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Sample records for 2005-2008 ja nordlis

  1. Antimony and sleep-related disorders: NHANES 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C; Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery. Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. The prevalence of short sleep duration (<7h/night) has been reported to be 37.1% in the general US population, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 12-28 million US adults. Insufficient sleep and OSA have been linked to the development of several chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression, conditions that pose serious public health threats. To investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders in the US adult population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with several sleep disorders, including insufficient sleep and OSA, in adult (ages 20 years and older) participants of NHANES 2005-2008 (n=2654). We found that participants with higher urinary antimony levels had higher odds to experience insufficient sleep (≤6h/night) (OR 1.73; 95%CI; 1.04, 2.91) as well as higher odds to have increased sleep onset latency (>30min/night). Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA (OR 1.57; 95%CI; 1.05, 2.34), sleep problems, and day-time sleepiness. In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA. Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Dietary supplements usage among elderly Taiwanese during 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Ying; Lin, Jia-Rong; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Guo, Shiou-Guei; Kao, Mei-Ding; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    This study describes dietary supplement consumption practices among the Taiwanese population over the age of 65. Data for the analyses were derived from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Data from a total of 914 participants (456 men and 458 women) was collected in the study to delineate patterns of supplement usage. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals taking supplements was 45.7% for men and 52.2% for women. There were no significant differences in supplement use by gender, age group, geographic stratum, current employment status, household monthly income, self-reported health status or marital status, except for higher education and adequate perceived financial resources. Half of both men and women chose to take only one supplement. In addition, as the number of supplements taken increased, the number of people decreased. The elderly with higher education levels were more likely to take two kinds of supplements. The top five supplements consumed from highest to lowest were: glucosamine, multivitamins and minerals, calcium, fish oil and vitamin B complex. The major reason for supplements use for men was to supplement an unbalanced diet, and that for women was to prevent joint degeneration. The main factor influencing choice of supplements in the elderly was receiving the supplement as a gift from another person. Note that mean intakes of vitamins A, C, E, B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid from supplements over-exceeded DRIs in Taiwan.

  3. Increasing polypharmacy - an individual-based study of the Swedish population 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An increase in the use of drugs and polypharmacy have been displayed over time in spite of the fact that polypharmacy represents a well known risk factor as regards patients' health due to the adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and low adherence to drug therapy arising from polypharmacy. For policymakers, as well as for clinicians, it is important to follow the developing trends in drug use and polypharmacy over time. We wanted to study if the prevalence of polypharmacy in an entire national population has changed during a 4-year period. Methods By applying individual-based data on dispensed drugs, we have studied all dispensed prescribed drugs for the entire Swedish population during four 3-month periods 2005-2008. Five or more (DP ≥5) and ten or more (DP ≥10) dispensed drugs during the 3-month period was applied as the cut-offs indicating the existence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy respectively. Results During the period 2005-2008, the prevalence of polypharmacy (DP≥5) increased by 8.2% (from 0.102 to 0.111), and the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy (DP≥10) increased by 15.7% (from 0.021 to 0.024). In terms of age groups, the prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy increased as regards all ages with the exception of the age group 0-9 years. However, the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy displayed a clear age trend, with the largest increase for the groups 70 years and above. Furthermore, the increase in the prevalence of polypharmacy was, generally, approximately twice as high for men as for women. Finally, the mean number of dispensed drugs per individual increased by 3.6% (from 3.3 to 3.4) during the study period. Conclusions The prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy, as well as the mean number of dispensed drugs per individual, increased year-by-year in Sweden 2005-2008. PMID:21122160

  4. Perchlorate exposure is associated with oxidative stress and indicators of serum iron homeostasis among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Perchlorate (ClO4-), an oxidizing agent, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Several studies have investigated its thyroid hormone disrupting properties. Its associations with other biological measures are largely unknown. This study, combining 2005-2008 National H...

  5. Perchlorate exposure is associated with oxidative stress and indicators of serum iron homeostasis among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Perchlorate (ClO4-), an oxidizing agent, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Several studies have investigated its thyroid hormone disrupting properties. Its associations with other biological measures are largely unknown. This study, combining 2005-2008 National H...

  6. Underreporting of viral encephalitis and viral meningitis, Ireland, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tara A; O'Lorcain, Piaras; Moran, Joanne; Garvey, Patricia; McKeown, Paul; Connell, Jeff; Cotter, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) and viral meningitis (VM) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the Republic of Ireland since 1981. Laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. To determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ireland during 2005-2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: Hospital In-patient Enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through Health Intelligence Ireland, laboratory confirmations from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, and events from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting surveillance system. We found that the national surveillance system underestimates the incidence of these diseases in Ireland with a 10-fold higher VE hospitalization rate and 3-fold higher VM hospitalization rate than the reporting rate. Herpesviruses were responsible for most specified VE and enteroviruses for most specified VM from all 3 sources. Recommendations from this study have been implemented to improve the surveillance of these diseases in Ireland.

  7. Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects Schreinemachers DM, Ghio AJ, Cascio WE, Sobus JR. U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA Perchlorate (ClO4-), an environmental pollutant, is a known thyroid toxicant and...

  8. Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects Schreinemachers DM, Ghio AJ, Cascio WE, Sobus JR. U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA Perchlorate (ClO4-), an environmental pollutant, is a known thyroid toxicant and...

  9. Compliance with return to play guidelines following concussion in US high school athletes, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2009-10-01

    To determine whether US concussed high school athletes complied with recommended return-to-play guidelines during the 2005-2008 school years. Prospective cohort study in 100 nationally-representative US high schools. Certified athletic trainers submitted injury reports for concussed athletes in five boys' (football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, baseball) and four girls' (soccer, basketball, volleyball, softball) sports via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). Concussions were retrospectively graded and it was determined whether athletes followed American Academy of Neurology (AAN) or Prague return-to-play guidelines. There were 1308 concussions reported during 5 627 921 athlete-exposures (23.2 concussions per 100 000 athlete-exposures), reflecting an estimated 395 274 concussions sustained nationally. At least 40.5% and 15.0% of concussed athletes returned to play prematurely under AAN and Prague return-to-play guidelines, respectively. In football, 15.8% of athletes sustaining a concussion that resulted in loss-of-consciousness returned to play in <1 day. Males (12.6%) were more likely than females (5.9%) to return 1-2 days after sustaining an initial grade II concussion. Too many adolescent athletes are failing to comply with recommended return-to-play guidelines. Sports medicine professionals, parents, coaches and sports administrators must work together to ensure athletes follow recommended guidelines.

  10. Usual sodium intakes compared with current dietary guidelines --- United States, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    2011-10-21

    High sodium intake can increase blood pressure and the risk for heart disease and stroke. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, persons in the United States aged ≥2 years should limit daily sodium intake to <2,300 mg. Subpopulations that would benefit from further reducing sodium intake to 1,500 mg daily include 1) persons aged ≥51 years, 2) blacks, and 3) persons with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. To estimate the proportion of the U.S. population for whom the 1,500 mg recommendation applies and to assess the usual sodium intake for those persons, CDC and the National Institutes of Health used data for 2005-2008 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which determined that, although 47.6% of persons aged ≥2 years meet the criteria to limit their daily sodium intake to 1,500 mg, the usual daily sodium intake for 98.6% of those persons was >1,500 mg. Moreover, for 88.2% of the remaining U.S. population, daily sodium intake was greater than the recommended <2,300 mg. New population-based strategies and increased public health and private efforts will be needed to meet the Dietary Guidelines recommendations.

  11. [Survival rate for breast cancer in Rabat (Morocco) 2005-2008].

    PubMed

    Mechita, Nada Bennani; Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Mrabet, Mustapha; Saadi, Asma; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Razine, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem in Morocco. This study aims to estimate the survival rate for patients with breast cancer living in Rabat. We conducted a prognostic study of female patients with breast cancer diagnosed during 2005-2008, living in Rabat and whose data were recorded in the Rabat Cancer Registry. The date of inclusion in this study corresponded with the date on which cancer was histologically confirmed. Survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the comparison between the different classes of a variable was made using the log rank test. The study of factors associated with survival was performed using the Cox model. During the study period 628 cases of breast cancer were collected. Mortality rate was 19.9%. Overall 1-year survival rate was 97.1%, 89.2% at 3 years and 80.6% at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, breast cancer survival was statistically lower in patients over 70 years of age (p <0.001) with large tumor size (p < 0.001), advanced-stage adenopathies (p = 0.007), metastases (p < 0.001) and not using hormone therapy (p = 0.002). Large tumor size and metastases are poor prognostic factors in breast cancer, hence the need to strengthen screening programs.

  12. Moment tensor inversion for Iberia-Maghreb earthquakes 2005-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stich, Daniel; Martín, Rosa; Morales, Jose

    2010-03-01

    We present and discuss a set of 77 moment tensor solutions for earthquakes in the Iberia-Maghreb region from mid 2005 to the end of 2008, with moment magnitudes ranging from 3.2 to 6.0. Inversion is based upon full, three-component, intermediate period waveforms recorded at regional seismic broadband stations. Following the recent densification of permanent broadband networks and large scale temporary deployments, at present more than 150 stations are recording in Spain, Portugal and Morocco. This unprecedented station density allows analysis of small events from available short-distance recordings, and in general leads to more reliable source estimates due to data redundancies that permit elimination of waveforms affected by noise or complicated propagation effects. The solutions for 2005 -2008 constitute an important upgrade of the Iberia-Maghreb moment tensor inventory to 225 solutions to date, enhancing the image of seismotectonics at the compressive N-Algerian margin, in the Betic-Alboran shear zone and at the transpressive SW-Iberian margin, as well as providing valuable constraints on seismic deformation in the western Betics and the Iberian foreland where little information has been previously available. New solutions for the foreland and three recent seismic series in the western Betics show strike-slip and reverse faulting style, contrasting with the dominance of normal faulting in the adjacent areas towards east. In these areas, as well as at the SW-Iberian margin, faulting orientations are heterogeneous, including solutions with opposite kinematics. This indicates control by local stress conditions, and points to fault interaction. Along the N-Algerian margin, a counterclockwise rotation of slip vectors of thrust events from east to west becomes apparent. Several solutions for the area offshore Cape St. Vincent are located at sub-Moho depths between 40 and 60 km, supporting a large brittle layer thickness in the oceanic lithosphere.

  13. Design and sample characteristics of the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tu, Su-Hao; Chen, Cheng; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Lin, Yi-Chin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008 was funded by the Department of Health to provide continued assessment of health and nutrition of the people in Taiwan. This household survey collected data from children aged less than 6 years and adults aged 19 years and above, and adopted a three-stage stratified, clustered sampling scheme similar to that used in the NAHSIT 1993-1996. Four samples were produced. One sample with five geographical strata was selected for inference to the whole of Taiwan, while the other three samples, including Hakka, Penghu and mountainous areas were produced for inference to each cultural stratum. A total of 6,189 household interviews and 3,670 health examinations were completed. Interview data included household information, socio-demographics, 24-hour dietary recall, food frequency and habits, dietary and nutritional knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, physical activity, medical history and bone health. Health exam data included anthropometry, blood pressure, physical fitness, bone density, as well as blood and urine collection. Response rate for the household interview was 65%. Of these household interviews, 59% participated in the health exam. Only in a few age subgroups were there significant differences in sex, age, education, or ethnicity distribution between respondents and non-respondents. For the health exam, certain significant differences between participants and non-participants were mostly observed in those aged 19-64 years. The results of this survey will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and the public to understand and improve the nutrition and health status of pre-school children and adults in Taiwan.

  14. Virological surveillance and antiviral resistance of human influenza virus in Argentina, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Pontoriero, Andrea; Baumeister, Elsa; Campos, Ana M; Savy, Vilma L

    2011-12-01

    To describe the virological characteristics of the influenza strains circulating in Argentina in 2005-2008 and to assess the prevalence of antiviral resistance. On the basis of their geographical spread and prevalence, influenza A and B isolates grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were selected after antigenic and genomic characterization to be analyzed for antiviral resistance by enzymatic assay and pyrosequencing. Amantadine susceptibility was evaluated by pyrosequencing for known resistance markers on 45 strains of influenza A. Susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir was evaluated by enzymatic assay of 67 influenza A and 46 influenza B strains, some of which were further analyzed by sequencing the neuraminidase gene. Resistance to amantadine was observed only on A(H3N2) strains (29/33); all of them carried the mutation S31N in their M2 sequence. Oseltamivir resistance was observed in 12 (34.3%) of the 35 A(H1N1) strains from 2008; all of them carried the mutation H275Y in their neuraminidase sequence. All these viruses remained sensitive to zanamivir. This study describes a high incidence of amantadine-resistant influenza A(H3N2) viruses since 2006 and an unprecedented increase in oseltamivir resistance detected only in influenza A(H1N1) viruses isolated in 2008. Influenza A and B viruses were more sensitive to oseltamivir than to zanamivir, and influenza A viruses were more sensitive to both neuraminidase inhibitors than the influenza B viruses. The national data generated and analyzed in this study may help increase knowledge about influenza antiviral drug resistance, which is a problem of global concern.

  15. Trends in hyperuricemia and gout prevalence: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Lee, Shu-Chen; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study investigated trends in uric acid levels, hyperuricemia and gout among adults in Taiwan from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008, using data collection from, Nutrition and health surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted in 1993-1996 and 2005-2008. Information on food frequency, medical history, physical measures and fasting blood parameters were analyzed. Mean uric acid levels decreased between 1993-1996 and 2005-2008 in both genders (6.77 vs 6.59 mg/dL in men and 5.33 vs 4.97 mg/dL in women) and the prevalence of hyperuricemia declined from 25.3% to 22.0% in men (p<0.0001) and from 16.7% to 9.7% in women (p<0.0001). However, the prevalence of gout (self-reported) increased (4.74% vs 8.21% in men and 2.19% vs 2.33% in women, p<0.0001). Reduced rank regression was used to identify dietary patterns that explained significant amounts of variance in uric acid. Frequency of consumption of lean meat, soy products and soymilk, milk, eggs, vegetables, carrots, mushrooms, fruit and coffee were negatively associated with hyperuricemia, whereas consumption of organ meats, bamboo shoots, and soft drinks were positively associated with hyperuricemia. The dietary factor score (DFS) composed of the frequency of above food items decreased from -5.40 to -6.00 between the two surveys (p<0.0001). In conclusion, uric acid levels and prevalence of hyperuricemia both declined, whilst self-reported gout increased between 1993-1996 and 2005-2008. Changes in dietary patterns may in part explain the decrease in uric acid levels between the two national surveys.

  16. Association of sleep-related problems with CKD in the United States, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Laura; Lee, Kathryn; Inker, Lesley A; Saran, Rajiv; Yee, Jerry; Gillespie, Brenda; Rolka, Deborah; Saydah, Sharon; Powe, Neil R

    2011-10-01

    Sleep-related problems, which have been associated with poor health outcomes, have not been investigated thoroughly in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the prevalence of a variety of sleep-related problems in persons with and without CKD. National cross-sectional survey (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008). Community-based survey of 9,110 noninstitutionalized US civilian residents 20 years or older. CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (stages 3 and 4) or eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g (stages 1 and 2). Sleep quality, defined using self-report in a multi-item sleep questionnaire including items from previously validated instruments. Albuminuria and eGFR assessed from urine and blood samples; sleep, demographics, and comorbid conditions assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Inadequate sleep (≤6 hours per night) differed by CKD severity (37.4%, 43.0%, and 30.9% for no CKD, CKD stages 1 and 2, and CKD stages 3 and 4, respectively; P = 0.003). Frequent sleeping pill use (8.4%, 9.9%, and 16.6%), leg symptoms (39.2%, 48.0%, and 50.9%), and nocturia (20.9%, 35.2%, and 43.6%; P < 0.001 for all) also differed by CKD severity. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of these sleep-related problems remained higher in people with CKD stages 1 and 2 relative to no CKD. Most other measures of sleep quality, disorder, and functional outcomes did not differ by CKD. Inability to establish causality and possible unmeasured confounding. Providers should be aware of early sleep-related CKD manifestations, including inadequate sleep, leg symptoms, and nocturia, and of the high rate of reported sleep medication use in this population. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Shoulder injuries in US high school baseball and softball athletes, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Krajnik, Stephanie; Fogarty, Kieran J; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors that are involved in shoulder injury rates among high school athletes who participate in organized baseball and softball. Baseball- and softball-related injury data were collected during the 2005-2008 academic years from approximately 74 nationally representative high schools via High School Reporting Information Online. Certified athletic trainers reported 91 baseball shoulder injuries and 40 softball shoulder injuries during 528147 and 399522 athlete exposures, respectively. The injury rate was 1.72 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for baseball and 1.00 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for softball. Muscle strain/incomplete tears were the most common injuries in both baseball (30.8%) and softball (35.0%). In practices, throwing, not including pitching, caused more than half of softball injuries (68.2%) as compared with competition injuries (23.5%; injury proportion ratio [IPR]: 2.90 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-7.15]; P = .015), whereas pitching was the most common mechanism in causing shoulder injuries during baseball practice (41.9%) compared with competitions (25.6%; IPR: 1.64 [95% CI: 0.88-3.04]; P = .17). Eighty-one percent of the baseball shoulder injuries and 82.5% of the softball shoulder injuries were new. Ten percent of baseball athletes and 5.3% of softball athletes sustained injuries that required surgery (IPR: 1.40 [95% CI: 0.32-6.10]; P = .93). Injuries that were sustained while the athlete was on the pitcher's mound were significantly more likely to result in surgery than any other field position (IPR: 2.64 [95% CI: 1.65-4.21]; P = .0061). Injured baseball players were more than twice as likely to be pitchers. Although rates and patterns of shoulder injuries are similar between baseball and softball players, injury rates and patterns differ between field positions within each sport, as well as by injury severity and the athletes' year in school.

  18. The Museum of Vesuvius Observatory and its public. Years 2005 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Maddalena; Ottaiano, Mena; Limoncelli, Bianca; Parlato, Luigi; Scala, Omar; Siviglia, Vittoria

    2010-05-01

    museum, either through an evaluation sheet given to visitors at the end of the tour. Definitive data were obtained by comparing the results of the two kinds of detection. This work presents statistics related to the public of the museum in the years 2005 - 2008. Indicated in the poster will be: the monthly occurrence of visitors, visitors provenance data (Italy and abroad), category of visitors (distinguishing among schools, universities, groups and others) percentage, amount of visitors during weekdays and holidays. Statistics put in evidence that public - 10,000 persons every year - is mostly made up of school groups, coming from the Campania region preferentially in the months of April and May. The accurate identification of the public, obtained by statistics, allows the museum staff to arrange a tour tailored for different types of visitors, enhancing the quality of the communication during the visit.

