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Sample records for 2005-2006 osa andmeid

  1. Blind Childrens Center Annual Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blind Childrens Center, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Continued efforts to change the face of special education have resulted in an increased rate of referrals for the specialized programs of the Blind Childrens Center in 2005-2006. Parents are an integral part of training. Brothers, sisters and other sighted students are included in classes and activities. This is consistent with best practices,…

  2. Student Charges and Financial Aid 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For the second consecutive year, the economy and state fiscal conditions continued to improve, offering some relief in student charges and financial aid at public colleges and universities in 2005-2006. Tuition increases have shrunk to single-digits, but concern is still high regarding enrollment growth, employee compensation and benefits and…

  3. Student Charges and Financial Aid 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For the second consecutive year, the economy and state fiscal conditions continued to improve, offering some relief in student charges and financial aid at public colleges and universities in 2005-2006. Tuition increases have shrunk to single-digits, but concern is still high regarding enrollment growth, employee compensation and benefits and…

  4. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Acker, Thomas L.; Carlson, Thomas; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hall, Douglas G.

    2006-07-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications); and (4) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology).

  5. Prevalence of birth defects in Korean livebirths, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-A; Yee, Nan Hee; Choi, Jeong Soo; Choi, Jung Yun; Seo, Kyung

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the livebirths prevalence and occurrence pattern of birth defects in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was done in 2,348 medical institutions around the nation, the birth defect prevalence of livebirths in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of livebirths in Korea was 883,184 from 2005-2006, and 25,335 cases of birth defects were notified to our study, equivalent to a prevalence of 286.9 per 10,000 livebirths. Anomalies of the circulatory system were the most common defects, accounting for 43.4% of birth defects with a prevalence of 124.5 per 10,000 livebirths. It was followed by the musculoskeletal system anomalies, the digestive system anomalies, and the urinary system anomalies. The five major birth defects based on the ranking of prevalence were atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, hydronephrosis, patent ductus arteriosus, and cleft lip/palate. Birth defects in livebirths were associated with a high proportion of low birthweight, prematurity, multiple births and advanced maternal age. The prevalence of birth defects in Korea is similar to or lower than those reported in developed countries. Our study suggests baseline data to explain the current status of birth defects and to establish a registry system of birth defects in Korea.

  6. Eszopiclone ingestions reported to Texas poison control centers, 2005 2006.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2007-10-01

    Eszopiclone is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic for the treatment of insomnia and classified as schedule IV controlled substance. Limited information exists on eszopiclone ingestions reported to poison control centers. The distribution of eszopiclone ingestions reported to Texas poison control centers during 2005-2006 was determined for various factors. In addition, triage guidelines for the management of such ingestions were drafted. Of 525 total eszopiclone ingestions, 259 involved coingestants. Of coingestant cases, 78.8% involved suspected attempted suicide and 90.7% were managed at a healthcare facility. Of 266 ingestions of eszopiclone alone, 40.2% were suspected attempted suicide and 62.0% were managed at a healthcare facility. A final medical outcome and dose ingested were known for 60 ingestions of eszopiclone alone. The mean dose was 28.3 mg (range 0.3-210 mg). Ingestions of eszopiclone alone of < or =6 and >6 mg differed with respect to the proportion involving suspected attempted suicide (0.0% versus 64.7%), final medical outcome of minor or moderate effect (38.5% versus 67.6%) and management at a healthcare facility (34.6% versus 91.2%). Using 6 mg as a threshold dose for referral to a healthcare facility, 78% of cases not already at/en route to a healthcare facility were managed according drafted triage guidelines.

  7. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Nigeria, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-03-30

    Only four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan) have never experienced interruption of poliovirus transmission. Nigeria had the largest number of cases in 2006, accounting for 1,129 (56%) of the 2,002 cases reported globally. However, major innovations to the national polio-eradication program in Nigeria were initiated in 2006. These innovations, if sustained, should advance the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Nigeria (2006 population: 140 million) experienced a resurgence in wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission during 2003-2004 after a loss of public confidence in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and suspension of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in certain northern states. Subsequently, WPV spread within Nigeria and into 19 polio-free countries. Even after national SIAs recommenced, limited acceptance and ongoing operational problems resulted in low vaccination coverage and continued poliovirus transmission. The number of confirmed polio cases in Nigeria attributed to both WPV type 1 (WPV1) and type 3 (WPV3) increased from 782 in 2004 to 830 in 2005 and to 1,129 in 2006 (as of March 23, 2007). To increase the effectiveness of polio-eradication measures and community acceptance of vaccination, in 2006, health authorities in Nigeria introduced monovalent type 1 OPV (mOPV1) vaccine and changed the way SIAs were implemented. This report summarizes these new approaches and overall progress toward polio eradication in Nigeria during 2005-2006.

  8. Marine pharmacology in 2005-2006: antitumour and cytotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Gustafson, Kirk R

    2008-11-01

    During 2005 and 2006, marine pharmacology research directed towards the discovery and development of novel antitumour agents was reported in 171 peer-reviewed articles. The purpose of this article is to present a structured review of the antitumour and cytotoxic properties of 136 marine natural products, many of which are novel compounds that belong to diverse structural classes, including polyketides, terpenes, steroids and peptides. The organisms yielding these bioactive marine compounds included invertebrate animals, algae, fungi and bacteria. Antitumour pharmacological studies were conducted with 42 structurally defined marine natural products in a number of experimental and clinical models which further defined their mechanisms of action. Particularly potent in vitro cytotoxicity data generated with murine and human tumour cell lines were reported for 94 novel marine chemicals with as yet undetermined mechanisms of action. Noteworthy is the fact that marine anticancer research was sustained by a global collaborative effort, involving researchers from Australia, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Panama, the Philippines, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA). Finally, this 2005-2006 overview of the marine pharmacology literature highlights the fact that the discovery of novel marine antitumour agents continued at the same active pace as during 1998-2004.

  9. Sodium intake among adults - United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    2010-06-25

    Excessive dietary sodium consumption increases blood pressure, which increases the risk for stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and renal disease. Based on predictive modeling of the health benefits of reduced salt intake on blood pressure, a population-wide reduction in sodium of 1,200 mg/day would reduce the annual number of new cases of coronary heart disease by 60,000-120,000 cases and stroke by 32,000-66,000 cases. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 recommends that specific groups, including persons with hypertension, all middle-aged and older adults, and all blacks should limit intake to 1,500 mg/day of sodium. These specific groups include nearly 70% of the U.S. adult population. For all other adults, the recommended limit is <2,300 mg/day of sodium. To estimate the proportion of adults whose sodium consumption was within recommended limits, CDC analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2005-2006, the most recent data available. Estimated average sodium intake and sources of sodium and calories by food category also were analyzed. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which determined that only 5.5% of adults in the

  10. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2005-2006: Methodology and User Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2005-2006 is to convert the 7,000+ foods in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 3.0 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2005-2006, to USDA...

  11. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J; Cada, Glenn F; Acker, Thomas L.; Carlson, Thomas; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hall, Douglas G.

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington. Completed

  12. Domestic Violence in India: Insights from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimuna, Sitawa R.; Djamba, Yanyi K.; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced…

  13. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006: Documentation and Data Files

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New nationwide dietary intake data were collected in What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2005-2006 and are now available for public use. Two days of dietary intake data are included for most participants. The dietary interview data ...

  14. Domestic Violence in India: Insights from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimuna, Sitawa R.; Djamba, Yanyi K.; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced…

  15. 2005-2006 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 29-36

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and released 8 new tables that add to the current series of 28 data tables already publ...

  16. 2005-2006 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 9-28

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and released 20 additional tables that add to the series of 8 summary tables of mea...

  17. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Mission Resource Requirement, FY 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Mission Resource Requirement (MRR) represents the level of funding necessary for an institution given its mission, size, and complexity of programs, based on regional and national norms, and the amount of the previous year's appropriation. This document is the MRR for the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education for Fiscal Year 2005-2006.…

  18. Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance in northeast Montana, U.S.A., 2005-2006

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance was conducted on a National Wildlife Refuge in northeast Montana, 2005-2006, during which outbreaks of WNV in a colony of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) resulted in juvenile mortality rates of 30 and 31%. During both years, flood...

  19. Peak stepping cadence in free-living adults: 2005-2006 NHANES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) accelerometer data provides the descriptive epidemiology of peak 30-minute cadence (defined as the average steps/min recorded for the 30 highest, but not necessarily consecutive, minutes in a day) and peak 1-minute c...

  20. 7 CFR 760.817 - Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... losses of 25 percent or greater of the value that all affected production of the crop would have had if... exceptions of value loss crops, honey, and maple sap, and applies to crop production that has a reduced... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops. 760.817...

  1. 7 CFR 760.817 - Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... losses of 25 percent or greater of the value that all affected production of the crop would have had if... exceptions of value loss crops, honey, and maple sap, and applies to crop production that has a reduced... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops. 760.817...

  2. 7 CFR 760.817 - Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... losses of 25 percent or greater of the value that all affected production of the crop would have had if... exceptions of value loss crops, honey, and maple sap, and applies to crop production that has a reduced... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops. 760.817...

  3. 7 CFR 760.817 - Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... losses of 25 percent or greater of the value that all affected production of the crop would have had if... exceptions of value loss crops, honey, and maple sap, and applies to crop production that has a reduced... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops. 760.817...

  4. 7 CFR 760.817 - Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... losses of 25 percent or greater of the value that all affected production of the crop would have had if... exceptions of value loss crops, honey, and maple sap, and applies to crop production that has a reduced... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops. 760.817...

  5. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared.

  6. 77 FR 42764 - Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology Royalty Funds...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology... the digital audio recording technology royalty fees in the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Musical Works... royalties on digital audio recording devices and media that are distributed in the United States. 17...

  7. 78 FR 38442 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Nonconforming 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR Passenger Cars Manufactured Before September 1, 2006 Are Eligible for... petition for a decision that nonconforming 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR passenger cars manufactured before...-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR passenger cars) and they are capable of being readily altered to conform to...

  8. [Vaccination coverage in 6-year-old preschool children, France, 2005-2006].

    PubMed

    Fonteneau, L; Urcun, J-M; Guthmann, J-P; Collet, M; Neulat, N; Bristol-Gauzy, P; Guignon, N; Lévy-Bruhl, D; Herbet, J-B

    2013-03-01

    School-based triennial surveys have been implemented in France since 1999 in order to follow up indicators estimating children's health status, including vaccination coverage. The survey was conducted in 2005-2006 in preschools, using a two-stage cross-sectional sampling design (first sampling schools, with pupils then randomly chosen). Among all the children targeted by the survey, 21,346 of them were selected to show their health booklet (carnet de santé) in which the vaccination part was completed. Vaccination coverage was high for vaccines against tuberculosis (BCG 96.8 %), diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis (four doses: 95.6 %), pertussis (four doses: 95.0 %), Haemophilus influenzae type b (four doses: 89.9 %) and for the first dose of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR 93.7 %, 91.4 %, 91.4 %). It was low for the second dose of MMR (45.1 %, 43.2 %, and 43.3 %) and for hepatitis B (37.9 %). The region where the child attended school, the size of the urban unit, the school sector, the father's profession, and the child's birth rank were associated with MMR (second dose) and hepatitis B coverage. In 2005-2006, vaccination coverage for BCG, DTPolio, pertussis, and Hib was stable and satisfactory in 6-year-old children. MMR (first dose) and hepatitis B coverage were insufficient. MMR coverage (second dose) had increased since 2002 but still needs to be improved. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Association between swimming pool operator certification and reduced pool chemistry violations--Nebraska, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Buss, Bryan F; Safranek, Thomas J; Magri, Julie M; Török, Thomas J; Beach, Michael J; Foley, Brett P

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies have recommended mandatory education for all public pool operators, but substantiating data are limited. This study evaluates associations between pool operator certification and chemistry violations by using 2005-2006 Nebraska routine pool inspection reports. Training and certification for nonmunicipal pool operators are only required in two Nebraska counties. Free chlorine violations for nonmunicipal pool inspections were compared in counties with and without certified operator requirements. To control for water supply pH, inspections from nonmunicipal pools with shared-source water in two counties (one requiring certification) were compared for concurrent pH and free chlorine violations. Compared with locations that require certified operators, free chlorine violations and concurrent pH and free chlorine violations were twice as likely in locations without certification. As a result, pools without required operator certification might pose greater health risks. These results demonstrate the benefit of requiring pool operator certification to help prevent recreational water illnesses.

  10. Effect of the ash Fall on the Human Health at Colima Volcano During 2005-2006.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A. L.; Fonseca, R.; Garcia, M.

    2007-05-01

    Colima Volcano in western Mexico had several small ash emitting eruptions during 2005-2006. In this time period we studied the impact of the ash fall on human health through field observations, interviews and health data processing. The volcano was most active in May-June 2005. Data from 15.000 medical records of the Colima and Jalisco State Health Departments show two main health problems in humans during this time: Conjunctivitis was detected in 1,933 people and respiratory disease in 12,630 people in an area of 1,841,283 km2 which was affected by small amounts of ash fall near the volcano in 2005. Ash emissions from Colima Volcano correlate well with increased affections. When emissions increased so did the frequency of these health problems in the population.

  11. Pesticides in Ground Water - Niobrara and Weston Counties, Wyoming, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2005-2006, baseline monitoring was conducted in Niobrara and Weston Counties. This Fact Sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Niobrara and Weston Counties.

  12. Seroprevalence of 9 Human Papillomavirus Types in the United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui; Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2016-01-15

    A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, licensed in 2014, prevents 4 HPV types targeted by the quadrivalent vaccine (6/11/16/18) and 5 additional high-risk (HR) types (31/33/45/52/58). Measuring seropositivity before vaccine introduction provides baseline data on exposure to types targeted by vaccines. We determined seroprevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 among 4943 persons aged 14-59 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Among females, seroprevalence was 40.5% for any of the 9 vaccine types, 30.0% for any 7 HR types (16/18/31/33/45/52/58), 19.0% for any 5 additional types (31/33/45/52/58), and 18.3% for 16/18. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks had higher seroprevalence of 31/33/45/52/58 (36.8% vs 15.9%) and 16/18 (30.1% vs 17.8%), while Mexican Americans had higher seroprevalence of 31/33/45/52/58 (23.6% vs 15.9%) (P < .05 for all). In multivariable analyses of data from females, race/ethnicity, number of sex partners, and age were associated with 16/18 and 31/33/45/52/58 seropositivity. Seropositivity was lower among males than among females (P < .001 for all type categories). In 2005-2006, about 40% of females and 20% of males had serological evidence of exposure to ≥1 of 9 HPV types. Seroprevalence of all type categories, especially HPV 31/33/45/52/58 among females, varied by race/ethnicity. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. population: NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bishop, Amber M; Needham, Larry L

    2010-05-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, -pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing. We assessed exposure to methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens in a representative sample of persons >or= 6 years of age in the U.S. general population from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We analyzed 2,548 urine samples by using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We detected methyl paraben (MP) and propyl paraben (PP) in 99.1% and 92.7% of the samples, respectively. We detected ethyl (42.4%) and butyl (47%) parabens less frequently and at median concentrations at least one order of magnitude lower than MP (63.5 microg/L) and PP (8.7 microg/L). Least-square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of MP were significantly higher (p or= 60 years). Adolescent and adult females had significantly higher (p < 0.01) LSGM concentrations of MP and PP than did adolescent and adult males. Females were more likely than males [adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs): MP, 3.2 (2.99-5.27); PP, 4.19 (2.34-7.49)] and non-Hispanic blacks were more likely than non-Hispanic whites [MP, 4.99 (2.62-9.50); PP, 3.6 (1.86-7.05)] to have concentrations above the 95th percentile. The general U.S. population was exposed to several parabens during 2005-2006. Differences in the urinary concentrations of MP and PP by sex and race/ethnicity likely reflect the use of personal care products containing these compounds.

  14. Epidemiology of high school and collegiate football injuries in the United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Prasad R; Fields, Sarah K; Collins, Christy L; Dick, Randall W; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-08-01

    Football, one of the most popular sports among male high school students in the United States, is a leading cause of sports-related injuries, with an injury rate almost twice that of basketball, the second most popular sport. Injury patterns will vary between competition and practice exposures and between levels of play (ie, high school vs. National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA]). Descriptive epidemiology study. Football-related injury data were collected over the 2005-2006 school year from 100 nationally representative high schools via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online) and from 55 Division I, II, and III colleges via the NCAA Injury Surveillance System. Nationally, an estimated 517,726 high school football-related injuries (1881 unweighted injuries) occurred during the 2005-2006 season. The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was greater during high school competitions (12.04) than during practices (2.56). The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was also greater during collegiate competitions (40.23) than during practices (5.77). While the overall rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was greater in the NCAA (8.61) than in high school (4.36), high school football players sustained a greater proportion of fractures and concussions. Running plays were the leading cause of injury, with running backs and linebackers being the positions most commonly injured. Patterns of football injuries vary, especially by type of exposure and level of play. Future studies should continue to compare differences in injury patterns in high school and collegiate football, with particular emphasis placed on high-risk plays (running plays) and positions (running backs and linebackers).

  15. 37th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2005-2006 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 37th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2005-06. Data highlights of the survey include: (1) In the 2005-2006 academic year, the states…

  16. Impact of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in south Texas on predation of Lepidopteran eggs, 2005-2006.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predation on eggs of the lepidopteran pests (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) and Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) in cotton was monitored before and during the first two seasons of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in south Texas (2005-2006). Mortality of eggs was reduced after malathion sprays for boll weevil...

  17. Secular changes in personality: study on 75-year-olds examined in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Billstedt, E; Waern, M; Duberstein, P; Marlow, T; Hellström, T; Ostling, S; Skoog, I

    2013-03-01

    In order to study secular changes in personality factors neuroticism and extroversion, representative population samples of non-demented 75-year-olds underwent psychiatric examinations in 1976-1977 (total n = 223, 138 women, 85 men) and 2005-2006 (total n = 556, 322 women and 234 men). Eysenck Personality Inventory was used at both occasions. Demographic factors (educational level, marital status, having children) were registered. Seventy-five-year-olds examined in 2005-2006 had higher values on extroversion and lower values on the Lie scale compared with those examined in 1976-1977. Neuroticism did not differ between the two birth cohorts. Neuroticism scores were higher in women than in men both in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006, and Lie score was higher in women than in men in 2005-2006. Our findings suggest that present cohorts of 75-year-olds are more extroverted and less prone to respond in a socially desirable manner than those born three decades earlier. Neuroticism levels remained unchanged, suggesting this trait may be less influenced by environmental factors than the other traits studied. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Domestic violence in India: insights from the 2005-2006 national family health survey.

    PubMed

    Kimuna, Sitawa R; Djamba, Yanyi K; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna

    2013-03-01

    This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced physical violence in the past 12 months before the survey; the corresponding figure for sexual violence was 8.3%. The multivariate logistic regression results show key determinants of physical and sexual violence. Some of the most salient findings are that urban residence, household wealth, affiliation with Christian religious denominations, wife's age at marriage and education are associated with lower risk of physical and sexual violence. In contrast, being employed and being the wife of a man who drank alcohol increased the odds of experiencing both physical and sexual violence. Moreover, respondents who believed that wife-beating was justified under certain circumstances were more likely to experience domestic violence. These results and significant regional differences observed in this study suggest that gender role conditioning and cultural norms both contribute to domestic violence. Interventions, therefore, need to go beyond the institutional and legal levels to include cultural capital, which addresses partner and relationship issues.

  19. Registration of fatal occupational injuries in Costa Rica, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana Maria; Mora-Mora, Maria Gabriela; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Data on fatal occupational injuries (FOIs) for Latin America are controversial. Costa Rican national rates are inconsistent with estimates extrapolated from other countries. We reviewed the files for all possible FOIs in Costa Rica for 2005-2006 at the National Insurance Institute and at the Center of Forensic Sciences by formality/informality of work, sex, age, economic activity, occupation, and cause of death. The national mortality rate was estimated at 9.5/100,000 person-years (342 deaths). The informal/formal rate ratio was 1.06. Men's rates were over 10 times higher than women's and increased with age. The highest rates were found for transport, storage, and communication (32.1/100,000 person-years), and, by occupation, for messengers and delivery men (91.4). Leading causes of death were traffic injuries and gunshots. Recalculated rates are probably underestimates. Data limitations include the absence of systematic identification and registration among informal sector workers and other groups such as children and farm workers.

  20. Contraceptive use before first pregnancy by women in India (2005-2006): determinants and differentials.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anjali; Singh, K K

    2015-12-29

    There exist ample of research literature investigating the various facet of contraceptive use behaviors in India but the use of contraception by married Indian women, prior to having their first pregnancy has been neglected so far. This study attempts to identify the socio demographic determinants and differentials of contraceptive use or non use by a woman in India, before she proceeds to have her first child. The analysis was done using data from the third National Family Health Survey (2005-2006), India. This study utilized information from 54,918 women who ever have been married and whose current age at the time of NFHS-3 survey was 15-34 years. To identify the crucial socio-demographic determinants governing this pioneering behavior, logistic regression technique has been used. Hosmer Lemeshow test and ROC curve analysis was also performed in order to check the fitting of logistic regression model to the data under consideration. Of all the considered explanatory variables religion, caste, education, current age, age at marriage, media exposure and zonal classifications were found to be significantly affecting the study behavior. Place of residence i.e. urban--rural locality came to be insignificant in multivariable logistic regression. In the light of sufficient evidences confirming the presence of early marriages and child bearing practices in India, conjunct efforts are required to address the socio demographic differentials in contraceptive use by the young married women prior to their first pregnancy. Encouraging women to opt for higher education, ensuring marriages only after legal minimum age at marriage and promoting the family planning programs via print and electronic media may address the existing socio economic barriers. Also, the family planning programs should be oriented to take care of the geographical variations in the study behavior.

  1. Is abnormal liver function correlated with food sensitisation in adults? US NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, I

    2015-01-01

    Associations between liver function and serum IgE levels have recently been observed in children. However, the relationship in adults is unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to study associations of liver function and serum total and food-specific IgE concentrations in a national and population-based study. Data were retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2006 including demographics, liver status tests, biomarkers, lifestyle factors, and serum total and food-specific IgE concentrations. Participants aged 20 and above were included. Analyses included t-test, chi-square test, and survey-weighted regression modelling. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, vitamin D, waist circumference, family poverty income ratio, total cholesterol, ever asthma, total protein, and survey weighting, abnormal gamma glutamyl transpeptidase was significantly associated with food sensitisation (peanut: OR 2.17, 95%CI 1.60-2.94, P<0.001; egg: OR 2.55, 95%CI 1.32-4.90, P=0.008; milk: OR 2.59, 95%CI 1.56-4.31, P=0.001; shrimp: OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.29-2.55, P=0.002). Moreover, both abnormal albumin and alanine transaminase were associated with egg sensitisation (OR 1.96, 95%CI 1.12-3.43, P=0.022 and OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.04-4.09, P=0.040, respectively). Abnormal liver status tests were correlated with serum food-specific IgE concentrations in adults. Future research with longitudinal design or in clinical settings may be warranted confirming or refuting the observations made in the present epidemiological study. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic characterization of dengue virus type 1 isolated in Brunei in 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2009-03-01

    The full-length genomes of two DENV-1 viruses isolated during the 2005-2006 dengue incidents in Brunei were sequenced. Twenty five primer sets were designed to amplify contiguous overlapping fragments of approximately 500-600 base pairs spanning the entire sequence of the genome. The amplified PCR products were sent to a commercial laboratory for sequencing and the nucleotides and the deduced amino acids were determined. Sequence analysis of the envelope gene at the nucleotide and amino acid levels between the two isolates showed 92 and 96 % identity, respectively. Comparison of the envelope gene sequences with 68 other DENV-1 viruses of known genotypes placed the two isolates into two different genotypic groups. Isolate DS06/210505 belongs to genotype V together with some of the recent isolates from India (2003) and older isolates from Singapore (1990) and Burma (1976), while isolate DS212/110306 was clustered in genotype IV with the prototype Nauru strain (1974) and with some of the recent isolates from Indonesia (2004) and the Philippines (2002, 2001). In the full-length genome analysis at the nucleotide level, isolate DS06/210505 showed 94 % identity to the French Guyana strain (1989) in genotype V while isolate DS212/110306 had 96 % identity to the Nauru Island strain (1974) in genotype IV. This work constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of not only Brunei DENV-1 virus isolates, but also the first strain from Borneo Island. This study was the first to report the isolation of dengue virus in the country.

  3. Adult self-reported and objectively monitored physical activity and sedentary behavior: NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Schuna, John M; Johnson, William D; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2013-11-11

    It remains unclear what people are attempting to communicate, in terms of objectively monitored behavior, when describing their physical activity and sedentary behavior through self-report. The purpose of this study was to examine various objectively monitored accelerometer variables (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], steps/day, sedentary time, etc.) across categories of self-reported MVPA (< 150 vs. ≥ 150 minutes/week), usual occupational/domestic activity (UODA; "mostly sitting" vs. "stand, walk, lift, or carry"), and leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB; ≥ 3 vs. < 3 hours/day) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (≥ 20 years). This is a secondary analysis of 3,725 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) who provided relevant questionnaire responses and ≥ 1 day of valid accelerometer data. Descriptive statistics were computed for various objectively monitored accelerometer variables across categories of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB. Pairwise comparisons were conducted to examine differences in objectively monitored behavior between categories of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB. On average, adults reporting compliance with physical activity guidelines (≥ 150 minutes/week of MVPA) accumulated more objectively measured physical activity and similar amounts of sedentary time relative to those reporting not achieving guidelines. Adults reporting their daily UODA as "mostly sitting" or accruing ≥ 3 hours/day of LTSB accumulated less objectively monitored physical activity and more sedentary time than those who described their UODA as "stand, walk, lift, or carry" or accrued < 3 hours/day of LTSB. The most active cross-classified category (7,935 steps/day; ≥ 150 minutes/week of self-reported MVPA, "stand, walk, lift, or carry" UODA, and < 3 hours/day of LTSB) accumulated more than twice as many daily steps as the least active cross

  4. Physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and depression symptoms among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women to provide a more accurate understanding of the relationship between physical activity and depression symptoms. We employed a cross-sectional study design. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were used for this study. One-hundred and forty-one pregnant women wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess depression status. More than 19% of the participants experienced some depression symptoms, and compared to their counterparts not having depression symptoms, they were less physically active. An inverse association was found between physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women. When feasible, nurses are encouraged to help facilitate physical activity among pregnant women, assuming an uncomplicated pregnancy. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. [The benefit provided by new medicinal products in 2005-2006--the viewpoint of the French National Authority for Health].

    PubMed

    Bouvenot, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The French National Authority for Health (HAS) assesses the actual benefit provided by medicinal products within a defined legal framework. It provides an independent scientific opinion. It aims to ensure equity, taking into account a variety of points of view as a result of close collaboration with health professionals. In 2005-2006, the mean time to process requests by the Transparency Committee was 100 days (median 77 days) and faster than in previous years. Over 30% of new medicinal products undergoing a first assessment or an assessment for an extension to indications were deemed to provide added value. This added value was marked for 25% of the products (i.e. an improvement in actual benefit ("ASMR") of I to III). Many of these products were orphan drugs and/or biotechnology products.

  6. Multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with raw tomatoes eaten in restaurants--United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-09-07

    During 2005-2006, four large multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with eating raw tomatoes at restaurants occurred in the United States. The four outbreaks resulted in 459 culture-confirmed cases of salmonellosis in 21 states. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory investigations into these four outbreaks by state and local health departments, national food safety agencies, and CDC. The results of these investigations determined that the tomatoes had been supplied to restaurants either whole or precut from tomato fields in Florida, Ohio, and Virginia. These recurrent, large, multistate outbreaks emphasize the need to prevent Salmonella contamination of tomatoes early in the production and packing process. Current knowledge of mechanisms for tomato contamination and methods of eradication of Salmonella in tomatoes is incomplete; the agricultural industry, food safety agencies, and public health agencies should make tomato-safety research a priority.

  7. [Introducing formative portfolio as a tool for Internal Medicine residents mentoring: review of a pilot project, 2005-2006].

    PubMed

    Arnau I Figueras, J; Torán Monserrat, P; Martínez-Carretero, J M; Forteza-Rey, J; Pinilla Llorente, B; Brailovsky, C A

    2008-10-01

    Recent educational projects in our country have been trying to introduce professional portfolios as assessment/learning tools on the undergraduate and specialized post-graduate education levels. The approval of a new formative program for the Internal Medicine specialty in an effort to adapt to the present health care needs offers an opportunity to apply these formative and evaluative methodologies in the learning process of future internists. During the 2005-2006 academic year, the Formative Work Group of the Spanish Internal Medicine Society (SEMI) developed a pilot study on portfolio application as a tool for formative assessment and mentoring. This article describes the project of designing, developing, applying and assessing an electronic portfolio for first year Internal Medicine residents. It presents an analysis of the SEMI Portfolio strengths and weaknesses and finally makes suggestions for future development.

  8. An unusual outbreak of rotavirus genotype G2P[6] during the 2005-2006 epidemic season in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Clark, H Fred; Lawley, Diane; DiStefano, Daniel; Maliga, Marianne; Kilby, Bronwyn; Kulnis, Greg; Mallette, Laura; DiNubile, Mark J

    2011-06-01

    Most rotavirus gastroenteritis is caused by G1P[8] strains. When G2 infections are encountered, the P type has most often been reported to be P[4]. The purpose of our study was to describe an unusual outbreak of G2P[6] cases. Children presenting to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for rotavirus antigen in stool by ELISA (with G-typing if ELISA positive) since 1994-1995. Compared to the last 12 rotavirus seasons before the 2006 introduction of a new rotavirus vaccine, the 2005-2006 season had by far the highest number of evaluable rotavirus infections [n = 275 from September 2005 through June 2006, of which 261 (95%) were G typed] and the greatest number of G2 cases (n = 101, 39% of typed strains). Only 16% of G2 strains were associated with P[4], whereas genotype G2P[6] was responsible for 83% of the G2 infections. Eighty-eight percent of the 84 G2P[6] cases occurred in the 60% of patients who were African-Americans, most of whom were urban residents. Among 157 African-American patients, G2 cases (n = 80; 52%) predominated, including 74 due to G2P[6]. Children <6 months old accounted for 27% of cases overall, but 36% of the G2P[6] cases. G2 rotaviruses caused over a third of the community-acquired rotavirus cases in children presenting to CHOP in 2005-2006, attesting to the potential impact of G2 strains during some epidemics. The large majority of G2 strains had the rare P[6] genotype. Urban African-American children under 6 months of age were disproportionately affected.

  9. Epidemiology of stress fracture injuries among US high school athletes, 2005-2006 through 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Changstrom, Bradley G; Brou, Lina; Khodaee, Morteza; Braund, Cortney; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-01-01

    High school athletes in the United States sustain millions of injuries annually, approximately 10% of which are fractures. However, there is no clear estimate of the number of stress fractures sustained by high school athletes annually despite reports that stress fractures account for 0.7% to 20% of injuries seen in sports medicine clinics. This suggests a high utilization of resources for a potentially preventable injury. In addition, stress fractures have been associated with low energy availability and disordered eating in young athletes, highlighting the importance of early recognition and intervention. To investigate stress fracture rates and patterns in a large national sample of US high school athletes. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data from High School RIO (Reporting Information Online), a national sports injury surveillance study, were analyzed to describe rates and patterns of stress fracture injury sustained from 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, across sports and by sex. From 2005-2006 through 2012-2013, a total of 51,773 injuries were sustained during 25,268,873 athlete-exposures, of which 389 (0.8%) were stress fractures, resulting in an overall stress fracture rate of 1.54 per 100,000 athlete-exposures. Rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures were highest in girls' cross country (10.62), girls' gymnastics (7.43), and boys' cross country (5.42). In sex-comparable sports, girls sustained more stress fractures (63.3%) than did boys (36.7%) and had higher rates of stress fracture (2.22 vs 1.27; rate ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.38-2.23). The most commonly injured sites were the lower leg (40.3% of all stress fractures), foot (34.9%), and lower back/lumbar spine/pelvis (15.2%). Management was nonsurgical in 98.7% of the cases, and 65.3% of injuries resulted in ≥3 weeks of time loss, medical disqualification, or an end to the season before athletes could return to play. Although a rare injury, stress fractures cause considerable morbidity for high school athletes

  10. Shaping a New Nation: Turning Points in American History. A Report on a Research Study, 2005-2006. Interim Technical Report No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Bratton, Angela R.

    2006-01-01

    This research paper examines the effectiveness of the Teaching American History (TAH) Program in Jefferson County, Kentucky from 2005-2006. We employ a combination of survey, interview, observational, and data mining research methods to examine attainment of program objectives and goals. In addition to evaluating the overall effectiveness of the…

  11. The active tropical cyclone season of 2005 2006 over Northwest Australia: Operational model performance and high resolution case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. W.; Leslie, L. M.; Leplastrier, M.; Qi, L.

    2007-08-01

    There are three main aims of this study. First, the main features of the active 2005 2006 Australian region tropical cyclone (TC) season are summarized, with particular emphasis on the northwest Australian region. Second, an assessment is made of the skill of the available operational global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) models for three of the most significant TCs (TCs Clare, Glenda and Hubert), each of which made landfall on the northwest coast of Australia. Third, high-resolution numerical modelling simulations of these same three TCs are described in detail. The numerical weather prediction (NWP) model used here was developed at the University of Oklahoma, and in this study it utilises initial and boundary conditions obtained from archived analyses and forecasts provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, as well as a 4D-Var data assimilation scheme to ingest all available satellite data. The high-resolution numerical model is multiply two-way nested, with the innermost domain having a resolution of 5 km. It was found that unlike the operational models, which were restricted by relatively low resolution and less data, the high resolution model was able to capture most of the major features of all three TC lifecycles including development from initial tropical depressions, intensification, and their tracks, landfall, and associated rainfall and wind fields.

  12. [Malaria and pregnancy. San Isidro parish, municipality Sifontes, state of Bolívar, Venezuela, 2005-2006].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elisbeth; López, Egleé; Ache, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Malaria in pregnancy constitutes a world-wide public health problem. With the objective of studying malaria in pregnancy, a cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological study was carried out on 449 women, in mining areas of the San Isidro parish, municipality Sifontes, state of Bolívar, Venezuela, during 2005-2006. The Malaria incidence in pregnant women was 27.4%: 87% for Plasmodium vivax, 12.2% Plasmodium falciparum and 0.8% mixed infections. These infections appeared mainly during the second trimester (41.5%). Of the women studied, 71.5% presented symptoms and 26.2% had anemia. A higher proportion of abortions occurred among infected mothers with Plasmodium vivax (3/5); and there were 3.3% low-birth-weight neonates. A case of placental malaria (0.8%) for Plasmodium vivax was registered. An association was observed between mothers receiving chemoprophylaxis and the adequate weight of newborns (chi2 = 41 23gl. p < 0.0001), independently of the regularity of treatment. It is concluded that the routine administration of antimalarial quimioprophilaxis against P. vivax to pregnant women, could be justified in endemic areas. It is advisable to establish the routine diagnosis and opportune treatment during the prenatal practice in the transmission areas of malaria.

  13. Personalized Management Approach for OSA.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Jayne C; Amatoury, Jason; Eckert, Danny J

    2017-06-16

    OSA is a heterogeneous disorder. If left untreated, it has major health, safety, and economic consequences. In addition to varying levels of impairment in pharyngeal anatomy (narrow/collapsible airway), nonanatomical "phenotypic traits" are also important contributors to OSA for most patients. However, the majority of existing therapies (eg, CPAP, oral appliances, weight loss, positional therapy, upper airway surgery) target only the anatomical cause. These are typically administered as monotherapy according to a trial and error management approach in which the majority of patients are first prescribed CPAP. Despite its high efficacy, CPAP adherence remains unacceptably low, and second-line therapies have variable and unpredictable efficacies. Recent advances in knowledge regarding the multiple causes of OSA using respiratory phenotyping techniques have identified new targets or "treatable traits" to direct therapy. Identification of the traits and development of therapies that selectively target one or more of the treatable traits has the potential to personalize the management of this chronic health condition to optimize patient outcomes according to precision medicine principles. This brief review highlights the latest developments and emerging therapies for personalized management approaches for OSA. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dichlorophenol-containing pesticides and allergies: results from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Jerschow, Elina; McGinn, Aileen P; de Vos, Gabriele; Vernon, Natalia; Jariwala, Sunit; Hudes, Golda; Rosenstreich, David

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies support the hypothesis that reduced microbial exposure in westernized societies promotes atopy. Dichlorophenols are widely used as pesticides and for chlorination of water. They have a strong bactericidal effect that could affect microflora in the environment. However, it is unknown whether their use is associated with a higher prevalence of allergies. To test the association between exposure to environmental pesticides represented by dichlorophenols and allergic sensitization measured by allergen-specific serum IgE levels in a US nationally representative sample of 2,211 persons 6 years and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Exposure to dichlorophenols was defined as high if their levels in urine were present at the 75th percentile and above. Association of the high exposure to dichlorophenols with sensitization to food and environmental allergens was assessed in logistic regression models after adjustment for sample weights and potential confounders. Sensitizations to 1 or more food allergens were more common in those with exposure to 2 dichlorophenol metabolites. After multivariable adjustment, urine dichlorophenol levels at the 75th percentile and above were associated with the presence of sensitization to foods (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.5; P = .003). No significant association was found between dichlorophenol exposure and sensitization to aeroallergens alone. High urine levels of dichlorophenols are associated with the presence of sensitization to foods in a US population. Excessive use of dichlorophenols may contribute to the increasing incidence of food allergies in westernized societies. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship of blood lead with immunoglobulin E, eosinophils, and asthma among children: NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Wells, Ellen M; Bonfield, Tracey L; Dearborn, Dorr G; Jackson, Leila W

    2014-03-01

    Early life lead exposure may alter immune function and predispose a child to develop asthma. In an initial exploration of this hypothesis, we examined the association between blood lead, and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophils, and asthma prevalence in a cross-sectional study of 1788 children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Geometric mean blood lead, serum IgE, and percent eosinophils were 1.13 μg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.22), 46.3 kU/L (95% CI: 40.3, 53.1), and 2.82 percent (95% CI 2.67, 2.98), respectively. Prevalence of asthma, atopic asthma, and atopy were 11.8% (95% CI: 9.5, 14.2), 8.1% (6.2, 9.9), and 44.4% (40.1, 48.7), respectively. Regression models controlled for season, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, passive smoke exposure, and body mass index. Based on these models, there was an 11.1% (95% CI: 5.6, 16.9) increase in IgE and a 4.9% (95% CI: 2.3, 7.6) increase in eosinophils per 1 μg/dL increase in blood lead. In independent stratified analyses, lead was found to increase IgE and eosinophils among non-Hispanic whites, but not other children; and stronger associations were observed among children who lived with a smoker vs. not. Lead was not associated with asthma, atopic asthma, or general atopy. This study provides additional evidence of a cross-sectional association between lead with IgE and new evidence for eosinophils. This may be a mechanism for development of downstream allergic disease. The mechanisms that determine ultimate development of allergic disease are currently unknown, but are the focus of ongoing studies.

  16. Cytology use for cervical cancer screening in Portugal: results from the 2005/2006 National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Mariana; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the patterns of cervical cytology use in preventive care may provide useful information for an efficient transition from opportunistic screening to organized programmes. We aimed to identify the determinants of non-use and underuse of cervical cytology in Portuguese women. Methods: As part of the fourth National Health Survey (2005/2006), 2191 women aged between 25 and 64 years were evaluated. The previous use of cervical cytology was classified as never or ever, and, among the latter, those having performed the latest cytology testing >5 years before were considered to underuse cervical cytology. We assessed the determinants of non-use and underuse through age- and education-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Overall, 23.5% of women had never used cervical cytology and 10.7% reported underuse. This prevalence increased with age and decreased with education and income. Compared with the national mean, the lowest risk of non-use and underuse was observed in Norte (non-use: OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.23–0.42; underuse: OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40–0.91) and the highest in Alentejo (non-use: OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.78–3.06; underuse: OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.43–3.93). Women without a private health insurance (OR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.29–5.47), who had no doctor appointments in the preceding 3 months (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.22–3.48) and those who had never performed a mammography (OR = 17.78, 95% CI: 9.09–34.78) were more likely to have never performed a cervical cytology. Conclusion: This study shows inequalities in the use of cervical cancer screening in Portugal and provides useful information for a better allocation of resources for cancer screening. PMID:23788013

  17. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John; Hatch, Douglas R.

    2006-12-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Estimated rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the current expression of repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of four study groups (in river release, direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 7 March to 8 June 2006. In total, 348 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 17.0% (348 of 2,002) of the entire 2005-2006 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially (first 2

  18. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  19. Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  20. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  1. Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Salo, Päivi M; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J; Hoppin, Jane A; Sever, Michelle L; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2011-05-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific IgE in the general US population. We estimated the prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005-2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (n = 8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgE levels against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins, and selected foods (egg white, cow's milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgE by using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. In NHANES 2005-2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever, and 23.5% had current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE levels (adjusted odds ratios for a 10-fold increase in total IgE level of 1.86 [95% CI, 1.44-2.41] for hay fever and 1.64 [95% CI, 1.41-1.91] for allergies). Increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgE (adjusted odds ratio, 4.75; 95% CI, 3.83-5.88). In the US population self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. The cold European winter of 2005-2006 assisted the spread and persistence of H5N1 influenza virus in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Daniela; de la Rocque, S; Khomenko, S; Gilbert, M; Newman, S H; Roche, B; Schwabenbauer, K; Pinto, J; Robinson, T P; Slingenbergh, J

    2010-06-01

    In January 2006, a major cold spell affected Europe, coinciding with an increase of H5N1 influenza virus detected in wild birds, mostly dead mute swans, starting along the River Danube and the Mediterranean coast line. Subsequently H5N1 detections in wild birds were concentrated in central and western parts of Europe, reaching a peak in mid February. We tested the hypothesis that the geographic distribution of these H5N1 infections was modulated by the long-term wintering line, the 0 °C isotherm marking the limit beyond which areas are largely unsuitable for wintering waterfowl. Given the particularly cold 2005-2006 European winter, we also considered the satellite-derived contemporary frost conditions. This brought us to select the long-term maximum rather than the mean January 0 °C isotherm as the best approximation for the 2005-2006 wintering line. Our analysis shows that H5N1 detection sites were closer to the wintering line than would be expected by chance, even when the geographic distribution of water bird wintering sites was accounted for. We argue that partial frost conditions in water bodies are conducive to bird congregation, and this may have enhanced H5N1 transmission and local spread. Because the environmental virus load also would build up in these hot spots, H5N1 virus may have readily persisted during the spring, at least in cooler areas. We conclude that H5N1 introduction, spread, and persistence in Europe may have been enhanced by the cold 2005-2006 winter.

  3. A change in the effectiveness of amantadine for the treatment of influenza over the 2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006 influenza seasons in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Naoki; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Iwaki, Norio; Kawamura, Kenichi; Kawashima, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2007-10-01

    A retrospective study of the 2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006 influenza seasons was done to investigate the effectiveness of amantadine and oseltamivir for treating influenza A. Commercial antigen detection kits were used for diagnosis and data were collected from 44 clinics throughout Japan, using an Internet-based system. Oseltamivir was administered to 2775 patients and amantadine to 781 patients. The durations of fever, from the time of the first drug administration and from the onset of fever, were calculated for each patient. In the 2005-2006 season, the duration of fever from the first drug administration was longer for patients who received amantadine than for those who received oseltamivir when the patients were grouped by the time from onset of fever to the start of treatment (P < 0.001 for groups administered at 0-12, 13-24, 25-36 h from the onset) and by patient age (P < 0.001 for under 16 years and P < 0.05 for 16-64 years). Mean values of duration of fever from the first drug administration were 31.3 h, 31.3 h, and 31.9 h for oseltamivir therapy, and 33.3 h, 42.7 h, and 53.3 h for amantadine therapy, in the 2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006 seasons, respectively. Reduction in the effectiveness of amantadine over the three influenza seasons were also observed in each age group of 0-6, 7-15, and 16-64 years. The studied season was an independent factor associated with the effectiveness of amantadine by multiple regression analysis. In conclusion, the effectiveness of oseltamivir did not change, but the effectiveness of amantadine was progressively reduced over the three influenza seasons.

  4. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial.

  5. Prevalence of cardiovascular disorders and risk factors in two 75-year-old birth cohorts examined in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Xinyue; Joas, Erik; Waern, Margda; Östling, Svante; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Skoog, Ingmar

    2013-08-01

    The number of older people are increasing worldwide, and cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of death in western societies. This study examines birth cohort differences in cardiovascular disorders and risk factors in Swedish elderly. Representative samples of 75-year-olds living in Gothenburg, Sweden, examined in 1976-1977 and in 2005-2006. Blood pressure, s-cholesterol, s-triglycerides, height, body weight, body mass index, history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and stroke/TIA, and diabetes mellitus were measured. The prevalence of total cardiovascular disorders, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia decreased, and the prevalence of stroke increased in both genders. The prevalence of cardiovascular disorders was higher in women than in men in 1976-1977, and higher in men than in women in 2005-2006. The decrease in blood pressure occurred independently of antihypertensive treatment. The prevalence of current smokers decreased in men and increased in women. The prevalence of life-time smokers and diabetes mellitus increased only in women. The proportion on antihypertensive treatment and overweight and obesity increased only in men. Hypertension, overweight and obesity were more common in women in 1976-1977. These sex differences were not observed in 2005-2006. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular disorders decreased, and sex differences reversed between the 1970s and 2000s among Swedish septuagenarians. Our findings emphasize the importance of environmental factors, not only for the prevalence of cardiovascular disorders, but also as explanations for sex differences. Reasons for changes could be increased survival in those with disorders and risk factors, changes in lifestyle and diet, and better preventive strategies, such as treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension.

  6. Seafood intake, polyunsaturated fatty acids, blood mercury, and serum C-reactive protein in US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Erin; Meliker, Jaymie

    2017-04-01

    We examined the association between seafood consumption, mercury concentration, polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, and Vitamin D in relation to C-reactive protein using the cross-sectional US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. We hypothesized that seafood consumption and fatty acids will be negatively associated, and mercury will be positively associated with C-reactive protein, and that statistical adjustment for these factors will alleviate confounding thereby making these associations more apparent. The study sample included 1217 participants (706 males, 511 females) aged 16-49. Sex-stratified sample weighted multiple linear regression models revealed no associations of mercury, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish intake, selenium, or vitamin D with serum C-reactive protein. However, when all variables were included together in one model, fish intake was associated with lower levels of CRP in females suggesting confounding in models that do not mutually adjust for seafood contaminants and nutrients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. A survey of gundog lameness and injuries in Great Britain in the shooting seasons 2005/2006 and 2006/2007.

    PubMed

    Houlton, J E F

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to record the types of injuries and causes of lameness exhibited by dogs involved in game shooting. The study investigated gundogs that worked in the seasons 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Information was acquired by owner questionnaires. The dogs were classified as working in the beating line, as peg dogs or as picking up dogs. A further group comprised Setters and Pointers that worked the grouse moors. A secondary objective was to assess the incidence of injuries that were treated by owners without seeking the assistance of their veterinarian, and to identify those that may have been underestimated. Depending on whether a dog was injured or went lame, and, if so, the nature of the injury, was correlated with the number of days worked, where it worked, its breed and the type of work it did. A mildly positive association between the Spaniel breed group and injuries was seen in 2005/2006 but not in 2006/2007. However, the relationship between the type of work and injuries was very significant for both seasons with dogs working in the beating line being at greatest risk and Setters and Pointers having the least number of injuries. The dogs in the beating line were also at a significantly greater risk of injury in both years when the type of injury was investigated. Fifty-three percent of all injuries were deemed to be sufficiently minor, that veterinary attention was not sought. However, those dogs with proximal thoracic limb lameness may have been under-investigated. There was a highly significant association between tail injuries and undocked Springer and Cocker Spaniels.

  8. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhavna P

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  9. Epidemiology of High School Sports-Related Injuries Resulting in Medical Disqualification: 2005-2006 Through 2013-2014 Academic Years.

    PubMed

    Tirabassi, Jill; Brou, Lina; Khodaee, Morteza; Lefort, Roxanna; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-11-01

    Although rare, season- or career-ending injuries in young athletes are concerning because they can result in time lost from sport participation and school, social costs, and economic costs of medical care. To describe rates and patterns of medically disqualifying (MDQ) injuries among United States high school athletes overall and by sport, sex, type of athletic activity, and mechanism. Descriptive epidemiological study. Sports-related injury data on high school athletes were collected during the 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 academic years from a large national sample of United States high schools via High School Reporting Information Online (RIO). MDQ injuries were defined as season- or career-ending injuries. From 2005-2006 through 2013-2014, High School RIO captured 59,862 total injuries including 3599 MDQ injuries (6.0% of all injuries). Most MDQ injuries (60.4%) occurred in competition. Football had the highest injury rate (26.5 per 100,000 athlete-exposures), followed by gymnastics (18.6) and wrestling (17.9). MDQ injury rates were higher among girls in the sex-comparable sports of basketball (rate ratio [RR], 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0), cross-country (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-7.5), soccer (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9), and track and field (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.0). Player-player contact (48.2%) was the most common MDQ injury mechanism. The most commonly injured body site was the knee (33.7%). The most common MDQ injury diagnosis was sprains/strains (35.9%); the most common specific MDQ injury was knee sprains/strains (25.4%), with the anterior cruciate ligament being the most commonly injured knee structure. Among boys, fracture was the most common diagnosis in 3 sports, and sprain/strain was the most common in 6 sports. Among girls, sprain/strain was the most common diagnosis in 9 sports, and fracture was the most common only in softball. MDQ injuries vary by sport, sex, and type of athletic activity and occur most frequently as a result of player-player contact. These

  10. Intermittent hypoxemia and OSA: implications for comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Naresh A; Nieto, F Javier; Somers, Virend K

    2015-01-01

    OSA is a common chronic disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality including cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive disease and increased cancer-related deaths. OSA is characterized by recurrent episodes of apneas and hypopneas associated with repetitive episodes of intermittent hypoxemia, intrathoracic pressure changes, and arousals. Intermittent hypoxemia (IH) is now being recognized as a potential major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of OSA-related comorbidities. OSA-related high-frequency IH is characterized by cycles of hypoxemia with reoxygenation that is distinctly different than sustained low-frequency hypoxia and contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Data from both animal and human studies support mechanistic links between IH and its adverse impact at the tissue level. IH promotes oxidative stress by increased production of reactive oxygen species and angiogenesis, increased sympathetic activation with BP elevation, and systemic and vascular inflammation with endothelial dysfunction that contributes to diverse multiorgan chronic morbidity and mortality affecting cardiovascular disease, metabolic dysfunction, cognitive decline, and progression of cancer. Data from observational studies in large population groups also support the role for hypoxia in the pathogenesis of OSA comorbidity. Treatment with CPAP to reverse OSA-related symptoms and comorbidities has been shown to provide variable benefit in some but not all patient groups. Early treatment with CPAP makes intuitive sense to promote maximal functional recovery and minimize residual injury. More studies are needed to determine the interacting effects of IH and obesity, differential effects of both short-term and long-term hypoxemia, and the effect of CPAP treatment.

  11. Doctorate Education in Canada: Findings from the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2005/2006. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 069

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Darren; Eisl-Culkin, Judy; Desjardins, Louise

    2008-01-01

    "Doctorate Education in Canada: Findings from the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2005/2006" is the third paper in a series of reports written by the Learning Policy Directorate of Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC) and the Centre for Education Statistics of Statistics Canada. Each report presents an overview of doctoral…

  12. Sociodemographic correlates of male chewable smokeless tobacco users in India: a preliminary report of analysis of National Family Health Survey, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Rooban, T; Elizabeth, J; Umadevi, K R; Ranganathan, K

    2010-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence, the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of chewable smokeless tobacco consumption among males in India. A cross-sectional, nationally representative population-based household survey. 74,369 males aged 15-54 years who were sampled in the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006). Data on tobacco consumption were elicited from male members in households selected for the study. The prevalence of various smokeless tobacco use currently was used as outcome measures. Simple and two-way cross tabulations and univariate logistic regression analysis were the main analytical methods. Thirty-four percent of the study population (15 years or older) used chewable smokeless tobacco. Smokeless tobacco consumption was significantly higher in poor, less educated, scheduled castes, and scheduled tribe populations. The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed variation with types. The prevalence of chewing also varied widely between different states and had a strong association with an individual's sociocultural characteristics. The findings of the study highlight that an agenda to improve the health outcomes among the poor in India must include effective interventions to control tobacco use. Failure to do so would most probably result in doubling the burden of diseases-both communicable and noncommunicable-among India's teeming poor. There is a need for periodical surveys using more consistent definitions of tobacco use and eliciting information on different types of tobacco consumed.

  13. Questionnaire predictors of atopy in a US population sample: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Hoppin, Jane A; Jaramillo, Renee; Salo, Paivi; Sandler, Dale P; London, Stephanie J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2011-03-01

    Allergic conditions and biochemical measures are both used to characterize atopy. To assess questionnaires' ability to predict biochemical measures of atopy, the authors used data on 5 allergic conditions (allergy, hay fever, eczema, rhinitis, and itchy rash) and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Atopy was defined as 1 or more positive specific IgEs (≥0.35 kU/L). Questionnaire responses were assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for atopy. In this population-based US sample, 44% of participants were specific IgE-positive and 53% reported at least 1 allergic condition. Discordance between atopy and allergic conditions was considerable; 37% of persons with atopy reported no allergic condition, and 48% of persons who reported an allergic condition were not atopic. Thus, no combination of self-reported allergic conditions achieved both high sensitivity and high specificity for IgE. The positive predictive value of reported allergic conditions for atopy ranged from 50% for eczema to 72% for hay fever, while the negative predictive value ranged from 57% for eczema to 65% for any condition. Given the high proportion of asymptomatic participants who were specific IgE-positive and persons who reported allergic conditions but were specific IgE-negative, it is unlikely that questionnaires will ever capture the same participants as those found to be atopic by biochemical measures.

  14. Urbanisation and geographic variation of overweight and obesity in India: a cross-sectional analysis of the Indian Demographic Health Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Saad T; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

    2015-09-01

    We examined the nationwide geographic variation of overweight and obesity in India, as well as a range of potential correlates of excess body fat. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the 2005-2006 Indian Demographic Health Survey (IDHS), based on 161,050 individuals (age range 18-54 years). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR) of overweight and obesity compared to normal weight with associated correlates. The overall prevalence was 12.4% for overweight, 3.2% for obesity, and 26.5% for underweight. After multivariate adjustment, obesity was nearly thrice more likely in urban areas than in rural (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.53-2.94). Women were 2.71 times more likely to be obese than men (95% CI 2.50-2.95). Better socioeconomic status was significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Overweight (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.31-1.47) and obesity (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.32-1.61) were most likely to occur in India's Southern zone, when controlled for confounding factors. High-risk estimates for overweight/obesity in urban settings, along with socioeconomic prowess in India and the resulting nutritional transition make a compelling case for public health policy on healthy lifestyles to avert the growing burden of non-communicable diseases associated with overweight/obesity.

  15. Recruiting Trends, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Almost 900 employers responded to this year's "Recruiting Trends" survey, the largest response in the history of this project. Hiring of college graduates is expected to increase by single digits minimally, or double digits if certain geographic sectors are excluded (between 6% and 14%). This growth follows a robust 20% increase in…

  16. People with diabetes, respiratory, liver or mental disorders, higher urinary antimony, bisphenol A, or pesticides had higher food insecurity: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the prevalence of food insecurity and what social, health, and environmental characteristics could constitute such situation in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported ever medical conditions in the past and self-reported food security conditions in the last 12 months calculated on the household level was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (subsample) were collected at the interview as well. Only adults aged 20 years and above (n = 4979) were included for statistical analysis in the present study. Chi-square test, t test, and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling were performed. Three thousand eight hundred thirty-four (77.9%) people were with full food security, 466 (9.5%) people were with marginal food security and 624 (12.7%) people were with low or very low food security. Being younger, having higher ratios of family income to poverty thresholds (due to low level of education or lack of financial support), having prior asthma, arthritis, chronic bronchitis, depression, diabetes, eczema, emphysema or liver problems, having higher levels of serum cotinine, urinary antimony, bisphenol A, pesticides, or having lower levels of urinary Benzophenone-3 were associated with food insecurity. In addition to socioeconomic and smoking conditions, evidence on people with several prior health conditions and being exposed to environmental chemicals and food insecurity is further provided. Future social, health and environmental policy, and programs protecting people from food insecurity by considering both health and environmental factors mentioned above would be suggested.

  17. Determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices in young children in India: secondary analysis of National Family Health Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Patel, Archana; Pusdekar, Yamini; Badhoniya, Neetu; Borkar, Jitesh; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    In India, poor feeding practices in early childhood contribute to the burden of malnutrition as well as infant and child mortality. This paper aims to use the newly developed World Health Organization (WHO) infant feeding indicators to determine the prevalence of complementary feeding indicators among children of 6-23 months of age and to identify the determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices in India. The study data on 15,028 last-born children aged 6-23 months was obtained from the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006. Inappropriate complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of child, parental, household, health service and community level characteristics. The prevalence of timely introduction of complementary feeding among infants aged 6-8 months was 55%. Among children aged 6-23 months, minimum dietary diversity rate was 15.2%, minimum meal frequency 41.5% and minimum acceptable diet 9.2%. Children in northern and western geographical regions of India had higher odds for inappropriate complementary feeding indicators than in other geographical regions. Richest households were less likely to delay introduction of complementary foods than other households. Other determinants of not meeting minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet were: no maternal education, lower maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) (<18.5 kg/m(2)), lower wealth index, less frequent (<7) antenatal clinic visits, lack of post-natal visits and poor exposure to media. A very low proportion of children aged 6-23 months in India received adequate complementary foods as measured by the WHO indicators. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Caffeine intake and its association with urinary incontinence in United States men: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nicole J; Vaughan, Camille P; Johnson, Theodore M; Goode, Patricia S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Redden, David T; Markland, Alayne D

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies in women have revealed an association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence, although evidence among men is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence in United States men. Data were used from male NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys) 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 participants. Urinary incontinence was defined using a standard questionnaire with Incontinence Severity Index scores 3 or greater categorized as moderate to severe. Structured dietary recall was used to determine caffeine consumption (mg per day), water intake (gm per day) and total dietary moisture (gm per day). Stepwise multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between caffeine intake at or above the 75th and 90th percentiles and moderate to severe urinary incontinence, controlling for potential confounders, urinary incontinence risk factors and prostate conditions in men age 40 years or older. Of the 5,297 men 3,960 (75%) were 20 years old or older with complete data. Among these men the prevalence of any urinary incontinence was 12.9% and moderate to severe urinary incontinence was 4.4%. Mean caffeine intake was 169 mg per day. Caffeine intake at the upper 75th percentile (234 mg or more daily) and 90th percentile (392 mg or more per day) was significantly associated with having moderate to severe urinary incontinence (1.72, 95% 1.18-2.49 and 2.08, 95% 1.15-3.77, respectively). In addition, after adjusting for prostate conditions, the effect size for the association between caffeine intake and moderate to severe urinary incontinence remained. Caffeine consumption equivalent to approximately 2 cups of coffee daily (250 mg) is significantly associated with moderate to severe urinary incontinence in United States men. Our findings support the further study of caffeine modification in men with urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association

  19. IgE antibodies and urinary trimethylarsine oxide accounted for 1-7% population attributable risks for eczema in adults: USA NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population.

