly-vulnerable hospitalised group from viral transmission. Based on the pilot, it is found that community triage centres are a viable support option for emergency departments in an urban setting during pandemic influenza.

  12. Subtropical Low Cloud Responses to Central and Eastern Pacific El Nino Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, A. D.; Bennartz, R.; Jiang, J. H.; Kato, S.; Olson, W. S.; Pinker, R. T.; Su, H.; Taylor, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern Pacific El Niño event in 2006-2007 and the central Pacific El Niño event during 2009-2010 exhibit opposite responses in the top of atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effects. These responses are driven by differences in large-scale circulation that result in significant low cloud anomalies in the subtropical southeastern Pacific. Both the vertical profile of cloud fraction and cloud water content are reduced during the eastern Pacific El Niño; however, the shift in the distribution of cloud characteristics and the physical processes underlying these changes need further analysis. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Clouds and Radiation Working Group will use a synthesis of NEWS data products, A-Train satellite measurements, reanalysis, and modeling approaches to further explore the differences in the low cloud response to changes in the large-scale forcing, as well as try to understand the physical mechanism driving the observed changes in the low clouds for the 2006/07 and 2009/10 distinct El Niño events. The distributions of cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties over the southeast Pacific will first be compared for these two events using a combination of MODIS, CloudSat/CALIPSO, and CERES data. Satellite and reanalysis estimates of changes in the vertical temperature and moisture profiles, lower tropospheric stability, winds, and surface heat fluxes are then used to identify the drivers for observed differences in the clouds and TOA radiative effects.

  13. Income and nutritional status of the fishing community residing in coastal bay of Bengal: a case study.

    PubMed

    Pal, Baidyanath; Chattopadhyay, Manabendu; Maity, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Barun; Gupta, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    This is part of a project on the disadvantaged, marginalized, vulnerable/weaker section of the population and their survival strategy. The paper presents the results of a survey carried out during 2006-07 with the objective of throwing light on the life and living conditions of an economically weaker community such as 'fishing community' residing in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal in West Bengal and Orissa, India, in the context of global scenario. Various scientists have conducted quite a large number of studies to ascertain the income and nutritional status of people in rural India. Very few attempts, however, have been made to investigate in detail regarding the living standards of some specific communities, which are very often referred to, as the 'weaker section' of the people. The people belonging to fishing community are, by and large, not only economically weak in terms of earning and availability of work, the majority of them are not able to procure the minimum nourishment. The present study shows that some notable elements of living conditions such as food, shelter, health etc. matters much more than the conventional income or calorie deficiency. Commonly, the social scientists equate poverty with income or calorie deficiency which may not be the case as is evident from this study. We have hinted some measures to be undertaken to ameliorate the sufferings of the fishing community.

  14. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2011-06-01

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita , Radiation MeasurementsRMEAEP1350-4487 41, 1080 (2006).10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.07.013]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).APHYEE0927-650510.1016/j.astropartphys.2008.07.007] a little better than DPMJET-III [S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 75, 043005 (2007).10.1103/PhysRevD.75.043005][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 75, 043006 (2007).10.1103/PhysRevD.75.043006]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  15. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation.

  16. Comparison of Home Advantage in College and Professional Team Sports in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (p<0.015). The mean difference was 3.73 home winning percentage points, being greatest for baseball, basketball, and hockey (all p<0.001). Plausible explanations for these results include differences in college and professional competition in terms of familiarity with local conditions, referee bias, territoriality and psychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage.

  17. New risk-adjustment system was associated with reduced favorable selection in medicare advantage.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, J Michael; Hsu, John; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Health plans participating in the Medicare managed care program, called Medicare Advantage since 2003, have historically attracted healthier enrollees than has the traditional fee-for-service program. Medicare Advantage plans have gained financially from this favorable risk selection since their payments have traditionally been adjusted only minimally for clinical characteristics of enrollees, causing overpayment for healthier enrollees and underpayment for sicker ones. As a result, a new risk-adjustment system was phased in from 2004 to 2007, and a lock-in provision instituted to limit midyear disenrollment by enrollees experiencing health declines whose exodus could benefit plans financially. To determine whether these reforms were associated with intended reductions in risk selection, we compared differences in self-reported health care use and health between Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare beneficiaries before versus after these reforms were implemented. We similarly compared differences between those who switched into or out of Medicare Advantage and nonswitchers. Most differences in 2001-03 were substantially narrowed by 2006-07, suggesting reduced selection. Similar risk-adjustment methods may help reduce incentives for plans competing in health insurance exchanges and accountable care organizations to select patients with favorable clinical risks.

  18. Improving medical student attitudes toward older patients through a "council of elders" and reflective writing experience.

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Glenda R; Counsell, Steven R; Sennour, Youcef; Schubert, Cathy C; Frank, Kathryn I; Wu, Jingwei; Frankel, Richard M; Litzelman, Debra K; Bogdewic, Stephen P; Inui, Thomas S

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to reduce "agism" which is prevalent among medical trainees, a new geriatrics educational experience for medical students aimed at improving attitudes toward older patients was developed. Each 90-minute Older Adult Session included four components: initial reflective writing exercise; introduction to the session; 75-minute dialogue with the "Council of Elders," a group of active, "well" older adults; and final reflective writing exercise. The new session was provided to 237 first- and second-year medical students during the 2006/07 academic year at Indiana University School of Medicine. Session evaluation included comparing scores on the 14-item Geriatrics Attitude Scale administered before and after the session, identifying attitude changes in the reflective writing exercises, and a student satisfaction survey. Student responses on the Geriatrics Attitude Scale after the session were significantly improved in seven of 14 items, demonstrating better attitudes toward being with and listening to older people and caring for older patients. Analysis of the reflective writings revealed changing of negative to positive or reinforced positive attitudes in 27% of medical students, with attitudes not discernable in the remaining 73% (except one student, in whom positive attitudes changed to negative). Learner satisfaction with the Older Adult Session was high, with 98% agreeing that the session had a positive effect on insight into the care of older adults. A Council of Elders coupled with a reflective writing exercise is a promising new approach to improving attitudes of medical students toward their geriatric patients.

  19. Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: what female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization.

  20. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  1. Magma at depth: a retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-03-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (<3 km) low-frequency events likely related to glacier activity, as well as deep (>10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  2. Exploring the Potential of a School Impact on Pupil Weight Status: Exploratory Factor Analysis and Repeat Cross-Sectional Study of the National Child Measurement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew James; Wyatt, Katrina M.; Williams, Craig A.; Logan, Stuart; Henley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Schools are common sites for obesity prevention interventions. Although many theories suggest that the school context influences weight status, there has been little empirical research. The objective of this study was to explore whether features of the school context were consistently and meaningfully associated with pupil weight status (overweight or obese). Exploratory factor analysis of routinely collected data on 319 primary schools in Devon, England, was used to identify possible school-based contextual factors. Repeated cross-sectional multilevel analysis of five years (2006/07-2010/11) of data from the National Child Measurement Programme was then used to test for consistent and meaningful associations. Four school-based contextual factors were derived which ranked schools according to deprivation, location, resource and prioritisation of physical activity. None of which were meaningfully and consistently associated with pupil weight status, across the five years. The lack of consistent associations between the factors and pupil weight status suggests that the school context is not inherently obesogenic. In contrast, incorporating findings from education research indicates that schools may be equalising weight status, and obesity prevention research, policy and practice might need to address what is happening outside schools and particularly during the school holidays. PMID:26700027

  3. Predictors of the Existence of Congregational HIV Programs: Similarities and Differences Compared with Other Health Programs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Malcolm V.; Haas, Ann; Griffin, Beth Ann; Fulton, Brad; Kanouse, David E.; Bogart, Laura M.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identify and compare predictors of the existence of congregational HIV and other health programs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting United States. Participants A nationally-representative sample of 1,506 U.S. congregations surveyed in the National Congregations Study (2006-07). Measures Key informants at each congregation completed in-person and telephone interviews on congregational HIV and other health programs and various congregation characteristics (response rate = 78%). County-level HIV prevalence and population health data from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's 2007 County Health Rankings were linked to the congregational data. Analysis Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors that predict congregational health programs relative to no health programs; and of HIV programs relative to other health activities. Results Most congregations (57.5%) had at least one health-related program; many fewer (5.7%) had an HIV program. Predictors of health vs. HIV programs differed. The number of adults in the congregation was a key predictor of health programs, while having an official statement welcoming gay persons was a significant predictor of HIV programs (p<.05). Other significant characteristics varied by size of congregation and type of program (HIV vs. other health). Conclusion Organizations interested in partnering with congregations to promote health or prevent HIV should consider congregational size as well as other factors that predict involvement. Results of this study can inform policy interventions to increase the capacity of religious congregations to address HIV and health. PMID:25162322

  4. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  5. The Great Recession And Increased Cost Sharing In European Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Raffaele; Lee, John Tayu; Hone, Thomas; Filippidis, Filippos T; Millett, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    European health systems are increasingly adopting cost-sharing models, potentially increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for patients who use health care services or buy medications. Government policies that increase patient cost sharing are responding to incremental growth in cost pressures from aging populations and the need to invest in new health technologies, as well as to general constraints on public expenditures resulting from the Great Recession (2007-09). We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to examine changes from 2006-07 to 2013 in out-of-pocket expenditures among people ages fifty and older in eleven European countries. Our results identify increases both in the proportion of older European citizens who incurred out-of-pocket expenditures and in mean out-of-pocket expenditures over this period. We also identified a significant increase over time in the percentage of people who incurred catastrophic health expenditures (greater than 30 percent of the household income) in the Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain. Poorer populations were less likely than those in the highest income quintile to incur an out-of-pocket expenditure and reported lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures, which suggests that measures are in place to provide poorer groups with some financial protection. These findings indicate the substantial weakening of financial protection for people ages fifty and older in European health systems after the Great Recession. PMID:27385235

  6. Fluid Impact as a Source Mechanism for Surf Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Garces, M.; McNamara, S.; Aucan, J.; Merrifield, M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to provide infrasonic estimates of breaking ocean wave height and period in shallow reefs, steep rocky coastlines, and sand beaches has been demonstrated in previous work. Yet defining the source process and isolating the source pressure function remained elusive because of ambiguity introduced by complex coastlines and multiple breaker zones. Due to the steep bathymetry and its proximity to land, the Temae reef in the northeast coast of Moorea island, French Polynesia, provided a well constrained experimental environment where individual breaking waves could be identified and recorded. Synchronous wave height, infrasonic, seismic, and visual recordings of individual waves breaking against the shallow reef ledge were made and correlated. We characterize a possible fluid impact source mechanism for surf infrasound, demonstrate the capability to acoustically track alongshore traveling (peeling) plunging waves, and confirm a relationship between ocean wave height and infrasonic amplitude. Depending on the swell and coastal conditions, estimates of ocean wave period are also possible. We also present preliminary results on near-real-time remote infrasonic monitoring of the surf zone on the North Shore of Oahu, Hawaii, during the 2006-07 Winter high surf season.

  7. Early diffusion of gene expression profiling in breast cancer patients associated with areas of high income inequality.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ninez A; Ko, Michelle; Liang, Su-Ying; Armstrong, Joanne; Toscano, Michele; Chanfreau-Coffinier, Catherine; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-04-01

    With the Affordable Care Act reducing coverage disparities, social factors could prominently determine where and for whom innovations first diffuse in health care markets. Gene expression profiling is a potentially cost-effective innovation that guides chemotherapy decisions in early-stage breast cancer, but adoption has been uneven across the United States. Using a sample of commercially insured women, we evaluated whether income inequality in metropolitan areas was associated with receipt of gene expression profiling during its initial diffusion in 2006-07. In areas with high income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was higher than elsewhere, but it was associated with a 10.6-percentage-point gap between high- and low-income women. In areas with low rates of income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was lower, with no significant differences by income. Even among insured women, income inequality may indirectly shape diffusion of gene expression profiling, with benefits accruing to the highest-income patients in the most unequal places. Policies reducing gene expression profiling disparities should address low-inequality areas and, in unequal places, practice settings serving low-income patients.

  8. Comparison of Home Advantage in College and Professional Team Sports in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (p<0.015). The mean difference was 3.73 home winning percentage points, being greatest for baseball, basketball, and hockey (all p<0.001). Plausible explanations for these results include differences in college and professional competition in terms of familiarity with local conditions, referee bias, territoriality and psychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage. PMID:26898053

  9. Diet of a piscivorous seabird reveals spatiotemporal variation in abundance of forage fishes in the Monterey Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Lisa A.; Harvey, James T.

    2015-06-01

    Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) diet was investigated using regurgitated pellets (n = 285) collected on 19 sampling days at three locations during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 nonbreeding seasons in the Monterey Bay region. The efficacy of using nested sieves and the all-structure technique to facilitate prey detection in the pellets was evaluated, but this method did not increase prey enumeration and greatly decreased efficiency. Although 29 prey species were consumed, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) dominated and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus) also was important in the diet. Few rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) and market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) were consumed compared with great prevalence in previous studies during the 1970s. El Niño and La Niña during the study provided a unique opportunity to examine predator response to variation in prey availability. Patterns of prey number and diversity were not consistent among locations. Greatest number and diversity of prey occurred at locations within Monterey Bay during La Niña, results not evident at the outer coast location. Short-term specialization occurred but mean prey diversity indicated a generalist feeding mode. This study demonstrated the importance of periodic sampling at multiple locations within a region to detect spatiotemporal variability in the diet of opportunistic generalists.

  10. Design of a Web Page as a complement of educative innovation through MOODLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendiola Ubillos, M. A.; Aguado Cortijo, Pedro L.