  19. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  20. Reproductive ratio for the local spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild bird populations of Europe, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, I; Perez, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Muñoz, M J; Martínez, M; de la Torre, A

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has devastating consequences for the poultry industry of affected countries. Control of HPAI has been impaired by the role of wildlife species that act as disease reservoirs and as a potential source of infection for domestic populations. The reproductive ratio (R₀) of HPAI was quantified in nine clusters of outbreaks detected in wild birds in Europe (2005-2008) for which population data were not available. The median value of R₀ was similar (1·1-3·4) for the nine clusters and it was about tenfold smaller than the value estimated for poultry in The Netherlands in 2003. Results presented here will be useful to parameterize models for spread of HPAI in wild birds and to design effective prevention programmes for the European poultry sector. The method is suitable to estimate R₀ in the absence of population data, which is a condition typically observed for many wildlife and certain domestic species and systems.

  1. The potential impact of the National Osteoporosis Foundation guidance on treatment eligibility in the U.S.: an update in NHANES 2005-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008 data describes the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and the proportions of men and postmenopausal women age 50 years and older who are candidates for treatment to lower fracture risk, according to the new...

  2. 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the US ED growth model pilot program from its inception to the point at which the program was no longer a pilot and was opened up to all states. In addition, the paper is designed to help states in the process of planning to submit a growth model proposal. The information in this document is mostly…

  3. [Differences in magnitude of nutritional status in Chilean school children according to CDC and WHO 2005-2008 reference].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Fabián; Cerda Rioseco, Ricardo; Andrade, Margarita; Morales, Gladys; Gálvez, Patricia; Orellana, Yasna; Leyton, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Further discussions are needed regarding the magnitude of nutritional problems diagnosed using CDC or WHO, against the existence of new biological or statistical definitions of obesity. To compare the evolution of the prevalence of nutritional status among schoolchildren in first grade, from 2005 to 2008, according to CDC and WHO. Retrospective cohort study, of 140.265 students of both sexes of first grade, evaluated from 2005- 2008, whose anthropometric data (weight and height), were obtained from annual registration system of school nutrition. To classify the nutritional status of children, CDC and WHO patterns were used. The mean BMI was slightly different and lower in girls than in boys, in 2005 and 2006. During 2007 and 2008 the average BMI in girls reached the observed in males. There was a higher prevalence of underweight according to WHO (p=0,03), with a tendency to decrease in the subsequent years. The prevalence of normality was greater according to the CDC criteria, with a reduction between 2005 and 2007 and an increase in 2008 (P < 0,001). There was a lower prevalence of overweight according to CDC criteria (P < 0,001), with an increase between 2005 and 2007, both CDC and WHO. The prevalence of obesity was lower according to the WHO criteria, and there were not statistically significant differences when comparing the CDC pattern. By comparing both patterns, CDC tends to overestimate the normal and underestimate the overweight, while obesity was not significant differences. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Employment status and temporal patterns of energy intake: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Chau, Chun-An; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chen, Hsin-Jen

    2017-09-21

    To (i) identify the major temporal patterns of energy intake among adults; (ii) examine the association between employment status and the patterns; and (iii) examine the association between dietary quality and the patterns. Secondary analysis based on the cross-sectional population-based nutrition survey in Taiwan, 2005-2008. Based on energy intake levels at six time intervals of a day derived from 24 h recall data, we applied cluster analysis to identify major temporal patterns of energy intake. Self-reported employment status was categorized into six groups: full-time, part-time, no job, student, homemaker and retired. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to test the association between temporal patterns of energy intake and employment groups. Non-institutionalized community dwellers. Non-pregnant adults (≥19 years old) with total energy intake between 2092 and 20920 kJ/d (500 and 5000 kcal/d; n 4508). Five major patterns were identified, which can be seen as the traditional meal pattern and its variants. About 20 % of adults had the traditional pattern. The most prevalent pattern was the delayed morning meal pattern (33 %), which had lower Ca and P intakes than the traditional pattern. About 14 % of adults had the delayed lunchtime pattern, which had lower protein, PUFA, fibre, Ca, P, vitamin D and vitamin E intakes than the traditional. Adjusted prevalence of the delayed lunchtime pattern was highest among full-time students (34 %), followed by part-time workers (24 %), and was lower in retired (8 %), homemakers (11 %) and full-time employed adults (12 %). Adults' temporal patterns of energy intake, which varied with their employment status, affected their dietary quality.

  5. Flame retardants and legacy contaminants in polar bears from Alaska, Canada, East Greenland and Svalbard, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J; Aars, Jon; Born, Erik W; Branigan, Marsha; Dietz, Rune; Evans, Thomas J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonne, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Flame retardants and legacy contaminants were analyzed in adipose tissue from 11 circumpolar polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations in 2005-2008 spanning Alaska east to Svalbard. Although 37 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), total-(α)-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 2 polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), pentabromotoluene, pentabromoethylbenzene, hexabromobenzene, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy(ethane) and decabromodiphenyl ethane were screened, only 4 PBDEs, total-(α-)HBCD and BB153 were consistently found. Geometric mean ΣPBDE (4.6-78.4 ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and BB153 (2.5-81.1 ng/g lw) levels were highest in East Greenland (43.2 and 39.2 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively), Svalbard (44.4 and 20.9 ng/g lw) and western (38.6 and 30.1 ng/g lw) and southern Hudson Bay (78.4 and 81.1 ng/g lw). Total-(α)-HBCD levels (<0.3-41.1 ng/g lw) were lower than ΣPBDE levels in all subpopulations except in Svalbard, consistent with greater European HBCD use versus North American pentaBDE product use. ΣPCB levels were high relative to flame retardants as well as other legacy contaminants and increased from west to east (1797-10,537 ng/g lw). ΣCHL levels were highest among legacy organochlorine pesticides and relatively spatially uniform (765-3477 ng/g lw). ΣDDT levels were relatively low and spatially variable (31.5-206 ng/g lw). However, elevated proportions of p,p'-DDT to ΣDDT in Alaska and Beaufort Sea relative to other subpopulations suggested fresh inputs from vector control use in Asia and/or Africa. Comparing earlier circumpolar polar bear studies, ΣPBDE, total-(α)-HBCD, p,p'-DDE and ΣCHL levels consistently declined, whereas levels of other legacy contaminants did not. International regulations have clearly been effective in reducing levels of several legacy contaminants in polar bears relative to historical levels. However, slow or stalling declines of certain historic pollutants like PCBs and a complex mixture of "new" chemicals continue to be of

  6. [Impact of "Seguro Popular" on catastrophic and out-of-pocket health expenditures in rural and urban Mexico, 2005-2008].

    PubMed

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Galárraga, Omar

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the effect of "Seguro Popular" (SP) on the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure in the medium term. We used the 'Encuesta de Evaluación del SP' --SP Survey Evaluation-- (2005-2008). We analyzed the SP effect on the rural cohort during two years of follow-up (2006 and 2008) and in the urban cohort during one year of follow-up (2008). At the local level (regional clusters) we did not find an effect of the SP. At the household level we found a protective effect of SP on CHE and the OOP health payments in outpatient and hospitalization in rural areas; and a significant effect on the reduction of OOP health payments in outpatient services in urban zones. SP seems to be an effective program to protect poor household against out-of-pocket health expenditures in the medium term.

  7. Stable time patterns of railway suicides in Germany: comparative analysis of 7,187 cases across two observation periods (1995-1998; 2005-2008).

    PubMed

    Lukaschek, Karoline; Baumert, Jens; Erazo, Natalia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-02-06

    The majority of fatalities on the European Union (EU) railways are suicides, representing about 60% of all railway fatalities. The aim of this study was to compare time patterns of suicidal behaviour on railway tracks in Germany between two observation periods (1995-1998 and 2005-2008) in order to investigate their stability and value in railway suicide prevention. Cases were derived from the National Central Registry of person accidents on the German railway network (STABAG). The association of daytime, weekday and month with the mean number of suicides was analysed applying linear regression. Potential differences by observation period were assessed by adding observation period and the respective interaction terms into the linear regression. A 95% confidence interval for the mean number of suicides was computed using the t distribution. A total of 7,187 railway suicides were recorded within both periods: 4,102 (57%) in the first period (1995-1998) and 3,085 (43%) in the second (2005-2008). The number of railway suicides was highest on Mondays and Tuesdays in the first period with an average of 3.2 and 3.5 events and of 2.6 events on both days in the second period. In both periods, railway suicides were more common between 6:00 am and noon, and between 6:00 pm and midnight. Seasonality was only prominent in the period 1995-1998. Over the course of two observation periods, the weekday and circadian patterns of railway suicides remained stable. Therefore, these patterns should be an integral part of railway suicide preventive measures, e.g. gatekeeper training courses.

  8. Source Parameters of Bala-Sirapinar (Central Turkey) Earthquakes of 2005-2008: Implications on Internal Deformations of the Anatolian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubuk, Yesim; Yolsal-Cevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2013-04-01

    Active tectonics of central Anatolia are governed by the collision between African, Arabian and Anatolian plates which causes westwards escape of Anatolia along the North and East Anatolian fault zones, and responsible for the counterclockwise rotation of Kırşehir block with slight internal deformation. Although central Anatolia region has not been known with destructive earthquakes, many small and moderate size earthquakes (2.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.0) have been observed in last decade or so. These earthquakes are crucial as they also contribute to better understanding of shallow crustal deformation in the central Anatolian block. The intense earthquake activity in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar (Ankara, central Turkey) region during 2005-2008 such as July 30, 2005 (Mw=5.2); December 20, 2007 (Mw=5.7) and December 26, 2007 (Mw =5.6) earthquakes are mainly correlated with mapped faults of whose lengths varies between 1-25 km. In the present study, we have obtained source parameters, and estimated centroid depths of 27 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging between 3.5 ≤ ML ≤ 5.6 by using regional moment tensor (RMT) inversion method. Complete broad-band waveforms recorded at near-field epicenter distances (0.45° ≤ Δ ≤ 3.6°) distributed by KOERI-UDIM were analyzed. The importance of moment tensor inversion arises to give faulting mechanisms of smaller to moderate size earthquakes even in case of sparse networks with reliable depth information. Our results reveal both NW-SE directed right-lateral strike slip faulting and NE-SW directed left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms which are clearly correlated with the conjugate fault systems in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar region. However, some earthquakes also have E-W directed normal faulting components. We conclude that the major characteristics of 2005-2008 earthquake activity have been dominantly represented by right-lateral strike slip faulting mechanism. Furthermore, our results are also consistent with the

  9. Associations between yogurt, dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and obesity among U.S. children aged 8-18 years: NHANES, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Keast, Debra R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Albertson, Ann M; Gugger, Carolyn K; Holschuh, Norton M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8-18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  10. Tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and cessation counseling among medical students: cross-country data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS), 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background GHPSS is a school-based survey that collects self-administered data from students in regular classroom settings. GHPSS produces representative data at the national or city level in each country. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and cessation counseling among medical students using the GHPSS data. Methods The Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) was conducted among 3rd year medical students in 47 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank from 2005-2008 to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and amount of formal training in cessation counseling. Results In 26 of the 48 sites, over 20% of the students currently smoked cigarettes, with males having higher rates than females in 37 sites. Over 70% of students reported having been exposed to secondhand smoke in public places in 29 of 48 sites. The majority of students recognized that they are role models in society (over 80% in 42 of 48 sites), believed they should receive training on counseling patients to quit using tobacco (over 80% in 41 of 48 sites), but few reported receiving formal training (less than 40% in 46 of 48 sites). Conclusion Tobacco control efforts must discourage tobacco use among health professionals, promote smoke free workplaces, and implement programs that train medical students in effective cessation-counseling techniques. PMID:21284864

  11. European Energy Security and Nord Stream: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline, Its Opportunities and Risks for Europe, and Its Impact on European Energy Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Pipeline, FNI Report 15, Fridtjof Nansen Institut (Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institut, 2008), 9. 183 Nord Stream, The pipeline - Nord Stream AG. 184...Nord Stream: Not just a Pipeline. FNI Report 15, Fridtjof Nansen Institut, Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institut, 2008; available at: http://www.fni.no

  12. Trends in HIV testing and associated factors among men in South Africa: evidence from 2005, 2008 and 2012 national population-based household surveys.

    PubMed

    Makusha, T; Mabaso, M; Richter, L; Desmond, C; Jooste, S; Simbayi, L

    2017-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan African countries, including South Africa, uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among men remains a major challenge. Few studies have explored HIV testing uptake among men and factors that influence their testing behaviours. This article explores trends in HIV testing uptake and associated factors among men aged 15 years and older in South Africa using national HIV population-based household surveys conducted in 2005, 2008 and 2012. A multistage cross-sectional design was used in the three nationally representative household-based surveys. P-trend Chi-squared statistic was used to analyze changes in HIV testing in relation to demographic factors, and HIV-related risk behaviours across the three surveys. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between ever testing for HIV, demographic factors and HIV-related risk behaviours. HIV testing uptake among men was 28% in 2005, 43% in 2008 and 59% in 2012. A trend was also observed in HIV testing by sociodemographic factors, but differences existed within variables. HIV testing uptake was mainly influenced by the effects of selected population characteristics. Reduced likelihood of HIV testing was significantly associated with males aged 15-24 years, Black African race group, being single and unemployed, those residing in urban informal and rural informal areas, and those men who ever had sex. The observed sociodemographic differentials suggest that an effective expansion strategy for HIV testing needs to prioritize those most unlikely to test as identified by the current findings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between increased BMI and severe school absenteeism among US children and adolescents: findings from a national survey, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Raychowdhury, S; Tedders, S H; Lyn, R; Lòpez-De Fede, A; Zhang, J

    2012-04-01

    School absenteeism may be an underlying cause of poor school performance among overweight and obese children. We examined the associations between school absenteeism and body mass index (BMI) in a nationally representative sample. We analyzed the data of 1387 children (6-11 years) and 2185 adolescents (12-18 years), who completed an interview and anthropometric measurement as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. The CDC 2000 growth chart was used to categorize BMI status, and the number of school days missed during the past 12 months was assessed by asking the proxies or interviewees. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were 18.96±1.44% (s.e.) and 16.41±0.78%, respectively, among study populations. The means of school days missed in the last 12 months were not statistically different between the normal-weight, overweight and obese groups, 3.79±0.56, 3.86±0.38 and 4.31±0.01 days, respectively. However, when >2 days missed per school month was defined as severe absence, the prevalence of severe absence were 1.57%, 2.99% and 4.94% respectively, among 6-11-year-old children with normal, overweight and obese. The adjusted odds of severe school absence were 2.27 (95% confidence interval=0.64-8.03) and 3.93 (1.55-9.95), respectively, among overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers (P for trend test <0.01). No significant association was found among adolescents. Increased body weight is independently associated with severe school absenteeism in children but not adolescents. Future research is needed to determine the nature, and academic and social significance of this association.

  14. Adult cranberry beverage consumers have healthier macronutrient intakes and measures of body composition compared to non-consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Sutherland, Lisa A

    2013-12-04

    Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005-2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001), but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001) and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001) and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers.

  15. Early Age-related Macular Degeneration with Cardiovascular and Renal Comorbidities: An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qi; Saaddine, Jinan B; Klein, Ronald; Rothenberg, Richard; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Il'yasova, Dora

    2017-09-11

    A cross sectional study was designed to examine the relationship of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with comorbidities of cardiovascular and renal conditions in the representative population using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2008. Participants (≥40 years) who underwent retinal photography were included. Early AMD was defined by the retinal digital images. The comorbidities were self-reported stroke and heart disease (HD), including angina pectoris (AP), coronary heart disease (CHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), and myocardial infarction (MI). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was determined based on self-report, estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or the level of urine albumin. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI for having early AMD for persons with the selected conditions were: 2.6 (1.9, 3.6) for any type of HD. When the conditions were considered separately, ORs (95% CIs) were: 2.0 (1.2, 3.4) for AP; 2.5 (1.6, 3.8) for CHD; 2.4 (1.6, 3.6) for MI; 2.3 (1.3, 3.9) for CHF; 3.3 (2.2, 5.0) for stroke; and 2.4 (1.8, 3.2) for CKD. Covariable-adjusted ORs (AOR) were attenuated for all examined conditions, but remained statistically significant. Having any single condition (AOR [95%CI]: 2.7 [1.5, 4.8]) was significantly associated with early AMD, as was having ≥ 2 conditions (AOR [95%CI]: 5.2 [3.0, 9.0]). The strongest association was between early AMD and the combination of HD and stroke (AOR [95% CI]: 6.3 [2.9, 13.8]). Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are associated with early AMD in a representative sample of the US general population.

  16. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, race-ethnic group, SES, and BMI, each additional 390 mg Na/d (1 g salt/d) was associated with a 74-g/d greater intake of fluid (P < 0.001). In consumers of SSBs (n = 4443; 64%), each additional 390 mg Na/d (1 g salt/d) was associated with a 32-g/d higher intake of SSBs (P < 0.001) adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, SES, and energy intake. Dietary sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  17. Urinary parabens and polyaromatic hydrocarbons independent of health conditions are associated with adult emotional support needs: USA NHANES, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-09-01

    Everyone needs emotional support at some point in life, but the needs might not always be met. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of unmet needs of emotional support in adults and to identify social, environmental and health attributes in a national and population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2008, including demographics, blood pressure readings, self-reported emotional support needs in the last 12 months, self-reported ever health conditions and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Statistical analyses included chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of 6733 American adults aged 40-80, 1273 (21.0 %) needed more emotional support in the past year. They tended to be aged 40-60, female, Mexican American, other Hispanic, education less than high school, or poverty income ratio 5+. People with higher levels of butyl paraben, ethyl paraben, methyl paraben, 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, or 9-hydroxyfluorene (but not heavy metals, arsenic, phenols, phthalates, pesticides, or phytoestrogens) or historical diabetes, asthma, arthritis, stroke, thyroid disorder, chronic bronchitis, sleep complaint/disorder, or trouble seeing needed more emotional support. Significant risk associations from environmental chemicals mentioned above have remained after adjusting for historical health conditions as potential mediators. This is the first time examining prevalence of the unmet emotional support in adults and identifying the social, environmental and health attributes. Removal of parabens and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and increasing healthcare for people with health conditions to accommodate emotional support should be considered.