  20. Validation of a novel protocol for calculating estimated energy requirements and average daily physical activity ratio for the US population: 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Archer, Edward; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R; Lau, Erica Y; Wang, Xuewen; Shook, Robin P; Fayad, Raja; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2013-12-01

    To validate the PAR protocol, a novel method for calculating population-level estimated energy requirements (EERs) and average physical activity ratio (APAR), in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Estimates of EER and APAR values were calculated via a factorial equation from a nationally representative sample of 2597 adults aged 20 and 74 years (US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; data collected between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006). Validation of the PAR protocol-derived EER (EER(PAR)) values was performed via comparison with values from the Institute of Medicine EER equations (EER(IOM)). The correlation between EER(PAR) and EER(IOM) was high (0.98; P<.001). The difference between EER(PAR) and EER(IOM) values ranged from 40 kcal/d (1.2% higher than EER(IOM)) in obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) men to 148 kcal/d (5.7% higher) in obese women. The 2005-2006 EERs for the US population were 2940 kcal/d for men and 2275 kcal/d for women and ranged from 3230 kcal/d in obese (BMI ≥30) men to 2026 kcal/d in normal weight (BMI <25) women. There were significant inverse relationships between APAR and both obesity and age. For men and women, the APAR values were 1.53 and 1.52, respectively. Obese men and women had lower APAR values than normal weight individuals (P¼.023 and P¼.015, respectively) [corrected], and younger individuals had higher APAR values than older individuals (P<.001). The PAR protocol is an accurate method for deriving nationally representative estimates of EER and APAR values. These descriptive data provide novel quantitative baseline values for future investigations into associations of physical activity and health. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Indoor mildew odour in old housing was associated with adult allergic symptoms, asthma, chronic bronchitis, vision, sleep and self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-09-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis has shown the effect of indoor mildew odour on allergic rhinitis risk, but its relation to other common chronic health outcomes in adults has not been investigated. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationship of indoor mildew odour and common health outcomes in adults in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2006, including the available information on demographics, housing characteristics, self-reported health conditions and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals. T test, chi-squared test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of all American adults (n = 4979), 744 (15.1%) reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell in their households. People who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also reported poorer self-rated health, sleep complaints, chronic bronchitis, asthma attack, itchy rash, sneezing and poor vision. In addition, people who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also tended to reside in older housing that were built 20 years earlier. However, there were no significant statistical associations found between indoor mildew odour or musty smell and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals, which was also found to be associated with old housing. People who lived in older housing with indoor mildew odour or musty smell tended to have chronic health problems. To protect occupants in old housing from chronic illnesses associated with indoor mildew odour, elimination of the odour sources should be explored in future research and therefore public health and housing programs. Graphical abstract Pathway from old housing to musty smell, environmental chemicals and then health outcomes.

  2. Association and relative importance of multiple obesity measures with bone mineral density: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuman; Shen, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    All obesity measures were positively associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), but not with lumbar spine BMD. Hip circumference was the most important obesity measure in relation to BMD. Multiple measures are used to quantify obesity; different obesity measures have diverse relationship with BMD. Which obesity measure has the most important value in relation to BMD is still poorly understood. We examined the association between multiple obesity measures and BMD and determined the relative importance (RI, percentage of variation) of multiple obesity measures associated with BMD. Data from 5287 men and women aged between 8 and 69 years (mean age = 29 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat mass (FM) index, total body FM, abdominal FM, and appendicular FM were considered the exposures and femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD the outcomes. In the multivariable analysis, greater BMI and hip circumference were associated with increased BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck (all P < 0.001). The remaining obesity variables were positively associated with increased femoral neck BMD only (all P < 0.001). RI of all obesity measures associated with femoral neck BMD was much greater than that associated with lumbar spine BMD. Moreover, hip circumference had higher RI (19.8 for femoral neck BMD; 7.0 for lumbar spine BMD) than other obesity measures (all RIs ≤14.1 for femoral neck BMD; all RIs ≤3.5 for lumbar spine BMD) in relation to BMD. All obesity measures were positively associated with femoral neck BMD, but not with lumbar spine BMD. Hip circumference was the most important obesity measure in relation to BMD.

  3. Relationships between acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and allergy-related outcomes in general US population, NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Yu, Dongdong; Lv, Na; Bai, Rongpan; Xu, Chunjing; Chen, Guangdi; Cao, Weiming

    2017-06-01

    Acrylamide-induced immunotoxicity and allergic dermatitis have been reported in animal experiments and clinical reports, respectively. However, epidemiological evidence from the general population is limited. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the associations between acrylamide exposure and allergy-related outcomes in the general US population. A total of 6982 subjects were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 (NHANES). Internal exposure was measured by the hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA). Allergy-related outcomes including asthma, hay fever, allergy, itchy rash, sneeze, wheeze and eczema were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Allergic sensitization was assessed by the total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. The associations of HbAA and HbGA quartiles with allergy-related outcomes were calculated using logistic regression models with multivariable adjustments. Analyses were additionally stratified according to age, gender and serum cotinine levels. When setting quartile 1 of HbAA as reference, the odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of quartile 2 to 4 for eczema were 1.18 (0.79-1.76), 1.14 (0.73-1.78) and 1.58 (1.14-2.18), respectively (ptrend = 0.002). Individuals at the highest quartile of HbGA had significantly elevated likelihoods of itchy rash (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02-1.83, ptrend = 0.032) and eczema (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.06-1.97, ptrend = 0.044). The stratification analyses indicated various results in different subgroups. This study indicated significant associations between HbAA and HbGA levels and the likelihoods of allergy-related outcomes in the general US population, depending on age, gender and smoke exposure status. These findings suggested potential public health concerns for the widespread exposure to acrylamide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and depression among overweight and obese U.S. adults: national health and nutrition examination survey 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with an increased risk of mental illness; however, evidence linking body mass index (BMI)-a measure of overall obesity, to mental illness is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with waist circumference or abdominal obesity among overweight and obese U.S. adults. Methods A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used. We analyzed the data from 2,439 U.S. adults (1,325 men and 1,114 nonpregnant women) aged ≥ 20 years who were either overweight or obese with BMI of ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference of > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women. Depressive symptoms (defined as having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms) were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 diagnostic algorithm. The prevalence and the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for having major depressive symptoms and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, waist circumference was significantly associated with both major depressive symptoms (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and adults with abdominal obesity were significantly more likely to have major depressive symptoms (OR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.35-3.59) or have moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.34-4.90) than those without. These relationships persisted after further adjusting for coexistence of multiple chronic conditions and persisted in participants who were overweight (BMI: 25.0-< 30.0 kg/m2) when stratified analyses were conducted by BMI status. Conclusion Among overweight and obese U.S. adults, waist circumference or abdominal obesity was significantly associated with

  5. A national profile of the health care experiences and family impact of autism spectrum disorder among children in the United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Michael D; Strickland, Bonnie B; Blumberg, Stephen J; Singh, Gopal K; Perrin, James M; van Dyck, Peter C

    2008-12-01

    We sought to examine the health care experiences of children with autism spectrum disorder and the impact of autism spectrum disorder on the family and to assess whether having a medical home is associated with less family impact. We used the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs to compare 2088 children with special health care needs, aged 3 to 17 years, reported by their parents to have autism spectrum disorder, with children with special health care needs with "other emotional, developmental, or behavioral problems" (excluding autism spectrum disorder; n=9534) and 26751 other children with special health care needs. We used weighted logistic regression to examine unmet needs for specific health care and support services, delayed care, no usual care source or personal physician, difficulty receiving referrals, and financial, employment, or time problems because of child's care. Nationally, an estimated 535000 children have special health care needs and autism spectrum disorder, a prevalence of 86 per 10000 children aged 3 to 17 years. Among children with special health care needs, 5.6% have autism spectrum disorder. Compared with other children with special health care needs without emotional, developmental, or behavioral problems, children with special health care needs with autism spectrum disorder were more likely to have unmet needs for specific health care services, family support services, delayed or foregone care, difficulty receiving referrals, and care that is not family centered. Children with special health care needs with autism spectrum disorder were more likely to live in families that report financial problems, need additional income for the child's medical care, reduce or stop work because of the child's condition, spend >or=10 hours per week providing or coordinating care, and paid more than $1000 in the previous year for the child's care. The financial impacts of autism spectrum disorder were significantly more

  6. Usefulness of defined daily dose and days of therapy in pediatrics and obstetrics-gynecology: a comparative analysis of antifungal drugs (2000-2001, 2005-2006, and 2010-2011).

    PubMed

    Guillot, Justine; Lebel, Denis; Roy, Hélène; Ovetchkine, Philippe; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to describe antifungal drug use by using the number of defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 patient-days per antifungal, the number of days of therapy (DOT)/1000 patient-days per antifungal, and the mean dose in mg/kg/day per antifungal during a 10-year period. Retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study, in a mother-child university hospital center, with 400 pediatric beds and 100 obstetrics-gynecology beds. All inpatients who received 1 of the 7 authorized antifungals on the institution's local formulary in 2000-2001, 2005-2006, or 2010-2011 were included. Prescriptions for emergency department and outpatient clinics were excluded. The data were extracted from the patients' computerized medication profiles linked to patient admission, discharge, and transfer data. The DDD, DOT, and the mean dose in mg/kg/day were calculated for each antifungal and overall. There was a 2.97-fold increase in the overall number of DDD/1000 patient-days, from 14.8 in 2000-2001 to 37.5 in 2005-2006 and 43.9 in 2010-2011. There was a 2.97-fold increase in the overall number of DOT/1000 patient-days, from 22.8 in 2000-2001 to 50.3 in 2005-2006 and 67.8 in 2010-2011. It can be difficult to compare the use of antifungal drugs among institutions, owing to numerous factors, but it gives an idea about the consumption outside the studied center. Moreover, these ratios help to evaluate the use of antifungals within a same institution. These data could be correlated among others, with resistance patterns, in order to improve our daily practice concerning antifungal prescription.

  7. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking--United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jonathan; Roberts, Virginia; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Hicks, Lauri A; Alexander, Nicole T; Radke, Vince; Calderon, Rebecca L; Hlavsa, Michele C; Beach, Michael J; Roy, Sharon L

    2008-09-12

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs) and cases of waterborne disease. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and effects of waterborne disease in the United States. Data presented summarize 28 WBDOs that occurred during January 2005--December 2006 and four previously unreported WBDOs that occurred during 1979--2002. The surveillance system includes data on WBDOs associated with recreational water, drinking water, water not intended for drinking (WNID) (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and Freely Associated States (FAS) (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating WBDOs and voluntarily reporting them to CDC by a standard form. Only cases and outbreaks associated with drinking water, WNID (excluding recreational water), and water of unknown intent (WUI) are summarized in this report. Cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported in a separate Surveillance Summary. Fourteen states reported 28 WBDOs that occurred during 2005--2006: a total of 20 were associated with drinking water, six were associated with WNID, and two were associated with WUI. The 20 drinking water-associated WBDOs caused illness among an estimated 612 persons and were linked to four deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 18 (90.0%) of the drinking water-associated WBDOs. Among the 18 WBDOs with identified pathogens, 12 (66.7%) were associated with bacteria, three

  8. Back to sleep or not: the effect of the supine position on pediatric OSA: Sleeping position in children with OSA.

    PubMed

    Walter, Lisa M; Dassanayake, Daranagama U N; Weichard, Aidan J; Davey, Margot J; Nixon, Gillian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2017-09-01

    In both adults and children, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has significant adverse cardiovascular consequences. In adults, sleeping position has a marked effect on the severity of OSA; however, the limited number of studies conducted in children have reported conflicting findings. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sleeping position on OSA severity and the cardiovascular consequences in preschool-aged children. This was a retrospective analysis of children (3-5 years of age) diagnosed with OSA (n = 75) and nonsnoring controls (n = 25). Sleeping position was classified as supine, semi-supine, left lateral, right lateral, prone, and semi-prone by using video recordings during one night of attended polysomnography. OSA severity and cardiovascular parameters were compared between the positions. All children spent significantly more sleep time in the supine position than in any other position. The obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was higher in the supine position than in the other sleeping positions during NREM (p < 0.05), higher in the moderate/severe OSA group when sleeping in the supine position than when sleeping in the left and right lateral positions (p < 0.05 for both) and prone position (p = 0.007) during REM. Sympathovagal balance was decreased in children with OSA in the supine and lateral positions (p < 0.05). This study identified that preschool-aged children, whether nonsnoring controls or children with OSA, predominately sleep in the supine position, and OSA was more severe in the supine position. We suggest that to avoid the supine sleep position, positional therapy has the potential to ameliorate OSA severity, and the known cardiovascular consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) and Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Carolina; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Montano, Nicola; Losurdo, Anna; Parati, Gianfranco

    2017-08-28

    There is increasing evidence of a relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular diseases. The strong association between OSA and arterial hypertension, in particular in patients with resistant hypertension and/or a non-dipping profile, has been extensively reported. The relationship between OSA and high blood pressure (BP) has been found independent from a number of confounders, but several factors may affect this relationship, including age and sex. It is thus important to better assess pathophysiologic and clinical interactions between OSA and arterial hypertension, also aimed at optimizing treatment approaches in OSA and hypertensive patients with co-morbidities. Among possible mechanisms, cardiovascular autonomic control alterations, altered mechanics of ventilation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system should be considered with particular attention. Additionally, available studies also support the occurrence of a bidirectional association between OSA and cardiovascular alterations, in particular heart failure, stroke and cardiac arrhythmias, emphasizing that greater attention is needed to both identify and treat sleep apneas in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, a number of aspects of such a relationship are still to be clarified, in particular with regard to gender differences, effect of sleep-related breathing disorders in childhood, and influence of OSA treatment on cardiovascular risk, and they may represent important targets for future studies.

  10. Digital Morphometrics: A New Upper Airway Phenotyping Paradigm in OSA.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Richard J; Leinwand, Sarah E; Bearn, Cary B; Maislin, Greg; Rao, Ramya Bhat; Nagaraja, Adithya; Wang, Stephen; Keenan, Brendan T

    2017-08-01

    OSA is associated with changes in pharyngeal anatomy. The goal of this study was to objectively and reproducibly quantify pharyngeal anatomy by using digital morphometrics based on a laser ruler and to assess differences between subjects with OSA and control subjects and associations with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use digital morphometrics to quantify intraoral risk factors for OSA. Digital photographs were obtained by using an intraoral laser ruler and digital camera in 318 control subjects (mean AHI, 4.2 events/hour) and 542 subjects with OSA (mean AHI, 39.2 events/hour). The digital morphometric paradigm was validated and reproducible over time and camera distances. A larger modified Mallampati score and having a nonvisible airway were associated with a higher AHI, both unadjusted (P < .001) and controlling for age, sex, race, and BMI (P = .015 and P = .018, respectively). Measures of tongue size were larger in subjects with OSA vs control subjects in unadjusted models and controlling for age, sex, and race but nonsignificant controlling for BMI; similar results were observed with AHI severity. Multivariate regression suggests photography-based variables capture independent associations with OSA. Measures of tongue size, airway visibility, and Mallampati scores were associated with increased OSA risk and severity. This study shows that digital morphometrics is an accurate, high-throughput, and noninvasive technique to identify anatomic OSA risk factors. Morphometrics may also provide a more reproducible and standardized measurement of the Mallampati score. Digital morphometrics represent an efficient and cost-effective method of examining intraoral crowding and tongue size when examining large populations, genetics, or screening for OSA. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in preadolescent girls is associated with delayed breast development compared to girls without OSA.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie D; Goodwin, James L; Silva, Graciela E; Hall, Janet E; Quan, Stuart F; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-08-15

    Adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have lower sex steroid levels than controls. We sought to determine whether OSA also interferes with reproductive hormones in adolescence by tracking the pace of pubertal development. One hundred seventy-two children in the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study (TuCASA) underwent two home polysomnographic studies, spaced 4-5 years apart. Height and weight were measured at both visits, and Tanner staging of breasts/genitals and pubic hair were self-assessed by a pictorial questionnaire at follow-up. Eighty-seven girls and 85 boys, age 8.9 ± 1.6 years (mean ± SD) at baseline and 13.4 ± 1.6 years at follow-up, participated. Twenty-seven percent of participants were over-weight or obese at baseline, and the majority remained so at follow-up. Twenty-six percent of girls and 28% of boys met criteria for OSA, defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥ 1/h associated with a 3% desaturation (RDI 3%), at baseline. There was an inverse relationship between baseline log RDI 3% and Tanner breast stage at follow-up (coefficient -1.3, p = 0.02) in girls after adjusting for age (p < 0.001), body mass index (p < 0.005), and ethnicity. Girls with OSA at baseline were more than 1 Tanner breast stage behind girls without OSA at follow-up. OSA did not affect genital development in boys or pubic hair development in either sex. OSA in preadolescent girls predicts delayed breast development relative to girls without OSA. Sleep fragmentation and/or hypoxia seen in OSA may interfere with reproductive development in girls.

  12. Orthodontic and Orthognathic Surgical Treatment of a Pediatric OSA Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The patient's severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient's sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas. PMID:27668098

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in Preadolescent Girls is Associated with Delayed Breast Development Compared to Girls without OSA

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Natalie D.; Goodwin, James L.; Silva, Graciela E.; Hall, Janet E.; Quan, Stuart F.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have lower sex steroid levels than controls. We sought to determine whether OSA also interferes with reproductive hormones in adolescence by tracking the pace of pubertal development. Methods: One hundred seventy-two children in the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study (TuCASA) underwent two home polysomnographic studies, spaced 4-5 years apart. Height and weight were measured at both visits, and Tanner staging of breasts/genitals and pubic hair were self-assessed by a pictorial questionnaire at follow-up. Results: Eighty-seven girls and 85 boys, age 8.9 ± 1.6 years (mean ± SD) at baseline and 13.4 ± 1.6 years at follow-up, participated. Twenty-seven percent of participants were over-weight or obese at baseline, and the majority remained so at follow-up. Twenty-six percent of girls and 28% of boys met criteria for OSA, defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥ 1/h associated with a 3% desaturation (RDI 3%), at baseline. There was an inverse relationship between baseline log RDI 3% and Tanner breast stage at follow-up (coefficient -1.3, p = 0.02) in girls after adjusting for age (p < 0.001), body mass index (p < 0.005), and ethnicity. Girls with OSA at baseline were more than 1 Tanner breast stage behind girls without OSA at follow-up. OSA did not affect genital development in boys or pubic hair development in either sex. Conclusions: OSA in preadolescent girls predicts delayed breast development relative to girls without OSA. Sleep fragmentation and/or hypoxia seen in OSA may interfere with reproductive development in girls. Citation: Shaw ND; Goodwin JL; Silva GE; Hall JE; Quan SF; Malhotra A. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in preadolescent girls is associated with delayed breast development compared to girls without OSA. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(8):813-818. PMID:23946712

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in mouth breathing children.

    PubMed

    Izu, Suemy Cioffi; Itamoto, Caroline Harumi; Pradella-Hallinan, Márcia; Pizarro, Gilberto Ulson; Tufik, Sérgio; Pignatari, Shirley; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that mouth breathing is associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy - which is the main cause of obstructive sleep apnea among children. Despite the importance of this matter, there are only a handful of studies showing the relationship between OSAS and mouth breathing. to determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep disorders in mouth breathing children and study its correlation with otorhinolaryngological findings. Retrospective cohort study. Data analysis from 248 medical charts of mouth breathing children seen at the Pediatric Otolaryngologic Division of a large medical institution between the years of 2000 and 2006. All patients had nasofibroscopy and or Cavum radiographs and polysomnographic exams. According to the Apnea index, patients were classified as primary snorers (AI<1); and as OSAS (>1). From 248 patients included in the study, 144 (58%) were primary snorers and 104 (42%) had OSAS. The most prevalent otorhinolaryngological findings were adenotonsillar hypertrophy (n=152; 61.2%), tonsilar hypertrophy (n=17; 6.8%), adenoid hypertrophy (n=37; 14.9%), rhinitis (n=155; 62.5%) and secretory otitis (n=36; 14.5%). primary snoring and OSAS are frequent findings in mouth breathing children. The most frequent otorhinolaryngological disorder in children with OSAS is adenotonsillar hypertrophy with or without rhinitis.

  15. Prognosis for Spontaneous Resolution of OSA in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ellenberg, Susan S.; Hou, Xiaoling; Marcus, Carole L.; Garetz, Susan L.; Katz, Eliot S.; Hodges, Elise K.; Mitchell, Ron B.; Jones, Dwight T.; Arens, Raanan; Amin, Raouf; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L.; Katz, Eliot; Ware, Janice; Jones, Dwight; Redline, Susan; Wang, Rui; Mitchell, Ron; Paruthi, Shalini; Snyder, Karen; Marcus, Carole; Thomas, Nina H.; Elden, Lisa; Amin, Raouf; Beebe, Dean; Willging, Paul; Arens, Raanan; Muzumdar, Hiren; Harris, Shelby; Rosen, Carol; Taylor, H. Gerry; Sprecher, Robert; Arnold, James; Gozal, David; Chervin, Ronald; Garetz, Susan; Giordani, Bruno; Hoban, Tim; Ellenberg, Susan; Moore, Reneé H.; Lacy, Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adenotonsillectomy (AT) is commonly performed for childhood OSA syndrome (OSAS), but little is known about prognosis without treatment. METHODS: The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT) randomized 50% of eligible children with OSAS to a control arm (watchful waiting), with 7-month follow-up symptom inventories, physical examinations, and polysomnography. Polysomnographic and symptomatic resolution were defined respectively by an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) <2 and obstructive apnea index (OAI) <1 and by an OSAS symptom score (Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire [PSQ]) < 0.33 with ≥ 25% improvement from baseline. RESULTS: After 194 children aged 5 to 9 years underwent 7 months of watchful waiting, 82 (42%) no longer met polysomnographic criteria for OSAS. Baseline predictors of resolution included lower AHI, better oxygen saturation, smaller waist circumference or percentile, higher-positioned soft palate, smaller neck circumference, and non-black race (each P < .05). Among these, the independent predictors were lower AHI and waist circumference percentile < 90%. Among 167 children with baseline PSQ scores ≥ 0.33, only 25 (15%) experienced symptomatic resolution. Baseline predictors were low PSQ and PSQ snoring subscale scores; absence of habitual snoring, loud snoring, observed apneas, or a household smoker; higher quality of life; fewer attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms; and female sex. Only lower PSQ and snoring scores were independent predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Many candidates for AT no longer have OSAS on polysomnography after 7 months of watchful waiting, whereas meaningful improvement in symptoms is not common. In practice, a baseline low AHI and normal waist circumference, or low PSQ and snoring score, may help identify an opportunity to avoid AT. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00560859; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25811889

  16. Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  17. Colloid Characteristics and Emulsifying Properties of OSA Starches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokić, Petar; Dokić, Ljubica; Dapčević, Tamara; Krstonošić, Veljko

    The objective of this paper was to characterize commercially available octenyl-succinate starches (OSA starches), Purity Gum 2000 and Hi-cap 100, by determining their viscous behaviour and characteristics and molecular mass, as well as to examine their emulsifying properties in corn oil-in-water emulsion system.

  18. Education Cost Study, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Produced every four years by the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, the education cost study provides detailed instructional cost information for the state's public two-year and four-year institutions. The cost analysis is based on expenditures drawn from two sources: state Near-General Fund appropriations and tuition revenue. By…

  19. Consumer segmentation based on the level and structure of fruit and vegetable intake: an empirical evidence for US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Demydas, Tetyana

    2011-06-01

    To identify consumption patterns of fruit and vegetables within a representative sample of US adults with a focus on degree of produce processing and to explore sociodemographic, lifestyle and nutritional profiles associated with these patterns. Cross-sectional analysis. Fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption data were collected using two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. For the purpose of the study, F&V intakes were aggregated into seven subgroups indicating degree of processing, which afterwards were used as inputs into cluster analysis. The 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The sample consisted of 2444 adults aged 20-59 years. Total average F&V intake of the adults was below the recommended level. Thereby, 20 % of the respondents consumed fruit only in the form of juice. Three F&V consumption patterns were identified: 'low-intake F&V consumers' (74 % of respondents), 'consumers of healthier F&V options' (13 %) and 'intensive fruit juice consumers' (13 %). These groups differed markedly in terms of their sociodemographic, lifestyle and health characteristics, such as gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, weight status, etc. Differences in nutrient profiles were also found, with the 'consumers of healthier F&V options' showing better nutritional quality compared with other clusters. Only a small share of US adults combines high F&V intakes with healthier F&V options that lead to a better nutritional profile. This raises discussion about a need to deliver more specific F&V promotion messages, including advice on healthier preparation methods, especially for the specific population groups.

  20. Use of food labels, awareness of nutritional programmes and participation in the special supplemental program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2013-07-01

    Use of nutritional labels in choosing food is associated with healthier eating habits including lower fat intake. Current public health efforts are focusing on the revamping of nutritional labels to make them easier to read and use for the consumer. The study aims to assess the frequency of use of nutritional labels and awareness of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional programmes by low-income women including those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as surveyed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Many low-income women do not regularly use the nutrition facts panel information on the food label and less than half had heard of the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (38.9%). In multivariate logistic regression, we found that WIC participation was associated with reduced use of the nutrition facts panel in choosing food products [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.91], the health claims information (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.28) and the information on carbohydrates when deciding to buy a product (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97) in comparison with WIC eligible non-participants. Any intervention to improve use of nutritional labels and knowledge of the USDA's nutritional programmes needs to target low-income women, including WIC participants. Future studies should evaluate possible reasons for the low use of nutrition labels among WIC participants in comparison with eligible non-participants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Unmet Need for Therapy Among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results from the 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Benevides, Teal W; Carretta, Henry J; Lane, Shelly J

    2016-04-01

    We examined population-based trends in unmet need for therapy service in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to other children with special health care needs (CSHCN), and identified factors associated with unmet need for therapy. A pooled cross-sectional comparison of the 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 waves of the National Survey for Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) was used. Weighted bivariate analyses were used to compare children ages 3-17 years with ASD (n = 5113) to other CSHCN (n = 71,294) on unmet need for therapy services. Survey weighted multivariate models were used to examine child, family, and contextual characteristics associated with unmet need. A greater percentage of children with ASD across both surveys were reported to need therapy than other children with CSHCN. Among children with a reported need, children with ASD were 1.4 times more likely to report an unmet need for therapy compared to other CSHCN (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.18-1.71). Variables significantly associated with unmet need for therapy services included not receiving a well-child visit in the past year (OR 5.81, CI 3.83-8.81), surveyed in 2009 (OR 1.42, CI 1.18-1.71), child being female (OR 1.27, CI 1.05-1.53), uninsured (OR 1.72, CI 1.15-2.56), and having greater functional limitation (OR 2.44, CI 1.80-3.34). Children with ASD require supportive services such as occupational, physical, and speech therapy but are less likely to receive such services than other CSHCN. Receiving a well-child visit in the past year was strongly associated with receipt of needed therapy services.

  2. What do Indian children drink when they do not receive water? Statistical analysis of water and alternative beverage consumption from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Doyle, Pat; Campbell, Oona; Ebrahim, Shah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2015-07-05

    Over 1.2 billion people lack access to clean water. However, little is known about what children drink when there is no clean water. We investigated the prevalence of receiving no water and what Indian children drink instead. We analysed children's beverage consumption using representative data from India's National Family and Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Consumption was based on mothers' reports (n = 22,668) for children aged 6-59 months (n = 30,656). About 10 % of Indian children had no water in the last 24 h, corresponding to 12,700,000 children nationally, (95 % CI: 12,260,000 to 13,200,000). Among children who received no water, 23 % received breast or fresh milk and 24 % consumed formula, "other liquid", juice, or two or more beverages. Children over 2 were more likely to consume non-milk beverages, including tea, coffee, and juice than those under 2 years. Those in the lowest two wealth quintiles were 16 % less likely to have received water (OR = 0.84; 95 % CI: 0.74 to 0.96). Compared to those living in households with bottled, piped, or tanker water, children were significantly less likely to receive water in households using well water (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.64 to 0.89) or river, spring, or rain water (OR =0.70; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.92) in the last 24 h. About 13 million Indian children aged 6-59 months received no water in the last 24 h. Further research is needed to assess the risks potentially arising from insufficient water, caffeinated beverages, and high sugar drinks at early stages of life.

  3. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ANTIBIOTICS IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN A SECONDARY CARE SETTING FROM 2005-2006 AND 2010-2011, IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL: DATA FROM 11,943 URINE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Érique José Peixoto De; Oliveira, Gerson Sobrinho Salvador De; Roque, Felício Lopes; Santos, Sílvia Regina Dos; Olmos, Rodrigo Diaz; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) has a high incidence and recurrence, therefore, treatment is empirical in the majority of cases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the urine cultures performed at a secondary hospital, during two periods, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011, and to estimate the microbial resistance. Patients and methods: We analyzed 11,943 aerobic urine cultures according to basic demographic data and susceptibility to antibiotics in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for Vitek 1 and 2. Results: Most of our cohort consisted of young adult females that were seen at the Emergency Department. E. coli was the most frequent (70.2%) among the 75 species isolated. Resistance of all isolates was ≥ 20% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, cefazolin and nalidixic acid. Although E. coli was more susceptible (resistance ≥ 20% for TMP/SMX and nalidixic acid) among all of the isolates, when classified by the number and percentage of antibiotic resistance. Global resistance to fluoroquinolones was approximately 12%. Risk factors for E. coli were female gender and an age less than 65 years. Men and patients older than 65 years of age, presented more resistant isolates. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were identified in 173 out of 5,722 Gram-negative isolates (3.0%) between 2010 and 2011. Conclusion: E. coli was the most frequent microbe isolated in the urine cultures analyzed in this study. There was a significant evolution of bacterial resistance between the two periods studied. In particular, the rise of bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones was concerning. PMID:25076433

  4. [Quality of life in adult patient (Tunisian) with severe OSA].

    PubMed

    Kacem, I; Kalboussi, H; Ben Salem, H; Maoua, M; El Guedri, S; Laayouni, M; Abdelghani, A; Boughattas, W; Brahem, A; Debbabi, F; El Maalel, O; Chatti, S; Benzarti, M; Mrizak, N

    2017-09-01

    The negative impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on quality of life of affected individuals is a central consequence of this disease. The recognition of the quality of life as a therapeutic target is a relatively new concept. To evaluate the quality of life and its determinants in patients with OSA. We conducted a cross-sectional study during the period from 1st July 2012 to 30th June 2013. The target population was patients with OSA and in employment examined in consultations of pneumology in the teaching hospital Farhat-Hached in Sousse (Tunisia). This study was based on a generic questionnaire (SF-36) to assess the quality of life. The study population included 103 cases with a mean age of 55.15±11.4years and a sex ratio of 0.71. Our patients were obese in 95.1 % of cases with an average BMI of 39.13±7.19kg/m(2). The majority of our patients had an impaired quality of life with an average score of 44.76 (SF36) and extremes of 22 and 70. There was a positive linear relationship between physical and mental components of the SF-36 and gender, age, BMI, and anxiety and depressive disorders. The OSA is a demanding disease whose impact on the quality of life seems important and requires special attention. The management of this disease should not be limited to controlling the disease but aspire to overall patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced airway management strategies for severe OSAS and craniofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Anil

    Pediatric OSAS and craniofacial malformations present challenges that require innovative approaches and comprehensive treatment strategies. Synchronous airway lesions, craniofacial malformations, obstructive anomalies of the tongue base, nasal vault and choanae are commonly addressed by subspecialists from various clinical and surgical academic traditions who practice variable levels of required communication. This is not a mere social requirement but an important requisite for intelligent and effective airway management. Membership of dedicated airway, aero digestive or craniofacial teams are desirable but not required. I expect this clinical brief to help many brilliant clinicians in their pursuit of perfection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ensuring a Future for Marine Corps Operational Support Airlift (OSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-29

    purchase of the C-12 in the 1980’s. The C- 12, which is a military version of the Beech Craft ‘ King Air’ was subsequently used by the Marine Corps...MAGTF. The C-12 (Figure 2) is the military version of the Beechcraft King Air. It is often referred to as the ‘workhorse’ of OSA. There are...during major exercises such as Cobra Gold. 39 This would also allow the aircraft to 20 normalize operations in the region, which would better

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and hypertension: Pathogenic mechanisms and possible therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wang

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), a chronic condition characterized by collapse of the pharynx during sleep, has been increasingly recognized as a health issue of growing importance over the last decade. Recently emerging evidence suggests that there is a causal link between OSAS and hypertension, and hypertension represents an independent risk factor in OSAS patients. However, the pathophysiological basis for patients with OSAS having an increased risk for hypertension remains to be elucidated. The main acute physiological outcomes of OSAS are intermittent hypoxia, intrapleural pressure changes, and arousal from sleep, which might induce endothelial dysfunction, sympathetic activation, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system activation, lipid metabolism dysfunction, and increased oxidative stress. This brief review focuses on the current understanding of the complex association between OSAS and hypertension. PMID:23009224

  8. OSA Syndrome and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Clinical Outcomes and Impact of Positive Airway Pressure Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lettieri, Christopher J; Williams, Scott G; Collen, Jacob F

    2016-02-01

    We sought to determine the impact of OSA syndrome (OSAS) on symptoms and quality of life (QoL) among patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, we assessed adherence and response to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy in this population. This was a case-controlled observational cohort study at the Sleep Disorders Center of an academic military medical center. Two hundred consecutive patients with PTSD underwent sleep evaluations. Patients with PTSD with and without OSAS were compared with 50 consecutive age-matched patients with OSAS without PTSD and 50 age-matched normal control subjects. Polysomnographic data, sleep-related symptoms and QoL measures, and objective PAP usage were obtained. Among patients with PTSD, more than one-half (56.6%) received a diagnosis of OSAS. Patients with PTSD and OSAS had lower QoL and more somnolence compared with the other groups. Patients with PTSD demonstrated significantly lower adherence and response to PAP therapy. Resolution of sleepiness occurred in 82% of patients with OSAS alone, compared with 62.5% of PAP-adherent and 21.4% of nonadherent patients with PTSD and OSAS (P < .001). Similarly, posttreatment Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire ≥ 17.9 was achieved in 72% of patients with OSAS, compared with only 56.3% of patients with PTSD and OSA who were PAP adherent and 26.2% who were nonadherent (P < .03). In patients with PTSD, comorbid OSAS is associated with worsened symptoms, QoL, and adherence and response to PAP. Given the negative impact on outcomes, the possibility of OSAS should be considered carefully in patients with PTSD. Close follow-up is needed to optimize PAP adherence and efficacy in this at-risk population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: or is it OSA and obesity?

    PubMed

    Carter, Robert; Watenpaugh, Donald E

    2008-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of repetitive choking spells due to sleep-induced reduction of upper airway muscle tone. Millions of adults and children live unaware of this condition, which can have a profound affect on their health and quality of life. Obesity, gender, genetic, and hormonal factors mediate risk for OSA and interact in a multifaceted manner in the pathogenesis of this disease. Obesity is the most established and primary risk factor given that body mass index, visceral fat, and neck circumference are major predictors in the clinical expression of OSA. Many studies have shown weight loss or gain significantly impacts OSA severity. More recently, accumulating evidence indicates OSA promotes weight gain, obesity, and type II diabetes in a variety of ways, such that obesity and OSA form multiple interleaved vicious cycles. Thus, creative strategies to increase physical activity, improve diet, and otherwise facilitate weight management become particularly vital given the epidemics of obesity and OSA in the United States. In this regard, the American College of Sports Medicine recently launched the "Exercise is Medicine" (initiative exerciseismedicine.org). In the future, medications may emerge to treat obesity, OSA, and their sequelae with minimal side effects. However, there are effective ways to approach these problems now without waiting for "the magic pill".

  10. Mathematical Objects through the Lens of Two Different Theoretical Perspectives: APOS and OSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font Moll, Vicenç; Trigueros, María; Badillo, Edelmira; Rubio, Norma

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a networking of two theories, the APOS Theory and the ontosemiotic approach (OSA), to compare and contrast how they conceptualize the notion of a mathematical object. As context of reflection, we designed an APOS genetic decomposition for the derivative and analyzed it from the point of view of OSA. Results of this study show…

  11. Mathematical Objects through the Lens of Two Different Theoretical Perspectives: APOS and OSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font Moll, Vicenç; Trigueros, María; Badillo, Edelmira; Rubio, Norma

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a networking of two theories, the APOS Theory and the ontosemiotic approach (OSA), to compare and contrast how they conceptualize the notion of a mathematical object. As context of reflection, we designed an APOS genetic decomposition for the derivative and analyzed it from the point of view of OSA. Results of this study show…

  12. Osa-containing Brahma chromatin remodeling complexes are required for the repression of Wingless target genes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Russell T.; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wingless signaling pathway directs many developmental processes in Drosophila by regulating the expression of specific downstream target genes. We report here that the product of the trithorax group gene osa is required to repress such genes in the absence of the Wingless signal. The Wingless-regulated genes nubbin, Distal-less, and decapentaplegic and a minimal enhancer from the Ultrabithorax gene are misexpressed in osa mutants and repressed by ectopic Osa. Osa-mediated repression occurs downstream of the up-regulation of Armadillo but is sensitive both to the relative levels of activating Armadillo/Pangolin and repressing Groucho/Pangolin complexes present and to the responsiveness of the promoter to Wingless. Osa functions as a component of the Brahma chromatin-remodeling complex; other components of this complex are likewise required to repress Wingless target genes. These results suggest that altering the conformation of chromatin is an important mechanism by which Wingless signaling activates gene expression. PMID:11124806

  13. The WOPR Domain Protein OsaA Orchestrates Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Alkahyyat, Fahad; Ni, Min; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Orchestration of cellular growth and development occurs during the life cycle of Aspergillus nidulans. A multi-copy genetic screen intended to unveil novel regulators of development identified the AN6578 locus predicted to encode a protein with the WOPR domain, which is a broadly present fungi-specific DNA-binding motif. Multi-copy of AN6578 disrupted the normal life cycle of the fungus leading to enhanced proliferation of vegetative cells, whereas the deletion resulted in hyper-active sexual fruiting with reduced asexual development (conidiation), thus named as osaA (Orchestrator of Sex and Asex). Further genetic studies indicate that OsaA balances development mainly by repressing sexual development downstream of the velvet regulator VeA. The absence of osaA is sufficient to suppress the veA1 allele leading to the sporulation levels comparable to veA+ wild type (WT). Genome-wide transcriptomic analyses of WT, veA1, and ΔosaA veA1 strains by RNA-Seq further corroborate that OsaA functions in repressing sexual development downstream of VeA. However, OsaA also plays additional roles in controlling development, as the ΔosaA veA1 mutant exhibits precocious and enhanced formation of Hülle cells compared to WT. The OsaA orthologue of Aspergillus flavus is able to complement the osaA null phenotype in A. nidulans, suggesting a conserved role of this group of WOPR domain proteins. In summary, OsaA is an upstream orchestrator of morphological and chemical development in Aspergillus that functions downstream of VeA. PMID:26359867

  14. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA)-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State

    PubMed Central

    Marefati, Ali; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Wahlgren, Marie; Rayner, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable. PMID:27479315

  15. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA)-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State.

    PubMed

    Matos, María; Marefati, Ali; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Wahlgren, Marie; Rayner, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable.

  16. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling: a novel pathway in OSA induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Porter, Kyle; Pleister, Adam; Wannemacher, Jacob; Sow, Angela; Jarjoura, David; Zweier, Jay L; Khayat, Rami N

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function directly in the microcirculatory endothelial tissue of OSA patients who have very low cardiovascular risk status. Nineteen OSA patients underwent gluteal biopsies before, and after effective treatment of OSA. We measured superoxide (O2(•-)) and nitric oxide (NO) in the microcirculatory endothelium using confocal microscopy. We evaluated the effect of the NOS inhibitor l-Nitroarginine-Methyl-Ester (l-NAME) and the NOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on endothelial O2(•-) and NO in patient endothelial tissue before and after treatment. We found that eNOS is dysfunctional in OSA patients pre-treatment, and is a source of endothelial O2(•-) overproduction. eNOS dysfunction was reversible with the addition of BH4. These findings provide a new mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in OSA patients and a potentially targetable pathway for treatment of cardiovascular risk in OSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Network science meets respiratory medicine for OSAS phenotyping and severity prediction

    PubMed Central

    Mihaicuta, Stefan; Topirceanu, Alexandru; Udrescu, Lucretia

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common clinical condition. The way that OSAS risk factors associate and converge is not a random process. As such, defining OSAS phenotypes fosters personalized patient management and population screening. In this paper, we present a network-based observational, retrospective study on a cohort of 1,371 consecutive OSAS patients and 611 non-OSAS control patients in order to explore the risk factor associations and their correlation with OSAS comorbidities. To this end, we construct the Apnea Patients Network (APN) using patient compatibility relationships according to six objective parameters: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), neck circumference (NC) and the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS). By running targeted network clustering algorithms, we identify eight patient phenotypes and corroborate them with the co-morbidity types. Also, by employing machine learning on the uncovered phenotypes, we derive a classification tree and introduce a computational framework which render the Sleep Apnea Syndrome Score (SASScore); our OSAS score is implemented as an easy-to-use, web-based computer program which requires less than one minute for processing one individual. Our evaluation, performed on a distinct validation database with 231 consecutive patients, reveals that OSAS prediction with SASScore has a significant specificity improvement (an increase of 234%) for only 8.2% sensitivity decrease in comparison with the state-of-the-art score STOP-BANG. The fact that SASScore has bigger specificity makes it appropriate for OSAS screening and risk prediction in big, general populations. PMID:28503375

  18. Color opponency and scale uniformity in the OSA-UCS system: the geometrical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleari, Claudio

    2002-06-01

    Two different transformations between the (X10, Y10, Z10) coordinates and the (LOSA, g, j) ones of the Uniform Color System of the Optical Society of America (OSA- UCS) are given related to two possible different geometrical structures. Both transformations are logarithmic functions obtained by integration of Weber fractions of ratios of suitable color stimuli. The first structure is related to the color opponency proper of the (g, j) coordinates of the OSA-UCS) system and the second one to a mixing of the (g, j) coordinates. The second transformation has a simpler and highly symmetrical structure, and the regularity of the OSA- UCS lattice is higher.

  19. Driving Simulator Performance Remains Impaired In Patients With Severe OSA after CPAP Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vakulin, Andrew; Baulk, Stuart D.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Antic, Nick A.; van den Heuvel, Cameron J.; Dorrian, Jillian; McEvoy, R. Doug

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in improving 90-minute driving simulator performance in severe OSA patients compared to age/gender matched controls. Design: Driving simulator performance was assessed at baseline and 3 months later, with OSA patients treated with CPAP during the interval. Setting: University Teaching Hospital. Participants: Patients with severe OSA (n = 11) and control subjects without OSA (n = 9). Interventions: CPAP Measurements and Results: Simulator driving parameters of steering deviation, braking reaction time and crashes were measured at baseline and ∼3 months follow-up. At baseline, OSA subjects demonstrated significantly greater steering deviation compared to controls (mean [95% CI], OSA group, 49.9 cm [43.7 to 56.0 cm] vs control group, 34.9 cm [28.1 to 41.7 cm], p = 0.003). Following ∼3 months of CPAP treatment (mean ± SD 6.0 ± 1.4 h/night), steering deviation in OSA subjects improved by an average of 3.1 cm (CI, 1.4 to 4.9), p < 0.001, while no significant steering changes were observed in the control group. Despite the improvement, steering deviation in the OSA group remained significantly higher than in controls (OSA group, 46.7 cm [CI, 40.6 to 52.8 cm] vs control group, 36.1 cm [CI, 29.3 to 42.9 cm], p = 0.025). Conclusions: While driving simulator performance improved after ∼3 months of CPAP treatment with high adherence in patients with severe OSA, performance remained impaired compared to control subjects. These results add to the growing body of evidence that some neurobehavioral deficits in patients with severe OSA are not fully reversed by treatment. Further studies are needed to assess causes of residual driving simulator impairment and to determine whether this is associated with persistent elevated real-life accident risk. Trial Registration: Data presented in this manuscript was collected as part of a clinical trial “Experimental Investigations of Driving Impairment in Obstructive

  20. Characterization of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSA) population by means of cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lacedonia, Donato; Carpagnano, Giovanna Elisiana; Sabato, Roberto; Storto, Maria Maddalena Lo; Palmiotti, Giuseppe Antonio; Capozzi, Vito; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Gallo, Crescenzio

    2016-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSA) is being identified increasingly as an important health issue. It is typified by repeated episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep leading to occasional hypoxaemia, sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality. OSA is also being considered as an independent risk factor for hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, leading to increased multi-morbidity and mortality. Cluster analysis, a powerful statistical set of techniques, may help in investigating and classifying homogeneous groups of patients with similar OSA characteristics. This study aims to investigate the (possible) different groups of patients in an OSA population, and to analyse the relationships among the main clinical variables in each group to better understand the impact of OSA on patients. Starting from a well-characterized OSA population of 198 subjects afferent to our sleep centre, we identified three different communities of OSA patients. The first has a very severe disease [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 65.91 ± 22.47] and sleep disorder has a strong impact on daily life: a low level of diurnal partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) (77.39 ± 11.64 mmHg) and a high prevalence of hypertension (64%); the second, with less severe disease (AHI = 28.88 ± 17.13), in which sleep disorders seem to be less important for diurnal PaO2 and have a minimum impact on comorbidity; and the last with very severe OSA (AHI = 57.26 ± 15.09) but with a low risk of nocturnal hypoxaemia (T90 = 11.58 ± 8.54) and less sleepy (Epworth Sleepiness Scale 10.00 ± 4.77).

  1. Executive Dysfunction in OSA Before and After Treatment: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olaithe, Michelle; Bucks, Romola S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a frequent and often underdiagnosed condition that is associated with upper airway collapse, oxygen desaturation, and sleep fragmentation leading to cognitive dysfunction. There is meta-analytic evidence that subdomains of attention and memory are affected by OSA. However, a thorough investigation of the impact of OSA on different subdomains of executive function is yet to be conducted. This report investigates the impact of OSA and its treatment, in adult patients, on 5 theorized subdomains of executive function. Design: An extensive literature search was conducted of published and unpublished materials, returning 35 studies that matched selection criteria. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize the results from studies examining the impact of OSA on executive functioning compared to controls (21 studies), and before and after treatment (19 studies); 5 studies met inclusion in both categories. Measurements: Research papers were selected which assessed 5 subdomains of executive function: Shifting, Updating, Inhibition, Generativity, and Fluid Reasoning. Results: All 5 domains of executive function demonstrated medium to very large impairments in OSA independent of age and disease severity. Furthermore, all subdomains of executive function demonstrated small to medium improvements with CPAP treatment. Discussion: Executive function is impaired across all five domains in OSA; these difficulties improved with CPAP treatment. Age and disease severity did not moderate the effects found; however, further studies are needed to explore the extent of primary and secondary effects, and the impact of age and premorbid intellectual ability (cognitive reserve). Citation: Olaithe M; Bucks RS. Executive dysfunction in OSA before and after treatment: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1297-1305. PMID:23997362

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) Increases Pedestrian Injury Risk in Children

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Kristin T.; Gamble, Karen L.; Schwebel, David C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate pedestrian behavior, including reaction time, impulsivity, risk-taking, attention, and decision-making, in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) compared with healthy controls. Study design Using a case control design, sixty 8- to 16-year-olds with newly diagnosed and untreated OSAS engaged in a virtual reality pedestrian environment. Sixty-one healthy children matched using a yoke-control procedure by age, race, gender and household income served as controls. Results Children with OSAS were riskier pedestrians than healthy children of the same age, race, and sex. Children with OSAS waited less time to cross (p<.01). The groups did not differ in looking at oncoming traffic or taking longer to decide to cross. Conclusions Results suggest OSAS may have significant consequences on children’s daytime functioning in a critical domain of personal safety, pedestrian skills. Children with OSAS appeared to have greater impulsivity when crossing streets. Results highlight the need for heightened awareness of the consequences of untreated sleep disorders and identify a possible target for pediatric injury prevention. PMID:25444002

  3. Is There a Relationship Between Snoring Sound Intensity and Frequency and OSAS Severity?

    PubMed

    Acar, Mustafa; Yazıcı, Demet; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Hancı, Deniz; Seren, Erdal; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between snoring sounds and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). A total number of 103 snoring patients (60 males and 43 females) were evaluated by means of polysomnographic findings and snoring sound recordings. Snoring sound intensity was assessed using fast Fourier transform (FFT) method by measuring maximal frequency (Fmax) and average snoring sound intensity level (SSIL). Maximal frequency and SSIL are correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), REM AHI, and severity of the OSAS. So, as the severity of the OSAS increased, so did the Fmax and SSIL of the snoring recordings, meaning patients started snoring louder with more frequency. In older patients, in females, in severe OSAS group, and in patients with higher body mass index (BMI), AHI and AHI REM values and SSIL and Fmax values increased. As mean oxygen (O2) saturation and lowest O2 saturation decreased, SSIL and Fmax values increased. Maximal frequency and SSIL analysis of the snoring sound increased in severe OSAS patients. People should be aware of the importance of snoring sounds. In particular, patients with snoring sounds increasing in intensity and of higher frequency should discuss with their physicians the possibility of OSAS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Effect of CPAP Therapy in Improving Daytime Sleepiness in Indian Patients with Moderate and Severe OSA

    PubMed Central

    Battan, Gulshan; Panwar, Ajay; Atam, Virendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Gangwar, Anil; Roy, Ujjawal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease and a major public health issue in India. Excessive daytime sleepiness is an almost ubiquitous symptom of OSA. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score is a validated objective score to measure the degree of daytime sleepiness. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy has been established as the gold standard treatment modality for OSA patients. A few Indian studies have reported the effectiveness of CPAP therapy in improving ESS scores after 1st month of CPAP use. Aim To observe both, short-term (one month) and long-term (three month) effects of CPAP therapy on ESS scores in moderate to severe OSA patients. Materials and Methods The patients complaining of excessive day-time sleepiness, snoring and choking episodes during sleep, consecutively presenting to medicine OPD over a period of 2 years, were subjected to Polysomnography (PSG). Seventy-three patients with apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 were categorised as having moderate to severe forms of OSA (moderate OSA with AHI=15-30 and severe OSA with AHI >30), and were scheduled for an initial trial of CPAP therapy. Forty-seven patients reported good tolerance to CPAP therapy after a trial period of 2 weeks and comprised the final study group. ESS scores in these patients were recorded at the baseline, and after 1st and 3rd month of CPAP therapy, and statistically analysed for significance. Results Mean ESS score at the baseline among moderate and severe OSA patients were 13.67±2.29 and 16.56 ±1.87, respectively. ESS score in both these subgroups improved significantly to 11.63±3.79, p=0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106)} and 14.13 ±3.74, p < 0.001, CI (1.2991-4.5408), respectively after one month of CPAP therapy. Likewise, mean ESS scores among moderate and severe OSA patients improved significantly to 9.84 ±2.97, p = 0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106) and 12.29 ±3.97, p <0.001, CI (2.9414-6.1385), respectively after three months of CPAP therapy

  5. Relationship between energy expenditure, physical activity and weight loss during CPAP treatment in obese OSA subjects.

    PubMed

    Bamberga, Michele; Rizzi, Maurizio; Gadaleta, Felice; Grechi, Attilio; Baiardini, Renata; Fanfulla, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Increased energy expenditure (EE) has been reported in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It has been postulated that CPAP treatment may induce weight reduction in obese patients, even if it has not been confirmed by recent studies. In the present study we investigated the effect of OSA on EE and the effect of CPAP on body weight and physical activity. One hundred and seven obese OSA patients and 25 healthy obese volunteers, as control group, matched for age, sex and BMI, were enrolled. The following evaluation was performed only in OSA patients after 6 months of CPAP treatment. Baseline total EE was similar in the two groups, but OSA patients showed higher EE during the night, while control group during daytime. In patients, EE correlates with OSA severity, degree of daytime sleepiness or obesity. At follow-up evaluation, BMI and total EE were unchanged. However, daytime EE increased (1066 ± 131.5 vs 1104 ± 133 Kcal/die, p < 0.001, respectively) and night EE decreased (694 ± 69 vs 595 ± 73, p < 0.0001, respectively). Statistically significant changes in BMI, sleepiness scale, blood gases and EE were found only in patients who were compliant to CPAP. Obese OSA patients showed an increased night EE that was normalized only in those patients compliant to CPAP. Body weight and daily physical activity did not change in statistically significant way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with tonsil colonisation by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Viciani, Elisa; Montagnani, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Tordini, Giacinta; Maccari, Silvia; Morandi, Matteo; Faenzi, Elisa; Biagini, Cesare; Romano, Antonio; Salerni, Lorenzo; Finco, Oretta; Lazzi, Stefano; Ruggiero, Paolo; De Luca, Andrea; Barocchi, Michèle A.; Manetti, Andrea G. O.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of pathogenic bacteria in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has yet to be elucidated. We investigated the possible role of group A streptococcus (GAS) in OSAS pathogenesis. In 40 tonsillectomized patients affected by OSAS and 80 healthy controls, significant (p < 0.0001) association of GAS with paediatric OSAS was found. Supernatant from streptolysin O (SLO)-producing GAS induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in tonsil mononuclear cells (TMCs). CysLTs-treated TMCs showed significant (p < 0.05) proliferation of CD4+ T, CD19+ and CD19+CD27+CD38+ B lymphocytes. We discovered a SLO-dependent activation of CysLTs production through a pathway involving TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and p38 MAP Kinase. In conclusion, we hypothesise that GAS may contribute to paediatric tonsillar hyperplasia through CysLTs production induced by SLO, and this might explain its association with OSAS. PMID:26860261

  7. MR image analytics to characterize upper airway architecture in children with OSAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.; Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms leading to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) in obese children are not well understood. We previously analyzed polysomnographic and demographic data to study the anatomical characteristics of the upper airway and body composition in two groups of obese children with and without OSAS, where object volume was evaluated. In this paper, in order to better understand the disease we expand the analysis considering a variety of features that include object-specific features such as size, surface area, sphericity, and image intensity properties of fourteen objects in the vicinity of the upper airway, as well as inter-object relationships such as distance between objects. Our preliminary results indicate several interesting phenomena: volumes and surface areas of adenoid and tonsils increase statistically significantly in OSAS. Standardized T2-weighted MR image intensities differ statistically significantly between the two groups, implying that perhaps intrinsic tissue composition undergoes changes in OSAS. Inter-object distances are significantly different between the two groups for object pairs (skin, oropharynx), (skin, fat pad), (skin, soft palate), (mandible, tongue), (oropharynx, soft palate), (left tonsil, oropharynx), (left tonsil, fat pad) and (left tonsil, right tonsil). We conclude that treatment methods for OSAS such as adenotonsillectomy should respect proportional object size relationships and spatial arrangement of objects as they exist in control subjects.

  8. Reviewing the relationship between OSA and cognition: Where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Bucks, Romola S; Olaithe, Michelle; Rosenzweig, Ivana; Morrell, Mary J

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a disorder of breathing during sleep resulting in temporary reduction in cerebral oxygenation and sleep disruption. A growing body of research reveals a relatively consistent pattern of deficits in cognition, particularly in attention, episodic memory, and executive function, which are partially remediated by treatment. This is where the consensus ends. Despite a number of competing explanations regarding how OSA affects cognition, reliable evidence is hard to find, which may relate to the many, common conditions co-morbid with OSA or to the methodological challenges in this field. This paper reviews the evidence for cognitive impairment in OSA, the proposed models of cognitive harm, the impact of co-morbidities and the many methodological and theoretical challenges of exploring the effect of OSA on cognition. To overcome some of these challenges, we end by proposing a number of future directions for the field, including suggesting some core design elements for future studies. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Blood Pressure Increases in OSA due to Maintained Neurovascular Sympathetic Transduction: Impact of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Tamisier, Renaud; Tan, Can Ozan; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Levy, Patrick; Taylor, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that greater resting sympathetic activity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome would not induce a lesser sympathetic neurovascular transduction. Design: Case-controlled cohort study. Participants: 33 patients with newly diagnosed OSA without comorbidities and 14 healthy controls. Interventions: 6 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for OSA patients and follow-up for 9 healthy controls. Measurements and Results: We assessed resting sympathetic outflow and sympathetic neurovascular transduction. Sympathetic activity was directly measured (microneurography) at rest and in response to sustained isometric handgrip exercise. Neurovascular transduction was derived from the relationship of sympathetic activity and blood pressure to leg blood flow during exercise. Despite an elevated sympathetic activity of ∼50% in OSA compared to controls, neurovascular transduction was not different (i.e., absence of tachyphylaxis). After six months of CPAP, there were significant declines in diastolic pressure, averaging ∼4 mm Hg, and in sympathetic activity, averaging ∼20% with no change in transduction. Conclusions: Greater sympathetic activity in obstructive sleep apnea does not appear to be associated with lesser neurovascular transduction. Hence, elevated sympathetic outflow without lesser transduction may underlie the prevalent development of hypertension in this population that is well controlled by continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Citation: Tamisier R, Tan CO, Pepin JL, Levy P, Taylor JA. Blood pressure increases in OSA due to maintained neurovascular sympathetic transduction: impact of CPAP. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1973–1980. PMID:26039959

  10. Performance analysis and overload control of an open service access (OSA) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Jens K.; Nyberg, Christian; Kihl, Maria

    2003-08-01

    The trend of the service architectures developed in telecommunications today is that they should be open in the sense that they can communicate over the borders of different networks. Instead of each network having their own service architecture with their own applications, all networks should be able to use the same applications. 3GPP, the organization developing specifications for the 3G networks has specified the standard Open Service Access (OSA), as a part of the 3G specification. OSA offers different Application Protocol Interfaces that enable an application that resides outside a network to use the capabilities of the network. This paper analyses the performance of an OSA gateway. It is examined how the overload control can be dealt with in a way to best satisfy the operators and the 3'rd parties. There are some guiding principles in the specifications, but a lot of decisions have to be made by the implementors of application servers and OSA gateways. Proposals of different requirements for an OSA architecture exist such as, minimum amount of accepted calls per second and time constraint for the maximal total delay for an application. Maximal and fair throughput have to be prioritized from the 3'rd parties view, but profit is the main interest from the operators point of view. Therefore this paper examines a priority based proposal of an overload control mechanism taking these aspects and requirements into account.

  11. Can sleep microstructure improve diagnosis of OSAS? Integrative information from CAP parameters.

    PubMed

    Milioli, Giulia; Bosi, Marcello; Grassi, Andrea; Riccardi, Silvia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Cortelli, Pietro; Poletti, Venerino; Parrino, Liborio

    2015-01-01

    The scoring of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) arousal is mandatory for the definition of respiratory event-related arousal (RERA). However there are other EEG activation phenomena, such as A phases of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) which are associated with respiratory events in non rapid eye movements (NREM) sleep. This study aims at quantifying the additional value of CAP for the definition of respiratory events and sleep alterations in OSAS. Analysis of polysomnographic recordings from nineteen OSAS patients was carried out. Scoring was focused on investigation of the cerebral response to flow limitation (FL) events. For this purpose we used both CAP rules and AASM arousal criteria. While no difference was demonstrated in the arousal index between mild and moderate-severe OSAS patients, CAP time showed a progressive enhancement from normal subjects (152.5±20.76) to mild (180.64±34.76) and moderate-severe (282.27±58.02) OSAS patients. In NREM sleep, only 41.1% of FL events met the criteria for the definition of RERA, while, 75.5% of FL events ended with a CAP A phase and most FL CAP (69.1%) terminated with a CAP phase A3 subtype. Our data indicate that the RERA scoring has a limited accuracy in the detection of FL events. In NREM sleep, CAP rules provided more information than AASM arousal for the definition of respiratory events and sleep alterations in OSAS.

  12. OSAS-related inflammatory mechanisms of liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Paschetta, Elena; Belci, Paola; Alisi, Anna; Liccardo, Daniela; Cutrera, Renato; Musso, Giovanni; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep disorder, affecting over 4% of the general population, and is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, independent of obesity and traditional risk factors. OSAS has been recently connected to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in the world, which can be found in 30% of the general adult population. Several studies suggest that the chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) of OSAS patients may per se trigger liver injury, inflammation, and fibrogenesis, promoting NAFLD development and the progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In NAFLD patients, liver disease may be caused by hypoxia both indirectly by promoting inflammation and insulin resistance and directly by enhancing proinflammatory cytokine production and metabolic dysregulation in liver cells. In this review, we focus on molecular mechanisms linking OSAS to NAFLD, including hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), YKL-40, unfolded protein response, and hypoxic adipose tissue inflammation, which all could provide novel potential therapeutic approaches for the management of NAFLD patients with OSAS.