    2010-05-01

    In the context of Information Technology to impart knowledge and to establish MOODLE system as a support and complementary tool to on-site educational methodology (b-learning) a Web Page was designed in Agronomic and Food Industry Crops (Plantas de interés Agroalimentario) during 2006-07 course. This web was inserted in the Thecnical University of Madrid (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid) computer system to facilitate to the students the first contact with the contents of this subject. In this page the objectives and methodology, personal work planning, subject program given plus the activities are showed. At another web site, the evaluation criteria and recommended bibliography are located. The objective of this web page has been to make more transparent and accessible the necessary information in the learning process and presenting it in a more attractive frame. This page has been update and modified in each academic course offered since its first implementation. We had added in some cases new specific links to increase its useful. At the end of each course a test is applied to the students that take this subject. We have asked which elements would like to modify, delete and add to this web page. In this way the direct users give their point of view and help to improve the web page each course.

  11. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2006-01-01

    In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods

  12. Stable or dynamic(?) East Antarctic Ice Sheet during warm paleoclimates: new aerogeophysical perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Jordan, T.; Armadillo, E.; Hill, D.; Hindmarsh, R.; Haywood, A.; Bozzo, E.; John, S.; Caneva, G.; Robinson, C.

    2007-12-01

    Boundary conditions for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) such as subglacial topography, subglacial hydrology, the distribution of subglacial sediments, heat flux, crustal thickness, lithosphere rigidity, and tectonic structures can assist predictive ice sheet modelling addressing its role for future sea-level change. One of the key areas to assess the past, present and future stability of the EAIS is the Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB), in the backside of the Transantarctic Mountains. Dynamists for the EAIS predict that significant deglaciation occurred perhaps as recently as the Pliocene, allowing for major marine incursion into the WSB. Conversely stabilists have argued that since at least 14 Ma there has been a relatively stable ice sheet. This debate remains highly timely since predictions of the response of the EAIS to current global warming could utilise its past response as a template for the future. A major collaborative UK-Italian aerogeophysical survey was flown over the WSB during the 2005/06 field season to provide new boundary conditions for the EAIS. Over 60,000 line km of new data were collected, including airborne radar, aeromagnetic and airborne gravity. Our new-sub-ice topography significantly changes the previous view of the WSB as a broad shallow depression. Deep subglacial trenches flanked by mountain blocks and plateau-like features are now imaged. These tectonically controlled trenches remain well below sea-level even after isostastic rebound following glacial removal, much like the deep basins underlying highly dynamic ice streams of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The newly determined subglacial topography will be input into preliminary coupled-ice sheet\\paleoclimate models to re-assess the stability of the EAIS. We will also present potential field signatures and preliminary models to tackle the contentious issue of possible sedimentary infill beneath parts of the WSB.

  13. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  14. Rate of decline of forced vital capacity predicts future arterial hypertension: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David R.; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Hearst, Mary O.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Kalhan, Ravi; Rosenberg, Sharon; Smith, Lewis J.; Barr, R. Graham; Duprez, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Lung function studies in middle-aged subjects predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We studied if greater loss of forced vital capacity (FVC) early in life predicted incident hypertension (HTN). The sample was 3205 black and white men and women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study examined between 1985-86 (CARDIA year 0, ages 18-30 years) and 2005-06 and who were not hypertensive by year 10. FVC was assessed at years 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20. Proportional hazard ratios (HR) and linear regression models predicted incident HTN at years 15 or 20 (n=508) from the change in FVC (FVC at year 10 – peak FVC, where peak FVC was estimated as the maximum across years 0, 2, 5 and 10). Covariates included demographics, center, systolic blood pressure, FVC max, smoking, physical activity, asthma and BMI. Unadjusted cumulative incident HTN was 25% in the lowest FVC loss quartile (Q1, median loss=370ml) compared to 12% cumulative incident HTN in those who achieved peak FVC at year 10 (Q4). Minimally adjusted HR for Q1 vs. Q4 was 2.21 (95% CI: 1.73-2.83) and this association remained significant in the fully adjusted model (1.37, 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Decline in FVC from average age at peak (29.4 years) to 35 years old predicted incident hypertension between average ages 35 and 45. The findings may represent a common pathway that may link low normal FVC to cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. PMID:22203738

  15. A paradigm shift in predoctoral dental curricula in Brazil: evaluating the process of change.

    PubMed

    Zilbovicius, Celso; de Araujo, Maria Ercilia; Botazzo, Carlos; Frias, Antônio Carlos; Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Junqueira, Cilene Rennó

    2011-04-01

    In 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Education approved the official curricular guidelines for undergraduate courses in Brazil to be adopted by the nation's 188 dental schools. In 2005-06, the Brazilian Dental Education Association (BDEA) promoted workshops in forty-eight of the schools to verify the degree of transformation of the curriculum based on these guidelines. Among the areas analyzed were course philosophy (variables were v1: knowledge production based on the needs of the Brazilian Public Health System [BPHS]; v2: health determinants; and v3: postgraduate studies and permanent education); pedagogical skills (v4: curricular structure; v5: changes in pedagogic and didactic skills; and v6: course program orientation); and dental practice scenarios (v7: diversity of the scenarios for training/learning; v8: academic health care centers opened to the BPHS; and v9: participation of students in health care delivery for the population). The subjects consisted of faculty members (n=711), students (n=228), and employees (n=14). The results showed an incipient degree of curriculum transformation. The degree of innovation was statistically different depending on the type of university (public or private) for variables 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Private schools reported a higher level of innovation than public institutions. Resistance to transforming the dental curriculum according to the official guidelines may be linked to an ideological conception that supports the private practice model, continues to have faculty members direct all classroom activities, and prevents students from developing an understanding of professional practice as targeted towards the oral health needs of all segments of society. PMID:21460277

  16. Concentrations of radon and its daughter products in and around Bangalore city.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, C; Sannappa, J; Chandrashekara, M S; Paramesh, L

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon and its progeny levels were measured during 2005-06 in Bangalore rural district and in Bangalore City by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD)-based twin cup dosemeters, and the activity of radium present in soils and rocks was measured by using HPGe detector. Fifty dwellings of different types were chosen for the measurement. The dosimeters containing the detector (LR-115 Type II Film) used in each house were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 90 days, films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon were evaluated. The value of radon concentration in the indoor air near granite quarries varies from 55 to 300 Bq.m(-3) with a median of 155 Bq.m(-3) and its progeny varies from 0.24 to 19.6 mWL with a median of 8.4 mWL. In Bangalore City, the concentration of radon varies from 18.4 to 110 Bq.m(-3) with a median of 45 Bq.m(-3) and its progeny varies from 1.62 to 11.24 mWL with a median of 4.15 mWL. Higher concentrations of radon and its progeny were observed in granite quarries compared with Bangalore City. The main reason for the higher indoor radon and its progeny concentration is due to the mining activity and the types of the bedrock. The concentration of radon mainly depends on the activity of radium present in soils and rocks and the types of building materials used. The activity of radium varies in granitic regions of Bangalore rural district from 42.0 to 163.6 Bq.kg(-1) with a median of 112.8 Bq.kg(-1). The concentrations of indoor radon and its daughter products and equivalent effective dose are discussed.

  17. Hydrological classification of natural flow regimes to support environmental flow assessments in intensively regulated Mediterranean rivers, Segura River Basin (Spain).

    PubMed

    Belmar, Oscar; Velasco, Josefa; Martinez-Capel, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hydrological classification constitutes the first step of a new holistic framework for developing regional environmental flow criteria: the "Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)". The aim of this study was to develop a classification for 390 stream sections of the Segura River Basin based on 73 hydrological indices that characterize their natural flow regimes. The hydrological indices were calculated with 25 years of natural monthly flows (1980/81-2005/06) derived from a rainfall-runoff model developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Public Works. These indices included, at a monthly or annual basis, measures of duration of droughts and central tendency and dispersion of flow magnitude (average, low and high flow conditions). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated high redundancy among most hydrological indices, as well as two gradients: flow magnitude for mainstream rivers and temporal variability for tributary streams. A classification with eight flow-regime classes was chosen as the most easily interpretable in the Segura River Basin, which was supported by ANOSIM analyses. These classes can be simplified in 4 broader groups, with different seasonal discharge pattern: large rivers, perennial stable streams, perennial seasonal streams and intermittent and ephemeral streams. They showed a high degree of spatial cohesion, following a gradient associated with climatic aridity from NW to SE, and were well defined in terms of the fundamental variables in Mediterranean streams: magnitude and temporal variability of flows. Therefore, this classification is a fundamental tool to support water management and planning in the Segura River Basin. Future research will allow us to study the flow alteration-ecological response relationship for each river type, and set the basis to design scientifically credible environmental flows following the ELOHA framework.

  18. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584

  19. Paralytic shellfish poisoning due to ingestion of Gymnodinium catenatum contaminated cockles--application of the AOAC HPLC official method.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana Margarida; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mestre, Tiago; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Coelho, Miguel; Peralta, Rita; Vale, Paulo

    2012-04-01

    The potent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum have appeared irregularly since the onset in 1986 of a monitoring program aimed at preventing contaminated bivalves from the Portuguese coast to reaching the consumer. In years where high contamination levels were attained, sporadic episodes of human poisonings were also recorded, as in 1994. The reappearance of high contamination led to the appearance of new cases during 2007. This study reports details of toxin ingestion, symptomatology and toxin presence in the fluids of one of these victims, an adult male who ingested several kilograms of cockles. In cockle samples collected the week before and during the week when the intoxication took place, the major PSTs detected by the HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 belonged to the sulfamate (81-68 molar percent) and decarbamoyl groups (19-32 molar percent), comprising GTX5, GTX6, C1,2, C3,4, dcNeo, and dcSTX. In the patient urine sample sulfamate and decarbamoyl derivatives were also found, comprising by GTX5 (28%), GTX6 (25%), dcSTX (24%) and dcNeo (22%), but no C toxins and no dcGTX2,3 were detected. Compared to the cockle samples, there was an increase in the proportion of dcSTX, dcNeo and GTX5 (molar percentage) in the urine sample, but not of GTX6. Overall, compounds which had the presence of an O-sulfate at C11 were absent in urine while being relatively abundant in the bivalve (36.5-47.0 molar percent). In blood plasma PSTs were not detected.

  20. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG').

  1. Interlaboratory comparison of two AOAC liquid chromatographic fluorescence detection methods for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis through characterization of an oyster reference material.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Rourke, Wade A; Higman, Wendy A

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory ring trial was designed and conducted by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Science to investigate a range of issues affecting the analysis of a candidate Pacific oyster paralytic shellfish toxin reference material. A total of 21 laboratories participated in the study and supplied results using one or more of three instrumental methods, specifically precolumn oxidation (Pre-COX) LC with fluorescence detection (FLD; AOAC Official Method 2005.06), postcolumn oxidation (PCOX) LC-FLD (AOAC Official Method 2011.02), and hydrophilic interaction LC/MS/MS. Each participant analyzed nine replicate samples of the oyster tissue in three separate batches of three samples over a period of time longer than 1 week. Results were reported in a standardized format, reporting both individual toxin concentrations and total sample toxicity. Data were assessed to determine the equivalency of the two AOAC LC methods and the LC/MS/MS method as well as an assessment of intrabatch and interbatch repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility of each method. Differences among the results reported using the three methods were shown to be statistically significant, although visual comparisons showed an overlap between results generated by the majority of tests, the exception being the Pre-COX quantitation of N-hydroxylated toxins in post ion-exchange fractions. Intralaboratory repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility were acceptable for most of the results, with the exception of results generated from fractions. The results provided good evidence for the acceptable performance of the PCOX method for the quantitation of C toxins. Overall the study showed the usefulness of interlaboratory analysis for the characterization of paralytic shellfish poisoning matrix reference materials, highlighting some issues that may need to be addressed with further method assessment at individual participant laboratories.

  2. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues.

  3. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues. PMID:26120091

  4. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  5. Microbial colonization of post eruptive vents on the EPR at 9N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetriani, C.

    2008-12-01

    The overarching goal of this project is to understand the role of microbial colonists at newly formed vents as "mediators" in the transfer of energy from the geothermal source to the higher trophic levels, and their role in altering fluid chemistry and in "conditioning" the vent environment for metazoans to settle. Following the 2005-06 volcanic eruption along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) ridge crest between 9°N and 9°N, we had several opportunities to investigate the microbial colonization of the post-eruptive vents: in 2006 (about six months after the eruption), in January 2007 (one year after the eruption), and in December 2007/January 2008 (two years after the eruption). In order to investigate microbial colonization, we designed and deployed several experimental microbial colonizers on active diffuse flow vents characterized by different temperatures (approximate range 20-60°C) chemical (different redox conditions), and biological (e.g., presence or absence of metazoan colonists) regimes. Analyses of the 16S rRNA and fuctional gene transcripts from the colonizing communities indicated that Epsilonproteobacteria represented the dominant and active fraction of the chemosynthetic early microbial colonists, and that they expressed in-situ the genes involved in carbon dioxide fixation and nitrate respiration. However, data from our semi quantitative culture experiments indicated that Epsilonproteobacteria were not the only microorganisms that attached to basalts or to the experimental colonizers during the early phases of colonization. Sulfur dependent, chemosynthetic members of the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria were isolated from up to 10-5 dilutions of original samples along with heterotrophic Gammaproteobacteria capable of growth on n-alkanes as their sole carbon source. We propose a model that links the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids to the colonization of newly formed vents and suggests a role for chemosynthetic and heterotrophic bacteria in the

  6. Survey of u.s. Human research protection organizations: workload and membership.

    PubMed

    Catania, Joseph A; Lo, Bernard; Wolf, Leslie E; Dolcini, M Margaret; Pollack, Lance M; Barker, Judith C; Wertlieb, Stacey; Henne, Jeff

    2008-12-01

    IN A NATIONAL SURVEY OF INSTITUTIONS with federally assured human research protection programs, we obtained workload and other relevant data on their Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and management organizations. The number of IRBs increased substantially from 1995 to 2005/06 (491 to 2,728 IRBs) with a further increase in 2008 to 3,853 IRBs. Nationally, IRBs reviewed over a quarter million research applications in the year prior to our survey, of which 35% were new applications requiring full committee review. Compared to estimates from 1995, current IRBs review more new and full committee review applications, but the relative percentage of new and full committee applications remained about the same. High volume research institutions have IRBs with a substantially larger per person workload, relative to smaller volume IRBs (i.e., members spent nearly seven times more hours reviewing new applications outside formal committee meetings). Virtually all IRBs included community representatives as members (92%); however, a small number may not be compliant with federal regulations. The present findings suggest the need for research to (a) examine workload and its effects on review quality, research costs, and faculty morale, (b) develop methods for determining optimal fit between IRB workload demands and institutional labor and financing requirements, (c) construct benchmarks for judging reasonable workload for individual IRB members, and (d) examine if the need to recruit IRB scientific expertise from outside the institution, particularly true for smaller research institutions, causes delays in IRB review, and if a more effective way of locating and recruiting experts would improve quality and time to completion.