  18. Source parameters of the 2005-2008 Balâ-Sırapınar (central Turkey) earthquakes: Implications for the internal deformation of the Anatolian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çubuk, Yeşim; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2014-11-01

    Active tectonics of central Anatolia is mainly governed by the collision of the African, Arabian and Anatolian plates, which causes westward escape of Anatolia along the North and East Anatolian Fault zones, and the counterclockwise rotation of the Kırşehir block with insignificant internal deformation. The formation of the present-day tectonic processes in this region can be deduced from geophysical prospecting and seismological data. Although the seismicity in central Anatolia is distinctively lower than that in the northern and eastern parts of the Anatolian plate, small and moderate earthquakes (2.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.0) mostly occurred in the region in the past decades or so. For example, intense earthquake activity was observed in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar (Ankara, central Anatolia) region in the period of 2005 to 2008 with destructive earthquakes of July 30, 2005 (Mw = 5.2); December 20, 2007 (Mw = 5.7) and December 26, 2007 (Mw = 5.6). Therefore, these earthquakes are crucial to analyze the shallow crustal deformation in the central Anatolian block. In the present study, we obtained source parameters of 2005-2008 earthquake sequence using the regional moment tensor (RMT) inversion method. We analyzed complete broad-band waveforms recorded at near-field distances (0.45° ≤ Δ ≤ 3.6°). Our results reveal NW-SE directed right-lateral strike-slip faulting and NE-SW directed left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms, which are clearly correlated with the conjugate fault systems in the Balâ-Afşar-Sırapınar region. However, some earthquakes also have E-W directed normal faulting components. We suggest that the major characteristics of 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 earthquake activity could have been dominantly associated with left-lateral and right-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms, respectively. The seismogenic depth is found to be about 8-10 km. This result implies that earthquakes in the study region occurred mostly in the upper crust, which

  19. Motor Vehicle Crashes, Medical Outcomes, and Hospital Charges Among Children Aged 1-12 Years - Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System, 11 States, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Sauber-Schatz, Erin K; Thomas, Andrea M; Cook, Lawrence J

    2015-10-02

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among children. Age- and size-appropriate restraint use is an effective way to prevent motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. However, children are not always properly restrained while riding in a motor vehicle, and some are not restrained at all, which increases their risk for injury and death in a crash. 2005-2008. The Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) is a multistate program facilitated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to probabilistically link police crash reports and hospital databases for traffic safety analyses. Eleven participating states (Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, South Carolina, and Utah) submitted data to CODES during the reporting period. Descriptive analysis was used to describe drivers and child passengers involved in motor vehicle crashes and to summarize crash and medical outcomes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to compare a child passenger's likelihood of sustaining specific types of injuries by restraint status (optimal, suboptimal, or unrestrained) and seating location (front or back seat). Because of data constraints, optimal restraint use was defined as a car seat or booster seat use for children aged 1-7 years and seat belt use for children aged 8-12 years. Suboptimal restraint use was defined as seat belt use for children aged 1-7 years. Unrestrained was defined as no use of car seat, booster seat, or seat belt for children aged 1-12 years. Optimal restraint use in the back seat declined with child's age (1 year: 95.9%, 5 years: 95.4%, 7 years: 94.7%, 8 years: 77.4%, 10 years: 67.5%, 12 years: 54.7%). Child restraint use was associated with driver restraint use; 41.3% of children riding with unrestrained drivers also were unrestrained compared with 2.2% of children riding with restrained drivers. Child restraint use also was associated with impaired driving due to alcohol or

  20. FREQUENCY OF SOLAR-LIKE SYSTEMS AND OF ICE AND GAS GIANTS BEYOND THE SNOW LINE FROM HIGH-MAGNIFICATION MICROLENSING EVENTS IN 2005-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, A.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S.; Han, C. E-mail: gaudi@astronomy.ohio-state.ed

    2010-09-10

    We present the first measurement of the planet frequency beyond the 'snow line', for the planet-to-star mass-ratio interval -4.5 < log q < -2, corresponding to the range of ice giants to gas giants. We find (d{sup 2}N{sub pl})/(d log q d log s) = (0.36{+-}0.15) dex{sup -2} at the mean mass ratio q = 5 x 10{sup -4} with no discernible deviation from a flat (Oepik's law) distribution in log-projected separation s. The determination is based on a sample of six planets detected from intensive follow-up observations of high-magnification (A>200) microlensing events during 2005-2008. The sampled host stars have a typical mass M{sub host} {approx} 0.5 M {sub sun}, and detection is sensitive to planets over a range of planet-star-projected separations (s {sup -1}{sub max} R {sub E}, s{sub max} R {sub E}), where R {sub E} {approx} 3.5 AU(M{sub host}/M{sub sun}){sup 1/2} is the Einstein radius and s {sub max} {approx} (q/10{sup -4.3}){sup 1/3}. This corresponds to deprojected separations roughly three times the 'snow line'. We show that the observations of these events have the properties of a 'controlled experiment', which is what permits measurement of absolute planet frequency. High-magnification events are rare, but the survey-plus-follow-up high-magnification channel is very efficient: half of all high-mag events were successfully monitored and half of these yielded planet detections. The extremely high sensitivity of high-mag events leads to a policy of monitoring them as intensively as possible, independent of whether they show evidence of planets. This is what allows us to construct an unbiased sample. The planet frequency derived from microlensing is a factor 8 larger than the one derived from Doppler studies at factor {approx}25 smaller star-planet separations (i.e., periods 2-2000 days). However, this difference is basically consistent with the gradient derived from Doppler studies (when extrapolated well beyond the separations from which it is measured). This

  1. The use of physician-patient email: a follow-up examination of adoption and best-practice adherence 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Menachemi, Nir; Prickett, Charles T; Brooks, Robert G

    2011-02-25

    Improved communication from physician- patient emailing is an important element of patient centeredness. Physician-patient email use has been low; and previous data from Florida suggest that physicians who email with patients rarely implement best-practice guidelines designed to protect physicians and patients. Our objective was to examine whether email use with patients has changed over time (2005-2008) by using two surveys of Florida physicians, and to determine whether physicians have more readily embraced the best-practice guidelines in 2008 versus 2005. Lastly, we explored the 2008 factors associated with email use with patients and determined whether these factors changed relative to 2005. Our pooled time-series design used results from a 2005 survey (targeting 14,921 physicians) and a separate 2008 survey (targeting 7003 different physicians). In both years, physicians practicing in the outpatient setting were targeted with proportionally identical sampling strategies. Combined data from questions focusing on email use were analyzed using chi-square analysis, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression. A combined 6260 responses were available for analyses, representing a participation rate of 28.2% (4203/14,921) in 2005 and 29.4% (2057/7003) in 2008. Relative to 2005, respondents in 2008 were more likely to indicate that they personally used email with patients (690/4148, 16.6% vs 408/2001, 20.4%, c(2) (1) = 13.0, P < .001). However, physicians who reported frequently using email with patients did not change from 2005 to 2008 (2.9% vs 59/2001, 2.9%). Interest among physicians in future email use with patients was lower in 2008 (58.4% vs 52.8%, c(2) (2) = 16.6, P < .001). Adherence to email best practices remained low in 2008. When comparing 2005 and 2008 adherences with each of the individual guidelines, rates decreased over time in each category and were significantly lower for 4 of the 13 guidelines. Physician characteristics in 2008 that predicted email

  2. The Use of Physician-Patient Email: A Follow-up Examination of Adoption and Best-Practice Adherence 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    Prickett, Charles T; Brooks, Robert G

    2011-01-01

    Background Improved communication from physician- patient emailing is an important element of patient centeredness. Physician-patient email use has been low; and previous data from Florida suggest that physicians who email with patients rarely implement best-practice guidelines designed to protect physicians and patients. Objective Our objective was to examine whether email use with patients has changed over time (2005-2008) by using two surveys of Florida physicians, and to determine whether physicians have more readily embraced the best-practice guidelines in 2008 versus 2005. Lastly, we explored the 2008 factors associated with email use with patients and determined whether these factors changed relative to 2005. Methods Our pooled time-series design used results from a 2005 survey (targeting 14,921 physicians) and a separate 2008 survey (targeting 7003 different physicians). In both years, physicians practicing in the outpatient setting were targeted with proportionally identical sampling strategies. Combined data from questions focusing on email use were analyzed using chi-square analysis, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression. Results A combined 6260 responses were available for analyses, representing a participation rate of 28.2% (4203/14,921) in 2005 and 29.4% (2057/7003) in 2008. Relative to 2005, respondents in 2008 were more likely to indicate that they personally used email with patients (690/4148, 16.6% vs 408/2001, 20.4%, c2 1 = 13.0, P < .001). However, physicians who reported frequently using email with patients did not change from 2005 to 2008 (2.9% vs 59/2001, 2.9%). Interest among physicians in future email use with patients was lower in 2008 (58.4% vs 52.8%, c2 2 = 16.6, P < .001). Adherence to email best practices remained low in 2008. When comparing 2005 and 2008 adherences with each of the individual guidelines, rates decreased over time in each category and were significantly lower for 4 of the 13 guidelines. Physician characteristics

  3. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  4. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  5. Advanced Education Business Plan 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In collaboration with learning providers, the advanced education system, industry, communities, government agencies and non-governmental organizations, Advanced Education strives to create accessible, affordable and quality learning opportunities that are responsive to the ongoing learning needs of Albertans. The Ministry's 2005-08 Business Plan…

  6. Race Equality Scheme 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) is strongly committed to promoting race equality in the way that HMIE staff go about performing their role within Scottish education. Scottish society reflects cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity and Scottish education should be accessible to all. No-one should be disadvantaged or…

  7. Requirement of norD for Brucella suis Virulence in a Murine Model of In Vitro and In Vivo Infection

    PubMed Central

    Loisel-Meyer, Séverine; Jiménez de Bagüés, Maria Pilar; Bassères, Eugénie; Dornand, Jacques; Köhler, Stephan; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Jubier-Maurin, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    A mutant of Brucella suis bearing a Tn5 insertion in norD, the last gene of the operon norEFCBQD, encoding nitric oxide reductase, was unable to survive under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. The norD strain exhibited attenuated multiplication within nitric oxide-producing murine macrophages and rapid elimination in mice, hence demonstrating that norD is essential for Brucella virulence. PMID:16495577

  8. Cup-to-Disc Ratio Asymmetry in U.S. Adults: Prevalence and Association with Glaucoma in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mary; Boland, Michael V; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2017-08-01

    To describe the prevalence of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (vCDR) asymmetry in U.S. adults and assess the utility of vCDR asymmetry in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Cross-sectional study. A total of 5359 subjects aged ≥40 years from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Subjects completed retinal photography and had vCDR determined in both eyes, with vCDR asymmetry calculated as the absolute value of the difference between the 2 eyes. Frequency Doubling Technology perimetry was used to assess for visual field (VF) defects. Subjects were categorized as having "disc defined glaucoma" if either disc demonstrated glaucomatous features, and VF data were combined with optic disc grading to determine "disc plus field defined glaucoma." Association between vCDR asymmetry and disc plus field defined glaucoma. In U.S. adults without glaucoma, the 50th, 97.5th, and 99.5th percentiles of vCDR asymmetry are 0.05, 0.19, and 0.26, respectively. Vertical cup-to-disc ratio asymmetry ≥0.20 occurs in 2.1% of U.S. adults without glaucoma. The prevalence of vCDR asymmetry ≥0.20 among white, black, and Hispanic adults without glaucoma is 2.4%, 0.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. The odds of vCDR asymmetry ≥0.20 are 1.44 times higher per 10-year increase in age (odds ratio [OR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.72; P < 0.01). Each 0.10 increase in vCDR asymmetry was associated with a 2.57 times higher adjusted odds of disc plus field defined glaucoma (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.43-4.61; P < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of vCDR asymmetry ≥0.20 for disc plus field defined glaucoma are 22.7% and 97.7%, respectively, whereas the positive likelihood ratio is 9.9 and the positive predictive value (PPV) is 7.0%. At a higher vCDR asymmetry cutoff of ≥0.30, the PPV increases to 37.7%. Vertical cup-to-disc ratio asymmetry is predictive of prevalent glaucoma, but the PPV remains low even at high degrees of asymmetry. Vertical cup-to-disc ratio

  9. Survey of microfungi in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord (Germany).

    PubMed

    Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

    2011-01-01

    During an excursion in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord in 2009 and 2010 we were able to collect and identify more than 100 specimens of microfungi on different parts of cultivated and wild plant species. We found parasitic and saprophytic microfungi on trees, bushes and herbaceous plants. Some of them have been observed only rarely until now. Most of the collected microfungi species belong to the classes of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes - for example Leptosphaeria modesta (Desm.) Rabenh. on Knautia cf. arvensis (L.) Coult., Ramularia urticae Ces. on Urtica dioica L., Stigmina glomerulosa (Sacc.) S. Hughes on Juniperus communis L., Pseudomassaria corni (Sowerby) Arx on Cornus alba L., Mollisia discolor (Mont.) W. Phillips on Cornus alba L., Botryosphaeria quercuum (Schwein.) Sacc. on Quercus robur L., Peronospora cytisi Rostr. on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Microsphaera guarinonii Briosi and Cavara on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Brachysporium dingleyae S. Hughes on Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl and Rhododendron spec., Mamiania fimbriata (Pers.) Ces. and De Not. on Carpinus betulus L., Atopospora betulina (Fr.) Petr. on Betula pendula Roth, Septoria robiniae (Lib.) Desm. (=Phloeospora robiniae (Lib.) Höhn.) on Robinia pseudoacacia L., Chalara hughesii Nag Raj and W.B. Kendr. on Quercus robur L.. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  10. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    L'Horta Nord is an important irrigation district in Valencia (Spain), especially for vegetable crops. The traditional cropping pattern in the region consists of a rotation of chufa with crops such as potato, onion, lettuce, escarole and red cabbage, being all these crops furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of the water used is acceptable, water is not expensive and there are no limitations on supply. Consequently, growers are not aware of the volumes of water used, application efficiencies, nor water productivity for any of the crops cited. The European Framework Directive 2000/60, based on the precautionary principle, considers preventive action for measures to be taken; moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. Thus, water use is an issue to improve. In this sense, the current situation of the irrigation in the area is analysed using chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) as representative of the crops, since most of the crops in the area have shallow root systems, as chufa, which are irrigated in similar patterns. In order to analyse the irrigation performance of the traditional chufa crop as well as to achieve more sustainable results, different studies have been carried out, during the last decade. Efforts have been directed to increase water productivity, increasing yield and minimising the volumes of water applied. Different planting configurations and different irrigation thresholds, not only in furrow irrigation but also in drip irrigation, are examples of how the irrigation performance could be improved. Herein is presented a two-year study, comparing, in both furrow and drip irrigation, two irrigation schedules based on the volumetric soil water content, which was continuously monitored using capacitance sensors. Yield was significantly affected by the growing season, the irrigation system and by the irrigation schedule, and by the second order interactions of the

  11. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzarello, Marta; Marcolini, Federica; Pavia, Giulio; Pavia, Marco; Petronio, Carmelo; Petrucci, Mauro; Rook, Lorenzo; Sardella, Raffaele

    2007-02-01

    Some flint lithic artifacts were discovered in the fissure fillings of the well-known Pirro Nord site (Apulia, Southern Italy). The lithic industry, composed by three cores and some flakes, has been found to be associated to an Early Pleistocene vertebrate fossil assemblage. The fossil association contains a wide range of micromammals, including Allophaiomys ruffoi and Episoriculus gibberodon and large mammals including Bison degiulii and Equus altidens together with African elements as the gelada baboon Theropithecus and the saber-toothed cat Megantereon whitei. It defines the latest Villafranchian chronological unit (Pirro Nord Faunal Unit) in the Western European mammal biochronology. The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 and 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. The new discovery from Pirro Nord changes the chronology of the first arrival of hominids in Europe and offers new perspectives in the debate about the human dispersal in the Early Pleistocene.

  12. Cooperation and Collaboration in Distance Education: The Contact North/Contact Nord Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; And Others

    This paper describes Contact North/Contact Nord, a pilot project that attempts to improve strategies for distance education in Northern Ontario, Canada. The goals of the program include meeting ongoing and future educational needs of rural Canadians by improving the design and operation of technologically enhanced distance education programs. The…

  13. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus NorD, a putative efflux pump coregulated with the Opp1 oligopeptide permease, contributes selectively to fitness in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanpeng; Fu, Yingmei; Lee, Jean C; Hooper, David C

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus readily infects humans, causing infections from mild superficial skin infections to lethal bacteremia and endocarditis. Transporters produced by S. aureus allow the pathogen to adapt to a variety of settings, including survival at sites of infection and in the presence of antibiotics. The native functions of many transporters are unknown, but their potential dual contribution to fitness and antimicrobial resistance highlights their importance in staphylococcal infections. Here, we show that S. aureus NorD, a newly recognized efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, contributes to fitness in a murine subcutaneous abscess model. In community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strain MW2, norD was selectively upregulated 36-fold at the infection site relative to growth in vitro, and the norD mutant demonstrated significant fitness impairment in abscesses, with fitness 20- to 40-fold lower than that of the parent MW2 strain. Plasmid-encoded NorD could complement the fitness defect of the MW2 norD mutant. Chromosomal norD expression is polycistronic with the upstream oligopeptide permease genes (opp1ABCDF), which encode an ABC oligopeptide transporter. Both norD and opp1 were upregulated in abscesses and iron-restricted culture medium and negatively regulated by Fur, but only NorD contributed to fitness in the murine abscess model.

  15. Nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD) model of cosmic ray propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchaikin, V. V.; Sibatov, R. T.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of physical interpretation of the nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NoRD model) for cosmic ray transport in the Galaxy is discussed. The model accounts for the turbulent character of the interstellar medium and the relativistic principle of the speed limitation. Involving fractional calculus and non-Gaussian Lévy statistics yields numerical results compatible with observation data. A special attention is paid to the knee problem. The relativistic speed limit requirement steepens theoretical background spectrum at certain energies, and the position of the break, its sharpness and slopes of asymptotes depend on Dα (E) and α.

  16. Highlights from the CERN/ESO/NordForsk ''Gender in Physics Day''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, F.; Guinot, G.; Strandberg, L.

    2017-03-01

    In their role as observers on the EU Gender Equality Network in the European Research Area (GENERA) project, funded under the Horizon 2020 framework, CERN, ESO and NordForsk joined forces and organised a Gender in Physics Day at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation. The one-day conference aimed to examine innovative activities promoting gender equality, and to discuss gender-oriented policies and best practice in the European Research Area (with special emphasis on intergovernmental organisations), as well as the importance of building solid networks. The event was very well attended and was declared a success. The main highlights of the meeting are reported.

  17. Australian Directions in Indigenous Education 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The educational outcomes of Indigenous Australians have improved over recent decades. This is evident across a range of indicators on the enrolment, participation and achievement of Indigenous students in the early childhood education and school sectors. There has also been increased representation of Indigenous students in New Apprenticeships and…

  18. Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in Mongolia, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Inoue, Satoshi; Tuya, Nasan; Dulam, Purevtseren; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Sugiura, Naoko; Okutani, Akiko; Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Kotaki, Akira; Yamada, Akio

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of rabies virus (RABV) in Mongolia based on the nucleotide sequences of viral N gene. A total of 24 rabies-positive samples from seven different domestic and wild animal species collected in western and central Mongolia between 2005 and 2008 were examined for their N gene sequences. The results showed that the endemic Mongolian RABVs could be divided into two different groups closely related to the Steppe-type and Arctic-like viruses isolated in Russia.

  19. Churg-Strauss syndrome: 2005-2008 update.

    PubMed

    Grau, Rafael G

    2008-12-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis associated with eosinophil-rich granulomatous inflammation of tissues and vessels and is also associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Epidemiologic studies continue to show that CSS is the rarest of the necrotizing small-vessel vasculitides. However, it is not possible to know with any certainty if there has been an increase in incidence. There has been an attempt to divide the patients with CSS into an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive and cytoplasmic antibody-negative group. The former group has an increased frequency of renal involvement, parenchymal pulmonary disease, constitutional symptoms, and peripheral and central nervous system involvement, whereas the latter group has more frequent cardiac disease. The role of eosinophils and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies remains poorly defined but provocative. Leukotriene receptor antagonists do not appear to induce CSS but facilitate the tapering of glucocorticoids, which unmasks the condition. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide remain the foundation of treatment for vasculitis, but there are other promising and less toxic alternatives on the horizon.