  13. Italian recommendations on dental support in the treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Sacchi, Franco; Milano, Francesca; Polimeni, Antonella; Cozza, Paolo; Bernkopf, Edoardo; Segù, Marzia; Zucconi, Marco; Vicini, Claudio; Brunello, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of the present article is to present a set of proposed clinical recommendations aimed at Italian dentists involved in the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or snoring. Methods With the purpose of creating a study group, some of the most important Italian scientific societies operating in fields relevant to the issue of sleep medicine in dentistry were asked to appoint a representative. Each member of the study group was required to answer questions regarding the clinical management of OSAS and snoring. Results Oral appliances can be used to treat: - simple snoring, in patients who do not respond to, or do not appear to be suitable candidates for behavioral measures such as weight loss or positional therapy; - mild or moderate OSAS, in patients who prefer OAs to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or who are not suitable candidates for CPAP, because of its failure or failure of behavioral approaches like weight loss or positional therapy; - severe OSAS, in patients who do not respond to or do not tolerate CPAP and in whom no indication for either maxillofacial or ENT surgery appears applicable. Conclusions The application of oral appliances is highly desirable in cases of simple snoring or mild to moderate OSAS, whereas considerable caution is warranted when treating severe OSAS. It is fundamental to ensure that the patient understands his problem and, at the same time, to present all the various treatment options. PMID:26941893

  14. Effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on subsequent octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modification of cornstarch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; He, Xiaowei; Huang, Qiang

    2014-01-30

    Cornstarch granules were hydrothermally pretreated and then esterified with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). The physicochemical properties of cornstarch and hydrothermally pretreated OS-starch (H-OS-starch) were investigated. Results showed that hydrothermal pretreatments significantly increased the degree of substitution (DS) and reaction efficiency (RE) of H-OS-starch compared with the control. The higher the pretreatment temperature was, the more the OSA could go deep into the internal starch granules. The optimal pretreatment temperature for the OSA modification was 60°C. In addition, the OS groups appeared to be distributed throughout the OS-starch granules, especially on the surface, as shown by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). H-OS-starch had a slightly higher peak viscosity (Pv) and break down (BD) values, but lower pasting temperature (Tp) compared with the control OS-starch.

  15. Applying time, frequency and nonlinear features from nocturnal oximetry to OSA diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Daniel; Hornero, Roberto; Victor Marcos, J; Del Campo, Felix; Zamarron, Carlos; Lopez, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    This study is aimed to improve the diagnostic ability of blood oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) detection. We studied 74 patients suspected of suffering from OSA. Ten characteristics were derived from each SaO2 recording: arithmetic mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis from both time and frequency domains, central tendency measure and Lempel-Ziv complexity. The diagnostic ability of each feature was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Additionally, forward stepwise logistic regression (LR) was applied. The kurtosis in the time domain and the nonlinear measure of complexity were automatically selected. This methodology reached 93.2% sensitivity, 80.0% specificity and 87.8% accuracy, improving the results from each feature individually. Our study showed that common statistics in the time and frequency domains and nonlinear features could provide additional and complementary information to help in OSA diagnosis.

  16. Evidence of perceptive impairment in OSA patients investigated by means of a visual search task.

    PubMed

    Giora, Enrico; Galbiati, Andrea; Marelli, Sara; Zucconi, Marco; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by episodes of complete or partial obstruction of respiratory airways during sleep that leads to hypoxaemia and sleep fragmentation. One relevant daytime consequence of OSA is a negative impact on neurocognitive domain, ranging from psychomotor performance to executive function. In spite of a huge amount of evidence regarding cognitive impairment, little is known about perceptual processing in these patients. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of OSA on visual mechanisms by employing a visual search paradigm. 19 OSA patients and 19 age-matched healthy controls (HC) participated in a case-control study. After a nocturnal cardiorespiratory monitoring, patients performed a visual search task in which they had to detect the presence/absence of a target (letter T) embedded in the 50% of trials into a set of distractors (letters Os, Xs, or Ls). Target's salience and distractors' numerosity were manipulated as independent variables, whereas accuracy and reaction times (RT) were recorded as dependent variables. HC, after the exclusion of any sleep disorder or sleepiness, performed the same experiments. Results generally confirmed the typical effects of visual search. OSA patients reported significantly slower RT in comparison with HC, indicating an overall perceptual deficit consisting in a harder extraction of relevant information from noise. Neither patients' age nor the objective clinical indices were associated with RT. This study indicates the presence of an impairment in OSA patients involving basic mechanisms of visual processing and likely ascribable to the disorder per se. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic analysis of candidate SNPs for metabolic syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Antonio; Ruiz-Granados, Elena S.; Moreno-Rey, Concha; Rivera, Jose M.; Ruiz, Agustin; Real, Luis M.; Sáez, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by the reduction or complete cessation in airflow resulting from an obstruction of the upper airway. Several studies have observed an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among OSA patients. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors characterized by the presence of insulin resistance, is often found in patients with OSA, but the complex interplay between these two syndromes is not well understood. In this study, we present the results of a genetic association analysis of 373 candidate SNPs for MetS selected in a previous genome wide association analysis (GWAS). The 384 selected SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina VeraCode Technology in 387 subjects retrospectively assessed at the Internal Medicine Unit of the “Virgen de Valme” University Hospital (Seville, Spain). In order to increase the power of this study and to validate our findings in an independent population, we used data from the Framingham Sleep study which comprises 368 individuals. Only the rs11211631 polymorphism was associated with OSA in both populations, with an estimated OR=0.57 (0.42-0.79) in the joint analysis (p=7.21 × 10-4). This SNP was selected in the previous GWAS for MetS components using a digenic approach, but was not significant in the monogenic study. We have also identified two SNPs (rs2687855 and rs4299396) with a protective effect from OSA only in the abdominal obese subpopulation. As a whole, our study does not support that OSA and MetS share major genetic determinants, although both syndromes share common epidemiological and clinical features. PMID:23524009

  18. OSA screening with the pediatric sleep questionnaire for adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery in teen-LABS.

    PubMed

    Ishman, Stacey; Heubi, Christine; Jenkins, Todd; Michalsky, Marc; Simakajornboon, Narong; Inge, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is reported in 70% of adolescents who present for bariatric surgery. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to identify children at risk for OSA but is not validated in adolescents with obesity. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess validity of the PSQ to detect OSA and (2) to determine the correlation between anthropometric and polysomnography measurements. A cross-sectional assessment of Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery participants at high risk for OSA was performed. Participants completed an overnight polysomnography, and caregivers completed the PSQ. Forty-five participants (84% female, 78% Caucasian, mean age = 16.7 ± 1.5 years) were evaluated. Mean BMI was 51.3 ± 7.7 kg/m(2) and mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) was 6.1 ± 5.9 events/h. For diagnosis of OSA (oAHI ≥5), the total PSQ score sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were 86%, 38%, and 55%, respectively. For snoring >50% of the time, PPV was 84%, sensitivity was 64%, and specificity was 43%. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.027), whereas BMI, neck, and waist circumference correlated with neither. The PSQ demonstrated low specificity, and PPV and the question regarding snoring >50% of the time did not effectively identify OSA. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. Resting energy expenditure in OSAS: the impact of a single CPAP application.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Katalin; Boutou, Afroditi K; Pitsiou, Georgia; Chavouzis, Nikolaos; Pataka, Athanasia; Athanasiou, Ioanna; Ilonidis, Georgios; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Argyropoulou, Paraskevi; Kioumis, Ioannis

    2016-03-01

    Data on the impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and its treatment on resting energy expenditure (REE) are currently few and conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of OSAS on REE, as measured before and after sleep, and the changes in REE after a single continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) application, for the first time in literature. This is a nested case-control study. From the initial study population, two groups were formed, based on the results of nocturnal polysomnography: a group of male OSAS patients and a group of male, age-matched non-OSAS controls. REE was measured in both groups before and after sleep by indirect calorimetry, while patients repeated REE measurements before and after a single nasal CPAP application. Ninety-two male OSAS patients (45.3 ± 12.8 years old) and 19 male non-OSAS controls (50.8 ± 11.7 years old) were studied. REE/lean body mass (LBM) was higher among patients compared to controls both pre- (29.6 ± 12 vs 22.9 ± 7.9 kcal/kg; p = 0.022, correspondingly) and post-sleep (26.4 ± 9.6 vs 21.6 ± 9 kcal/kg; p = 0.047 correspondingly). REE/LBM decreased significantly after sleep in OSAS patients (p = 0.002), but not in controls; this difference was most evident among patients with more severe disease and higher desaturation. A single nasal CPAP application diminished the pre-post REE/LBM difference (30.3 ± 8.2 vs 28.3 ± 10.3 kcal/kg; p = 0.265), but only among responders. In OSAS patients, REE values are high and vary significantly before and after sleep. A single nasal CPAP application diminishes this difference among responders, possibly through reversal of nocturnal desaturation.

  20. Age, gender, neck circumference, and Epworth sleepiness scale do not predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): The challenge to predict OSA in advanced COPD.

    PubMed

    Soler, Xavier; Liao, Shu-Yi; Marin, Jose Maria; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Jen, Rachel; DeYoung, Pamela; Owens, Robert L; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul

    2017-01-01

    The combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that predictors of OSA among patients with COPD may be distinct from OSA in the general population. Therefore, we investigated associations between traditional OSA risk factors (e.g. age), and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Epworth Sleepiness Scale] in 44 patients with advanced COPD. As a second aim we proposed a pilot, simplified screening test for OSA in patients with COPD. In a prospective, observational study of patients enrolled in the UCSD Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program we collected baseline characteristics, cardiovascular events (e.g. atrial fibrillation), and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. For the pilot questionnaire, a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and the presence of cardiovascular disease were used to construct the pilot screening test. Male: 59%; OSA 66%. FEV1 (mean ± SD) = 41.0±18.2% pred., FEV1/FVC = 41.5±12.7%]. Male gender, older age, and large neck circumference were not associated with OSA. Also, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the STOP-Bang questionnaire were not associated with OSA in univariate logistic regression. In contrast, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 3.94, p = 0.04) and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (OR = 5.06, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with OSA [area under curve (AUC) = 0.74]. The pilot COPD-OSA test (OR = 5.28, p = 0.05) and STOP-Bang questionnaire (OR = 5.13, p = 0.03) were both associated with OSA in Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. The COPD-OSA test had the best AUC (0.74), sensitivity (92%), and specificity (83%). A ten-fold cross-validation validated our results. We found that traditional OSA predictors (e.g. gender, Epworth score) did not perform well in patients with more advanced COPD. Our pilot test may be an easy to implement instrument to screen for OSA. However, a larger validation study is necessary before

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and social support in elder patients.

    PubMed

    Tutuncu, Recep; Karabulut, Hayriye; Acar, Baran; Babademen, Mehmet Ali; Ciftçi, Bülent; Karaşen, Riza Murat

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a very important aspect in debilitating diseases. OSAS is a disabling disease that impairs social functioning and accounts for a large socio-economic burden for the community. In this study our aim is to investigate social support levels among OSAS patients: 85 of them with the diagnosis of OSAS were enrolled in the study. Multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) is used to measure the perception of individuals' social support sufficiency. In contrast to many studies, we found that social support levels of elder patients were higher than the young ones and family subscale was significantly higher. It might be both due to Turkish family structure that the grands are in close relationship with the other family members and the adverse effects of the disease which have more negative impact on young patients' life. In conclusion, social support is an important aspect in OSAS patients. The interventions for the enhancement of social support could lead to substantial cost-savings, reduce morbidity, and increase well-being. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a biological wastewater treatment system combining an OSA process with ultrasound for sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pareja, P M; Aragon, C A; Quiroga, J M; Coello, M D

    2017-05-01

    Sludge production is an undesirable by-product of biological wastewater treatment. The oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process constitutes one of the most promising techniques for reducing the sludge produced at the treatment plant without negative consequences for its overall performance. In the present study, the OSA process is applied in combination with ultrasound treatment, a lysis technique, in a lab-scale wastewater treatment plant to assess whether sludge reduction is enhanced as a result of mechanical treatment. Reported sludge reductions of 45.72% and 78.56% were obtained for the two regimes of combined treatment tested in this study during two respective stages: UO1 and UO2. During the UO1 stage, the general performance and nutrient removal improved, obtaining 47.28% TN removal versus 21.95% in the conventional stage. However, the performance of the system was seriously damaged during the UO2 stage. Increases in dehydrogenase and protease activities were observed during both stages. The advantages of the combined process are not necessarily economic, but operational, as US treatment acts as contributing factor in the OSA process, inducing mechanisms that lead to sludge reduction in the OSA process and improving performance parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila moira and osa genes by the DREF pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kumi; Ida, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2008-07-01

    The DNA replication-related element binding factor (DREF) plays an important role in regulation of cell proliferation in Drosophila, binding to DRE and activating transcription of genes carrying this element in their promoter regions. Overexpression of DREF in eye imaginal discs induces a rough eye phenotype in adults, which can be suppressed by half dose reduction of the osa or moira (mor) genes encoding subunits of the BRM complex. This ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex is known to control gene expression and the cell cycle. In the 5' flanking regions of the osa and mor genes, DRE and DRE-like sequences exist which contribute to their promoter activities. Expression levels and promoter activities of osa and mor are decreased in DREF knockdown cells and our results in vitro and in cultured cells indicate that transcription of osa and mor is regulated by the DRE/DREF regulatory pathway. In addition, mRNA levels of other BRM complex subunits and a target gene, string/cdc25, were found to be decreased by knockdown of DREF. These results indicate that DREF is involved in regulation of the BRM complex and thereby the cell cycle.

  4. Cognition and nocturnal disturbance in OSA: the importance of accounting for age and premorbid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Olaithe, Michelle; Skinner, Timothy C; Hillman, David; Eastwood, Peter E; Bucks, Romola S

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with impaired attention, memory and executive function. However, the mechanisms underlying such dysfunction are unclear. To determine the influence of sleep fragmentation and hypoxia, this study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation and hypoxia on cognition in OSA, while controlling for potentially confounding variables including sleepiness, age and premorbid intelligence. Participants with and without OSA (N = 150) were recruited from the general community and a tertiary hospital sleep clinic. All underwent comprehensive, laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) and completed assessments of cognition including attention, short- and long-term memory and executive function. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to construct a theoretically-driven model to examine the relationships between hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, and cognitive function. Although after controlling for IQ, increased sleep disturbance was a significant predictor of decreased attention (p = 0.04) and decreased executive function (p = 0.05), controlling for age removes these significant relationships. No significant predictors of memory function were found. The mechanisms underlying the effects of OSA on cognition remain to be defined. Implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  5. Is There a Relationship Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Hearing Loss?

    PubMed Central

    Ekin, Selami; Turan, Mahfuz; Arısoy, Ahmet; Gunbatar, Hulya; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Asker, Selvi; Yıldız, Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder with an estimated prevalence in the general population of 2–5%. Its main clinical features are loud snoring and breathing stoppage during sleep. Ischemia could be a consequence of noise-induced hearing loss because cochlear oxygen tension is reduced during and after noise exposure. In this study, we evaluated auditory function in patients affected by OSA and simple snoring. Material/Methods A total of 66 participants (male to female ratio: 40:26) were included in the study, of which 21 were in the control group, 18 were in the simple snoring group, and 27 were in the OSA patient group. Polysomnography and audiometric examination were performed in all participants. Results The mean ages of the participants in the control, simple snoring, and OSA groups were 39.14±9.9, 37.28±8.2, and 41.56±8.99 years, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among groups regarding age or sex; however, there were statistically significant differences among groups in body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index scores, mean saturation, and duration under 90% saturation. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between the patient group and the control and simple snoring groups concerning the mean saturation, duration under 90% saturation, and the extended high frequency of hearing. Conclusions These data show that snoring may cause hearing loss at extended high frequencies. PMID:27588548

  6. OSAS Surgery and Postoperative Discomfort: Phase I Surgery versus Phase II Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Giulio; Pelo, Sandro; Foresta, Enrico; Boniello, Roberto; Romandini, Mario; Cervelli, Daniele; Azzuni, Camillo; Marianetti, Tito Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study aims to investigate the reasons that discourage the patients affected by OSAS to undergo orthognathic surgery and compares the postoperative discomfort of phase I (soft tissue surgery) and phase II (orthognathic surgery) procedures for treatment of OSAS. Material and Methods. A pool of 46 patients affected by OSAS was divided into two groups: “surgery patients” who accepted surgical treatments of their condition and “no surgery patients” who refused surgical procedures. The “surgery patients” group was further subdivided into two arms: patients who accepted phase I procedures (IP) and those who accepted phase II (IIP). To better understand the motivations behind the refusal of II phase procedures, we asked the patients belonging to both the IP group and “no surgery” group to indicate the main reason that influenced their decision to avoid II phase procedures. We also monitored and compared five parameters of postoperative discomfort: pain, painkiller assumption, length of hospitalization, foreign body sensation, and diet assumption following IP and IIP procedures. Results. The main reason to avoid IIP procedures was the concern of a more severe postoperative discomfort. Comparison of the postoperative discomfort following IP versus IIP procedures showed that the former scored worse in 4 out of 5 parameters analyzed. Conclusion. IIP procedures produce less postoperative discomfort. IIP procedures, namely, orthognathic surgery, should be the first choice intervention in patients affected by OSAS and dentoskeletal malformation. PMID:25695081

  7. Blood pressure effects of CPAP in nonresistant and resistant hypertension associated with OSA: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a rather common chronic disorder, associated with increased prevalence of hypertension. The pathophysiological mechanisms for hypertension in OSA are at least in part linked to intermittent hypoxia developed during nightly hypopneas and apneas. Hypoxemia stimulates sympathetic overactivity, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. However, it appears that intermittent hypoxemia is not the only factor in the development of hypertension in OSA. Supplemental oxygen therapy that improved oxyhemoglobin saturation to similar levels to those achieved with CPAP treatment did not reduce BP. In this scenario, it could be proposed that hypoxemia acts as a trigger of sympathetic overdrive, which when set is the main factor in the development of hypertension in OSA. This review appraises evidence provided by randomized controlled trials on the BP-lowering effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA patients with nonresistant and resistant hypertension. It suggests that CPAP treatment is more effective in treating resistant hypertension than nonresistant hypertension. A possible explanation is that sympathetic overactivity and altered vascular reactivity in OSA could be more severe in resistant hypertension than in nonresistant hypertension. An intricate interaction among compliance, adherence, and their interaction with demographic characteristics, genetic factors, and comorbidities of the population included might explain the differences found between trials on their influence over the antihypertensive effectiveness of CPAP. Further long-term trials are needed in hypertensive OSA patients to assess whether CPAP treatment in OSA patients consistently restores physiological nocturnal BP fall and adjusts resting and circadian heart rate.

  8. The USC-OSA Student Chapter: goals and benefits for the optics community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Varela, A. I.; Gargallo, Ana; González Núñez, Héctor; Delgado-García, Tamara; Almaguer-Gómez, Citlalli; Cambronero-López, F.; Flores-Arias, M. T.

    2014-07-01

    The USC-OSA Student Chapter has been constituted in March 2013 by members of the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) in Spain and sponsored by The Optical Society of America (OSA). It is formed by five graduate and one undergraduate students with the common interest in Optics and Photonics research and a professor of the USC is also involved as a faculty advisor. We decided to start this group with the aim of involving kids, precollege and undergraduate students in the world of Optics and Photonics. The activities that the USC-OSA Student Chapter members intend to realize are mainly educational tasks for the spreading of knowledge in Photonics by means of basic experiments, demonstrations and lectures by leading researchers and teachers. Most of the needed resources to accomplish these activities are provided by the OSA, such as educational posters and a portable kit for demonstrating Optics to students. At this moment the USC-OSA Student Chapter is carrying out several activities, as educational journeys at the Santiago de Compostela University Hospital Complex (CHUS), where hospitalized children can approach to Optics through some simple experiments and games. A teaching program is also being organized in collaboration with Galician secondary schools in order to show students the importance and uses of Optics and Photonics and to arouse their interest in this field, as well as encouraging them to develop their scientific thinking. Another activity will take place in November during the Science Week, which includes a program of lectures targeted to undergraduate students and an exposition of several demonstrations

  9. Status of the American Public School Teacher, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolman, Paul, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    A continuing need for comprehensive and timely information about the public school teachers of the United States led the National Education Association (NEA) Research Division in 1956 to develop the first of a series of surveys and subsequent reports covering various aspects of teachers' professional, family, and civic lives. The NEA has conducted…

  10. MCPS Special Education at a Glance 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "MCPS Special Education at a Glance" is a direct result of the work of the Special Education Continuous Improvement Team (SECIT), an advisory group to the Montgomery County Public Schools Board of Education Special Education Ad Hoc Subcommittee. During the 2004-2005 school year, the SECIT developed, in collaboration with special…

  11. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie

    2008-11-10

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2005 through March 2006 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 22095. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2005 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  12. Orchard Display Nursery evaluation summary (2005-2006)

    Treesearch

    Derek J. Tilley; Loren St. John

    2006-01-01

    The Orchard Display Nursery was planted on November 16, 2004 in cooperation with the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project. The nursery includes 82 accessions of 27 native and introduced grass, forb and shrub species. Each accession was planted in 7 X 60 foot plots. See Tilley et al (2005) for descriptions of the species and accessions planted. The...

  13. Guide to NYC Small High Schools, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Visions for Public Schools, 2005

    2005-01-01

    New Visions for Public Schools has put together "The New York City Guide to Small High Schools" to describe new opportunities in the public high school system: over 200 small secondary schools created over the last five years. These small schools are part of the Department of Education's efforts to create more choices for thousands of…

  14. Appeal Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    APPEAL (Asia Pacific Programme of Education for All) Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) was initiated in May 1997 at the Technical Working Group Meeting organized by APPEAL in cooperation with the Indian Institute of Education (IIE) to provide technical support and assistance to the work of APPEAL among the Member States. This booklet is a…

  15. Patterns of stepping cadence in the 2005-2006 NHANES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory studies of adult walking behavior have consistently found that a cadence of 100 steps/min is a reasonable threshold for moderate intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine cadence patterns in free-living adults, and in particular, time spent at increasing cadence increments, in...

  16. Charter School Site Visit Protocol, 2005-2006 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Site visits are one of the means the Department of Education uses to document each charter school's performance and progress. These visits usually take place during the second and third years of the charter. The Charter School Office, however, reserves the right to conduct visits at other times when deemed necessary. The primary purposes of a site…

  17. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2006-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost-effective recovery efforts are to be implemented. In order to adequately address the issues, other segments of society and other (non-BPA) funding sources must be incorporated into the solution. As stated in the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (section 7.7), ''Comprehensive watershed management should enhance and expedite implementation of actions by clearly identifying gaps in programs and knowledge, by striving over time to resolve conflicts, and by keying on activities that address priorities''. A watershed coordinator helps to initiate and facilitate efforts for addressing the issues mentioned above and pulling together a plan for mitigation. Local support is essential before local governments and individual citizens are going to allow government initiatives to be implemented.

  18. ACT National Curriculum Survey[R], 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    ACT conducts the only nationwide curriculum survey that empirically identifies current instructional practices and postsecondary expectations in order to develop tests that measure critical skills and knowledge. Every three years, it surveys thousands of middle school/junior high school, secondary, and postsecondary teachers in English/writing,…

  19. Colorado Even Start 2005-2006 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of Even Start, as outlined in federal legislation, is to help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and low literacy by providing a unified family literacy program for low-income families. Even Start has three related goals: (1) to help parents improve their literacy or basic education skills; (2) to help parents become full…

  20. Illinois Community College Board Biennial Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB), as the state coordinating board for community colleges, is to administer the Public Community College Act in a manner that maximizes the ability of the community colleges to serve their communities, promotes cooperation within the system, and accommodates those State of Illinois…

  1. Parabolic Trough VSHOT Optical Characterization in 2005-2006 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation regarding parabolic trough VSHOT optical characterization describes trough deployment and operation phases including: development, manufacture/installation, and maintenance/operation.

  2. Kalispel Resident Fish Project, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) monitored its current enhancement projects for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) enhancement projects were also monitored. Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in East River and several of its tributaries.

  3. Thomas B. Fordham Foundation Sponsorship Accountability Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report offers a comprehensive account of Thomas B. Fordham Foundation's sponsorship policies and practices, including a history of its sponsorship efforts, as well as individual profiles of all Fordham-sponsored schools in Ohio. Included in the profiles are in-depth descriptions of each school's educational program, school philosophy, and…

  4. New Mexico Student Dropout Report, 2005-2006. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medrano, Marlene; Borgrink, Henry

    2007-01-01

    The New Mexico Dropout Report is published annually to provide information for educators, parents, legislators, and other interested parties on the status of education in New Mexico. This report describes the extent and nature of the school dropout dilemma in the state, providing information on the numbers and percentages of dropouts by grade,…

  5. Third Year Evaluation of Tennessee Charter Schools, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Bol, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present evaluation study was to examine the progress made in program implementation, school climate, and student achievement by Tennessee charter schools. Six evaluation questions guided the methodology for this study. Student achievement results are addressed in a separate report. The following evaluation questions are…

  6. Clearwater Focus Program; 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hohle, Janet

    2006-07-01

    The Clearwater River subbasin was designated a coordination program under the 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council) in November 1996. The Clearwater Focus Program is co-coordinated by Idaho State and the Nez Perce Tribe. This Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) funded contract is sponsored by the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission (ISCC) on behalf of Idaho State. The contract term for this program has been synchronized with the state fiscal year, which is operates from July 1 to June 30, to facilitate contract administration and accounting. This report presents a narrative summary of work conducted from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006. Coordination for the Clearwater Focus Program funded under this contract is operating as recommended by the Council for the Mountain Snake Provincial Review that occurred in late 2001 and in subsequent Fiscal Year funding approval processes.

  7. Arkansas Department of Education Home School Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents data on home schooling in the state of Arkansas that covers: students withdrawn from home school; home school student count by county, district, and grade level; and home school enrollments by grade and gender. The report contains the texts of the Arkansas Code Annotated Section 6-15-501 through Section 6-15-508 Home School…

  8. Multiwavelength observations of Markarian 421 in 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, D.; Acciari, V. A.; Bradury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Smith, A. W.; Hays, E.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2005 September, the Whipple 10 m Gamma-ray Telescope has been operated primarily as a blazar monitor. The five northern hemisphere blazars that have already been detected at the Whipple Observatory, Markarian 421 (Mrk 421), H1426+428, Mrk 501, 1ES 1959+650, and 1ES 2344+514, are monitored routinely each night that they are visible. We report on the Mrk 421 observations taken from 2005 November to 2006 June in the gamma-ray, X-ray, optical, and radio bands. During this time, Mrk 421 was found to be variable at all wavelengths probed. Both the variability and the correlations among different energy regimes are studied in detail here. A tentative correlation, with large spread, was measured between the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, while no clear correlation was evident among the other energy bands. In addition to this, the well-sampled spectral energy distribution of Mrk 421 (1101+384) is presented for three different activity levels. The observations of the other blazar targets will be reported separately.

  9. Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Years 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Virginia L. Finley

    2010-01-25

    Contained in the following report are data for radioactivity in the environment collected and analyzed by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Princeton Environmental, Analytical, and Radiological Laboratory (PEARL). The PEARL is located on-site and is certified for analyzing radiological and non-radiological parameters through the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection's Laboratory Certification Program, Certification Number 12471. Non-radiological surface and ground water samples are analyzed by NJDEP certified subcontractor laboratories - QC, Inc. and Accutest Laboratory. To the best of our knowledge, these data, as contained in the "Annual Site Environmental Report for 2005 and 2006," are documented and certified to be correct.

  10. Brain stem activity changes associated with restored sympathetic drive following CPAP treatment in OSA subjects: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, Linda C; Fatouleh, Rania H; McKenzie, David K; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significantly elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Although little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoexcitation, we have recently shown that the elevated MSNA in OSA is associated with altered neural processing in various brain stem sites, including the dorsolateral pons, rostral ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, and midbrain. Given the risk associated with elevated MSNA, we aimed to determine if treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would reduce the elevated MSNA and reverse the brain stem functional changes associated with the elevated MSNA. We performed concurrent recordings of MSNA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity of the brain stem, using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, in 15 controls and 13 subjects with OSA, before and after 6 mo CPAP treatment. As expected, 6 mo of CPAP treatment significantly reduced MSNA in subjects with OSA, from 54 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 bursts/min and from 77 ± 7 to 36 ± 3 bursts/100 heart beats. Importantly, we found that MSNA-coupled changes in BOLD signal intensity within the dorsolateral pons, medullary raphe, and rostral ventrolateral medulla returned to control levels. That is, CPAP treatment completely reversed brain stem functional changes associated with elevated MSNA in untreated OSA subjects. These data highlight the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in reducing one of the most significant health issues associated with OSA, that is, elevated MSNA and its associated elevated morbidity.

  11. The effectiveness of combined tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).

    PubMed

    Adzreil, Bakri; Wong, Eugene Hung Chih; Saraiza, Abu Bakar; Raman, Rajagopalan; Amin, Jalaludin

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasing due to a rising rate of obesity. Multiple surgical techniques used to address obstruction at the palatal level have been associated with significant morbidities. Few studies have reported good outcomes of anterior palatoplasty (AP) in mild-to-moderate OSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of combining tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of snoring and OSA. All patients with snoring and OSA treated with tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty were analyzed. The primary outcome was reduction of the apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) with surgical success criteria; reduction of AHI by ≥50% and AHI ≤10. The secondary outcomes measured were patients' Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and snoring visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Thirty one patients completed the study, where 19% had mild, 42% moderate, and 39% had severe OSA. The mean surgical success rate was 45% at 3 months and 32% at 1-year post-operatively. There was a significant reduction of ESS and VAS at 3 months and 1-year post-operatively (p < 0.05). Combination of tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty could be considered as a treatment option for snoring and OSA in selected groups of patients (mild-to-moderate OSA with mainly retropalatal obstruction). The surgical success was found to reduce with time, and BMI optimization should be emphasized as part of post-operative care.

  12. [Specific features of wounds with a self-defense traumatic weapon "Osa"].

    PubMed

    Khodov, A M; Zolotov, A S; Filipchenkov, L S

    2012-01-01

    Specific features and outcomes of wounds with a traumatic weapon of self-defense "Osa" were analyzed in 24 patients. Mean age of the wounded was from 21 to76 years. In 20 patients there was a single wound, in 4 patients it was multiple, in 7--blunt, in 12--perforating and 5 patients had gutter wounds. All the patients were treated according to the principles of field military surgery. Five patients had severe wounds: penetrating fracture of the skull (2 of them died), fracture of the shoulder (1 case), injury of the main artery (1 case), of the pleura (1 case). The wounds were closed up by primary intention in 19 patients, by second intention in 4 patients. The authors' experience shows that a traumatic weapon of self-defense "Osa" rather often caused permanent harm to health and can be mortal. Active surgical strategy in treatment of such patients prevents the development of serious infectious complications.

  13. Effects of simultaneous palatal expansion and mandibular advancement in a child suffering from OSA.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, A; Festa, P; Pavone, M; De Vincentiis, G C

    2016-08-01

    This clinical report describes a child suffering from obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and class II skeletal malocclusion with maxillary contraction and anterior open bite. He presented moderate obstructive sleep apnoea with large impact on quality of life of patient and parents. He was treated using an innovative orthodontic device (Sleep Apnea Twin Expander) to simultaneously carry out palatal expansion and mandibular advancement. After orthodontic therapy, the OSA-18 questionnaire demonstrated an improvement of the main respiratory symptoms, while cardiorespiratory sleep study revealed a reduction in obstructive sleep apnoea events. Post-treatment, clinical assessment and cephalometric analysis showed a reduction of sagittal maxillary discrepancy and an extension of upper airway space. In conclusion, this case report suggests that orthodontic treatment might be a valuable alternative treatment in children with obstructive sleep apnoea related to craniofacial anomalies.

  14. Corresponding color datasets and a chromatic adaptation model based on the OSA-UCS system.

    PubMed

    Oleari, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    Today chromatic adaptation transforms (CATs) are reconsidered, since their mathematical inconsistency has been shown in Color Res. Appl.38, 188 (2013) and by the CIE technical committee TC 8-11: CIECAM02 Mathematics. In 2004-2005 the author proposed an adaptation transform based on the uniform color scale system of the Optical Society of America (OSA-UCS) [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] that transforms the cone-activation stimuli into adapted stimuli. The present work considers all the 37 available corresponding color (CC) datasets selected by CIE and (1) shows that the adapted stimuli obtained from CC data are defined up to an unknown transformation, and an unambiguous definition of the adapted stimuli requires additional hypotheses or suitable experimental data (as it is in the OSA-UCS system); (2) produces a CAT, represented by a linear transformation between CCs, associated with any CC dataset, whose high quality measured in ΔE units discards the possibility of nonlinear transformations; (3) analyzes these color-conversion matrices in a heuristic way with a reference adaptation that is approximately that of the OSA-UCS adapted colors for the D65 illuminant and particularly shows accordance with the Hunt effect and the Bezold-Brücke hue shift; (4) proposes the measurements of CC stimuli with a reference adaptation equal to that of the visual situation of the OSA-UCS system for defining adapted colors for any considered illumination adaptation and therefore for defining a general CAT formula.

  15. Upper Airway Stimulation for OSA: Early Adherence and Outcome Results of One Center.

    PubMed

    Kent, David T; Lee, Jake J; Strollo, Patrick J; Soose, Ryan J

    2016-07-01

    To review outcome measures and objective adherence data for patients treated with hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) therapy for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Case series with chart review. Academic sleep medicine center. The first 20 implanted patients to complete postoperative sleep laboratory testing were assessed. All patients had moderate to severe OSA, were unable to adhere to positive pressure therapy, and met previously published inclusion criteria for the commercially available implantable HNS system. Data included demographics, body mass index (BMI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), nightly hours of device usage, and procedure- and therapy-related complications. Mean age was 64.8 ± 12.0 years, with 50% female. Mean BMI was unchanged postoperatively (26.5 ± 4.2 to 26.8 ± 4.5 kg/m(2); P > .05). Mean AHI (33.3 ± 13.0 to 5.1 ± 4.3; P < .0001) and mean ESS (10.3 ± 5.2 to 6.0 ± 4.4; P < .01) decreased significantly. Seventy percent (14/20) of patients achieved a treatment AHI <5, 85% (17/20) an AHI <10, and 95% (19/20) an AHI <15. Average stimulation amplitude was 1.89 ± 0.50 V after titration. Adherence monitoring via device interrogation showed high rates of voluntary device use (mean 7.0 ± 2.2 h/night). For a clinical and anatomical subset of patients with OSA, HNS therapy is associated with good objective adherence, low morbidity, and improved OSA outcome measures. Early results at one institution suggest that HNS therapy can be implemented successfully into routine clinical practice, outside of a trial setting. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Study to Examine the Effect of a Lifestyle Modification Program in OSA.

    PubMed

    Ng, Susanna S S; Chan, Ruth S M; Woo, Jean; Chan, Tat-On; Cheung, Bernice H K; Sea, Mandy M M; To, Kin-Wang; Chan, Ken K P; Ngai, Jenny; Yip, Wing-Ho; Ko, Fanny W S; Hui, David S C

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for OSA. This study aimed to assess the effect of weight reduction through a lifestyle modification program (LMP) on patients with moderate to severe OSA. This was a parallel group, randomized controlled trial. Altogether, 104 patients with moderate to severe OSA diagnosed on portable home sleep monitoring were randomized to receive a dietician-led LMP or usual care for 12 months. The primary outcome was reduction of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) at 12 months as assessed by portable home sleep monitoring. In the intention-to-treat analysis (ITT), LMP (n = 61) was more effective in reducing AHI from baseline (16.9% fewer events in the LMP group vs 0.6% more events in the control group, P = .011). LMP was more effective in reducing BMI (-1.8 kg/m2, 6.0% of the initial BMI; -0.6 kg/m2, 2.0% of the initial BMI in control group; P < .001). The reduction in daytime sleepiness as assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale was not significant in ITT but was more in the LMP group (-3.5 in the LMP group vs -1.1 in the control group, P = .004) by treatment per protocol analysis. There was modest improvement in mental health in the Short Form Health Survey. Eating behavior was improved with increased intake of protein and fiber. These changes were observed 4 months after the initial intensive diet counseling and persisted at 12 months. LMP was effective in reducing the severity of OSA and daytime sleepiness. The beneficial effect was sustained in 12 months. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01384760; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  17. Effect of oxygen desaturation threshold on determination of OSA severity during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Myllymaa, Katja; Myllymaa, Sami; Leppänen, Timo; Kulkas, Antti; Kupari, Salla; Tiihonen, Pekka; Mervaala, Esa; Seppä, Juha; Tuomilehto, Henri; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-03-01

    Weight loss leads to improvement of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), based on frequency of respiratory events (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI). However, AHI does not incorporate the severity of individual obstruction events. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine suggests two alternative oxygen desaturation thresholds (ODT) for scoring of hypopneas. We hypothesize that lowering the ODT level increases the determined impact of weight loss on OSA severity. We investigate this during weight change with AHI and adjusted AHI. Adjusted AHI is a novel parameter incorporating both severity and number of the events. Ambulatory polygraphic data of 54 OSA patients (F 15/M 39, 51.7 ± 8.4 years), divided into weight loss (>5 %, n = 20), control (weight change 0-5 %, n = 26), and weight gain (>5 %, n = 8) groups, were evaluated at baseline and after 5-year follow-up. Effect of ODT (ODT2%-ODT6%) on AHI and adjusted AHI was investigated. The greatest changes in AHI (decrease in weight loss group and increase in weight gain group) were observed with ODT2%. Changes in AHI diminished with increasing ODT. In weight loss group, adjusted AHI showed a similar but non-significant trend. In contrast, the higher ODT was used in weight gain group, the greater increase in adjusted AHI resulted. Using adjusted AHI instead of AHI, led to a smaller number of patients (20 vs. 55 %, ODT3%) whose OSA severity category improved along weight loss. Weight loss significantly reduced AHI. This reduction was highly dependent on selected ODT. The change in adjusted AHI did not occur in the same extent. This was expected as the more severe events which tend to remain during the weight loss have greater importance in adjusted AHI, while the event severity is neglected in AHI.

  18. OSA-18 survey in evaluation of sleep-disordered breathing in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Hasukic, Begzada

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the quality of life (QOL) in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) before and after adenoidectomy and before and after adenotonsillectomy using the OSA-18 survey. The prospective study included sixty children with symptoms of SDB caused by enlarged adenoids or tonsils, of both sexes, aged 3-12 years, consecutively admitted into the ENT Clinic in Tuzla, for adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy. Patients were divided in two subgroups: thirty patients who underwent adenoidectomy and thirty patients who underwent adenotonsillectomy. Parents or caregivers completed the OSA-18 survey before surgery and 5 weeks after surgery. For statistical analysis was used Student's t-test of pared samples. The values p < 0.05 were accepted as significant. Mean total score before adenoidectomy was 3.44 (SD = 0.77) and after surgery was 1.30 (SD = 0.46).Mean total score before adenotonsillectomy was 3.69 (SD = 0.80), after surgery was 1.22 (SD = 0.27). The difference between preoperative and postoperative scores in both subgroups of patients was significant (p < 0.01). Adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy improve QOL in children with SDB, which is caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The OSA-18 survey is a useful tool for the selection of children for surgery with SDB caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy and to assess quality of life after surgery.

  19. Physiology of Arousal in OSA and Potential Impacts for Sedative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy S; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Cori, Jennifer M; Trinder, John

    2017-04-11

    Treatment options for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) intolerant of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are limited. Thus, new therapies are sought. Recently, there has been interest in using sedatives to delay arousal from sleep, allowing upper airway dilator muscle recruitment sufficient to re-open the airway while maintaining sleep. In this review the rationale for sedative use and prior sedative studies in OSA are presented, along with a description of six factors that may determine sedative treatment success. It is proposed that in order for a sedative to treat OSA the patient must have each of the following three traits: 1) a mild to moderately collapsible upper airway, 2) responsive and effective upper airway dilator muscles and 3) a low to moderate arousal threshold. In addition (4), proponents of sedative treatment generally believe that to be effective the sedative must increase the arousal threshold. Finally (5), sedatives may have additional utility in patients with large ventilatory responses to arousal and (6) the metric used to define sedative success needs to be considered. To date, few of these factors have been evaluated in sedative trials. Further, it is likely only a relatively small percentage of patients will have all of the required traits. If sedative treatment is successful in appropriate patients, easily measured surrogate markers for the factors that determine sedative success will be critical for implementation in the clinic. Finally, sedatives may have detrimental outcomes for some patients and prospective identification of such patients will be required.

  20. Everyday life for the spouses of patients with untreated OSA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stålkrantz, Anna; Broström, Anders; Wiberg, Jan; Svanborg, Eva; Malm, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model describing concerns for spouses of patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and how they manage these concerns in their everyday life. Twelve spouses were interviewed about their experiences and how they manage everyday life. The interviews were analysed according to the Grounded Theory method as described by Strauss and Corbin. Two main categories emerged from the data: 'Social adjustment' and 'New feelings'. 'Social adjustment' reveals how the spouses made adjustments in their daily lives, both according to their partners' tiredness and owing to their own fatigue. 'New feelings' reveals emotional reactions related to the effects of their partner's illness and the impact it had on the spouse's everyday life. These two main categories could be seen in relation to four dimensions describing how the spouses manage their everyday life: 'Sacrificing', 'Controlling', 'Changing' and 'Understanding'. The results show how the spouses made adjustments in everyday life and how their feelings were affected by their partner's OSAS. Healthcare personnel could use information from this study to gain a deeper understanding and knowledge of what spouses of untreated patients with OSAS experience as their main concerns and how they manage their everyday life. This knowledge can be used to improve the support to the spouses, as well as in the educational situation concerning the illness, as well as the treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Orbital Signature Analyzer (OSA): A spacecraft health/safety monitoring and analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Steven; Degeorges, Charles; Bush, Joy; Shendock, Robert; Mandl, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Fixed or static limit sensing is employed in control centers to ensure that spacecraft parameters remain within a nominal range. However, many critical parameters, such as power system telemetry, are time-varying and, as such, their 'nominal' range is necessarily time-varying as well. Predicted data, manual limits checking, and widened limit-checking ranges are often employed in an attempt to monitor these parameters without generating excessive limits violations. Generating predicted data and manual limits checking are both resource intensive, while broadening limit ranges for time-varying parameters is clearly inadequate to detect all but catastrophic problems. OSA provides a low-cost solution by using analytically selected data as a reference upon which to base its limits. These limits are always defined relative to the time-varying reference data, rather than as fixed upper and lower limits. In effect, OSA provides individual limits tailored to each value throughout all the data. A side benefit of using relative limits is that they automatically adjust to new reference data. In addition, OSA provides a wealth of analytical by-products in its execution.

  2. Does CPAP treatment lead to gastroesophageal reflux in patients with moderate and severe OSA?

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Hatice; Kayar, Yusuf; Danalioglu, Ahmet; Arabaci, Elif; Uysal, Omer; Yakar, Fatih; Kart, Levent

    2017-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to upper respiratory tract obstruction, causing increased abdominal-gastric pressure and decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and thus gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is known to be an effective method for OSA treatment, but its effect on GER is still controversial. There are a very few studies investigating CPAP and GER relationship and performed based on pre- and post-treatment objective parameters of GER in patients with OSA. The study investigated the effect of CPAP treatment in patients with moderate and severe OSA without GER complaints on pre- and post-treatment objective GER parameters. The study included 25 patients with respiratory disturbance indices >15 without reflux symptoms who had undergone polysomnography at sleep laboratory. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist, and neck circumference of the patients were documented. DeMeester score, LES pressure, and polysomnography parameters were evaluated pre- and post-CPAP. The results were statistically evaluated, and p value <0.05 is considered significant. Out of 25 patients, 21 were male (84 %) and mean age was 49.2 ± 8.6 (range 31-66). At the pre-CPAP phase, mean sphincter pressure was 22.2 ± 1.2 (range 8-73), and mean DeMeester score was 18 ± 15.5 (range 0.2-57). At the post-CPAP, mean sphincter pressure was 22.9 ± 1.6 (range 9-95), and mean DeMeester score was 16.3 ± 14.8 (range 0.2-55). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found comparing pre-CPAP and post-CPAP measurements. Objective criteria show that CPAP treatment does not cause reflux in patients with OSA. Unlike studies reported in the literature, this conclusion has been reached by pre- and post-CPAP assessments.

  3. Valuation of OSA process and folic acid addition as excess sludge minimization alternatives applied in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Martins, C L; Velho, V F; Ramos, S R A; Pires, A S C D; Duarte, E C N F A; Costa, R H R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA)-process and the folic acid addition applied in the activated sludge process to reduce the excess sludge production. The study was monitored during two distinct periods: activated sludge system with OSA-process, and activated sludge system with folic acid addition. The observed sludge yields (Yobs) were 0.30 and 0.08 kgTSS kg(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), control phase and OSA-process (period 1); 0.33 and 0.18 kgTSS kg(-1) COD, control phase and folic acid addition (period 2). The Yobs decreased by 73 and 45% in phases with the OSA-process and folic acid addition, respectively, compared with the control phases. The sludge minimization alternatives result in a decrease in excess sludge production, without negatively affecting the performance of the effluent treatment.

  4. A 3-week dietary safety study of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch in neonatal farm piglets.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Thorsrud, Bjorn A; Brorby, Gregory P; Ferguson, Heather E

    2014-10-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch functions as both an emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer in foods, and is intended for use in infant formula, follow-on formula, and formulae for special medical purposes. These formulae predominantly include extensively hydrolyzed protein or free amino acids, rather than intact protein, which otherwise would provide emulsifying functionality. The study objectives were to evaluate (1) the safety of OSA-modified starch after three weeks of administration to neonatal farm piglets, beginning 2 days after birth and (2) the impact of OSA-modified starch on piglet growth. OSA-modified starch was added to formula at concentrations of 2, 4, and 20 g/L. The vehicle control, low-dose, and mid-dose diets were supplemented with Amioca™ Powder to balance the nutritional profiles of all formulations. There were no test article-related effects of any diet containing OSA-modified starch on piglet growth and development (clinical observations, body weight, feed consumption), or clinical pathology parameters (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis). In addition, there were no adverse effects at terminal necropsy (macro- and microscopic pathology evaluations). Therefore, dietary exposure to OSA-modified starch at concentrations up to 20 g/L was well tolerated by neonatal farm piglets and did not result in adverse health effects or impact piglet growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Tonsillar Size on OSA Improvement in Children Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alice; Benke, James R; Cohen, Aliza P; Ishman, Stacey L

    2015-08-01

    To determine if pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) improves after adenotonsillectomy (AT) regardless of tonsil size. Case series with chart review. Pediatric Otolaryngology Department, Johns Hopkins Hospital. Seventy children 1 to 18 years of age who underwent polysomnography (PSG) before and after AT. Tonsil size was evaluated using the Brodsky grading scale. Children were stratified by tonsil size as 2+ (n = 20), 3+ (n = 36), and 4+ (n = 14). There was a significant improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI), apnea index (AI), and saturation nadir across all 3 groups after AT. Preoperative oAHI, AI, and hypopnea index (HI) were similar regardless of tonsil size (P > .05). Overall, oAHI improved from a median of 11.8 ± 21.7 to 2.0 ± 6.1 events/h, with 40% (28/70) of children having complete resolution. The oAHI (P < .0001-0.02), AI (P < .0001-0.017), HI (P < .0001-0.058), and saturation nadir (P < .0001-0.017) significantly improved for the 2+, 3+, and 4+ groups. Only the HI (P = .058) in the 2+ group did not. The median oAHI improvement was 3.4 ± 26.4 events/h in the 2+ group, 8.3 ± 16.6 events/h in the 3+ group, and 12.3 ± 19.5 events/h in the 4+ group, with 25% (5/20), 50% (18/36), and 36% (5/14), respectively, having complete resolution. There was no correlation between OSA severity and tonsil or adenoid size (P > .32). Tonsil size did not correlate with OSA severity. While a larger proportion of patients classified as 3+ and 4+ had complete resolution after surgery, significant improvement was seen in AI and saturation nadir even in those classified as 2+. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. The relationship between AHI, Epworth scores and sleep endoscopy in patients with OSAS.

    PubMed

    Belgü, Ayfer Ulçay; Erdoğan, Barış; San, Turhan; Gürkan, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sleep endoscopy findings, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) or the Epworth sleepiness scale in patients and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Patients with symptoms of OSAS were searched, and their polysomnography findings, Epworth sleepiness scales and sleep endoscopy findings were recorded. Those who were diagnosed with mild, moderate or heavy OSAS were included in the study. Patients included in the study were observed under sedative-induced sleep in the operation room using flexible nasopharyngoscopy. The obstruction levels and degrees were recorded and compared with other variables. Of the 88 patients included in the study, 67 (76.1 %) were male, and 21 (23.9 %) were female. The mean age (±standard deviation) of all 88 patients was 43.77 ± 10.07 years (range 21-65 years). Sleep endoscopy findings were classified as uvulopalatal, lateral pharyngeal, tongue base and laryngeal collapses. The Epworth sleepiness scale showed no significant correlation with the sleep endoscopy findings. No significant relationship was found between the AHI and collapses in the uvulopalatal, lateral and laryngeal zones (p > 0.05). However, tongue base collapse was correlated with AHI (p < 0.05). AHI increased with the degree of collapse in the tongue base. No meaningful relationship was noted among the Epworth sleepiness scale, AHI, and number of involved zones (p > 0.05). The degree of collapse in the related zones was not meaningfully associated with AHI, which is accepted as the indicator of disease severity.

  7. Recognition of upper airway and surrounding structures at MRI in pediatric PCOS and OSAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, J. K.; Odhner, D.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is common in obese children with risk being 4.5 fold compared to normal control subjects. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has recently been shown to be associated with OSAS that may further lead to significant cardiovascular and neuro-cognitive deficits. We are investigating image-based biomarkers to understand the architectural and dynamic changes in the upper airway and the surrounding hard and soft tissue structures via MRI in obese teenage children to study OSAS. At the previous SPIE conferences, we presented methods underlying Fuzzy Object Models (FOMs) for Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) based on CT images of the thorax and the abdomen. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the AAR approach is applicable to a different body region and image modality combination, namely in the study of upper airway structures via MRI. FOMs were built hierarchically, the smaller sub-objects forming the offspring of larger parent objects. FOMs encode the uncertainty and variability present in the form and relationships among the objects over a study population. Totally 11 basic objects (17 including composite) were modeled. Automatic recognition for the best pose of FOMs in a given image was implemented by using four methods - a one-shot method that does not require search, another three searching methods that include Fisher Linear Discriminate (FLD), a b-scale energy optimization strategy, and optimum threshold recognition method. In all, 30 multi-fold cross validation experiments based on 15 patient MRI data sets were carried out to assess the accuracy of recognition. The results indicate that the objects can be recognized with an average location error of less than 5 mm or 2-3 voxels. Then the iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm was adopted for delineation of the target organs based on the recognized results. The delineation results showed an overall FP and TP volume fraction of 0.02 and 0.93.

  8. Rapid maxillary expansion in children with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS).

    PubMed

    Marino, A; Ranieri, R; Chiarotti, F; Villa, M P; Malagola, C

    2012-03-01

    to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in a group of OSAS preschool children. Lateral cephalograms of 15 OSAS children (8 boys and 7 girls, age mean ± SD: 5.94 ± 1.64 years) were analysed at the start of treatment with RME (T0). All subjects were revaluated after a mean period of 1.57 ± 0.58 years (T1). At this time the sample was divided into 2 groups according to the change in the respiratory disturbance index (RDI): an improved group (I: 8 subjects) and a stationary/worsened group (SW: 7 subjects). Differences between I and SW children with respect to values of cephalometric variables at T0 and to variations between T0 and T1 were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U test. Differences between T0 and T1 values in the overall group of children and separately in I and SW groups were assessed using Wilcoxon test. At the start of treatment, the I group was characterised by more retrognathic jaws with lower values of SNA (p=0.055) and SNB (p=0.020) and higher age values (p=0.093) when compared to SW group. After treatment, the I group showed an increase in SNA and SNB angle significantly higher than SW group (p=0.004 and p=0.003, respectively). On the contrary, I and SW groups did not differ as for variation in the skeletal divergency and in the total facial height. OSAS preschool children with retrognathic jaws could benefit from RME treatment.

  9. [Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) in patients with sudden hearing loss. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Y; Yakinthou, A; Mann, W J

    2003-06-01

    It is estimated that in patients with sleep-related breathing disorders the probability of a cerebral vascular infarction (CVI) is 3.1 times that in patients without sleep apnea and that 25-50% of all patients who have a stroke suffer from sleep apnea (OSA) and have a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) higher than 10. CVI may be caused by variations in intracranial pressure or in intracranial hemodynamics owing to decreasing pO(2) and increasing pCO(2) during cessation of airflow. It is suspected that the most common causes of sudden deafness are vasospasm, thrombosis, embolism, hypercoagulation and sludging. The present study analyzed the prevalence of sleep apnea in patients with sudden hearing loss. A 7-channel polygraph was used to test 33 subjects with normal hearing and 27 patients suffering from sudden hearing loss. Statistical analyses were performed with a Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test. We found that 29.6% of the patient group and 21.2% of those in the study control group were suffering from OSA and had RDI >10; this difference was not significant ( p=0.554). Sudden hearing loss may also be an indicator of arteriosclerosis secondary to such risk factors as hypertension ( p=0.005), diabetes ( p=0.003), and hyperlipidemia ( p=0.004), which were highly significant for the patient group. Patients who develop sudden hearing loss tend to have OSA more frequently than those in the control group owing to the similar risk factors for cerebral infarction and sudden hearing loss.

  10. Nasal and oral snoring endoscopy: novel and promising diagnostic tools in OSAS patients.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Andrea; Kotecha, Bhik; Vianello, Andrea; Giacomelli, Luciano; Staffieri, Alberto; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if any of the three awake procedures [fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy with modified Müller Maneuver (FNMM), nasal snoring endoscopy (NSE), or oral snoring endoscopy (OSE)] could efficiently predict the grade or pattern of upper airway (UA) collapse found with drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), which is considered by many authors as the current gold standard in optimizing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patient selection for UA surgery. Twenty consecutive patients (simple snorers and OSAS patients) were studied with FNMM, NSE, OSE, and DISE. The inter-test agreement was evaluated with Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). In the current series, we found that NSE and OSE were better than FNMM in predicting the pattern of collapse found with DISE. A significant pattern agreement between NSE and DISE was present in all sub-sites, and the agreement was measured with a scale proposed by Landis and Koch as: moderate in velo- and oropharynx (κ = 0.52, p = 0.001, and κ = 0.47, p = 0.003, respectively), and substantial in hypopharynx (κ = 0.63, p < 0.00001). Comparing OSE with DISE, the pattern agreement was almost perfect at oropharyngeal level (κ = 0.82, p < 0.00001), and moderate at hypopharyngeal level (κ = 0.55, p = 0.0002); while a trend towards significance was found at velopharyngeal level (κ = 0.20, p = 0.07). FNMM showed a fair pattern agreement with DISE only at oropharyngeal level (κ = 0.31, p = 0.009); while in the other sub-sites, no significant agreement was found. NSE and OSE are new promising diagnostic tools in OSAS patients. Further investigations are needed to see if they could predict the effectiveness of UA surgery.

  11. Positional OSA part 2: retrospective cohort analysis with a new classification system (APOC).

    PubMed

    Ravesloot, M J L; Frank, M H; van Maanen, J P; Verhagen, E A; de Lange, J; de Vries, N

    2016-05-01

    In Part 1 of this two-part article, the Amsterdam Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Classification (APOC) was recently introduced, a classification system aimed at facilitating the identification of suitable candidates for positional therapy (PT): patients who will benefit from a clinically significant improvement of their obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with PT. APOC was developed with new generation PT devices in mind rather than conventional PT (tennis ball technique). New generation PT can be defined as a well-tolerated device which prevents a patient from adopting the worst sleeping position (WSP) without negatively influencing sleep efficiency, as objectified by a full night polysomnography (PSG). PT is rapidly gaining momentum in the scope of OSA treatment. The objective of this manuscript is to measure the prevalence of position-dependent obstructive sleep apnoea (POSA) according to the APOC, in a consecutive series of patients referred for PSG as well as an investigation of associations between POSA and certain patient characteristics. We performed a retrospective, single-centre cohort study including a consecutive series of patients who underwent a PSG during the period of April 2010 until October 2010. Within this OSA-cohort (n = 253), a prevalence of POSA of 69 % when applying APOC is measured, compared to 64 % when applying Cartwright's classification. An inverse relation between POSA and BMI was observed, likewise between POSA and apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI). We are of opinion that APOC is a suitable tool to identify patients who will or will not benefit from PT, thus resulting in more cost-efficient treatment.

  12. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy: A new gold standard for evaluating OSAS? Part I: Technique.

    PubMed

    Blumen, M; Bequignon, E; Chabolle, F

    2017-04-01

    Surgical results in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) vary greatly, whatever the surgical technique or site treated. Most authors agree that rigorous patient selection is logical and mandatory. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) was introduced in 1991 and has been rediscovered and used extensively since the 2000s. It mimics sleep in order to observe the upper airway on flexible endoscopy. A review of the DISE literature was performed, and is reported in two parts. The present first part describes the technique: drugs, practical anesthesiologic and ENT modalities, reproducibility, and limitations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Brain stem activity changes associated with restored sympathetic drive following CPAP treatment in OSA subjects: a longitudinal investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Linda C.; Fatouleh, Rania H.; McKenzie, David K.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significantly elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Although little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoexcitation, we have recently shown that the elevated MSNA in OSA is associated with altered neural processing in various brain stem sites, including the dorsolateral pons, rostral ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, and midbrain. Given the risk associated with elevated MSNA, we aimed to determine if treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would reduce the elevated MSNA and reverse the brain stem functional changes associated with the elevated MSNA. We performed concurrent recordings of MSNA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity of the brain stem, using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, in 15 controls and 13 subjects with OSA, before and after 6 mo CPAP treatment. As expected, 6 mo of CPAP treatment significantly reduced MSNA in subjects with OSA, from 54 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 bursts/min and from 77 ± 7 to 36 ± 3 bursts/100 heart beats. Importantly, we found that MSNA-coupled changes in BOLD signal intensity within the dorsolateral pons, medullary raphe, and rostral ventrolateral medulla returned to control levels. That is, CPAP treatment completely reversed brain stem functional changes associated with elevated MSNA in untreated OSA subjects. These data highlight the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in reducing one of the most significant health issues associated with OSA, that is, elevated MSNA and its associated elevated morbidity. PMID:25995345

  14. An automatic rules extraction approach to support OSA events detection in an mHealth system.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Giovanna; De Falco, Ivanoe; De Pietro, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Detection and real time monitoring of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) episodes are very important tasks in healthcare. To suitably face them, this paper proposes an easy-to-use, cheap mobile-based approach relying on three steps. First, single-channel ECG data from a patient are collected by a wearable sensor and are recorded on a mobile device. Second, the automatic extraction of knowledge about that patient takes place offline, and a set of IF…THEN rules containing heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters is achieved. Third, these rules are used in our real-time mobile monitoring system: the same wearable sensor collects the single-channel ECG data and sends them to the same mobile device, which now processes those data online to compute HRV-related parameter values. If these values activate one of the rules found for that patient, an alarm is immediately produced. This approach has been tested on a literature database with 35 OSA patients. A comparison against five well-known classifiers has been carried out.