  7. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  8. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  9. Functional disability and compromised mobility among older women with urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Hanissian, Paul D.; Strohbehn, Kris; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Fried, Terri R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the prevalence of functional disability among older women with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP). Daily UI was defined as answering “daily” to the question, “How frequently...have you had difficulty controlling your bladder, including leaking small amounts of urine, leaking when you cough or sneeze, or not being able to make it to the bathroom on time?” We then explored functional status. Women were asked about seven basic activities of daily living (ADLs). Statistical analyses with percentage estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between functional status and daily UI. Results In total, 1,412 women were included in our analysis. Daily UI was reported by 177 (12.5%) women. Functional dependence or disability with any ADLs was reported in 62.1% (95% CI 54.2%, 70.1%) of women with daily UI. Among women with daily UI, 23.6% (95% CI 16.8%, 30.5%) reported specific difficulty or dependence with using the toilet signifying functional limitations which may contribute to urine leakage. After adjusting for age category, race/ethnicity, education level, and parity, women with daily UI had 3.31 increased odds of functional difficulty or dependence compared with continent older women. Conclusion Over 60% of older women with daily UI reported functional difficulty or dependence and 1/4 of women with daily UI specifically reported difficulty or dependence with using the toilet. PMID:25185600

  10. Revised East-West Antarctic plate motions since the Middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J.; Damaske, D.

    2010-12-01

    The middle Cenozoic (43-26 Ma) rifting between East and West Antarctica is defined by an episode of ultraslow seafloor spreading in the Adare Basin, located off northwestern Ross Sea. The absence of fracture zones and the lack of sufficient well-located magnetic anomaly picks have resulted in a poorly constrained kinematic model (Cande et al., 2000). Here we utilize the results from a dense aeromagnetic survey (Damaske et al., 2007) collected as part of GANOVEX IX 2005/06 campaign to re-evaluate the kinematics of the West Antarctic rift system since the Middle Eocene. We identify marine magnetic anomalies (anomalies 12o, 13o, 16y, and 18o) along a total of 25,000 km of the GPS navigated magnetic profiles. The continuation of these anomalies into the Northern Basin has allowed us to use the entire N-S length of this dataset in our calculations. A distinct curvature in the orientation of the spreading axis provides a strong constraint on our calculated kinematic models. The results from two- (East-West Antarctica) and three- (Australia-East Antarctica-West Antarctica) plate solutions agree well and create a cluster of rotation axes located south of the rift system, near the South Pole. These solutions reveal that spreading rate and direction, and therefore motion between East and West Antarctica, were steady between the Middle Eocene and Early Oligocene. Our kinematic solutions confirm the results of Davey and De Santis (2005) that the Victoria Land Basin has accommodated ~95 km of extension since the Middle Eocene. This magnetic pattern also provides valuable constraints on the post-spreading deformation of the Adare Basin (Granot et al., 2010). The Adare Basin has accommodated very little extension since the Late Oligocene (<7 km), but motion has probably increased southward. The details of this younger phase of motion are still crudely constrained.

  11. Microbial Community Structure in Hydrothermal Plumes of the Galapagos Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, M. B.; Haymon, R.; Valentine, D. L.; Carlson, C.; Resing, J.; Baker, E.; Lebon, G.; Walker, S.; Ehrhardt, C.; Swan, B.

    2006-12-01

    Prior studies indicate that prokaryotes affect the chemical evolution of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes and nourish higher trophic levels in and above plumes. A few studies of microbial community composition within hydrothermal plumes have been undertaken, but it is unknown how plume microbial community structure varies geographically, or how it relates to chemical composition of plumes. To investigate microbial diversity in plumes, we collected a suite of 60 filtered water samples along a 300 nautical-mile section of the Galapagos Spreading Center during the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS Expedition. Samples were collected within and outside of plumes from both high and low temperature hydrothermal environments at varying stages of maturity. These samples were collected in parallel with measurements and samples taken for physical and chemical characterization of plumes. Initial work with the microbial samples focuses on characterizing community fingerprints from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene amplified from both Bacteria and Archaea. Preliminary investigation of a vertical cast through a plume in the Iguanas Vent Field (located at lat./long. 2.10428/-91.9356) suggest there are distinct microbial groups that exist throughout the vertical profile, other groups that are only present within the plume, and certain groups that are only found outside of the plume. Preliminary results also suggest that there are changes in overall diversity patterns within and outside of the plume. Further work is in progress to verify and expand on these initial results. This suite of Galapagos samples promises new insights into biogeochemical cycles of vent- influenced areas of the deep-sea.

  12. Parents’ Support and Knowledge of Their Daughters’ Lives and Females’ Early Sexual Initiation in Nine European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Context The association between early sexual initiation and parenting practices (e.g., support and knowledge) has not been tested in multiple European population-based samples using the same instrument. Methods Data provided by females (age 14-16) participating in the 2005-06 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey conducted in Austria, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Lithuania, Romania, Spain and Ukraine were used (n=7,466). The dependent variable was early sexual initiation (<16). The main independent variables were maternal and paternal support and knowledge of daily activities. Univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were run with standard error corrections and weights. Results Prevalence of early sexual initiation ranged from a low of 7% (Romania) to a high of 35% (Iceland). In bivariate analyses, maternal and paternal support were significantly negatively related to adolescent females’ early sexual initiation in a majority of countries. In models with demographic controls, parental support was significantly negatively related to early sexual initiation (AOR = 0.80 maternal, 0.74 paternal). After adding parental knowledge, early sexual initiation was no longer associated with parental support, but was significantly negatively related to parental knowledge (AOR = 0.69 maternal and paternal). These patterns held across countries. Conclusions Negative associations between parental support and early initiation were largely explained by parental knowledge, suggesting either that knowledge is more important than support or that knowledge mediates the association between support and early initiation. Providers should counsel parents regarding the importance of knowledge of their daughters’ daily lives, which may be enhanced through developing supportive relationships. PMID:22958661

  13. Assessment of a semiquantitative liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin levels in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Baker, Clothilde; Algoet, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 2005.06 precolumn oxidation LC-fluorescence detection method has been used for many years for the detection and quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs. After extensive single- and multiple-laboratory validation, the method has been slowly gaining acceptance worldwide as a useful and practical tool for official control testing. In Great Britain, the method has become routine since 2008, with no requirement since then for reverting back to the bioassay reference method. Although the method has been refined to be semiautomated, faster, and more reproducible, the quantitation step can be complex and time-consuming. An alternative approach was developed to utilize the qualitative screening results for generating a semiquantitative results assessment. Data obtained over 5 years enabled the comparison of semiquantitative and fully quantitative PSP results in over 15 000 shellfish samples comprising eight different species showed that the semiquantitative approach resulted in over-estimated paralytic shellfish toxin levels by an average factor close to two in comparison with the fully quantified levels. No temporal trends were observed in the data or relating to species type, with the exception of surf clams. The comparison suggested a semiquantitative threshold of 800 microg saxitoxin (STX) eq/kg should provide a safe limit for the determination of samples to be forwarded to full quantitation. However, the decision was taken to halve this limit to include an additional safety factor of 2, resulting in the use of a semiquantitative threshold of 400 microg STX eq/kg. Implementation of the semiquantitative method into routine testing would result in a significant reduction in the numbers of samples requiring quantitation and have a positive impact on the overall turnaround of reported PSP results. The refined method would be appropriate for any monitoring laboratory faced with high throughput requirements.

  14. Joint Seismological and Geodetic Observations on David Glacier, South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danesi, S.; Dubbini, M.; Morelli, A.; Vittuari, L.; Bannister, S.

    2006-12-01

    Ice streams play a major role in the ice mass balance and in the reckoning of the global sea level; they have therefore been the object of wide scientific interest in the last three decades. During the 21st Italian Antarctic Expedition, in the austral summer 2005-06, we deployed a joint seismographic and geodetic network in the area of the David Glacier, Southern Victoria Land. This followed a similar experiment carried out in the same area during the austral summer 2003-04 (19th Expedition) which involved the deployment of a seismographic network which recorded significant microseismicity beneath the David Glacier, primarily occurring as a few small clusters. In the latest 2006-06 deployment 7 seismographic stations and 3 GPS geodetic receivers operated continuously for a period of 3 months (November 2006-early February 2006) in an area of about 100x50 square km around the David Glacier. The seismic stations were sited on rocky outcrops around the ice flow, and were all equipped with a broad-band seismometer and a digitizer. Contemporaneous geodetic GPS measurements were made on two points located on the glacial body: the first site close to the 2003-04 epicentres and to the David Glacier ice fall, the second site on the floating Drygalski Ice Tongue. A primary master GPS receiver for the kinematic processing was installed on a benchmark located on the Hughes Bluff rock outcrop. Several analyses are planned utilising the combined data sets. These include examining the temporal evolution in earthquake magnitude and locations and also the contemporaneous observation of both seismic activity and surface kinematics of the ice stream to possibly correlate the registered microseismicity with potential surges of the glacier, eventually affected by the Ross Sea tides. Here we present some details of the two temporary networks and preliminary results and implications.

  15. Reconsidering the Sedentary Behaviour Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Carol; Olds, Tim; Mire, Emily; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes) were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. Results Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = −0.06) and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04). Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08–0.30) while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12). Conclusion There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity. PMID:24454968

  16. A paradigm shift in predoctoral dental curricula in Brazil: evaluating the process of change.

    PubMed

    Zilbovicius, Celso; de Araujo, Maria Ercilia; Botazzo, Carlos; Frias, Antônio Carlos; Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Junqueira, Cilene Rennó

    2011-04-01

    In 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Education approved the official curricular guidelines for undergraduate courses in Brazil to be adopted by the nation's 188 dental schools. In 2005-06, the Brazilian Dental Education Association (BDEA) promoted workshops in forty-eight of the schools to verify the degree of transformation of the curriculum based on these guidelines. Among the areas analyzed were course philosophy (variables were v1: knowledge production based on the needs of the Brazilian Public Health System [BPHS]; v2: health determinants; and v3: postgraduate studies and permanent education); pedagogical skills (v4: curricular structure; v5: changes in pedagogic and didactic skills; and v6: course program orientation); and dental practice scenarios (v7: diversity of the scenarios for training/learning; v8: academic health care centers opened to the BPHS; and v9: participation of students in health care delivery for the population). The subjects consisted of faculty members (n=711), students (n=228), and employees (n=14). The results showed an incipient degree of curriculum transformation. The degree of innovation was statistically different depending on the type of university (public or private) for variables 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Private schools reported a higher level of innovation than public institutions. Resistance to transforming the dental curriculum according to the official guidelines may be linked to an ideological conception that supports the private practice model, continues to have faculty members direct all classroom activities, and prevents students from developing an understanding of professional practice as targeted towards the oral health needs of all segments of society.

  17. Parasite diversity as an indicator of environmental change? An example from tropical grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) mariculture in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palm, H W; Kleinertz, S; Rückert, S

    2011-11-01

    Fish parasites are used to monitor long-term change in finfish grouper mariculture in Indonesia. A total of 210 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus were sampled in six consecutive years between 2003/04 and 2008/09 and examined for parasites. The fish were obtained from floating net cages of a commercially run mariculture facility that opened in 2001. The fauna was species rich, consisting of ten ecto- and 18 endoparasite species. The ectoparasite diversity and composition was relatively stable, with the monogeneans Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. (83-100% prevalence, Berger-Parker Index of 0·82-0·97) being the predominant taxon. Tetraphyllidean larvae Scolex pleuronectis and the nematodes Terranova sp. and Raphidascaris sp. 1 were highly abundant in 2003/04-2005/06 (max. prevalence S. pleuronectis 40%, Terranova sp. 57%, Raphidascaris sp. 1 100%), and drastically reduced until 2008/09. These parasites together with the prevalence of Trichodina spp., ecto-/endoparasite ratio and endoparasite diversity illustrate a significant change in holding conditions over the years. This can be either referred to a definite change in management methods such as feed use and fish treatment, or a possible transition of a relatively undisturbed marine environment into a more affected habitat. By visualizing all parameters within a single diagram, we demonstrate that fish parasites are useful bioindicators to monitor long-term change in Indonesian grouper mariculture. This also indicates that groupers can be used to monitor environmental change in the wild. Further taxonomic and systematic efforts in less sampled regions significantly contributes to this new application, supporting fish culture and environmental impact monitoring also in other tropical marine habitats.