  20. [Evaluation of the website of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center].

    PubMed

    Rochoy, Michaël; Béné, Johana; Messaadi, Nassir; Auffret, Marine; Gautier, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    We posted the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center website and distributed a survey to its potential users between August 2014 and October 2014 (135 general practitioners, 45 pharmacists, 14 patients). Satisfaction was 7.3±1.6 out of 10 points for the visual aspect, 7.8±1.5 out of 10 points for navigation and 7.6±1.4 out of 10 points for content. The website was declared useful by 98% respondents, particularly for the reporting of adverse drugs reactions (89%).

  1. Surveys of microfungi in a former industrial area in Duisburg-Nord.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Dachowski, M; Kricke, R

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and forty microfungi (Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes) were collected in the "Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord" located in North Rhine-Westphalia. New hosts for rarely found fungi are recorded for the first time. New for Germany are Massaria inquinans (Tode) De Not. and Nitschkia grevillei (Rhem) Nannf. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pirottaea nigrostriata Graddon on Artemisia vulgaris L., Ceratopycnis clematidis Höhn. on Clematis vitalba L., Dasyscyphus aff. humuli (W. Phillips) Dennis on Humulus lupulus L. and Leptosphaeria derasa (Berk. & Br.) Auersw. on Senecio inaequidens DC. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma (Durieu & Mont.) E. Müller & Booth and Phomopsis platanoides (Cooke) Died. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Microsphaeropsis pseudaspera Sutton, Mycosphaerella osborniae D. Hawksw. & Sivan. and Phomopsis oblita Sacc. on Artemisia vulgaris L., Leptosphaeria acuta (Fr.) P. Karst. and Leptosphaeria doliolum (Pers.) Ces. & De Not. on Bryonia dioica Jacq., Ophiobolus erythrosporus (Riess) G. Winter and Pleospora herbarum (Pers.) Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. on Dipsacus sylvestris (Huds), Keissleriella ocellata (Niessl) Bose on Hypericum perforatum L., Dactylaria aff. graminicola on Lolium perenne L., Siroplacodium aff. atrum on Oenothera beinnis L., Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Sacc. on Prunus spec., Hapalosphaeria deformans (Syd.) Syd. and Microdiscula rubicola (Bres.) Höhn. on Rubus fructicosus agg. L., Cryptodiaporthe salicina (Pers.) Wehm. on Salix alba L. and Pleurophoma pleurospora (Sacc.) Höhn. on Salix caprea L.

  2. Mental disorder and caregiver burden in spouses: the Nord-Trøndelag health study.

    PubMed

    Idstad, Mariann; Ask, Helga; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-08-26

    Researchers generally agree that mental disorder represents a burden to the family. The present study concerns the subjective burden of living with a person with mental disorder, more specifically the association between mental disorder in the index person and subjective well-being and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the spouse. Data were obtained from questionnaires administered to the adult population of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway during the period 1995-1997. The present study is based on a subsample where 9,740 couples were identified. Subjective burden in spouses of persons with mental disorder was compared with subjective burden in spouses of persons without mental disorder, using analysis of variance (ANOVA). All analyses were stratified by sex. Adjusting for several covariates, spouses of persons with mental disorder scored significantly lower on subjective well-being and significantly higher on symptoms of anxiety and depression compared to spouses of index persons without mental disorder. Although highly significant, the effect sizes were moderate, corresponding to a difference in standard deviations ranging from .34 - .51. Our study supports the notion that there is an association between mental disorder in one partner and subjective burden in the spouse, but not to the same extent that have been reported in earlier studies, as our results do not indicate that a large proportion of the spouses reach a symptom level of anxiety and depression that reflects clinical mental disorder.

  3. [Recourse to psychotropic medication in the Nord - Pas-de-Calais Region (France)].

    PubMed

    Plancke, Laurent; Benoît, Emmanuel; Chantelou, Marie-Lise; Amariei, Alina; Vaiva, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    The prescriptions for psychoactive drugs presented to the Health Insurance system for reimbursement of charges are a source of information about some psychological illnesses and disorders in the context of the overuse of these drugs in France. In Nord - Pas-de-Calais Region, out of a total of 5 070 160 prescriptions in 2007, 576 493 individuals benefited from at least one such drug. Over the period of the study, 15.6% of the population of the region covered took at least one psychotropic medication. The rate of use was 11.7% for benzodiazepines, 7.6% for anti-depressants, 1.8% for anti-psychotics, 0.5% for treatment of alcohol dependence and 0.3% for opiate substitution therapy (OST). For the first three of these classes rate of use increased steadily with age. It was invariably much higher in women than in men. Men were treated more frequently for alcoholism and heroin dependency; the proportion taking medication initially increased with age (up to 40-49 years for alcohol dependency and 30-39 years for OST), before falling thereafter.

  4. Prevalence of psychoactive substances in truck drivers in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France).

    PubMed

    Labat, Laurence; Fontaine, Bernard; Delzenne, Chantal; Doublet, Anne; Marek, Marie Christine; Tellier, Dominique; Tonneau, Murielle; Lhermitte, Michel; Frimat, Paul

    2008-01-30

    A previous study conducted in 1995 showed that psychoactive drug use by workers was higher in safety/security workstations than in the rest of the labour force. In order to verify this finding, we conducted a new study in 2003-2004 in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, restricted to truck drivers. The aim of this study was to allow harmonizing the professional practice of the occupational physicians, proposing drug prevention and drug testing policies, validating the analytical methods and the guidelines in case of positive testing results. One thousand truck drivers were studied. Urines were tested for amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine and methadone by immunoassay. Urine ethanol determinations were performed by an ADH method. Positive urines for drugs of abuse, methadone or buprenorphine were then tested by gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Out of the 1000 drivers, cannabinoids were detected in 85 cases, opiates in 41 cases, amphetamines in 3 cases and cocaine in only one case. Buprenorphine was detected in 18 cases, methadone in 5 cases and benzodiazepines in 4 cases. Urine ethanol was positive in 50 cases. We found only one case with 6-monoacetylmorphine. Other positive opiates were metabolites of antitussives. The relatively low number of benzodiazepine positive urines could be explained by the lack of sensitivity of the test we used. All these results confirm those of the previous study for cannabinoids and ethanol in safety/security workstations. Positive results for methadone and buprenorphine are eight times higher than in the general population. In conclusion, the authors think that it will be of a great interest to test urine of truck drivers for other classes of psychoactive drugs, using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

  5. La tectonique active de la région nord-algérienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelles-Chaouche, AbdelKrim; Boudiaf, Azzedine; Djellit, Hamou; Bracene, Rabah

    2006-01-01

    En Algérie, la tectonique active est localisée dans la région nord du pays, essentiellement dans le Tell. Dans cette région, frontière entre les plaques Africaine et Eurasiatique, la déformation tectonique est l'expression de la convergence actuelle des ces deux plaques et se traduit par la fermeture progressive des bassins néogènes et par la poursuite de l'édification de la chaîne. Le long de la marge, la déformation s'exprime dans la partie de la plaine abyssale proche du continent, par le plissement de la couverture plio-quaternaire. Au niveau de la pente et sur le plateau continental, la sismicité est générée par des accidents qui se prolongent parfois à terre. Cette tectonique littorale active est à l'origine de la surrection de la côte, comme cela fut le cas lors du dernier séisme de Boumerdes du 21 mai 2003, où le soulèvement cosismique a été estimé en moyenne à 0,50 m. À terre, la sismicité s'exprime surtout le long des bordures des bassins néogènes qui longent la côte. Ces bassins se déforment en donnant des structures plicatives (synclinaux, anticlinaux) et parfois cassantes (pli-failles, failles inverses, chevauchements) orientées NE-SW à NNE-SSW. Ces dernières sont le plus souvent à l'origine des violents tremblements de terre que connaît l'Algérie. Plus au sud, la sismicité s'exprime, tout le long du Tell, le long des faisceaux de plis de direction NE-SW. Actuellement, dans les régions des Hauts Plateaux et la région de l'Atlas saharien, l'activité sismique est faible. Pour citer cet article : A. Yelles-Chaouche et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  6. Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant Stephen L. Howard Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Wayne A. Churaman Sensors and... Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant by Stephen L. Howard, Wayne A. Churaman, and Luke J. Currano ARL-TR-6950 June 2014...2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant 5a

  7. Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Methods Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Results Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Conclusions Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner’s nursing home admission. PMID:24885732

  8. Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ask, Helga; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Holmen, Jostein; Selbæk, Geir; Saltvedt, Ingvild; Tambs, Kristian

    2014-05-01

    Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner's nursing home admission.

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental services utilisation in a Norwegian county: the third Nord-Trondelag Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Vikum, Eirik; Krokstad, Steinar; Holst, Dorthe; Westin, Steinar

    2012-11-01

    To assess the level of socioeconomic inequity in dental care utilisation in Norway and enable comparison with recent international comparative studies. We studied dental care utilisation among 17,136 men and 21,414 women in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (2006-08). Respondents aged 20 years and above were included in the study, and analyses were also performed within subgroups of age and gender (20-39, 40-59, and ≥60 years). Income-related horizontal inequity was estimated by means of concentration indices. Education-related inequity was estimated as relative risks. We found consistent pro-rich income inequity among men and women of all ages. The level of income inequity was highest among men and women ≥60 years, and in this group the income gradient was steepest between the poorest and the middle quintiles. Pro-educated inequity was found exclusively among men and women ≥60 years. General attendance was high (77%). The overall level of income-related inequity in dental services utilisation was low compared to other European countries as reported in two recent international studies of socioeconomic inequalities in dental care utilisation. Pro-rich and pro-educated inequity is a public health challenge mainly in the older part of the population.

  10. Establishment of the measurement uncertainty of 11-nor-D9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in hair.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Yang, Wonkyung; Lee, Sooyeun; Kim, Eunmi; In, Sangwhan; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-03-20

    The quantitative analysis of 11-nor-D(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair requires a sensitive method to detect a low-pg level. Before applying the method to real hair samples, the method was validated; in this study, we examined the uncertainty obtained from around the cut-off level of THCCOOH in hair. We calculated the measurement uncertainty (MU) of THCCOOH in hair as follows: specification of the measurand, identification of parameters using "cause and effect" diagrams, quantification of the uncertainty contributions using three factors, the uncertainty of weighing the hair sample, the uncertainty from calibrators and the calibration curve, and the uncertainty of the method precision. Finally, we calculated the degrees of freedom and the expanded uncertainty (EU). The concentration of THCCOOH in the hair sample with its EU was (0.60 ± 0.1) × 10(-4)ng/mg. The relative uncertainty percent for the measurand 0.60 × 10(-4)ng was 9.13%. In this study, we also selected different concentrations of THCCOOH in real hair samples and then calculated the EU, the relative standard uncertainty (RSU) of the concentration of THCCOOH in the test sample [u(r)(c0)], the relative uncertainty percent, and the effective degree of freedom (v(eff)). When the concentrations of THCCOOH approached the cut-off level, u(r)(c0) and the relative uncertainty percent increased but absolute EU and v(eff) decreased.

  11. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  12. Use of the Oto lung donor score to analyze the 2010 donor pool of the Nord Italia Transplant program.

    PubMed

    Porro, G A; Valenza, F; Coppola, S; Froio, S; Benazzi, E; De Fazio, N; Santambrogio, L; D'Armini, A M; Loy, M; Ravini, M; Lucianetti, A; Moretti, M P; Vesconi, S; Scalamogna, M; Gattinoni, L

    2012-09-01

    The feasibility and utility of a lung donor score that has been recently proposed was tested among a pool of lung donors referred to the Nord Italia Transplant program (NITp) organ procurement organization. Each lung donor was assigned an Oto score including, age, smoking history, chest X-ray, secretions and ratio of arterial oxygen tension to inspired oxygen fraction (PaO(2)/FiO(2)). Based on clinical compromise, each variable received a score between 0 and 3, except for PaO(2)/FiO(2), which was scored between 0 and 6 given its overall relevance. Throughout 2010, 201 multiorgan donors were initially considered to be potential lung donors. Among these, 59 (29.4%) eventually yielded 67 lung transplantations (named "Used group"). Among the 142 (70.6%) refused lungs, 28 were not used due to logistic or medical problems ("general exclusion" group, GE) and 114, because of poor lung function ("lung exclusion" group, LE). Median lung donor scores were 1 (range, 0 to 3), 4 (range, 2.5 to 6.5), and 7 (range, 5 to 9) in the Used, GE, and LE groups, respectively (one-way analysis of variance, P < .001). Some donors with Oto scores ≤7 worsened over time so that the score had significantly increased by the time of organ retrieval. Overall, subjects who died after lung transplantation were characterized by higher lung donor scores, (2 [1-4] versus 0.5 [0-3], P = .003). Our analysis suggested that the use of a donor score as a dynamic tool over the donation process was of great utility to describe and analyze a pool of lung donors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A strong enrichment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Nord-Trøndelag (central Norway) forest soil.

    PubMed

    Reimann, C; Fabian, K; Schilling, J; Roberts, D; Englmaier, P

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of soil C and O horizon samples in a recent regional geochemical survey of Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway (752 sample sites covering 25,000 km2), identified a strong enrichment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the O horizon. Of 53 elements analysed in both materials, Cd concentrations are, on average, 17 times higher in the O horizon than in the C horizon and other PTEs such as Ag (11-fold), Hg (10-fold), Sb (8-fold), Pb (4-fold) and Sn (2-fold) are all strongly enriched relative to the C horizon. Geochemical maps of the survey area do not reflect an impact from local or distant anthropogenic contamination sources in the data for O horizon soil samples. The higher concentrations of PTEs in the O horizon are the result of the interaction of the underlying geology, the vegetation zone and type, and climatic effects. Based on the general accordance with existing data from earlier surveys in other parts of northern Europe, the presence of a location-independent, superordinate natural trend towards enrichment of these elements in the O horizon relative to the C horizon soil is indicated. The results imply that the O and C horizons of soils are different geochemical entities and that their respective compositions are controlled by different processes. Local mineral soil analyses (or published data for the chemical composition of the average continental crust) cannot be used to provide a geochemical background for surface soil. At the regional scale used here surface soil chemistry is still dominated by natural sources and processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Education-based health inequalities in 18,000 Norwegian couples: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Sara Marie; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Ernstsen, Linda; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar

    2012-11-19

    Education-based inequalities in health are well established, but they are usually studied from an individual perspective. However, many individuals are part of a couple. We studied education-based health inequalities from the perspective of couples where indicators of health were measured by subjective health, anxiety and depression. A sample of 35,980 women and men (17,990 couples) was derived from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-97 (HUNT 2). Educational data and family identification numbers were obtained from Statistics Norway. The dependent variables were subjective health (four-integer scale), anxiety (21-integer scale) and depression (21-integer scale), which were captured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The dependent variables were rescaled from 0 to 100 where 100 was the worst score. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using two-level linear random effect regression models. The variance attributable to the couple level was 42% for education, 16% for subjective health, 19% for anxiety and 25% for depression. A one-year increase in education relative to that of one's partner was associated with an improvement of 0.6 scale points (95% confidence interval = 0.5-0.8) in the subjective health score (within-couple coefficient). A one-year increase in a couple's average education was associated with an improvement of 1.7 scale points (95% confidence interval = 1.6-1.8) in the subjective health score (between-couple coefficient). There were no education-based differences in the anxiety or depression scores when partners were compared, whereas there were substantial education-based differences between couples in all three outcome measures. We found considerable clustering of education and health within couples, which highlighted the importance of the family environment. Our results support previous studies that report the mutual effects of spouses on education-based inequalities in health, suggesting that couples develop

  15. Alcohol use and spousal mental distress in a population sample: the nord-trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is a widely held notion that alcohol abuse is related to mental distress in the spouse. Research has substantiated this notion by showing a tendency for spouses of alcohol abusers to experience more mental distress than spouses of non-abusers. However, the picture seems to be more complex, as some results do not show a significant effect or even less mental distress among spouses of alcohol abusers with the highest alcohol consumption. The present study investigates the association between spousal mental distress and both a high consumption of alcohol and having experienced alcohol related problems. Methods Norwegian population-based questionnaire data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2) were analyzed. In total 11,584 couples were eligible for analysis. Alcohol consumption was measured by numerical indicators of alcohol amount and frequency of drinking, whereas alcohol-related problems (i.e. having been criticized for excessive drinking) were measured by the CAGE Alcohol Screening Questionnaire. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results Results revealed that alcohol consumption was significantly associated with a decrease in spousal mental distress, whereas alcohol-related problems were associated with an increase in spousal mental distress when adjusted for each other. Interaction effects indicated that couples discordant for drinking problems experienced more mental distress than spouses concordant for drinking problems. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that alcohol-related problems constitute a clear risk factor for spousal mental distress. On the other hand, a high consumption of alcohol per se was related to lower levels of spousal mental distress, after adjusting for the alcohol-related problems perceived by the alcohol consumer him/herself. All effect sizes were small, but the trends were clear, challenging the notion that a high consumption of alcohol is exclusively and under all

  16. The association between diabetes mellitus, glucose, and chronic musculoskeletal complaints. Results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Ole M; Midthjell, Kristian; Zwart, John-Anker; Hagen, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DM, non-fasting glucose and chronic MSCs defined as pain and/or stiffness ≥ 3 months during the past year in the general adult population. Methods The results were based on cross-sectional data from 64,785 men and women (aged ≥ 20 years) who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey, which included 1,940 individuals with known DM. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results High non-fasting glucose was associated with a lower prevalence of chronic MSCs compared to a low glucose level. DM was associated with higher prevalence of chronic MSCs, in particular chronic widespread MSCs. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for glucose level, BMI, age, gender and physical activity, chronic widespread MSCs was 1.6 times more likely (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2) among individuals < 60 years of age with DM than among those without DM. The association between chronic widespread MSCs and DM was most evident among the group of individuals aged < 60 years with either type 2 DM or unclassified DM (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5). Conclusion In this cross-sectional study a high non-fasting glucose was associated with lower prevalence of chronic MSCs. Among individuals with known DM chronic widespread MSCs were more likely. PMID:19055732

  17. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenile Arthritis Camps Juvenile Arthritis Conference Resources JA Power Pack Educational Rights Kit JA Transition Toolkit Print ... Drevlow Family: Coping Through Community Tiffany Family Nora Powers: Taking Charge Jodi Van Emmerik: Happy Campers Bridget ...

  18. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  19. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  20. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-24

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  1. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA. PMID:27883040

  2. Semi-open environmental conditions during phases of hominin occupation at the Eemian Interglacial basin site Neumark-Nord 2 and its wider environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Eduard; Bakels, Corrie

    2015-06-01

    Neandertal occupation of Eemian environments in Europe is well attested by several archaeological sites dating to this interglacial period. Does this mean that Neandertals were living in closed forest environments? Due to the potential variability of Eemian environments in space and time, it is necessary to study environmental records that can be correlated with phases of hominin presence, as reflected in the archaeological record. Such a perspective can be obtained from the small basin locality Neumark-Nord 2, as it contains an extensive and detailed environmental record, as well as a large archaeological record consisting of several distinct find levels. Analysis shows that hominin presence is predominantly associated with semi-open environmental conditions. A review of the data from the neighbouring Neumark-Nord 1 basin shows that semi-open environments were also characterizing the wider environment during phases of hominin presence at both basin localities. Large herbivores attracted to the water in these basins may have played an important role in the vegetation openness, probably in conjunction with (local) climatic conditions. The relationship between hominin presence and semi-open environments is explained as Neandertals exploiting the large herbivores aggregating around these freshwater localities, while the more varied vegetation would also have provided them with edible plant foods. Other Eemian sites from freshwater contexts provide evidence for semi-open conditions as well.