  15. Characterization of Antibiotic-Loaded Alginate-Osa Starch Microbeads Produced by Ionotropic Pregelation

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Gizele Cardoso; Calado, Verônica Maria Araújo; Rossi, Alexandre Malta; da Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena Miguez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the penicillin-loaded microbeads composed of alginate and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch prepared by ionotropic pregelation with calcium chloride and to evaluate their in vitro drug delivery profile. The beads were characterized by size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, swelling behavior, and degree of erosion. Also, the possible interaction between penicillin and biopolymers was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The SEM micrograph results indicated a homogeneous drug distribution in the matrix. Also, based on thermal analyses (TGA/DSC), interactions were detected between microbead components. Although FTIR spectra of penicillin-loaded microbeads did not reveal the formation of new chemical entities, they confirmed the chemical drug stability. XRD patterns showed that the incorporated crystalline structure of penicillin did not significantly alter the primarily amorphous polymeric network. In addition, the results confirmed a prolonged penicillin delivery system profile. These results imply that alginate and OSA starch beads can be used as a suitable controlled-release carrier for penicillin. PMID:23862146

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) does not affect ventilatory and perceptual responses to exercise in morbidly obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Innocenti Bruni, Giulia; Gigliotti, Francesco; Scano, Giorgio

    2012-09-30

    We have tested the hypothesis that high mass loading effects and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) constrain the ventilatory response to exercise in morbidly obese subjects as compared to their counterparts without OSA. Fifteen obese patients with (8) and without OSA and 12 lean healthy subjects performed incremental cycle exercise. The functional evaluation included ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, end-expiratory-lung-volumes (EELV), inspiratory capacity, heart rate, dyspnea and leg effort (by a modified Borg scale). Changes in ventilation and dyspnea per unit changes in work rate and metabolic variables were similar in the three groups. Breathing pattern and heart rate increased from rest to peak exercise similarly in the three groups. Leg effort was the prevailing symptom for stopping exercise in most subjects. In conclusion, OSA does not limit exercise capacity in morbidly obese subjects. Ventilation contributes to exertional dyspnea similarly as in lean subjects and in obese patients regardless of OSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oryza sativa H+-ATPase (OSA) is Involved in the Regulation of Dumbbell-Shaped Guard Cells of Rice.

    PubMed

    Toda, Yosuke; Wang, Yin; Takahashi, Akira; Kawai, Yuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamaji, Naoki; Feng Ma, Jian; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-06-01

    The stomatal apparatus consists of a pair of guard cells and regulates gas exchange between the leaf and atmosphere. In guard cells, blue light (BL) activates H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane through the phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine, mediating stomatal opening. Although this regulation is thought to be widely adopted among kidney-shaped guard cells in dicots, the molecular basis underlying that of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocots remains unclear. Here, we show that H(+)-ATPases are involved in the regulation of dumbbell-shaped guard cells. Stomatal opening of rice was promoted by the H(+)-ATPase activator fusicoccin and by BL, and the latter was suppressed by the H(+)-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Using H(+)-ATPase antibodies, we showed the presence of phosphoregulation of the penultimate threonine in Oryza sativa H(+)-ATPases (OSAs) and localization of OSAs in the plasma membrane of guard cells. Interestingly, we identified one H(+)-ATPase isoform, OSA7, that is preferentially expressed among the OSA genes in guard cells, and found that loss of function of OSA7 resulted in partial insensitivity to BL. We conclude that H(+)-ATPase is involved in BL-induced stomatal opening of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocotyledon species.

  18. OsWS1 involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated by osa-miR1848.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojin; Gao, Chunzhi; Tang, Huadan; Jia, Yongxia; Deng, Rufang; Xu, Xinlan; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-12-01

    Cuticular wax forms a hydrophobic layer covering aerial plant organs and acting as a protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses. Compared with well-known wax biosynthetic pathway, molecular regulation of wax biosynthesis is less known. Here, we show that rice OsWS1, a member of the membrane-bound O-acyl transferase gene family, involved in wax biosynthesis and was regulated by an osa-miR1848. OsWS1-tagged green fluorescent protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Compared with wild-type rice, OsWS1 overexpression plants displayed a 3% increase in total wax, especially a 35% increase in very long-chain fatty acids, denser wax papillae around the stoma, more cuticular wax crystals formed on leaf and stem surfaces, pollen coats were thicker and more seedlings survived after water-deficit treatment. In contrast, OsWS1-RNAi and osa-miR1848 overexpression plants exhibited opposing changes. Gene expression analysis showed that overexpression of osa-miR1848 down-regulated OsWS1 transcripts; furthermore, expression profiles of OsWS1 and osa-miR1848 were inversely correlated in the leaf, panicle and stem, and upon water-deficit treatment. These results suggest that OsWS1 is regulated by osa-miR1848 and participates in cuticular wax formation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Oryza sativa H+-ATPase (OSA) is Involved in the Regulation of Dumbbell-Shaped Guard Cells of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Yosuke; Wang, Yin; Takahashi, Akira; Kawai, Yuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamaji, Naoki; Feng Ma, Jian; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    The stomatal apparatus consists of a pair of guard cells and regulates gas exchange between the leaf and atmosphere. In guard cells, blue light (BL) activates H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane through the phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine, mediating stomatal opening. Although this regulation is thought to be widely adopted among kidney-shaped guard cells in dicots, the molecular basis underlying that of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocots remains unclear. Here, we show that H+-ATPases are involved in the regulation of dumbbell-shaped guard cells. Stomatal opening of rice was promoted by the H+-ATPase activator fusicoccin and by BL, and the latter was suppressed by the H+-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Using H+-ATPase antibodies, we showed the presence of phosphoregulation of the penultimate threonine in Oryza sativa H+-ATPases (OSAs) and localization of OSAs in the plasma membrane of guard cells. Interestingly, we identified one H+-ATPase isoform, OSA7, that is preferentially expressed among the OSA genes in guard cells, and found that loss of function of OSA7 resulted in partial insensitivity to BL. We conclude that H+-ATPase is involved in BL-induced stomatal opening of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocotyledon species. PMID:27048369

  20. Enhancer-promoter communication mediated by Chip during Pannier-driven proneural patterning is regulated by Osa.

    PubMed

    Heitzler, Pascal; Vanolst, Luc; Biryukova, Inna; Ramain, Philippe

    2003-03-01

    The GATA factor Pannier activates proneural achaete/scute (ac/sc) expression during development of the sensory organs of Drosophila through enhancer binding. Chip bridges Pannier with the (Ac/Sc)-Daughterless heterodimers bound to the promoter and facilitates the enhancer-promoter communication required for proneural development. We show here that this communication is regulated by Osa, which is recruited by Pannier and Chip. Osa belongs to Brahma chromatin remodeling complexes and we show that Osa negatively regulates ac/sc. Consequently, Pannier and Chip also play an essential role during repression of proneural gene expression. Our study suggests that altering chromatin structure is essential for regulation of enhancer-promoter communication.

  1. Amsterdam positional OSA classification: the AASM 2012 recommended hypopnoea criteria increases the number of positional therapy candidates.

    PubMed

    Duce, Brett; Kulkas, Antti; Langton, Christian; Töyräs, Juha; Hukins, Craig

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effect of hypopnoea criteria on the prevalence of positional obstructive sleep apnoea (pOSA) identified under the Amsterdam Positional OSA Classification (APOC) system. Three hundred three consecutive patients undertaking polysomnography (PSG) for the suspicion of OSA were included in this retrospective investigation. PSGs were scored using both the 2007 American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recommended hypopnoea criteria (AASM2007Rec) and the 2012 AASM recommended hypopnoea criteria (AASM2012Rec). For each hypopnoea criteria, OSA patients were grouped according to the APOC categories (I, II or II) or else deemed non-APOC if they did not meet the APOC criteria. Outcome measures, such as Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), were also compared between the groups. The AASM2012Rec increased the prevalence of OSA compared to AASM2007Rec. The AASM2012Rec trebled the number of APOC I patients compared to AASM2007Rec (297% increase) as well as increased the proportion of females in the APOC I group. AASM2012Rec did not change the number of APOC II and APOC III patients. In fact, the same patients were present in these categories irrespective of hypopnoea criteria. The proportion of non-APOC patients proportionally decreased with the AASM2012Rec criteria. There were no differences in outcome measures between the AASM2012Rec and AASM2007Rec groups. This study demonstrates that, compared to AASM2007Rec, AASM2012Rec increases the prevalence of who could be successfully treated with positional therapy. The proportion of females with pOSA also increases as a consequence of AASM2012Rec.

  2. Total analysis of clinical factors for surgical success of adenotonsillectomy in pediatric OSAS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-So; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is the total evaluation of most common clinical factors influencing the successful rate of adenotonsillectomy for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Retrospectively, 63 pediatric patients ranged from 2 to 16 years old were included. Syndromics and patients who had received orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery were excluded. All patients received pre-operative and postoperative polysomnography and cephalometry. Each patient received adenotonsillectomy by single surgeon. Surgical success was defined as apneahypopnea index (AHI) decreased ≧50 % or post-operative AHI <5. Total evaluated clinical factors related to success of adenotonsillectomy for pediatric OSAS include age, gender, body mass index (BMI), tonsil size, adenoid/nasopharynx ratio (A/N Ratio), pre-operative data of polysomnography, including AHI, apnea index (AI), hypopnea index (HI), mean O2 saturation and nadir O2 saturation, and 18 cephalometry parameters. Mean age of the total 63 patients was 7.78 years old. Mean BMI of the patients was 19.02. The proportion of obese patients was 25.4% (16/63). Surgical success was achieved in 42 out of 63 patients (66.7%). The surgical success was not statistically significant related to all pre-operative cephalometric parameters, age, gender, BMI and adenoid size by multiple logistic regression model. However, the surgical success was significantly related to pre-operative AHI and tonsil size. In addition, all patients who received adenotonsillectomy showed improved polysomnography parameters, including AHI, AI, HI, mean O2 saturation and nadir O2 saturation which all reached statistically significant improvement. Although adenotonsillectomy cannot cure pediatric OSAS in our research, all patients showed significant improvement of polysomnography parameters after this procedure. Pre-operative cephalometry parameters, BMI and age did not show significant correlation with surgical success, however, pre-op AHI and

  3. Impact of CPAP on Activity Patterns and Diet in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

    PubMed Central

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L.; Drescher, Amy A.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Methods: Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Results: Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m2, and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p < 0.05). The BMI was higher among women in both CPAP and Sham groups. However, compared to women, men had higher AHI only in the CPAP group (50 vs. 34). Similarly, the arousal index was higher among men in CPAP group. Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p < 0.05), there also were no changes in activity patterns. Conclusion

  4. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy: A new gold standard for evaluating OSAS? Part II: Results.

    PubMed

    Blumen, M; Bequignon, E; Chabolle, F

    2017-04-01

    Surgical results in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) vary greatly, whatever the surgical technique or site. Most authors agree that rigorous patient selection is logical and mandatory. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) was introduced in 1991 and has been rediscovered and used extensively since the 2000s. It attempts to mimic natural sleep in order to observe the upper airway on flexible endoscopy in a situation in which obstruction may occur. A review of the DISE literature was performed, and is reported in two parts. The present second part reports DISE results concerning obstruction sites, impact on treatment efficacy and the consequent indications for this exploration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Epidemiological analysis of structural alterations of the nasal cavity associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA).

    PubMed

    Mekhitarian Neto, Levon; Fava, Antonio Sérgio; Lopes, Hugo Canhete; Stamm, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that structural alterations of the nasal cavity, e.g. septal deviation and conchal hypertrophy have high incidence in patients with sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome and must be addressed with associated specific procedures of the syndrome. Clinical retrospective. A retrospective study of 200 patients was performed, with 196 male and 4 female, attended at the otorhinolaryngology ambulatory of Hospital Prof. Edmundo Vasconcelos and Unidade Paulista de Otorrinolaringologia, all of them subjected to polysomnography, otorhinolaryngological physical exam, endoscopy exam, and surgical treatment with nasal and pharyngeal procedures. All of them were subjected to pharyngeal procedure: uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or uvulopalatoplasty and nose procedure: 176 septoplasty with partial turbinectomy (88%) and 24 isolated turbinectomy, with satisfactory results. We can see that structural alterations of the nasal cavity have high incidence in patients with OSA.

  6. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  7. 5-years APAP adherence in OSA patients--do first impressions matter?

    PubMed

    van Zeller, Mafalda; Severo, Milton; Santos, Ana Cristina; Drummond, Marta

    2013-12-01

    Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective in treating obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), inadequate adherence remains a major cause of treatment failure. This study aimed to determine long term adherence to auto adjusting-CPAP (APAP) and its influencing factors including the role of initial compliance. Eighty-eight male patients with newly diagnosed moderate/severe OSA were included. After initiation of APAP treatment, patients had periodic follow-up appointments at 2 weeks, 6 months and then annually for at least 5 years. Patient's compliance to therapy was assessed in each appointment and predictors to treatment abandonment and poor compliance were evaluated. The studied population had a mean age of 53.8 years and mean apnoea-hypopnoea index of 52.71/h. The mean time of follow-up was 5.2 (± 1.6) years, during that time 22 (25%) patients abandoned APAP, those who maintained treatment had good compliance to it since 94% of them used it more than 4 h/day for at least 70% of days. A significant negative association was found between age, % of days and mean time of APAP use on 12th day and 6th month and the risk of abandoning. APAP use lower than 33% and 57% of days at 12th day and 6th month, respectively had high specificity (≈ 100%) to detect treatment abandonment. the majority of patients adheres to long term APAP treatment and has good compliance after 5-years of follow-up. Age and initial compliance (% days of use and mean hour/day) have the ability to predict future adherence, as soon as 12 days and 6 months after initiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Misclassification of OSA severity with automated scoring of home sleep recordings.

    PubMed

    Aurora, R Nisha; Swartz, Rachel; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2015-03-01

    The advent of home sleep testing has allowed for the development of an ambulatory care model for OSA that most health-care providers can easily deploy. Although automated algorithms that accompany home sleep monitors can identify and classify disordered breathing events, it is unclear whether manual scoring followed by expert review of home sleep recordings is of any value. Thus, this study examined the agreement between automated and manual scoring of home sleep recordings. Two type 3 monitors (ApneaLink Plus [ResMed] and Embletta [Embla Systems]) were examined in distinct study samples. Data from manual and automated scoring were available for 200 subjects. Two thresholds for oxygen desaturation (≥ 3% and ≥ 4%) were used to define disordered breathing events. Agreement between manual and automated scoring was examined using Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analyses. Automated scoring consistently underscored disordered breathing events compared with manual scoring for both sleep monitors irrespective of whether a ≥ 3% or ≥ 4% oxygen desaturation threshold was used to define the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). For the ApneaLink Plus monitor, Bland-Altman analyses revealed an average AHI difference between manual and automated scoring of 6.1 (95% CI, 4.9-7.3) and 4.6 (95% CI, 3.5-5.6) events/h for the ≥ 3% and ≥ 4% oxygen desaturation thresholds, respectively. Similarly for the Embletta monitor, the average difference between manual and automated scoring was 5.3 (95% CI, 3.2-7.3) and 8.4 (95% CI, 7.2-9.6) events/h, respectively. Although agreement between automated and manual scoring of home sleep recordings varies based on the device used, modest agreement was observed between the two approaches. However, manual review of home sleep test recordings can decrease the misclassification of OSA severity, particularly for those with mild disease. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01503164; www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  9. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  10. Fate of trace organic contaminants in oxic-settling-anoxic (OSA) process applied for biosolids reduction during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; McDonald, James; Khan, Stuart J; Nelson, Mark; Lee, Duu-Jong; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in an oxic-settling-anoxic (OSA) process consisting of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with external aerobic/anoxic and anoxic reactors. OSA did not negatively affect TrOC removal of the SBR. Generally, low TrOC removal was observed under anoxic and low substrate conditions, implicating the role of co-metabolism in TrOC biodegradation. Several TrOCs that were recalcitrant in the SBR (e.g., benzotriazole) were biodegraded in the external aerobic/anoxic reactor. Some hydrophobic TrOCs (e.g., triclosan) were desorbed in the anoxic reactor possibly due to loss of sorption sites through volatile solids destruction. In OSA, the sludge was discharged from the aerobic/anoxic reactor which contained lower concentration of TrOCs (e.g., triclosan and triclocarban) than that of the control aerobic digester, suggesting that OSA can also help to reduce TrOC concentration in residual biosolids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved stability and controlled release of CLA with spray-dried microcapsules of OSA-modified starch and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    He, Huizi; Hong, Yan; Gu, Zhengbiao; Liu, Guodong; Cheng, Li; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-08-20

    The objective of this investigation was to improve the stability of CLA and to allow for its controlled release by encapsulating it with combinations of octenyl-succinic anhydride (OSA) starch and xanthan gum (XG) in three ratios (OSA/XG: 60/1, 80/1, and 100/1, w/w). The wall material was examined using FTIR and TGA. The microcapsules were characterized by laser particle size analysis (LPS) and SEM. Oxidation of the microcapsules was monitored by headspace method. The results revealed that microcapsules created with an OSA/XG ratio of 60/1 provided superior protection to CLA against oxidation. When CLA-microcapsules were subjected to conditions simulating those in the human gastrointestinal system, 12.1%-50.1% of the CLA was released. CLA encapsulation in spray-dried microcapsules of OSA/XG appears to be an effective technique that provides good protection against oxidation and could be useful in the targeted delivery of functional lipids or other bioactive components to the small intestine.

  12. CPAP treatment supported by telemedicine does not improve blood pressure in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Monique; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Tamisier, Renaud; Laplaud, David; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Laurent; Koltes, Christian; Chavez, Léonidas; De Lamberterie, Gilles; Herengt, Frédéric; Levy, Patrick; Flore, Patrice; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2014-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with hypertension, which is one of the intermediary mechanisms leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of a combination of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and telemedicine support on blood pressure (BP) reduction in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. A multi-center randomized controlled trial that compared standard CPAP care and CPAP care and a telemedicine intervention. Sleep clinics in France. 107 adult (18-65 years old) OSA patients (AHI > 15 events/h) with a high cardiovascular risk (cardiovascular SCORE > 5% or secondary prevention). Patients were randomized to either standard care CPAP (n = 53) or CPAP and telemedicine (n = 54). Patients assigned to telemedicine were equipped with a smartphone for uploading BP measurements, CPAP adherence, sleepiness, and quality of life data; in return, they received pictograms containing health-related messages. The main outcome was home self-measured BP and secondary outcomes were cardiovascular risk evolution, objective physical activity, CPAP adherence, sleepiness and quality of life. Self-measured BP did not improve in either group (telemedicine or standard care). Patients in primary prevention showed greater BP reduction with CPAP treatment than those in secondary prevention. CPAP treatment supported by telemedicine alone did not improve blood pressure and cardiovascular risk in high cardiovascular risk OSA patients. This study emphasizes the need for diet and physical activity training programs in addition to CPAP when aiming at decreasing cardiometabolic risk factors in these patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01226641.

  13. Misclassification of OSA Severity With Automated Scoring of Home Sleep Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Swartz, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The advent of home sleep testing has allowed for the development of an ambulatory care model for OSA that most health-care providers can easily deploy. Although automated algorithms that accompany home sleep monitors can identify and classify disordered breathing events, it is unclear whether manual scoring followed by expert review of home sleep recordings is of any value. Thus, this study examined the agreement between automated and manual scoring of home sleep recordings. METHODS: Two type 3 monitors (ApneaLink Plus [ResMed] and Embletta [Embla Systems]) were examined in distinct study samples. Data from manual and automated scoring were available for 200 subjects. Two thresholds for oxygen desaturation (≥ 3% and ≥ 4%) were used to define disordered breathing events. Agreement between manual and automated scoring was examined using Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analyses. RESULTS: Automated scoring consistently underscored disordered breathing events compared with manual scoring for both sleep monitors irrespective of whether a ≥ 3% or ≥ 4% oxygen desaturation threshold was used to define the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). For the ApneaLink Plus monitor, Bland-Altman analyses revealed an average AHI difference between manual and automated scoring of 6.1 (95% CI, 4.9-7.3) and 4.6 (95% CI, 3.5-5.6) events/h for the ≥ 3% and ≥ 4% oxygen desaturation thresholds, respectively. Similarly for the Embletta monitor, the average difference between manual and automated scoring was 5.3 (95% CI, 3.2-7.3) and 8.4 (95% CI, 7.2-9.6) events/h, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although agreement between automated and manual scoring of home sleep recordings varies based on the device used, modest agreement was observed between the two approaches. However, manual review of home sleep test recordings can decrease the misclassification of OSA severity, particularly for those with mild disease. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01503164; www

  14. Topographic Distributions of Emergent Trees in Tropical Forests of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzotti, C.; Asner, G. P.; Taylor, P.; Cole, R. J.; Osborne, B. B.; Cleveland, C. C.; Porder, S.; Townsend, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical rainforests are reservoirs of terrestrial carbon and biodiversity. Large and often emergent trees store disproportionately large amounts of aboveground carbon and greatly influence the structure and functioning of tropical rainforests. Despite their importance, controls on the abundance and distribution of emergent trees are largely unknown across tropical landscapes. Conventional field approaches are limited in their ability to characterize patterns in emergent trees across vast landscapes with varying environmental conditions and floristic composition. Here we used a high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor, aboard the Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (CAO-AToMS), to examine the abundance and distribution of tall emergent tree canopies (ETC) relative to surrounding tree canopies (STC), across the Osa Peninsula, a geologically and topographically diverse region of Costa Rica. The abundance of ETC was clearly influenced by fine-scale topographic variation, with distribution patterns that held across a variety of geologic substrates. Specifically, the density of ETC was much greater on lower slopes and in valleys, compared to upper slopes and ridges. Furthermore, using the CAO high-fidelity imaging spectrometer, ETC had a different spectral signature than that of the STC. Most notably, ETC had lower foliar N than STC, which was verified with an independent field survey of canopy leaf chemistry. The underlying mechanisms to explain the topographic-dependence of ETCs and linkages to canopy N are unknown, and remain an important area of research.

  15. Quantifying the dynamic of OSA brain using multifractal formalism: A novel measure for sleep fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Raiesdana, Somayeh

    2017-01-01

    It is thought that the critical brain dynamics in sleep is modulated during frequent periods of wakefulness. This paper utilizes the capacity of EEG based scaling analysis to quantify sleep fragmentation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The scale-free (fractal) behavior refers to a state where no characteristic scale dominates the dynamics of the underlying process which is evident as long range correlations in a time series. Here, Multiscaling (multifractal) spectrum is utilized to quantify the disturbed dynamic of an OSA brain with fragmented sleep. The whole night multichannel sleep EEG recordings of 18 subjects were employed to compute and quantify variable power-law long-range correlations and singularity spectra. Based on this characteristic, a new marker for sleep fragmentation named ``scaling based sleep fragmentation'' was introduced. This measure takes into account the sleep run length and stage transition quality within a fuzzy inference system to improve decisions made on sleep fragmentation. The proposed index was implemented, validated with sleepiness parameters and compared to some common indexes including sleep fragmentation index, arousal index, sleep diversity index, and sleep efficiency index. Correlations were almost significant suggesting that the sleep characterizing measure, based on singularity spectra range, could properly detect fragmentations and quantify their rate. This method can be an alternative for quantifying the sleep fragmentation in clinical practice after being approved experimentally. Control of sleep fragmentation and, subsequently, suppression of excessive daytime sleepiness will be a promising outlook of this kind of researches.

  16. Heart rate recovery post 6-minute walking test in obstructive sleep apnea: cycle ergometry versus 6-minute walking test in OSA patients.

    PubMed

    Cholidou, Kyriaki G; Manali, Effrosyni D; Kapsimalis, Fotis; Kostakis, Ioannis D; Vougas, Konstantinos; Simoes, Davina; Markozannes, Evaggelos; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Bakakos, Petros; Koulouris, Nikolaos; Alchanatis, Manos

    2014-10-01

    To examine the clinical usefulness of heart rate recovery (HRR) post 6-minute walking test (6MWT) as a simple marker of cardiovascular risk in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients in comparison to HRR post cycle ergometry, the validated and more sophisticated protocol. Seventy-four participants underwent full overnight polysomnography, cycle ergometry and 6MWT. The HRR at 1, 2 and 3 min (HRR-1, HRR-2 and HRR-3) 6MWT was compared to HRR at 1, 2, and 3 min post cycle ergometry in normal subjects and in moderate and severe OSA patients before and after 6-month CPAP treatment. The HRR-1, HRR-2 and HRR-3 in 6MWT were significantly different between normal, moderate and severe OSA patients with higher rates achieved in normal. The higher the severity of OSA the lower the HRR was. There were also no differences found between work rate and distance walked during cycle ergometry or 6MWT, respectively, concerning normal, moderate and severe OSA patients. Heart rate recovery was further associated with minimum saturation of oxygen during sleep independently of the duration of apnea episodes of BMI and ESS. The treatment with CPAP had a beneficial effect on HRR both post-6MWT and post cycle ergometry. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in OSA can be found even with submaximal exertion. Heart rate recovery post-6MWT, such as HRR post cycle ergometry, was significantly impaired in OSA patients in comparison to normals and was favorably influenced from CPAP treatment. Furthermore, it was found to be more sensitive compared with distance walked in 6MWT in discriminating severity of OSA. The HRR post-6MWT was found to be an easily measured and reliable marker of OSA severity both before and after CPAP treatment.

  17. Program for catenary-pantograph analysis, PrOSA statement of methods and validation according EN 50318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finner, Lars; Poetsch, Gero; Sarnes, Bernhard; Kolbe, Michael

    2015-03-01

    DB Systemtechnik is a high-performing, customer-driven service provider that, as well as authoritatively serving the Deutsche Bahn Group by dint of its specialist knowledge is also increasingly active on the global railway market. Development and testing of pantograph models and catenary systems have been part of the company's essential activity fields from the beginning. Therefore, an efficient and high-performing simulation tool is indispensable. That is why DB Systemtechnik spent high efforts to develop the program PrOSA in cooperation with the Heinz-Nixdorf-Institut (HNI) of the university Paderborn to simulate the interaction of pantograph and catenary. This article gives an overview of the most relevant properties of PrOSA. Furthermore, it is described how the benchmark requirements were implemented and processed.

  18. Protective Effect of Long-Term CPAP Therapy on Cognitive Performance in Elderly Patients with Severe OSA: The PROOF Study

    PubMed Central

    Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Dauphinot, Virginie; Saint Martin, Magali; Tardy, Magali; Gonthier, Régis; Barthelemy, Jean Claude; Roche, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) leads to a deterioration in cognitive functions, with regard to memory and executive functions. However, few studies have investigated the impact of treatment on these cognitive functions in elderly subjects. Methods: The study was conducted in a large cohort of subjects aged 65 years or older (the PROOF cohort). Subjects were not diagnosed or treated for OSA. Subjects underwent a polygraphic recording. Cognitive performance was assessed in all OSA subjects at baseline and 10 years later, whether or not they were receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Results: A group of 126 patients were analyzed. Only 26% of them were treated, with therapy initiated at the discretion of the primary care physician. Among treated subjects, self-reported compliance with therapy was good (> 6 h/night on average), and 66% of them reported an improvement in their quality of life. Patients receiving CPAP treatment had a higher apneahypopnea index (p = 0.006), a higher oxygen desaturation index (p < 0.001), and experienced more pronounced daytime repercussions (p = 0.004). These patients showed a statistically significant improvement in mental agility (similarities test; p < 0.0001) and memory performance (Grober and Buschke delayed free recall; p = 0.02). Conclusion: CPAP treatment is associated with the maintenance of memory performance over time. Citation: Crawford-Achour E, Dauphinot V, Saint Martin M, Tardy M, Gonthier R, Barthelemy JC, Roche F. Protective effect of long-term CPAP therapy on cognitive performance in elderly patients with severe OSA: the PROOF study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):519–524. PMID:25700873

  19. Effects of a lifestyle intervention on REM sleep-related OSA severity in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Ari; Foster, Gary D; Lang, Wei; Reboussin, David M; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Zammit, Gary; Newman, Anne B; Millman, Richard P; Wadden, Thomas A; Jakicic, John M; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Wing, Rena R; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Kuna, Samuel T

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to determine if an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) reduces the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, and to determine if longitudinal changes in glycaemic control are related to changes in OSA severity during REM sleep over a 4-year follow-up. This was a randomized controlled trial including 264 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and OSA. Participants were randomized to an ILI targeted to weight loss or a diabetes support and education (DSE) control group. Measures included anthropometry, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during REM sleep (REM-AHI) and non-REM sleep (NREM-AHI) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at baseline and year 1, year 2 and year 4 follow-ups. Mean baseline values of REM-AHI were significantly higher than NREM-AHI in both groups. Both REM-AHI and NREM-AHI were reduced significantly more in ILI versus DSE, but these differences were attenuated slightly after adjustment for weight changes. Repeated-measure mixed-model analyses including data to year 4 demonstrated that changes in HbA1c were related significantly to changes in weight, but not to changes in REM-AHI and NREM-AHI. Compared to control, the ILI reduced REM-AHI and NREM-AHI during the 4-year follow-up. Weight, as opposed to REM-AHI and NREM-AHI, was related to changes in HbA1c. The findings imply that weight loss from a lifestyle intervention is more important than reductions in AHI for improving glycaemic control in T2D patients with OSA. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Coexistence of OSA may compensate for sleep related reduction in neural respiratory drive in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    He, Bai-Ting; Lu, Gan; Xiao, Si-Chang; Chen, Rui; Steier, Joerg; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Luo, Yuan-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background The mechanisms underlying sleep-related hypoventilation in patients with coexisting COPD and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), an overlap syndrome, are incompletely understood. We compared neural respiratory drive expressed as diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) and ventilation during stage 2 sleep in patients with COPD alone and patients with overlap syndrome. Methods EMGdi and airflow were recorded during full polysomnography in 14 healthy subjects, 14 patients with OSA and 39 consecutive patients with COPD. The ratio of tidal volume to EMGdi was measured to indirectly assess upper airway resistance. Results Thirty-five patients with COPD, 12 healthy subjects and 14 patients with OSA completed the study. Of 35 patients with COPD, 19 had COPD alone (FEV1 38.5%±16.3%) whereas 16 had an overlap syndrome (FEV1 47.5±16.2%, AHI 20.5±14.1 events/hour). Ventilation (VE) was lower during stage 2 sleep than wakefulness in both patients with COPD alone (8.6±2.0 to 6.5±1.5 L/min, p<0.001) and those with overlap syndrome (8.3±2.0 to 6.1±1.8 L/min). Neural respiratory drive from wakefulness to sleep decreased significantly for patients with COPD alone (29.5±13.3% to 23.0±8.9% of maximal, p<0.01) but it changed little in those with overlap syndrome. The ratio of tidal volume to EMGdi was unchanged from wakefulness to sleep in patients with COPD alone and healthy subjects but was significantly reduced in patients with OSA or overlap syndrome (p<0.05). Conclusions Stage 2 sleep-related hypoventilation in COPD alone is due to reduction of neural respiratory drive, but in overlap syndrome it is due to increased upper airway resistance. PMID:27807016

  1. Microencapsulation of white champaca (Michelia alba D.C.) extract using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch for controlled release aroma.

    PubMed

    Samakradhamrongthai, Rajnibhas; Thakeow, Prodpran; Kopermsub, Phikunthong; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the encapsulation of Michelia alba D.C. (MAD) extract using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch. The MAD extract (5-10 g/100 g of dry starch) and the OSA starch (25-100 g/100 ml of water) was used in microcapsule preparation and analysed for the physicochemical and encapsulation properties. The optimised formula using the MAD extract and the OSA starch were 15.00 g/100 g of dry starch and 96.32 g/100 g water, which provided the highest in yield recovery (40.65% ± 0.99) and encapsulation efficiency (68.91% ± 1.50), with the lowest moisture content (3.19% ± 0.06) and water activity (0.236 ± 0.004). The aroma release from the optimum encapsulated powder in simulated artificial saliva fluid (SSF) suggested that linalool retention in microcapsules was higher than verbenone and 2-methyl butanoic acid. This study shows that the optimised formulation of MAD encapsulated flavour powder was found to be effective for controlling the aroma release.

  2. What is known about the experiences of using CPAP for OSA from the users' perspective? A systematic integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kim; Hoare, Karen J; Gott, Merryn

    2014-08-01

    Economic, social and personal costs of untreated obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are high. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is recommended and cost effective. Increasing OSA prevalence may accompany predicted globally increasing obesity. To synthesise international evidence regarding personal experiences using CPAP for OSA. A systematic integrative literature review was conducted and quality assessment criteria applied. 22, of 538, identified papers met inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis identified three themes: 1) users' beliefs about CPAP influence users' experiences of CPAP; 2) CPAP users are primed to reflect negatively on experiences of CPAP; and 3) spouse and family influence users' experiences of CPAP. Personality and attitude impact expectations about CPAP prior to use, whilst engagement of spouse and family also influence experiences. Analysis highlighted that users' reporting of CPAP experiences is constrained by investigator defined assessment methods. Overall, research relating to experiences using CPAP is limited. Users' perspectives of CPAP are constrained by researchers' concern with non-compliance. Typically experiences are not defined by the user, but from an 'expert' healthcare perspective, using words which frame CPAP as problematic. Family and social support is a significant, but neglected area of experiencing CPAP warranting further investigation. More information from users is required to determine how CPAP can be managed successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Volumetric analysis of the pharynx in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with maxillomandibular advancement (MMA).

    PubMed

    Faria, Ana Célia; da Silva-Junior, Savio Nogueira; Garcia, Luis Vicente; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Fernandes, Maria Regina França; de Mello-Filho, Francisco Veríssimo

    2013-03-01

    Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) has been reported to be the most effective surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Most reports about MMA aim to confirm the efficiency of this treatment modality, but few describe the anatomical changes produced in the pharynx by the surgery. Thus, the objective of the present investigation was to quantify the anatomical changes of the pharynx that occur in patients with OSA after MMA surgery using magnetic resonance (MR). Twenty patients with a polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA participated in the study. All patients were submitted to image acquisition by MR performed during wakefulness. Polysomnography and MR were performed preoperatively and 6 months after MMA. Volume analysis (in cubic millimeters) was performed as the sum of the areas multiplied by their thickness, with no intervals between sections. The pharyngeal air space of the region between the hard palate and the base of the epiglottis was divided into a retropalatal (RP) region and a retrolingual (RL) region. Postoperative MR showed a mean volumetric increase of 26.72 % in the RP region and of 27.2 % in the RL region. MMA increases the air space of the pharynx by expanding the facial skeletal structure to which the soft tissues of the pharynx and tongue are fixed, with a consequent reduction of collapsibility in the presence of negative pressure during inspiration. This reduced possibility of pharyngeal collapse may contribute to the reduction of obstructive events.

  4. Investigation of resectability degree for adenoidal surgery in OSA children with the method of computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changlong; Han, Demin; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luo; Li, Yunchuan; Zang, HongRui; Li, LiFeng

    2017-01-01

    From aspect of fluid dynamics, expanding patients' nasopharyngeal coronal-sectional area to 48.3-54.7% of normal area will bring the airflow velocity back to normal in adenoidal hypertrophy children. It might provide a suggestion for adenoidectomy range selection and whether total resection is necessary. To evaluate the nasopharyngeal airflow characteristics in pediatric OSA patients with adenoidal hypertrophy, and to explore the proper resection range for adenoidectomy Method: Nine OSA patients and four normal children were recruited. The CT scans of their upper airway were collected and used to construct three dimensional models for fluid dynamics analysis. Using computational fluid dynamics, indices such as velocity, pressure, and coronal-sectional area were calculated. Compared with the normal, the OSA children showed three characteristics in nasopharyngeal: the airflow velocity was significantly higher (p < 0.05), the coronal-sectional area was significantly smaller (p < 0.01), while pressure showed no difference (p > 0.05). In a study of the relationship between velocity and coronal-sectional area, this study investigates different coronal-sectional areas from 30-300 mm(2). It was found that, when patients' nasopharyngeal coronal-sectional area was expanded over 155-170 mm(2), namely 48.3-54.7% of normal area, airflow velocity in nasopharyngeal showed no difference than normal.

  5. Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure Devices (Provent) for OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad; Certal, Victor; Nigam, Gaurav; Abdullatif, Jose; Zaghi, Soroush; Kushida, Clete A.; Camacho, Macario

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the effectiveness of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (nasal EPAP) devices or Provent as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods. PubMed and six other databases were searched through November 15, 2015, without language limitations. Results. Eighteen studies (920 patients) were included. Pre- and post-nasal EPAP means ± standard deviations (M ± SD) for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in 345 patients decreased from 27.32 ± 22.24 to 12.78 ± 16.89 events/hr (relative reduction = 53.2%). Random effects modeling mean difference (MD) was −14.78 events/hr [95% CI −19.12, −10.45], p value < 0.00001. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI) in 247 patients decreased from 21.2 ± 19.3 to 12.4 ± 14.1 events/hr (relative reduction = 41.5%, p value < 0.00001). Lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) M ± SD improved in 146 patients from 83.2 ± 6.8% to 86.2 ± 11.1%, MD 3 oxygen saturation points [95% CI 0.57, 5.63]. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) M ± SD improved (359 patients) from 9.9 ± 5.3 to 7.4 ± 5.0, MD −2.5 [95% CI −3.2, −1.8], p value < 0.0001. Conclusion. Nasal EPAP (Provent) reduced AHI by 53.2%, ODI by 41.5% and improved LSAT by 3 oxygen saturation points. Generally, there were no clear characteristics (demographic factors, medical history, and/or physical exam finding) that predicted favorable response to these devices. However, limited evidence suggests that high nasal resistance could be associated with treatment failure. Additional studies are needed to identify demographic and polysomnographic characteristics that would predict therapeutic success with nasal EPAP (Provent). PMID:26798519

  6. Clinical analysis of drug-induced sleep endoscopy for the OSA patient.

    PubMed

    Golbin, Dina; Musgrave, Brandon; Succar, Eric; Yaremchuk, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the use of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with improved outcomes and acceptable complication rates when compared to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) with or without tonsillectomy (± T). A retrospective cohort review was performed comparing 40 patients who had previously undergone UPPP ± T with 64 patients who had DISE, UPPP ± T, and possible TORS base-of-tongue resection and/or partial epiglottectomy. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), body mass index, sex, hospital length of stay, hospital charges, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and major complications were compared for both groups. The 40 patients who underwent UPPP ± T without DISE showed a significant reduction in AHI of -20.1 (P = 0.001) and a complication rate of 3% (P = 0.001). There was no significant change in ESS (-2.2; P = 0.734). The 64 patients who underwent DISE and subsequent procedures showed a significant reduction in AHI of -21.4 (P = 0.001) and a complication rate of 34.7% (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the ESS (+0.1; P = 0.734) or AHI (P = 0.092) between the two groups. Patients who underwent UPPP ± T without DISE did not show a statistically significant difference in outcomes compared to the patients who underwent DISE with other procedures, including TORS. The TORS patients had increased total costs and length of stay that were statistically significant and had increased complications that were not statistically significant. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Automatic anatomy recognition in post-tonsillectomy MR images of obese children with OSAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2015-03-01

    Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) is a recently developed approach for the automatic whole body wide organ segmentation. We previously tested that methodology on image cases with some pathology where the organs were not distorted significantly. In this paper, we present an advancement of AAR to handle organs which may have been modified or resected by surgical intervention. We focus on MRI of the neck in pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). The proposed method consists of an AAR step followed by support vector machine techniques to detect the presence/absence of organs. The AAR step employs a hierarchical organization of the organs for model building. For each organ, a fuzzy model over a population is built. The model of the body region is then described in terms of the fuzzy models and a host of other descriptors which include parent to offspring relationship estimated over the population. Organs are recognized following the organ hierarchy by using an optimal threshold based search. The SVM step subsequently checks for evidence of the presence of organs. Experimental results show that AAR techniques can be combined with machine learning strategies within the AAR recognition framework for good performance in recognizing missing organs, in our case missing tonsils in post-tonsillectomy images as well as in simulating tonsillectomy images. The previous recognition performance is maintained achieving an organ localization accuracy of within 1 voxel when the organ is actually not removed. To our knowledge, no methods have been reported to date for handling significantly deformed or missing organs, especially in neck MRI.

  8. [Forest and population at Península de Osa, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Maldonado-Ulloa, Tirso; Bonilla-Carrión, Roger

    2002-06-01

    The research is focused on the relationship between population growth and conservation of the forest on the Osa Peninsula. Data of the geo-referenced censuses and information on land-use, derived from satellite images and aerial photography, were integrated into a GIS. We undertook an historical inventory of the changes in the population and the forest coverage, and the key events in the land tenure and economy of the region. Deforestation, reforestation, and fragmentation of the forest during the period 1980-1995 were analyzed. Relationships with the population potential, derived from the 1984 Costa Rican censuses, were identified, and the effects of third variables were controlled such as distances to the roads, rain, distances to the forest frontier, level of protection, etc. Both strong and significant associations between 1984 population potential and the three processes were detected. The probability of deforestation is null in unpopulated areas, 35% in areas with 25-30 potential farmers and to 65% in areas with 50 farmers and over. The probability of reforestation decreases from 100% to 28% and to 18% in these three categories. This kind of relationship persists in the multivariable analysis. An increase of 0.63% in the number of household, results in an increment of 1% in the risk of deforestation (elasticity). The elasticity in the chances of reforestation is -0.37 and 1% in fragmentation of the forest. An evaluation in the risk of deforestation for the period 1995-2005 was done. The most recent population data were used and it identifies several geographic areas with high deforestation risk.

  9. High Adherence to CPAP Treatment Does Not Prevent the Continuation of Weight Gain among Severely Obese OSAS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Myllylä, Minna; Kurki, Samu; Anttalainen, Ulla; Saaresranta, Tarja; Laitinen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients benefit from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in a dose-response manner. We determined adherence and weight control, as well as their predictors, among long-term CPAP users. Methods: Cohort of 1,023 OSAS patients had used CPAP on average of 6.6 ± 1.2 years. BMI was determined at baseline and at follow-up visits. There were 7.4 ± 1.7 BMI and 6.5 ± 1.8 CPAP usage measurements per patient on average. Using the Bayesian hierarchical model, we determined the patients' individual trends of BMI and adherence development. Patients with significantly increasing or decreasing trends were identified at the posterior probability level of > 90%. Results: The mean age in the cohort was 55.6 ± 9.8 years, BMI 33.5 ± 6.4 kg/m2, apnea-hypopnea index 33.7 ± 23.1, and CPAP usage 6.0 ± 1.8 h/day. The majority of patients had no significant change in BMI (mean annual weight gain 0.04 ± 0.29 kg/m2) or CPAP adherence (mean annual increase 11.4 ± 7.0 min/day). However, at the individual level, 10% of the patients showed significant annual weight gain (0.63 ± 0.35 kg/m2) during the 5-year follow-up period. At baseline these patients were already more severely obese (mean BMI 40.0 ± 5.9 kg/m2) despite being younger (mean 50.9 ± 9.5 years) than the rest of the cohort. Conclusions: In the majority of CPAP-treated OSAS patients, weight did not significantly change but gained slightly slower than in age-matched population in general. However, in 10% of patients, high adherence to CPAP treatment did not prevent the continuation of weight gain. These patients present a high-risk group for OSAS-related multimorbidity later in life. Citation: Myllylä M, Kurki S, Anttalainen U, Saaresranta T, Laitinen T. High adherence to CPAP treatment does not prevent the continuation of weight gain among severely obese OSAS patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):519–528. PMID:26888588

  10. Auto bi-level pressure relief-PAP is as effective as CPAP in OSA patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Blau, Alexander; Minx, Mihaela; Peter, Jan Giso; Glos, Martin; Penzel, Thomas; Baumann, Gert; Fietze, Ingo

    2012-09-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the therapy of choice for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Not all patients can use CPAP therapy with adequate compliance. There is a need to develop more comfortable modes. Auto bi-level Pressure Relief-Positive Airway Pressure (ABPR-PAP) can be an alternative. We conducted a prospective double-blind, randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy and compliance of ABPR-PAP compared with CPAP in OSA patients. We included 35 CPAP naive patients (age 53.3 ± 10.3 years, BMI 31.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2), ESS 10.0 ± 4.2) diagnosed with moderate to severe OSA who underwent a successful CPAP titration. Patients were randomised into the CPAP or the ABPR-PAP treatment group. We used the same device (BIPAP® Auto, Philips Respironics) for CPAP or ABPR-PAP. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was determined using polysomnography before (AHI 40.6 ± 18.3 per hour) and after treatment. Eighteen patients received CPAP and the remaining 17 received APBR-PAP. Groups were similar in terms of demographics and OSA severity. There were no serious adverse events during the trial. CPAP was fixed by a sleep expert and ABPR-PAP varied (range 5-15 cmH(2)O). AHI decreased in the CPAP group to 6.4 ± 5.7 per hour and in the ABPR-PAP group to 4.8 ± 3.6 per hour in the first night (N = 35). After 3 months, the AHI decreased in the CPAP group to 4.4 ± 5.3 per hour and in the ABPR-PAP group to 2.6 ± 3.8 per hour (N = 32). Differences between the groups were not statistically significant. There were no differences in compliance. ABPR-PAP is a promising new ventilation mode that enables effective treatment of OSA patients.

  11. A pilot validation study for the NOX T3(TM) portable monitor for the detection of OSA.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Alyssa; Wickwire, Emerson; Schaefer, Edward; Nyanjom, David

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current pilot study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the NOX T3(TM) (T3) portable sleep monitor (PM) to that of simultaneously recorded in-lab polysomnogram (PSG). A total of 40 participants were recruited following face-to-face evaluation at a sleep disorders clinic. Each participant wore both PSG and PM equipment simultaneously during their in-lab PSG. PSG records were manually scored using the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria, and PM records were double-scored using the device's autoscore algorithm as well as manual scoring. The final sample consisted of 32 participants (56% male, 50% black) with a mean ESS, BMI, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 10.4, 32.8, and 16.3, respectively. Three participants (7.5%) were excluded for poor PM signal quality. Mean AHI derived from the T3's autoscore algorithm was similar to that from manual scoring (19.6 ± 18.9 vs. 18.6 ± 19.1, respectively). Autoscore-derived T3 AHI and PSG-derived AHI were strongly related (r = .93). The T3 (autoscored AHI) demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity for the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA; 100%) and acceptable specificity for the exclusion of OSA using an AHI cutoff of ≥5 events/h (70%). The unit (autoscored) had a high degree of both sensitivity (92%) and specificity (85%) when the presence of OSA was defined more conservatively (AHI > 15 events/h). For OSA defined as an AHI of ≥5, the T3 (autoscored) correctly identified 88% of positive cases and 100% of negative cases. In this small, clinic-based sample, the T3 demonstrated very good measurement agreement compared to PSG and a high degree of sensitivity for detecting even mild OSA. False positives appeared to be due to respiratory effort-related arousals (RERAs) being autoscored as obstructive apneas and may be due to inherent discrepancy in flow measurement sensitivity between PSG and portable monitors.

  12. Comparison of Cognitive Functions Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Simple Snoring Patients: OSAS May Be a Modifiable Risk Factor for Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Arli, Berna; Bilen, Sule; Titiz, Ayse Pinar; Ulusoy, Ersin Kasim; Mungan, Semra; Gurkas, Erdem; Oztekin, Zeynep Nese; Ozcan, Muge; Ak, Fikri

    2015-01-01

    By comparing neurocognitive test results from patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and those from patients with simple snoring, we aimed to establish whether OSAS negatively influences cognition. Patients with mild-to-severe OSAS (n = 29) and nonhypoxic simple-snoring patients (n = 30) were admitted to the study. All participants in both groups were evaluated with polysomnography and neurocognitive tests, including the Stroop Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Judgment of Line Orientation, Trail-Making Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Significant differences were identified between the groups for test scores on the Rey 1, SDMT, and Stroop tests. We propose that accurate OSAS diagnosis and treatment might help to prevent cognitive decline.

  13. Maxillary expansion and maxillomandibular expansion for adult OSA: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullatif, Jose; Certal, Victor; Zaghi, Soroush; Song, Sungjin A; Chang, Edward T; Gillespie, M Boyd; Camacho, Macario

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to systematically review the international literature for articles evaluating maxillary expansion and maxillomandibular expansion as treatments for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults and to perform a meta-analysis. Nine databases (including MEDLINE/PubMed). Searches were performed through January 8, 2016. The PRISMA statement was followed. Eight adult studies (39 patients) reported polysomnography and/or sleepiness outcomes. Six studies reported outcomes for maxillary expansion (36 patients), and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) decreased from a mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD) of 24.3 ± 27.5 [95% CI 15.3, 33.3] to 9.9 ± 13.7 [95% CI 5.4, 14.4] events/hr (relative reduction: 59.3%). Maxillary expansion improved lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) from a M ± SD of 84.3 ± 8.1% [95% CI 81.7, 87.0] to 86.9 ± 5.6% [95% CI 85.1, 88.7]. Maxillomandibular expansion was reported in two studies (3 patients) and AHI decreased from a M ± SD of 47.53 ± 29.81 [95% CI -26.5 to 121.5] to 10.7 ± 3.2 [95% CI 2.8, 18.6] events/hr (relative reduction: 77.5%). Maxillomandibular expansion improved LSAT from a M ± SD of 76.7 ± 14.5% [95% CI 40.7, 112.7] to 89.3 ± 3.1 [95% CI 81.6, 97]. The current literature demonstrates that maxillary expansion can improve and maxillomandibular expansion can possibly improve AHI and LSAT in adults; however, given the paucity of studies, these remain open for additional research efforts. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Summary of IODP Expedition 344, CRISP-A2, offshore the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. N.; Sakaguchi, A.; Petronotis, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) is designed to elucidate the processes that control nucleation and seismic rupture of large earthquakes at erosional subduction zones. The CRISP study area is located offshore the Osa Peninsula where the incoming Cocos Ridge has lifted the seismogenic zone to within reach of scientific drilling. The incoming plate is characterized by low sediment supply, a fast convergence rate, abundant plate interface seismicity, and a change in subducting plate relief along strike. In addition to elucidating processes at erosional convergent margins, this project is complementary to other IODP deep fault drilling projects (e.g., NanTroSEIZE and J-FAST). Expedition 344 (23 October - 11 December, 2012) is the second expedition of CRISP Program A (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Proposal 537A-Full5) that focused on the shallow lithologic, hydrologic, stress, and thermal conditions that lead to unstable slip in the seismogenic zone. With the exception of not reaching the décollement and the underthrust sediment at the toe site (U1412), Expedition 344 exceeded expectations. Material was recovered from the incoming Cocos plate (Sites U1381 and U1414), the toe of the margin (Site U1412), the mid-slope region (Site U1380), and the upper-slope region (Site U1413). Input sites U1381 and U1414 are characterized by anomalously high heat flow and the flow of fluids. These sites contained abundant ash that will be used to assess the impact of Cocos Ridge subduction on the evolution of the Central American volcanic arc. Although toe Site U1412 did not cross the décollement we did penetrate terrigenous sediments interrupted by a Miocene ooze that may reflect accretion of a frontal prism sliver. Mid-slope Site U1380 yielded a major result in that the upper plate material is not a mélange of oceanic material or the offshore extension of the Caribbean large igneous complex, but forearc basin material consisting of lithic sedimentary units. Upper

  15. Do field walking tests produce similar cardiopulmonary demands to an incremental treadmill test in obese individuals with treated OSA?

    PubMed

    Evans, Rachael A; Dolmage, Thomas E; Robles, Priscila G; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina

    2014-07-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness, assessed during cardiopulmonary exercise tests by peak oxygen uptake (Vo2pk), is an independent predictor of mortality in obesity. We investigated whether Vo2pk and systemic responses measured during field walking tests were similar to those measured during an incremental treadmill test (ITMT) in obese individuals with treated OSA. Individuals with treated OSA and a BMI > 30 kg/m2 were recruited. Participants completed an ITMT, two 6-min walk tests (6MWTs), and two incremental shuttle walk tests (ISWTs) on three separate days in a randomized order. Expired gas analysis was performed during all tests. The study was completed by 16 patients (nine men) (mean [SD] age, 58 [12] y; BMI, 36.1 [7.6] kg/m2). There was no difference (P = .27) in Vo2pk assessed by the ITMT and the ISWT (2,266 [478] and 2,017 [561] mL/min, respectively). The Vo2pk measured by the 6MWT (1,778 [360] mL/min) was lower than that measured by the ITMT (P < .01). The limits of agreement for Vo2pk between the ISWT and the ITM were ± 730 mL/min. Cardiorespiratory responses during the ISWT and the ITMT reflected a graded response to a peak, whereas the 6MWT demonstrated a rapid rise to a plateau. The ISWT can be used instead of an ITMT and in preference to the 6MWT to assess cardiorespiratory fitness for a cohort of obese people with treated OSA. However, the imprecision of the agreement in Vo2pk between the ITMT and ISWT means they cannot be used interchangeably in an individual. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01930513; www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  16. Treatment of obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS): effect of weight loss and interference of otorhinolaryngoiatric pathology.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, R; Colella, P; Cirignotta, F; Mondini, S; Gerardi, R; Buratti, P; Rinaldi Ceroni, A; Tartari, F; Schiavina, M; Melchionda, N

    1990-03-01

    The role of weight loss in the therapy of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was investigated in 23 affected patients with various degrees of obesity (body mass index range 26.6-61.0) free of cranio-facial malformations. Weight loss resulted 18.5 +/- 14.7 (s.d.) kg and was significantly correlated with baseline BMI value (r = 0.94; P less than 0.0001). Weight loss significantly reduced the number of apneas + hypopneas per hour of sleep ((A + H)I) from 66.5 +/- 23.0 to 33.0 +/- 26.2 (P less than 0.0001) and improved the mean of oxygen desaturation peaks during apneas (mSaO2) from 81.9 +/- 6.9 to 87.6 +/- 3.9; P less than 0.001). A significant correlation was found between weight loss and changes in the (A + H)I (r = -0.55; P less than 0.01) and the mSaO2 (r = 0.46; P less than 0.05). The (A + H)I significantly improved in both patients who lost more than 10 kg (basal BMI: 42.3 +/- 10.0) and in those who lost less than 10 kg (basal BMI: 30.2 +/- 2.3), whereas the mSaO2 improved only in the former. Obese patients with moderate to heavy ORL pathological findings had worse pretreatment and final OSAS parameters than those with absent or mild ORL lesions. However, both groups showed a significant, although quantitatively different, improvement of the (A + H)I and mSaO2 after weight loss. Compared to those who were cured or improved after the treatment, patients who failed to obtain significant effects on OSAS clinical presentation also had a significantly higher prevalence of ORL pathology. It is concluded that: (1) weight loss improves parameters and clinical presentation of OSAS in the majority of affected obese patients; (2) a relationship exists between the entity of weight loss and that of improvement of the syndrome; (3) weight loss must be encouraged even in patients with mild to moderate overweight; (4) the presence of ORL pathology may represent a confusing factor in the interpretation of the results obtained after weight loss.

  17. Upper airway structural changes induced by CPAP in OSAS patients: a study using drug-induced sleep endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Hoon; Koo, Soo Kweon; Choi, Jang Won; Moon, Ji Seung; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2017-01-01

    We studied upper airway structural changes induced by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients using drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). This prospective study was conducted at an academic secondary referral center. In total, 28 male OSAS patients (mean age 41.1 years) with only retropalatal level obstructions were enrolled. Measurements of the obstruction site were obtained in two steps: first a measurement was taken of the obstruction site in accordance with sleep apnea, then, a measurement was taken of the obstruction site in accordance with DISE-assisted CPAP titration, including quantitative changes in the occlusion site before and after CPAP in pixel format using an area calculation program. There was a tendency for persistent closing in cases of antero-posterior (AP) obstruction versus cases of lateral (Lat) obstruction in the CPAP titration. Lat obstructions showed a tendency to be wider than AP obstructions in the quantitative analysis. These results show that the pattern and degree of airway expansion after CPAP differ in accordance with the obstruction site.

  18. Michels syndrome, Carnevale syndrome, OSA syndrome, and Malpuech syndrome: variable expression of a single disorder (3MC syndrome)?

    PubMed

    Titomanlio, Luigi; Bennaceur, Selim; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Baumann, Clarisse; Dupuy, Olivier; Verloes, Alain

    2005-09-01

    We report on a 3-year-old girl with Michels syndrome, a rare condition characterized by craniosynostosis, blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, cleft lip/palate, abnormal supra-umbilical abdominal wall, and mental deficiency. The phenotypic findings are compared with the six previously reported Michels cases, and with patients referred to as Carnevale, OSA, and Malpuech syndromes. Michels syndrome is characterized by cleft lip and palate, anterior chamber anomalies, blepharophimosis, epicanthus inversus, and craniosynostosis. Carnevale syndrome shows hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, ptosis, strabismus synophrys, large and fleshy ears, and lozenge-shaped diastasis around the umbilicus. OSA syndrome resembles Carnevale, with humeroradial synostoses, and spinal anomalies as extra features. Malpuech syndrome shows IUGR, hypertelorism, cleft lip and palate, micropenis, hypospadias, renal anomalies, and caudal appendage. All are autosomal recessive. Despite the presence of apparently distinctive key features, it appears that these four entities share multiple similarities in the facial Gestalt and the pattern of MCA. Those similarities lead us to postulate that they belong to the same spectrum, which could be referred to as "3MC syndrome" (Malpuech-Michels-Mingarelli-Carnevale syndrome).

  19. Identification of impact damage in sandwich structures by application of high speed MEMS-OSA to FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Y.; Minakuchi, S.; Takeda, N.

    2005-05-01

    In this research, the authors developed various detection techniques for particular damages, such as debonding and impact damage, in sandwich panels consisting of composite face-sheets and aluminum honeycomb core with small-diameter optical fiber sensors. First, two methods for debonding detection were established taking advantage of the behavior of fillets formed on the adhesive layer between the core and the skin. One method uses the fracture of optical fibers, and the other one uses the shape recovery of the reflection spectrum from a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor because of the release of thermal residual stress in the fillets. Secondly, as for impact damages, chirped FBG sensors were applied to monitor the change in strain distribution of the face-sheet due to the dent caused by the impact loadings. Furthermore, a newly developed MEMS-optical spectrum analyzer (MEMS-OSA) was introduced to identification of impact points and damages. This system could measure the reflection spectrum at very high speed. The change in the form of the reflection spectrum during the impact loading was found to be different depending on the impact energy and the impact location, and this tendency was confirmed by theoretical simulations using the change in the strain distribution obtained by foil strain gauges. These results show that the high speed measurement of the reflection spectrum by MEMS-OSA has a potential to identify the impact location and damage magnitude through the comparison with theoretical simulations.

  20. Uniformities in OSA-UCS and in NCS tested by color difference prediction based on principal hue components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indow, Tarow

    2002-06-01

    The OSA uniform color system is a 3-D collection of color samples according to the regular rhombohedral structure in which each color is surrounded by its 12 nearest neighbors, all perceptually equally different (local uniformity). The Swedish NCS system is a 3-D collection of color samples that vary gradually in each of the three perceptual attributes. It is not clear that this arrangement implies all neighboring pairs along the respective coordinates being perceptually equally different (local uniformity). Of pairs (j,k) of interest, predicted color differences djk were calculated that have the following property. Suppose an observer selects a pair of Munsell grays (Va, Vb) that matches in size with the color difference between (j,k), then djk=|Va-Vb| is predicted by djk, on the average, with error of 0.34 in Munsell V-unit. Variation of djk in this unit was in the order of 0.22V for nearest neighboring pairs (j,k) in various cleavage planes of OSA-UCS and in the order of 0.11V for neighboring pairs (j,k) along s-coordinate and c-coordinate in sheets with fixed hue of NCS. Both were well within the prediction error range, but some systematic trends in values of djk were found.

  1. One night's CPAP withdrawal in otherwise compliant OSA patients: marked driving impairment but good awareness of increased sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Filtness, Ashleigh J; Reyner, Louise A; Horne, James A

    2012-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients effectively treated by and compliant with continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) occasionally miss a night's treatment. The purpose of this study was to use a real car interactive driving simulator to assess the effects of such an occurrence on the next day's driving, including the extent to which these drivers are aware of increased sleepiness. Eleven long-term compliant CPAP-treated 50-75-year-old male OSA participants completed a 2-h afternoon, simulated, realistic monotonous drive in an instrumented car, twice, following one night: (1) normal sleep with CPAP and (2) nil CPAP. Drifting out of road lane ('incidents'), subjective sleepiness every 200 s and continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) activities indicative of sleepiness and compensatory effort were monitored. Withdrawal of CPAP markedly increased sleep disturbance and led to significantly more incidents, a shorter 'safe' driving duration, increased alpha and theta EEG power and greater subjective sleepiness. However, increased EEG beta activity indicated that more compensatory effort was being applied. Importantly, under both conditions, there was a highly significant correlation between subjective and EEG measures of sleepiness, to the extent that participants were well aware of the effects of nil CPAP. Patients should be aware that compliance with treatment every night is crucial for safe driving.