  18. Molecular characterization of rotavirus strains from pre- and post-vaccination periods in a country with low vaccination coverage: the case of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Steyer, Andrej; Sagadin, Martin; Kolenc, Marko; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2014-12-01

    Rotavirus vaccination started in Slovenia in 2007 on a voluntarily basis. The vaccination rate is relatively low (up to 27%) and no increasing trend is observed. We present rotavirus genotype distribution among children hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis in Slovenia. Eight consecutive rotavirus seasons were followed, from 2005/06 to 2012/13, and 113 strains of the most common rotavirus genotypes were randomly selected for molecular characterization of rotavirus VP7 and VP4 (VP8(∗)) genome segments. During the vaccine introduction period, from 2007 to 2013, rotavirus genotype prevalences changed, with G1P[8] decreasing from 74.1% to 8.7% between 2007/08 and 2010/11 seasons, replaced by G4P[8] and G2P[4], with up to 52.0% prevalence. Comparable analysis of VP7 and VP8(∗) genome fragments within G1P[8] genotype lineages revealed considerable differences for rotavirus strains circulating before and during the vaccination period. The G1P[8] rotavirus strains from the pre-vaccination period clustered in a phylogenetic tree within Rotarix®-like VP7 and VP8(∗) lineages. However, since 2007, the majority of G1P[8] strains have shifted to distant genetic lineages with lower nucleotide (88.1-94.0% for VP7 and 86.6-91.1% for VP8(∗)) and amino acid (93.8-95.2% for VP7 and 85.3-94.6% for VP8(∗)) identities to the vaccine Rotarix® strain. This change also resulted in a different deduced amino acid profile at the major VP7 and VP8(∗) antigenic epitopes.

  19. The Brustkrebs-Studien.de website for breast cancer patients: User acceptance of a German internet portal offering information on the disease and treatment options, and a clinical trials matching service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The internet portal http://www.brustkrebs-studien.de (BKS) was launched in 2000 by the German Society of Senology (DGS) and the Baden-Württemberg Institute for Women's Health (IFG) to provide expert-written information on breast cancer online and to encourage and facilitate the participation of breast cancer patients in clinical trials. We describe the development of BKS and its applications, and report on website statistics and user acceptance. Methods Existing registries, including ClinicalTrials.gov, were analysed before we designed BKS, which combines a trial registry, a knowledge portal, and an online second opinion service. An advisory board guided the process. Log files and patient enquiries for trial participation and second opinions were analysed. A two-week user satisfaction survey was conducted online. Results During 10/2005-06/2010, the portal attracted 702,655 visitors, generating 15,507,454 page views. By 06/2010, the website's active scientific community consisted of 189 investigators and physicians, and the registry covered 163 clinical trial protocols. In 2009, 143 patients requested trial enrolment and 119 sought second opinions or individual treatment advice from the expert panel. During the two-week survey in 2008, 5,702 BKS visitors submitted 507 evaluable questionnaires. Portal acceptance was high. Respondents trusted information correctness (80%), welcomed self-matching to clinical trials (79%) and planned to use the portal in the future (76%) and recommend it to others (81%). Conclusions BKS is an established and trusted breast cancer information platform offering up-to-date resources and protocols to the growing physician and patient community to encourage participation in clinical trials. Further studies are needed to assess potential increases in trial enrolment by eligibility matching services. PMID:21126358

  20. Effect of folic acid fortification on the incidence of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Amarin, Zouhair O; Obeidat, Ahmed Z

    2010-07-01

    In a few countries enriched cereal grains have been fortified with folic acid to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of folic acid fortified foods on the incidence of neural tube defects in live newborns at Princess Badea Teaching Hospital, in the north of Jordan, before and after the national food fortification with folic acid was implemented. For the 7-year period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2006, we retrospectively extracted the total number of births at Princess Badea Hospital, as well as the number of pregnancies affected by spina bifida and anencephaly, per 1000 births during the periods before (2000-01), during (2002-04) and after (2005-06) folic acid fortification of grain products, was implemented. Neural tube defects were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10): anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. A total of 78 subjects with neural tube defects were recorded among 61 447 births during the study period. The incidence of neural tube defects decreased from 1.85 per 1000 births before fortification [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 2.4] to 1.07 per 1000 births during the fortification period [95% CI 0.7, 1.5], and 0.95 after full fortification [95% CI 0.5, 1.5], a 49% reduction. The difference between incidence of neural tube defects in the periods before and after food fortification with folic acid was statistically significant. We conclude that food fortification with folic acid was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of neural tube defects in north Jordan.

  1. Improving the Accuracy of the AFWA-NASA (ANSA) Blended Snow-Cover Product over the Lower Great Lakes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Kumar, Sujay; Chien, Janety Y. L.; Riggs, George A.

    2012-01-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) -- NASA blended snow-cover product, called ANSA, utilizes Earth Observing System standard snow products from the Moderate- Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) to map daily snow cover and snow-water equivalent (SWE) globally. We have compared ANSA-derived SWE with SWE values calculated from snow depths reported at 1500 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) co-op stations in the Lower Great Lakes Basin. Compared to station data, the ANSA significantly underestimates SWE in densely-forested areas. We use two methods to remove some of the bias observed in forested areas to reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the ANSA- and station-derived SWE. First, we calculated a 5- year mean ANSA-derived SWE for the winters of 2005-06 through 2009-10, and developed a five-year mean bias-corrected SWE map for each month. For most of the months studied during the five-year period, the 5-year bias correction improved the agreement between the ANSA-derived and station-derived SWE. However, anomalous months such as when there was very little snow on the ground compared to the 5-year mean, or months in which the snow was much greater than the 5-year mean, showed poorer results (as expected). We also used a 7-day running mean (7DRM) bias correction method using days just prior to the day in question to correct the ANSA data. This method was more effective in reducing the RMSE between the ANSA- and co-op-derived SWE values, and in capturing the effects of anomalous snow conditions.

  2. Modeling winter rainfall in Northwest India using a hidden Markov model: understanding occurrence of different states and their dynamical connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Indrani; Robertson, Andrew W.; Lall, Upmanu; Cane, Mark A.

    2015-02-01

    A multiscale-modeling framework for daily rainfall is considered and diagnostic results are presented for an application to the winter season in Northwest India. The daily rainfall process is considered to follow a hidden Markov model (HMM), with the hidden states assumed to be an unknown random function of slowly varying climatic modulation of the winter jet stream and moisture transport dynamics. The data used are from 14 stations over Satluj River basin in winter (December-January-February-March). The period considered is 1977/78-2005/06. The HMM identifies four discrete weather states, which are used to describe daily rainfall variability over study region. Each state was found to be associated with a distinct atmospheric circulation pattern, with the driest and drier states, State 1 and 2 respectively, characterized by a lack of synoptic wave activity. In contrast, the wetter and wettest states, States 3 and 4 respectively, are characterized by a zonally oriented wave train extending across Eurasia between 20N and 40N, identified with `western disturbances' (WD). The occurrence of State 4 is strongly conditioned by the El Nino and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomena in winter, which is demonstrated using large-scale correlation maps based on mean sea level pressure and sea surface temperature. This suggests that there is a tendency of higher frequency of the wet days and intense WD activities in winter during El Nino and positive IOD years. These findings, derived from daily rainfall station records, help clarify the sequence of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude storms bringing winter rainfall over Northwest India, and their association with potentially predictable low frequency modes on seasonal time scales and longer.

  3. Trends in tooth loss in relation to socio-economic status among Swedish women, aged 38 and 50 years: repeated cross-sectional surveys 1968-2004

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral diseases are a health problem worldwide. Differences in oral health status may vary with geographical locations, but also within the same country and between groups with different social backgrounds. The specific aims were to describe secular trends in oral health status regarding number of remaining teeth and also to describe differences in socio-economic status, among 38- and 50-year-old women, over a 36-year period. Methods Cross-sectional health surveys were performed at four occasions; 1968/69 (n = 746), 1980/81 (n = 532), 1992/93 (n = 165) and 2004/05 (n = 500), including randomly selected women aged 38 and 50 years. The number of teeth was determined using panoramic radiographs and self-reported measures of marital status, social class, educational level, and income were recorded. Results The mean number of teeth among women has increased significantly. The educational level has increased while fewer women are married/cohabiting over time. There has been a shift in the social group the women belong to, where proportionally more women were categorized in a higher social group in 2004/05 than in 1968/69. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between fewer teeth and a lower social group, and among the 50-year-old women, this was irrespective of examination year. However, multivariate analyses showed that the risk to be edentulous or not, or to have fewer remaining teeth was significantly higher for women of lower social group, or living alone, in all studies over the 36 year-period. This was independent of age group, even though the risk diminished over the study period. Conclusions Cohort comparisons of women aged 38 and 50 years during 36 years showed that dental status improved, with (i) a decreasing prevalence of edentulism and, (ii) an increasing number of remaining teeth in dentate individuals over time. Differences due to social group and education were still present, with more remaining teeth in the women in

  4. Hidden Variables and Placebo Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2006-03-01

    God's response to prayers and placebo leads to a question. How does He respond deterministically? He may be controlling at least one of the two variables of the uncertainty principle by extending His invisible soul to each body particle locally. Amazingly, many Vedic verses support this answer. One describes the size of the soul as arithmetically matching the size of the nucleons as if a particle is a soul. One gives a name meaning particle soul (anu-atma), consistent with particle's indeterministic behavior like that of (soulful) bird’s flying in any directions irrespective of the direction of throw. One describes souls as eternal consistent with the conservation of baryon number. One links the souls to the omnipresent (param- atma) like Einstein Rosen bridges link particles to normal spacetime. One claims eternal coexistence of matter and soul as is inflationary universe in physics/0210040 V2. The implicit scientific consistency of such verses makes the relationship of particle source of consciousness to the omnipresent Supreme analogous to the relationship of quantum source of gravitons in my gr-qc/0507130 to normal spacetime This frees us from the postulation of quantum wormholes and quantum foam. Dr. Hooft's view in ``Does God play dice,'' Physicsword, Dec 2005 seems consistent with my progressive conference presentations in Russia, Europe, India, and USA (Hindu University) in 2004/05. I see implications for nanoscience.

  5. Correlations of CCN Concentrations With Small Cumuli Droplet and Drizzle Drop Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, S.; Hudson, J. G.; Jha, V.

    2008-12-01

    Aircraft field measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud microphysics in maritime air masses during the RICO project, December-January, 2004-05 showed ubiquitous influence of CCN. Flight averages of CCN concentrations and cloud droplet and drizzle drop concentrations were examined for as many as 17 flights. CCN concentrations at only one supersaturation (S) of 1% measured at 100m altitude were compared with cloud droplet and drizzle drop concentrations at six altitude ranges between 600 and 3000m. Consistently high positive correlations (R) were found with total and small cumulative cloud droplet concentrations over all altitudes. These high R values also persisted for cloud parcels with a wide range of liquid water contents (LWC) most of which were far below adiabatic (unmixed) values. For all but the lowest LWC parcels, R was essentially constant. There was an even more consistent negative R between CCN and large cloud droplet and drizzle drop concentrations. There was a consistently sharp droplet size transition from large positive R to just as large negative R that increased with altitude and LWC. Entrainment did show an opposite effect on R but this was only apparent at the highest altitudes where entrainment was greatest and only for the smallest droplet sizes. These results indicate that the effect of CCN concentrations on cloud microphysics was pervasive with altitude, LWC, cloud droplet and drizzle drop concentrations. This indicates greater impact of the indirect aerosol effect (IAE) in both of its manifestations; First IAE (cloud radiation), and Second IAE (precipitation).

  6. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season.

  7. Sensitivity to Madden-Julian Oscillation variations on heavy precipitation over the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila M. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent mode of tropical intraseasonal variability in the climate system and has worldwide influences on the occurrences and forecasts of heavy precipitation. This paper investigates the sensitivity of precipitation over the contiguous United States (CONUS) in a case study (boreal 2004-05 winter). Several major storms affected the western and eastern CONUS producing substantial economic and social impacts including loss of lives. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to perform experiments to test the significance of the MJO amplitude. The control simulation uses the MJO amplitude observed by reanalysis, whereas the amplitude is modified in perturbation experiments. WRF realistically simulates the precipitation variability over the CONUS, although large biases occur over the Western and Midwest United States. Daily precipitation is aggregated in western, central and eastern sectors and the frequency distribution is analyzed. Increases in MJO amplitude produce moderate increases in the median and interquartile range and large and robust increases in extreme (90th and 95th percentiles) precipitation. The MJO amplitude clearly affects the transport of moisture from the tropical Pacific and Gulf of Mexico into North America providing moist rich air masses and the dynamical forcing that contributes to heavy precipitation.

  8. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  9. Physico-chemical properties of Malaprabha River.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, S; Naik, V K

    2007-01-01

    The quality of surface water of Malaprabha river with respect to physico-chemical parameters was investigated as part of a research work for the award of Ph.D. under Visveswaraya Technological University. 25 different parameters were analyzed, during the last one year. Quality of this surface water with regard to pH, TDS, chlorides, nitrates and Dissolved Oxygen is discussed in this paper. The concentrations of pH, TDS and chlorides were found to be within the safe limits for 95% of the samples collected at the Station 1, and were found on the higher side at the Station 2. DO level was found to be 7 mg/L, and more at Station 1 and varied in the range of 5 mg/L, at Station 2. This study was conducted during the year 2004-05. pH value for the Station 2 was found to be less than 7.0 for all the samples. Other parameters, viz. TDS, chlorides and nitrates also shpwed marked variations between the two Stations selected for the study.