  3. JA but not JA-Ile is the cell-nonautonomous signal activating JA mediated systemic defenses to herbivory in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Bozorov, Tohir A; Dinh, Son Truong; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-08-01

    The whole-plant activation of defense responses to wounding and herbivory requires systemic signaling in which jasmonates (JAs) play a pivotal role. To examine the nature of the slower cell-nonautonomous as compared to the rapid cell-autonomous signal in mediating systemic defenses in Nicotiana attenuata, reciprocal stem grafting-experiments were used with plants silenced for the JA biosynthetic gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (irAOC) or plants transformed to create JA sinks by ectopically expressing Arabidopsis JA-O-methyltransferase (ovJMT). JA-impaired irAOC plants were defective in the cell-nonautonomous signaling pathway but not in JA transport. Conversely, ovJMT plants abrogated the production of a graft-transmissible JA signal. Both genotypes displayed unaltered cell-autonomous signaling. Defense responses (17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, nicotine, and proteinase inhibitors) and metabolite profiles were differently induced in irAOC and ovJMT scions in response to graft-transmissible signals from elicited wild type stocks. The performance of Manduca sexta larvae on the scions of different graft combinations was consistent with the patterns of systemic defense metabolite elicitations. Taken together, we conclude that JA and possibly MeJA, but not JA-Ile, either directly functions as a long-distance transmissible signal or indirectly interacts with long distance signal(s) to activate systemic defense responses. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Education-based health inequalities in 18,000 Norwegian couples: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Education-based inequalities in health are well established, but they are usually studied from an individual perspective. However, many individuals are part of a couple. We studied education-based health inequalities from the perspective of couples where indicators of health were measured by subjective health, anxiety and depression. Methods A sample of 35,980 women and men (17,990 couples) was derived from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995–97 (HUNT 2). Educational data and family identification numbers were obtained from Statistics Norway. The dependent variables were subjective health (four-integer scale), anxiety (21-integer scale) and depression (21-integer scale), which were captured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The dependent variables were rescaled from 0 to 100 where 100 was the worst score. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using two-level linear random effect regression models. Results The variance attributable to the couple level was 42% for education, 16% for subjective health, 19% for anxiety and 25% for depression. A one-year increase in education relative to that of one’s partner was associated with an improvement of 0.6 scale points (95% confidence interval = 0.5–0.8) in the subjective health score (within-couple coefficient). A one-year increase in a couple’s average education was associated with an improvement of 1.7 scale points (95% confidence interval = 1.6–1.8) in the subjective health score (between-couple coefficient). There were no education-based differences in the anxiety or depression scores when partners were compared, whereas there were substantial education-based differences between couples in all three outcome measures. Conclusions We found considerable clustering of education and health within couples, which highlighted the importance of the family environment. Our results support previous studies that report the mutual effects of spouses on education

  5. Women's weight and disordered eating in a large Norwegian community sample: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    Eik-Nes, Trine; Romild, Ulla; Guzey, Ismail; Holmen, Turid; Micali, Nadia; Bjørnelv, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An increasing part of the population is affected by disordered eating (DE) even though they do not meet the full eating disorder (ED) criteria. To improve treatment in the range of weight-related disorders, there is a need to improve our knowledge about DE and relevant correlates of weight problems such as underweight, overweight and obesity. However, studies investigating DE and weight problems in a wide range of ages in the general population have been lacking. This paper explores DE, weight problems, dieting and weight dissatisfaction among women in a general population sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3). Participants The population included 27 252 women, aged 19–99 years, with information on DE outcomes and covariates. Outcomes DE was assessed with an 8-item version of the Eating Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Scale-5. Body mass index (BMI) was objectively measured. Data on dieting and weight dissatisfaction were collected from self-reported questionnaires and analysed across weight categories. Crude and adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used. Results High rates of overweight (38%) and obesity (23%) were found. DE was associated with weight problems. In women aged <30 years, 11.8% (95% CI 10.3 to 13.1) reported DE, and 12% (95% CI 11.5 to 12.6) reported DE in women aged >30 years. In those of younger ages (19–29 years), lower weight predicted DE, while increasing weight predicted DE in older aged women (30–99 years). The majority of women were dissatisfied with their weight (58.8%), and 54.1% of the women reported dieting. Neither BMI status nor age was associated with dieting or weight dissatisfaction. Conclusions A high prevalence of DE was observed, and findings suggest that weight problems and DE are not distinct from one another. Dieting was associated with women's weight dissatisfaction, rather than with actual weight

  6. Antidepressant Use in Persons Aged 12 and Over: United States, 2005-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... on 11,827 persons who also reported their family income. NHANES sample examination weights, which account for the differential probabilities of selection, nonresponse, and noncoverage, were used for all analyses. Standard errors of the percentages were estimated using Taylor series ...

  7. Selected Oral Health Indicators in the United States, 2005-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Statistics Reports Series 6. Cognition and Survey Measurement Series 10. Data From the National Health Interview ... are published elsewhere ( 5 ). Population estimates and standard errors were calculated in SAS-callable SUDAAN software (release ...

  8. Consumption of Added Sugar among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, Non-Hispanic black girls consumed a larger percentage of their calories from added sugars than Mexican-American girls. There was very little difference in added sugar consumption based on PIR. More ...

  9. Pollen counts and their relationship to meteorological factors in Ankara, Turkey during 2005-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilpinar, Ilginc; Civelek, Ersoy; Tuncer, Ayfer; Dogan, Cahit; Karabulut, Erdem; Sahiner, Umit M.; Yavuz, S. Tolga; Sackesen, Cansin

    2011-07-01

    Pollen plays an important role in the development and exacerbation of allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate the days with highest counts of the most allergenic pollens and to identify the meteorological factors affecting pollen counts in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. Airborne pollen measurements were carried out from 2005 to 2008 with a Burkard volumetric 7-day spore trap. Microscope counts were converted into atmospheric concentrations and expressed as pollen grains/m3. Meteorological parameters were obtained from the State Meteorological Service. All statistical analyses were done with pollen counts obtained from March to October for each year. The percentages of tree, grass and weed pollens were 72.1% ( n = 24,923), 12.8% ( n = 4,433) and 15.1% ( n = 5,219), respectively. The Pinaceae family from tree taxa (39% to 57%) and the Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae family from weed taxa, contributed the highest percentage of pollen (25% to 43%), while from the grass taxa, only the Poaceae family was detected from 2005 to 2008. Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae families, which are the most allergenic pollens, were found in high numbers from May to August in Ankara. In multiple logistic regression analysis, wind speed (OR = 1.18, CI95% = 1.02-1.36, P = 0.023) for tree pollen, daily mean temperature (OR = 1.10, CI95% = 1.04-1.17, P = 0.001) and sunshine hours (OR = 1.15, CI95% = 1.01-1.30, P = 0.033) for grass pollen, and sunshine hours (OR = 3.79, CI95% = 1.03-13.92, P = 0.044) for weed pollen were found as significant risk factors for high pollen count. The pollen calendar and its association with meteorological factors depend mainly on daily temperature, sunshine hours and wind speed, which may help draw the attention of physicians and allergic patients to days with high pollen counts.

  10. Cultural Themes in Messages from Top Air Force Leaders, 2005-2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    or monuments; or overall contributions of the Air Force to wars. Exclusion Criteria : 3. random history dates for the Air Force. Only history or...fly and fight in Air, Space, and Cyberspace. Exclusion Criteria :3. any statement citing the Air Force Vision (discussed later), statements focused... Exclusion Criteria :3. Air Force mission coding, context focusing on achieving a goal as opposed to plans for achieving future goals, current operations

  11. Consumption of added sugar among U.S. children and adolescents, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Ervin, R Bethene; Kit, Brian K; Carroll, Margaret D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2012-03-01

    Approximately 16% of children and adolescents’ total caloric intakes came from added sugars. Boys consumed more added sugars than girls. Preschool-aged children consumed the fewest calories from added sugars. Although girls consumed a smaller absolute amount of calories from added sugars than boys, their intakes were not that different from boys when the amounts are expressed as a percentage of total caloric intakes. Non-Hispanic white children and adolescents consumed a larger percentage of their calories from added sugars than Mexican-American children and adolescents. Also, Non-Hispanic black girls consumed a larger percentage of their calories from added sugars than Mexican-American girls. There was very little difference in added sugar consumption based on PIR. More of the added sugars calories came from foods as opposed to beverages. Previous research has demonstrated that sodas are the single leading food source of added sugars intakes among children, adolescents, and adults (2,4). Our results showed a little more than 40% of calories from added sugars came from beverages. Poti and Popkin (5) have suggested that eating location impacts daily energy intake in children and adolescents and that foods prepared away from home, are contributing to their increased total energy intake. Our results showed that more of the added sugars calories were consumed at home rather than away from home. A substantial percentage of calories in the diets of children and adolescents between 2005 and 2008 came from added sugars. According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines "reducing the consumption of these sources of added sugars will lower the caloric content of the diet, without compromising its nutrient adequacy (3)." This strategy could play an important role in reducing the high prevalence of obesity in the United States (6) without compromising adequate nutrition. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  12. Molecular characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Pakistan, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Waheed, U; Parida, S; Khan, Q M; Hussain, M; Ebert, K; Wadsworth, J; Reid, S M; Hutchings, G H; Mahapatra, M; King, D P; Paton, D J; Knowles, N J

    2011-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is endemic in Pakistan where three virus serotypes are present (O, A and Asia 1). Fifty-eight clinical samples collected between 2005 and 2008 from animals with suspected FMD in various locations in Pakistan were subjected to virus isolation on primary cell culture, antigen ELISA and real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). Viruses were isolated from 32 of these samples and identified as FMDV type O (n = 31) or type A (n = 1). Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome was detected in a further 11 samples by real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 nucleotide sequences showed that all of the type O viruses belonged to the MIDDLE EAST-SOUTH ASIA topotype with the majority belonging to the PanAsia-2 lineage; a single example of the older PanAsia lineage was identified. The single FMDV type A virus belonged to the ASIA topotype, but did not cluster with known strains that are currently circulating (such as Iran-05) and was not closely related to other type A viruses from the region. These findings demonstrate the widespread distribution of O-PanAsia-2 in Pakistan and the presence of undisclosed novel type A lineages in the region.

  13. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Miller, Caroline L; Quester, Pascale G; Hill, David J; Hiller, Janet E

    2011-04-17

    In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n=504), 2006 (n=525), 2007 (n=414) and 2008 (n=464). Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  14. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504), 2006 (n = 525), 2007 (n = 414) and 2008 (n = 464). Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact. PMID:21496314

  15. Hospital-Based Mortality in Federal Capital Territory Hospitals-Nigeria, 2005 - 2008

    PubMed Central

    Preacely, Nykiconia; Biya, Oladayo; Gidado, Saheed; Ayanleke, Halima; Kida, Mohammed; Akhimien, Moses; Abubakar, Aisha; Kurmi, Ibrahim; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Nguku, Patrick; Akpan, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Background Cause-specific mortality data are important to monitor trends in mortality over time. Medical records provide reliable documentation of the causes of deaths occurring in hospitals. This study describes all causes of mortality reported at hospitals in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. Methods Deaths reported in 15 secondary and tertiary FCT hospitals occurring from January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008 were identified by a retrospective review of hospital records conducted by the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Program (NFELTP). Data extracted from the records included sociodemographics, geographic area of residence and underlying cause-of-death information. Results A total of 4,623 deaths occurred in the hospitals. Overall, the top five causes of death reported were: HIV 951 (21%), road traffic accidents 422 (9%), malaria 264 (6%), septicemia 206 (5%), and hypertension 194 (4%). The median age at death was 30 years (range: 0-100); 888 (20%) of deaths were among those less than one year of age. Among children < 1 year, low birth weight and infections were responsible for the highest proportion 131 (15%) of reported mortality. Conclusion Many of the leading causes of mortality identified in this study are preventable. Infant mortality is a large public health problem in FCT hospitals. Although these findings are not representative of all FCT deaths, they may be used to quantify mortality in that occurs in FCT hospitals. These data combined with other mortality surveillance data can provide evidence to inform policy on public health strategies and interventions for the FCT. PMID:22655100

  16. Surveillance of drug use among young people attending a music festival in Australia, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan S C; Hellard, Margaret E; Hocking, Jane S; Spelman, Tim D; Aitken, Campbell K

    2010-03-01

    In order to monitor trends in illicit drug use among youth, surveillance of drug use behaviours among a variety of populations in different settings is required. We monitored drug use among music festival attendees. Cross-sectional studies of young people's reported drug use were performed at a music festival in Melbourne from 2005 to 2008. Self-administered questionnaires collected information on drug use, demographics and other risk behaviour. From 2005 to 2008, over 5000 questionnaires were completed by people aged 16-29; 2273 men and 3011 women. Overall, use of any illicit drug in the past month was reported by 44%. After adjusting for demographic and behavioural characteristics, the prevalence of recent illicit drug use decreased significantly from 46% in 2005 to 43% in 2008 (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97). After adjusting for age and sex the downwards trend was repeated for amphetamines and cannabis, but a significant increase in prevalence was observed in hallucinogen, ecstasy and inhalant use. Drug use was more common among men, older participants and those engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. Illicit drug use was much more common in this sample than in the National Drug Strategy Household survey, but the direction of trends in drug use were similar; drug use prevalences were much lower than in the Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System, the Illicit Drug Reporting System or National Needle and Syringe Program Survey. Music festival attendees are a potentially useful group for monitoring trends in illicit drug use.

  17. Imported malaria in an area in southern Madrid, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Spain, malaria cases are mostly due to migrants and travellers returning from endemic areas. The objective of this work was to describe the malaria cases diagnosed at the Severo Ochoa University Hospital (HUSO) in Leganés in the south of the Madrid Region from 2005 to 2008. Methods Descriptive retrospective study performed at HUSO. Data sources are registries from the Microbiology Department and malaria cases notified to the Preventive Medicine Department. Analysed parameters were: administrative, demographical, related to the stay at the endemic country, clinical, microbiological diagnosis method, pregnancy, treatment and prophylaxis, co-infections, and days of hospital stay. Results Fifty-seven patients diagnosed with malaria were studied. Case distribution per year was 13 in 2005, 15 in 2006, 15 in 2007 and 14 in 2008. Thirty-three patients were female (57.9%) and 24 male (42.1%). Mean age was 27.8 years. Most of the malaria cases were acquired in Nigeria (49.1%) and Equatorial Guinea (32.7%). 29.1% of the patients were immigrants who had arrived recently, and 61.8% acquired malaria when travelling to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFR). Majority of cases were diagnosed between June and September. Microscopy was positive in 39 cases (68.4%) immunochromatography in 42 (73.7%) and PCR in the 55 cases where performed. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for 94.7% of the cases. The more frequent symptoms were fever (77.2%), followed by headache and gastrointestinal symptoms (33.3%). Nine cases needed hospital admittance, a pregnant woman, three children, four VFR and an African tourist, but all evolved favourably. Chemoprophylaxis data was known from 55 patients. It was taken correctly in one case (1.8%), in five (9.1%) the prophylaxis was improper while the others 49 (89.1%) cases had not followed any anti-malarial prophylaxis. Conclusions Children, pregnant women and the VFR have the highest risk to present severe malaria and to need hospital admittance. Another important risk factor for acquiring malaria is incorrect prophylaxis. The first place for malaria acquisition was Nigeria and the main species causing malaria was P. falciparum. PMID:20961449

  18. Survie au cancer du sein à Rabat (Maroc) 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    Mechita, Nada Bennani; Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Mrabet, Mustapha; Saadi, Asma; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Razine, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le cancer du sein représente un problème de santé publique au Maroc. L’objectif de ce travail était d’estimer le taux de survie au cancer du sein chez les patientes habitant la ville de Rabat. Méthodes Etude pronostique réalisée chez les patientes diagnostiquées pour cancer du sein de 2005 à 2008, habitant la ville de Rabat et enregistrées au registre des cancers de Rabat. La date d’inclusion dans l’étude correspondait à la date de confirmation histologique du cancer. L’estimation de la survie a été réalisée par la méthode de Kaplan Meier, et la comparaison entre les différentes classes d’une variable a été réalisée par le test de log rank. L’étude des facteurs associés à la survie a été effectuée par le modèle de Cox. Résultats Durant la période d’étude 628 cas de cancer du sein ont été collectés. Le pourcentage de décès était de 19,9%. La survie globale à un an était de 97,1%, elle était de 89,2% à 3 ans et de 80,6 % à 5 ans. En analyse multivariée la survie au cancer du sein était statistiquement moins bonne chez les patientes âgées de plus de 70 ans (p<0,001), ayantune grande taille de tumeur (p<0,001), un stade avancé d’adénopathies (p=0,007), présentant des métastases (p<0,001) et non traitées par hormonothérapie (p=0,002). Conclusion Une grande taille de la tumeur et la présence de métastases sont des facteurs de mauvais pronostic du cancer du sein d’où la nécessité de renforcer les programmes de dépistage. PMID:28292106

  19. The burden of invasive early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Weston, Emily J; Pondo, Tracy; Lewis, Melissa M; Martell-Cleary, Pat; Morin, Craig; Jewell, Brenda; Daily, Pam; Apostol, Mirasol; Petit, Sue; Farley, Monica; Lynfield, Ruth; Reingold, Art; Hansen, Nellie I; Stoll, Barbara J; Shane, Andi L; Zell, Elizabeth; Schrag, Stephanie J

    2011-11-01

    Sepsis in the first 3 days of life is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among infants. Group B Streptococcus (GBS), historically the primary cause of early-onset sepsis (EOS), has declined through widespread use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. We estimated the national burden of invasive EOS cases and deaths in the era of GBS prevention. Population-based surveillance for invasive EOS was conducted in 4 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites from 2005 to 2008. We calculated incidence using state and national live birth files. Estimates of the national number of cases and deaths were calculated, standardizing by race and gestational age. Active Bacterial Core surveillance identified 658 cases of EOS; 72 (10.9%) were fatal. Overall incidence remained stable during the 3 years (2005: 0.77 cases/1000 live births; 2008: 0.76 cases/1000 live births). GBS (∼ 38%) was the most commonly reported pathogen followed by Escherichia coli (∼ 24%). Black preterm infants had the highest incidence (5.14 cases/1000 live births) and case fatality (24.4%). Nonblack term infants had the lowest incidence (0.40 cases/1000 live births) and case fatality (1.6%). The estimated national annual burden of EOS was approximately 3320 cases (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3060-3580), including 390 deaths (95% CI: 300-490). Among preterm infants, 1570 cases (95% CI: 1400-1770; 47.3% of the overall) and 360 deaths (95% CI: 280-460; 92.3% of the overall) occurred annually. The burden of invasive EOS remains substantial in the era of GBS prevention and disproportionately affects preterm and black infants. Identification of strategies to prevent preterm births is needed to reduce the neonatal sepsis burden.