  2. Nasal Dilators (Breathe Right Strips and NoZovent) for Snoring and OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Malu, Omojo O.; Kram, Yoseph A.; Song, Sungjin A.; Tolisano, Anthony M.; Kushida, Clete A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for studies evaluating internal (NoZovent) and external (Breathe Right Strips) nasal dilators as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Study Design. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Methods. Four databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, were searched through September 29, 2016. Results. One-hundred twelve studies were screened, fifty-eight studies were reviewed, and fourteen studies met criteria. In 147 patients, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was reported, and there was an improvement from a mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD) of 28.7 ± 24.0 to 27.4 ± 23.3 events/hr, p value 0.64. There was no significant change in AHI, lowest oxygen saturation, or snoring index in OSA patients when using nasal dilators. However, a subanalysis demonstrated a slight reduction in apnea index (AI) with internal nasal dilators (decrease by 4.87 events/hr) versus minimal change for external nasal dilators (increase by 0.64 events/hr). Conclusion. Although nasal dilators have demonstrated improved nasal breathing, they have not shown improvement in obstructive sleep apnea outcomes, with the exception of mild improvement in apnea index when internal nasal dilators were used. PMID:28070421

  3. [Treatment compliance with continuous positive airway pressure device among adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): how many adhere to treatment?].

    PubMed

    Sarrell, E Michael; Chomsky, Ofer; Shechter, Dalia

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) afflicts approximately 5% of the adult population and increases with age. The gold standard treatment is with the Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP) machine. Well-designed prospective trials to elucidate long term compliance with CPAP machine are rare. Assessing compliance and long-term use of CPAP machines among patients with OSA who were referred for treatment with this machine. A 4 years prospective cohort observational study was conducted using telephone interviews of 371 newly diagnosed patients with moderate to severe OSA, who received a specialist recommendation to use the CPAP machine which was bought and adjusted to their use. At the end of the first year, 126 (34%) of the OSA patients used the CPAP machine on a nightly basis (regular users), 120 (32.3%) had not used it at all, and 125 (33.7%) had used it only intermittently. The number of regular users increased between the 1st and 2nd year from 126 (34%), to 163 (44%) (p < 0.07) due to additions from the intermittent users group. The non-users group grew from 120 (32.3%) in the first year, and every year afterwards, up to 221 (59.6%) in the fourth year (p < 0.02). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the intermittent users group, which declined from 125 (33.7%) in the first year to only 18 (4.8%) in the 4th year (p < 0.005). Most of the patients (92.9%) were males. The average age of the regular users was 59.6 years (+/- 11), which was higher in comparison to 55.9 years (+/- 10.3) for the non-users or 58.9 years (+/- 12.6) among the intermittent users (p = 0.064). There were no statistical differences in co-morbidities or demographics between the three groups. However, the regular users were found to have a higher score in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a minimal arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) level lower than the patients in the non-users and intermittent users groups (p = 0.019 and p = 0.03 respectively). Four years follow

  4. The effect of continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) on nightmares in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    PubMed

    Tamanna, Sadeka; Parker, Jefferson D; Lyons, Judith; Ullah, M I

    2014-06-15

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is increasingly prevalent among Veterans characterized by recurrent nightmare and disrupted sleep. Veterans with PTSD also have a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and untreated OSA worsens the sleep-related symptoms of PTSD. In our study, we hypothesized that among PTSD-afflicted Veterans with OSA, CPAP therapy may reduce the frequency of nightmares and a better CPAP compliance may be associated with increased symptom improvement. We retrospectively reviewed medical records to identify OSA patients treated in a VA medical center who also carried a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 69). Data about patient characteristics and polysomnographic findings were extracted. Repeated-measures t-tests were performed, comparing mean nightmare frequency and Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) before and after CPAP treatment. Multiple linear regressions were done to identify factors predicting CPAP compliance. A logistic regression analysis was also done to estimate the odds of subjective improvement in PTSD symptoms with CPAP. CPAP therapy reduced the mean ESS from 14.62 to 8.52 (p < 0.001) and the mean number of nightmares per week from 10.32 to 5.26 (p < 0.01). Reduced nightmare frequency after CPAP treatment was best predicted by CPAP compliance (p < 0.001). Every 10% increase in CPAP compliance almost doubled the odds of benefitting by CPAP (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.47-2.5). In Veterans with PTSD and OSA, CPAP therapy reduces PTSD-associated nightmares and improves overall PTSD symptoms. We recommend that all PTSD patients should be screened clinically for symptoms of OSA and receive CPAP treatment whenever possible to improve PTSD symptoms.

  5. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN ELDERLY FROM VIÇOSA/MG, BRASIL.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Luiz Araújo Tinôco, Adelson; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia

    2015-11-01

    La prevalencia de deficiencia nutricional de vitamina B12 aumenta con la edad y es especialmente común en la población mayor. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar su prevalencia y los factores asociados a esta carencia en mayores no institucionalizados de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: estudio poblacional interseccional, realizado para identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a deficiencia de vitamina B12 entre la población de mayores en Viçosa (MG). Los datos fueron recopilados desde agosto de 2011 hasta junio de 2012 mediante una encuesta en los hogares y pruebas hematológicas y bioquímicas realizadas en 340 mayores. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en este grupo fue del 17,4% (95% CI, 13,4% - 21,4%). La deficiencia cognitiva se presenta como un factor importante relacionado con la deficiencia de vitamina B12. Conclusiones: el informe actual contribuye a los estudios que destacan ciertos factores que podrían afectar al rendimiento de las personas mayores en su proceso de envejecimiento natural, especialmente cuando estos factores están asociados con deficiencia cognitiva y dan lugar a una discapacidad significativa así como pérdida de calidad de vida. Así, los resultados aquí presentados han servido para aportar un conocimiento más comprensivo sobre la relación entre deficiencia de B12 y su impacto sobre este grupo de población. También han demostrado su relevancia de cara a la planificación de programas e iniciativas de salud pública centrados en este grupo de población.

  6. Preservation of Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 Marine Terrace Deposits along the Southwest Coast of the Osa Peninsula, Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, W. N.; Sak, P. B.

    2007-12-01

    Subduction of the aseismic Cocos Ridge at the Middle American Trench outboard of the Osa Peninsula results in rapid late Quaternary surface uplift. The distribution of surface uplift corresponds with the imaged bathymetric relief. On the Osa Peninsula, inboard of the northwest flank of the Cocos Ridge, exposures of the Late Pleistocene Puerto Armuelles Formation are recognized. The Puerto Armuelles Fm consists of poorly consolidated sands, silts, and muds from shallow marine, estuarine, and mangrove systems. Along the southwest coast, Puerto Armuelles Fm sediment infills paleo-topographic depressions. AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on 4 marine macrofossil samples yield ages ranging from 38.51 ka B.P. to 42.35 ka B.P. Dates obtained on multiple samples from individual sections are internally consistent, recording younger ages at higher stratigraphic levels within two fining upward deposits. The sections are displaced relative to one another across a northeast striking fault. The two measured stratigraphic sections are used to quantify a minimum Late Pleistocene to recent separation rate of 0.54 m ka-1. A suite of 15 radiocarbon dates on exposures of the Puerto Armuelles Fm from the eastern portion of the Osa Peninsula (Gardner et al., 1992) and 14 radiocarbon dates obtained from equivalent strata along the northwestern portions of the Osa Peninsula (Sak et al., 2004) clearly and consistently indicate a Late Pleistocene age of deposition during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3.

  7. Capability of Paraguaçu estuary (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil) to form oil-SPM aggregates (OSA) and their ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic organisms.

    PubMed

    Rios, Mariana C; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Pereira, Taís S; de Almeida, Marcos; Trindade, Maria Clara L F; Menezes, Leonardo; Caldas, Alex S

    2017-01-15

    For experiments concerning the formation of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA), oil and sediment samples were collected from Campos Basin and six stations of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, respectively. The sediments samples were analyzed for organic matter determined by the EMBRAPA method, nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method, and phosphorus determined by the method described by Aspila. The oil trapped in OSA was extracted following the method described by Moreira. The experiment showed a relationship between the amount of organic matter and OSA formation and consequently the dispersion of the studied oil. On the basis of the buoyancy of OSA and the ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic community, the priority areas for application of remediation techniques are Cachoeira, Maragogipe, and Salinas da Margarida because of the large amount of oil that accumulated at the bottom of the experiment flask (5.85%, 27.95%, and 38,98%; 4.2%, 17.66%, and 32.64%; and 11.82%, 8.07%, and 10.91% respectively).

  8. [Application medical history indicators and goals for the diagnosis of OSAS in a cohort of workers of the private car transportation: results of a year of health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Ricco, G; Launaro, N; Ceccarelli, M; Cravero, A; Manassero, F

    2012-01-01

    Even though Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is one of the main causes of daytime sleepiness with high subsequent risk for causing vehicle accidents, its evaluation is not usually included among the criteria used for the certification of job fitness among professional drivers. In order to assess the feasibility of a screening method that allows the occupational physician to identify the subjects at risk for OSAS which should undergo second level tests (cardiorespiratory monitoring), we recorded and subsequently processed appropriate subjective and objective indicators among 455 professional drivers employed in private transportation companies. Only 17 subjects (47%) out of 36 tested positive underwent cardiorespiratory monitoring (due to technical and organizational difficulties and to the poor compliance of workers). OSAS was confirmed in 15 subjects out of 17 showing an excellent positive predictive value of the screening. Risk management for OSAS is currently unavoidable yet not formally provided by law. Our results show the possibility of completing the health surveillance program with feasible and valuable screening tests. Difficulties (hardly compliant with a timely certification of the job fitness) arise instead as far as second level confirmatory procedures are involved.

  9. Osa Protein Constitutes a Strong Oncogenic Suppression System That Can Block vir-Dependent Transfer of IncQ Plasmids between Agrobacterium Cells and the Establishment of IncQ Plasmids in Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2004-01-01

    The osa (oncogenic suppressive activity) gene of the IncW group plasmid pSa is sufficient to suppress tumorigenesis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. osa confers oncogenic suppression by inhibiting VirE2 protein export. This result is similar, but not identical, to that of oncogenic suppression by the IncQ plasmid RSF1010. We conducted a series of experiments to compare oncogenic suppression by these two systems. Agrobacterium strains harboring plasmids containing osa are more able to effect oncogenic suppression than are similar strains containing various RSF1010 derivatives. When osa is present within a donor Agrobacterium strain that also carries a derivative of RSF1010, the transfer of RSF1010 derivatives to recipient bacteria and their establishment in plants are blocked. Oncogenic suppression is still effected when the osa gene is integrated into the Agrobacterium chromosome, suggesting that it is the osa gene product that is active in suppression and that suppression does not require a protein-nucleic acid intermediate like that described for IncQ plasmids. Extracellular complementation experiments with tobacco leaf disks indicated that Osa blocks stable transfer of RSF1010 to plant cells by inhibiting transfer of VirE2, which is essential for the transfer of RSF1010 into plant cells, and not by inhibiting the actual transfer of RSF1010 itself. Our results suggest that Osa and RSF1010 cause oncogenic suppression by using different mechanisms. PMID:15489437

  10. Cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with insomnia (sleep apnea plus) versus obstructive sleep apnea without insomnia: a case-control study from a Nationally Representative US sample.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Knapp, Katie

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in patient visits with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with insomnia (OSA+Insomnia) versus OSA without insomnia (OSA-Insomnia) in a nationally representative US sample. A retrospective case-control study of epidemiologic databases (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) representing an estimated ± standard error (SE) 62,253,910 ± 5,274,747 (unweighted count=7234) patient visits with diagnosis of OSA from 1995-2010, was conducted. An estimated 3,994,104 ± 791,386 (unweighted count=658) were classified as OSA+Insomnia and an estimated 58,259,806 ± 4,849,800 (unweighted count=6576) as OSA-Insomnia. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using OSA+Insomnia versus OSA-Insomnia as the dependent variable, and age (>50 years versus ≤ 50 years), sex, race ('White' versus 'non-White'), essential hypertension, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiac dysrhythmia, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, depressive, anxiety, and adjustment disorders (includes PTSD), hypersomnia and all medications used as independent variables. All comorbidities were physician diagnosed using the ICD9-CM. Among patient visits with OSA, an estimated 6.4%± 0.9% also had insomnia. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the OSA+Insomnia group was significantly more likely to have essential hypertension (all ICD9-CM codes 401) (OR=1.83, 95% CI 1.27-2.65) and provisionally more likely to have cerebrovascular disease (ICD9-CM codes 430-438) (OR=6.58, 95% CI 1.66-26.08). The significant OR for cerebrovascular disease was considered provisional because the unweighted count was <30. In a nationally representative sample, OSA+Insomnia was associated significantly more frequently with essential hypertension than OSA-Insomnia, a finding that has not been previously reported. In contrast to studies that have considered patient self-reports of psychological

  11. Control of OSA during automatic positive airway pressure titration in a clinical case series: predictors and accuracy of device download data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Hillman, David R; McArdle, Nigel

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the factors associated with physiologic control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a clinical series. To also assess the usefulness of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) data downloaded from the APAP device (Dev AHI). Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with OSA who underwent APAP titration (Autoset Spirit, ResMed, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia ) with simultaneous polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring in the sleep laboratory. Tertiary sleep clinic. There were 190 consecutive patients with OSA referred for APAP titration. There were 58% of patients who achieved optimal or good control of OSA (titration PSG AHI < 10, or at least 50% reduction in AHI if diagnostic AHI < 15/hr) during APAP titration. The independent predictors of titration PSG AHI were a history of cardiac disease and elevated central apnea and arousal indices during the diagnostic study. Although the median and interquartile range (IQR) AHI from the device (7.0, 3.9-11.6 events/hr) was only slightly less than the PSG AHI (7.8, 3.9-14.4 events/hr, P = 0.04) during titration, case-by-case agreement between the two measures was poor (chi-square < 0.001). In a clinical sample control of OSA during APAP titration is often poor, and close clinical follow-up is particularly needed in patients with a history of cardiac disease or with high arousal or central apnea indices on the diagnostic study. Device AHI does not reliably assess control during APAP titration, and PSG assessment may be required if clinical response to treatment is poor. The findings relate to the ResMed AutoSet device and may not apply to other devices.

  12. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operation and Maintenance, 2005-2006 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sellman, Jake; Dykstra, Tim

    2009-05-11

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance (DV Fisheries) project is an ongoing resident fish program designed to enhance both subsistence fishing, educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes, and recreational fishing facilities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View, Lake Billy Shaw, and Sheep Creek Reservoirs, the program also intends to afford and maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, to provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and to offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period are divided into operations and maintenance plus monitoring and evaluation. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs and stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles and equipment, and outhouses. Monitoring and evaluation activities included creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, control of encroaching exotic vegetation, and community outreach and education. The three reservoirs are monitored in terms of water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir was the least productive as a result of high turbidity levels and constraining water quality parameters. Lake Billy Shaw trout were in poorer condition than in previous years potentially as a result of water quality or other factors. Mountain View Reservoir trout exhibit the best health of the three reservoirs and was the only reservoir to receive constant flows of water.

  13. Assessment of Breadth and Utility of India’s Research Literature (2005-2006)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    for each database. The taxonomies generated for the EC and INSPEC databases reflect more focus on Applied Physical Sciences, Materials Engineering...evaporation and inert gas evaporation techniques, respectively. 3. Multilayer heterostructural thin film formation using e-beam evaporation

  14. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan; Mueller, Robert; Murray, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning areas, and the flows necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Ongoing discussions regarding the minimum and maximum flows will result in optimal spawning habitat usage and survival of embryos of both species. Collection of additional data as part of this project will ensure that established flow guidelines are appropriate and provide adequate protection for the species of concern. This is consistent with the high priority placed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Independent Scientific Advisory Board and the salmon managers on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Thus, there is a need to better understand the physical habitat variables used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was asked to participate in the cooperative study during FY 2000. Since then, we have focused on (1) investigating the interactions between groundwater and surface water near fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning areas; (2) providing in-season hyporheic temperature data and assisting state agencies with emergence timing estimates; (3) locating and mapping deep-water fall Chinook salmon spawning areas; and (4) providing support to the WDFW for analysis of stranding data. Work conducted during FY 2006 addressed these same efforts. This report documents the studies and tasks performed by PNNL during FY 2006. Chapter 1 provides a description of the searches conducted for deepwater redds--adjacent to Pierce and Ives islands for fall Chinook salmon and near the Interstate 205 bridge for chum salmon. The chapter also provides data on redd location, information about habitat associations, and estimates of total spawning populations. Chapter 2 documents the collection of data on riverbed and river temperatures and water surface elevations, from the onset of spawning to the end of emergence, and the provision of those data in-season to fisheries management agencies to assist with emergence timing estimates and evaluations of redd dewatering. Technical assistance provided to the WDFW and PSMFC in evaluation of stranding data is summarized in Chapter 3.

  15. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... production by colonies or bees was diminished, will not include losses: (1) For the 2007 crop, for production from those bees acquired on or after February 28, 2007; (2) Where the inability to extract was due to... operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee...

  16. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... production by colonies or bees was diminished, will not include losses: (1) For the 2007 crop, for production from those bees acquired on or after February 28, 2007; (2) Where the inability to extract was due to... operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee...

  17. Ground-Water Quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, J.E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 community water system wells and 15 private domestic wells throughout the Genesee River Basin in New York State (downstream from the Pennsylvania border) from October 2005 through March 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water in the basin. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a representative sampling from the 2,439 square-mile basin area in New York. Samples were analyzed for five physical properties and 226 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. The results show that ground water used for drinking water is generally of good quality in the Genesee River Basin, although concentrations of seven constituents exceeded drinking water standards. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions that were detected in the greatest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, and nitrate concentrations were greater in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock aquifers. The trace elements barium, boron, cobalt, copper, and nickel were detected in every sample; the highest concentrations were barium, boron, chromium, iron, manganese, strontium, and lithium. Fourteen pesticides including seven pesticide degradates were detected in water from 12 of the 22 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in six samples, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Seven chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were present in concentrations that exceeded Federal and New York State water-quality standards, which are typically identical. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in three samples; the chloride SMCL (250 mg/L) was exceeded in one sample. Sodium concentrations exceeded the USEPA Drinking Water Health Advisory of 60 mg/L in five samples. The SMCL for iron (300 ug/L) was exceeded in 11 filtered samples; the USEPA SMCL for manganese (50 ug/L) was exceeded in 10 filtered samples, and the New York State MCL (300 ug/L) was exceeded in 1 filtered sample. The MCL for aluminum (200 ug/L) was exceeded in 1 sample, and the MCL for arsenic (10 ug/L) was exceeded in 1 sample. Radon-222 exceeded the proposed USEPA MCL of 300 picocuries per liter in 16 samples. Any detection of total coliform or fecal coliform bacteria is considered a violation of New York State health regulations; in this study, total coliform was detected in eight samples; fecal coliform was detected in two samples, and Escherichia coli was detected in one sample.

  18. [Chikungunya, La Réunion and Mayotte, 2005-2006: an epidemic without a story?].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine; Aumont, Gilles; Boisson, Véronique; de Lamballerile, Xavier; Favier, François; Fontenille, Didier; Gaüzère, Bernard-Alex; Journeaux, Sophie; Lotteau, Vincent; Paupy, Christophe; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Setbon, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Many triggering factors for onset of emerging infectious diseases are now recognised, such as: globalisation, demographic increase, population movements, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate changes, loss in biodiversity, and extreme life conditions such as poverty, famine and war. Epidemic burden is often leading to disasters, in terms of human losses, as well as economic, political or social consequences. These outbreaks may jeopardize within a few weeks or months, industry, trade, or tourism. While dengue and its most severe forms (hemorrhagic and shock syndrome) is spreading all over the tropical world, another arbovirosis, chikungunya disease dramatically spread in Indian Ocean islands where 30 to 75% of population were infected in 2005 and 2006, and then extended its progression towards India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives islands with more than a million people infected with the East-African strain, replacing the former Asian strain which was known to prevail more than 30 years ago in India. Patients experience sequelae with disability, work loss, and rarely severe outcome recently identified in La Réunion and Mayotte (French overseas territories). No country, no part of the world may consider itself as protected against such events. However, consequences of emerging or re-emerging diseases are more and more unacceptable when they impact the poorest countries of the world. Viruses, bacteria, as well as wild animals, birds, or arthropods are not stopped by borders. It is time now to promote barriers against infectious diseases, including prevention, anticipation, disease surveillance and research. This is not only for humanitarian reasons, but also for contributing to a sustainable development with equity for worldwide population. This report presents comprehensive actions taken in 2006 for tracing the epidemic and mobilise research, as requested to the task force set up by the Prime Minister by March 20, 2006.

  19. Ground-Water Quality in the Delaware River Basin, New York, 2001 and 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 require that States monitor and report on the quality of ground water and surface water. To satisfy part of these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have developed a program in which ground-water quality is assessed in 2 to 3 of New York State's 14 major basins each year. To characterize the quality of ground water in the Delaware River Basin in New York, water samples were collected from December 2005 to February 2006 from 10 wells finished in bedrock. Data from 9 samples collected from wells finished in sand and gravel in July and August 2001 for the National Water Quality Assessment Program also are included. Ground-water samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures. Samples were analyzed for more than 230 properties and compounds, including physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Concentrations of most compounds were less than drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and New York State Department of Health; many of the organic analytes were not detected in any sample. Drinking-water standards that were exceeded at some sites include those for color, turbidity, pH, aluminum, arsenic, iron, manganese, radon-222, and bacteria. pH ranged from 5.6 to 8.3; the pH of nine samples was less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water standard range of 6.5 to 8.5. Water in the basin is generally soft to moderately hard (hardness 120 milligrams per liter as CaCO3 or less). The cation with the highest median concentration was calcium; the anion with the highest median concentrations was bicarbonate. Nitrate was the predominant nutrient detected but no sample exceeded the 10 mg/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level. The trace elements detected with the highest median concentrations were strontium and iron in unfiltered water and strontium and barium in filtered water. Concentrations of trace elements in several samples exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water standards, including aluminum (50-200 micrograms per liter, three wells), arsenic (10 micrograms per liter, one well), iron (300 micrograms per liter, three wells), and manganese (50 micrograms per liter, four wells). The median concentration of radon-222 was 1,580 picoCuries per liter. Radon-222 is not currently regulated, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a maximum contaminant level of 300 picoCuries per liter along with an alternative maximum contaminant level of 4,000 picoCuries per liter, to be in effect in states that have programs to address radon in indoor air. Concentrations of radon-222 exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level in all 19 of the samples and exceeded the proposed alternative maximum contaminant level in 1 sample. Eleven pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in samples from ten wells; all were herbicides or herbicide degradates. Three volatile organic compounds were detected, including disinfection byproducts such as trichloromethane and gasoline components or additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether. No pesticides, pesticide degradates, or volatile organic compounds were detected above established limits. Coliform bacteria were detected in samples from five wells, four of which were finished in sand and gravel; Escherichia coli was not detected in any sample.

  20. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research.

  1. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006. Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a study relating to California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful…

  2. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA), formerly named the Board of Corrections, the administrator of funding. California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice…

  3. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006. Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a study relating to California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful…

  4. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA), formerly named the Board of Corrections, the administrator of funding. California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice…

  5. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Menski, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers between years, considering both annual river flows and annual project operations, because both affect fish migration and collection.

  6. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers between years, considering both annual river flows and annual project operations, because both affect fish migration and collection.

  7. Patterns of adult stepping cadence in the 2005-2006 NHANES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory studies of adult walking behavior have consistently found that a cadence of 100 steps/min is a reasonable threshold for moderate intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine cadence patterns in free-living adults, and in particular, time spent at increasing cadence increments inc...

  8. Occurrence of azoxystrobin, propiconazole, and selected other fungicides in US streams, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Fungicides are used to prevent foliar diseases on a wide range of vegetable, field, fruit, and ornamental crops. They are generally more effective as protective rather than curative treatments, and hence tend to be applied before infections take place. Less than 1% of US soybeans were treated with a fungicide in 2002 but by 2006, 4% were treated. Like other pesticides, fungicides can move-off of fields after application and subsequently contaminate surface water, groundwater, and associated sediments. Due to the constant pressure from fungal diseases such as the recent Asian soybean rust outbreak, and the always-present desire to increase crop yields, there is the potential for a significant increase in the amount of fungicides used on US farms. Increased fungicide use could lead to increased environmental concentrations of these compounds. This study documents the occurrence of fungicides in select US streams soon after the first documentation of soybean rust in the US and prior to the corresponding increase in fungicide use to treat this problem. Water samples were collected from 29 streams in 13 states in 2005 and/or 2006, and analyzed for 12 target fungicides. Nine of the 12 fungicides were detected in at least one stream sample and at least one fungicide was detected in 20 of 29 streams. At least one fungicide was detected in 56% of the 103 samples, as many as five fungicides were detected in an individual sample, and mixtures of fungicides were common. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (45% of 103 samples) followed by metalaxyl (27%), propiconazole (17%), myclobutanil (9%), and tebuconazole (6%). Fungicide detections ranged from 0.002 to 1.15 μ/L. There was indication of a seasonal pattern to fungicide occurrence, with detections more common and concentrations higher in late summer and early fall than in spring. At a few sites, fungicides were detected in all samples collected suggesting the potential for season-long occurrence in some streams. Fungicide occurrence appears to be related to fungicide use in the associated drainage basins; however, current use information is generally lacking and more detailed occurrence data are needed to accurately quantify such a relation. Maximum concentrations of fungicides were typically one or more orders of magnitude less than current toxicity estimates for freshwater aquatic organisms or humans; however, gaps in current toxicological understandings of the effects of fungicides in the environment limit these interpretations.

  9. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ira; McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. The key objective of the Nez Perce Tribe Focus Coordinator position is to overcome fragmentation within the basin by managing communications with the subbasin, providing an overall framework and process for coordinated fisheries restoration and managing the planning, assessment, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation process. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing stream banks, decommissioning roads, restoring fish passage, as well as other watershed restoration projects. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination activities also includes: inter and intra-department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, involving government and private organizations, and treaty area coordination.

  10. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2005- 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, E.; Reyes, E.; Blanco, S.; Perez, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Retama, A.; Muñoz, R.; Ramos, R.; Paramo, V. H.; Gutiérrez, V.; Cárdenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    One of the main air quality problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are the high ozone levels, resulting from the photochemical reactions among precursors such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. The MCMA air quality monitoring network includes 19 NOx and 19 O3 monitoring sites. However, no routine VOC monitoring is carried out. This work presents results of a field campaign done from September 2005 to September 2006 in the MCMA. 24 hours integrated samples were obtained every six days in five different sites, considered representative of the northwest, northeast, southeast, southwest, and center of the MCMA. Samples were obtained in stainless steel canisters adapted with a programmable flow controller. Analyses were done using a GC-FID to identify 57 VOCs following USEPA-TO-14A. A total of 354 samples were obtained corresponding to 62 sampling days. On the average, highest concentrations were found in the center, whereas lowest concentrations were found at the southwest. However, the overall maximum concentration (741 ppbV) was determined at the northeast site, and the overall minimum concentration (27 ppbV) was determined at the southwest site. At all sites, propane, butane, acetylene and toluene were the compounds found at highest concentrations. The main source for propane and butane is LPG, whereas for acetylene and toluene are combustion and evaporation of gasoline. It was found that southwest site is significantively different from the rest of all sites. A short field campaign was also done during 5 days in November-December 2005 with 3 periods of 3hrs integrated samples.

  11. [Practice patterns in Mexican allergologists about skin tests with allergens during 2005-2006].

    PubMed

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo Guidos; Cruz, Alfredo Arias

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been practiced since over a hundred years. The exact composition of the immunotherapy concentrate, with which the patient is treated, depends partly on the results of the skin prick tests applied to the allergic patient. As such, the effectiveness of the immunotherapy depends heavily on the quality of the skin prick test. The detailed recommendations for the realization of the skin prick tests have evolved and changed over the years, leading to multiple variations in its application in Mexico. We tried to get a picture of the daily practice patterns of the members of CMICA and CoMPedIA concerning the application of skin prick tests. Aquestionnaire was sent in various occasions to all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunologia Clinica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras, Especialistas en Inmunologia y Alergia (CoMPedIA). The results are presented descriptively and by calculation of the frequency/percentages of intervals of replies, in the case of numerical responses. A response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained of the College members, showing consistency in some replies but a wide variation in others, for example in the time certain medication has to be suspended before the execution of the skin prick test. Comparing the replies obtained with recent recommendations in international publications, some discrepancy can be detected. In some aspects of the survey there is coincidence of the skin test practices among the participants; however, in other items there is an important variation.

  12. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavens, Kate

    2006-11-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2005-September 2006. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in 2005 and 2006 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Twenty-six turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 62 at the Oregon Zoo in fall 2005. These turtles joined two that were held back from release in summer 2005 due to their small size. All 90 juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2006. Twenty-eight juvenile turtles were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 19 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 944; 285 for the Klickitat ponds, 158 for the Klickitat lake, 227 for the Skamania pond complex, and 274 at Pierce NWR. In 2006, 20 females from the Klickitat population were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Fifteen nests were located and protected; these produced 55 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. One wild hatchling captured in spring 2006 was placed in the head-start program to attain more growth in captivity. During the 2006 field season trapping effort, 414 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 374 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 179 individual painted turtles captured in 2006 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population.

  13. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2005 - 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2005 and February 2006. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  14. The Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools. Annual Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools (CYFS) is to conduct research that improves our understanding of optimal ways that parents, teachers and other service providers in family, school and community contexts can promote the intellectual and socio-emotional development and behavioral adjustment of…

  15. The Condition of Higher Education in New Mexico, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document reports on data collected by the New Mexico Higher Education Department, providing the status of higher education as of the Fall 2005 semester and makes comparisons to prior year data to calculate change rates. The emphasis of the New Mexico Higher Education Department is to create policy to improve access to educational…

  16. John Day River Subbasin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Russ M.; Alley, Pamela D.; Delano, Kenneth H.

    2006-03-01

    Work undertaken in 2005 included: (1) Four new fence projects were completed thereby protecting 7.55 miles of stream with 9.1 miles of new riparian fence (2) Fence removal 1.7 miles of barbed wire. (3) Completed three spring developments (repair work on two BLM springs on Cottonwood Creek (Dayville), 1 solar on Rock Creek/ Collins property). (4) Dredge tail leveling completed on 0.9 miles of the Middle Fork of the John Day River (5) Cut, hauled and placed 30 junipers on Indian Creek/Kuhl property for bank stability. (6) Collected and planted 1500 willow cuttings on Mountain Creek/Jones property. (7) Conducted steelhead redd counts on Lake Cr./Hoover property and Cottonwood Cr./Mascall properties (8) Seeded 200 lbs of native grass seed on projects where the sites were disturbed by fence construction activities. (9) Maintenance of all active project fences (72.74 miles), watergaps (60), spring developments (30) were checked and repairs performed. (10) Since the initiation of the Fish Habitat Program in 1984 we have installed 156.06 miles of riparian fence on leased property protecting 88.34 miles of anadromous fish bearing stream. With the addition of the Restoration and Enhancement Projects from 1996-2001, where the landowner received the materials, built and maintained the project we have a total of 230.92 miles of fence protecting 144.7 miles of stream and 3285 acres of riparian habitat.

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report Wanaket Wildlife Area, Techical Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2006-02-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Wildlife Program staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Wanaket Wildlife Management Area in June 2005. The 2005 HEP investigation generated 3,084.48 habitat units (HUs) for a net increase of 752.18 HUs above 1990/1995 baseline survey results. The HU to acre ratio also increased from 0.84:1.0 to 1.16:1.0. The largest increase in habitat units occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type (California quail and western meadowlark models), which increased from 1,544 HUs to 2,777 HUs (+43%), while agriculture cover type HUs were eliminated because agricultural lands (managed pasture) were converted to shrubsteppe/grassland. In addition to the agriculture cover type, major changes in habitat structure occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type due to the 2001 wildfire which removed the shrub component from well over 95% of its former range. The number of acres of all other cover types remained relatively stable; however, habitat quality improved in the riparian herb and riparian shrub cover types. The number and type of HEP species models used during the 2005 HEP analysis were identical to those used in the 1990/1995 baseline HEP surveys. The number of species models employed to evaluate the shrubsteppe/grassland, sand/gravel/mud/cobble, and riparian herb cover types, however, were fewer than reported in the McNary Dam Loss Assessment (Rassmussen and Wright 1989) for the same cover types.

  18. The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This student guide provides financial aid information for high school seniors and college students. The first few pages of this guide are a quick reference to federal student aid programs and how to apply. Most student financial aid comes from the federal government programs, which the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid (FSA)…

  19. Miami-Dade County Public Schools Statistical Abstract 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present, in summary fashion, statistical information on the status of public education in Miami-Dade County. Information is provided in the areas of organization, educational programs and services, achievement, and other outcomes of schooling. Also included are multi-year statistics on student population,…

  20. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period work was completed on two culvert replacement projects; Doe Creek and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally construction was also completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  1. [Prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances among students during 2005-2006].

    PubMed

    Gostautas, Antanas; Povilaitis, Romualdas; Pilkauskiene, Ina; Jakusovaite, Irayda; Statkeviciene, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of addictive substance use among students during one-year period, to evaluate the present situation, and to substantiate the necessity of prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The participants of the study were students of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture: 1475 students were inquired in 2005 and 1575 in 2006. The study was performed by applying a questionnaire consisting of 26 standard questions for the evaluation of respondents' health and health-related behavior. The obtained results showed the stability of addictive substance usage among students during one-year period: on the average, 33.6% of males and 20.4% of females were daily smokers. No changes were found in the number of nonsmokers, but the number of students who quit smoking was increased. There were no changes in the pattern of ethanol use during one-year period: the highest percentage of male students used alcoholic beverages once or several times per week (38.5%) and several times per month (39.5%). The highest percentage of female students used ethanol several times per month (55.9%). Ethanol and tobacco consumption per day was high, and there were no changes during one year. The rates of drug use were 35.9% among male students, and 17.7% among female. The amount of psychoactive substances used by students (ethanol per one evening and tobacco per one day) did not change and remained dangerously high. Male students consumed 400 mL of vodka, 280 mL of other strong alcoholic beverages, and 2 liters of beer per one evening, while the mean consumption of wine decreased from 383 mL to 308 mL. The respective findings for female students were as follows: 200 mL of vodka, 150 mL of other strong alcoholic beverages, 300 mL of wine, and 750 mL of beer. Male students smoked 11 and females 7 cigarettes per day, on the average. CONCLUSIONS. It seems that the stability of addictive substance use among students demonstrates that high risk of chronic diseases is related to the balance between social supply of these substances, and prevention of their distribution and usage.

  2. Fluid milk consumption in the United States: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goals of this study were to describe fluid milk consumption patterns of the U.S. population and to determine the impact of fluid milk on daily nutrient intakes. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from 8,145 children and adults 2 years of age and older participating in What We Eat In America (...

  3. First breast cancer mammography screening program in Mexico: initial results 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Guisa-Hohenstein, Fernando; Labastida-Almendaro, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia worldwide. In emergent countries as Mexico, an increase has been shown in frequency and mortality, unfortunately, most cases in advanced loco-regional stages developed in young women. The success of breast screening in mortality reduction has been observed since 1995 in Western Europe and the United States, where as many as 40% mortality reduction has been achieved. Most countries guidelines recommends an annual or biannual mammography for all women >40 years of age. In 2005, FUCAM, a nonlucrative civil foundation in Mexico join with Mexico City government, initiated the first voluntary mammography screening program for women >40 years of age residing in Mexico City's Federal District. Mammographies were carried out with analogical mammographs in specially designed mobile units and were performed in the area of women's domiciles. This report includes data from the first 96,828 mammographies performed between March 2005 and December 2006. There were 1% of mammographies in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 0, 4, or 5 and 208 out of 949 women with abnormal mammographies (27.7%) had breast cancer, a rate of 2.1 per thousand, most of them in situ or stage I (29.4%) or stage II (42.2%) nevertheless 21% of those women with abnormal mammography did not present for further clinical and radiologic evaluation despite being personally notified at their home addresses. The breast cancer rate of Mexican women submitted to screening mammography is lower than in European or North American women. Family history of breast cancer, nulliparity, absence of breast feeding, and increasing age are factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Most cancers were diagnosed in women's age below 60 years (68.5%) with a mean age of 53.55 corroborating previous data published. It is mandatory to sensitize and educate our population with regard to accepting to visit the Specialized Breast Centers.

  4. Micrographic surgery of skin cancer in German hospitals 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Stang, A; Weichenthal, M

    2011-04-01

    Surgical therapy of skin cancer includes conventional wide excision and micrographic surgery (MS). Little is known about the population-wide spread of MS for the treatment of skin cancer. The aim was to estimate the in-hospital use of MS for the treatment of skin cancer in Germany. We used nationwide DRG data from 2005 through 2006. We identified hospitalizations with a main diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) (ICD-10: C43) or non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (ICD-10: C44). MS was identified by OPS procedure codes including 5-895.1, 5-895.3, 5-212.1, 5-181.1, 5-181.4, 5-181.6, 5-182.1, 5-091.1, or 5-091.3. We identified 52 660 and 98 484 hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of CMM and NMSC respectively; 54.6% and 36.5% of NMSC and CMM-related admissions with local skin cancer treatment included MS. The relative frequency of MS varied by anatomic subsite of the skin cancer and by region of the hospital. Local infections were the most frequent complications after MS with 3.2-4.0% for NMSC and 2.3-2.9% for CMM followed by haemorrhages. Dehiscence of the operation wound is a rare event with risks ranging between 0.1% and 0.3%. Micrographic surgery is frequently used for the local treatment of NMSC and varies considerably across Federal States of Germany. It is difficult to speculate how many MS might be performed in private or ambulatory settings in Germany. As MS requires surgical expertise, technical support and dermatopathology, we speculate that MS is much less frequently undertaken in private practices in Germany. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Profiles of For-Profit Education Management Organizations: Eighth Annual Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David R.; Bartlett, Margaret; O'Neill, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    This annual report, in its eighth edition, found that after several years of growth, the EMO (Education Management Organization) industry appears to be entering a period of reconfiguration. In this year's "Profiles", the number of companies listed and the number of schools they manage are down slightly; student enrollment in EMO-managed…

  6. Updating ARI Educational Benefits Usage Data Bases for Army Regular, Reserve, and Guard: 2005 - 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    3YR 4YR Total Cohort Alone ACF ACF ACF ACF Total 1985 10802 3354 2966 6382 12702 23504 1986 60741 10223 8924 11301 30448 91189 1987 76109 10352 10355...4YR Total Cohort Alone ACF ACF ACF ACF Total 1985 4816 2488 1995 3604 8087 12903 1986 22518 6962 5612 5857 18431 40949 1987 28565 7292 6493 1776 15561...Total Cohort Alone ACF ACF ACF ACF Total 1985 44.6% 74.2% 67.3% 56.5% 63.7% 54.9% 1986 37.1% 68.1% 62.9% 51.8% 60.5% 44.9% 1987 37.5% 70.4% 62.7% 59.4

  7. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-11-06

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days per month for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were again found during nighttime periods and lowest during the day. Fish detection rates were low during high discharges throughout the spring and summer and highest during low discharges in September and November. High discharge during drawdowns for anadromous fish flows in July and August again resulted in low detection rates and susceptibility to entrainment. Index counts of spawning kokanee in four tributary streams totaled 12,742 fish. This data fits the previously developed relationship between spawner counts and adult kokanee abundance in the reservoir.

  8. [Chikungunya outbreak on Reunion Island in 2005/2006: role of hospital physicians in raising alert].

    PubMed

    Boisson, V; Cresta, M P; Thibault, L; Antok, E; Lemant, J; Gradel, A; André, H; Tixier, F; Winer, A

    2012-03-01

    The epidemic of chikungunya (CHIK) that swept through Reunion Island from late 2005 to mid 2006 affected 38.2% of the population, i.e., 300000 people. Although this outbreak took place in a French overseas department with high public health standards, failure to anticipate a large-scale epidemic associated with unprecedented severity and unexpectedly high mortality led to a major public health crisis. The purpose of this report is to provide a complete account of the experience of hospital intensive care physicians in addressing problems ranging from discovery of severe forms to management of a major health crisis. This report underlines the role of the head hospital physician and the necessity of mutual trust and collaboration with supervisory authorities.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2005 - 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2005 and February 2006. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  10. PBS TeacherLine National Survey of Teacher Professional Development, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel Associates (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    PBS TeacherLine, an initiative funded under the U.S. Department of Education's Ready To Teach program, is designed to provide high-quality online professional development for K-12 teachers. Through the first five-year grant cycle, ending in 2005, PBS TeacherLine produced approximately 100 online facilitated courses in reading, mathematics,…

  11. 78 FR 50113 - Distribution of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Cable Royalty Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... September 16, 2013. ADDRESSES: Participants must submit an original, five paper copies, and an electronic..., music, etc.). For broadcast years 2006 through 2009, the parties settled their controversies. The Judges...

  12. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... production by colonies or bees was diminished, will not include losses: (1) For the 2007 crop, for production from those bees acquired on or after February 28, 2007; (2) Where the inability to extract was due to... operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee...

  13. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... production by colonies or bees was diminished, will not include losses: (1) For the 2007 crop, for production from those bees acquired on or after February 28, 2007; (2) Where the inability to extract was due to... operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee...

  14. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... production by colonies or bees was diminished, will not include losses: (1) For the 2007 crop, for production from those bees acquired on or after February 28, 2007; (2) Where the inability to extract was due to... operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee...

  15. EdTrAc Teacher Education Program: First-Year Implementation Evaluation (2005-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Brian; Shelton, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The Educational Training Academy (EdTrAc) is an NSF-funded project of Normandale Community College to increase the number, diversity, and skills of students preparing to be elementary and middle school teachers with a specialty in math and science. Overall, this evaluation indicates that the EdTrAc implementation is on track after its first year…

  16. Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Rick D.; Kovalchuk, Gregory M.; Ballinger, Dean

    2006-04-01

    2005 was an average to below average flow year at John Day and Bonneville Dams. A large increase in flow in May improved migration conditions for that peak passage month. Spill was provided April through August and averaged about 30% and 48% of river flow at John Day and Bonneville Dams, respectively. Water temperature graphs were added this year that show slightly lower than average water temperature at John Day and slightly higher than average temperatures at Bonneville. The number of fish handled at John Day decreased from 412,797 in 2004 to 195,293 this year. Of the 195,293 fish, 120,586 (61.7%) were collected for researchers. Last year, 356,237 (86.3%) of the fish sampled were for researchers. This dramatic decline is the result of (1) fewer research fish needed (2) a smaller, lighter tag which allowed for tagging of smaller fish, and (3) a larger average size for subyearling chinook. These factors combined to reduce the average sample rate to 10.8%, about half of last year's rate of 18.5%. Passage timing at John Day was similar to previous years, but the pattern was distinguished by larger than average passage peaks for spring migrants, especially sockeye. The large spike in mid May for sockeye created a very short middle 80% passage duration of just 16 days. Other spring migrants also benefited from the large increase in flow in May. Descaling was lower than last year for all species except subyearling chinook and below the historical average for all species. Conversely, the incidence of about 90% of the other condition factors increased. Mortality, while up from last year for all species and higher than the historical average for all species except sockeye, continued to be low, less than 1% for all species. On 6 April a slide gate was left closed at John Day and 718 fish were killed. A gate position indicator light was installed to prevent reoccurrences. Also added this year was a PIT tag detector on the adult return-to-river flume. For the first time this year, we successfully held Pacific lamprey ammocetes. The number of fish sampled at Bonneville Dam was also down this year to 260,742, from 444,580 last year. Reasons for the decline are the same as stated above for John Day. Passage timing at Bonneville Dam was quite similar to previous years with one notable exception, sockeye. Sockeye passage was dominated by two large spikes in late May that greatly condensed the passage pattern, with the middle 80% passing Bonneville in just 18 days. Unlike John Day, passage for the rest of the species was well disbursed from late April through early June. Fish condition was good, with reductions in descaling rates for all species except unclipped steelhead and sockeye. Sockeye mortality matched last year's rate but was considerably lower for all other species. Rare species sampled at Bonneville this year included a bull trout and a eulachon.

  17. The Effect of CPAP in Normalizing Daytime Sleepiness, Quality of Life, and Neurocognitive Function in Patients with Moderate to Severe OSA

    PubMed Central

    Antic, Nick A.; Catcheside, Peter; Buchan, Catherine; Hensley, Michael; Naughton, Matthew T.; Rowland, Sharn; Williamson, Bernadette; Windler, Samantha; McEvoy, R. Doug

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The study aimed to document the neurobehavioral outcomes of patients referred to and treated by a sleep medicine service for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In particular, we aimed to establish the proportion of patients who, while appearing to have optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence, did not normalize their daytime sleepiness or neurocognitive function after 3 months of CPAP therapy despite effective control of OSA. Design: Multicenter clinical-effectiveness study. Setting: Three academic sleep centers in Australia. Participants: Patients referred to a sleep medicine service with moderate to severe OSA (n = 174). Intervention: CPAP. Measurements and Results: Participants were assessed pretreatment and again after 3 months of CPAP therapy. At the beginning and at the conclusion of the trial, participants completed a day of testing that included measures of objective and subjective daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive function, and quality of life. In patients with symptomatic moderate to severe OSA (i.e., apnea-hypopnea index > 30/h), we found a treatment dose-response effect for CPAP in terms of Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores (P < 0.001). Several key indexes of neurobehavior (e.g., Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) currently used to assess treatment response failed to normalize in a substantial group of patients after 3 months of CPAP treatment, even in those who were maximally compliant with treatment. Forty percent of patients in this trial had an abnormal Epworth Sleepiness Scale score at the conclusion of the trial. In addition, we showed no dose-response effect with the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test, raising doubts as to the clinical utility of the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test in assessing treatment response to CPAP in patients with OSA. Conclusions: Our study suggests that a greater percentage of patients achieve normal functioning with longer nightly CPAP

  18. Control of OSA During Automatic Positive Airway Pressure Titration in a Clinical Case Series: Predictors and Accuracy of Device Download Data

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Hillman, David R.; McArdle, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the factors associated with physiologic control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a clinical series. To also assess the usefulness of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) data downloaded from the APAP device (Dev AHI). Design: Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with OSA who underwent APAP titration (Autoset Spirit, ResMed, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia ) with simultaneous polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring in the sleep laboratory. Setting: Tertiary sleep clinic. Participants: There were 190 consecutive patients with OSA referred for APAP titration. Measurements and Results: There were 58% of patients who achieved optimal or good control of OSA (titration PSG AHI < 10, or at least 50% reduction in AHI if diagnostic AHI < 15/hr) during APAP titration. The independent predictors of titration PSG AHI were a history of cardiac disease and elevated central apnea and arousal indices during the diagnostic study. Although the median and interquartile range (IQR) AHI from the device (7.0, 3.9-11.6 events/hr) was only slightly less than the PSG AHI (7.8, 3.9-14.4 events/hr, P = 0.04) during titration, case-by-case agreement between the two measures was poor (chi-square < 0.001). Conclusion: In a clinical sample control of OSA during APAP titration is often poor, and close clinical follow-up is particularly needed in patients with a history of cardiac disease or with high arousal or central apnea indices on the diagnostic study. Device AHI does not reliably assess control during APAP titration, and PSG assessment may be required if clinical response to treatment is poor. The findings relate to the ResMed AutoSet device and may not apply to other devices. Citation: Huang HCC; Hillman DR; McArdle N. Control of OSA during automatic positive airway pressure titration in a clinical case series: predictors and accuracy of device download data. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1277

  19. Altered gut-liver axis and hepatic adiponectin expression in OSAS: novel mediators of liver injury in paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna; Cutrera, Renato; Carpino, Guido; De Stefanis, Cristiano; D'Oria, Valentina; De Vito, Rita; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Gaudio, Eugenio; Musso, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Mechanism(s) connecting obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) to liver injury in paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unknown. We hypothesised alterations in gut-liver axis and in the pool and phenotype of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) may be involved in OSAS-associated liver injury in NAFLD. Eighty biopsy-proven NAFLD children (age, mean±SD, 11.4±2.0 years, 56% males, body mass index z-score 1.95±0.57) underwent a clinical-biochemical assessment, with measurement of insulin sensitivity, plasma cytokines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an intestinal permeability test and a standard polysomnography. Hepatic toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 expression by liver-resident cells and overall number and expression of resistin and adiponectin by HPCs were assessed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. OSAS was defined by an apnoea/hypopnoea index ≥1. OSAS was characterised by an increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia, coupled with TLR-4 upregulation in hepatocytes, Kupffer and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and by an expansion of an adiponectin-deficient HPC pool, key features of steatohepatitis and fibrosis.The duration of haemoglobin desaturation (SaO2 <90%) independently predicted intestinal permeability (β: 0.396; p=0.026), plasma LPS (β: 0.358; p=0.008) and TLR-4 expression by hepatocytes (β: 0.332; p=0.009), Kupffer cells (β: 0.357; p=0.006) and HSCs (β:0.445; p=0.002).SaO2 <90% predicted also HPC number (β: 0.471; p=0.001) and impaired adiponectin expression by HPC pool (β: -0.532; p=0.0009).These relationships were observed in obese and non-obese children. In paediatric NAFLD, OSAS is associated with increased endotoxemia coupled with impaired gut barrier function, with increased TLR-4-mediated hepatic susceptibility to endotoxemia and with an expansion of an adiponectin-deficient HPC pool. These alterations may represent a novel pathogenic link and a potential therapeutic target for OSAS-associated liver injury in

  20. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) nest characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Guittar, John L; Dear, Fiona; Vaughan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considdrable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica's only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%), Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%), Ceibapentandra (n=7, 14.0%) and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%). We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw's long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching.

  1. MASP1 Mutations in Patients with Facial, Umbilical, Coccygeal, and Auditory Findings of Carnevale, Malpuech, OSA, and Michels Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Sirmaci, Asli; Walsh, Tom; Akay, Hatice; Spiliopoulos, Michail; Şakalar, Yıldırım Bayezit; Hasanefendioğlu-Bayrak, Aylin; Duman, Duygu; Farooq, Amjad; King, Mary-Claire; Tekin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive facial features consisting of hypertelorism, telecanthus, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, epicanthus inversus, periumbilical defects, and skeletal anomalies are seen in autosomal-recessive Carnevale, Malpuech, Michels, and oculo-skeletal-abdominal (OSA) syndromes. The gene or genes responsible for these syndromes were heretofore unknown. We report on three individuals from two consanguineous Turkish families with findings characteristic of these syndromes, including facial dysmorphism, periumbilical depression, mixed hearing loss, radioulnar synostosis, and coccygeal appendage. Homozygosity mapping yielded an autozygous region on chromosome 3q27 in both families. In one family, whole exome sequencing revealed a missense mutation, MASP1 c.2059G>A (p.G687R), that cosegregated with the phenotype. In the second family, Sanger sequencing of MASP1 revealed a nonsense mutation, MASP1 c.870G>A (p.W290X), that also cosegregated with the phenotype. Neither mutation was found in 192 Turkish controls or 1200 controls of various other ancestries. MASP1 encodes mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1. The two mutations occur in a MASP1 isoform that has been reported to process IGFBP-5, thereby playing a critical role in insulin growth factor availability during craniofacial and muscle development. These results implicate mutations of MASP1 as the cause of a human malformation syndrome and demonstrate the involvement of MASP1 in facial, umbilical, and ear development during the embryonic period. PMID:21035106

  2. Environmental service payments: evaluating biodiversity conservation trade-offs and cost-efficiency in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Barton, D N; Faith, D P; Rusch, G M; Acevedo, H; Paniagua, L; Castro, M

    2009-02-01

    The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an 'off-the-shelf' software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002-2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999-2001. Results show that a policy relevant assessment of the cost-effectiveness of PES relative to other conservation policies can be carried out at regional level using available studies and GIS data. However, there are a number of data and conceptual limitations to using heuristic optimisation algorithms in the analysis of the cost-efficiency of PES. Site specific data on probabilities of land-use change, and a detailed specification of opportunity costs of farm land, labour and capital are required to use algorithms such as TARGET for ranking individual sites based on cost-efficiency. Despite its conceptual soundness for regional conservation analysis, biodiversity complementarity presents a practical challenge as a criterion for PES eligibility at farm level because it varies depending on the set of areas under PES contracts at any one time.

  3. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, L; Solís, M

    2008-06-01

    Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (< 100 m) and slope (< 10%), and locate the key breeding and nursing habitat of the species within the continental shelf domains. Proposed Marine Protected Areas (MPA's) network plans should consider connectivity of Cafio Island-Drake Bay and the extension of Corcovado National Park maritime borders.

  4. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    PubMed

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L; Kushida, Clete A; Walsh, James A; Simon, Richard D; Nichols, Deborah A; Quan, Stuart F

    2016-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a chronic illness with increasing prevalence. In addition to associated cardiovascular comorbidities, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has been linked to poor quality of life, occupational accidents, and motor vehicle crashes secondary to excessive daytime sleepiness. Although continuous positive airway pressure is the gold standard for sleep apnea treatment, its effects on quality of life are not well defined. In the current study we investigated the effects of treatment on quality of life using the data from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), a randomized controlled trial of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus sham CPAP. The Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) was used to assess quality of life. Overall we found no significant improvement in quality of life among sleep apnea patients after CPAP treatment. However, after stratifying by OSA severity, it was found that long-term improvement in quality of life might occur with the use of CPAP in people with severe and possibly moderate sleep apnea, and no demonstrable improvement in quality of life was noted among participants with mild obstructive sleep apnea. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Comparison between ozonation and the OSA process: analysis of excess sludge reduction and biomass activity in two different pilot plants.

    PubMed

    Torregrossa, Michele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Di Trapani, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The excess biomass produced during biological treatment of municipal wastewater represents a major issue worldwide, as its disposal implies environmental, economic and social impacts. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in developing technologies to reduce sludge production. The main proposed strategies can be categorized according to the place inside the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) where the reduction takes place. In particular, sludge minimization can be achieved in the wastewater line as well as in the sludge line. This paper presents the results of two pilot scale systems, to evaluate their feasibility for sludge reduction and to understand their effect on biomass activity: (1) a pilot plant with an ozone contactor in the return activated sludge (RAS) stream for the exposition of sludge to a low ozone dosage; and (2) an oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process with high retention time in the anaerobic sludge holding tank have been studied. The results showed that both technologies enabled significant excess sludge reduction but produced a slight decrease of biomass respiratory activity.

  6. Terrestrial ecosystems of the Osa-Golfito region: one component of an integrative cross-disciplinary initiative for sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, E. N.; Dirzo, R.; Morales Barquero, L.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainability science seeks to develop approaches incorporating simultaneous human and environmental well-being. The Osa-Golfito Initiative (InOGo), as described in the previous presentation by Dr. Hunt et al. in this session, represents a cutting edge project seeking to develop both a fundamental framework for linking interdisciplinary components to address this objective with the creation of an applied approach for a sustainable future in this area of exceptional cultural and environmental diversity. In this presentation we describe the terrestrial ecosystems component of InOGo. This component incorporates four primary research approaches: (a) an extensive literature review; (b) spatial and non-spatial data aggregation; (c) change analysis via remote sensing; and (d) a questionnaire and participatory mapping survey with relevant experts. Integrating these approaches we seek to: (a) establish a detailed baseline understanding of the terrestrial ecosystems and their spatial distribution in the study region; (b) quantify temporal changes in their extent, connectivity, and ecosystem services; (c) identify the principal conservation priorities and threats in the region; and (d) isolate specific actions to address identified threats. We highlight both the overall approach developed for this component, which is broadly applicable throughout similar tropical regions, as well as results specific to the initiative.;

  7. Rice microRNA osa-miR1848 targets the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene OsCYP51G3 and mediates the biosynthesis of phytosterols and brassinosteroids during development and in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojing; Tang, Huadan; Wang, Ren; Wu, Ping; Jia, Yongxia; Wei, Xiaoyi; Xu, Xinlan; Kang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Seong-Ki; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-11-01

    Phytosterols are membrane components or precursors for brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. As they cannot be transported long distances, their homeostasis is tightly controlled through their biosynthesis and metabolism. However, it is unknown whether microRNAs are involved in their homeostatic regulation. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants transformed with microRNA osa-miR1848 and its target, the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene, OsCYP51G3, were used to investigate the role of osa-miR1848 in the regulation of phytosterol biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 directs OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage to regulate phytosterol and BR biosynthesis in rice. The role of OsCYP51G3 as one of the osa-miR1848 targets is supported by the opposite expression patterns of osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 in transgenic rice plants, and by the identification of OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage sites. Increased osa-miR1848 and decreased OsCYP51G3 expression reduced phytosterol and BR concentrations, and caused typical phenotypic changes related to phytosterol and BR deficiency, including dwarf plants, erect leaves, semi-sterile pollen grains, and shorter cells. Circadian expression of osa-miR1848 regulated the diurnal abundance of OsCYP51G3 transcript in developing organs, and the response of OsCYP51G3 to salt stress. We propose that osa-miR1848 regulates OsCYP51G3 expression posttranscriptionally, and mediates phytosterol and BR biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 might have potential applications in rice breeding to modulate leaf angle, and the size and quality of seeds.

  8. Rice osa-miR171c Mediates Phase Change from Vegetative to Reproductive Development and Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance by Repressing Four OsHAM Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tian; Li, Xiumei; Yang, Wu; Xia, Kuaifei; Ouyang, Jie; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-01-01

    Phase change from vegetative to reproductive development is one of the critical developmental steps in plants, and it is regulated by both environmental and endogenous factors. The maintenance of shoot apical meristem (SAM) identity, miRNAs and flowering integrators are involved in this phase change process. Here, we report that the miRNA osa-miR171c targets four GRAS (GAI-RGA-SCR) plant-specific transcription factors (OsHAM1, OsHAM2, OsHAM3, and OsHAM4) to control the floral transition and maintenance of SAM indeterminacy in rice (Oryza sativa). We characterized a rice T-DNA insertion delayed heading (dh) mutant, where the expression of OsMIR171c gene is up-regulated. This mutant showed pleiotropic phenotypic defects, including especially prolonged vegetative phase, delayed heading date, and bigger shoot apex. Parallel expression analysis showed that osa-miR171c controlled the expression change of four OsHAMs in the shoot apex during floral transition, and responded to light. In the dh mutant, the expression of the juvenile-adult phase change negative regulator osa-miR156 was up-regulated, expression of the flowering integrators Hd3a and RFT1 was inhibited, and expression of FON4 negative regulators involved in the maintenance of SAM indeterminacy was also inhibited. From these data, we propose that the inhibition of osa-miR171c-mediated OsHAM transcription factors regulates the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive development by maintaining SAM indeterminacy and inhibiting flowering integrators.