  10. An Earthquake Prediction System Using The Time Series Analyses of Earthquake Property And Crust Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Fumihide; Takeo, Makoto

    2004-12-09

    We have developed a short-term deterministic earthquake (EQ) forecasting system similar to those used for Typhoons and Hurricanes, which has been under a test operation at website http://www.tec21.jp/ since June of 2003. We use the focus and crust displacement data recently opened to the public by Japanese seismograph and global positioning system (GPS) networks, respectively. Our system divides the forecasting area into the five regional areas of Japan, each of which is about 5 deg. by 5 deg. We have found that it can forecast the focus, date of occurrence and magnitude (M) of an impending EQ (whose M is larger than about 6), all within narrow limits. We have two examples to describe the system. One is the 2003/09/26 EQ of M 8 in the Hokkaido area, which is of hindsight. Another is a successful rollout of the most recent forecast on the 2004/05/30 EQ of M 6.7 off coast of the southern Kanto (Tokyo) area.

  11. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (∼5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < .01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  12. Details of Tidally Modulated Stick-Slip Motion of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Voigt, D.; Joughin, I.; Alley, R.; King, M.; Winberry, P.; Peters, L.; Horgan, H.

    2005-12-01

    Whillans Ice Stream remains the only Antarctic ice stream yet reported where most of the motion occurs as stick-slip. Continued study of this ice stream has revealed a number of other interesting characteristics: the fraction of mean daily motion accomplished by these slips is approximately 90% near the grounding line and decreases upstream; the motion on the ice plain is larger during spring tides than during neap tides, but the slip fraction is constant; and near the grounding line, slip events begin and end more impulsively that farther upstream. Additionally, the mean annual velocity continues to decrease and the slip fraction of daily motion increased from 2003-04 to 2004-05 due to an increase in the slip displacements. Dense grids of GPS receivers and seismometers were established in the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream for approximately one month during the 2004-2005 Antarctic field season to examine further details of these stick-slip characteristics. GPS receivers spaced approximately 25 km apart formed a background grid while a set of mobile receivers were moved to gain a finer resolution picture of the stick-slip phenomenon at specific locations. A majority of the events appear to initiate in a single local and propagate upstream and downstream. Data processing is ongoing. We expect to be able to address issues of propagation speed and mechanism, till properties and the initiation mechanism.

  13. Age and competition level on injuries in female ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Keightley, M; Reed, N; Green, S; Taha, T

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the number, types and locations of known injuries occurring across different age categories and levels of competition in female ice hockey within the Ontario Women's Hockey Association from 2004/05 to 2007/08. We further examined under which aforementioned factors and combination of factors an unusually high or low number of injuries was recorded. Secondary analysis of anonymized injury data was conducted. The most common known injury type was strain/sprain, followed by concussion while the most frequent injury location was head/face/mouth. Analysis of deviance indicated that a significantly higher than expected number of sprain/strain, concussion and laceration injuries were recorded compared to all other injury types. In addition, there were a higher number of injuries recorded at the AA level compared to all other levels of competition. Finally, the age categories of Peewee, Midget and Intermediate within the AA level of competition, as well as Senior/Adult within the Houseleague level of competition also recorded a significantly higher number of injuries compared to other combinations of descriptive factors. Further research with female youth is needed to better understand the high number of injuries, including concussions, reported overall. PMID:23516144

  14. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  15. Energy demand and environmental implications in urban transport — Case of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar

    A simple model of passenger transport in the city of Delhi has been developed using a computer-based software called—Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) and the associated Environmental Database (EDB) model. The hierarchical structure of LEAP represents the traffic patterns in terms of passenger travel demand, mode (rail/road), type of vehicle and occupancy (persons per vehicle). Transport database in Delhi together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand and energy consumption calculations. Emission factors corresponding to the actual vehicle types and driving conditions in Delhi is introduced into the EDB and linked to the energy consumption values for estimating total emission of CO, HC, NO x, SO 2 Pb and TSP. The LEAP model is used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year-1990/91 and extrapolate for the future—1994/95, 2000/01, 2004/05 and 2009/10, respectively. The model is run under five alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement in the transport sector of Delhi and also reduce emission. The prime objective is to arrive at an optimal transport policy which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution.

  16. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives. PMID:20688680

  17. Technical Progress Report for the Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-02-27

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of October 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005. Activities during this time period were: (1) Nomination and election of Executive Council members for 2006-07 term, (2) Release the 2006 GSTC request-for-proposals (RFP), (3) Recruit and invoice membership for FY2006, (4) Improve communication efforts, and (5) Continue planning the GSTC spring meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006.

  18. The Academic Dental Careers Fellowship Program: a pilot program to introduce dental students to academia.

    PubMed

    Rogér, James M

    2008-04-01

    The Academic Dental Careers Fellowship Program (ADCFP) was established in 2006 by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) with the financial support of the ADA Foundation to encourage dental students to consider careers in dental education and to provide participating fellows with insights into academic life. The ADA Foundation provided funding during the 2006-07 academic year for eleven dental student fellows, who were paired with faculty mentors at their respective schools. Fellows and mentors attended a two-day retreat in the summer of 2006, and over the course of the subsequent year in dental school, the fellows with guidance from their mentors participated in preclinical laboratory, classroom, small-group, and clinical teaching experiences; designed and implemented a research project; developed a philosophy of education; completed career reflection essays; assembled a portfolio to represent their ADCFP activities and projects; conducted a series of interviews with faculty designed to expose students to roles, issues, and career paths in academic dentistry; and presented a synopsis of their experiences at the ADEA Annual Session in New Orleans in March 2007. The fellows and mentors completed midyear and end-of-year evaluations of the ADCFP in which feedback and recommendations were collected by telephone interviews and questionnaires. Fellows reported positive experiences and an increased interest in and understanding of academic careers. Mentors also evaluated the ADCFP positively and reported enhancements in their mentoring skills. This article describes the goals and format of the ADCFP, summarizes program evaluation data elicited from the fellows and mentors, and proposes recommendations for future fellowship classes.

  19. Vitamin D Intake, Month the Mammogram Was Taken and Mammographic Density in Norwegian Women Aged 50–69

    PubMed Central

    Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Grotmol, Tom; Kaur Sakhi, Amrit; Hofvind, Solveig; Qureshi, Samera; Skov Markussen, Marianne; Couto, Elisabeth; Vos, Linda; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD). We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway—a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year. Methods 3114 women aged 50–69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ) questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements) vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California) after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT), education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes. Results There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03). Conclusion Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old. PMID:25938768

  20. Nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses from an artificially drained grassland on organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemeyer, B.; Kahle, P.

    2014-02-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentrations and losses were studied for three respectively two years in a small catchment dominated by a degraded peatland used as intensive grassland. Concentrations in the shallow groundwater were spatially and temporally very variable with NO3-N being the most dynamic component (7.3 ± 12.5 mg L-1). Average NO3-N concentrations of 10.3 ± 5.4 mg L-1 in the ditch draining the catchment and annual NO3-N losses of 19, 35 and 26 kg ha-1 confirmed drained peatlands as an important source of diffuse N pollution. The highest NO3-N losses occurred during the wettest year. Resulting from concentrations of 2.4 ± 0.8 mg L-1, DON added further 4.5 to 6.4 kg ha-1 to the N losses and thus formed a relevant component of the total N losses. Ditch DOC concentrations of 24.9 ± 5.9 mg L-1 resulted in DOC losses of 66 kg ha-1 in the wet year 2006/07 and 39 kg ha-1 in the dry year 2007/08. Both DOC and N concentrations were governed by hydrological conditions, but NO3-N reacted much faster and clearer on rising discharge rates than DOC which tended to be higher under dryer conditions. In the third year of the study, the superposition of a very wet summer and land use changes from grassland to arable land in a part of the catchment suggests that under re-wetting conditions with a high groundwater table in summer, NO3-N would diminish quickly, while DOC would remain on a similar level. Further intensification of the land use, on the other hand, would increase N losses to receiving water bodies.

  1. Iron/folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents neonatal and under-five mortality in Pakistan: propensity score matched sample from two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir B.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies from low- and middle-income countries have reported a protective effect of maternal antenatal iron/folic acid (IFA) on childhood mortality. Objective The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal antenatal IFA supplementation on childhood mortality in Pakistan. Design A propensity score–matched sample of 8,512 infants live-born within the 5 years prior to interview was selected from the pooled data of two Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (2006/07 and 2012/13). The primary outcomes were childhood mortality indicators and the main exposure variable was maternal antenatal IFA supplementation. Post-matched analyses used Cox proportional hazards regression and adjusted for 16 potential confounders. Results Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the adjusted risk of death on day 0 by 33% [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.48–0.94], during the neonatal period by 29% (aHR=0.71, 95% CI 0.57–0.88), and for under-fives by 27% (aHR=0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.89). When IFA was initiated in the first 4 months of pregnancy, the adjusted risk of neonatal and under-five deaths was significantly reduced by 35 and 33%, respectively. Twenty percent of under-five deaths were attributable to non-initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy. With universal initiation of IFA in the first 4 months of pregnancy, 80,300 under-five deaths could be prevented annually in Pakistan. Conclusions Maternal antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced neonatal and under-five deaths in Pakistan. Earlier initiation of supplements in pregnancy was associated with a greater prevention of neonatal and under-five deaths. PMID:26873178

  2. 'It can do no harm': Body maintenance and modification in alternative medicine acknowledged as a non risk health regimen.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Inge Kryger

    2013-08-01

    This article proposes the notion of a non-risk health regimen as a mode of recognising more dynamic aspects of risk-awareness in health care, in this case alternative medicine in Denmark. Danish users of alternative medicine are in an ambivalent position. They are responsible citizens who care about their own health. On the other hand, they are doing this by paying out of their own pockets for attending non-authorised treatments with very limited scientific evidence for their effects. This article draws on 138 qualitative in-depth interviews conducted in 2006-07 with 46 Danish users of different forms of session-based alternative medicine. A recurring theme throughout users' accounts is found to be that the treatments 'at least can do no harm'. Many of the users regard pharmaceuticals or surgery as an artificial impediment and a threat to overall health, whereas the energy-stimulating processes initiated by the alternative practitioner are not considered risky. The no harm discourse constitutes a sophisticated lay-explanation that brings together a wide range of explanations within which three themes are identified: responsibility; optimization; desperation. By informing these findings with the concept of reflexive body techniques, it is shown that use of alternative medicine is a process of working on the self and body in a spectrum between transition (i.e., pain relief or self-development) and continuity (i.e. well-being or prevention of illness) and not only a quest for cure. In this process 'non-risk' emerges as a lay explanation in the efforts of users to construct coherent self-narratives as agents in a risk-aware environment. The development of the notion of a non-risk health regimen invites and facilitates further studies on various lay motives within health care in general and contributes to explaining the popularity of alternative medicine in particular.

  3. Ethnic density and area deprivation: neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-07-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  4. Responding to racism: insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism.

  5. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  6. Perinatal mortality in relation to birthweight and gestational age: a registry-based comparison of Northern Norway and Murmansk County, Russia.

    PubMed

    Anda, Erik Eik; Nieboer, Evert; Wilsgaard, Tom; Kovalenko, Anton Alexandrovich; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2011-05-01

    The objective was to explore how perinatal mortality relates to birthweight, gestational age and optimal perinatal survival weight for two Arctic populations employing an existing and a newly established birth registry. A medical birth registry for all births in Murmansk County of North-West Russia became operational on 1st January 2006. Its primary function is to provide useful information for health care officials pertinent to improving perinatal care. The cohort studied consisted of 17,302 births in 2006-07 (Murmansk County) and 16,006 in 2004-06 (Northern Norway). Birthweight probability density functions were analysed, and logistic regression models were employed to calculate gestational-age-specific mortality ratios. The perinatal mortality rate was 10.7/1000 in Murmansk County and 5.7/1000 in Northern Norway. Murmansk County had a higher proportion of preterm deliveries (8.7%) compared to Northern Norway (6.6%). The odds ratio (OR) of risk of mortality (Northern Norway as the reference group) was higher for all gestational ages in Murmansk County, but the largest risk difference occurred among term deliveries (OR 2.45, 95% confidence interval 1.45, 4.14) which hardly changed on adjustment for maternal age, parity and gestation. Proportionately, more babies were born near (± 500 g) the optimal perinatal survival weight in Murmansk County (67.2%) than in Northern Norway (47.6%). The observed perinatal mortality was higher in Murmansk County at all birthweight strata and at gestational ages between weeks 25 and 42, but the adjusted risk difference was most significant for term deliveries. PMID:21470261

  7. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    PubMed

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation. PMID:22675810

  8. Somatic Symptoms: Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Associations with Self-Perceived Health and Limitations Due To Physical Health - A Danish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F; Poulsen, Chalotte H; Lau, Cathrine J; Skovbjerg, Sine; Fink, Per K; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94.9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate or not statistically associated with the health status outcomes. Opposite, almost all the symptoms were strongly associated with the two outcomes when not accounting for symptom co-occurrence. In conclusion, we found that somatic symptoms were frequent and associated in a complex structure. The associations between symptoms and health status measures differed between the symptoms and depended on the co-occurrence of symptoms. This indicates an importance of considering both the specific

  9. Prevention and Control of Influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicole M; Bresee, Joseph S; Shay, David K; Uyeki, Timothy M; Cox, Nancy J; Strikas, Raymond A

    2006-07-28

    This report updates the 2005 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (CDC. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2005;54[No. RR-8]:1--44). The 2006 recommendations include new and updated information. Principal changes include 1) recommending vaccination of children aged 24-59 months and their household contacts and out-of-home caregivers against influenza; 2) highlighting the importance of administering 2 doses of influenza vaccine for children aged 6 months--<9 years who were previously unvaccinated; 3) advising health-care providers, those planning organized campaigns, and state and local public health agencies to a) develop plans for expanding outreach and infrastructure to vaccinate more persons than the previous year and b) develop contingency plans for the timing and prioritization of administering influenza vaccine, if the supply of vaccine is delayed and/or reduced; 4) reminding providers that they should routinely offer influenza vaccine to patients throughout the influenza season; 5) recommending that neither amantadine nor rimantadine be used for the treatment or chemoprophylaxis of influenza A in the United States until evidence of susceptibility to these antiviral medications has been re-established among circulating influenza A viruses; and 6) using the 2006-07 trivalent influenza vaccine virus strains: A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (H1N1)-like, A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like, and B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like antigens. For the A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like antigen, manufacturers may use the antigenically equivalent A/Hiroshima/52/2005 virus; for the B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like antigen, manufacturers may use the antigenically equivalent B/Ohio/1/2005 virus. A link to this report and other information can be accessed at http://www.cdc.gov/flu.