  20. OMI measurements of SO2 pollution over Eastern China in 2005-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N.; Pickering, K.; Witte, J.; Carn, S.; Yang, K.; Carmichael, G.; Streets, D.; Zhang, Q.; Wei, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. OMI seasonal to multi-year average images clearly show the world-highest consistent SO2 pollution in northeast China. China is the world's largest SO2 emitter, mostly due to the burning of high-sulfur coal in its many coal-fired power plants, which lack the technology used in many other countries to remove sulfur from smoke stack emissions. China's government has instituted nationwide measures to control SO2 emissions through the adoption of flue-gas desulfurization technology on new power plants; and even greater measures were adopted in the Beijing area in anticipation of the Olympic Games. To study the environmental effects of the emission controls we compared OMI SO2 time series over eastern China for 2005 through 2008. The time series have been done as 7-day running means of the cloud-free daily observations. By mid-March we started to see substantial periods of lower SO2 values in 2008 compared to 2007, and by mid June the 2008 values were consistently lower than 2007 and prior years. The decline is widespread with highest SO2 typically located to the south and southwest of Beijing in regions with large clusters of power plants and also around Shanghai. The decline also lasted beyond the Olympic season. We do not yet know to what extent the economic downturn in China (and reduced industrial production) contributed to lower SO2 levels in the fall of 2008. We have also compared the observed and modeled fields using University of Iowa STEM model for the period June - September 2008. The model provided SO2 vertical distributions as well as aerosol vertical profiles that were used to correct OMI operational SO2 retrievals and improve the comparisons. The OMI SO2 changes in 2008 have also been compared with the estimated changes in SO2 emissions derived from a bottom-up analysis of the SO2 reduction measures put into place for the Olympics. Finally we present our plans to use the OMI SO2 columns to provide a top-down constraint on SO2 regional emissions.

  1. An unusually long-lasting outbreak of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease, 2005-2008, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scaturro, M; Fontana, S; Crippa, S; Caporali, M G; Seyler, T; Veschetti, E; Villa, G; Rota, M C; Ricci, M L

    2015-08-01

    An unusually long-lasting community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred in the inhabitants of a town in northern Italy from 2005 to 2008. Overall, 43 cases were diagnosed including five deaths. Hundreds of water samples were collected for Legionella isolation but only two clinical samples were obtained. Clinical strains were ST23 as were environmental isolates detected in most Legionella-positive patients' homes and those from a public fountain. Although no Legionella was found in the municipal water mains, a continuous chlorination was applied in 2008. This action resulted in a halving of cases, although incidence remained tenfold higher than the Italian average incidence until the end of 2013, when it dropped to the expected rate. Retrospective analyses of prevalent wind direction suggested that a hidden cooling tower could have been the main cause of this uncommon outbreak, highlighting the importance of implementation of cooling tower registers in supporting LD investigations.

  2. Consumption of Sugar Drinks in the United States, 2005-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... many kilocalories from sugar drinks does the U.S. population consume? Overall, males consume an average of 178 ... consume sugar drinks? Approximately one-half of the population aged 2 and older consumes sugar drinks on ...

  3. NORD's Patient Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travel & Lodging Contact: 1-855-316-4755 Email: isis-CS12@rarediseases.org Fax: 203-349-3206 Gaucher ... CS12 SMNRX Contact: 1-855-316-4755 Email: isis-CS12@rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-349-3208 ...

  4. NORD's Patient Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... vi@rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-429-4153 Narcolepsy | Accepting Applications Copay Assistance Premium Assistance Contact: 855-202-5826 Email: narcolepsy@rarediseases.org Fax: 203-405-8795 Neurogenic Orthostatic ...

  5. [First analysis of the deployment of the ethical approach in the field of mental health in the Nord Pas-de-Calais region].

    PubMed

    Boury, Dominique; François, Guillaume; Danel, Thierry; Cobbaut, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    For 3 years, the Regional Federation of Mental Health Research (F2RSM) has led a space ethics reflexion Department of mental health (ERESM) to federate structures that ethical institutions and mental health services have been creating in the Nord-Pas de Calais. This approach is, in many ways, revealing issues that involve the institutionalisation of ethical reflection in care facilities. In this article, after referring to the major developments in this field, we describe the conditions for the emergence of ethical bodies in the region. Through the choice of development and operation of the ethical reflexion department, we highlight a number of points of attention that illustrate the complex articulation between institutional expectations and concerns of professionals. The trajectory of the ERESM is thus revealed as a process of reflective learning open to all stakeholders, providers and users of mental health.

  6. Potentially inappropriate medication prescribing is associated with socioeconomic factors: a spatial analysis in the French Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region.

    PubMed

    Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Genin, Michael; Dupont, Corrine; Verloop, David; Duhamel, Alain; Defebvre, Marguerite-Marie; Puisieux, François

    2017-01-06

    potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) prescribing is common in older people and leads to adverse events and hospital admissions. to determine whether prevalence of PIM prescribing varies according to healthcare supply and socioeconomic status. all prescriptions dispensed at community pharmacies for patients aged 75 and older between 1 January  and 31 March 2012 were retrieved from French Health Insurance Information System of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region for patients affiliated to the Social Security scheme. PIM was defined according to the French list of Laroche. The geographic distribution of PIM prescribing in this area was analysed using spatial scan statistics. overall, 65.6% (n = 207,979) of people aged 75 years and over living in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region were included. Among them, 32.6% (n = 67,863) received at least one PIM. The spatial analysis identified 16 and 10 clusters of municipalities with a high and a low prevalence of PIM prescribing, respectively. Municipalities with a low prevalence of PIM were characterised by a high socioeconomic status whereas those with a high prevalence of PIM were mainly characterised by a low socioeconomic status, such as a high unemployment rate and low household incomes. Markers of healthcare supply were weakly associated with high or low prevalence clusters. significant geographic variation in PIM prescribing was observed in the study territory and was mainly associated with socioeconomic factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Self-reported Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis or Ankylosing Spondylitis Has Low Accuracy: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Videm, Vibeke; Thomas, Ranjeny; Brown, Matthew A; Hoff, Mari

    2017-08-01

    Self-reported diagnoses of inflammatory arthritis are not accurate. The primary study aim was to ascertain self-reported diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the Norwegian population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) using hospital case files. The secondary aim was to provide updated estimates of the prevalence and incidence of RA and AS. All inhabitants ≥ 20 years old from the county of Nord-Trøndelag were invited. Data from 70,805 unique participants from HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008) were included. For participants who self-reported RA or AS, case files from all 3 hospitals in the catchment area were evaluated using standardized diagnostic criteria. Of 2703 self-reported cases of RA, 19.1% were verified in hospital files. Of 1064 self-reported cases of AS, 15.8% were verified. Of 259 cases self-reporting both RA and AS, 8.1% had RA and 5.4% had AS. Overall, a self-report of 1 or both diagnoses could not be verified in 82.1%, including 22.8% with insufficient information or no case file. The prevalence of RA was 768 (95% CI 705-835) per 100,000. The incidence of RA from HUNT2 to HUNT3 was 0.48 (0.41-0.56) per 1000 per year. The prevalence of AS was 264 (228-305) per 100,000. The incidence of AS from HUNT2 to HUNT3 was 0.19 (0.15-0.24) per 1000 per year. Self-reported diagnoses of RA and AS are often false-positive. The prevalence and incidence of RA were comparable to reports from similar populations. The incidence of AS was higher than previously reported in a mixed population from Norway.

  8. Endogenous Bioactive Jasmonate Is Composed of a Set of (+)-7-iso-JA-Amino Acid Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianbin; Li, Suhua; Gu, Min; Yao, Ruifeng; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Juan; Yang, Mai; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Nan, Fajun; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-12-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) regulate a wide range of plant defense and development processes. The bioactive JA is perceived by its receptor COI1 to trigger the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and subsequently derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors for activation of expression of JA-responsive genes. So far, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile has been the only identified endogenous bioactive JA molecule. Here, we designed coronafacic acid (CFA) conjugates with all the amino acids (CFA-AA) to mimic the JA amino acid conjugates, and revealed that (+)-7-iso-JA-Leu, (+)-7-iso-JA-Val, (+)-7-iso-JA-Met, and (+)-7-iso-JA-Ala are new endogenous bioactive JA molecules. Furthermore, our studies uncover the general characteristics for all the bioactive JA molecules, and provide a new strategy to synthetically generate novel active JA molecules.

  9. Etude de la qualité bactériologique de l’eau utilisée dans l’industrie agroalimentaire dans le Nord du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Haijoubi, El Houcine; Benyahya, Fatiha; Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Essadqui, Faima Zahra; Behhari, Mohammed El; El Mamoune, Ahmed Fouad; Ghailani, Naima Nourouti; Mechita, Mohcine Bennani; Barakat, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction L'eau est utilisée d'une façon primordiale dans tout le processus de la fabrication des produits alimentaires. Les industries agroalimentaires du Nord du Maroc utilisent différentes sources d'eaux mais l'eau de réseau public et l'eau de puits sont les principales sources d'eau utilisée. Cette eau peut s'avérer la source principale des éventuelles contaminations et altérations des aliments. Notre but est d'évaluer la qualité bactériologique de l'eau utilisée par les industries agroalimentaires dans la région du Nord du Maroc, d'identifier les différents germes responsables de la pollution de ces eaux et de définir les principales causes de cette pollution. Méthodes Des échantillons d'eau prélevés aux robinets ou des puits ont été analysés pour la recherche des germes indicateurs de la pollution (coliformes totaux (CT), coliformes fécaux (CF), entérocoques intestinaux (E), microorganismes revivifiables (MOR), anaérobies sulfitoréducteurs) et les germes pathogènes (Salmonelles, Staphylocoques, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Le dénombrement des bactéries a été fait par la technique de filtration et par incorporation en milieu solide en surfusion. Résultats Les résultats ont montré que les eaux du réseau public ont été de qualité bactériologique satisfaisante tandis que 40% des eaux des puits ont été non conformes aux normes à cause de la présence des indicateurs de pollution CT, CF, E et MOR. En revanche, les germes pathogènes, en particulier les Salmonelles, ont été absents dans les eaux de tous les puits analysés. Conclusion La pollution de ces puits a été généralement liée au non-respect des conditions de puisage hygiéniques. La qualité bactériologique des eaux de ces puits peut être améliorée par une protection adéquate. PMID:28450992

  10. Source tracing of fluvial suspended sediments by magnetic and geochemical particle characterization: example of the Canche watershed (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patault, Edouard; Alary, Claire; Franke, Christine; Gauthier, Arnaud; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2016-04-01

    In France, erosion by water run-off is estimated to 1.5 t ha-1yr-1 and can exceed 10 t ha-1yr-1 in large growing areas, such as the North of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). In this region, the Canche watershed (1294 km2) sustains heavy loss of fertile soils. The land use is mainly dominated by arable lands (80%) and in 2013, 104 kt of suspended sediment transited to the estuary. As demonstrated in literature, agricultural soil erosion leads to the gradual disappearance and depletion of fertile soil, which constitute a non-renewable resource at human time scale. Additionally, water erosion can significantly damage the aquatic habitat and can be responsible for the input of nutrients, bacteria, pesticides, heavy metals and radionuclides into surface waters. Conscious of these effects, many programs have emerged in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais to reduce erosion. This study presents a combination of environmental magnetic proxy parameters and geochemical analyses on sediments and suspended particulate matter. The aim is to develop effective tools to trace erosion by water run-off and quantify this process. In order to identify the respective sediment sources in the Canche watershed, sediment trap samples of suspended particulate matter were recovered at key positions along the Canche watershed. The preliminary results show that magnetic concentration (Mrs) shows typical values for the agricultural soils in the region, but these variations in magnetic concentrations and total irons concentrations are not always correlated, which may be explained by the iron speciation. In calculating the so-called S-ratio for each sample we can distinguish changes in magneto-mineralogy (and thus iron speciation) from magnetite-dominated assemblages in the mainstream Canche (naturel background signal) to high-coercivity-dominated assemblages in the tributaries, typical for soil erosion material rich in hematite/goethite. In combination with the element concentrations from ICP analyses, this proxy

  11. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers.

    PubMed

    Lulai, Edward; Huckle, Linda; Neubauer, Jonathan; Suttle, Jeffrey

    2011-06-15

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its role(s) in tuber wound-healing. In this study, the effects of wounding on JA content, expression of JA biosynthetic genes, and the involvement of JA in the initiation of closing layer formation in potato tubers were determined. In addition, the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in wound-induced JA accumulation was examined. The basal JA content in non-wounded tuber tissues was low (< 3 ng g⁻¹ FW). Two hours after wounding, the JA content increased by > 5-fold, reached a maximum between 4 and 6h after wounding, and declined to near-basal levels thereafter. Tuber age (storage duration) had little effect on the pattern of JA accumulation. The expressions of the JA biosynthetic genes (StAOS2, StAOC, and StOPR3) were greatly increased by wounding reaching a maximum 2-4 h after wounding and declining thereafter. A 1-h aqueous wash of tuber discs immediately after wounding resulted in a 94% inhibition of wound-induced JA accumulation. Neither JA treatment nor inhibition of JA accumulation affected suberin polyphenolic accumulation during closing layer development indicating that JA was not essential for the initiation of primary suberization. ABA treatment did not restore JA accumulation in washed tuber tissues suggesting that leaching of endogenous ABA was either not involved or not solely involved in this loss of JA accumulation by washing. Collectively, these results indicate that JA is not required for the induction of processes essential to the initiation of suberization during closing layer development, but do not exclude the possibility that JA may be involved in other wound related responses. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Childhood cod liver oil consumption and bone mineral density in a population-based cohort of peri- and postmenopausal women: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Forsmo, Siri; Fjeldbo, Sigurd Kjørstad; Langhammer, Arnulf

    2008-02-15

    Use of cod liver oil, which is rich in vitamins A and D, is traditionally recommended during the fall and winter months as a protective measure against vitamin D deficiency in several countries. It is not known whether childhood cod liver oil intake is related to variations in bone mineral density (BMD) or fractures in adult life. In 2001, a total of 3,052 Norway women aged 50-70 years had forearm BMD measured in a substudy of the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Women reporting no childhood cod liver oil intake had statistically significantly higher BMD than those with any ingestion of cod liver oil. The odds ratio for low BMD (>1 standard deviation below age-specific mean) in women reporting cod liver oil intake throughout the year as compared with women with no intake was 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.9), adjusted for body mass index, smoking, menopausal status, estrogen use, and current milk consumption. There were indications of a negative dose-response effect of childhood cod liver oil intake on bone. Although the vitamin A content of commercial cod liver oil was recently reduced by 75% in Norway, the past high concentration remains a possible explanation for the observed negative association between childhood cod liver oil intake and forearm BMD.

  13. Three years (2008-2010) of measurements of atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Station Nord, North-East Greenland.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Skov, Henrik

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been measured for the first time at Station Nord, North-East Greenland, from 2008 to 2010. The data obtained are reported here. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), endosulfan I and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds detected in the atmosphere, followed by p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. Chlordane isomers and related compounds (trans- and cis-chlordanes, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor) were also detected. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in order to obtain information about their transport properties. The correlation between atmospheric concentrations and temperature was not significant for endosulfan I, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT, which indicates that direct transport from direct sources is the dominating transport mechanism for these compounds. A significant correlation with temperature was found for all the other studied pesticides and pesticide degradation products, which indicates that re-emission of these compounds from previously contaminated surfaces is an important factor for the observed variation in concentrations. Pesticide concentrations were also correlated with sea ice cover. Concentrations of the compounds that have not been in use for decades correlated with temperature and ice cover, while concentrations of compounds still in use did not correlate with either of these parameters. These observations indicate that processes such as revolatilization from the open sea surface are important mediating factors in the dynamics of anthropogenic persistent pollutants in the Arctic environment under the expected influence of climate change processes.

  14. The relationship between health promoting resources and work participation in a sample reporting musculoskeletal pain from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is one of the most frequent causes of sick leave from work, and is a common and potentially disabling condition. This study is based on the salutogenic perspective and investigates the relationship between personal, social, and functional health resources and work participation in a population reporting MSP. Method Analysis was performed on cross sectional data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, in Norway. The sample of n= 6702 was extracted from HUNT 3, including a total of N= 50807 participants. Self-reported health (SRH) and, personal, social, and functional resources were assessed by a questionnaire. Reported sick leave was collected by interview at the point of time when the data were collected, from October 2006 until June 2008. Results Logistic regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences between the work group and sick leave group in self-rated health, work support, work control, work load, and feeling strong, and the model predicted 68% of the cases correctly. Females had a lower statistically significant probability (B= −.53) to be in the work group then men when suffering from MSP, with odds of 41%. Conclusion There was a statistically significant relationship between health promoting resources such as SRH, feeling strong, absence of neuroticism, work load, work control, and work participation in MSP population. PMID:23509959

  15. Effectiveness of cognitive behavior treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: acute outcomes from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study (NordLOTS).

    PubMed

    Torp, Nor Christian; Dahl, Kitty; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Valderhaug, Robert; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja; Nissen, Judit Becker; Lenhard, Fabian; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Franklin, Martin E; Ivarsson, Tord

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effectiveness of manualized exposure-based CBT with a family-based treatment, as an initial treatment for pediatric OCD delivered in regular community child and adolescents outpatient clinics. The report summarizes outcome of the first treatment step in the NordLOTS, which was conducted in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. 269 participants, age 7-17, with OCD, received treatment for 14 weekly sessions. Treatment response was defined as CY-BOCS score of ≤15 at post treatment. 241 participants (89.6%) completed all 14 weeks of treatment. Treatment response among the completers was 72.6% (95% CI 66.7%-77.9%). Mixed effects model revealed a statistically significant effect of time F(1,479) = 130.434. Mean symptom reduction on the CY-BOCS was 52.9% (SD = 30.9). The estimated within-group effect size between baseline and post treatment was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.37-1.80). This study found that manualized CBT can be applied effectively in community mental health clinics. These findings underscore the feasibility of implementing exposure-based CBT for pediatric OCD in a regular child and adolescent mental health setting. This study was registered in Current Controlled Trials; Nordic Long-term Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Treatment Study (www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN66385119). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well. PMID:22708789

  17. The relationship between health promoting resources and work participation in a sample reporting musculoskeletal pain from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, Norway.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Heidi; Lillefjell, Monica; Espnes, Geir Arild

    2013-03-19

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is one of the most frequent causes of sick leave from work, and is a common and potentially disabling condition. This study is based on the salutogenic perspective and investigates the relationship between personal, social, and functional health resources and work participation in a population reporting MSP. Analysis was performed on cross sectional data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT 3, in Norway. The sample of n= 6702 was extracted from HUNT 3, including a total of N= 50807 participants. Self-reported health (SRH) and, personal, social, and functional resources were assessed by a questionnaire. Reported sick leave was collected by interview at the point of time when the data were collected, from October 2006 until June 2008. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences between the work group and sick leave group in self-rated health, work support, work control, work load, and feeling strong, and the model predicted 68% of the cases correctly. Females had a lower statistically significant probability (B= -.53) to be in the work group then men when suffering from MSP, with odds of 41%. There was a statistically significant relationship between health promoting resources such as SRH, feeling strong, absence of neuroticism, work load, work control, and work participation in MSP population.