  9. Rice osa-miR171c Mediates Phase Change from Vegetative to Reproductive Development and Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance by Repressing Four OsHAM Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu; Xia, Kuaifei; Ouyang, Jie; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-01-01

    Phase change from vegetative to reproductive development is one of the critical developmental steps in plants, and it is regulated by both environmental and endogenous factors. The maintenance of shoot apical meristem (SAM) identity, miRNAs and flowering integrators are involved in this phase change process. Here, we report that the miRNA osa-miR171c targets four GRAS (GAI-RGA-SCR) plant-specific transcription factors (OsHAM1, OsHAM2, OsHAM3, and OsHAM4) to control the floral transition and maintenance of SAM indeterminacy in rice (Oryza sativa). We characterized a rice T-DNA insertion delayed heading (dh) mutant, where the expression of OsMIR171c gene is up-regulated. This mutant showed pleiotropic phenotypic defects, including especially prolonged vegetative phase, delayed heading date, and bigger shoot apex. Parallel expression analysis showed that osa-miR171c controlled the expression change of four OsHAMs in the shoot apex during floral transition, and responded to light. In the dh mutant, the expression of the juvenile-adult phase change negative regulator osa-miR156 was up-regulated, expression of the flowering integrators Hd3a and RFT1 was inhibited, and expression of FON4 negative regulators involved in the maintenance of SAM indeterminacy was also inhibited. From these data, we propose that the inhibition of osa-miR171c-mediated OsHAM transcription factors regulates the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive development by maintaining SAM indeterminacy and inhibiting flowering integrators. PMID:26023934

  10. Dental changes evaluated with a 3D computer-assisted model analysis after long-term tongue retaining device wear in OSA patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lowe, Alan A; Strauss, Arthur M; de Almeida, Fernanda Riberiro; Ueda, Hiroshi; Fleetham, John A; Wang, Bangkang

    2008-05-01

    Oral appliances (OAs) have been used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients for decades. However, detailed dental side effects in long-term OA cases analyzed with an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement tool have seldom been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate dental side effects in five OSA patients, who had used a tongue retaining device (TRD) (with occasional other OA wear) for an average of 6 years and 4 months. The baseline and follow-up orthodontic study models were measured with a newly developed MicroScribe-3DX analysis system. High compliance of TRD wear was confirmed in all cases and different patterns and amounts of dental changes were observed. The most common appliance-induced dental changes included anterior and/or unilateral posterior open-bites and reduced anterior overjets. It was hypothesized that there might be two possible mechanisms for the TRD side effects--one is the forward pressure of the tongue upon the anterior dental arch and the other is the lateral pressure of the tongue upon the posterior arch. Considerations to correct the TRD dental side effects should be guided by these different mechanisms of the tongue on the dental arch. Possible solutions to minimize occlusal changes and maximize the benefits for OSA patients are also discussed.

  11. AtSIA1 AND AtOSA1: two Abc1 proteins involved in oxidative stress responses and iron distribution within chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Manara, Anna; DalCorso, Giovanni; Leister, Dario; Jahns, Peter; Baldan, Barbara; Furini, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The Abc1 protein kinases are a large family of functionally diverse proteins with multiple roles in the regulation of respiration and oxidative stress tolerance. A functional characterization was carried out for AtSIA1, an Arabidopsis thaliana Abc1-like protein, focusing on its potential redundancy with its homolog AtOSA1. Both proteins are located within chloroplasts, even if a different subplastidial localization seems probable. The comparison of atsia1 and atosa1 mutants, atsia1/atosa1 double mutant and wild-type plants revealed a reduction in plastidial iron-containing proteins of the Cytb6 f complex in the mutants. Iron uptake from soil is not hampered in mutant lines, suggesting that AtSIA1 and AtOSA1 affect iron distribution within the chloroplast. Mutants accumulated more ferritin and superoxide, and showed reduced tolerance to reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially indicating a basal role in oxidative stress. The mutants produced higher concentrations of plastochromanol and plastoquinones than wild-type plants, but only atsia1 plants developed larger plastoglobules and contained higher concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol and VTE1. Taken together, these data suggest that AtSIA1 and AtOSA1 probably act in signaling pathways that influence responses to ROS production and oxidative stress.

  12. Potential application of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSA) on the remediation of reflective beaches impacted by petroleum: a mesocosm simulation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carine S; de Oliveira, Olivia M C; Moreira, Icaro T A; Queiroz, Antonio F S; de Almeida, Marcos; Silva, Jessica V L; da Silva Andrade, Igor Oliveira

    2015-08-28

    This paper presents the oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate (OSA) resulted from the interaction of droplets of dispersed oil in a water column and particulate matter. This structure reduces the adhesion of oil on solid surfaces, promotes dispersion, and may accelerate degradation processes. The effects of the addition of fine sediments (clay + silt) on the formation of OSA, their impact on the dispersion and degradation of the oil, and their potential use in recovering reflective sandy beaches were evaluated in a mesoscale simulation model. Two simulations were performed (21 days), in the absence and presence of fine sediments, with four units in each simulation using oil from the Recôncavo Basin. The results showed that the use of fine sediment increased the dispersion of the oil in the water column up to four times in relation to the sandy sediment. There was no evidence of the transport of hydrocarbons in bottom sediments associated with fine sediments that would have accelerated the dispersion and degradation rates of the oil. Most of the OSA that formed in this process remained in the water column, where the degradation processes were more effective. Over the 21 days of simulation, we observed a 40 % reduction on average of the levels of saturated hydrocarbons staining the surface oil.

  13. The geology, geochemistry and emplacement of the Cretaceous—Tertiary ophiolitic Nicoya Complex of the Osa Peninsula, southern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrangé, J. P.; Thorpe, R. S.

    1988-04-01

    The Nicoya Complex of the Osa Peninsula is essentially an obducted segment of oceanic crust comprising basaltic lavas and associated intrusive dolerite and gabbro, interstratified with lesser amounts of pelagic limestones, cherts and argillites. The sediments contain a minor clastic component and were deposited on an ocean floor of considerable relief and distant from a major landmass. The extrusive and intrusive basaltic rocks have geochemical affinities to large ion lithophile (LIL) element-enriched oceanic crust, and are interpreted to have formed in a back-arc basin analagous to the Mariana Trough, Lau Basin or Gulf of California. One sample has distinctly different geochemical characteristics and may represent a younger within-plate seamount. In the Late Cretaceous, an E-W-trending intra-oceanic trench/volcanic/back-arc system developed in association with an active southward-dipping subduction zone located south of the present-day southern Central American isthmus. Pelagic sediments and basaltic lavas accumulated in the back-arc over a period of at least 34 Ma spanning the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. During this period there were three major volcanic events dated respectively as Santonian-Campanian (78.0 ± 2 Ma), Palaeocene (60.2 ± 7.6 Ma) and Middle Eocene (44.0 ± 4.4 Ma). Continuing northward movement of the southern plate caused overthrusting of the volcanic arc onto the northern plate and production of a thickened embryonic continental crust. Inferred reorganization of crustal stress in the Late Eocene caused fragmentation of the single ancestral plate into the Caribbean and "East Pacific" plates, with a flipping of the subduction zone accompanying development of the NE-dipping Middle America subduction zone and andesitic volcanism. During the Oligocene, the ancestral East Pacific plate split into the NE-moving Cocos plate and the eastward-moving Nazca plate, separated by the E-W-trending Colón spreading ridge and a series of N

  14. LIPID PROFILE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE, ATTENDED AT THE FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGY, VIÇOSA/MG.

    PubMed

    Danésio de Souza, Jacqueline; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia; Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Silva Franco, Fernanda; Vidal Martins, Marcos; Gonçalves Rodrigues, Meirele; Wick, Jeannette Y; Araújo Tinôco, Adelson Luiz

    2015-08-01

    the aging population has been accompanied by epidemiological changes of the Brazilian population, with the highlight being the continued growth of the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases especially cardiovascular or artery-coronary, resulting from changes in the lipid profile of the elderly. this study had the aim to describe the behavioral, anthropometric, lifestyle and body composition factors and their association with changes in the lipid profile of elderly people. the sample included 402 participants attended at the Family Health Strategy, Viçosa (MG), to which a questionnaire with socio-demographic, behavioral and lifestyle information was applied. Blood sample was collected to obtain the lipid fractions, and the weight, height, waist circumference and body fat percentage were measured. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify independently associated factors with changes in each of the selected lipid fractions. the factors independently associated with increased levels of total cholesterol were the presence of sedentary behavior, high body fat percentage, greater waist height and greater waist circumference. The consumption of alcoholic beverages and a higher waist-hip ratio remained independently associated with decreased high-density lipoprotein levels. The increased waist circumference was independently associated with low values of the low-density lipoprotein levels. The value of increased triglyceride was independently associated with higher waist-hip ratio, higher body mass index and smoking. modifiable risk factors associated with a changed lipid profile should be prioritized among the actions to be considered in structuring health programs for the elderly. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. ROLE OF SPOUSAL INVOLVEMENT IN CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE (CPAP) ADHERENCE IN PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA (OSA)

    PubMed Central

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Baldwin, Carol M.; Fass, Shira; Quan, Stuart F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of spousal involvement on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence. The aim of this study was to determine whether spouse involvement affects adherence with CPAP therapy, and how this association varies with gender. Methods 194 subjects recruited from Apnea Positive Pressure Long Term Efficacy Study (APPLES) completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). The majority of participants were Caucasian (83%), and males (73%), with mean age of 56 years, mean BMI of 31 kg/m2. & 62% had severe OSA. The DAS is a validated 32-item self-report instrument measuring dyadic consensus, satisfaction, cohesion, and affectional expression. A high score in the DAS is indicative of a person’s adjustment to the marriage. Additionally, questions related to spouse involvement with general health and CPAP use were asked. CPAP use was downloaded from the device and self-report, and compliance was defined as usage ≥ 4 h per night. Results There were no significant differences in overall marital quality between the compliant and noncompliant subjects. However, level of spousal involvement was associated with increased CPAP adherence at 6 months (p=0.01). After stratifying for gender these results were significant only among males (p=0.03). Three years after completing APPLES, level of spousal involvement was not associated with CPAP compliance even after gender stratification. Conclusion Spousal involvement is important in determining CPAP compliance in males in the 1st 6 months after initiation of therapy but is not predictive of longer-term adherence. Involvement of the spouse should be considered an integral part of CPAP initiation procedures. Support HL068060 PMID:28725492

  16. Neighborhood Walking Environment and Activity Level Are Associated With OSA: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Billings, Martha E; Johnson, Dayna A; Simonelli, Guido; Moore, Kari; Patel, Sanjay R; Diez Roux, Ana V; Redline, Susan

    2016-11-01

    There has been growing interest in understanding how neighborhoods may be related to cardiovascular risk. Neighborhood effects on sleep apnea could be one contributing mechanism. We investigated whether neighborhood walking environment and personal activity levels are related to OSA. Data were analyzed from a subpopulation of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), including subjects who participated in both the MESA Sleep and Neighborhood studies (N = 1,896). Perceived neighborhood walking environment and subjects' objective activity were evaluated in multivariate, multilevel models to determine any association with sleep apnea severity as defined by using the apnea-hypopnea index. Sex, race/ethnicity, and obesity were examined as moderators. Residing in the lowest quartile walking environment neighborhoods (score < 3.75) was associated with more severe sleep apnea (mean, 2.7 events/h greater AHI [95% CI, 0.7 to 4.6]), after adjusting for demographic characteristics, BMI, comorbidities, health behaviors, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and site. Associations were stronger among obese and male individuals. Approximately 1 SD greater objective activity in men was associated with a lower AHI (mean, -2.4 events/h [95% CI, -3.5 to -1.3]). This association was partially mediated by BMI (P < .001). Living in neighborhoods with a low walking environment score is associated with greater severity of sleep apnea, especially in male and obese individuals. In men, greater activity level is associated with less severe sleep apnea, independent of BMI, comorbidities, and socioeconomic status. Neighborhood-level interventions that increase walkability and enable increased physical activity may potentially reduce the severity of sleep apnea. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping Tropical Forest Mosaics with C- and L-band SAR: First Results from Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N.; Hensley, S.; Aguilar-Amuchastegui, N.; Broadbent, E. N.; Ahmed, R.

    2016-12-01

    In tropical countries, economic incentives and improved infrastructure are creating forest mosaics where small-scale farming and industrial plantations are embedded within and potentially replacing native ecosystems. Practices such as agroforestry, slash-and-burn cultivation, and oil palm monocultures bring widely different impacts on carbon stocks. Characterizing these production systems is not only critical to ascribe deforestation to particular drivers, but also essential to understand the impact of macroeconomic scenarios, national policies, and land tenure schemes on carbon fluxes. The last decade has experienced a dramatic improvement in the extent and consistency of tree cover and gross deforestation products from optical imagery. At the same time, recent work shows that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can complement optical data and reveal structural types that cannot be easily resolved with reflectance measurements alone. While these results demonstrate the validity of sensor fusion methodologies, they typically rely on local classifications or even manual delineation and as such they cannot support large-scale investigations. Furthermore, there have been few attempts to exploit PolInSAR or multiple wavelengths that can provide critical information to resolve natural and anthropogenic land cover types. We report results from our research at Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula. This site is ideal for algorithm development as it includes a highly diverse tropical forest within Corcovado National Park, as well as agroforestry zones, mangroves, and palm plantations. We first integrate SAR backscatter and coherence data from NASA's L-band UAVSAR, JAXA's ALOS/PALSAR, and ESA's Sentinel to produce a map of structural types. Second, we assess whether coherence measurements and PolInSAR retrievals can be used to resolve forest stand differences at 30m resolution and disitinguish between primary and secondary forest sites.

  18. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Bratton, Daniel J.; Craig, Sonya E.; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. Methods The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2–4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. Results One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2–4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2–4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. Conclusions In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months

  19. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of OSA-18, a Quality of Life Questionnaire for Evaluation of Children with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiner, Eusebi; Landete, Pedro; Sancho-Chust, José Norberto; Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Ferrer, Patricia; Pastor, Esther; Senent, Cristina; Arlandis, Mar; Navarro, Cristina; Selma, María José

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire in children with apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Children with suspected SAHS were studied with polysomnography (PSG) before and after adenotonsillectomy (AA). Age, gender, clinical data, PSG, anthropometric data, and Mallampati and Brodsky scales were analyzed. OSA-18 was administered at baseline and 3-6months post AA. After translation and backtranslation by bilingual professionals, the internal consistency, reliability, construct validity, concurrent validity, predictive validity and sensitivity to change of the questionnaire was assessed. In total, 45 boys and 15 girls were evaluated, showing BMI 18±4, neck 28±5, Brodsky (0: 7%; <25%: 12%; 25-50%: 27%; >50 to <75%: 45%; >75%: 6%), AHI 12±7 pre AA. Global Cronbach alpha was 0.91. Correlations between domains were significant except for emotional aspects, although the total scores correlated with all domains (0.50 to 0.90). The factorial analysis was virtually identical to the original structure. The total scores showed good correlation for concurrent validity (0.2-0.45). With regard to predictive validity, the questionnaire adequately differentiated levels of severity according to Mallampati (ANOVA P=.002) and apnea-hypopnea index (ANOVA P=.006). Test-retest reliability was excellent, as was sensitivity to change, both in the total scores (P<.001) and in each domain (P<.001). The Spanish adaptation of the OSA-18 and its psychometric characteristics suggest that the Spanish version is equivalent to the original and can be used in Spanish-speaking countries. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Armodafinil on Cortical Activity and Working Memory in Patients with Residual Excessive Sleepiness Associated with CPAP-Treated OSA: A Multicenter fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Douglas N.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Larson-Prior, Linda; Krystal, Andrew D.; Diaz, Michele T.; Drummond, Sean P. A.; Thein, Stephen G.; Kushida, Clete A.; Yang, Ronghua; Thomas, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To assess the effect of armodafinil on task-related prefrontal cortex activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive sleepiness despite continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Methods: This 2-week, multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted at five neuroimaging sites and four collaborating clinical study centers in the United States. Patients were 40 right-handed or ambidextrous men and women aged between 18 and 60 years, with OSA and persistent sleepiness, as determined by multiple sleep latency and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores, despite effective, stable use of CPAP. Treatment was randomized (1:1) to once-daily armodafinil 200 mg or placebo. The primary efficacy outcome was a change from baseline at week 2 in the volume of activation meeting the predefined threshold in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a 2-back working memory task. The key secondary measure was the change in task response latency. Results: No significant differences were observed between treatment groups in the primary or key secondary outcomes. Armodafinil was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events (occurring in more than one patient [5%]) were headache (19%), nasopharyngitis (14%), and diarrhea (10%). Conclusions: Armodafinil did not improve fMRI-measured functional brain activation in CPAP-treated patients with OSA and excessive sleepiness. Study Registration: Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Functional Neuroimaging Study of Armodafinil (200 mg/Day) on Prefrontal Cortical Activation in Patients With Residual Excessive Sleepiness Associated With Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00711516. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00711516 Citation: Greve DN; Duntley SP; Larson-Prior L; Krystal AD; Diaz MT; Drummond SP; Thein SG; Kushida CA; Yang R; Thomas RJ

  1. Effect of CPAP on Cardiac Function in Minimally Symptomatic Patients with OSA: Results from a Subset of the MOSAIC Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Sonya; Kylintireas, Ilias; Kohler, Malcolm; Nicoll, Debby; Bratton, Daniel J.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Leeson, Paul; Neubauer, Stefan; Stradling, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent, and the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on myocardial function in these patients are unknown. The MOSAIC randomized, controlled trial of CPAP for minimally symptomatic OSA assessed the effect of CPAP on myocardial function in a subset of patients. Methods: Two centers taking part in the MOSAIC trial randomized 238 patients in parallel to 6 months of CPAP (120) or standard care (118). Of these, 168 patients had echocardiograms, and 68 patients had a cardiac magnetic resonance scan (CMR). A larger group (314) from 4 centers had brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) measured. Results: Mean (SD) baseline oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) were 13.5 (13.2), and 8.4 (4.0), respectively. CPAP significantly reduced ESS and ODI. Baseline LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was well preserved (60.4%). CPAP had no significant effect on echo-derived left atrial (LA) area (−1.0 cm2, 95% CI −2.6 to +0.6, p = 0.23) or early to late left ventricular filling velocity (E/A) ratio (−0.01, 95% CI −0.07 to +0.05, p = 0.79). There was a small change in echo-derived LV end diastolic volume (EDV) with CPAP (−5.9 mL, 95% CI −10.6 to −1.2, p = 0.015). No significant changes were detected by CMR on LV mass index (+1.1 g/m2, 95% CI −5.9 to +8.0, p = 0.76) or LVEF (+0.8%, 95% CI −1.2 to +2.8, p = 0.41). CPAP did not affect BNP levels (p = 0.16). Conclusions: Six months of CPAP therapy does not change cardiac functional or structural parameters measured by echocardiogram or CMR in patients with minimally symptomatic mild-to-moderate OSA. Clinical Trial Registration: ISRCTN 34164388 (http://isrctn.org). Citation: Craig S, Kylintireas I, Kohler M, Nicoll D, Bratton DJ, Nunn AJ, Leeson P, Neubauer S, Stradling JR. Effect of CPAP on cardiac function in minimally symptomatic patients with OSA: results from a subset of the MOSAIC randomized trial. J Clin

  2. Osa Creek gabbro-granite ring complex, Sierra Nevada, CA, by degassing-driven subsidence of mafic-magmatic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Moore, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    Intrusive ring complexes commonly represent the shallow substrates of calderas, with arcuate intrusions forming as ring dikes engulfing subsiding caldera blocks, and as cone sheets injected during magmatic repressurization. The Osa Creek ring complex, southern Sierra Nevada batholith, differs in having formed by axial subsidence of solidifying gabbro-diorite sheets that injected a coeval mushy granitic magma body. The result is a remarkable nearly circular (6×10 km) steep-sided bimodal intrusive body, exposed 60 km east of Porterville and 30 km southwest of Owens Lake on the east side of the Kern Canyon. Zircon ages (SHRIMP) of both gabbro and granite are 146 ±1.5 Ma (1-sigma), slightly younger than, or concurrent with, the Independence Dike Swarm. Much of the structure is hornblende-biotite gabbro and diorite (SiO2, 47-51 wt %) emplaced as sheets 0.1-5 m thick, with each mafic sheet commonly chilled against and separated by thin (1-25 cm) septa of lighter colored and coarser rock ranging from granite to hornblende-plagioclase pegmatite. Mutually intrusive relations indicate that the septa were partly molten during sheet injection. In the outer portions of the complex the mafic sheets strike parallel to the margins and dip vertically-to-steeply radially inward. Dips of mafic sheets shallow toward the center of the complex, and are sub-horizontal in the center, defining a cup or basin structure. At least 28 thicker (5-250 m) conformable granitic sheets (SiO2, 70-77 wt. %) are spaced through the gabbroic layers and are increasingly thicker and abundant toward the higher elevation outer edges of the structure. Granite sheets also dip steeply inward, further defining the basin-shaped structure. Subsidence of the complex’s interior is indicated by rotation of igneous geopetal (way-up) indicators. These are in the form of small flames and pipes (to ~10 cm across) of the comagmatic inter-sheet septa granitoids that inject adjacent mafic sheets consistently toward the

  3. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C.; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  4. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest.

  5. [Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of anemia in the elderly of the municipality of Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Milagres, Clarice Santana; de Moraes, Keila Bacelar Duarte; Franceschini, Sylvia Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira Rocha; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2015-12-01

    Anemia is the most common hematological problem encountered in the elderly population. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in the elderly in Viçosa (State of Minas Gerais). Data were collected by means of a household survey and conducting biochemical tests on 349 elderly between June and December 2009. The prevalence of anemia was 11.7% (95% CI 8.3% -15.1%) and was found to be higher among men (15.4%) among those aged 80 years and older (30%) and those who practiced polypharmacy (16.8%). The results obtained indicate anemia determinants similar to those observed in developed countries. The real need of polypharmacy should be evaluated in health care for the elderly, in order to prevent iatrogenic complications, of which anemia is one such complication.

  6. STEALTH liposome-encapsulated cisplatin (SPI-77) versus carboplatin as adjuvant therapy for spontaneously arising osteosarcoma (OSA) in the dog: a randomized multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vail, David M; Kurzman, Ilene D; Glawe, Phyllis C; O'Brien, Maura G; Chun, Ruthanne; Garrett, Laura D; Obradovich, Joyce E; Fred, Rogers M; Khanna, Chand; Colbern, Gail T; Working, Peter K

    2002-08-01

    This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of adjuvant STEALH liposome-encapsulated cisplatin (SPI-77) to "standard-of-care" carboplatin therapy in dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA) in the context of a randomized study design. The study included 40 pet dogs with spontaneously arising OSA which were randomized to receive SPI-77 (350 mg/m(2) i.v. every 3 weeks for four treatments) or carboplatin (300 mg/m(2) i.v. every 3 weeks for four treatments) along with amputation of the affected limb. Median disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared using standard life-table analysis. The median follow-up was 693 days (range 321-730 days). Of 38 dogs eligible for follow-up, 25 were dead of their disease, 9 were alive and disease-free (8 receiving SPI-77, 1 receiving carboplatin; P=0.02), 2 were free of disease when they were lost to follow-up at 321 and 395 days, and 2 had died of an unrelated disease. The median DFS times for dogs treated with SPI-77 and carboplatin were 156 and 123 days, respectively ( P=0.19). The median OS times for dogs treated with SPI-77 and carboplatin were 333 and 207 days, respectively ( P=0.18). While STEALTH liposome encapsulation of cisplatin allowed the safe administration of five times the maximally tolerated dose of free cisplatin to dogs without concurrent hydration protocols, this did not translate into significantly prolonged DFS or OS. However, a larger proportion of dogs receiving SPI-77 enjoyed long-term DFS when compared with dogs receiving carboplatin.

  7. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hügli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  8. The “DOC” screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Richard H.; Cayley, Megan L.; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Murray, Brian J.; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E.; Sicard, Michelle N.; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J.; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Background Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment (“DOC”) are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool (“DOC” screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. Methods All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. Findings 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Conclusions Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control data resulted in censoring of less than 1 percent of the detections of constituents measured in ground-water samples. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable drinking-water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to the treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and other health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Two VOCs were detected above health-based thresholds: 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), and benzene. DBCP was detected above the U.S. Environmental Protections Agency's maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) in three grid wells and five understanding wells. Benzene was detected above the CDPH's maximum contaminant level (MCL-CA) in one grid well. All pesticide detections were below health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected above its maximum contaminate level for California in one grid well. Nitrate was detected above the MCL-US in six samples from understanding wells, of which one was a public supply well. Two trace elements were detected above MCLs-US: arsenic and uranium. Arsenic was detected above the MCL-US in four grid wells and two understanding wells; uranium was detected above the MCL-US in one grid well and one understanding well. Gross alpha radiation was detected above MCLs-US in five samples; four of them understanding wells, and uranium isotope activity was greater than the MCL-US for one understanding well

  10. Monitoring of land subsidence and ground fissures in Xian, China 2005-2006: Mapped by sar Interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, C.Y.; Zhang, Q.; Ding, X.-L.; Lu, Zhiming; Yang, C.S.; Qi, X.M.

    2009-01-01

    The City of Xian, China, has been experiencing significant land subsidence and ground fissure activities since 1960s, which have brought various severe geohazards including damages to buildings, bridges and other facilities. Monitoring of land subsidence and ground fissure activities can provide useful information for assessing the extent of, and mitigating such geohazards. In order to achieve robust Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) results, six interferometric pairs of Envisat ASAR data covering 2005–2006 are collected to analyze the InSAR processing errors firstly, such as temporal and spatial decorrelation error, external DEM error, atmospheric error and unwrapping error. Then the annual subsidence rate during 2005–2006 is calculated by weighted averaging two pairs of D-InSAR results with similar time spanning. Lastly, GPS measurements are applied to calibrate the InSAR results and centimeter precision is achieved. As for the ground fissure monitoring, five InSAR cross-sections are designed to demonstrate the relative subsidence difference across ground fissures. In conclusion, the final InSAR subsidence map during 2005–2006 shows four large subsidence zones in Xian hi-tech zones in western, eastern and southern suburbs of Xian City, among which two subsidence cones are newly detected and two ground fissures are deduced to be extended westward in Yuhuazhai subsidence cone. This study shows that the land subsidence and ground fissures are highly correlated spatially and temporally and both are correlated with hi-tech zone construction in Xian during the year of 2005–2006.

  11. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima and Touchet River Basins, 2005-2006 Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, C.; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated 25 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima and Touchet river basins. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performs these evaluations for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to determine whether the fish screening devices meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. Evaluations consist of measuring velocities in front of the screens, using an underwater camera to look at the condition and environment in front of the screens, and noting the general condition and operation of the sites. Results of the evaluations in 2005 include the following: (1) Most approach velocities met the NMFS criterion of less than or equal to 0.4 fps. Less than 13% of all approach measurements exceeded the criterion, and these occurred at 10 of the sites. Flat-plate screens had more problems than drum screens with high approach velocities. (2) Bypass velocities generally were greater than sweep velocities, but sweep velocities often did not increase toward the bypass. The latter condition could slow migration of fish through the facility. (3) Screen and seal materials generally were in good condition. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (5) Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) generally operate and maintain fish screen facilities in a way that provides safe passage for juvenile fish. (6) In some instances, irrigators responsible for specific maintenance at their sites (e.g., debris removal) are not performing their tasks in a way that provides optimum operation of the fish screen facility. New ways need to be found to encourage them to maintain their facilities properly. (7) We recommend placing datasheets providing up-to-date operating criteria and design flows in each sites logbox. The datasheet should include bypass design flows and a table showing depths of water over the weir and corresponding bypass flow. This information is available at some of the sites but may be outdated. These data are used to determine if the site is running within design criteria. (8) Modifying use of debris control plates at Gleed helped minimize the extreme fluctuations in flow, but approach velocities are still too high. Other ways to reduce the approach velocities need to be tried, possibly including redesign of the site. (9) Alternatives to a screen site at Taylor should be considered. A lot of effort was spent trying to increase water to the site, but it still was unable to operate within NMFS criteria for most of the year and may be a hazard to juvenile salmonids. We conclude that the conditions at most of the Phase II fish screen facilities we evaluated in 2005 would be expected to provide safe passage for juvenile fish. For those sites where conditions are not always optimum for safe fish passage, PNNL researchers will try to coordinate with the WDFW and USBR in 2006 to find solutions to the problems. Some of those problems are consistently high approach velocities at specific sites, including Congdon, Naches-Selah, Union Gap, and Yakima-Tieton. We would like to be able to monitor changes in velocities as soon as operations and maintenance personnel adjust the louvers or porosity boards at these sites. This will give them immediate feedback on the results of their modifications and allow additional adjustments as necessary until the conditions meet NMFS criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has performed evaluations at many of these sites over the past 8 years, providing information WDFW and USBR personnel can use to perform their operations and maintenance more effectively. Consequently, overall effectiveness of the screens facilities has improved over time.

  12. [Reproductive and perinatal health indicators in immigrant and Spanish-born women in Catalonia and Valencia (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Río, Isabel; Castelló, Adela; Jané, Mireia; Prats, Ramón; Barona, Carmen; Más, Rosa; Rebagliato, Marisa; Zurriaga, Oscar; Bolúmar, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of teenage maternity, preterm birth and low birth weight in Spanish and immigrant mothers from Latin America, eastern Europe, Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa resident in Catalonia and Valencia from 2005 and 2006. Using data from congenital metabolic disorders registers in both regions, proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the following: 1) mothers aged less than 20 years; 2) preterm (<37 weeks) and very preterm (<32 weeks) births; and 3) low birth weight (<2500g) and very low birth weight (<1500g) neonates. The calculations were performed for mothers from each of the geographical areas of origin (Spain, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Maghreb and Sub-Sahara). These proportions were compared in Spanish-born and immigrant women and the significance of differences was assessed using chi-squared tests. The prevalence of teenage mothers was between three and five times higher in immigrants than in Spanish women, the highest rate being found in women from eastern Europe. Preterm births, very preterm births and very low birth weight were more frequent in eastern European women than in Spanish women. The prevalence of prematurity and very low birth weight was higher in sub-Saharan mothers than in Spanish women. The number of births in teenage mothers was higher in immigrant mothers from all origins than in Spanish women. The highest rates of low birth weight and preterm births were found in women from eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright (c) 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 14117 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005-2006 Porsche Carrera (997...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...: (a) Front sidemarker lamps with integral side reflex reflectors; (b) headlamps; (c) integral tail... side reflex reflectors. Standard No. 110 Tire Selection and Rims for Motor Vehicles with a GVWR of...

  14. Absence of detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 in migratory waterfowl in southern France in 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; van der Werf, Sylvie; Thomas, Frédéric; Aubin, Jean-Thierry; Azebi, Saliha; Cuvelier, Frédérique; Jeannin, Patricia; Roca, Vanessa; Chang, Chung-Ming; Kayser, Yves; Roche, Benjamin; Guégan, Jean-François; Renaud, François; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2007-09-01

    During fall 2005, the rapid and wide spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) outside Asia alerted European health authorities. Because of abnormal and recurrent field mortality, wild migratory birds were considered to be the main dispersing agent of the virus at an intercontinental scale. European wintering wetlands, such as the Camargue (Rhône delta, France), are identified as potential hot spots for the risk of introduction and transmission of bird-borne diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of migratory waterbirds (mainly ducks) in the spread of HP H5N1 viruses. We combined molecular analysis of living and freshly killed birds with population surveillance (aerial censuses and death surveillance). We sampled 1345 birds belonging to 17 waterbird species (3 orders) in the Camargue between September 2005 and March 2006. The prevalence of AIV was 1.8%. We did not detect HP H5N1 virus. Population censuses did not reveal any population decreases nor abnormal mortalities. We discuss, in the light of these results, the implication of wild migratory ducks in the arrival of HP H5N1 AIV in Europe.

  15. American Council of Learned Societies Annual Report for the Years 2006-2007 and 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Learned Societies, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) provides the humanities and related social sciences with leadership, opportunities for innovation, and national and international representation. The American Council of Learned Societies was created in 1919 to represent the United States in the Union Academique Internationale. Its mission is…

  16. A measles outbreak in children under 15 months of age in La Rioja, Spain, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Perucha, M; Ramalle-Gómara, E; Lezaun, M E; Blanco, A; Quiñones, C; Blasco, M; González, M A; Cuesta, C; Echevarría, J E; Mosquera, M M; de Ory, F

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a measles outbreak in La Rioja, Spain, which began in December 2005 and mainly affected children under 15 months of age who were not yet immunised with MMR vaccine. The measles cases were detected by the mandatory reporting system, under which laboratories must report every confirmed measles case. Cases were classified in accordance with the National Measles Elimination Plan: suspected and laboratory-confirmed. In the period 14 December 2005 to 19 February 2006, 29 suspected cases of measles were investigated, and 18 were confirmed. The mean incubation period was 13.8 days (range: 9 to 18). Of the 18 confirmed cases, only two were in adults. MMR vaccination was recommended for all household contacts, as well as for children aged 6 to 14 months who attended the daycare centres where the cases had appeared. At these centres, the second dose of MMR was administered ahead of schedule for children under three years of age. It was recommended that the first dose of MMR vaccine be administered ahead of schedule for all children aged 9 to 14 months. During an outbreak of measles, children aged 6 months or older, who have not previously been vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella, should receive a first dose as soon as possible, and those who have had a first dose should receive a second dose as soon as possible, provided that a minimum of one month has elapsed between the two doses.

  17. Human influenza A (H5N1) cases, urban areas of People's Republic of China, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongjie; Feng, Zijian; Zhang, Xianfeng; Xiang, Nijuan; Huai, Yang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Zhongjie; Xu, Cuiling; Luo, Huiming; He, Jianfeng; Guan, Xuhua; Yuan, Zhengan; Li, Yanting; Xu, Longshan; Hong, Rongtao; Liu, Xuecheng; Zhou, Xingyu; Yin, Wenwu; Zhang, Shunxiang; Shu, Yuelong; Wang, Maowu; Wang, Yu; Lee, Chin-Kei; Uyeki, Timothy M; Yang, Weizhong

    2007-07-01

    We investigated potential sources of infection for 6 confirmed influenza A (H5N1) patients who resided in urban areas of People's Republic of China. None had known exposure to sick poultry or poultry that died from illness, but all had visited wet poultry markets before illness.

  18. High serum total cholesterol--an indicator for monitoring cholesterol lowering efforts: U.S. adults, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Schober, Susan E; Carroll, Margaret D; Lacher, David A; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2007-12-01

    Elevated serum total cholesterol is a major and modifiable risk factor for heart disease, the lead-ing cause of death in the United States (1,2). Reducing mean total serum cholesterol levels among adults to less than 200 mg/dL and reducing the proportion who have levels of 240 mg/dL or higher to less than 17% are national Healthy People 2010 objectives (3). Age-adjusted mean serum cholesterol levels among adults aged 20-74 years declined from 222 mg/dL in 1960-1962 to 203 mg/dL in 1999-2002 (4). Among adults aged 20 years and older, the percent of the population with high serum total cholesterol levels (240 mg/dL or higher) declined from 20% during 1988-1994 to 17% during 1999-2002 (4). In individual patients, a high serum total cholesterol level indicates a potential increased risk for heart disease, but further evaluation of other risk factors and the specific components of cholesterol provide the basis for determining the need for initiating therapeutic lifestyle changes or treatment with medication (5). Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) is the cholesterol component associated with arterial blockage, and it is the primary clinical target for cholesterol management. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) may help to protect individuals from developing heart disease. In populations, comparisons of total cholesterol levels over time can show if population groups are experiencing improvement in cholesterol levels, and knowledge of trends in levels of total cholesterol can help identify subgroups where additional prevention efforts may be needed.

  19. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns in a specified land unit. These RMS plans are developed using a nine step planning process that acts to balance natural resource issues with economic and social needs. Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animals, and Human resource concerns are the core focus in developing a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation activities in a given planning unit, while working within the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other federal, state, and local laws. Implementation of this project has provided technical and implementation assistance for numerous on the ground projects, including 119 WASCBs, 74,591 feet of terraces, 3 spring developments, 24,839 feet of riparian or pasture cross fencing, 1,072 acres of direct seed trials, 14 landowners implementing 34 CREP contracts, and the development of 5 additional CREP contracts slated for enrollment at the beginning of FY07. Within the past contract year in Sherman County, 1898.3 acres of CREP have been enrolled protecting approximately 52 miles of riparian or intermittent stream channel habitat. In addition to the increase in on the ground projects, coordination and outreach to solicit conservation projects in Sherman County has increased due to the additional staffing provided by BPA funds. As a result there is an abundance of potential conservation projects for water quality and riparian management improvement. With the sustained availability of coordination and technical assistance provided through this grant, BPA personnel funds will translate to a much higher dollar figure applied on the ground. This project has been very successful in keeping up with the demand for conservation projects within Sherman County.

  20. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic-resistance genes (class I integrons) were detected in several samples, indicating that the resistance carried by these organisms may be transferable to other bacteria, including disease-causing bacteria.

  1. Evaluation of Structural Best Management Practices for Highway Runoff in Beaufort and Colleton Counties, South Carolina, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Kevin; Journey, Celeste

    2009-01-01

    As part of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program mandated in the Clean Water Act, the South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) is required to address the quality of stormwater runoff from state-maintained roadways. From 2005 to 2006, the SCDOT and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked cooperatively in Beaufort and Colleton Counties, South Carolina (SC), to evaluate the performance of four different structural devices that served as best management practices (BMPs). These structural devices were installed to lessen the potential effects of stormwater runoff on water quality in waterways near state roads. The purpose of this Fact Sheet is to summarize results published in the USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5150. The report documents the ability of these four BMP devices to remove suspended sediment, metals, nutrients, and organics compounds in stormwater runoff. The quantity of rainfall and stormflow and quality of stormwater entering and leaving the BMPs were monitored during 12-13 storms over a 21-month period. The results provide the SCDOT with quantitative information to evaluate whether or not the BMPs effectively enhanced stormwater quality. This information can be used by the SCDOT and other State, local, and Federal agencies in the selection of appropriate BMPs for future installation.

  2. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: February 2005 - 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Reysa, RIchard P.; Williams, David E.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) continues to mature and operate its life support equipment. Major events occurring between February 2005 and February 2006 are discussed in this paper, as are updates from previously ongoing hardware anomalies. This paper addresses the major ISS operation events over the last year. Impact to overall ISS operations is also discussed.

  3. WISE 2005-2006: 60-days of Head-Down Bed Rest Increases the Incidence of Menstrual Cycle Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Charles

    Objective: It has been suggested that acute bed rest of short duration (11 days) disrupts the menstrual cycle of healthy subjects. Furthermore, use of countermeasures such as heavy exercise or dietary manipulations may adversely effect the menstrual cycle. We hypothesized that bed rest of 60 days and the use of countermeasures would increase the incidence of disruption of the menstrual cycle (MC). Methods: Twenty-four healthy subjects with a mean age of 32±0.8 yr, body mass of 59±0.8 kg and MC lengths of 25-32 days were enrolled. Three months prior to the study subjects did not use hormonal birth control methods. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups (n=8 per group): control, exercise countermeasures, and dietary countermeasures. MC lengthening was defined as an increase in duration of 10 or more days. Analysis was performed accounting for the effects of bedrest as well as treatment group. Results: Effects of countermeasures were not significant in the present analysis. After the conclusion of the study, subjects were classified as either normal (N; n=16) or oligomenorrhea (O; n=8) as determined by MC length during the pre-bed rest (PB) and bed rest (BR) periods. During the control period prior to bed rest one subject (4%) had an increase MC length. During the control period the average MC length was 31±0.8 days with a leutinizing hormone (LH) surge 12±0.8 days prior to menses. The duration of menses was 4±0.4 days. During BR there was an increase to 33% (p¡0.05) in the number of subjects having MC lengthening. In these subjects the mean length was increased from 31±0.9 to 62±8.2 days (p¡0.05). There was no change in the period from the LH surge prior to the next menses, 11±0.8 days, or duration of menses, 4±0.2 days. Plasma LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolacin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), aldosterone (Aldo), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were measured during PB, BR, early post bed rest (day 0-day 60;EPBR) and late post bed rest (day 60-day 367;LPBR). Plasma PRG was significantly higher (p¡0.02) in the N group before BR and continued throughout the BR period. A significant difference in E2 was observed in the N group between PB and BR, BR and EPBR, and EPBR and LPBR (p¡0.01). E2 was significantly different between N and O during BR (p¡0.02). No differences were observed in the other plasma measurements. Daily urine samples demonstrated no changes in C or Aldo over the course of the study. At 6 and 12 months following completion of the study all subjects reported normal MC. Conclusion: The lengthening of menstrual cycle during bed rest is a result of a delay in ovulation due to the absence of a LH surge (ovulation) associated with lower PRG and E2 levels. In females, changes in menstrual cycles may be a contributing factor to the adverse responses to bed rest such as loss of bone mass, reductions in blood volume and decreased work performance.

  4. Missile Flight Control Using micro-Actuated Flow Effectors - Review of Fiscal Year 2005/2006 Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    have been very active in the development of smart structures for military applications such as missile guidance. For example, DARPA and the Air Force...missile guidance. For example, DARPA and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research are sponsoring the development of miniaturized active flow...there is an advantage to using a knife-edged flow effector. Action: DRDC-dc Y0304-6. Verify Numerica results and the impact of knife-edged flow

  5. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V.

    2006-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements, and exploitation in the lower Deschutes River Subbasin is extremely limited. During 2002, we began a multi-year study to assess the status of lamprey in the Deschutes River subbasin. The objectives of this project are to determine ammocoete (larval lamprey) distribution and associated habitats; Lampretra species composition; numbers of emigrants; adult escapement and harvest rates at Sherars Falls. This report describes the preliminary results of data collected during 2005. We continued documenting ammocoete (larval) habitat selection by surveying four perennial eastside tributaries to the Deschutes River (Warm Springs River, Badger, Beaver and Shitike creeks) within the known ammocoete distribution. The results of 2003-2005 sampling indicate that positive relationships exist between: presence of wood (P = < 0.001), depositional area (P = < 0.001), flow (P = < 0.001), and fine substrate (P = < 0.001). Out-migrants numbers were not estimated during 2005 due to our inability to recapture marked larvae. In Shitike Creek, ammocoete and microphthalmia out-migration peaked during November 2005. In the Warm Spring River, out-migration peaked for ammocoetes in April 2006 and December 2005 for microphthalmia. Samples of ammocoetes from each stream were retained in a permanent collection of future analysis. An escapement estimate was generated for adult Pacific lamprey in the lower Deschutes River using a two event mark-recapture experiment during run year 2005. A modified Peterson model was used to estimate the adult population of Pacific lamprey at 3,895 with an estimated escapement of 2,881 during 2005 (95% CI= 2,847; M = 143; C = 1,027 R = 37). A tribal creel was also conducted from mid-June through August. We estimated tribal harvest to be approximately 1,015 adult lamprey during 2005 (95% CI= +/- 74).

  6. [Feedback from primary care practitioners two years after the chikungunya epidemic on Reunion Island, 2005-2006].

    PubMed

    Fenétrier, E; Sissoko, D; Vernazza-Licht, N; Bley, D; Gaüzère, B-A; Malvy, D

    2013-08-01

    Primary care practitioners constitute key stakeholders in the surveillance and control of epidemic-prone infectious diseases. We carried out a survey in Reunion Island two years after the 2006 chikungunya epidemic using a purposive random sample of 100 general practitioners (GP). The objective was to describe and identity factors associated to GP involvement in case notification during the 2006 chikungunya epidemic. The methods were: administered face-to-face questionnaire and identification of notification determinants by univariate and multivariate analyses. Nearly 60% of participants declared having failed to join the case notification procedure. The main impeding factor was the acknowledgment of limited capacities consecutive to massive influx of patients. Inversely, practicing in group organization tended to show a favorable effect on case notification. In addition, most responders reported the relevance of the information provided by health authorities, despite a perceived limited efficacy of the procedure in the field. Primary care practitioners' involvement in the surveillance of epidemic infectious diseases requires to be reinforced by a preestablished partnership within a proactive network. This goal comprehends relevant training and preparation for epidemic surveillance.

  7. Escherichia coli Concentrations in Recreational Streams and Backcountry Drinking-Water Supplies in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Although fecal contamination of streams is a problem of national scope, few investigations have been directed at relatively pristine streams in forested basins in national parks. With approximately 1.8 million visitors annually, Shenandoah National Park in Virginia is subject to extensive recreational use. The effects of these visitors and their recreational activities on fecal indicator bacteria levels in the streams are poorly understood and of concern for Shenandoah National Park managers. During 2005 and 2006, streams and springs in Shenandoah National Park were sampled for Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations. The first study objective was to evaluate the effects of recreational activities on E. coli concentrations in selected streams. Of the 20 streams that were selected, 14 were in basins with extensive recreational activity, and 6 were in control basins where minimal recreational activities occurred. Water-quality sampling was conducted during low-flow conditions during the relatively warm months, as this is when outdoor recreation and bacterial survivorship are greatest. Although most sampling was conducted during low-flow conditions, approximately three stormflow samples were collected from each stream. The second study objective was to evaluate E. coli levels in backcountry drinking-water supplies throughout Shenandoah National Park. Nineteen drinking-water supplies (springs and streams) were sampled two to six times each by Shenandoah National Park staff and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for this purpose. The water-quality sampling results indicated relatively low E. coli concentrations during low-flow conditions, and no statistically significant increase in E. coli concentrations was observed in the recreational streams relative to the control streams. These results indicate that during low-flow conditions, recreational activities had no significant effect on E. coli concentrations. During stormflow conditions, E. coli concentrations increased by nearly a factor of 10 in both basin types, and the Virginia instantaneous water-quality standard for E. coli (235 colonies per 100 milliliters) frequently was exceeded. The sampling results from drinking-water supplies throughout Shenandoah National Park indicated relatively low E. coli concentrations in all springs that were sampled. Several of the streams that were sampled had slightly higher E. coli concentrations relative to the springs, but no E. coli concentrations exceeded the instantaneous water-quality standard. Although E. coli concentrations in all the drinking-water supplies were relatively low, Shenandoah National Park management continues to stress that all hikers must treat drinking water from all streams and springs prior to consumption. After determining that recreational activities in Shenandoah National Park did not have a statistically significant effect on low-flow E. coli concentrations, an additional concern was addressed regarding the quality of the water releases from the wastewater-treatment plants in the park. Sampling of three wastewater-treatment plant outfalls was conducted in 2006 to evaluate their effects on water quality. Samples were analyzed for E. coli and a collection of wastewater organic compounds that may be endocrine disruptors. Relatively elevated E. coli concentrations were observed in 2 of the 3 samples, and between 9 and 13 wastewater organic compounds were detected in the samples, including 3 known and 5 suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds.

  8. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... electronic copy in Portable Document Format (PDF) on a Compact Disc, along with the $150 filing fee, to the... categories of copyrightable content (e.g., movies, music, and sports programming). At Phase II, the royalties... Claimants Group (BCG), and the ``Music Claimants'' consisting of Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI), American...

  9. Celebrating 50 Years of Advancing Independent Higher Education: Council of Independent Colleges 2005-2006 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Independent Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Many new Council of Independent Colleges (CIC) programs and services are highlighted in this special anniversary Annual Report, amount them American Graduate Fellowships and "Ancient Greece in the Modern College Classroom." Other CIC initiatives continue to help campus leaders enhance their decision-making capacity, leadership expertise,…

  10. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Genetic Studies; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Busack, Craig A.; Fritts, Anthony L.; Kassler, Todd

    2006-05-01

    This report covers one of many topics under the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's Monitoring and Evaluation Program (YKFPME). The YKFPME is funded under two BPA contracts, one for the Yakama Nation and the other for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (Contract number 22370, Project Number 1995-063-25). A comprehensive summary report for all of the monitoring and evaluation topics will be submitted after all of the topical reports are completed. This approach to reporting enhances the ability of people to get the information they want, enhances timely reporting of results, and provides a condensed synthesis of the whole YKFPME. The current report was completed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  11. Retinal Atherosclerosis, Ophthalmologically Reported and Documented with OSA in 1987, is now Totally Reversed, and Recorded, Photographically. The Supposition then was that Equivalent Cortical Damage could Respond to the same Healing Protocol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Paul N.; O., D.; Mc Leod, David M.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Documented retinal atherosclerosis, ``silver streaking'' of retinal capillaries, was reported and documented with OSA, in October 1987. That retinal damage, despite claims it usually progresses and is nonreversible, is now completely cleared. The original OSA presentation proposed that equivalent cortical damage was probably present throughout the brain at that time, as attested by failing short-term memory performance and transient ischemic attacks, TIAs, brief vision strokes. The supposition then was that ophthalmologic access to the retina, by some accounts the progenitor of all brain evolution, could provide a means of monitoring the actual circulatory state of inaccessible parts of the brain. To the extent that retinal health was naturopathically restored, and memory performance seems also to have significantly kept pace, is it a tenable premise that such protocols have rather general importance? Can applied optics help establish more appropriate diagnoses, and evaluate treatments for dementia and Alzheimer's disease?

  12. Pre- and in-therapy predictive score models of adult OSAS patients with poor adherence pattern on nCPAP therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yeying; Geater, Alan F; Chai, Yanling; Luo, Jiahong; Niu, Xiaoqun; Hai, Bing; Qin, Jingting; Li, Yongxia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify patterns of adherence to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) use in the first 3 months of therapy among newly diagnosed adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) and their predictors. To develop pretherapy and in-therapy scores to predict adherence pattern. Methods Newly diagnosed adult OSAS patients were consecutively recruited from March to August 2013. Baseline clinical information and measures such as Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at baseline and at the end of 3rd-week therapy were collected. Twelve weeks’ adherence data were collected from the nCPAP memory card, and K-means cluster analysis was used to explore adherence patterns. Predictive scores were developed from the coefficients of cumulative logit models of adherence patterns using variables available at baseline and after 3 weeks of therapy. Performance of the score was validated using 500 bootstrap resamples. Results Seventy six patients completed a 12-week follow-up. Three patterns were revealed. Patients were identified as developing an adherence pattern that was poor (n=14, mean ± SD, 2.3±0.9 hours per night), moderate (n=19, 5.3±0.6 hours per night), or good (n=43, 6.8±0.3 hours per night). Cumulative logit regression models (good → moderate → poor) revealed independent baseline predictors to be ESS (per unit increase) (OR [95% CI], 0.763 [0.651, 0.893]), SDS (1.461 [1.238, 1.724]), and PSQI (2.261 [1.427, 3.584]); and 3-week therapy predictors to be ESS (0.554 [0.331, 0.926]), PSQI (2.548 [1.454, 4.465]), and the changes (3rd week–baseline data) in ESS (0.459 [0.243, 0.868]), FSS (3.556 [1.788, 7.070]), and PSQI (2.937 [1.273, 6.773]). Two predictive score formulas for poor adherence were developed. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for baseline and 3

  13. The impact of pasture conversion on nutrient cycles of tropical streams on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: a paired catchment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringhurst, K.; Jordan, P.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in nutrient and hydrologic cycles caused by land disturbance typically lead to detrimental changes to ecosystems. This study utilized a paired, small-catchment approach to examine the effect of deforestation on nutrient transfer and hydrological discharge and the resulting impact on soils and streams of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. Two first order streams were chosen, the first catchment had been cleared for pasture and the second consisted of undisturbed tropical wet forest. Soil concentrations of organic matter, total and soil available P were higher in the forested catchment with decreases of >33% of each in the deforested catchment. The effect of deforestation on stream discharge was a 59% increase in flow during the wet season and an increase in the Q5:Q95 ratio showing that the deforested stream was flashier. The deforested catchment loss of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) increased 95% over the forested catchment. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) showed an increase in load of 43% in the deforested catchment compared to the forested catchment. The molar N:P ratios were lower than the Redfield ratio and both streams were well below the level at which N-limitation of lotic algal growth has been reported, therefore it is hypothesized that N is the limiting nutrient in streams in the study area. Soil nutrient depletion in the deforested catchment, accelerated by a changed hydrologic regime, is the likely trajectory of soil-water interactions in this tropical ecosystem. This will likely be among the secondary impacts should deforestation become widespread along this stretch of the Pacific coastline, with associated eutrophication of receiving transitional and coastal waters.

  14. Durability of treatment effects of the Sleep Position Trainer versus oral appliance therapy in positional OSA: 12-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Maurits H T; Benoist, Linda B L; de Vries, Nico; de Lange, Jan

    2017-09-15

    The Sleep Position Trainer (SPT) is a new option for treating patients with positional obstructive sleep apnea (POSA). This study investigated long-term efficacy, adherence, and quality of life during use of the SPT device compared with oral appliance therapy (OAT) in patients with POSA. This prospective, multicenter trial randomized patients with mild to moderate POSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] 5-30/h) to SPT or OAT. Polysomnography was performed at baseline and after 3 and 12 months' follow-up. The primary endpoint was OSA severity; adherence, quality of life, and adverse events were also assessed. Ninety-nine patients were randomized and 58 completed the study (29 in each group). Median AHI in the SPT group decreased from 13.2/h at baseline to 7.1/h after 12 months (P < 0.001); corresponding values in the OAT group were 13.4/h and 5.0/h (P < 0.001), with no significant between-group difference (P = 1.000). Improvements throughout the study were maintained at 12 months. Long-term median adherence was also similar in the two treatment groups; the proportion of patients who used their device for ≥ 4 h for 5 days in a week was 100% in the SPT group and 97.0% in the OAT group (P = 0.598). The efficacy of SPT therapy was maintained over 12 months and was comparable to that of OAT in patients with mild to moderate POSA. Adherence was relatively high, and similar in the two groups. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02045576).

  15. Physical property and Textural transition across the Unconformity and Major Seismic Reflectors in the Upper plate of the Costa Rica Subduction zone offshore Osa Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamahashi, M.; Screaton, E.; Tanikawa, W.; Hashimoto, Y.; Martin, K. M.; Saito, S.; Kimura, G.

    2014-12-01

    At the Costa Rica subduction zone offshore Osa Peninsula, the Cocos plate and Cocos Ridge subduct under the Caribbean plate along the Middle America Trench, creating active seismicity. In this region, the Caribbean plate is characterized by a well-consolidated, high velocity framework material beneath the slope sediments, but the nature of the upper plate material is yet unknown. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 334 and 344, the unconformity between the slope sediments (Unit 1) and upper plate material (Units 2 and 3) consisting of lithic sedimentary units was penetrated at mid-slope Site 1380. In the current study, to characterize the compaction behavior of the upper plate material, we investigate the physical properties, texture and composition of the sediments at Site 1380 by conducting microstructural observations, resistivity measurements, particle size analyses, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analyses. The microstructures of sediments observed through the microscope tend to develop dense and cohesive textures in low porosity sediments, and particle size changes across several unconformities. In particular, the small particle-sized lithic fragments compose larger bodies and form cohesive structures. The cross correlation between measured particle size and shipboard porosity show negative correlation especially at Unit 2, indicating that larger sized particles form smaller or fewer pores. From the results of XRF and XRD analyses, we found that Al, K, Ti tend to concentrate in the higher porosity sediments of Unit 1, whereas Si, Ca, P, Mg, Na, and Mn concentrate in the lower porosity sediments of Unit 2 and 3. The higher concentration in Mg, Na, Mn, Si may be due to minerals such as chlorite, serpentine, amphibole, and sodium manganese. The crossplots between porosity and element concentration show negative correlations in Mg, Na, and Mn with porosity, suggesting that the minerals rich in these elements may relate with the

  16. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption.

  17. Effects of CPAP-therapy on brain electrical activity in obstructive sleep apneic patients: a combined EEG study using LORETA and Omega complexity : reversible alterations of brain activity in OSAS.

    PubMed

    Toth, Marton; Faludi, Bela; Kondakor, Istvan

    2012-10-01

    Effects of initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on EEG background activity were investigated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25) to test possible reversibility of alterations of brain electrical activity caused by chronic hypoxia. Normal control group (N = 14) was also examined. Two EEG examinations were done in each groups: at night and in the next morning. Global and regional (left vs. right, anterior vs. posterior) measures of spatial complexity (Omega complexity) were used to characterize the degree of spatial synchrony of EEG. Low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to localize generators of EEG activity in separate frequency bands. Before CPAP-treatment, a significantly lower Omega complexity was found globally and over the right hemisphere. Due to CPAP-treatment, these significant differences vanished. Significantly decreased Omega complexity was found in the anterior region after treatment. LORETA showed a decreased activity in all of the beta bands after therapy in the right hippocampus, premotor and temporo-parietal cortex, and bilaterally in the precuneus, paracentral and posterior cingulate cortex. No significant changes were seen in control group. Comparing controls and patients before sleep, an increased alpha2 band activity was seen bilaterally in the precuneus, paracentral and posterior cingulate cortex, while in the morning an increased beta3 band activity in the left precentral and bilateral premotor cortex and a decreased delta band activity in the right temporo-parietal cortex and insula were observed. These findings indicate that effect of sleep on EEG background activity is different in OSAS patients and normal controls. In OSAS patients, significant changes lead to a more normal EEG after a night under CPAP-treatment. Compensatory alterations of brain electrical activity in regions associated with influencing sympathetic outflow, visuospatial abilities, long

  18. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006. Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  19. The occurrence of glyphosate, atrazine, and other pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent streams in Washington, DC, Maryland, Iowa, and Wyoming, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Rice, Karen C.; Focazio, Michael J.; Salmons, Sue; Barry, Robert X.

    2009-01-01

    Vernal pools are sensitive environments that provide critical habitat for many species, including amphibians. These small water bodies are not always protected by pesticide label requirements for no-spray buffer zones, and the occurrence of pesticides in them is poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of glyphosate, its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid, and additional pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent flowing waters. Most sampling sites were chosen to be in areas where glyphosate was being used either in production agriculture or for nonindigenous plant control. The four site locations were in otherwise protected areas (e.g., in a National Park). When possible, water samples were collected both before and after glyphosate application in 2005 and 2006. Twenty-eight pesticides or pesticide degradation products were detected in the study, and as many as 11 were identified in individual samples. Atrazine was detected most frequently and concentrations exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard of 1.8 micrograms per liter (μg/l) in samples from Rands Ditch and Browns Ditch in DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge. Glyphosate was measured at the highest concentration (328 μg/l) in a sample from Riley Spring Pond in Rock Creek National Park. This concentration exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard for glyphosate of 65 μg/l. Aminomethylphosphonic acid, triclopyr, and nicosulfuron also were detected at concentrations greater than 3.0 μg/l.

  20. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used to provide context for the results. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater. A relative-concentration greater than 1.0 indicates a concentration greater than the benchmark and is classified as high. The relative-concentration threshold for classifying inorganic constituents as moderate or low was 0.5; for organic constituents the threshold between moderate and low was 0.1. Aquifer-scale proportion was used as the primary metric for assessing the quality of untreated groundwater for the study units. High aquifer-scale proportion is defined as the areal percentage of the primary aquifers with a high relative-concentration for a particular constituent or class of constituents. Moderate and low aquifer-scale proportions were defined as the areal percentage of the primary aquifers with moderate and low relative-concentrations, respectively. Two statistical approaches—grid-based and spatially weighted—were used to evaluate aquifer-scale proportions for individual constituents and classes of constituents. Grid-based and spatially weighted estimates were comparable for the two study units in the southern San Joaquin Valley (within 90 percent confidence intervals). The status assessment showed that inorganic constituents were more prevalent than organic constituents and that relative-concentrations were higher for inorganic constituents than for organic constituents. For inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks, the relative-concentration of at least one constituent in the SESJ study unit was high in 30 percent of the primary aquifers. In the KERN study unit, the relative-concentration of at least one constituent was high in 23 percent of the primary aquifers. In the SESJ and KERN study units, the inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks detected at high relative-concentrations in more than 2 percent of the primary aquifers were arsenic, boron, vanadium, nitrate, uranium, and gross alpha radioactivity. Additional constituents with human-health benchmarks—antimony, radium, and fluoride—were detected at high relative-concentrations in the KERN study unit. For inorganic constituents with aesthetic benchmarks (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCLs), the relative-concentration of at least one constituent in the SESJ study unit was high in 6.6 percent of the primary aquifers. In the KERN study unit, the relative-concentration of at least one constituent was high in 22 percent of the primary aquifers. Inorganic constituents with aesthetic benchmarks detected at high relative-concentrations in the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units were iron and manganese. Additional constituents with aesthetic benchmarks—total dissolved solids (TDS), sulfate, and chloride—were detected at high relative-concentrations in the KERN study unit. In contrast, the status assessment for organic constituents with human-health benchmarks showed that relative-concentrations were high in 4.8 percent and 2.1 percent of the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, respectively. The special-interest constituent, perchlorate, was detected at high relative-concentrations in 1.2 percent of the primary aquifers in the SESJ study unit. Twenty-eight of the 78 VOCs (not including fumigants) analyzed were detected. Of these 28 VOCs, benzene had high relative-concentrations in the SESJ study unit, and relative-concentrations for the other 27 VOCs were moderate and low. Five of the 10 fumigants were detected; 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) was the only fumigant with high relative-concentrations in the SESJ and KERN study units. Of the 136 pesticides and pesticide degradates analyzed, 33 were detected. Human-health benchmarks were established for eighteen of the detected pesticides. Dieldrin was detected at moderate relative-concentrations in the SESJ and KERN study units. All other pesticides detected with human-health benchmarks were present at low relative-concentrations. The detection frequencies for two of these pesticides—simazine and atrazine—were greater than or equal to 10 percent in the SESJ and KERN study units. The understanding assessment of groundwater quality included an analysis of correlations of selected water-quality constituents or classes of constituents with potential explanatory factors. The understanding assessment indicated that the concentrations of many trace elements and major ions were correlated to well depth, groundwater age, and/or geochemical conditions. Many trace elements were positively correlated with depth. Arsenic, boron, vanadium, fluoride, manganese, and iron concentrations increased with well depth or depth to top-of-perforations. The concentrations for these trace elements also were higher in older (pre-modern) groundwater. In contrast, uranium concentrations decreased with increasing depth and groundwater age. Most trace elements were correlated to geochemical conditions. Arsenic, antimony, boron, fluoride, manganese, and iron concentrations generally were higher wherever the pH of the groundwater was greater than 7.6. Concentrations for these constituents generally were higher at low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO). Uranium was the exception; uranium concentrations generally were lower at high pH and at high concentrations of DO. Nitrate concentrations generally were lower in deeper wells. Nitrate concentrations also were higher in groundwater with higher DO. Total dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride concentrations were higher in the KERN study unit than in the SESJ study unit. Total dissolved solids were negatively correlated with pH in the KERN study unit. Total dissolved solids and sulfate were higher in areas with more agricultural land use. Chloride concentrations increased with depth to top-of-perforations in the KERN study unit. Organic constituents and constituents of special interest, like many inorganic constituents, were correlated with well depth, groundwater age, and DO. Unlike most trace elements, however, solvent and pesticide detections, and total trihalomethanes (THM), DBCP, and perchlorate concentrations decreased with increasing well depth. Volatile organic compound, solvent, and pesticide detections, and THM concentrations also were lower in older (pre-modern) groundwater than in modern-age groundwater. Solvent detections and total THM, DBCP, and perchlorate concentrations increased with increasing DO concentrations.