  10. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment) study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572) received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96%) or a neuroprotectant (72%), and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (42%). Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9%) patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS) clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p < 0.001). Continuation of antihypertensives in-hospital and at 3 and 12 months post-stroke was reported in 732/935 (78%), 775/935 (83%), and 752/935 (80%) living patients with hypertension, respectively. Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH. PMID:21276264

  11. The Analysis Of Climatic Tendencies In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, G. N.; Dzuba, A. V.; Vyruchalkina, T. Y.; Solomonova, I. V.

    2007-12-01

    Numerous researches indicate to the probability of the future climate warming, caused by the antropogeneously produced increase of the greenhouse gases. But there is a certain vagueness as to the regional specifics and, particularly, concerning the frequency of the irregular regimes' occurrence and degree of its extremality (e.g. the winter of 2006-07 in Europe and Russia). There is no an adequate physical explanation to such variation of the global and, particularly, regional temperature's secular course. At least, by modeling the Arctic climate, the acknowledged models do not reproduce the trice-changed sign of the temperature tendencies (for instance, the Hamburg model, see Wang et al., 2007). As to the other main thermodynamic parameters of the climate system there is no global archival data of proper quality and sufficient range. Though, the main distrust to results obtained by the forecasting is related to the fact that the modern climate models present only linear or logarithmical dependence between the air temperature changes and change of the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere. We have developed the first version for description of the climate system dynamical and radiation reactions to the periodical irregularity of the Earth rotation (rotational mechanism). New approach based on composition of the "greenhouse" and "rotational" effects allows to make an explanation for not only growth of temperature caused by emission of the greenhouse gases but also for variations of the regional and global climate (in particular, cooling observed during 1940-1970). Using composition of the "greenhouse" and "rotational" effects there are given estimations of probable changes of climate in XXI century, including the nearest 5-10 - years.

  12. High prevalence of Leucocytozoon spp. in the endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) in the sub-Antarctic regions of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Argilla, L S; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D; Alley, M R

    2013-04-01

    Yellow-eyed penguins (YEPs) have suffered major population declines over the past 30 years, with no single cause established. Leucocytozoon was first identified in yellow-eyed penguins in 2005. During the 2008/09 breeding season, a high mortality was seen in both mainland yellow-eyed penguins as well as those on Enderby Island of the Auckland Islands archipelago. A high overall prevalence of Leucocytozoon spp. in association with a high incidence of chick mortality was observed during this period on Enderby Island. One chick had histological evidence of leucocytozoonosis with megaloschizonts in multiple organs throughout its body. In addition, a high prevalence (73·7%) of Leucocytozoon was observed by PCR in the blood of adult Enderby yellow-eyed penguins taken during the 2006/07 season. These findings were different from the low prevalence detected by PCR on the coast of the South Island (11%) during the 2008/2009 breeding session and earlier on Campbell Island (21%) during the 2006/2007 breeding session. The Leucocytozoon spp. sequences detected lead us to conclude that the Leucocytozoon parasite is common in yellow-eyed penguins and has a higher prevalence in penguins from Enderby Island than those from Campbell Island and the mainland of New Zealand. The Enderby Island yellow-eyed penguins are infected with a Leucocytozoon spp. that is genetically distinct from that found in other yellow-eyed penguin populations. The role of Leucocytozoon in the high levels of chick mortality in the yellow-eyed penguins remains unclear.

  13. Comparative cost analysis of insecticide-treated net delivery strategies: sales supported by social marketing and free distribution through antenatal care.

    PubMed

    De Allegri, Manuela; Marschall, Paul; Flessa, Steffen; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are effective in substantially reducing malaria transmission. Still, ITN coverage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains extremely low. Policy makers are concerned with identifying the most suitable delivery mechanism to achieve rapid yet sustainable increases in ITN coverage. Little is known, however, on the comparative costs of alternative ITN distribution strategies. This paper aimed to fill this gap in knowledge by developing such a comparative cost analysis, looking at the cost per ITN distributed for two alternative interventions: subsidized sales supported by social marketing and free distribution to pregnant women through antenatal care (ANC). The study was conducted in rural Burkina Faso, where the two interventions were carried out alongside one another in 2006/07. Cost information was collected prospectively to derive both a financial analysis adopting a provider's perspective and an economic analysis adopting a societal perspective. The average financial cost per ITN distributed was US$8.08 and US$7.21 for sales supported by social marketing and free distribution through ANC, respectively. The average economic cost per ITN distributed was US$4.81 for both interventions. Contrary to common belief, costs did not differ substantially between the two interventions. Due to the district's ability to rely fully on the use of existing resources, financial costs associated with free ITN distribution through ANC were in fact even lower than those associated with the social marketing campaign. This represents an encouraging finding for SSA governments and points to the possibility to invest in programmes to favour free ITN distribution through existing health facilities. Given restricted budgets, however, free distribution programmes are unlikely to be feasible.

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Global Seasonality of Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sharia M.; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Levy, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. These pathogens are generally understood to exhibit a wintertime seasonality, though a systematic assessment of seasonal patterns has not been conducted in the era of modern diagnostics. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the Pubmed Medline database for articles published between 1997 and 2011 to identify and extract data from articles reporting on monthly counts of norovirus. We conducted a descriptive analysis to document seasonal patterns of norovirus disease, and we also constructed multivariate linear models to identify factors associated with the strength of norovirus seasonality. Results The searched identified 293 unique articles, yielding 38 case and 29 outbreak data series. Within these data series, 52.7% of cases and 41.2% of outbreaks occurred in winter months, and 78.9% of cases and 71.0% of outbreaks occurred in cool months. Both case and outbreak studies showed an earlier peak in season-year 2002-03, but not in season-year 2006-07, years when new genogroup II type 4 variants emerged. For outbreaks, norovirus season strength was positively associated with average rainfall in the wettest month, and inversely associated with crude birth rate in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. For cases, none of the covariates examined was associated with season strength. When case and outbreaks were combined, average rainfall in the wettest month was positively associated with season strength. Conclusions Norovirus is a wintertime phenomenon, at least in the temperate northern hemisphere where most data are available. Our results point to possible associations of season strength with rain in the wettest month and crude birth rate. PMID:24098406

  15. Dental Student Academic Integrity in U.S. Dental Schools: Current Status and Recommendations for Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice.

  16. Numerical simulation of radiation fog in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Musson-Genon, L.; Carissimo, B.; Dupont, E.

    2009-09-01

    The interest for micro-scale modeling of the atmosphere is growing for environmental applications related, for example, to energy production, transport and urban development. The turbulence in the stable layers where pollutant dispersion is low and can lead to strong pollution events. This could be further complicated by the presence of clouds or fog and is specifically difficult in urban or industrial area due to the presence of buildings. In this context, radiation fog formation and dissipation over complex terrain were therefore investigated with a state-of-the-art model. This study is divided into two phases. The first phase is a pilot stage, which consist of employing a database from the ParisFog campaign which took place in the south of Paris during winter 2006-07 to assess the ability of the cloud model to reproduce the detailed structure of radiation fog. The second phase use the validated model for the study of influence of complex terrain on fog evolution. Special attention is given to the detailed and complete simulations and validation technique used is to compare the simulated results using the 3D cloud model of computational fluid dynamical software Code_Saturne with one of the best collected in situ data during the ParisFog campaign. Several dynamical, microphysical parameterizations and simulation conditions have been described. The resulting 3D cloud model runs at a horizontal resolution of 30 m and a vertical resolution comparable to the 1D model. First results look very promising and are able to reproduce the spatial distribution of fog. The analysis of the behavior of the different parameterized physical processes suggests that the subtle balance between the various processes is achieved.

  17. California Hospital Leaders’ Views of Hospitalists: Meeting Needs of the Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Knebel, R. Justin; Wachter, Robert M.; Auerbach, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospital medicine has grown rapidly, but hospital leaders’ perceptions of current and future drivers of hospitalist growth are unknown. Objective To determine hospital executives’ perceptions of factors leading to hospitalist implementation and their vision for hospitalists’ work roles. Setting Non-federal, acute care hospitals in California. Participants California hospital leaders (e.g., chief executive officers). Intervention Cross-sectional survey from 2006-07. Measurements We asked California hospital leaders whether their hospitals had a hospitalist service and the prospects for growth. In addition, we examined factors responsible for implementation, scope of hospitalists’ practices, and need for additional certification as perceived by hospital leaders. Results We received surveys from 179 of 334 hospitals (response rate of 54%). Of the 64% of respondents that reported the use of hospitalists, none intended to decrease the size of their hospitalist group, and 57% expected growth over 2 years. The most common reasons for implementing a hospitalist program were to care for uncovered patients (68%) and improve cost/length of stay (63%). Respondents also indicated that demand from other physicians was an important factor. Leaders reported that hospitalists provide a wide range of services, with a majority involved in quality improvement projects (72%) and medical co-management of surgical patients (66%). Most leaders favor additional certification for hospitalists. Conclusions There is widespread adoption of hospitalists in California hospitals, with an expectation of continued growth. The drivers of the field’s growth are evolving and dynamic. In particular, attentiveness to quality performance and demand from other physicians are increasingly important reasons for implementation. PMID:20013852

  18. Orofacial trauma in Brazilian basketball players and level of information concerning trauma and mouthguards.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Renata Reis; Zanin, Luciane; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Flório, Flávia Martão

    2011-06-01

    Orofacial injuries are increasingly considered a public health problem in high impact sports. The purposes of this study were: to assess orofacial trauma (OT) history in basketball players, in relation to wearing mouthguards (MG), facial types, presence of mouth breathing and player's position in the game, also to check athletes' level of knowledge about trauma and MGs. Questionnaires were given to category A-1 adult athletes registered in 2006/07 in the State of São Paulo and Brazilian Basketball Confederation Championships, and National Team members. Of the total sample (n=388), 50% of athletes sustained orofacial injuries; dental trauma accounted for 69.7%, with emphasis on maxillary central incisors, followed by soft tissue (60.8%), in which lip injuries were the most prevalent. No relationship was found between trauma history and player's position (P=0.19), facial type (P=0.97), presence of mouth breathing (P=0.98), but there was statistically significant association between the prevalence of OT and lack of MG use (P≤0.0001). Of all the athletes affected, only 1% wore a MG at the time of the trauma, 26.5% did not know about the MGs and 10.6% did not know their functions. When trauma occurred, 79.6% replied one must look for the tooth at the accident site, 50% knew it must be stored in liquid, as replantation was possible (62.3%) and 75.8% believed elapsed time could influence prognosis. Basketball is a high impact sport with high prevalence of OT, particularly maxillary central incisor and lip injuries, but athletes did not use MGs. There should be more educational campaigns to inform players about orofacial injuries and their prevention in Brazilian basketball. PMID:21496201

  19. Effects of Recent Climate Change on Facultative and Spontaneous Torpor in Apline Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, C. L.; Hood, W. R.; Stevens, M.; Gary, G.

    2007-12-01

    Mean annual air temperatures have increased in North America by 1.0°C during the past 100 years, and are predicted to increase by 4-8 °C further within the next 70 years. Hibernating mammals may be particularly sensitive to climate change since body temperatures during torpor are strongly influence by ambient temperature. We conducted 3-7 year studies on the relationship between ambient (air/soil) temperature and the torpor patterns of free-ranging facultative and spontaneous hibernators. The facultative hibernation of eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) in New York State and the spontaneous hibernation by golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) in the mountains of California were continuously monitored using temperature sensitive radiocollars during winters of 2000-01 through 2006-07. Mean air/soil temperatures during the winter 2001-02 were much greater than those observed during the same periods of 2000-1 and 2002-3 winters at both sites, and the winter of 2001-2 was one of the warmest measured in both New York State and California since 1895. Consequently T. striatus during the winter 2001-2 had: a) fewer individuals using torpor, b) reduced the time spent in torpor by 96%, and, c) increased energy expenditure by 100% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the colder winters of 2000-1/2002-3. Likewise, S. lateralis during the winter of 2001-2 had: a) delayed the entrance into hibernation by a mean of 12.2 days, b) increased mean body temperatures by an average of 5.4 C during torpor, and, c) increased metabolic rate during torpor by 75% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the winters of 2000-1/2002-3.