  18. Gender differences in the impact of adolescent smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms. the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway, 1995-1997.

    PubMed

    Holmen, T L; Barrett-Connor, E; Clausen, J; Langhammer, A; Holmen, J; Bjermer, L

    2002-10-01

    Girls take up smoking at least as frequently as boys. Few studies have focused on gender differences in the impact of adolescent smoking. We evaluated the sex-specific effect of adolescent smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function. All students in junior high and high schools in Nord-Trøndelag County Norway, 1995-97, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Information on smoking habits and respiratory symptoms was obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Spirometry was performed in accordance with ATS standards. Eight-thousand-three-hundred and five students (83%) completed both questionnaire and spirometry. Among 6811 students aged 13-18 years (50.3% girls) with no history of asthma, 2993 (43.9%) reported never smoking, 665 (98%) reported occasional smoking, and 667 (9.9%) reported daily smoking (mean initiation age: 13.9 years). More boys than girls were heavy smokers. In all smoking categories, smokers reported a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than nonsmokers; symptoms increased with smoke burden. Girls reported more symptoms compared to boys with comparable smoke burden. A dose-response relation between smoking and reduced lung function was found only in girls. Girls were more vulnerable than boys to the impact of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function.

  19. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  20. Physical activity level at work and risk of chronic low back pain: A follow-up in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity in leisure time seems to reduce the risk of low back pain, but it is not known whether occupational activity, as recorded in a representative working population, produces a higher or lower risk. To study associations between physical activity level at work and risk of chronic low back pain. Associations were examined in a Norwegian prospective study using data from the HUNT2 and HUNT3 surveys carried out in the whole county of Nord-Trøndelag. Participants were 7580 women and 7335 men who supplied information about physical activity level at work. Levels considered were sedentary work, work involving walking but no heavy lifting, work involving walking and heavy lifting, and particularly strenuous physical work. Nobody in the cohort was affected by chronic low back pain at baseline. After 11 years, participants reported whether they suffered from chronic low back pain. Generalized linear modelling with adjustment for potential confounders was applied to assess associations with risk factors. In age-adjusted analyses both women and men showed statistically significant associations between physical activity at work and risk of chronic low back pain, suggesting positive relationships. For particularly strenuous physical work the relative risk of chronic low back pain was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.00-1.71) in women and 1.36 (95% CI 1.17-1.59) in men, compared to sedentary work. Women still showed a general association with activity level after adjustment for education, leisure time physical activity, BMI, smoking and occupational category. In men, the higher risk was only maintained for particularly strenuous work. In this cohort, women had a higher risk of chronic low back pain with work involving walking and heavy lifting or particularly strenuous work, compared to sedentary work. Men participating in particularly strenuous work also experienced a higher risk of chronic low back pain.

  1. Chronic pain and use of opioids: a population-based pharmacoepidemiological study from the Norwegian prescription database and the Nord-Trøndelag health study.

    PubMed

    Fredheim, Olav Magnus S; Mahic, Milada; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Dale, Ola; Romundstad, Pål; Borchgrevink, Petter C

    2014-07-01

    In previous studies on prescription patterns of opioids, accurate data on pain are missing, and previous epidemiological studies of pain lack accurate data on opioid use. The present linkage study, which investigates the relationship between pain and opioid use, is based on accurate individual data from the complete national Norwegian prescription database and the Nord-Trøndelag health study 3, which includes about 46,000 people. Baseline data were collected in 2006 to 2008, and the cohort was followed up for 3 years. Of 14,477 people who reported chronic nonmalignant pain, 85% did not use opioids at all, 3% used opioids persistently, and 12% used opioids occasionally. Even in the group reporting severe or very severe chronic pain, the number not using opioids (2680) was far higher than the number who used opioids persistently (304). However, three quarters of people using opioids persistently reported strong or very strong pain in spite of the medication. Risk factors for the people with chronic pain who were not persistent opioid users at baseline to use opioids persistently 3 years later were occasional use of opioids, prescription of >100 defined daily doses per year of benzodiazepines, physical inactivity, reports of strong pain intensity, and prescription of drugs from 8 or more Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical groups. The study showed that most people having chronic nonmalignant pain are not using opioids, even if the pain is strong or very strong. However, the vast majority of patients with persistent opioid use report strong or very strong pain in spite of opioid treatment.

  2. Inverse relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus and migraine. Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys 1995-1997 and 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Knut; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Midthjell, Kristian; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Zwart, John-Anker; Linde, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to investigate the associations between migraine and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods We used data from the second (1995-1997) and third survey (2006-2008) in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Analyses were made for the 26,121 participants (30-97 years of age, median 58.3 years) with known headache and DM status in both surveys, and for the 39,584 participants in the third survey (20-97 years, median 54.1 years). The diagnosis of migraine was given to those who fulfilled the questionnaire-based migraine diagnosis in the second and/or third survey. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results In the multivariate analysis of the 26,121 participants in both surveys, adjusting for age, gender, years of education, and smoking, classical type 1 DM (n = 81) was associated with a lower prevalence of any headache (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88),and migraine (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.96) compared to those without DM (n = 24,779). Correspondingly, the merged group of classical type 1 DM and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) (n = 153) were less likely to have migraine (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.91). Similarly, an inverse relationship between type 1 DM and migraine was found in analyses of 39,584 participants in the third survey. No clear association was found between headache and type 2 DM. Conclusions In this cross-sectional population-based study of mainly middle-aged participants, type 1 DM was inversely associated with headache, in particular migraine.

  3. Migraine, headache and development of metabolic syndrome: an 11-year follow-up in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    PubMed

    Winsvold, Bendik Slagsvold; Sandven, Irene; Hagen, Knut; Linde, Mattias; Midthjell, Kristian; Zwart, John-Anker

    2013-08-01

    Migraine with aura is associated with an increased incidence of stroke and cardiovascular disease, but the biological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship to migraine with and without aura and to nonmigraine headache. In the population-based the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), 19,895 individuals were followed for the development of metabolic syndrome, with a median follow-up time of 11.3 years. Headache diagnoses were based on a validated headache questionnaire, and metabolic syndrome was based on a modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria, using objective anthropometric measurements and blood biochemistry. Using the Poisson regression model, migraine with aura was associated with an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome. The effect was modified by smoking, with an adjusted incident risk ratio (IRR) among smokers of 2.10 (95% CI 1.53-2.89) and among nonsmokers of 1.39 (95% CI 1.03-1.86), when compared to headache-free controls. A moderate risk increase was seen for migraine without aura (IRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.42) and nonmigraine headache (IRR 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.32), not modified by smoking. The results suggest that traditional risk factors may be one of the mechanisms through which migraine with aura is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. A heightened vigilance concerning cardiovascular risk factors in this patient group may be warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of headache and chronic musculoskeletal complaints on the risk of insomnia: longitudinal data from the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A strong relationship between insomnia and painful disorders has been found, but it is still unclear whether chronic pain leads to insomnia. There is a need of large-scale prospective studies to evaluate if there is a causal relationship between painful disorders and insomnia. Methods All inhabitants aged ≥ 20 years in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway were invited to participate in two surveys (n = 92,566 and 93,860, respectively). 27,185 subjects participated in both surveys, and 19,271 of these were insomnia-free at baseline (population at risk). Using logistic regression, we evaluated the influence of headache, CMSCs and coexisting headache and CMSCs on the subsequent risk of insomnia. Results Compared to subjects without headache and CMSCs, there was an increased risk of insomnia among those with headache, most pronounced among those with headache ≥ 7 days / month (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.9 – 2.6). Similarly, an increased risk among those with CMSCs was found, most evident for those with widespread CMSCs (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8 – 2.2). Having coexistent CMSCs and headache (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8 – 2.2) predisposed more strongly to insomnia than having headache (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3 – 1.6) and CMSCs (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.4 – 1.7) alone. Conclusion In this prospective study headache and CMSCs were risk factors for insomnia 11 years later. PMID:23566158

  5. Educational inequalities in disability pensioning - the impact of illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Sara Marie; Ernstsen, Linda; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar

    2012-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in disability pensioning are well established, but we know little about the causes. The main aim of this study was to disentangle educational inequalities in disability pensioning in Norwegian women and men. The baseline data consisted of 32,948 participants in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995-97), 25-66 years old, without disability pension, and in paid work. Additional analyses were made for housewives and unemployed/laid-off persons. Information on the occurrence of disability pension was obtained from the National Insurance Administration database up to 2008. Data analyses were performed using Cox regression. We found considerable educational inequalities in disability pensioning, and the incidence proportion by 2008 was higher in women (25-49 years 11%, 50-66 years 30%) than men (25-49 years 6%, 50-66 years 24%). Long-standing limiting illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors were not sufficient to explain the educational inequalities: young men with primary education had a hazard ratio of 3.1 (95% CI 2.3-4.3) compared to young men with tertiary education. The corresponding numbers for young women were 2.7 (2.1-3.1). We found small educational inequalities in the oldest women in paid work and no inequalities in the oldest unemployed/laid-off women and housewives. Illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors explained some of the educational inequalities in disability pensioning. However, considerable inequalities remain after accounting for these factors. The higher incidence of disability pensioning in women than men and the small or non-existing educational inequalities in the oldest women calls for a gender perspective in future research.

  6. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Offspring Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adulthood: Prospective and Sibling Studies in the HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Alsnes, Ingvild V; Vatten, Lars J; Fraser, Abigail; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Romundstad, Pål R; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2017-04-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Seven hundred and six participants were born after exposure to maternal hypertension in pregnancy: 336 mothers had gestational hypertension, 343 had term preeclampsia, and 27 had preterm preeclampsia. Offspring whose mothers had hypertension in pregnancy had 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, 1.5 (0.9-2.1) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure, 0.66 (0.31-1.01) kg/m(2) higher body mass index, and 1.49 (0.65-2.33) cm wider waist circumference, compared with offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Similar differences were observed for gestational hypertension and term preeclampsia. Term preeclampsia was also associated with higher concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L, 0.03-0.25) and triglycerides (0.13 mmol/L, 0.06-0.21). Siblings born after a normotensive pregnancy had nearly identical risk factor levels as siblings born after maternal hypertension. Offspring born after maternal hypertension in pregnancy have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood than offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Their siblings, born after a normotensive pregnancy, have a similar risk profile, suggesting that shared genes or lifestyle may account for the association, rather than an intrauterine effect. All children of mothers who have experienced hypertension in pregnancy may be at increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Occupational noise exposure, hearing loss, and notched audiograms in the HUNT Nord-Trøndelag hearing loss study, 1996-1998.

    PubMed

    Lie, Arve; Engdahl, Bo; Hoffman, Howard J; Li, Chuan-Ming; Tambs, Kristian

    2017-06-01

    To study the prevalence and usefulness of audiometric notches in the diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Audiograms and data on noise exposure from 23,297 men and 26,477 women, aged 20 to 101 years, from the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study, 1996-1998. The prevalence of four types of audiometric notches (Coles, Hoffman, Wilson) and 4 kHz notch were computed in relation to occupational noise exposure, age, sex, and report of recurrent ear infections. The prevalence of notches in the 3 to 6 kHz range (Wilson, Hoffman, and Coles) ranged from 50% to 60% in subjects without occupational noise exposure, and 60% to 70% in the most occupationally noise-exposed men. The differences were statistically significant only for bilateral notches. For 4 kHz notches, the prevalence varied from 25% in occupationally nonexposed to 35% in the most occupationally exposed men, and the differences were statistically significant for both bilateral and unilateral notches. For women, the prevalence of notches was lower than in men, especially for 4 kHz notches, and the differences between occupationally noise exposed and nonexposed were smaller. Recreational exposure to high music was not associated with notched audiograms. The detection of bilateral notches and unilateral 4 kHz notches is of some value in diagnosing NIHL, especially in men. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1442-1450, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. The Laryngoscope published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society Inc, “The Triological Society” and American Laryngological Association (ALA).

  8. Seasonal variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations, new particle formation and atmospheric oxidation capacity at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynh T.; Glasius, Marianne; Sørensen, Lise L.; Jensen, Bjarne; Skov, Henrik; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Kristensson, Adam; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Massling, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of the physical properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles measured at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS), northeast Greenland, between July 2010 and February 2013. The study focuses on particle number concentrations, particle number size distributions and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events and their seasonality in the high Arctic, where observations and characterization of such aerosol particle properties and corresponding events are rare and understanding of related processes is lacking.A clear accumulation mode was observed during the darker months from October until mid-May, which became considerably more pronounced during the prominent Arctic haze months from March to mid-May. In contrast, nucleation- and Aitken-mode particles were predominantly observed during the summer months. Analysis of wind direction and wind speed indicated possible contributions of marine sources from the easterly side of the station to the observed summertime particle number concentrations, while southwesterly to westerly winds dominated during the darker months. NPF events lasting from hours to days were mostly observed from June until August, with fewer events observed during the months with less sunlight, i.e., March, April, September and October. The results tend to indicate that ozone (O3) might be weakly anti-correlated with particle number concentrations of the nucleation-mode range (10-30 nm) in almost half of the NPF events, while no positive correlation was observed. Calculations of air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for the NPF event days suggested that the onset or interruption of events could possibly be explained by changes in air mass origin. A map of event occurrence probability was computed, indicating that southerly air masses from over the Greenland Sea were more likely linked to those events.

  9. A 15-Year Follow-Up Study of Sense of Humor and Causes of Mortality: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Romundstad, Solfrid; Svebak, Sven; Holen, Are; Holmen, Jostein

    2016-04-01

    Associations between the sense of humor and survival in relation to specific diseases has so far never been studied. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study of 53,556 participants in the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway. Cognitive, social, and affective components of the sense of humor were obtained, and associations with all-cause mortality, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs). After multivariate adjustments, high scores on the cognitive component of the sense of humor were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.81), but not in men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.59-1.32). Mortality due to CVD was significantly lower in women with high scores on the cognitive component (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.15-0.47), and so was mortality due to infections both in men (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.09-0.74) and women (HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04-0.76). The social and affective components of the sense of humor were not associated with mortality. In the total population, the positive association between the cognitive component of sense of humor and survival was present until the age of 85 years. The cognitive component of the sense of humor is positively associated with survival from mortality related to CVD and infections in women and with infection-related mortality in men. The findings indicate that sense of humor is a health-protecting cognitive coping resource.

  10. The University of Jaén Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; García-Hernández, María T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a description and instrumental characterization of the photometric equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Jaén. The observatory hosts a 41 cm automated telescope inside a 4 m dome located at the university main campus, in the outskirts of the city of Jaén (Spain). This facility is used for educational, outreach and occasional scientific research on bright stellar objects. Despite the observatory location in a light polluted urban area, its performance for differential photometry studies has proven to be very acceptable. The discovery of the Be star LS I +5979 as a peculiar eclipsing binary system is so far the most relevant achievement.

  11. Efficacy of FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab in liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of clinical studies by Gruppo Oncologico del Nord Ovest.

    PubMed

    Cremolini, Chiara; Casagrande, Mariaelena; Loupakis, Fotios; Aprile, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Francesca; Masi, Gianluca; Moretto R, Roberto; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Marmorino, Federica; Zucchelli, Gemma; Tomasello, Gianluca; Tonini, Giuseppe; Allegrini, Giacomo; Granetto, Cristina; Ferrari, Laura; Urbani, Lucio; Cillo, Umberto; Pilati, Pierluigi; Sensi, Elisa; Pellegrinelli, Alessio; Milione, Massimo; Fontanini, Gabriella; Falcone, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    Secondary resection is a chance of cure for a subgroup of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with unresectable liver-limited disease. Medical treatment has a dual goal: to induce tumour shrinkage and to prevent disease relapse. The aims of the present analysis were to assess the efficacy of FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab in this setting, and to investigate whether this regimen could revert the poor prognosis of high-risk patients defined by clinical and molecular factors. We performed a pooled analysis of patients with unresectable and liver-limited mCRC, treated with first-line FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab in three prospective clinical trials by Gruppo Oncologico del Nord Ovest. 205 (37.9%) patients with liver-limited disease were selected, out of 541 treated patients. Liver metastases were synchronous, ≥4 and bilobar in 90%, 61%, and 79% of cases, respectively. The largest diameter was >5 cm in 42% of cases, and ≥6 segments were involved in 25%. Seventy-four patients (36.1%) underwent R0 or R1 resection of metastases. R2 resections were performed in 17 cases (8.3%). Having <6 involved segments (p < 0.001) and achieving RECIST response (p = 0.019) were associated with higher chances of resection. R0/R1 resected patients had significantly longer median progression-free survival (PFS) (18.1 versus 10.7 months, HR: 0.48 [0.35-0.66], p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (44.3 versus 24.4 months, HR: 0.32 [0.22-0.48], p < 0.001) compared with other patients, both in the univariate and multivariate analyses (PFS p = 0.025; OS p < 0.001). The 5-year PFS and OS rate in R0 resected patients were 12% and 43%, respectively. Neither negative baseline characteristics nor high clinical risk scores or RAS/BRAF mutations were associated with poor post-resection outcomes. In conclusion, FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab demonstrates efficacy in the conversion setting with considerable long-term outcome results independent of clinical and molecular prognostic

  12. Interaction of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index on Mortality in Coronary Heart Disease: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Moholdt, Trine; Lavie, Carl J; Nauman, Javaid

    2017-08-01

    The role of physical activity in the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and survival in coronary heart disease is unclear. Our aim was to examine the isolated and combined associations among BMI, physical activity, and mortality in subjects with coronary heart disease. A total of 6493 participants (34.4% were women) with coronary heart disease from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, with examinations in 1986, 1996, and 2007, were followed to the end of 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, estimated using Cox proportionate hazard regression adjusted for age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, self-reported health status, and alcohol. A total of 3818 patients died (62.1% of cardiovascular disease) during 30 (median 12.5) years of follow-up. Compared with a BMI of 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m(2), BMI categories of 25.0 to 27.4 kg/m(2), 27.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), and 30.0 to 34.9 kg/m(2) had reduced all-cause mortality risk: HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.90; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.95, respectively. The BMI categories 25.0 to 27.4 kg/m(2) and 27.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2) had reduced cardiovascular disease mortality risk: HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.94; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.96, respectively. Compared with physically inactive, all levels of physical activity were associated with reduced all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality risk. In physically inactive, all BMI categories >25.0 kg/m(2) had reduced all-cause mortality risk (HRs across BMI categories: 0.77, 0.79, 0.79, 0.74), whereas in subjects who were following or exceeding the recommended level of physical activity, BMI was not associated with survival. Overweight and obese subjects with coronary heart disease had reduced all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, but such an obesity paradox was seen only in participants who did not adhere to current recommendations of physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. Éthique de la recherche en santé mondiale : la relation Nord-Sud, quel partenariat pour quelle justice sociale ?