  1. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific riverbed elevation and providing minimum spawning flows that have the greatest chance of being maintained through egg incubation and fry emergence. However, managing the lower Columbia River for a stable tailwater elevation does not provide much operational flexibility at Bonneville Dam, which has little storage capacity. When river discharges increase due to rain events, the traditional approach has been to pass excess water at night to maintain stable tailwater elevations during the daytime. The underlying assumption of this strategy, referred to as reverse load following, is that fish do not spawn at night. However, Tiffan et al. (2005) showed that this assumption is false by documenting nighttime spawning by chum salmon in the Ives Island area. Similarly, McMichael et al. (2005) reported nighttime spawning by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Columbia River, indicating that diel spawning may be a common occurrence in Pacific salmon. During the latter portion of the chum spawning period in December 2003 and 2004, discharges from Bonneville Dam increased from an average of 3,398 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 3.5 m above mean sea level) during the day to over 5,664 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 5.1 m) at night, with peak discharges of 7,080 m{sup 3}/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 6.1 m). This caused concern among fishery managers regarding the potential effects of these high discharges on this population of spawning chum salmon, which is listed under the Endangered Species Act (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1999). We hypothesized that increased water velocities associated with elevated tailwaters might alter chum salmon spawning behavior if water velocities at redd locations increased beyond the range of suitability (>0.8 m/s; Salo 1991). In 2005, we investigated the movement and behavioral responses of spawning chum salmon at Ives Island to increased tailwater elevations at Bonneville Dam. We used acoustic telemetry to determine if the higher velocities associated with increased tailwater elevations caused fish to leave their redds. We related the duration fish were away from redds and the distances moved to water velocities estimated from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Finally, we described specific changes in spawning behavior (e.g., nest digging; swimming activity) during elevated-tailwater tests using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON).

  2. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City/Lowden II Sites, 2005-2006 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie

    2006-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated two fish screen facilities in the Walla Walla River basin in 2005 and early 2006. The Garden City/Lowden screen site was evaluated in April and June 2005 to determine whether the fish screens met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to provide safe passage for juvenile salmonids. Louvers behind the screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway were modified in fall 2005 in an attempt to minimize high approach velocities. PNNL evaluated the effects of those modifications in March 2006. Results of the Garden City/Lowden evaluations indicate the site performs well at varying river levels and canal flows. Approach velocities did not exceed 0.4 feet per second (fps) at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder in March but not in June. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. At Nursery Bridge, results indicate all the approach velocities were below 0.4 fps under the moderate river levels and operational conditions encountered on March 7, 2006. Sweep did not consistently increase toward the fish ladder, but the site generally met the criteria for safe passage of juvenile salmonids. Modifications to the louvers seem to allow more control over the amount of water moving through the screens. We will measure approach velocities when river levels are higher to determine whether the louver modifications can help correct excessive approach velocities under a range of river levels and auxiliary water supply flows.

  3. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006 Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Thomas F.; Klees, Heather; Moertel, Cheryl; Weibel, John

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  4. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006 Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Thomas F.; Klees, Heather; Moertel, Cheryl; Weibel, John

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Austrian broiler flocks in the context of the EU-wide baseline survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Lassnig, Heimo; Much, Peter; Schliessnig, Harald; Osterreicher, Elfriede; Kostenzer, Klaus; Kornschober, Christian; Köfer, Josef

    2012-01-01

    In Austria an EU-wide baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in broilers organized by the EU commission was conducted from October 2005 to September 2006. The aim of this study was to produce comparable data on the prevalence of Salmonella in broiler flocks and holdings for all member states and for the EU-Commission to set EU-wide targets for the control of Salmonella in the broiler populations. A randomised sampling plan was designed according to EU-commission parameters (p = 50%; CI = 95%, a = 5%). Sampling was carried out regularly throughout the whole year. On every farm one flock was sampled with five pairs of boot swabs and analysed in the lab according to appendix D of ISO 6579 (2002). In Austria, 363 flocks on farms consisting of at least 5000 broilers each were tested. 28 flocks (7.7%) showed infections with Salmonella spp., eight flocks (2.2%) had either S. Enteritidis (six flocks) or S. Typhimurium (two flocks). In detail, S. Enteritidis (1.7%), S. Typhimurium (0.6%), S. Montevideo (4.1%), S. Infantis 0.6%, S. Senftenberg, S. Tennessee and S. Virchow (0.3% each) have been found. Data indicated that the risk of vertical transmission of Salmonella spp. to broiler flocks has almost been kept at bay; however, the risk of horizontal transmission still needs attention. Contamination of feeding stuff, possible persistence, spreading between barns of a farm as well as introduction of Salmonella spp. through individuals or materials are important factors for future control strategies.

  6. Pulp & paper markets cope with high energy prices and growth in Asia : markets for paper, paperboard and woodpulp, 2005-2006

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2006-01-01

    \\tPulp and paper markets in the UNECE region were influenced by higher energy prices and demand growth in Asia in 2005 and 2006. Important developments in Europe included the launching of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, which was followed by substantial increases in electrical energy prices. High global energy prices pushed up costs of production and prices for pulp...

  7. The role of parental, school, and peer factors in adolescent bullying involvement: results from the Turkish HBSC 2005/2006 study.

    PubMed

    Erginoz, Ethem; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Ercan, Oya; Uysal, Omer; Alp, Zeynep; Ocak, Suheyla; Oktay Tanyildiz, Gulsah; Ekici, Baris; Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Albayrak Kaymak, Deniz

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between involvement in bullying behaviors and school, family, and peer factors. Health Behavior in School Age Children survey questionnaire was used. Of the students surveyed, 20% were both bully and victim, 11% were bully, and 21% were victim. Being male, poor parental support, and poor monitoring by the father were found to be risk factors for being both bully and victim. Poor academic achievement, having peers at different ages, poor quality of friendship, poor communication with parents, and not being isolated by peers were found to be risk factors for being bully. Not liking school, feeling pressured by school work, poor quality of friendship, poor monitoring by the father, close bonding with mother, and poor status of the peer group were found to be risk factors for being victim. These findings highlight the importance that bullying intervention programs should include country-specific and culture-specific influences for success. © 2013 APJPH.

  8. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2005-2006 Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Terra Lang; Wilson, Wayne H.; Ruzycki, James R.

    2009-04-10

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations, however, remain depressed relative to historic levels. Between the completion of the life history and natural escapement study in 1984 and the start of this project in 1998, spring Chinook spawning surveys did not provide adequate information to assess age structure, progeny-to-parent production values, smolt-to-adult survival (SAR), or natural spawning escapement. Further, only very limited information is available for steelhead life history, escapement, and productivity measures in the John Day subbasin. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival have also been implemented in the basin and are in need of effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed background information for developing context for project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts. To meet the data needs as index stocks, to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects, and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age structure, SAR, egg-to-smolt survival, smolt-per-redd ratio, and freshwater habitat use are essential. We have begun to meet this need through spawning ground surveys initiated for spring Chinook salmon in 1998 and smolt PIT-tagging efforts initiated in 1999. Additional sampling and analyses to meet these goals include an estimate of smolt abundance and SAR rates, and an updated measure of the freshwater distribution of critical life stages. Because Columbia Basin managers have identified the John Day subbasin spring Chinook population as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin (Schaller et al. 1999) we continue our ongoing studies. This project is high priority based on the high level of emphasis the NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program, Subbasin Summaries, NMFS, and the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds have placed on monitoring and evaluation to provide the real-time data to guide restoration and adaptive management in the region. By implementing the proposed program we have been able to address many of the goals for population status monitoring, such as defining areas currently used by spring Chinook for holding and spawning habitats and determining range expansion or contraction of summer rearing and spawning populations. The BiOp describes these goals as defining population growth rates (adult monitoring), detecting changes in those growth rates or relative abundance in a reasonable time (adult/juvenile monitoring), estimating juvenile abundance and survival rates (juvenile/smolt monitoring), and identifying stage-specific survival (adult-to-smolt, smolt-to-adult).

  9. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knedsen, Curtis M.; Schroder, Steven L.; Johnston, Mark V.

    2006-05-01

    This report covers three of many topics under the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's Monitoring and Evaluation Program (YKFPME) and was completed by Oncorh Consulting as a contract deliverable to the Yakama Nation and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The YKFPME (Project Number 1995-063-25) is funded under two BPA contracts, one for the Yakama Nation (Contract No. 00022449) and the other for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (Contract No. 22370). A comprehensive summary report for all of the monitoring and evaluation topics will be submitted after all of the topical reports are completed. This approach to reporting enhances the ability of people to get the information they want, enhances timely reporting of results, and provides a condensed synthesis of the whole YKFPME.

  10. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in Tamil Nadu, India, during 2005-2006: relationship of genotype D8 strains from Tamil Nadu to global strains.

    PubMed

    Duraisamy, Raja; Rota, Paul A; Palani, Gunasekaran; Elango, Varalakshmi; Sambasivam, Mohana; Lowe, Luis; Lopareva, Elena; Ramamurty, Nalini

    2012-02-01

    Molecular characterization of measles viruses is a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measles control and elimination programmes. WHO recommends that virological surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control to document circulation of indigenous strains and trace future importation. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Tamil Nadu, India isolated between January 2005 and January 2006. In the study, 304 suspected measles cases (292 from 56 outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases) were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and 11 suspected sporadic cases and tested for the presence of measles and rubella specific IgM. Based on serological results, 53 outbreaks were confirmed as measles, 2 as a combination of measles and rubella, and 1 negative for both. Eight sporadic cases were confirmed as measles and one as rubella. Throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and 28 isolates were obtained. Sequencing and analysis showed that 3 isolates belonged to genotype D4 and 25 to genotype D8. Comparison of the genotype D8 sequences from Tamil Nadu with previously reported genotype D8 sequences from India and abroad showed six distinct clusters with Tamil Nadu strains forming two clusters. This study has established baseline molecular data and is the first report that describes genetic diversity of circulating measles strains in Tamil Nadu, a state in India. D8 has multiple lineages and this has been linked with importation of measles into the USA and UK.

  11. How Are We Doing? A Self-Assessment of the Quality of Services andSystems at NERSC, 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William T.C.; Hules, John

    2007-03-13

    This is the sixth self-assessment of the systems andservices provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National EnergyResearch Scientific Computing Center, describing many of the efforts ofthe NERSC staff to support advanced computing for scientific discovery.The report is organized along the 10 goals set by our staff and outlineshow we are working to meet those goals. Our staff applies experience andexpertise to provide world-class systems and unparalleled services forNERSC users. At the same time, members of our organization are leadingcontributors to advancing the field of high-performance computing throughconference presentations, published papers, collaborations withscientific researchers and through regular meetings with members ofsimilar institutions. In the fast-moving realm of high-performancecomputing, adopting the latest technology while reliably deliveringcritical resources can be a challenge, but we believe that thisself-assessment demonstrates that NERSC continues to excel on bothcounts.

  12. High incidence of amantadine-resistant influenza AH3 viruses isolated during the 2005-2006 winter season in Nara, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masaki; Inoue, Yumiko; Kitahori, Yoshiteru

    2007-02-01

    We examined the incidence of amantadine-resistant influenza AH3 viruses isolated in Nara Prefecture during the 2005-06 winter season. The genetic analyses of the M2 ion channel protein were conducted using reverse transcriptase PCR and direct sequencing. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) strains were identified as amantadine-resistant, and this incidence was remarkably higher than those previously recored in Nara Prefecture. Genetic analyses of the viruses revealed that all the anti-drug strains contained a change at position 31 (AGT-->AAT, Ser31Asn) in the M2 gene. One of the 13 amantadine-resistant strains also contained a change at position 27 (GTT-->GCT, Val27Ala). Our data indicate that there has been a significant increase of drug-resistant influenza AH3 viruses in Nara Prefecture, and raise concern about the spread of resistant influenza AH3 viruses in Japan.

  13. 2005-2006 Highly Qualified Teacher Reporting Materials. How Will I know if I Meet the Federal Definition of a Highly Qualified Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which took effect in 2002 and requires that all teachers be highly qualified in the core academic content area(s) they teach, places major emphasis upon teacher quality as a factor in improving achievement for all students. This emphasis grows out of the research showing that teachers' mastery of the…

  14. Analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: an update for the period 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David J

    2011-01-01

    This review is the fourth update of the original review, published in 1999, on the application of MALDI mass spectrometry to the analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates and brings coverage of the literature to the end of 2006. The review covers fundamental studies, fragmentation of carbohydrate ions, method developments, and applications of the technique to the analysis of different types of carbohydrate. Specific compound classes that are covered include carbohydrate polymers from plants, N- and O-linked glycans from glycoproteins, glycated proteins, glycolipids from bacteria, glycosides, and various other natural products. There is a short section on the use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the study of enzymes involved in glycan processing, a section on industrial processes, particularly the development of biopharmaceuticals and a section on the use of MALDI-MS to monitor products of chemical synthesis of carbohydrates. Large carbohydrate-protein complexes and glycodendrimers are highlighted in this final section.

  15. Extent of control of cardiovascular risk factors and adherence to recommended therapies in US multiethnic adults with coronary heart disease: from a 2005-2006 national survey.

    PubMed

    Vulic, Dusko; Lee, Brian T; Dede, Jennifer; Lopez, Victor A; Wong, Nathan D

    2010-01-01

    Guidelines for cardiovascular risk factor control in people with coronary heart disease (CHD) focus on compliance with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers), angiotensin receptor blockade (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor antagonists [angiotensin receptor blockers; ARBs]) [ACE/ARBs], and lipid-lowering agents, with goals for BP of <140/90 mmHg and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL). Most data derive from registries of hospitalized patients or are from clinical trials. Little data exist on goal attainment and adherence with therapy among CHD survivors of major US ethnic groups in the real-world setting. We assessed levels of cardiovascular risk factor control and adherence with recommended therapies among US CHD survivors. We identified 364 US adults (representing 12.8 million in the US with CHD) aged 18 years and over in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-6 with known CHD. We calculated proportions of patients who were receiving recommended treatments, and who achieved goal targets for BP, LDL-C levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), and nonsmoking status, and differences between actual and goal levels ('distance to goal'), stratified by sex and ethnicity. Overall, 58%, 38%, and 60% of CHD survivors were receiving beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, ACE/ARBs, and lipid-lowering medications, respectively (22% received all three). However, treatment rates for beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and lipid-lowering agents were lower (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01) in Hispanics (36% and 27%, respectively) and non-Hispanic Blacks (47% and 42%, respectively) than in non-Hispanic Whites. Moreover, lipid-lowering treatment rates were lower in females (50%) than in males (67%) [p < 0.01]. Overall, 78% were nonsmokers while 68% achieved goal levels for BP, 57% for LDL-C levels, and, if diabetic, 67% for HbA(1c). Only 12% met all four goals. Non-Hispanic Whites had the lowest SBP and DBP as well as HbA(1c) (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01 across ethnicity). In those who did not achieve goal levels, distance to goal averaged 1.0 mmol/L (37.0 mg/dL) for LDL-C levels, 15.6 mmHg for SBP, and 1.3% for HbA(1c). Despite clear treatment guidelines, we show that many US adults with CHD, especially Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks, are neither receiving recommended treatments nor adequately treated in terms of BP, LDL-C levels, and HbA(1c). Greater efforts by healthcare systems to disseminate and implement guidelines are needed.

  16. A Matter of Judgment: Deciding the Future of Family Court in NYC. Child Welfare Watch. Volume 12, Winter 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Andrew, Ed.; Katz, Alyssa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    New York City has for far too long tolerated a severe imbalance in the delivery of legal services in child welfare cases. Although the Administration for Children's Services (ACS), the Legal Aid Society and Lawyers for Children all are given a significant annual budget which allows these agencies to represent petitioners and children in Family…

  17. Atmospheric Deposition and Surface-Water Chemistry in Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks, U.S.A., Water Years 2000 and 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2008-01-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems in Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks are highly sensitive to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur. Thin, rocky soils promote fast hydrologic flushing rates during snowmelt and rain events, limiting the ability of basins to neutralize acidity and assimilate nitrogen deposited from the atmosphere. Potential effects of nitrogen and sulfur deposition include episodic or chronic acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In addition, nitrogen deposition can cause eutrophication of water bodies and changes in species composition in lakes and streams. This report documents results of a study performed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, of the effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur on surface-water chemistry in Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks. Inorganic nitrogen in wet deposition was highest in the vicinity of North Cascades National Park, perhaps due to emissions from human sources and activities in the Puget Sound area. Sulfur in wet deposition was highest near the Pacific coast, reflecting the influence of marine aerosols. Dry deposition generally accounted for less than 30 percent of wet plus dry inorganic nitrogen and sulfur deposition, but occult deposition (primarily fog) represents a potentially substantial unmeasured component of total deposition. Trend analyses indicate inorganic nitrogen in wet deposition was relatively stable during 1986-2005, but sulfur in wet deposition declined substantially during that time, particularly after 2001, when emissions controls were added to a large powerplant in western Washington. Surface-water sulfate concentrations at the study site nearest the powerplant showed a statistically significant decrease between 2000 and 2005-06, but there was no statistically significant change in alkalinity, indicating a delayed response in surface-water alkalinity. Seasonal patterns in surface-water chemistry and streamflow are strongly influenced by melting of seasonal snowpacks, which release large amounts of dilute, slightly acidic water to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, alkalinity, and base cations in surface water declined rapidly during snowmelt, then gradually recovered during summer and fall. Preferential elution of acidic solutes from the snowpack at the beginning of snowmelt may cause episodic acidification in small alpine streams; evidence is provided by a stream sample collected at one of the sites during spring 2006 that was acidic (pH = 4.8, alkalinity = -18 microequivalents per liter) and had high concentrations of nitrate and sulfate and low concentrations of weathering products. Rain-on-snow events caused sharp declines in specific conductance, which was measured continuously using an in-stream sensor. A strong correlation was observed between measured specific conductance and measured alkalinity (r2 = 0.76), permitting estimation of alkalinity from specific-conductance data using a regression equation. Estimated alkalinity declined by an order of magnitude during the rain-on-snow events, in one case to 8 microequivalents per liter. Actual declines in alkalinity might be greater because the regression equation accounts only for dilution effects; at low concentrations, the relation between specific conductance and alkalinity is likely to be nonlinear and have a negative intercept (negative alkalinity). Thus, episodic acidification is possible during rain-on-snow events. The scale of episodic acidification is unknown, but if it occurs, it could have detrimental effects on aquatic life and amphibians. Historical lake-survey data indicate that most lakes are oligotrophic and have low nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Nitrogen limitation is more common in lakes in Mount Rainier National Park than in North Cascades National Park due to higher nitrate concentrations at North Cascades. T

  18. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events-United States, 2005-2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to waterborne-d...

  19. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006. Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  20. An assessment of the effect of statin use on the incidence of acute respiratory infections in England during winters 1998-1999 to 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Fleming, D M; Verlander, N Q; Elliot, A J; Zhao, H; Gelb, D; Jehring, D; Nguyen-Van-Tam, J S

    2010-09-01

    Statins reduce cardiovascular mortality and related risks associated with pneumonia suggesting potentially beneficial use in influenza pandemics. We investigated the effect of current statin use on acute respiratory infections in primary care. Data from anonymized electronic medical records of persons aged 45 years were examined for statin use, chronic morbidity, respiratory diagnoses, vaccination procedures, and immune suppression. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for statin users vs. non-users in respiratory infection outcomes. A total of 329 881 person-year observations included 18% statin users and 46% influenza vaccinees. Adjusted ORs for statin users vs. non-users were: influenza-like illness, 1.05 (95% CI 0.92-1.20); acute bronchitis, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01-1.15); pneumonia, 0.91 (95% CI 0.73-1.13); all acute respiratory infections, 1.03 (95% CI 0.98-1.07); and urinary tract infections, 0.91 (95% CI 0.85-0.98). We found no benefit in respiratory infection outcomes attributable to statin use, although uniformly higher ORs in non-vaccinated statin users might suggest synergism between statins and influenza vaccination.

  1. Predictors of incident and recurrent participation in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit amongst young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Latimore, Amanda D; Rudolph, Abby; German, Danielle; Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D

    2011-07-01

    Despite Thailand's war on drugs, methamphetamine ("yaba" in Thai) use and the drug economy both thrive. This analysis identifies predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit amongst young Thai yaba users. Between April 2005 and June 2006, 983 yaba users, ages 18-25, were enrolled in a randomized behavioural intervention in Chiang Mai Province (415 index and 568 of their drug network members). Questionnaires administered at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits assessed socio-demographic factors, current and prior drug use, social network characteristics, sexual risk behaviours and drug use norms. Exposures were lagged by three months (prior visit). Outcomes included incident and recurrent drug economy involvement. Generalized linear mixed models were fit using GLIMMIX (SASv9.1). Incident drug economy involvement was predicted by yaba use frequency (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.10), recent incarceration (AOR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.07, 5.25) and the proportion of yaba-using networks who quit recently (AOR: .34; 95% CI: .15, .78). Recurrent drug economy involvement was predicted by age (AOR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.96), frequency of yaba use (AOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09), drug economy involvement at the previous visit (AOR: 2.61; CI: 1.59, 4.28), incarceration in the prior three months (AOR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.07, 4.86), and the proportion of yaba-users in his/her network who quit recently (AOR: .38; 95% CI: .20, .71). Individual drug use, drug use in social networks and recent incarceration were predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the drug economy. These results suggest that interrupting drug use and/or minimizing the influence of drug-using networks may help prevent further involvement in the drug economy. The emergence of recent incarceration as a predictor for both models highlights the need for more appropriate drug rehabilitation programmes and demonstrates that continued criminalization of drug users may fuel Thailand's yaba epidemic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N.; Knudsen, C.M.

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive success in wild- and first generation hatchery-origin spring Chinook males was examined by allowing the fish to compete for spawning opportunities in two sections of an observation stream. Behavioral observations were used to characterize the frequency of aggression and courting activities. Microsatellite DNA from each male and fry collected from the observation stream were used in pedigree analyses to estimate reproductive success. The coefficient of variation in male reproductive success equaled 116 and 86% in the two populations. No differences were detected in reproductive success due to hatchery or wild origin. Nor were any behavioral differences found between hatchery and wild males. Although statistical power was low due to intrinsic variation a great deal of overlap existed in the reproductive success values of hatchery and wild males. Significant disparities existed among the males on their ability to produce offspring. Males achieving high reproductive success mated with numerous females, were socially dominant, aggressive, and tended to stay in localized areas, courting and spawning with females that were adjacent to one another.

  3. TN Part C State Annual Performance Report. State of Tennessee Department of Education, Division of Special Education Annual Performance Plan, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Part C, IDEA State Performance Plan (SPP) for Tennessee was developed in conjunction with and approved by the state's Interagency Coordinating Council. The public will be made aware of the status of each Early Intervention Service Program's performance as it relates to the Targets outlined in Tennessee's SPP. The public will also be made aware of…

  4. National Prevalence and Risk Factors for Food Allergy and Relationship to Asthma: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Andrew H.; Jaramillo, Renee; Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Bock, S. Allan; Burks, A. Wesley; Massing, Mark; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The national prevalence and patterns of food allergy (FA) in the United States (US) are not well understood. Objective We developed nationally representative estimates of the prevalence of and demographic risk factors for FA, and investigated associations of FA with asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Methods 8,203 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 had food-specific serum IgE measured to peanut, cow's milk, egg white, and shrimp. Food-specific IgE and age-based criteria were used to define Likely FA (LFA), Possible FA (PFA), and Unlikely FA (UFA), and to develop estimates of clinical FA. Self-reported data were used to evaluate demographic risk factors and associations with asthma and related conditions. Results In the US, the estimated prevalence of clinical FA was 2.5% (peanut 1.3%, milk 0.4%, egg 0.2%, shrimp 1.0%, not mutually exclusive). Risk of PFA/LFA was increased in non-Hispanic blacks (odds ratio (OR) 3.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14-4.36), males (1.87; 1.32-2.66), and children (2.04; 1.42-2.93). Study participants with doctor-diagnosed asthma (vs. no asthma) exhibited increased risk of all measures of food sensitization. Moreover, in those with LFA, the adjusted OR for current asthma (3.8; 1.5-10.7) and an emergency room (ER) visit for asthma in the past year (6.9; 2.4-19.7) were both notably increased. Conclusion Population-based serologic data on 4 foods indicate an estimated 2.5% of the US population has FA, and increased risk was found for blacks, males, and children. Additionally, FA could be an under-recognized risk factor for problematic asthma. PMID:20920770

  5. International comparison of common risk factors of preterm birth between the U.S. and Canada, using PRAMS and MES (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Garn, Joshua V; Nagulesapillai, Tharsiya; Metcalfe, Amy; Tough, Suzanne; Kramer, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of newborn deaths and morbidities. The pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) from the U.S., and the maternity experiences survey (MES) from Canada, which was modeled from PRAMS, were used to examine between-country differences in risk factors of preterm birth. The adjusted risk ratio and population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated for modifiable and semi-modifiable risk factors of PTB, and all measures were compared between the U.S. and Canada. PTB was defined here as a live singleton birth between 28 and 37 completed weeks gestation (using the clinical gestational age estimate) where the baby was living with the mother at the time of the survey. The PTB risk was 7.6 % (SE = 0.2) in the U.S. and 4.9 % (SE = 0.3) in Canada. The a priori high risk category of factors was almost always more prevalent in the U.S. than Canada, suggesting broad social differences, but individually most of these differences were not associated with PTB. The underlying risk of PTB was generally higher in the U.S. in both the higher risk and referent categories, and the risk ratios for most risk factors were similar between the countries. The primary exception was for recurrence of PTB, where the risk ratio (RR) and PAF were much higher in Canada. We observed between-country differences in both the prevalence of risk factors and the adjusted RR. Further between-country comparisons may lead to important inferences as to the influence of modifiable risk factors contributing to PTB.

  6. At-risk marriages after compulsory premarital testing and counseling for β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Alswaidi, Fahad M; Memish, Ziad A; O'Brien, Sarah J; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A; Al-Enzy, Faisal M; Alhayani, Osamah A; Al-Wadey, Ali M

    2012-04-01

    Results from a screening program for sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia suggest about 90% of couples in Saudi Arabia at risk of having affected children still decide to marry. This study determined the rate of at-risk marriages and identified several factors that may prevent at risk couples from marrying. The marriage status of 934 at-risk couples was determined from original screening program records in the Ministry of Health. Of 934 couples, 824 married (88.2%) and 110 (11.8%) did not. A case-controlled study was conducted on 104 couples who did not marry (cases) and 478 couples who did marry (controls) in order to assess relationships between various cultural and social factors and marriage decisions. In the case-controled study, 28.8% of couples (30/104) who did not marry (cases) knew their disease or carrier status before screening compared to 18% (86/478) of those who married (controls). Reasons couples gave for proceeding with marriage included: wedding plans could not be canceled, and fear of social stigma. Couples who did not marry reported being influenced by prior knowledge of their disease or carrier status and whether they or family members were affected. Approximately half of the cases and controls (n = 270, 46.4%) thought it best to undergo screening before proceeding with the engagement and wedding plans. Most couples received no advice to participate in genetic counseling services. Marriage decisions for the small number who received genetic counseling (n = 168, 27.6%) did not differ significantly from those that received no counseling. Recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of this screening program.

  7. Analysis of FY 2005/2006 Hydrologic Testing and Sampling Results for Well ER-12-4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Fryer

    2006-09-01

    This report documents the analysis of data collected for ER-12-4 during the fiscal year (FY) 2005 Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain well development and hydraulic testing program (herein referred to as the ''testing program'') and hydraulic response data from the FY 2006 Sampling Program. Well ER-12-4 was constructed and tested as a part of the Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Phase I drilling program during FY 2005. These activities were conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject. As shown on Figure 1-1, ER-12-4 is located in central Rainier Mesa, in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Figure 1-2 shows the well location in relation to the tunnels under Rainier Mesa. The well was drilled to a total depth (TD) of 3,715 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs) (surface elevation 6,883.7 ft above mean sea level [amsl]) in the area of several tunnels mined into Rainier Mesa that were used historically for nuclear testing (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The closest nuclear test to the well location was MIGHTY OAK (U-12t.08), conducted in the U-12t Tunnel approximately 475 ft north of the well site. The MIGHTY OAK test working point elevation was located at approximately 5,620 ft amsl. The MIGHTY OAK test had an announced yield of ''less than 20 kilotons'' (DOE/NV, 2000). The purpose of this hydrogeologic investigation well is to evaluate the deep Tertiary volcanic section below the tunnel level, which is above the regional water table, and to provide information on the section of the lower carbonate aquifer - thrust plate (LCA3), located below the Tertiary volcanic section (SNJV, 2005b). Details on the drilling and completion program are presented in the ''Completion Report for Well ER-12-4 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain'' (NNSA/NSO, 2006). Participants in ER-12-4 testing activities were: Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), Bechtel Nevada (BN), Desert Research Institute (DRI), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture served as the lead contractor responsible for providing site supervision, development and testing services, and waste management services; BN provided construction and engineering support services; DRI provided well logging services and participated in groundwater sampling and laboratory analyses; LANL and LLNL participated in groundwater sampling and laboratory analyses; and the USGS performed laboratory analyses. Analyses of data from the ER-12-4 testing program presented in this document were performed by SNJV except as noted. These same contractors participated in the FY 2006 Sampling Program.

  8. The geography of diabetes by census tract in a large sample of insured adults in King County, Washington, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D; Moudon, Anne V; Arterburn, David

    2014-07-24

    Identifying areas of high diabetes prevalence can have an impact on public health prevention and intervention programs. Local health practitioners and public health agencies lack small-area data on obesity and diabetes. Clinical data from the Group Health Cooperative health care system were used to estimate diabetes prevalence among 59,767 adults by census tract. Area-based measures of socioeconomic status and the Modified Retail Food Environment Index were obtained at the census-tract level in King County, Washington. Spatial analyses and regression models were used to assess the relationship between census tract-level diabetes and area-based socioeconomic status and food environment variables. The mediating effect of obesity on the geographic distribution of diabetes was also examined. In this population of insured adults, diabetes was concentrated in south and southeast King County, with smoothed diabetes prevalence ranging from 6.9% to 21.2%. In spatial regression models, home value and college education were more strongly associated with diabetes than was household income. For each 50% increase in median home value, diabetes prevalence was 1.2 percentage points lower. The Modified Retail Food Environment Index was not related to diabetes at the census-tract level. The observed associations between area-based socioeconomic status and diabetes were largely mediated by obesity (home value, 58%; education, 47%). The observed geographic disparities in diabetes among insured adults by census tract point to the importance of area socioeconomic status. Small-area studies can help health professionals design community-based programs for diabetes prevention and control.

  9. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in the Elderly in Israel--Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey of the Elderly 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Zusman, Shlomo Paul; Kushnir, Daniel; Natapov, Lena; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Dichtiar, Rita

    2016-01-01

    To assess the oral health-related quality of life of the Israeli elderly. Data were collected from a subsample of those interviewed for the cross-sectional Mabat Zahav National Health and Nutrition Survey of the Elderly, carried out in 2005 and 2006 by the Ministry of Health in Israel. In-person interviews were conducted in the interviewees' homes using a structured questionnaire which included 7 questions on subjective dental health status and the 14 questions of the Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14). Statistical significance of continuous variables was assessed with the Student t-test; categorical variables with normal distribution were analysed using the chi-square test and those with non-normal distribution with the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney two-sample test. 828 Jews and 159 Arabs from the total survey population of 1852 elderly (1536 Jews and 316 Arabs) completed the OHIP-14 questionnaire. An impact of oral health on the quality of life was reported by 16.6% of the respondents, 19.2% of females and 13.9% of males (p<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in impact prevalence by gender, place of birth and economic status. No such differences were found by age group, population group or education. Significant statistical correlation was found between subjective assessment of general and dental health and OHIP impact prevalence, with poorer assessment correlated with increased prevalence of impact. The quality of life of 17% of Israeli elderly is affected by oral health. The OHIP-14 findings emphasise the importance of including basic dental treatment (treatment of dental pain and infections) in the range of services covered by the National Health Insurance Law.

  10. The occurrence of glyphosate, atrazine, and other pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent streams in Washington, DC, Maryland, Iowa, and Wyoming, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Battaglin, William A; Rice, Karen C; Focazio, Michael J; Salmons, Sue; Barry, Robert X

    2009-08-01

    Vernal pools are sensitive environments that provide critical habitat for many species, including amphibians. These small water bodies are not always protected by pesticide label requirements for no-spray buffer zones, and the occurrence of pesticides in them is poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of glyphosate, its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid, and additional pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent flowing waters. Most sampling sites were chosen to be in areas where glyphosate was being used either in production agriculture or for nonindigenous plant control. The four site locations were in otherwise protected areas (e.g., in a National Park). When possible, water samples were collected both before and after glyphosate application in 2005 and 2006. Twenty-eight pesticides or pesticide degradation products were detected in the study, and as many as 11 were identified in individual samples. Atrazine was detected most frequently and concentrations exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard of 1.8 micrograms per liter (microg/l) in samples from Rands Ditch and Browns Ditch in DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge. Glyphosate was measured at the highest concentration (328 microg/l) in a sample from Riley Spring Pond in Rock Creek National Park. This concentration exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard for glyphosate of 65 microg/l. Aminomethylphosphonic acid, triclopyr, and nicosulfuron also were detected at concentrations greater than 3.0 microg/l.

  11. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006. Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  12. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006. Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  13. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking-United States, 2005-2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to o...

  14. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2005-2006, Tables 1-4

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The four table sets include national estimates of mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns (FP) components per individual estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHAN...

  15. Detailed seafloor morphology in the epicentral region of the Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake from the compilation of 2005-2006 French and British swath bathymetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Sibuet, J.; Permana, H.; Dessa, J.; Singh, S.; Dean, S.; White, N.; Carton, H.; Chauhan, A.; Greenroyd, C. J.; Royle, G.; Aryawan, K. G.; Chaubey, A. K.; Galih, D. R.; Laesanpura, A.; Prihantono, J.; Shankar, U.; McNeill, L. C.; Henstock, T. J.; Tappin, D.

    2006-12-01

    The 26th December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake is the second largest earthquake (Mw=9.1) recorded during the past century. In order to investigate the sea-floor morphology and potentially recent fault activity related to the seismic activity, swath bathymetric mapping was conducted by the French vessel R/V Marion Dufresne during Sumatra-Aftershocks 2005 cruise and complemented during SAGER-OBS in 2006. The 2005 box was a 370 km x 75 km strip located between northern Sumatra and the Indonesia/India boundary (Sibuet et al, 2005). These data complemented the data acquired by HMS Scott (Henstock et al, 2006) earlier in 2005. This year, we filled the gap in the 2005 surveys and added two more boxes. Box A is located over the outer ridge and wedge, east of the area covered during the Sumatra Aftershocks cruise. Box B is in the vicinity of the epicentre and completes the existing data set on the outer ridge, north of the West Andaman Fault (WAF). These data, combined with the HMS Scott data represent about 70 percent of the surface area between west Simeulue Island and the India-Indonesia boundary, from the trench to north- west Sumatra. This dataset provides for the first time the detailed morphology of the vast epicentral region, which permits us to identify fine-scale as well large-scale geo-morphological features related to subduction processes. New data outline the major discontinuity of the deflection of the outer ridge where it crosses the WAF. As identified last year, some of the active deformation in the wedge and at the base of the outer ridge could be interpreted as the emergence of major splay faults that may accommodate part of the December 26th earthquake thrusting. Apart from thrusting, the upper part of the wedge shows folds and pull-apart basins that indicate a significant strike motion. To the south, the outer ridge is well developed in the continuity of Simeulue Island forming a 60 km wide, relatively smooth 1000 m deep plateau. The entire data-set outlines the narrowing of the wedge to the south and the evolution of the outer arc high bounding a nearly undeformed forearc basin domain, significantly less developed to the south in response to the evolution of the obliquity of the convergence. The data also confirms the important role of the WAF in this evolution as a major upper plate boundary. In conclusion, these bathymetric data, together with the 3.5 kHz data and deep seismic data will help to better determine the morpho-tectonic evolution of the Sumatra convergent margin from Indian waters to the west of Simeulue Island, an area which was strongly affected by the December 2004 earthquake.

  16. [The teaching of orthodontics in the opinion of students from Department of Dentistry of Pomeranian Medical University in the academic year of 2005/2006].

    PubMed

    Syryńska, Maria; Post, Marcin; Tsynkel, Pavel; Durka, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to get to know, collect and present information provided by students about classes from orthodontic and their opinion regarding the conduction of clinical and theoretical exercises. The study group was comprised of 69 fifth year students from the Department of Orthodontics of the Pomeranian Medical University. The material was collected by the use of an anonymous questionnaire distributed after the final exam from orthodontics. The questionnaire was created for the study and contained 6 questions. Most of the students have admitted that knowledge gained during the 4th year was useful on the 5th year and that the information presented on orthodontic seminars during the 5th year was beneficial in regard to clinical exercises. Graduates have admitted that they felt well prepared in the field of orthodontic profilaxis and removable appliances but not enough prepared in the field of fixed appliances, retention and the repair of damaged appliances. The number of patients on clinical exercises in most answers was rated as "enough". Most of the students have answered that the way of the exercises have been conducted in their groups was acceptable and the time on exercises has been properly used. Laboratory exercises and seminars on the 4th and 5th year of studies have supplemented the knowledge of students and prepared them for clinical work in orthodontics. Students have proved to be good observers when indicating the weak points of didactics.

  17. Predictors of incident and recurrent participation in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai Province Thailand, 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    Latimore, Amanda D.; Rudolph, Abby; German, Danielle; Sherman, Susan G.; Srirojn, Bangorn; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand’s war on drugs, methamphetamine (“yaba” in Thai) use and the drug economy both thrive. This analysis identifies predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit among young Thai yaba users. Methods Between April 2005 and June 2006, 983 yaba users, ages 18-25, were enrolled in a randomized behavioral intervention in Chiang Mai Province (415 index and 568 of their drug network members). Questionnaires administered at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits assessed socio-demographic factors, current and prior drug use, social network characteristics, sexual risk behaviors and drug use norms. Exposures were lagged by three months (prior visit). Outcomes included incident and recurrent drug economy involvement. Generalized linear mixed models were fit using GLIMMIX (SAS v9.1). Results Incident drug economy involvement was predicted by yaba use frequency (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]:1.05; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.10), recent incarceration (AOR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.07, 5.25) and the proportion of yaba-using networks who quit recently (AOR: .34; 95%CI: .15, .78). Recurrent drug economy involvement was predicted by age (AOR: 0.81; 95% CI: .68, .96), frequency of yaba use (AOR: 1.06; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.09), drug economy involvement at the previous visit (AOR: 2.61; CI: 1.59, 4.28), incarceration in the prior three months (AOR: 2.29; 95%CI: 1.07, 4.86), and the proportion of yaba-users in his/her network who quit recently (AOR: .38; 95%CI: .20, .71). Conclusion Individual drug use, drug use in social networks and recent incarceration were predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the drug economy. These results suggest that interrupting drug use and/or minimizing the influence of drug-using networks may help prevent further involvement in the drug economy. The emergence of recent incarceration as a predictor for both models highlights the need for more appropriate drug rehabilitation programs and demonstrates that continued criminalization of drug users may fuel Thailand’s yaba epidemic. PMID:21689916

  18. Evaluation of pet-related management factors and the risk of Salmonella spp. carriage in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Leonard, E K; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Janecko, N; Peregrine, A S; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pet-related management factors that may be associated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in feces of pet dogs from volunteer households. From October 2005 until May 2006, 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Five consecutive daily fecal samples were collected from each dog and enrichment culture for Salmonella spp. was performed. A higher than expected number of the dogs (23.2%; 32/138) had at least one fecal sample positive for Salmonella, and 25% (21/84) of the households had at least one dog shedding Salmonella. Twelve serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were identified, with the predominant serotypes being Typhimurium (33.3%; 13/39), Kentucky (15.4%; 6/39), Brandenburg (15.4%; 6/39) and Heidelberg (12.8%; 5/39). Univariable logistic regression models were created with a random effect for household to account for clustering. Statistically significant risk factors for a dog testing positive included having contact with livestock, receiving a probiotic in the previous 30 days, feeding a commercial or homemade raw food diet, feeding raw meat and eggs, feeding a homemade cooked diet, and having more than one dog in the household. In two-variable models that controlled for feeding raw food, the non-dietary variables were no longer statistically significant. These results highlight the potential public health risk of including raw animal products in canine diets. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking-United States, 2005-2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to o...

  20. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Phase II Fish Screen Operation and Maintenance; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schille, Patrick C.

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this project is to assure that the benefits of BPA's capital investment in Yakima Basin Phase II fish screen facilities are realized by performing operations that assure optimal fish protection and long facility life through a rigorous preventative maintenance program, while helping to restore ESA listed fish stocks in the Yakima River Basin.

  1. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.; Johnson, Robert; McKinstry, C.

    2006-03-01

    The construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River resulted in the complete extirpation of the anadromous fishery upstream of these structures. Today, this area is totally dependent upon resident fish resources to support local fisheries. The resident fishing is enhanced by an extensive stocking program for target species in the existing fishery, including kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). The kokanee fishery in Lake Roosevelt has not been meeting the return goals set by fisheries managers despite the stocking program. Investigations of physical and biological factors that could affect the kokanee population found predation and entrainment had a significant impact on the fish population. In 1999 and 2000, walleye (Sander vitreum) consumed between 15% and 9%, respectively, of the hatchery kokanee within 41 days of their release, while results from a study in the late 1990s estimated that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam could account for up to 30% of the total mortality of the stocked fish. To address the entrainment loss, the Bonneville Power Administration commissioned a study to determine if fish would avoid areas illuminated by strobe lights in the forebay of the third powerplant. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). From 2002 through 2004, six strobe lights were suspended in the center of the opening to the third powerplant forebay during summer months. Results from those studies indicated that fish appeared to be attracted to the illuminated area but only at night and when flow conditions within the third powerplant forebay were minimal. However, small but consistent results from these studies indicated that under high flow conditions, fish might be avoiding the lights. The 2005 study was designed to examine whether, under high flow conditions near the penstock openings, fish would avoid the lighted regions. Four omnidirectional strobe lights were deployed on the one trash rack directly in front of one turbine penstock. Seven splitbeam transducers were deployed to monitor fish approaching three penstock openings either from in front of the trash racks or moving down the dam behind the trash racks. Four key results emerged from the 2005 study. The results provide insight into the current level of entrainment and how fish respond to strobe lights under high flow conditions. First, very few fish were detected inside the trash racks. Of the more than 3,200 targets identified by the data processing, less than 100 were detected inside the trash racks. Only 23 fish were found inside the trash racks behind the strobe lights. Of those 21 fish, 13 were detected when the lights were on. Most of the fish detected behind the trash racks were above the turbine penstock but were headed downward. No fish were detected at night when minimal flows occurred between midnight and 4:00 a.m. Second, significantly more fish (P < 0.001) were detected in front of the trash racks when the lights were on at night. On a count-per-hour basis, the difference between lights off and lights on was apparent in the early morning hours at depths between 25 m and 50 m from the transducers. The lights were approximately 34 m below the splitbeam transducers, and fish detected at night with lights on were found at a median depth of approximately 35 m, compared to a median depth of from 20.6 to 23.5 m when the lights were off. The differences in depth between lights on and off at night were also significant (P < 0.001). Additionally, the increase in fish occurred only in front of the trash rack where the strobe lights were mounted; there was no increase in the number of detections by the transducers aimed away from the lights. Third, fish clearly manifested a behavioral response to the strobe lights during the day. When the lights were on, fish detected by three of the four transducers generally were swimming north, parallel to the face of the dam. However, the distribution of swimming directions for fish detected by the transducer immediately to the north of the lights was bimodal, with some fish swimming south toward the lighted region. This behavior was similar to that seen at night when the lights were on. Fourth, kokanee, rainbow trout, and walleye were detected near the strobe lights. Data were obtained from three sources: fish size from the hydroacoustic sensors and fish species from gill netting and video recording. Fish ranging in length from 30 to 600 mm (averaging 125 mm) were detected by the splitbeam transducers. There was little difference in target strength for fish detected above 25 m depth with respect to time of day or light treatment. Below 25 m and closer to the strobe lights, larger fish were present when the lights were on during the night, and smaller fish were present during the day.

  2. Public health potential of a disability tracking system: analysis of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps physical evaluation boards 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Litow, C D R Francesca K; Krahl, Pamela L

    2007-12-01

    Clinical and demographic data in administrative disability tracking systems have the potential to support disability reduction programs. We analyzed recent Navy Physical Evaluation Board data, compared our findings with previous studies, and evaluated the quality of the case-tracking database as a public health information system. The overall rate of cases was 50% higher than in 2000 and 40% higher than the rate of new long-term group disability insurance claims. The most common diagnostic categories remain musculoskeletal disorders, injuries and poisonings, mental health conditions, and neurological syndromes. Diagnosis rates have increased in every category since 2000. The tracking system provided unprecedented timeliness and data accessibility, but fell short of its full potential as a public health tool due to poor information quality. Improved interface design and data entry processes combined with improved reporting capability will enhance its epidemiological value. Continued system improvement requires functional evaluation in conjunction with periodic data analysis.

  3. Reconnaissance of Soil, Ground Water, and Plant Contamination at an Abandoned Oilfield-Service Site near Shawnee, Oklahoma, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, began a reconnaissance study of a site in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, in 2005 by testing soil, shallow ground water, and plant material for the presence of trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Chemical analysis of plant material at the site was investigated as a preliminary tool to determine the extent of contamination at the site. Thirty soil samples were collected from 15 soil cores during October 2005 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Five small-diameter, polyvinyl-chloride-cased wells were installed and ground-water samples were collected during December 2005 and May 2006 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Thirty Johnsongrass samples and 16 Coralberry samples were collected during September 2005 and analyzed for 53 constituents, including trace elements. Results of the soil, ground-water, and plant data indicate that the areas of trace element and semivolatile organic compound contamination are located in the shallow (A-horizon) soils near the threading barn. Most of the trace-element concentrations in the soils on the study site were either similar to or less than trace-element concentrations in background soils. Several trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Levels 2007 for Tap Water, Residential Soils, Industrial Indoor Soils, and Industrial Outdoor Soils. There was little or no correlation between the plant and soil sample concentrations and the plant and ground-water concentrations based on the current sample size and study design. The lack of correlation between trace-element concentrations in plants and soils, and plants and ground water indicate that plant sampling was not useful as a preliminary tool to assess contamination at the study site.

  4. Presence of Medical Home and School Attendance: An Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willits, Kathryn A.; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith L.; Nies, Mary A.; Racine, Elizabeth F.; Platonova, Elena; Harris, Henry L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) tend to miss more school because of illness. Medical homes are a model of primary health care that coordinate services to better meet the needs of the child. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between presence of medical home and missed school days among CSHCN.…

  5. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events-United States, 2005-2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to waterborne-d...

  6. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and cases suspicious for tuberculosis among public health clinic patients in Afghanistan, 2005-2006: perspectives on recognition and referral of tuberculosis cases.

    PubMed

    Lainez, Yolanda Barberá; Todd, Catherine S; Ahmadzai, Ahmadullah; Doocy, Shannon C; Burnham, Gilbert

    2009-05-01

    To assess diagnosis and management of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients with respiratory complaints attending Comprehensive Health Centers (CHCs) in Afghanistan. Consecutive consenting patients presenting with respiratory complaints at 24 health centres in eight provinces were enrolled between November 2005 and February 2006. Demographics, health histories, clinic provider and study representative exam findings and diagnoses, and diagnostic test results were recorded. Correlates of TB-suggestive symptoms (defined as cough >2 weeks and/or haemoptysis) were assessed by logistic regression. There were 1401 participants; 24.6% (n = 345) were children (age 17 or under). The TB-suggestive symptoms of cough >2 weeks and/or haemoptysis were reported by 407 (31.3%) and 44(3.3%), respectively, with 39 participants reporting both symptoms. Of 413 participants reporting TB-suggestive symptoms, only 178 (43%) were diagnosed as having suspected TB; 22.0% received no clinical diagnosis. Suspected TB was significantly associated with having a household member residing in a refugee camp within the last 2 years (OR = 6.0; 95% CI: 4.1-8.7), seven or more people sleeping in the same room (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.6) and cooking with a wood fire in the sleeping room (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2) in univariate analysis. Diagnostic sensitivity by the health worker for possible cases of pulmonary TB was low, as 22% of persons with suspected tuberculosis received no diagnosis. Further, some common/chronic respiratory ailments were under-diagnosed. There is great need for improved practical training and continuing education in pulmonary disease diagnosis for clinical health workers.

  7. Data Overview for Sensor Fish Samples Acquired at Ice Harbor, John Day, and Bonneville II Dams in 2005, 2006, and 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2008-03-12

    The purpose of this work was to acquire Sensor Fish data on turbine passage at Bonneville II, John Day, and Ice Harbor dams for later analysis and use. The original data sets have been entered into a database and are being maintained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory pending delivery to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers when requested. This report provides documentation for the data sets acquired and details about the operations of the Sensor Fish and interpretation of Sensor Fish data that will be necessary for later use of the acquired data. A limited review of the acquired data was conducted to assess its quality and to extract information that might prove useful to its later use.

  8. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  9. Generalization of color-difference formulas for any illuminant and any observer by assuming perfect color constancy in a color-vision model based on the OSA-UCS system.

    PubMed

    Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    The most widely used color-difference formulas are based on color-difference data obtained under D65 illumination or similar and for a 10° visual field; i.e., these formulas hold true for the CIE 1964 observer adapted to D65 illuminant. This work considers the psychometric color-vision model based on the Optical Society of America-Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) system previously published by the first author [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] with the additional hypothesis that complete illuminant adaptation with perfect color constancy exists in the visual evaluation of color differences. In this way a computational procedure is defined for color conversion between different illuminant adaptations, which is an alternative to the current chromatic adaptation transforms. This color conversion allows the passage between different observers, e.g., CIE 1964 and CIE 1931. An application of this color conversion is here made in the color-difference evaluation for any observer and in any illuminant adaptation: these transformations convert tristimulus values related to any observer and illuminant adaptation to those related to the observer and illuminant adaptation of the definition of the color-difference formulas, i.e., to the CIE 1964 observer adapted to the D65 illuminant, and then the known color-difference formulas can be applied. The adaptations to the illuminants A, C, F11, D50, Planckian and daylight at any color temperature and for CIE 1931 and CIE 1964 observers are considered as examples, and all the corresponding transformations are given for practical use.

  10. Constraining Source Locations of Shallow Subduction Megathrust Earthquakes in 1-D and 3-D Velocity Models - A Case Study of the 2002 Mw=6.4 Osa Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, I.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake source locations are generally routinely constrained using a global 1-D Earth model. However, the source location might be associated with large uncertainties. This is definitively the case for earthquakes occurring at active continental margins were thin oceanic crust subducts below thick continental crust and hence large lateral changes in crustal thickness occur as a function of distance to the deep-sea trench. Here, we conducted a case study of the 2002 Mw 6.4 Osa thrust earthquake in Costa Rica that was followed by an aftershock sequence. Initial relocations indicated that the main shock occurred fairly trenchward of most large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench off central Costa Rica. The earthquake sequence occurred while a temporary network of ocean-bottom-hydrophones and land stations 80 km to the northwest were deployed. By adding readings from permanent Costa Rican stations, we obtain uncommon P wave coverage of a large subduction zone earthquake. We relocated this catalog using a nonlinear probabilistic approach using a 1-D and two 3-D P-wave velocity models. The 3-D model was either derived from 3-D tomography based on onshore stations and a priori model based on seismic refraction data. All epicentres occurred close to the trench axis, but depth estimates vary by several tens of kilometres. Based on the epicentres and constraints from seismic reflection data the main shock occurred 25 km from the trench and probably along the plate interface at 5-10 km depth. The source location that agreed best with the geology was based on the 3-D velocity model derived from a priori data. Aftershocks propagated downdip to the area of a 1999 Mw 6.9 sequence and partially overlapped it. The results indicate that underthrusting of the young and buoyant Cocos Ridge has created conditions for interpolate seismogenesis shallower and closer to the trench axis than elsewhere along the central Costa Rica margin.

  11. OSA Imaging and Applied Optics Congress Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-16

    and Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging (COSI) .The meetings exposed attendees to in-depth learning of optical sensing and imaging and their...were supported by this grant. The meetings exposed attendees to in-depth learning of optical sensing and imaging and their applications from...Participants can hear about the latest products and services, but more importantly, learn about entrepreneurial opportunities and how scientific

  12. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XXI; A Summary of Methods for Conducting Salmonid Fry Mark-Recapture Studies for Estimating Survival in Tributaries, Technical Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John

    2007-02-01

    Productivity and early fry survival can have a major influence on the dynamics of fish stocks. To investigate the early life history of fish, numerous methods have been developed or adapted to these much smaller fish. Some of the marking techniques provide individual identification; many others, only class identification. Some of the tagging techniques require destructive sampling to identify a mark; other methods permit benign examination and rerelease of captured fish. Sixteen alternative release-recapture designs for conducting fry survival investigations were examined. Eleven approaches were found capable of estimating survival parameters; five were not. Of those methods capable of estimating fry survival, five required unique marks, four required batch-specific marks, and two approaches required remarking and rereleasing captured fry. No approach based on a simple batch mark was capable of statistically estimating survival.

  13. Negative association between serum parathyroid hormone levels and urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chien-Liang; Lee, Jie-Jen; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Yang, Po-Sheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are well-known inhibitors of the sodium-iodide symporter and may disrupt thyroid function. This exploratory study investigated the association among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the general U.S. population. We analyzed data on 4265 adults (aged 20 years and older) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the relationship among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentration and PTH levels and the presence of hyperparathyroidism cross-sectionally. The geometric means and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) concentrations of urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were 3.38 (3.15-3.62), 40363 (37512-43431), and 1129 (1029-1239) ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables and sample weights, creatinine-corrected urinary perchlorate was negatively associated with serum PTH levels in women (P = 0.001), and creatinine-corrected urinary nitrate and thiocyanate were negatively associated with serum PTH levels in both sex groups (P = 0.001 and P<0.001 for men, P = 0.018 and P<0.001 for women, respectively). Similar results were obtained from sensitivity analyses performed for exposure variables unadjusted for creatinine with urinary creatinine added as a separate covariate. There was a negative relationship between hyperparathyroidism and urinary nitrate and thiocyanate [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.60-0.98) and 0.69 (0.61-0.79), respectively]. A higher urinary concentration of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate is associated with lower serum PTH levels. Future studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological background of the observation.

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CRUSTAL MAGMA BODY IN THE 2005-2006 ERUPTION AREA AT 9°50'N ON THE EAST PACIFIC RISE FROM 3D MULTI-CHANNEL SEISMIC DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Canales, J.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Aghaei, O.; Xu, M.; Han, S.; Stowe, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2008 a large 3D multi-channel seismic dataset (expedition MGL0812) was collected over the 9°50’N Integrated Study Site at the East Pacific Rise, providing insight into the architecture of the magmatic system and its relationship with hydrothermal activity and volcanic/dyking events associated with the 2005-06 eruption. The main area of 3D coverage is located between 9°42’N and 9°57’N, spanning ~28km along-axis, and was acquired along 94 (1 partial) prime lines shot across-axis and each ~24km-long. Pre-processing of the data acquired in this area is now well under way, with significant efforts targeted at amplitude spike removal. Current work focuses on setting up the 3D processing sequence up to the stack stage for a small group of inlines (axis-perpendicular grid lines spaced 37.5m apart) located over the “bull’s eye” site at 9°50’N, a sequence that will subsequently be applied to the whole dataset. At the meeting we will present stacked and migrated sections - inlines, crosslines, time slices - obtained through 3D processing. We will discuss results focusing on the characteristics of the axial magma body, whose detailed structure and along-axis segmentation will be resolved by the 3D data.

  15. Multiple introduction of Asian H5N1 avian influenza virus in Croatia by wild birds during 2005-2006 and isolation of the virus from apparently healthy black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus).

    PubMed

    Savić, Vladimir; Labrović, Ankica; Zelenika, Tajana Amsel; Balenović, Mirta; Separović, Sanja; Jurinović, Luka

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the introduction and spread of avian influenza A (H5N1) subtype in Croatia. Seventeen isolates were identified during the period from October 2005 to March 2006, all originating from wild birds. The full-length nucleotide sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of seven representative isolates revealed that three distinct genetic strains involved in the outbreaks, implicating at least three independent introductions of the virus into Croatia during a relatively short period of time. All three genetic strains belonged to clade 2.2 (Qinghai-like viruses) and each strain displayed significant similarity to concurrent H5N1 viruses from other European countries. The dominant strain of the virus was present in all four affected areas and in all three bird species (mute swan, mallard, and black-headed gull), indicating cross-species transmission of the virus. Two other genetic strains were found, together with the dominant strain, only in a marsh at the Adriatic coast during late February and early March 2006, which could be associated with frozen water surfaces in the continental part of Croatia as well as in Eastern Europe in early 2006 and the movement of birds toward warmer areas. This is also the first isolation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype from apparently healthy black-headed gulls.

  16. Recent Advances in the Remote Sensing of Radiological Materials by Passive FTIR Radiometry. 2005-2006 Summary Report for the Canadian Safeguards Support Program of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    that some materials such as UO2 , UO3, U3O8 , CoO, Co2O3, ThO2, CsI, SrO, I2O5 and La2O3 have absorption features in the thermal infrared region, and...and strontium oxide (SrO). Initially it was planned to include two uranium oxides ( UO2 and U3O8 ); however, high wind conditions precluded their use...at DRDC Ottawa that will involve the use of ground-based passive standoff FTIR radiometry for detecting and identifying UO2 and U3O8 radioactive

  17. Risk factors for obesity at age 3 in Alaskan children, including the role of beverage consumption: results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and its three-year follow-up survey, CUBS, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Young, Margaret B; Perham-Hester, Katherine A; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (<$10,000 in the year before the child was born (OR 3.94, 95%CI 1.22--17.03) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages.

  18. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006, usual nutrient intakes from food and water compared to 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report presents national estimates of usual nutrient intake distributions from food and water for vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium and compares those estimates to the Dietary Reference Intakes published by the Institute of Medicine in 1997. Estimates are based on data from 8,437 in...