  20. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  1. Risk of Care Home Placement following Acute Hospital Admission: Effects of a Pay-for-Performance Scheme for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kasteridis, Panagiotis; Goddard, Maria; Jacobs, Rowena; Santos, Rita; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Beatriz; McGonigal, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Quality and Outcomes Framework, or QOF, rewards primary care doctors (GPs) in the UK for providing certain types of care. Since 2006, GPs have been paid to identify patients with dementia and to conduct an annual review of their mental and physical health. During the review, the GP also assesses the carer’s support needs, including impact of caring, and ensures that services are co-ordinated across care settings. In principle, this type of care should reduce the risk of admission to long-term residential care directly from an acute hospital ward, a phenomenon considered to be indicative of poor quality care. However, this potential effect has not previously been tested. Methods Using English data from 2006/07 to 2010/11, we ran multilevel logit models to assess the impact of the QOF review on the risk of care home placement following emergency admission to acute hospital. Emergency admissions were defined for (a) people with a primary diagnosis of dementia and (b) people with dementia admitted for treatment of an ambulatory care sensitive condition. We adjusted for a wide range of potential confounding factors. Results Over the study period, 19% of individuals admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of dementia (N = 31,120) were discharged to a care home; of those admitted for an ambulatory care sensitive condition (N = 139,267), the corresponding figure was 14%. Risk factors for subsequent care home placement included older age, female gender, vascular dementia, incontinence, fall, hip fracture, and number of comorbidities. Better performance on the QOF review was associated with a lower risk of care home placement but only when the admission was for an ambulatory care sensitive condition. Conclusions The QOF dementia review may help to reduce the risk of long-term care home placement following acute hospital admission. PMID:27227403

  2. Effects of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Household Welfare in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Brianne; Zerriffi, Hisham; Naidoo, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation, as an environmental goal, is increasingly recognized to be connected to the socioeconomic well-being of local communities. The development of a widespread community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) program in Namibia makes it an ideal location to analyze the connection between conservation and socioeconomic well-being of local communities. Namibia’s CBNRM program involves the formation of communal conservancies within rural communities and previous studies have found it to be successful on both ecological and economic fronts. In order to broaden the understanding of the program’s impact to include social factors, we have conducted a comparative analysis to determine the effects of this program on household welfare outcomes. Data from two rounds of the Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys (2000 and 2006/07) and quasi-experimental statistical methods were used to evaluate changes in various health, education and wealth outcomes of those living in conservancies, relative to non-conservancy comparison groups. Regression results indicate mixed effects of the conservancy program at the household level. The program had positive effects on some health outcome variables, including bednet ownership, which was twice as likely to increase over time in conservancy compared to non-conservancy households. Program impacts were negative for education outcomes, with the proportion of school attendance of conservancy children being 45% less likely to increase over time than non-conservancy children. Wealth outcome results were inconclusive. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing community conservation programs at a variety of scales when evaluating overall impact, as community-level benefits may not necessarily extend down to the household level (and vice versa). PMID:25965379

  3. Temporal Variability from the Two-Component Advective Flow Solution and Its Observational Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Broja G.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    In the propagating oscillatory shock model, the oscillation of the post-shock region, i.e., the Compton cloud, causes the observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). The evolution of QPO frequency is explained by the systematic variation of the Compton cloud size, i.e., the steady radial movement of the shock front, which is triggered by the cooling of the post-shock region. Thus, analysis of the energy-dependent temporal properties in different variability timescales can diagnose the dynamics and geometry of accretion flows around black holes. We study these properties for the high-inclination black hole source XTE J1550-564 during its 1998 outburst and the low-inclination black hole source GX 339-4 during its 2006-07 outburst using RXTE/PCA data, and we find that they can satisfactorily explain the time lags associated with the QPOs from these systems. We find a smooth decrease of the time lag as a function of time in the rising phase of both sources. In the declining phase, the time lag increases with time. We find a systematic evolution of QPO frequency and hard lags in these outbursts. In XTE J1550-564, the lag changes from hard to soft (i.e., from a positive to a negative value) at a crossing frequency (ν c) of ˜3.4 Hz. We present possible mechanisms to explain the lag behavior of high and low-inclination sources within the framework of a single two-component advective flow model.

  4. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Archived U.S. Biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Kristin; Halden, Rolf U.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the U.S. National Academies’ call for a better assessment of chemical pollutants contained in the approximately 6.9 million dry tons of digested municipal sludge produced annually in the United States, the mean concentration of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) were determined in 110 biosolids samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Composite samples of archived biosolids, collected at 94 U.S. wastewater treatment plants from 32 states and the District of Columbia, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using EPA Method 1694. Thirty-eight (54%) of the 72 analytes were detected in at least one composite sample at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 48 mg kg−1 dry weight. Triclocarban and triclosan were the most abundant analytes with mean concentrations of 36 ± 8 and 12.6 ± 3.8 mg kg−1 (n = 5), respectively, accounting for 65% of the total PPCP mass found. The loading to U.S. soils from nationwide biosolids recycling was estimated at 210–250 metric tons per year for the sum of the 72 PPCPs investigated. The results of this nationwide reconnaissance of PPCPs in archived U.S. biosolids mirror in contaminant occurrences, frequencies and concentrations, those reported by the U.S. EPA for samples collected in 2006/07. This demonstrates that PPCP releases in U.S. biosolids have been ongoing for many years and the most abundant PPCPs appear to show limited fluctuations in mass over time when assessed on a nationwide basis. The here demonstrated use of five mega composite samples holds promise for conducting cost-effective, routine monitoring on a regional basis. PMID:20106500

  5. Predictive Factors and Risk Mapping for Rift Valley Fever Epidemics in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Munyua, Peninah M.; Murithi, R. Mbabu; Ithondeka, Peter; Hightower, Allen; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Anyangu, Samuel A.; Kiplimo, Jusper; Bett, Bernard; Vrieling, Anton; Breiman, Robert F.; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2016-01-01

    Background To-date, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have occurred in 38 of the 69 administrative districts in Kenya. Using surveillance records collected between 1951 and 2007, we determined the risk of exposure and outcome of an RVF outbreak, examined the ecological and climatic factors associated with the outbreaks, and used these data to develop an RVF risk map for Kenya. Methods Exposure to RVF was evaluated as the proportion of the total outbreak years that each district was involved in prior epizootics, whereas risk of outcome was assessed as severity of observed disease in humans and animals for each district. A probability-impact weighted score (1 to 9) of the combined exposure and outcome risks was used to classify a district as high (score ≥ 5) or medium (score ≥2 - <5) risk, a classification that was subsequently subjected to expert group analysis for final risk level determination at the division levels (total = 391 divisions). Divisions that never reported RVF disease (score < 2) were classified as low risk. Using data from the 2006/07 RVF outbreak, the predictive risk factors for an RVF outbreak were identified. The predictive probabilities from the model were further used to develop an RVF risk map for Kenya. Results The final output was a RVF risk map that classified 101 of 391 divisions (26%) located in 21 districts as high risk, and 100 of 391 divisions (26%) located in 35 districts as medium risk and 190 divisions (48%) as low risk, including all 97 divisions in Nyanza and Western provinces. The risk of RVF was positively associated with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), low altitude below 1000m and high precipitation in areas with solonertz, luvisols and vertisols soil types (p <0.05). Conclusion RVF risk map serves as an important tool for developing and deploying prevention and control measures against the disease. PMID:26808021

  6. Dental Student Academic Integrity in U.S. Dental Schools: Current Status and Recommendations for Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice. PMID:26729679

  7. Effects of community-based natural resource management on household welfare in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Brianne; Zerriffi, Hisham; Naidoo, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation, as an environmental goal, is increasingly recognized to be connected to the socioeconomic well-being of local communities. The development of a widespread community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) program in Namibia makes it an ideal location to analyze the connection between conservation and socioeconomic well-being of local communities. Namibia's CBNRM program involves the formation of communal conservancies within rural communities and previous studies have found it to be successful on both ecological and economic fronts. In order to broaden the understanding of the program's impact to include social factors, we have conducted a comparative analysis to determine the effects of this program on household welfare outcomes. Data from two rounds of the Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys (2000 and 2006/07) and quasi-experimental statistical methods were used to evaluate changes in various health, education and wealth outcomes of those living in conservancies, relative to non-conservancy comparison groups. Regression results indicate mixed effects of the conservancy program at the household level. The program had positive effects on some health outcome variables, including bednet ownership, which was twice as likely to increase over time in conservancy compared to non-conservancy households. Program impacts were negative for education outcomes, with the proportion of school attendance of conservancy children being 45% less likely to increase over time than non-conservancy children. Wealth outcome results were inconclusive. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing community conservation programs at a variety of scales when evaluating overall impact, as community-level benefits may not necessarily extend down to the household level (and vice versa). PMID:25965379

  8. Effects of community-based natural resource management on household welfare in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Brianne; Zerriffi, Hisham; Naidoo, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation, as an environmental goal, is increasingly recognized to be connected to the socioeconomic well-being of local communities. The development of a widespread community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) program in Namibia makes it an ideal location to analyze the connection between conservation and socioeconomic well-being of local communities. Namibia's CBNRM program involves the formation of communal conservancies within rural communities and previous studies have found it to be successful on both ecological and economic fronts. In order to broaden the understanding of the program's impact to include social factors, we have conducted a comparative analysis to determine the effects of this program on household welfare outcomes. Data from two rounds of the Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys (2000 and 2006/07) and quasi-experimental statistical methods were used to evaluate changes in various health, education and wealth outcomes of those living in conservancies, relative to non-conservancy comparison groups. Regression results indicate mixed effects of the conservancy program at the household level. The program had positive effects on some health outcome variables, including bednet ownership, which was twice as likely to increase over time in conservancy compared to non-conservancy households. Program impacts were negative for education outcomes, with the proportion of school attendance of conservancy children being 45% less likely to increase over time than non-conservancy children. Wealth outcome results were inconclusive. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing community conservation programs at a variety of scales when evaluating overall impact, as community-level benefits may not necessarily extend down to the household level (and vice versa).

  9. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  10. The Impact of State Laws and District Policies on Physical Education and Recess Practices in a Nationally-Representative Sample of U.S. Public Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Sandy J.; Nicholson, Lisa; Chriqui, Jamie; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of state and school district-level policies on the prevalence of physical education (PE) and recess in a nationally representative sample of U.S. public elementary schools. Design Analyses from annual, nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys of School Administrators in the US. Setting Data were collected through surveys conducted between February and June during the 2006-07, through 2008-09 school years. State laws and district policies were compiled annually by UIC researchers using established legal research techniques. Participants The sample size was 47 states, 690 districts, and 1761 schools. Main Exposures State and District-level PE and recess-related laws Outcome Measures Twenty minutes of daily recess and 150 minutes of PE weekly Results The odds of schools having 150 weekly minutes of PE increased if they were located in states (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-5.7) or school districts (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3) having a law or policy, respectively, requiring 150 minutes of PE weekly. Schools located in states with laws encouraging daily recess were significantly more likely to have 20 minutes of recess daily (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8). District policies were not significantly associated with school-level recess practices. Adequate PE time was inversely associated with recess and vice versa suggesting that schools are substituting one form of physical activity for another rather than providing the recommended amount of both recess and PE. Conclusions By mandating PE or recess, policy makers can effectively increase school-based physical activity opportunities for youth. PMID:22147763

  11. Working toward decreasing infant mortality in developing countries through change in the medical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High infant and maternal mortality rates are one of the biggest health issues in Pakistan. Although these rates are given high priority at the national level (Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, respectively), there has been no significant decrease in them so far. We hypothesize that this lack of success is because the undergraduate curriculum in Pakistan does not match local needs. Currently, the Pakistani medical curriculum deals with issues in maternal and child morbidity and mortality according to Western textbooks. Moreover, these are taught disjointedly through various departments. We undertook curriculum revision to sensitize medical students to maternal and infant mortality issues important in the Pakistani context and educate them about ways to reduce the same through an integrated teaching approach. Methods The major determinants of infant mortality in underdeveloped countries were identified through a literature review covering international research produced over the last 10 years and the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2006-07. An interdisciplinary maternal and child health module team was created by the Medical Education Department at Shifa College of Medicine. The curriculum was developed based on the role of identified determinants in infant and maternal mortality. It was delivered by an integrated team without any subject boundaries. Students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes were assessed by multiple modalities and the module itself by student feedback using questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results Assessment and feedback demonstrated that the students had developed a thorough understanding of the complexity of factors that contribute to infant mortality. Students also demonstrated knowledge and skill in counseling, antenatal care, and care of newborns and infants. Conclusions A carefully designed integrated curriculum can help sensitize undergraduate medical students and equip them to identify and address complex issues

  12. Validation of a Fast-Response Urban Micrometeorological Model to Assess the Performance of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D.; Girard, P.; Overby, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Stoll, R., II; Willemsen, P.; Bailey, B.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHI) are a real threat in many cities worldwide and mitigation measures have become a central component of urban planning strategies. Even within a city, causes of UHI vary from one neighborhood to another, mostly due the spatial variability in surface thermal properties, building geometry, anthropogenic heat flux releases and vegetation cover. As a result, the performance of UHI mitigation measures also varies in space. Hence, there is a need to develop a tool to quantify the efficiency of UHI mitigation measures at the neighborhood scale. The objective of this ongoing study is to validate the fast-response micrometeorological model QUIC EnvSim (QES). This model can provide all information required for UHI studies with a fine spatial resolution (up to 0.5m) and short computation time. QES combines QUIC, a CFD-based wind solver and dispersion model, and EnvSim, composed of a radiation model, a land-surface model and a turbulent transport model. Here, high-resolution (1 m) simulations are run over a subset of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) campus including complex buildings, various surfaces properties and vegetation. For nearly five months in 2006-07, a dense network of meteorological observations (92 weather stations over 0.1 km2) was deployed over the campus and these unique data are used here as a validation dataset. We present validation results for different test cases (e.g., sunny vs cloudy days, different incoming wind speeds and directions) and explore the effect of a few UHI mitigation strategies on the spatial distribution of near-surface air temperatures. Preliminary results suggest that QES may be a valuable tool in decision-making regarding adaptation of urban planning to UHI.