  19. Comparison of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their variability causes in the ambient air in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan, during 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Hien, To Thi; Nam, Pham Phuong; Yasuhiro, Sadanaga; Takayuki, Kameda; Norimichi, Takenaka; Hiroshi, Bandow

    2007-08-15

    A comparative study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter (TSP) in the ambient air in an urban area in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan was carried out from 2005 to 2006. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental levels, emission sources, seasonal variations and health risk of eleven PAHs in the two cities, especially Ho Chi Minh City where air pollution is becoming a serious concern. The results showed that the concentrations of TSP and total PAHs were significantly higher in Ho Chi Minh City than levels in Osaka. The concentrations of 5- and 6-ring PAHs (BeP, BbF, BkF, BaP, BghiP and InP) were much higher in TSP samples in Ho Chi Minh City than in Osaka, accounting for 82% and 51% of total PAHs, respectively. These PAHs are known to be highly carcinogenic and mutagenic in humans. Vehicular emission is suggested as one of the main pollution sources of PAHs in both cities. Motorcycles and gasoline automobiles are suggested as the main emission sources of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, whereas diesel automobiles are the primary source in Osaka. Seasonal variations of PAHs were observed in this study; higher concentrations of PAHs were found in the rainy season (May-December) and lower concentrations corresponded to the dry season (February-April) in Ho Chi Minh City, while higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the winter (November-January) in Osaka. The number of sunshine hours was an important meteorological factor affecting seasonal variations of PAHs in Ho Chi Minh City, while the temperature was a main factor causing the variations of PAHs in Osaka. The high BaP equivalent concentration of 5- and 6-ring PAHs even in the ambient air is an alarming signal for harmfulness to human health and environmental quality in Ho Chi Minh City.

  20. Identical strength of the T cell responses against E2, nsP1 and capsid CHIKV proteins in recovered and chronic patients after the epidemics of 2005-2006 in La Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Hoarau, Jean-Jacques; Gay, Frederick; Pellé, Olivier; Samri, Assia; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Gasque, Philippe; Autran, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the immunity developed by patients infected by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), we studied the intensity and specificity of CHIKV-specific T cells mediated responses in chronic and recovered patients at 12 to 24 months post-infection. T cells were challenged in vitro against CHIKV synthetic peptides covering the length of three viral proteins, capsid, E2 and nsP1 proteins as well as all inactivated virus particles. Cytokine production was assessed by ELISPOT and intracellular labeling. T cells producing IFN-γ were detected against CHIKV in 85% patient's cells either by direct ELISPOT assay (69% of patients) or after expansion of memory T cells allowing the detection of both CD4 and CD8 specific-T cells in 16% additional cases. The IFN-γ response was mainly engaged in response to nsP1 or E2 (52% and 46% cases, respectively) but in only 27% cases against the capsid. The anti-E2 response represented half the magnitude of the total CHIKV IFN-γ production and was mainly directed against the C-terminal half part of the protein. Almost all patients had conserved a T cell specific response against CHIKV with a clear hierarchy of T cell responses (CD8 > CD4) engaged against E2 > nsP1 > capsid. More importantly, the intensity of responses was not significantly different between recovered and chronic patients. These findings constitute key elements to a better understanding of patient T cell immunoreactivity against CHIKV and argue against a possible defect of T cell immunoresponse in the chronicity post-CHIKV infection.

  1. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (<$10,000 in the year before the child was born (OR 3.94, 95%CI 1.22--17.03) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  2. OR State Profile. Oregon: Oregon State Assessment System (OSAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Oregon State Assessment System. Its purpose is to assess proficiency in the Essential Skills for the purpose of earning a regular or modified high school diploma. Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills is also used for federal accountability purposes under No Child Left Behind. [For the main report,…

  3. Treatment of patients with OSAS using Nd-YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Zajac, Andrzej; Dudziec, Katarzyna

    2000-06-01

    The authors present their clinical experience regarding the possibilities of application of Nd:YAG and Ho:YAG lasers for the treatment of disorders in the are of the upper respiratory tract. The patients with symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Aphnoe Syndrom need a various operations techniques. Lasers techniques makes it possible to perform a number of procedures in local anesthesia which considerably improves the economic effectiveness of the treatment. The surgeries performed using laser beam enabled very good effect of treatment.

  4. OSA Proceedings on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    3 shows PL decay time and the time integrated PL intensity of QWI and QW2 of three samples as a function of Va. The physical interpretations are...Picosecond Pulse Generation and Sampling with GaAs Monolithic Integrated Circuits .6........................................ R. A. Marsland, C. . Madden...73 K L. HaIl,_E.Jt?. Ippen, J. Mark, and G. Eisenstein rSpread-Spectrum- Integrated Optic Modulators ....................... 76 David W

  5. Gregor Mendel, OSA (1822-1884), founder of scientific genetics.

    PubMed

    Dunn, P M

    2003-11-01

    Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian monk and part-time school teacher, undertook a series of brilliant hybridisation experiments with garden peas between 1857 and 1864 in the monastery gardens and, using statistical methods for the first time in biology, established the laws of heredity, thereby establishing the discipline of genetics.

  6. Predicting sleep disordered breathing in outpatients with suspected OSA

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Douglas C; Allardice, Gwen; MacFarlane, Duncan; Ramsay, Darren; Ambler, Heather; Banham, Stephen; Livingston, Eric; Carlin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objective To validate the utilities of Berlin, STOP and STOP-BANG Questionnaires, other patient characteristics, comorbidities, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and blood markers for the prediction of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on limited polygraphy. Setting North Glasgow Sleep Service (a tertiary referral centre). Participants 129 consecutive patients, aged ≥16 years, referred to the sleep clinic for assessment of possible obstructive sleep apnoea. Interventions We selected cut-points of apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) of ≥5 and ≥15/h from their home polygraphy and determined associations of these with individual symptoms, questionnaire scores and other results. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore these. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Primary: The utility of STOP, STOP-BANG and Berlin Questionnaires for prediction of SDB. Secondary: The utility of other measures for prediction of SDB. Results AHI was ≥5 in 97 patients and ≥15 in 56 patients. STOP and STOP-BANG scores were associated with both AHI cut-points but results with ESS and Berlin Questionnaire scores were negative. STOP-BANG had a negative predictive value 1.00 (0.77–1.00) for an AHI ≥15 with a score ≥3 predicting AHI ≥5 with sensitivity 0.93 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.98) and accuracy 79%, while a score ≥6 predicted AHI ≥15 with specificity 0.78 (0.65 to 0.88) and accuracy 72%. Neck circumference ≥17 inch and presence of witnessed apnoeas were independent predictors of SDB. Conclusions STOP and STOP-BANG Questionnaires have utility for the prediction of SDB in the sleep clinic population. Modification of the STOP-BANG Questionnaire merits further study in this and other patient groups. PMID:24736037

  7. Cancer and OSA: Current Evidence From Human Studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Campos-Rodriguez, Francisco; Barbé, Ferrán

    2016-08-01

    Despite the undeniable medical advances achieved in recent decades, cancer remains one of the main causes of mortality. It is thus extremely important to make every effort to discover new risk factors for this disease, particularly ones that can be treated or modified. Various pathophysiologic pathways have been postulated as possible causes of cancer or its increased aggressiveness, and also of greater resistance to antitumoral treatment, in the presence of both intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation (both inherent to sleep apnea). Thus far, these biological hypotheses have been supported by various experimental studies in animals. Meanwhile, recent human studies drawing on preexisting databases have observed an increase in cancer incidence and mortality in patients with a greater severity of sleep-disordered breathing. However, the methodologic limitations of these studies (which are mostly retrospective and lack any measurement of direct markers of intermittent hypoxia or sleep fragmentation) highlight the need for controlled, prospective studies that would provide stronger scientific evidence regarding the existence of this association and its main characteristics, as well as explore its nature and origin in greater depth. The great epidemiologic impact of both cancer and sleep apnea and the potential for clinical treatment make this field of research an exciting challenge. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, Volume 14 Spatial Light Modulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-26

    electroplated gold. The advantages of our new fabrication technology are as follows. The integration does not require any alignment before wafer bonding...circuit and the photonic circuit is electroplated gold. The gold electrode under the VCSEL is for reducing the thermal resistance. The device fabrication...form three-dimensional contacts between the p-type contact of the VCSELs and the bonding pads on the Si-CMOS wafer with electroplated gold

  9. OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series. Volume 13: Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Monolithically - Integrated Circuit for All Optical Generation of Millimeter-Wave Frequencies 91 G. Allen Vawter, Alan Mar, Vince Hietala, John Zolper...generation using hybrid mode-locking of a monolithic DBR laser," Electron. Lett., 1995, 31, pp. 733-734. [3] T. Hoshida, H. F. Liu, M. R. H. Daza, M...400 500 Time (ps) Figure 3. Pulse response of the RCE photodiode A Complete Monolithically - Integrated Circuit for All Optical Generation of

  10. Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Or is it OSA and Obesity?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    xample, Tasali et al. [42] recently documented that selec- ive reduction of delta sleep compromises insulin sensitivity. 7 h / Path H s T s b a o p s F...treatment onset, and he same group recently demonstrated a 68% improvement n insulin sensitivity after ∼3 years of successful PAP treat- ent [71]. Kajaste et...association with, and ndependent of, reduction in body weight. In a retrospective tudy of questionnaire data from Quan et al. suggested that egular

  11. First Image Products from EcoSAR - Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Rincon, Rafael; Fatuyinbo, Lola; Bollian, Tobias; Ranson, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Designed especially for forest ecosystem studies, EcoSAR employs state-of-the-art digital beamforming technology to generate wide-swath, high-resolution imagery. EcoSARs dual antenna single-pass imaging capability eliminates temporal decorrelation from polarimetric and interferometric analysis, increasing the signal strength and simplifying models used to invert forest structure parameters. Antennae are physically separated by 25 meters providing single pass interferometry. In this mode the radar is most sensitive to topography. With 32 active transmit and receive channels, EcoSARs digital beamforming is an order of magnitude more versatile than the digital beamforming employed on the upcoming NISAR mission. EcoSARs long wavelength (P-band, 435 MHz, 69 cm) measurements can be used to simulate data products for ESAs future BIOMASS mission, allowing scientists to develop algorithms before the launch of the satellite. EcoSAR can also be deployed to collect much needed data where BIOMASS satellite wont be allowed to collect data (North America, Europe and Arctic), filling in the gaps to keep a watchful eye on the global carbon cycle. EcoSAR can play a vital role in monitoring, reporting and verification schemes of internationals programs such as UN-REDD (United Nations Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) benefiting global society. EcoSAR was developed and flown with support from NASA Earth Sciences Technology Offices Instrument Incubator Program.

  12. The Rochester OSA Optics Suitcase: 13 years of middle school outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Donlon, Theresa M.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2012-10-01

    The Rochester Section of the Optical Society of America (ROSA) developed a youth outreach program in 1999 to be presented in middle schools by scientists, engineers and engineering students. The objective was to kindle interest in technology careers, especially those related to optics, photonics, and optical engineering. Three in-class experiments using individual take-home theme packets that explore color in white light were devised early in the program, and these have proven to be the key to its success. Over the past 13 years, with financial support from a variety of organizations and individuals, ROSA has manufactured and delivered over 450 Optics Suitcases to groups in 34 US states and 54 countries. The presentation guide is now available in 4 languages besides English. In this paper, the elements of an Optics Suitcase presentation are reviewed, and examples of outreach events are used to document its success.

  13. Obesity, diabetes and OSAS induce of sleep disorders: exercise as therapy.

    PubMed

    Alves, Eduardo S; Lira, Fabio S; Santos, Ronaldo V T; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T

    2011-08-23

    Sleep is an integral part of good health. Sleep disorders and variations in sleep habits are associated with a low-grade inflammatory status, which may be either a cause or consequence of other conditions, including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Several strategies are available to counteract these conditions including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), pharmacological and nutritional interventions, and even surgery. At present, our group is investigating the effect of chronic endurance exercise on sleep alterations.

  14. Hydrogeological responses to incoming materials at the erosional subduction margin, offshore Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Jun; Harris, Robert N.; Shimizu, Mayuko; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Tsutsumi, Akito; Ikehara, Minoru; Uno, Masaoki; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Hamada, Yohei; Namiki, Yuka; Kimura, Gaku

    2015-09-01

    Bulk mineral assemblages of sediments and igneous basement rocks on the incoming Cocos Plate at the Costa Rica subduction zone are examined by X-ray diffraction analyses on core samples. These samples are from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 334 reference Site U1381, ˜ 5 km seaward of the trench. Drilling recovered approximately 100 m of sediment and 70 m of igneous oceanic basement. The sediment includes two lithologic units: hemipelagic clayey mud and siliceous to calcareous pelagic ooze. The hemipelagic unit is composed of clay minerals (˜50 wt.%), quartz (˜5 wt.%), plagioclase (˜5 wt.%), calcite (˜15 wt.%) and ˜30 wt.% of amorphous materials, while the pelagic unit is mostly made up of biogenic amorphous silica (˜50 wt.%) and calcite (˜50 wt.%). The igneous basement rock consists of plagioclase (˜50-60 wt.%), clinopyroxene (˜>25 wt.%), and saponite (˜15-40 wt.%). Saponite is more abundant in pillow basalt than in the massive section, reflecting the variable intensity of alteration. We estimate the total water influx of the sedimentary package is 6.9 m3/yr per m of trench length. Fluid expulsion models indicate that sediment compaction during shallow subduction causes the release of pore water while peak mineral dehydration occurs at temperatures of approximately ˜100°C, 40-30 km landward of the trench. This region is landward of the observed updip extent of seismicity. We posit that in this region the presence of subducting bathymetric relief capped by velocity weakening nannofossil chalk is more important in influencing the updip extent of seismicity than the thermal regime.

  15. Process optimization of ultrasound-assisted curcumin nanoemulsions stabilized by OSA-modified starch.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Shabbar; Bashari, Mohanad; Akhtar, Waseem; Li, Wei Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on the process optimization of ultrasound-assisted, food-grade oil-water nanoemulsions stabilized by modified starches. In this work, effects of major emulsification process variables including applied power in terms of power density and sonication time, and formulation parameters, that is, surfactant type and concentration, bioactive concentration and dispersed-phase volume fraction were investigated on the mean droplet diameter, polydispersity index and charge on the emulsion droplets. Emulsifying properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches, that is, Purity Gum 2000, Hi-Cap 100 and Purity Gum Ultra, and the size stability of corresponding emulsion droplets during the 1 month storage period were also investigated. Results revealed that the smallest and more stable nanoemulsion droplets were obtained when coarse emulsions treated at 40% of applied power (power density: 1.36 W/mL) for 7 min, stabilized by 1.5% (w/v) Purity Gum Ultra. Optimum volume fraction of oil (medium chain triglycerides) and the concentration of bioactive compound (curcumin) dispersed were 0.05 and 6 mg/mL oil, respectively. These results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted emulsification could be successfully used for the preparation of starch-stabilized nanoemulsions at lower temperatures (40-45 °C) and reduced energy consumption.

  16. 'REM-related OSA': a forgotten diagnostic? Possible path to under-diagnosing sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Beneto, A; Soler-Algarra, S; Salavert, V

    2016-12-01

    Introduccion. Recientemente se han propugnado criterios restrictivos para definir el sindrome de apnea/hipopnea obstructiva ligado al sueño REM y persisten interrogantes sobre su trascendencia nosologica y manejo clinico. Objetivo. Evaluar los criterios definitorios de la apnea del sueño REM, su relacion con la comorbilidad cardiometabolica y los aspectos relacionados con su diagnostico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional retrospectivo sobre datos clinicos y polisomnograficos de pacientes ambulatorios. Se incluyo a 525 pacientes mayores de 18 años que tenian un indice apnea/hipopnea (IAH) por hora de sueño = 5 (total, o parcial en REM o no REM). Resultados. Se han configurado subgrupos 'dependientes de la fase' utilizando un criterio basado en la 'proporcion = 2' y otro 'estricto' basado en uno de los IAH parciales = 5 frente al otro IAH < 5 (en REM o en no REM). En el subgrupo 'apnea del sueño REM estricto', la mitad de los pacientes muestra un IAH global < 5 y menos gravedad en los parametros respiratorios, pero sin menores porcentajes de comorbilidad. Con los criterios diagnosticos actuales quedarian excluidos del diagnostico de sindrome de apnea/hipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS). Conclusiones. Aplicar un criterio estricto para detectar apnea del sueño REM permite filtrar formas muy leves de SAHOS asociadas a comorbilidad cardiometabolica en porcentajes no diferentes significativamente de otras formas mas graves. Para evitar el infradiagnostico del SAHOS seria oportuno revisar los criterios diagnosticos actuales y las indicaciones de las tecnicas reducidas.

  17. Emerging applications: Screening OSA by Modified Pictorial Epworth Sleepiness Scale in Indian subjects.

    PubMed

    Karim, Azmat; Arora, V K; Gupta, M B

    2015-10-01

    The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a widely used scoring to measure excessive daytime sleepiness. This scale was designed to be self-completed by the subjects, but unfortunately in a developing country with low literacy this had affected its outcome interpretation. The Traditional ESS has been translated into a Modified Pictorial version for easy comprehension by the patients. Subjects were evaluated for their competence to self-complete the ESS (Conventional and Pictorial) in Sleep Clinic at Respiratory Department of Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad. Modified Pictorial representations were designed along with 5 newer questions incorporated as sub-questions in 8 original domains prepared and labelled as Pictorial Scale. The Traditional (ESS) and Pictorial (Modified) representations were compared for agreement by receiver operating curve and the area under curve. It was found that time taken to complete the Traditional ESS was significantly higher in comparison to Modified Pictorial Epworth Sleepiness Scale with reduced errors (Pictorial ESS 4.67min than Traditional ESS 14.43min). Modified pictures scale showed statistically significant improvements over ESS and hence can be used as an alternative for subjects with low literacy level. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Osa-miR169 Negatively Regulates Rice Immunity against the Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Sheng-Li; Li, Jin-Lu; Hu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, He; Cao, Xiao-Long; Xu, Yong-Ju; Zhao, Zhi-Xue; Xiao, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Nan; Fan, Jing; Huang, Fu; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2017-01-01

    miR169 is a conserved microRNA (miRNA) family involved in plant development and stress-induced responses. However, how miR169 functions in rice immunity remains unclear. Here, we show that miR169 acts as a negative regulator in rice immunity against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae by repressing the expression of nuclear factor Y-A (NF-YA) genes. The accumulation of miR169 was significantly increased in a susceptible accession but slightly fluctuated in a resistant accession upon M. oryzae infection. Consistently, the transgenic lines overexpressing miR169a became hyper-susceptible to different M. oryzae strains associated with reduced expression of defense-related genes and lack of hydrogen peroxide accumulation at the infection site. Consequently, the expression of its target genes, the NF-YA family members, was down-regulated by the overexpression of miR169a at either transcriptional or translational level. On the contrary, overexpression of a target mimicry that acts as a sponge to trap miR169a led to enhanced resistance to M. oryzae. In addition, three of miR169’s target genes were also differentially up-regulated in the resistant accession upon M. oryzae infection. Taken together, our data indicate that miR169 negatively regulates rice immunity against M. oryzae by differentially repressing its target genes and provide the potential to engineer rice blast resistance via a miRNA. PMID:28144248

  19. Acoustic analysis of snoring sounds recorded with a smartphone according to obstruction site in OSAS patients.

    PubMed

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Kwon, Soon Bok; Kim, Yang Jae; Moon, J I Seung; Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Snoring is a sign of increased upper airway resistance and is the most common symptom suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea. Acoustic analysis of snoring sounds is a non-invasive diagnostic technique and may provide a screening test that can determine the location of obstruction sites. We recorded snoring sounds according to obstruction level, measured by DISE, using a smartphone and focused on the analysis of formant frequencies. The study group comprised 32 male patients (mean age 42.9 years). The spectrogram pattern, intensity (dB), fundamental frequencies (F 0), and formant frequencies (F 1, F 2, and F 3) of the snoring sounds were analyzed for each subject. On spectrographic analysis, retropalatal level obstruction tended to produce sharp and regular peaks, while retrolingual level obstruction tended to show peaks with a gradual onset and decay. On formant frequency analysis, F 1 (retropalatal level vs. retrolingual level: 488.1 ± 125.8 vs. 634.7 ± 196.6 Hz) and F 2 (retropalatal level vs. retrolingual level: 1267.3 ± 306.6 vs. 1723.7 ± 550.0 Hz) of retrolingual level obstructions showed significantly higher values than retropalatal level obstruction (p < 0.05). This suggests that the upper airway is more severely obstructed with retrolingual level obstruction and that there is a greater change in tongue position. Acoustic analysis of snoring is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that can be easily applied at a relatively low cost. The analysis of formant frequencies will be a useful screening test for the prediction of occlusion sites. Moreover, smartphone can be effective for recording snoring sounds.

  20. A 51-Year-Old Woman With Hypoacusia and Increased Respiratory Effort in the Supine Position and OSA.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Barriales, Marcos; Vázquez Marcos, Virginia; Álvarez, Ainhoa; Odriozola, Beatriz; Alonso, Juan; Egea Santaolalla, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    A 51-year-old woman with a personal history of vitiligo, normal thyroid hormone studies, a simple hysterectomy for multiple uterine myomas at age 35 years, and childhood adenotonsillectomy was seen for progressive hearing loss. She reported mild asthenia, cold intolerance, mild dysphagia with frequent choking while eating and drinking, and a progressive increase in inspiratory effort, especially in the supine position. Her partner described a progressively worsening history of snoring and witnessed apneic episodes, mostly in the supine position. Mild to moderate daytime sleepiness was also present. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How the Navy Can Use Open Systems Architecture to Revolutionize Capability Acquisition: The Naval OSA Strategy Can Yield Multiple Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    open the DoD market to a greater array of component innovators. Work products that establish payload architectures and platform integration services...infrastructure 7. Markets that are currently vendor locked to be opened (foreign and domestic) 8. The science and technology community to focus on...ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = How the Navy Can Use Open Systems Architecture to Revolutionize Capability

  2. IMPACT OF CONTINOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE (CPAP) ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA (OSA)

    PubMed Central

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L.; Kushida, Clete A.; Walsh, James A.; Simon, Richard D.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a chronic illness with increasing prevalence. In addition to associated cardiovascular comorbidities, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has been linked to poor quality life, occupational accidents, and motor vehicle crashes secondary to excessive daytime sleepiness. Although continuous positive airway pressure is the gold standard for sleep apnea treatment, its effects on quality of life are not well defined. In the current study we investigated the effects of treatment on quality of life using the data from a subset of the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), a randomized controlled trial of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) vs. sham CPAP. The Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) was used to assess quality of life. We found that long-term improvement in quality of life occurs with the use of CPAP in persons with severe and possibly moderate sleep apnea. However no demonstrable improvement in quality of life was noted among participants with mild obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:27242272

  3. Converting a Manned LCU into an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV): An Open Systems Architecture (OSA) Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    through pier-like structure or perform stern- gate marriages to amphibious well deck ships. Welded steel hull construction...connecting USVs with other, dissimilar systems. The thesis goes on to recognize that open architecture (OA) is valuable to fielding a USV system, but

  4. OSA Proceedings on Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics Held in San Francisco, California on January 25 -27, 1993. Volume 14,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-27

    Gb/s NRZ signal. Since monolithic OEIC es such as bistable memory LDs, and ultra- devices have advantages of reduced cost and fast nonlinear-optical...4 T TB ( I - kT/2A + • • - ) ; (9a) tATz -- <(,,-_ )2> = B2 (kT/2 )2,& (9b) where gE =_ I/RE is the differential emitter where c, a- 4mW•mWNB/2A. It...Lett. 53, 373-375 (1988). InP High Electron Mobility Transistors: Status and Promise Loi D. Nguyen Hughes Research Laboratories, 3011 Malibu Canyon Roa4

  5. Tree Diversity and Dynamics of the Forest of Seu Nico, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand future changes in community composition due to global changes, the knowledge about forest community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our understanding about processes and patterns involved in maintaining species rich Neotropical ecosystems, we provide here a dataset from the one hectare Forest of Seu Nico (FSN) Dynamics Plot from Southeastern Brazil. New information We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 2868 trees and treelets identified from two census spanning over a nine-year period. Furthermore, soil properties and understory light availability of all 100 10 x 10m subplots from the one hectare FSN Dynamics Plot during the second census are given. PMID:26312053

  6. Tree Diversity and Dynamics of the Forest of Seu Nico, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gastauer, Markus; Leyh, Werner; Meira-Neto, João A A

    2015-01-01

    To understand future changes in community composition due to global changes, the knowledge about forest community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our understanding about processes and patterns involved in maintaining species rich Neotropical ecosystems, we provide here a dataset from the one hectare Forest of Seu Nico (FSN) Dynamics Plot from Southeastern Brazil. We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 2868 trees and treelets identified from two census spanning over a nine-year period. Furthermore, soil properties and understory light availability of all 100 10 x 10m subplots from the one hectare FSN Dynamics Plot during the second census are given.

  7. Validation of a new domiciliary diagnosis device for automatic diagnosis of patients with clinical suspicion of OSA.

    PubMed

    Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Zamora Almeida, Gabriela; Vegas Diaz de Guereñu, Odei; Saracho Rotaeche, Luis; Hamdan Alkhraisat, Mohammad; Durán Carro, Joaquín; Egea Santaolalla, Carlos; Anitua, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is a prevalent and considerably underdiagnosed disease. The development of cost-effective, home-based, automatic diagnostic devices to improve the diagnosis accessibility is therefore essential. In this study, a new portable polygraph (BTI-APNiA) was used to validate automatic scoring. This five-channel device records respiratory flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, body position and snoring. The validation was performed in two phases. In the first phase, manual and automatic scorings of a new respiratory polygraphy (RP) device (BTI-APNiA) were compared. In the second phase, automatic analysis performed with BTI-APNiA was compared with manual scoring of a validated RP device (Embletta Gold). Phase I was completed by 424 patients (50.5% males, 52.2 ± 12.4 years, BMI of 25.4 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 8.0 ± 4.0). Manual and automatic analysis resulted in an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 13.7 ± 12.7 and 14.0 ± 12.5 (P > 0.05), respectively. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.99 (P < 0.001). During Phase II, 28 patients were evaluated (72.0% men, 49.1 ± 10.9 years, BMI of 27.1 ± 4.2 kg/m(2) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 7.5 ± 4.2). Manual analysis of Embletta Gold recordings indicated an AHI of 12.3 ± 14.0, while automatic analysis of the BTI-APNiA was 13.4 ± 14.7 (P > 0.05). The ICC was 0.68 (P < 0.01). The automatic analysis of the BTI-APNiA is as accurate as manual analysis of AHI. This automatic analysis compared well with the manual analysis of a validated RP device (Embletta Gold). © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena Held in Cambridge, England (United Kingdom) on 2-4 September 1991. Volume 15

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    Michel Piche. U. Laval, Canada. The dynamical optical fiber communications due to stimulated Brillouin instabilities at the output of an all-fiber...38. 107 [T] .J. Leavitt t ’ilversit v of Arizonia. 1990. 278 / TuE5-1 Instabilities of a dispersive nonlinear all-fiber ring cavity Rdal Vallde Michel ...Pich6 Centre d’optique photonique et laser (COPL) Universitd Laval (Pav. Vachon ) G1 K 7P4 Canada TEL.: (418) 656-2454 FAX.: (418) 656-2623 Nonlinear

  9. Tracking Pulse Oximeter Findings Before, During and After Titration of Mandibular Advancement Devices (MAD) for Patients With Mild to Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    medical 25 histmy and examination of extra- and intra-oral tissues. Soft tissue anatomy, periodontal status, dental caries, the TMJ, muscles of...8. Do not need any restorative, periodontal , or root canal dental treatment 9. Do not have evidence of intraoral soft tissue and bone pathology b...posterior teeth 5. Restricted jaw opening :<:: 25 mm 6. TMD symptoms that prevent MAD wear 7. Caries, periodontal disease, oral pathology 8. Previous

  10. Osa Topical Meeting Proceedings (4th) on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics Held in Salt Lake City, Utah on 13-15 March 1991. Volume 9

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    Greene, J. F. Federici, A. F. J. Levi, L N. Pfeifer, andRiZ F. Kopf Terahertz Absorption Between Split Subbands in Coupled Quantum Wells ...Measurements in GaAs Quantum Wells ........... 40 W H. Knox G. E. Doran, J. Cunninghan M. Ramaswamy, and S. M. Goodnick Propagation of Picosecond...and N. Newman Ultrafast Lasers Femtosecond Monolithic Colliding-Pulse Mode-Locked Quantum - Well Lasers ........ 176 M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, T Tanbun-Ek

  11. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Held in Monterey, California on 10-12 April 1991. Volume 12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    Carbide because of its high thermal the mirror on its backside or edge. Shott Zerodur conductivity. Edge cooling causes a larger exceeded the limit by about...Characterization Angstrom-level noncontact profiling of mirrors for soft x-ray lithography............ 134 Paul Glenn Nonspecular Scattering from X-Ray...structed by patterning a Mo/Si Tropel Division of GCA Corporation. multilayer coated silicon wafer. The mirrors were coated at AT&T Bell The multilayer

  12. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Held in Snowmass Village, Colorado on 24 - 26 July 1991. Volume 13

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    Laboratories, USA E. Eichen S. Yamamoto GTE Laboratories, USA KDD Meguro R&D Laboratories, Japan TUESDAY, JULY 23,1991 WEDNESDAY, JULY 24, 1991-Continued CABARET ...Laboratories, Japan. A gain of 10 dB was obtained in a neodymium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier by using bidirec- CABARET LOBBY tional 25-mW pumping...and a 1.05-pm rejection filter. (p. 16) 7.00 am-5:00 pm REGISTRATIONISPEAKER CHECK-IN CABARET LOBBY 10:00 am-10-30 am COFFEE BREAKIEXHIBITSANDERSON

  13. OSA (Optical Society of America) Proceedings on Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications Held in North Falmouth, Massachusetts on 26-29 September 1988. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    spectral region above about 170A. The spectra are complicated by a number of oxygen lines b) and some yet unclassified Cu lines. We Ib) , have been able to...presented intense spectral FVII, lines become broader. Also the lines of hydrogen and helium like ions forbidden transition 3p-2p of FVI, gets of oxygen ...Li-like oxygen 3p-2s line is the same in both the on- and off-axis spectra. This indicates that there isFigure 7. Schematic drawings of experimental

  14. OSA Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Held in Salt Lake City, Utah on 6 - 8 March, 1992. Volume 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    Multiple Quantum-Well Modulator Arrays for Neural Network and Photonic Switching Applications ........................ 210 M. A. Z Rejman- Greene , E G. Scott...34. Kobe, Japan, April 12-14, 1990 16. OSCAR Annual Report, Part A2-CS5 2. N.F. Whitehead, OFC󈨞, January 22-26, 17. M. Gustavsson , A. Karlsson and L... Gustavsson and L. Thylen, Top. Meeting Topical Meetings on Photonic Switching, on Photonic Swithcing, Salt Lake City, 1-3 Kobe, Japan, April 12-14, 1990

  15. A Comparison of Official Transcripts and Operational Records for Fall, 1975 University of Minnesota Registered Students. OSA Research Bulletin, v17 n7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lele, Kaustubh T.; Armstrong, Roberta A.

    This study was undertaken to provide data for a review of the University of Minnesota's two-transcript system, which maintains an operational record (including all work taken) and an official transcript (record of accomplishment only) for each student. The sample included all students registered in fall 1975. Actual differences between the two…

  16. OSA Proceedings on Advanced Solid-State Lasers. Vol. 10 - Proceedings of the Topical Meeting, Hilton Head, SC, Mar. 18-20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dube, G.; Chase, L. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA )

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on advanced solid-state lasers discusses Cr(3+), Cr(4+), short-pulse, titanium, F-center, mid-IR, and diode-pumped lasers, and nonlinear optics. Attention is given to the stabilization and a spectral characterization of an alexandrite laser for water vapor lidar measurements, crystal growth and spectroscopy of Cr:LiBaAlF6, a Q-switched tunable forsterite laser, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of chromium-doped forsterite. Topics addressed include efficient frequency doubling of a self-starting additive-pulse mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, recent advances in Ti:Al2O3 unstable-resonator lasers, all-solid-state operation of a CW Ti:Al2O3 laser, and upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr,T,Ho:YAG. Also discussed are the top output parameters of an Ho-laser, spectroscopy and the 3-micron laser potential of Er crystals, the pulsed operation of microchip lasers, and blue optical parametric generation in LiB3O5.

  17. The Availability, Prospects, and Fiscal Potential of On-Campus Housing at Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeck, Pat G.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Hardy, David E.; Bush, V. Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Many rural community colleges have long provided on-campus housing. This article profiles the availability of housing at rural community colleges in 2001-2002 and 2005-2006, examines the factors that will continue to make on-campus housing an important service at rural institutions, and draws on 2005-2006 data from the Institutional…

  18. Building the Strong Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. Linda

    2016-01-01

    J. Linda Williams was coordinator of school library services for Anne Arundel County Public Schools prior to her retirement. She served as AASL President 2005-2006 and is also a past president of the Maryland Association of School Librarians. Looking back on her 2005-2006 term as AASL President, Williams writes that she feels that particular year…

  19. What Olney Teachers Say about Their Students and School. Writing to Be Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Rasheeda; Zuviri, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    The 2005-2006 year at Olney High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was the first year that Olney was split into two medium-sized schools. This report is about one of those schools, Olney 705 East. As reported from the School District website during the 2005-2006 school year, the race and ethnic composition of Olney 705 East High School was…

  20. Building the Strong Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. Linda

    2016-01-01

    J. Linda Williams was coordinator of school library services for Anne Arundel County Public Schools prior to her retirement. She served as AASL President 2005-2006 and is also a past president of the Maryland Association of School Librarians. Looking back on her 2005-2006 term as AASL President, Williams writes that she feels that particular year…

  1. Alcohol, Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Performance Enhancers: A Comparison of Use by College Student Athletes and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusko, David A.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; White, Helene R.; Pandina, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the prevalence and pattern of substance use in undergraduate student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. Participants: Authors collected data from male (n = 418) and female (n = 475) student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. Methods: The authors administered self-report questionnaires to assess…

  2. Evaluation of New Century High Schools: Profile of an Initiative to Create and Sustain Small, Successful High Schools. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Eileen M.; Klinge, Allan; Reisner, Elizabeth R.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of the New Century High Schools (NCHS) initiative examined operations and student outcomes in 75 schools from 2002-2003 through 2005-2006. This report, the final in a series of annual evaluation reports, presents data collected over those years, with a focus on school year 2005-2006. The NCHS initiative grew out of a program theory…

  3. ARL Preservation Statistics, 2005-06. A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This document presents data from 123 U.S. and Canadian research libraries that were members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) during the 2005-2006 fiscal year. Since 1987-1988, the number of preservation programs managed by a preservation administrator has grown 66 to as many as 80 in more recent years, with 77 in 2005-2006. Shifting…

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 6253 stars equivalent widths (Anthony-Twarog+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony-Twarog, B. J.; Deliyannis, C. P.; Twarog, B. A.; Cummings, J. D.; Maderak, R. M.

    2012-05-01

    Spectra of 89 stars in NGC 6253 were obtained in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Blanco 4 m telescope equipped with the HYDRA multi-object spectrograph. (5 data files).

  5. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Vitkus

    2008-04-07

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC’s Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007.

  6. Piecing Together Phenotypes of Brain Injury and Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, Sigrid C.

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition that is associated with significant neurobehavioral impairments. Cognitive abnormalities identified in individuals with OSA include impaired verbal memory, planning, reasoning, vigilance, and mood. Therapy for OSA improves some but not all neurobehavioral outcomes, supporting a direct role for OSA in brain dysfunction and raising the question of irreversible injury from OSA. Recent clinical studies have refined the neurobehavioral, brain imaging, and electrophysiological characteristics of OSA, highlighting findings shared with aging and some unique to OSA. This review summarizes the cognitive, brain metabolic and structural, and peripheral nerve conduction changes observed in OSA that collectively provide a distinct phenotype of OSA brain injury and dysfunction. Findings in animal models of OSA provide insight into molecular mechanisms underlying OSA neuronal injury that can be related back to human neural injury and dysfunction. A comprehensive phenotype of brain function and injury in OSA is essential for advancing diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this common disorder. PMID:23087666

  7. Children's Outcomes & Program Quality in the Fifth Year. Evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four Pre-Kindergarten Program, Year 5 Report (July 1, 2005-June 30, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes findings on the quality of the More at Four Program and the outcomes for children during pre-k from two program years: 2003-2004 (year 3) and 2005-2006 (year 5). Separate results for the 2005-2006 cohort are presented to provide a picture of the program in its most recent year of operation as well as results from the 2…

  8. Sleep Apnea Research in Animals. Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Swati; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that describes recurrent collapse of the upper airway during sleep. Animal models have been pivotal to the understanding of OSA pathogenesis, consequences, and treatment. In this review, we highlight the history of OSA research in animals and include the discovery of animals with spontaneous OSA, the induction of OSA in animals, and the emulation of OSA using exposures to intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. PMID:26448201

  9. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting (5th) on Short-Wave Length Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications Held in Monterey, California on 8-10 April 1991. Volume 11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    after passing through the chamber-was blocked, first by an HR mirror , followed by two IR. filters. The spectrum of the SHG in the forward direction was...counterpropaganng pulse (the "probe pulse") with this "moving mirror ", we shift to a reference frame moving at the velocity 3c with the ionization...factor f2 (1 + 13) 2 as the frequency upshift. This is exactly analogous to a mirror which is physically moving. However, in contrast to a real mirror

  10. Workplace worries: a preliminary look at online sexual activities at the office-emerging issues for clinicians and employers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Al; Safir, Marilyn P; Rosenmann, Amir

    2006-02-01

    Concerns about the impact of online sexual activities (OSA) on work-life are drastically increasing. This study examined 3,466 respondents who reported OSA, 18.5% of whom reported engaging in OSA at work. They were compared with the 81.5% who engaged in OSA at home, on average time spent in OSA, workplace policies regarding OSA, and relationship status. Two themes were identified and discussed: opportunity and sexual distress. Our findings indicate that participants are cognizant of issues of opportunity (e.g., the OSA from home group was more likely to indicate their workplace has established policies regarding OSA), and privacy, representing an important aspect of this theme (e.g., participants engaging in OSA at work were found to be twice as likely to have extra-marital affairs, compared with the OSA from home group). Secondly, our data suggests that many participants, especially from the OSA at work group, experience OSA-related distress. Engaging in OSA at the workplace may result in decreased productivity, issues of sexual harassment, and concerns about employee well-being. Clearly stated and consistently enforced policies regulating OSA are likely to mitigate workplace OSA. However, a significant minority of employees may have difficulties curbing OSA. Therefore, more sophisticated strategies to deal with workplace OSA should be established. Additional implications of importance for organizations and mental health professionals who support them are discussed.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with higher healthcare utilization in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Karla; Faverio, Paola; Hospenthal, Angela; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Amuan, Megan E.; Pugh, Mary Jo V.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important cause of morbidity in the elderly population. Limited data are available regarding the healthcare utilization and predisposing conditions related to OSA in the elderly. Our aim was to evaluate the healthcare utilization and the conditions associated with new and chronic diagnosis of OSA in a large cohort of elderly patients in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used inpatient and outpatient VHA data to identify the individuals diagnosed with OSA using ICD-9 codes during the fiscal years 2003-2005. Primary outcomes were emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with new and chronic diagnosis of OSA. RESULTS: Of 1,867,876 elderly veterans having 2 years of care, 82,178 (4.4%) were diagnosed with OSA. Individuals with OSA were younger and more likely to have chronic diseases than those without OSA. Individuals with chronic OSA were more likely to have diagnoses of congestive heart failure (CHF), pulmonary circulation disorders, COPD, and obesity and less likely to have diagnoses of hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke than individuals with newly diagnosed OSA. The proportion of patients with new OSA diagnosis who required at least one ED visit was higher than the proportion of chronic OSA and no OSA patients (37%, 32%, and 15%, respectively; P-value <0.05). The proportion of new OSA patients who required at least one hospitalization was also higher than the proportion of chronic OSA and no OSA patients (24%, 17%, and 7%, respectively; P-value <0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with OSA had a higher incidence of healthcare utilization compared to patients without OSA. New OSA patients had a higher rate of healthcare utilization in the year of diagnosis compared to chronic patients and patients without OSA. Early OSA

  12. Three-year changes of prothrombotic factors in a cohort of South Africans with a high clinical suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    von Känel, Roland; Malan, Nico T; Hamer, Mark; Lambert, Gavin W; Schlaich, Markus; Reimann, Manja; Malan, Leoné

    2016-01-01

    A hypercoagulable state might be one important mechanism linking obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with incident myocardial infarction and stroke. However, previous studies on prothrombotic factors in OSA are not uniform and cross-sectional. We longitudinally studied prothrombotic factors in relation to OSA risk, adjusting for baseline levels of prothrombotic factors, demographics, metabolic parameters, aspirin use, and life style factors. The Berlin Questionnaire and/or neck circumference were used to define high OSA risk in 329 South African teachers (48.0% male, 44.6% black) at baseline and at three-year follow-up. Von Willebrand factor (VWF), fibrinogen, D-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, clot lysis time (CLT), and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) were measured in plasma. At baseline 35.7% of participants had a high risk of OSA. At follow-up, persistently high OSA risk, persistently low OSA risk, OSA risk remission, and new-onset OSA risk were present in 26.1%, 53.2%, 9.4%, and 11.3% of participants, respectively. New-onset OSA risk was associated with a significant and longitudinal increase in VWF, fibrinogen, CLT, and suPAR relative to persistently low OSA risk; in VWF, fibrinogen, and suPAR relative to remitted OSA risk; and in VWF relative to persistently high OSA risk. Persistently high OSA risk was associated with an increase in CLT and suPAR relative to persistently low OSA risk and in D-dimer relative to remitted OSA risk. Remitted OSA risk was associated with D-dimer decrease relative to persistently low OSA risk. In OSA, hypercoagulability is a dynamic process with a most prominent three-year increase in individuals with new-onset OSA risk.

  13. [The surgical risk in sleep apnea: the implications for tonsillectomies].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Padilla, R; Vázquez-García, J C; Meza-Vargas, S

    1999-01-01

    Hypertrophy of tonsils or adenoids is the commonest cause of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Adenotonsillectomy (AT) is frequently curative in children with OSA but riskier than the same procedure without OSA. It is crucial to identify OSA among the patients programmed for AT because they require a detailed evaluation, frequently including total or limited polysomnogram. Patients with OSA need a continuous surveillance before, during, and after surgery, ideally in a referral hospital.

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Aaronson, Justine A; van Bennekom, Coen A M; Hofman, Winni F; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A; Schmand, Ben

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Case-control study. 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. N/A. All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Risk factors for residual obstructive sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy in children.

    PubMed

    Imanguli, Matin; Ulualp, Seckin O

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of residual obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children who had adenotonsillectomy (AT) and to identify the risk factors for residual OSA after AT. Retrospective chart review. Children with OSA who had AT at a tertiary care children's hospital were reviewed. Data pertaining to demographics, past medical history, body mass index, tonsil and adenoid size, and polysomnography were obtained. Residual OSA was defined as apnea hypopnea index (AHI) greater than 2. The rate of residual OSA and risk factors for residual OSA were assessed. One hundred sixty-nine children with OSA underwent polysomnography before and after AT. The prevalence of residual OSA was 38%. The prevalence of residual OSA in obese patients (49%) was higher than that of nonobese patients (27%) (P = .02). Patients with neurological/developmental/craniofacial abnormalities had higher prevalence of residual OSA (44%) than patients without comorbidities (33%) (P < .05). The prevalence of residual OSA in patients with severe OSA (42%) was higher than patients with moderate (29%) or mild OSA (0%) (P = .03). Teenage patients (67%) had a higher prevalence of residual OSA than toddlers (27%), preschooler (33%), and middle childhood groups (29%) (P = .03). The majority of children had improvement in OSA after AT. The choice of AHI threshold used to define residual OSA influenced the prevalence of residual OSA. Teenagers and children with obesity, comorbidities including neurological/developmental/craniofacial abnormalities alone or in combination with asthma, or severe OSA have a high risk of residual OSA. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2624-2629, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. BMI distribution/social stratification in Swiss conscripts from 1875 to present.

    PubMed

    Staub, K; Rühli, F J; Woitek, U; Pfister, C

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to extend the actual overweight discussion with new unbiased Swiss conscript data from 2005 to 2006, and to present for the first time Swiss data on body mass index (BMI) before 1950 and for the late-nineteenth century. For this study, 19-year-old Swiss male conscripts (draft army; Cantons Bern, Zurich, Basel-Stadt and Basel-Land) from the census of 1875-1879, 1933-1939 and 2005-2006 (N=28 033; 2005-2006 census) were included. BMI distribution (World Health Organization (WHO) classification) and social stratification (International Labour Organization classification) were main outcome measures. Mean BMI of 19-year-old men in Switzerland increased in the 50 years between the 1870s and the 1930s by 0.80 kg/m(2) and between the 1930s and 2005 by 1.45 kg/m(2). The modern BMI sample is much more right skewed and s.d. is higher. Obesity prevalence (according to modern WHO classification) has increased by a factor of 105 from 1870s until present. Over 23% of our representative sample of Swiss men in 2005-2006 had a BMI of over 25 kg/m(2). In 2005-2006, contrary to the nineteenth century, unskilled workers had articulately higher BMI values at the 75th, 90th and 95th percentile than students; 12% of unskilled workers were obese against 2% of students. It thus seems that BMI relations between the upper and the lower end of the socio-economic strata changed inversely from the late-nineteenth century to 2005-2006. We further propose that the phenomenon of massive right-skewing BMI distribution between the 1930s and 2005-2006 affected the lower socio-economic strata to a far greater extent than the higher socio-economic group.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Active Duty Service Members with and without Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mysliwiec, Vincent; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Gill, Jessica; Baxter, Tristin; O'Reilly, Brian; Collen, Jacob F; Roth, Bernard J

    2015-12-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are frequently co-occurring illnesses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether comorbid PTSD/OSA is associated with increased PTSD symptoms or decreased OSA severity compared to PTSD or OSA alone in recently deployed Active Duty Service Members (ADSM). Cross-sectional observational study of ADSM who returned from combat within 24 months. Participants underwent an attended diagnostic polysomnogram and were assessed for PTSD, depression, combat exposure severity, sleepiness, and sleep quality with validated clinical instruments. Our study included 109 military personnel who returned from a combat deployment within 24 months with a mean age of 34.3 ± 8.23 and BMI of 30.8 ± 3.99. Twenty-four participants had PTSD/OSA, 68 had OSA, and 17 had PTSD. Mean PTSD Checklist- Military Version (PCL-M) scores were 62.0 ± 8.95, 60.5 ± 4.73, and 32.5 ± 8.95 in PTSD/OSA, PTSD, and OSA, respectively. The mean AHI was 16.9 ± 15.0, 18.9 ± 17.0, and 1.73 ± 1.3 for those with PTSD/OSA, OSA, and PTSD. PTSD symptoms and OSA severity in military personnel with comorbid PTSD/OSA were not significantly different from those with PTSD or OSA alone. On multivariate analysis, BMI was a significant predictor of OSA (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.44) and age trended towards significance. Depression, but not OSA severity, was associated with PTSD symptoms. Following recent combat exposure, comorbid PTSD/OSA is not associated with increased PTSD symptoms or decreased severity of OSA. Early evaluation after traumatic exposure for comorbid OSA is indicated in PTSD patients with sleep complaints given the high co-occurrence and adverse clinical implications. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  18. Prader Willi syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea: co-occurrence in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Sedky, Karim; Bennett, David S; Pumariega, Andres

    2014-04-15

    A high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Yet, due in part to the relatively small samples previously used, the prevalence of OSA has varied greatly across studies. It is also unclear if factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), or type of genetic imprinting are associated with increased risk for OSA among children with PWS. To evaluate the (a) prevalence of OSA, as well as narcolepsy, in pediatric populations diagnosed with PWS; (b) effects of age, gender, body mass index, and genetic imprinting on OSA severity; and (c) efficacy of adenotonsillectomy (AT) for decreasing OSA severity in this population. All studies assessing OSA among children with PWS through August 2013 were identified using the PubMed/Medline, Psych Info, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar data bases. Fourteen studies of children diagnosed with PWS and who were assessed for OSA using polysomnography (PSG) met inclusion criteria (n = 224 children). The prevalence of OSA across studies was 79.91% (n = 179/224). Among youths with OSA, 53.07% had mild OSA, 22.35% moderate OSA, and 24.58% severe OSA. Narcolepsy was found to occur in 35.71% of children with PWS. Adenotonsillectomy was associated with improvement in OSA for most children with PWS. However, residual OSA was present in the majority of cases post-surgery. This study confirms the high prevalence of OSA and narcolepsy among children with PWS. Screening for OSA and narcolepsy among children with PWS is recommended. In addition, while adenotonsillectomy was effective in reducing OSA for some children, alternative treatments may need to be considered, given the only moderate response rate.

  19. Managing Comorbid Illness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: What Can We Learn from Other Diseases?

    PubMed

    Conwell, Walter D; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with numerous comorbid medical conditions. Symptoms of OSA may mimic those of comorbid conditions. The presence of OSA may worsen outcomes from the primary condition. Conversely, OSA treatment may benefit both sleep symptomatology and comorbid illness. Because of potential significant benefit, it is important to screen for sleep apnea symptoms, to have a low threshold to perform diagnostic testing, to treat OSA if present, and to closely monitor symptoms. OSA management does not necessarily replace, but rather, should be performed in conjunction with primary therapy for comorbid conditions.

  20. The Benefits of Perioperative Screening for Sleep Apnea in Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Yamini; Wong, Jean; Nagappa, Mahesh; Chung, Frances

    2017-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Untreated OSA can lead to about a 2-fold increase in medical expenses, mainly because of cardiovascular morbidity. OSA is highly prevalent in the surgical population, with an increased risk of perioperative complications. This article describes the perioperative and long-term social and economic benefits of preoperative screening for OSA. Screening patients to identify high-risk OSA is important to decrease the adverse outcomes and associated health care costs in the perioperative period. Screening for OSA is particularly relevant because most patients are undiagnosed at the time of surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Pathological Characteristics of Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dal Molin, Marco; Brant, Aaron; Blackford, Amanda L.; Griffin, James F.; Shindo, Koji; Barkley, Thomas; Rezaee, Neda; Hruban, Ralph H.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Goggins, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Prospective studies have identified obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a risk factor for increased overall cancer incidence and mortality. The potential role of OSA in the risk or progression of specific cancers is not well known. We hypothesized that pathological differences in pancreatic cancers from OSA cases compared to non-OSA cases would implicate OSA in pancreatic cancer progression. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 1031 patients who underwent surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2003 and 2014 and compared the TNM classification of their cancer and their overall survival by patient OSA status. Results OSA cases were significantly more likely than non-OSA cases to have lymph node-negative tumors (37.7% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.004). Differences in the prevalence of nodal involvement of OSA vs. non-OSA cases were not associated with differences in other pathological characteristics such as tumor size, tumor location, resection margin status, vascular or perineural invasion, or other comorbidities more common to OSA cases (BMI, smoking, diabetes). A logistic regression model found that a diagnosis of OSA was an independent predictor of lymph node status (hazard ratio, 0.051, p = 0.038). Patients with OSA had similar overall survival compared to those without OSA (HR, 0.89, (0.65–1.24), p = 0.41). Conclusion The observed pathological differences between OSA-associated and non-OSA-associated pancreatic cancers supports the hypothesis that OSA can influence the pathologic features of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:27732623

  2. Length of Individual Apnea Events Is Increased by Supine Position and Modulated by Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Töyräs, Juha; Muraja-Murro, Anu; Kupari, Salla; Tiihonen, Pekka; Mervaala, Esa; Kulkas, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among OSA patients. In severe OSA, the obstruction events are longer in supine compared to nonsupine positions. Corresponding scientific information on mild and moderate OSA is lacking. We studied whether individual obstruction and desaturation event severity is increased in supine position in all OSA severity categories and whether the severity of individual events is linked to OSA severity categories. Polygraphic recordings of 2026 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The individual apnea, and hypopnea durations and desaturation event depth, duration, and area of 526 included patients were compared between supine and nonsupine positions in different OSA severity categories. Apnea events were 6.3%, 12.5%, and 11.1% longer (p < 0.001) in supine compared to nonsupine position in mild, moderate, and severe OSA categories, respectively. In moderate and severe OSA categories desaturation areas were 5.7% and 25.5% larger (p < 0.001) in supine position. In both positions the individual event severity was elevated along increasing OSA severity category (p < 0.05). Supine position elevates apnea duration in all and desaturation area in moderate and severe OSA severity categories. This might be more hazardous for supine OSA patients and therefore, estimation of clinical severity of OSA should incorporate also information about individual event characteristics besides AHI. PMID:27051535

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea: a cardiometabolic risk in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drager, Luciano F; Togeiro, Sônia M; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2013-08-13

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underdiagnosed condition characterized by recurrent episodes of obstruction of the upper airway leading to sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia during sleep. Obesity predisposes to OSA, and the prevalence of OSA is increasing worldwide because of the ongoing epidemic of obesity. Recent evidence has shown that surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk, including sympathetic activation, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction, are significantly increased in obese patients with OSA versus those without OSA, suggesting that OSA is not simply an epiphenomenon of obesity. Moreover, findings from animal models and patients with OSA show that intermittent hypoxia exacerbates the metabolic dysfunction of obesity, augmenting insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In patients with the metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of moderate to severe OSA is very high (∼60%). In this population, OSA is independently associated with increased glucose and triglyceride levels as well as markers of inflammation, arterial stiffness, and atherosclerosis. A recent randomized, controlled, crossover study showed that effective treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure for 3 months significantly reduced several components of the metabolic syndrome, including blood pressure, triglyceride levels, and visceral fat. Finally, several cohort studies have consistently shown that OSA is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, independent of obesity. Taken together, these results support the concept that OSA exacerbates the cardiometabolic risk attributed to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Recognition and treatment of OSA may decrease the cardiovascular risk in obese patients. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The high dependency of supine position in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Guven, Selma F; Ciftci, Bulent; Lakadamyali, Huseyin; Ciftci, Tansu U

    2013-02-01

    To define the frequency of supine positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients diagnosed with OSA and to describe the demographic associations with positional OSA (PO). A retrospective study was performed in a total of 3813 patients who underwent full-night polysomnography at the Sleep Disorders Center of the Ataturk Chest Diseases, Thoracic Surgery Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey between June 2007 and June 2010. A total of 3214 patients diagnosed with OSA were included in the study. Positional OSA was defined as a total AHI more than or equal to 5, and supine AHI/non-supine AHI more than or equal to 2. Characteristics of positional OSA and non-positional OSA groups were compared statistically. Patients classified as positional OSA composed 39.9% of all OSA patients. Positional OSA patients were younger with lower body mass index and their OSA was less severe. Positional OSA, which may require different treatment approaches, is not uncommon among OSA patients and should be understood as a different clinical entity.

  5. Chronic obstructive sleep apnea accelerates pulmonary remodeling via TGF-β/miR-185/CoLA1 signaling in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xue; Yu, Chengyuan; Liu, Yang; Yan, Sen; Li, Wenpeng; Wang, Dingyu; Sun, Li; Han, Yu; Li, Minghui; Zhang, Song; Yun, Fengxiang; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Yue

    2016-09-06

    Chronic obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is considered to be associated with pulmonary diseases. However, the roles and mechanisms of OSA in pulmonary remodeling remain ambiguous. Thus, this study was aimed to elucidate the morphological and mechanical action of OSA in lung remodeling. In the present study, we employed a novel OSA model to mimic the OSA patient and investigate the role of OSA in pulmonary remodeling. We showed that pulmonary artery pressure of OSA group has no significant increased compared with the sham group. Nevertheless, we found that fibrotic tissue was predominantly located around the bronchi and vascular in the lung. Additionally, inflammatory cell infiltration was also detected in the peribonchial and perivascular space. The morphological change in OSA canines was ascertained by ultrastructure variation characterized by mitochondrial swelling, lamellar bodies degeneration and vascular smooth muscle incrassation. Moreover, sympathetic nerve sprouting was markedly increased in OSA group. Mechanistically, we showed that several pivotal proteins including collagen type I(CoLA1), GAP-43, TH and NGF were highly expressed in OSA groups. Furthermore, we found OSA could activated the expression of TGF-β, which subsequently suppressed miR-185 and promoted CoL A1 expression. This signaling cascade leads to pulmonary remodeling. In conclusion, Our data demonstrates that OSA can accelerate the progression of pulmonary remodeling through TGF-β/miR-185/CoLA1 signaling, which would potentially provide therapeutic strategies for chronic OSAS.

  6. The link between rhinitis and rapid-eye-movement sleep breathing disturbances in children with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Huseni, Shehlanoor; Gutierrez, Maria J.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Nino, Cesar L.; Perez, Geovanny F.; Pancham, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rhinitis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) often coexist during childhood. To delineate this clinical association, we examined OSA severity and polysomnogram (PSG) features in children with rhinitis and OSA. Given that rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is characterized by nasal congestion, we hypothesized that children with rhinitis have more REM-related breathing abnormalities. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 145 children with PSG-diagnosed OSA. Outcomes included PSG parameters and obstructive apnea–hypopnea index (OAHI) during REM and non-REM. Linear multivariable models examined the joint effect of rhinitis and OSA parameters with control for potential confounders. Results: Rhinitis was present in 43% of children with OSA (n = 63) but overall OAHI severity was unaffected by the presence of rhinitis. In contrast, OAHI during REM sleep in children with moderate–severe OSA was significantly increased in subjects with rhinitis and OSA (44.1/hr; SE = 6.4) compared with those with OSA alone (28.2/hr; SE = 3.8). Conclusion: Rhinitis is highly prevalent in children with OSA. Although OSA is not more severe in children with rhinitis, they do have a distinct OSA phenotype characterized by more REM-related OSA. Further research is needed to delineate the link between REM-sleep and the physiology of the nose during health and disease. PMID:24717885

  7. Length of Individual Apnea Events Is Increased by Supine Position and Modulated by Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Timo; Töyräs, Juha; Muraja-Murro, Anu; Kupari, Salla; Tiihonen, Pekka; Mervaala, Esa; Kulkas, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among OSA patients. In severe OSA, the obstruction events are longer in supine compared to nonsupine positions. Corresponding scientific information on mild and moderate OSA is lacking. We studied whether individual obstruction and desaturation event severity is increased in supine position in all OSA severity categories and whether the severity of individual events is linked to OSA severity categories. Polygraphic recordings of 2026 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The individual apnea, and hypopnea durations and desaturation event depth, duration, and area of 526 included patients were compared between supine and nonsupine positions in different OSA severity categories. Apnea events were 6.3%, 12.5%, and 11.1% longer (p < 0.001) in supine compared to nonsupine position in mild, moderate, and severe OSA categories, respectively. In moderate and severe OSA categories desaturation areas were 5.7% and 25.5% larger (p < 0.001) in supine position. In both positions the individual event severity was elevated along increasing OSA severity category (p < 0.05). Supine position elevates apnea duration in all and desaturation area in moderate and severe OSA severity categories. This might be more hazardous for supine OSA patients and therefore, estimation of clinical severity of OSA should incorporate also information about individual event characteristics besides AHI.

  8. Effect of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Dan M; Kirkpatrick, Daniel R; Kerfeld, Mitchell J; Hambsch, Zakary J; Reisbig, Mark D; Agrawal, Devendra K; Youngblood, Charles F

    2014-11-01

    The perioperative care of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is currently receiving much attention due to an increased risk for complications. It is established that postoperative changes in sleep architecture occur and this may have pathophysiological implications for OSA patients. Upper airway muscle activity decreases during rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Severe OSA patients exhibit exaggerated chemoreceptor-driven ventilation during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), which leads to central and obstructive apnea. This article critically reviewed the literature relevant to preoperative screening for OSA, prevalence of OSA in surgical populations and changes in postoperative sleep architecture relevant to OSA patients. In particular, we addressed three questions in rega