  13. Orofacial trauma in Brazilian basketball players and level of information concerning trauma and mouthguards.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Renata Reis; Zanin, Luciane; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Flório, Flávia Martão

    2011-06-01

    Orofacial injuries are increasingly considered a public health problem in high impact sports. The purposes of this study were: to assess orofacial trauma (OT) history in basketball players, in relation to wearing mouthguards (MG), facial types, presence of mouth breathing and player's position in the game, also to check athletes' level of knowledge about trauma and MGs. Questionnaires were given to category A-1 adult athletes registered in 2006/07 in the State of São Paulo and Brazilian Basketball Confederation Championships, and National Team members. Of the total sample (n=388), 50% of athletes sustained orofacial injuries; dental trauma accounted for 69.7%, with emphasis on maxillary central incisors, followed by soft tissue (60.8%), in which lip injuries were the most prevalent. No relationship was found between trauma history and player's position (P=0.19), facial type (P=0.97), presence of mouth breathing (P=0.98), but there was statistically significant association between the prevalence of OT and lack of MG use (P≤0.0001). Of all the athletes affected, only 1% wore a MG at the time of the trauma, 26.5% did not know about the MGs and 10.6% did not know their functions. When trauma occurred, 79.6% replied one must look for the tooth at the accident site, 50% knew it must be stored in liquid, as replantation was possible (62.3%) and 75.8% believed elapsed time could influence prognosis. Basketball is a high impact sport with high prevalence of OT, particularly maxillary central incisor and lip injuries, but athletes did not use MGs. There should be more educational campaigns to inform players about orofacial injuries and their prevention in Brazilian basketball.

  14. A comparative study for PSP toxins quantification by using MBA and HPLC official methods in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Rodríguez-Velasco, M L; Otero, A; Vieites, J M; Cabado, A G

    2012-10-01

    Commission Regulation (EC) N° 2074/2005 recognises the biological method as the reference method for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins detection in molluscs. It was amended by Commission Regulation (EC) N° 1664/2006 that accepted the so-called Lawrence method as an alternative to the reference method. The goal of this study was to compare AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 959.08 (Biological method) and 2005.06 (Prechromatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection) in samples with different toxin profiles. The influence of extraction solvent in the total samples toxicity was also evaluated. A total of 40 samples including mussels, clams, scallops, razor-clams, cockles, oysters and barnacles were analysed by both official methods. Samples were selected with Alexandrium and Gymnodinium toxic profiles, from different origin and including several presentations: fresh, frozen, canned and boiled. Acetic and hydrochloric acid extractions were performed in all samples and the extracts were simultaneously analysed by both methods. Most samples were naturally contaminated and two samples were spiked. Comparison of both official methods, mouse bioassay (MBA) with HCl extraction and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with acetic acid extraction, led to an 85% of consistent results regarding compliance with legal limit, including samples below and above it. The linear correlation coefficient was r² = 0.69 and the paired t test (two tails, α = 0.05) indicated that there were not significant differences among both sets of data. Nevertheless, toxicity differences were found in several samples. In 15 out of 18 shellfish with a Gymnodinium toxic profile, higher toxicity levels were obtained by MBA. This fact was more evident in 7 samples, partially related to the lack of standards and the impossibility of analysing dc-NEO, C1, 2 and GTX6 at the beginning of the study. However, other factors concerning the extraction

  15. Acoustic characterisation of the broad-scale distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) off East Antarctica (30-80°E) in January-March 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Toby; Kelly, Natalie; Kawaguchi, So; van Wijk, Esmee; Nicol, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    A large-scale oceanographic survey (BROKE-West) was undertaken off East Antarctica in the austral summer of 2005/06. Throughout the survey, multi-frequency echosounder data and ancillary environmental data were collected to determine the distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and to explore its broad relationship with the bio-physical environment. The acoustic data were analysed using three different methods to provide measurements of krill abundance that can be set in context with previous studies. Based on the most recently developed acoustic method, the mean biomass-density of krill across the survey area (1.3 million km 2) was estimated to be 24 g m -2. Total biomass was estimated to be 28.75 million tonnes (Mt) with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 16.18%. This biomass estimate has been used by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to update the precautionary catch limit for krill in this area (CCAMLR Division 58.4.2) from 0.450 to 2.645 Mt. Overall, krill were widely distributed at relatively low densities: 25% of the 2-km along-track echo-integration intervals were devoid of krill, 50% registered densities of 1 g m -2 of krill or less and 75% registered densities of 12 g m -2 or less. Mean densities were highest in the waters to the south of the Southern Boundary (SB) of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), while the waters to the north of the Southern ACC Front (SACCF) were almost devoid of krill. Half of the cumulative krill density across the survey was found within 80 km of the 1000 m isobath (the shelf break), and 40% within 40 km. This was mostly due to particularly high densities (up to 4400 g m -2) around the shelf break on 3 of the 11 transects surveyed. The majority of acoustic krill detections were in the top 100 m of the water column, centred around 50 m depth.

  16. Assessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge at Sand Hollow Reservoir, Washington County, Utah, Updated to Conditions through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Ortiz, Gema; Susong, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily as an aquifer storage and recovery project by the Washington County Water Conservancy District (WCWCD). Since its inception in 2002 through 2007, surface-water diversions of about 126,000 acre-feet to Sand Hollow Reservoir have resulted in a generally rising reservoir stage and surface area. Large volumes of runoff during spring 2005-06 allowed the WCWCD to fill the reservoir to a total storage capacity of more than 50,000 acre-feet, with a corresponding surface area of about 1,300 acres and reservoir stage of about 3,060 feet during 2006. During 2007, reservoir stage generally decreased to about 3,040 feet with a surface-water storage volume of about 30,000 acre-feet. Water temperature in the reservoir shows large seasonal variation and has ranged from about 3 to 30 deg C from 2003 through 2007. Except for anomalously high recharge rates during the first year when the vadose zone beneath the reservoir was becoming saturated, estimated ground-water recharge rates have ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 feet per day. Estimated recharge volumes have ranged from about 200 to 3,500 acre-feet per month from March 2002 through December 2007. Total ground-water recharge during the same period is estimated to have been about 69,000 acre-feet. Estimated evaporation rates have varied from 0.04 to 0.97 feet per month, resulting in evaporation losses of 20 to 1,200 acre-feet per month. Total evaporation from March 2002 through December 2007 is estimated to have been about 25,000 acre-feet. Results of water-quality sampling at monitoring wells indicate that by 2007, managed aquifer recharge had arrived at sites 37 and 36, located 60 and 160 feet from the reservoir, respectively. However, different peak arrival dates for specific conductance, chloride, chloride/bromide ratios, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved-gas pressures at each monitoring well indicate the complicated nature of

  17. Flood Deposition Analysis of Northern California's Eel River (Flood- DANCER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlgren, S.; Bauman, P. D.; Dillon, R. J.; Gallagher, N.; Jamison, M. E.; King, A.; Lee, J.; Siwicke, K. A.; Harris, C. K.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Borgeld, J. C.; Goldthwait, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Characterizing and quantifying the fate of river born sediment is critical to our understanding of sediment supply and erosion in impacted coastal areas. Strata deposited in coastal zones provide an invaluable record of recent and historical environmental events. The Eel River in northern California has one of the highest sediment yields of any North American river and has preserved evidence of the impact of recent flood events. Previous research has documented sediment deposits associated with Eel River flood events in January 1995, March 1995, and January 1997. These deposits were found north of the river mouth on the mid shelf in water depths from 50-100 m. Sediment strata were up to 5-10 cm thick and were composed of fine to very fine grained silts and clays. Until recently, no model had been able to correctly reproduce the sediment deposits associated with these floods. In 2005, Harris et al. developed a model that accurately represents the volume and location of the flood deposit associated with the January 1997 event. However, rigorous assessment of the predictive capability of this model requires that a new flood of the Eel River be used as a test case. During the winter of 2005-06 the Eel River rose above flood stage reaching discharge similar to the flood of January 1995 which resulted in flood sedimentation on the Eel River shelf. A flood-related deposit 1-5 cm thick was found in water depths of 60-90 m approximately 20-35 km north of the river mouth. Flood deposits were recognized in box cores collected in the months following the flood. As in previously studied events, flood- related strata near the sediment surface were recognized in core x-radiographs, resistivity and porosity profiles, and were composed of fine to very fine grained silts and clays. In addition, surface flood sediments were associated with lower concentrations of benthic foraminifera compared with deeper sediments. The January 2006 flood deposit was similar in thickness to the

  18. Aeromagnetic exploration over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet: A new view of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Armadillo, Egidio; Jordan, Tom; Bozzo, Emanuele; Corr, Hugh

    2009-12-01

    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin represents an approximately 1400 km-long and up to 600 km wide subglacial depression, buried beneath the over 3 km-thick East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Contrasting models, including rift models and flexural models, have been previously put forward to explain the tectonic origin of this enigmatic basin, which is located in the largely unexplored hinterland of the Transantarctic Mountains. A major aerogeophysical survey was flown during the 2005-06 austral summer to explore the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Our new airborne radar dataset reveals that the Wilkes Subglacial Basin contains several subglacial basins, which are considerably deeper than previously mapped. Major aeromagnetic lineaments are detected from total field, pseudo-gravity, tilt derivative and Euler Deconvolution maps. These aeromagnetic lineaments reveal that the Wilkes Subglacial Basin and its sub-basins are structurally controlled. Comparison between aeromagnetic signatures over the Wilkes Subglacial Basin region and the Cordillera in North America, suggests that the basin contains a former broad backarc basin and fold-and-thrust belts, forming the transition between a Precambrian craton and the Ross Orogen. The eastern margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin is imposed upon the Prince Albert Fault System and the Priestley Fault. These faults may have been reactivated in the Cenozoic, as major strike-slip faults. The western margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin is located along the southern extension of the Precambrian-age Mertz Shear Zone and marks the edge of the Terre Adélie Craton. High-frequency aeromagnetic anomalies in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin image large volumes of Jurassic tholeiites, which were intruded into and extruded over Beacon sediments in a possible rift setting. Depth-estimates of magnetic anomaly sources and forward modelling indicate that major Cretaceous and Cenozoic rift basins with thick sedimentary infill, comparable to the deep Ross Sea Rift basins

  19. Impact of sublimation losses in the mass balance of glaciers in semi-arid mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Burlando, Paolo; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers in semiarid mountain regions may lose an important part of their winter snow accumulation through sublimation processes that are enhanced by the high-elevation, intense radiation and dry atmosphere of these environments. As glaciers in these regions secure freshwater resources to lower valleys during summer and drought periods, it is important to advance in a detailed quantification of their sublimation losses. However, logistical concerns and complex meteorological features make the measuring and modelling of glacier mass balances a difficult task. In this study, we estimated the spring-summer mass balances of Tapado and Juncal Norte glaciers in the semiarid Andes of north-central Chile by running a distributed energy balance model that accounts for melt, refreezing and sublimation from the surface and blowing snow. Meteorological input data were available from on-glacier Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) that were installed during the ablation season of years 2005-06, 2008-09, 2013-14 and 2014-15. Snow pits, ablation stakes and a time-lapse camera that provided surface albedo were also available. Distributed air temperature and wind speed were dynamically downscaled from NASA MERRA reanalysis using the software WINDSIM and validated against the data from the AWSs. The rest of the meteorological variables were distributed using statistical relations with air temperature derived from the AWSs data. Initial snow conditions were estimated using satellite images and distributed manual snow depth measurements. Preliminary results show that total ablation diminishes with elevation and that, during the early ablation season (October-November), melt is the main ablation component below 4500 m with sublimation dominating the ablation above this elevation. Above 4500 m an important fraction of meltwater refreezes during night. As the ablation season advances (December-February), melt extends to higher elevations, refreezing plays a smaller role and sublimation is

  20. Aeromagnetic signatures reveal a back-arc basin imposed upon the inherited rifted margin of the East Antarctic craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armadillo, E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.; Bozzo, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB) represents a largely unexplored, approximately 1400 km-long and up to 600 km-wide subglacial depression, buried beneath the over 3 km-thick East Antarctic Ice Sheet. During the 2005-06 austral summer an extensive aerogeophysical survey was flown to investigate the WSB adjacent to northern Victoria Land (NVL), and included the acquisition of new airborne radar, aeromagnetic and aerogravity data. Several contrasting models for the origin of the basin have been previously proposed, and are based primarily on relatively sparse gravity data. These range from Cenozoic flexure, to distributed crustal extension of unknown age (possibly Mesozoic to Cenozoic), and even compression along the margin of craton. Our recent aeromagnetic data reveal that the basin is structurally controlled and has a tectonic origin, at least adjacent to NVL. The eastern margin of the basin is imposed upon an Early Paleozoic thrust fault belt, which can be traced under the ice using aeromagnetic signatures from exposures in Oates Land and the Ross Sea coast. Aeromagnetic patterns reveal that the western margin of the basin is imposed upon a Proterozoic-age shear zone mapped in the Mertz Glacier, and that is interpreted from geological studies to represent the continuation of a coeval shear zone in Australia. The broad aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic low over the WSB contrasts with the high over the un-reworked Proterozoic craton to the west of the basin, and is interpreted to reflect Neoproterozoic-age sediments deposited along the rifted margin of the craton. Magnetic intrusions within the WSB are interpreted as back-arc plutons that formed later in response to Cambrian-Ordovician age subduction along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana. The aeromagnetic interpretation for a former broad back-arc basin in the WSB is supported by the occurrence of low-grade metasedimentary rocks of back-arc affinity in Oates Land, and also by the similarity in long