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hunt, Matthew; Moube, Zéphirin

    2014-06-01

    La recherche en santé mondiale s'inscrit dans une volonté de mobiliser des connaissances au service d'interventions et de politiques publiques pour l'atteinte équitable du bien-être commun, notamment en matière de santé. Elle joue un rôle primordial en ce sens, en favorisant l'implication des communautés et leur autonomisation et de nombreuses lignes directrices supportent un tel partenariat. Néanmoins, certains enjeux éthiques sont liés au financement de la recherche, aux environnements de recherche, à la priorisation des problématiques de recherche, aux mécanismes d'évaluation éthique posent souvent un problème de justice sociale au niveau de la redistribution des ressources et de la reconnaissance des différences culturelles. Comment alors déterminer quelle est la façon « idéale » d'agir en tenant compte de la globalité des individus et du pluralisme culturel des sociétés pour « bien faire », pour satisfaire l'exigence de l'équité? Une réflexion et une démarche éthique demeurent essentielles, ainsi qu'un dialogue entre les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud, et leurs autres partenaires que sont les décideurs, les responsables locaux et les communautés. Un tel dialogue, établi dans un continuum du développement de projets de recherche à leur pérennité, peut grandement contribuer à limiter les problèmes de justice sociale et à viser un développement plus égalitaire des savoirs scientifiques. Plusieurs chercheurs se sont déjà engagés dans cette voie, et leurs initiatives devraient être encouragées pour mettre les nouveaux savoirs au service des populations.

  14. Increased SA in NPR1-silenced plants antagonizes JA and JA-dependent direct and indirect defenses in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata in nature.

    PubMed

    Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Baldwin, Ian T

    2007-11-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is known to mediate herbivore resistance, while salicylic acid (SA) and non-expressor of PR-1 (NPR1) mediate pathogen resistance in many plants. Herbivore attack on Nicotiana attenuata elicits increases in JA and JA-mediated defenses, but also increases SA levels and Na-NPR1 transcripts from the plant's single genomic copy. SA treatment of wild-type plants increases Na-NPR1 and Na-PR1 transcripts. Plants silenced in NPR1 accumulation by RNAi (ir-npr1) are highly susceptible to herbivore and pathogen attack when planted in their native habitat in Utah. They are also impaired in their ability to attract Geocorus pallens predators, due to their decreased ability to release cis-alpha-bergamotene, a JA-elicited volatile 'alarm call'. In the glasshouse, Spodoptera exigua larvae grew better on ir-npr1 plants, which had low levels of JA, JA-isoleucine/leucine, lipoxygenase-3 (LOX3) transcripts and JA-elicited direct defense metabolites (nicotine, caffeoyl putrescine and rutin), but high levels of SA and isochorismate synthase (ICS) transcripts, suggesting de novo biosynthesis of SA. A microarray analysis revealed downregulation of many JA-elicited genes and upregulation of SA biosynthetic genes. JA treatment restored nicotine levels and resistance to S. exigua in ir-npr1 plants. We conclude that, during herbivore attack, NPR1 negatively regulates SA production, allowing the unfettered elicitation of JA-mediated defenses; when NPR1 is silenced, the elicited increases in SA production antagonize JA and JA-related defenses, making the plants susceptible to herbivores.

  15. Management of patients seen post-sexual assault at a north London inner city genitourinary medicine clinic 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Adlington, R; Browne, R

    2011-05-01

    An audit of all patients presenting to an inner city sexual health clinic post-sexual assault over a four-year period was undertaken to evaluate the overall management of these patients. Sixty-five cases were identified; 22.6% had a pre-existing vulnerability factor and 21.0% a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Recommendations from the audit included: to offer non-invasive methods of testing for STIs to patients presenting at less than one week, improve documentation by completing the specific clinic template and ensure all patients are offered emotional support when they first attend.

  16. Drinking water intake in the U.S.: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goals of this study were to describe plain drinking water intake patterns of the U.S. population and determine whether total, tap, and bottled water intakes differ by gender, race/ethnicity, income, and activity level. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from 16,566 individuals age 2 years an...

  17. Elastic training for the prevention of mandibular drift following mandibulectomy in dogs: 18 cases (2005-2008).

    PubMed

    Bar-Am, Yoav; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2010-07-01

    To describe a noninvasive method for preventing mandibular drift (MD) after mandibulectomy in dogs. Technique description and case series. Dogs (n=18) that had mandibulectomy involving resection of a portion of the mandible caudal to the 2nd mandibular premolar tooth. One orthodontic button was attached to the lingual aspect of the canine tooth of the intact mandible and 1 to the buccal aspect of the ipsilateral maxillary 4th premolar tooth. An orthodontic elastic rubber chain was attached to the buttons creating tension sufficient for maintaining normal occlusion. The rubber chain was replaced weekly by the clients. Follow-up appointments were scheduled 2, 6, 10 weeks postoperatively and monthly thereafter if indicated. The appliance was removed when dogs had resumed normal occlusion of the canine teeth. All dogs maintained normal occlusion, normal jaw function, had no apparent disfigurement, and resumed preoperative activity levels while wearing the appliance. Eight dogs achieved temporomandibular joint stability and normal occlusion 4.5-6 months postoperatively and 8 did not, resulting in MD. One dog was lost for follow-up and 1 was euthanatized. Elastic training using orthodontic buttons and power chain is a viable option for prevention of MD but requires good client compliance. More data and longer follow-up are required to determine the long-term mandibular stabilizing potential of this technique. Elastic training is a quick, simple, cost-effective and noninvasive technique, preserving normal occlusion and function in many dogs after mandibulectomy.

  18. HIV‑2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV‑1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation that HIV-2 Western blot be included in the diagnostic algorithm for HIV-1/2 to followup negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results. KEYWORDS Diagnosis, laboratory techniques and procedures, antibodies, HIV-2, Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, algorithm, Cuba.

  19. Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter; Schnuch, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Contact sensitization to fragrances is common both in clinical and in population samples. The spectrum of allergens is broad and diverse, and to some extent covered by a set of screening agents. To examine the current frequency of contact sensitization to fragrance allergens in patients routinely patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis with the baseline series and special series. Between 2005 and 2008, 40 709 patients were patch tested in the departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (http://www.ivdk.org). Results with selected fragrances were analysed. Of all patients tested with the German baseline series, 15.1% reacted positively to fragrance mix (FM) I (6.6% positive), FM II (4.6% positive) or Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru, 6.8% positive). Among the single constituents of FM I, Evernia prunastri [oak moss absolute (abs.)] was the leading allergen, and amyl cinnamal the least frequent allergen. Among fragrances not included in FM I or FM II, Evernia furfuracea (tree moss abs.) was the most common allergen. For diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to combine several screening agents. The frequency of contact sensitization differs greatly between single fragrances. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Effect of the planet health intervention on eating disorder symptoms in Massachusetts middle schools, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L; Greaney, Mary L; Blood, Emily A; Hunt, Anne T; Richmond, Tracy K; Wang, Monica L; Mezgebu, Solomon; Osganian, Stavroula K; Peterson, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    The Planet Health obesity prevention curriculum has prevented purging and abuse of diet pills (disordered weight control behavior [DWCB]) in middle-school girls in randomized trials, but the effects of Planet Health on DWCB when implemented by schools under dissemination conditions are not known. Massachusetts Department of Public Health and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts disseminated Planet Health as part of the 3-year, Healthy Choices obesity prevention program in middle schools. We conducted an evaluation in 45 schools from fall 2005 to spring 2008. We gathered data from school staff to quantify intervention activities, and we gathered anonymous cross-sectional survey data from students on DWCB at baseline and Year 3 follow-up (n = 16,369). Multivariate logistic analyses with generalized estimating equations examined the effect of intervention activities on odds of students reporting DWCB at follow-up. Students in schools reaching a high number of youth with Planet Health lessons on reducing television viewing had lower odds of DWCB at follow-up (odds ratio [OR], 0.80 per 100 lesson-exposures; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.85). In addition, reduced odds of DWCB at follow-up were found in schools with active staff teamwork (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66-0.86) and the presence of programs addressing television viewing goals with staff (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.28-0.53). Combined evidence from efficacy and effectiveness trials and now from dissemination research indicates that appropriately designed obesity prevention programs can achieve DWCB prevention on a large scale.

  1. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  2. Osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femur neck or lumbar spine in older adults: United States, 2005-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many current clinical guidelines recommend that assessment of osteoporosis or low bone mass, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) (1), be based on bone mineral density at either the femur neck region of the proximal femur (hip) or the lumbar spine (2,3). This data brief presents the mos...

  3. Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... the femur neck or lumbar spine differ by sex? The prevalence of osteoporosis or low bone mass ... after adjusting for age differences between the two sexes ( Figure 4 ). The age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis ...

  4. Dust emission at Franklin Lake Playa, Mojave Desert (USA): Response to meteorological and hydrologic changes 2005-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Bogle, Rian C.; Vogel, John; Goldstein, Harland; Yount, James

    2009-01-01

    Playa type, size, and setting; playa hydrology; and surface-sediment characteristics are important controls on the type and amount of atmospheric dust emitted from playas. Soft, evaporite-rich sediment develops on the surfaces of some Mojave Desert (USA) playas (wet playas), where the water table is shallow (< 4 m). These areas are sources of atmospheric dust because of continuous or episodic replenishment of wind-erodible salts and disruption of the ground surface during salt formation by evaporation of ground water. Dust emission at Franklin Lake playa was monitored between March 2005 and April 2008. The dust record, based on day-time remote digital camera images captured during high wind, and compared with a nearby precipitation record, shows that aridity suppresses dust emission. High frequency of dust generation appears to be associated with relatively wet periods, identified as either heavy precipitation events or sustained regional precipitation over a few months. Several factors may act separately or in combination to account for this relation. Dust emission may respond rapidly to heavy precipitation when the dissolution of hard, wind-resistant evaporite mineral crusts is followed by the development of soft surfaces with thin, newly formed crusts that are vulnerable to wind erosion and (or) the production of loose aggregates of evaporite minerals that are quickly removed by even moderate winds. Dust loading may also increase when relatively high regional precipitation leads to decreasing depth to the water table, thereby increasing rates of vapor discharge, development of evaporite minerals, and temporary softening of playa surfaces. The seasonality of wind strength was not a major factor in dust-storm frequency at the playa. The lack of major dust emissions related to flood-derived sediment at Franklin Lake playa contrasts with some dry-lake systems elsewhere that may produce large amounts of dust from flood sediments. Flood sediments do not commonly accumulate on the surface of Franklin Lake playa because through-going drainage prevents frequent inundation and deposition of widespread flood sediment.

  5. Negative association between serum perfluorooctane sulfate concentration and bone mineral density in US premenopausal women: NHANES, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Wen, Li-Li; Su, Ta-Chen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfate (PFOS) are used in a variety of products worldwide. However, the relationship among serum PFOA, PFOS concentration, bone mineral density (BMD), and the risk of fractures has never been addressed. The study examined the association among serum PFOA, PFOS concentration, and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in the general US population. We analyzed data on 2339 adults (aged ≧20 y) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 to determine the relationship among serum PFOA, PFOS concentration, and total lumbar spine and total hip BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and history of fractures cross-sectionally. After weighting for sampling strategy, a 1-U increase in the natural log-transformed serum PFOS level was associated with a decrease in total lumbar spine BMD by 0.022 g/cm(2) (95% confidence interval -0.038, -0.007; P = .006) in women not in menopause. There was no association among PFOA, PFOS concentration, and self-reported fracture in adults. Serum PFOS concentration is associated with decreased total lumbar spine BMD in women not in menopause. However, the potential biological significance of this effect is marginal and subclinical in the general US population. Further studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between perfluorinated chemical exposure and BMD.

  6. Carbonaceous species in PM2.5 at a pair of rural-urban sites in Beijing, 2005-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Huang, L.; Duan, F.; Zhang, W.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Brook, J. R.; Tan, J.; Zhao, Q.; Cheng, Y.

    2011-03-01

    One-week integrated PM2.5 samples were collected at a pair of rural (MY)-urban (TH) sites in Beijing over four years between 2005 and 2008. Weekly OC and EC in PM2.5 were compared to investigate their respective levels and temporal patterns at the two sites, and differences in the factors contributing to them were discussed. A systematic decrease of annual mean concentration of OC and an opposite trend for EC at both sites, and the significantly lower fractions of TCM (total carbonaceous mass) in PM2.5 mass than those measured at TH in 1999, indicate that the relative importance of carbonaceous species in PM2.5 was probably weakened whereas that of EC in TC was steadily enhanced. Clear seasonal variations were found for both OC and EC concentrations (varying seasonally by factors of 1.35~3.0) at TH with higher weekly concentrations and fluctuations in winter and much lower values in summer and spring. The minimum seasonal urban excesses of OC (3.0 μg m-3) and EC (1.2 μg m-3), which were only one-ninth to one-eighth of their corresponding maxima, both occurred in 2008 summer. The noticeably more positive stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) of EC at TH in that summer relative to the preceding summers puts in new evidence that the contribution to carbonaceous particles from mobile sources was substantially reduced due to a concerted effort to reduce emissions from new and existing vehicles before, during and after the Summer Olympics. No consistent seasonal patterns of OC and EC concentrations without strong correlations and their high ratios (OC/EC) at the MY site reflect their complex and variable major sources and formation/production in the rural area compared to the urban area in Beijing, such as biomass burning during the harvest seasons, widely used high-polluting family stoves and small boiler for cooking and heating, and high potential formation of SOA.

  7. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  8. Consumption of Added Sugar among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. No. 87

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, R. Bethene; Kit, Brian K.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of added sugars, which are sweeteners added to processed and prepared foods, has been associated with measures of cardiovascular disease risk among adolescents, including adverse cholesterol concentrations. Although the percent of daily calories derived from added sugars declined between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, consumption of…

  9. Statistics of aerosol extinction coefficient profiles and optical depth using lidar measurement over Lanzhou, China since 2005-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Wang, Z.; Tian, P.; Wang, J.; Zhang, L.; Quan, X.

    2013-06-01

    The aerosol extinction coefficient profiles and optical depth over Lanzhou in China were observed under no precipitation and dust free condition using the micropulse lidar CE370-2 from September 2005 to July 2008. The statistics of the variations of monthly average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and daily average AOD, frequency distribution of daily average AOD, and the seasonal variation of aerosol vertical distribution were analyzed based on the observation data. The results showed that the daily average AOD of Main Observatory and City Observatory was 87.8% and 78.2% ranged below 0.4 respectively with similar frequency distribution patterns. The AOD in autumn and winter were larger than that in spring and summer, and AOD in suburb was in certain extent smaller than that in city of Lanzhou. Aerosol existed in the layer below 4km, and its extinction coefficient decreased with increasing of height.

  10. Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. Number 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Cynthia L.; Lamb, Molly M.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Flegal, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007-2008 almost 17% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years were obese. Childhood obesity often tracks to adulthood and, in the short run, childhood obesity can lead to psychosocial problems and cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and abnormal glucose tolerance or diabetes. Studies have suggested that…

  11. Geochemical survey and metal bioaccumulation of three bivalve species (Crassostrea gigas, Cerastoderma edule and Ruditapes philippinarum) in the Nord Medoc salt marshes (Gironde estuary, France).

    PubMed

    Baudrimont, M; Schäfer, J; Marie, V; Maury-Brachet, R; Bossy, C; Boudou, A; Blanc, G

    2005-01-20

    A 15-month experiment combining a geochemical survey of Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg with a bioaccumulation study for three filter-feeding bivalve species (oysters, Crassostrea gigas; cockles, Cerastoderma edule; and clams, Ruditapes philippinarum) was conducted in a breeding basin of the Nord Medoc salt marshes connected to the Gironde estuary, which is affected by historic polymetallic pollution. Regular manual surface measurements of temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved O(2) concentration and hourly multiprobe in situ measurements throughout several periods for 6-8 weeks were performed. The geochemical behavior of metals in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment and their ecotoxicological impact on the three bivalve species were evaluated by in situ exposure of juvenile oysters (water column) and adult cockles and clams (sediment surface). The physico-chemical parameters reflected seasonal variations and basin management. A distinct daily periodicity (except salinity) indicated intense photosynthesis and respiration. In summer, low dissolved O(2) saturations ( approximately 40-50%) occurred in the early morning at 30 cm above the sediment, whereas in depressions, the water column near the sediment surface was suboxic. Cadmium, Zn and Cu concentrations in suspended particulate matter exceeded typical estuarine values and were much higher than the homogeneously distributed concentrations in different depth ranges of the basin sediment. Particles collected in sediment traps showed intermediate metal concentrations close to sediment values. These results suggest trace metal recycling due to reductive dissolution under suboxic conditions at the sediment surface resulting in trace metal release to the water column and adsorption onto suspended particles. Dissolved Cd, Zn and Hg concentrations (e.g. 13-136 ng l(-1); 0.3-25.1 microg l(-1) and 0.5-2.0 ng l(-1), respectively) in the basin corresponded to the concentration range typically observed in the Gironde estuary

  12. Impact of Smoking on Circulating Cardiac Troponin I Concentrations and Cardiovascular Events in the General Population: The HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study).

    PubMed

    Lyngbakken, Magnus Nakrem; Skranes, Julia Brox; de Lemos, James A; Nygård, Ståle; Dalen, Håvard; Hveem, Kristian; Røsjø, Helge; Omland, Torbjørn

    2016-12-13

    Both tobacco smoking and circulating cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels are associated with the risk of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. However, whether cTnI levels differ according to smoking status and whether smoking modifies the prognostic relationship between cTnI and outcomes remain unclear. Using data from a large, population-based cohort, we assessed the association between smoking and cTnI and the impact of smoking on the associations between cTnI levels and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. cTnI was measured with a high-sensitivity assay in 3824 never smokers, 2341 former smokers, and 2550 current smokers participating in the prospective observational HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study). All subjects were free from known prior cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus at baseline. The age of the participants ranged from 19 to 94 years; 55.5% were women. Current smokers exhibited significantly lower levels of cTnI (median, 2.9 ng/L; interquartile range, 2.0-4.1 ng/L) than never smokers (3.2 ng/L; interquartile range, 2.2-4.7 ng/L; P<0.001) and former smokers (3.4 ng/L; interquartile range, 2.3-5.0 ng/L; P<0.001). This association remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (B=-0.098; 95% confidence interval, -0.129 to -0.068). We observed an association between increasing concentrations of cTnI and clinical end points in the total study cohort (adjusted hazard ratio per log unit increase in cTnI, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.54). This association was attenuated for current smokers (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.40) and was significantly weaker than in never/former smokers (P for interaction=0.003). Prognostic accuracy, as assessed by C statistics, was significantly lower in current smokers than in never smokers (P<0.001). In addition, cTnI provided no incremental prognostic information to the Framingham

  13. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  14. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Mitochondrial chaperone DnaJA3 induces Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Elwi, Adam N; Lee, Byoungchun; Meijndert, H Christopher; Braun, Janice E A; Kim, Sung-Woo

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamic and controlled by coordinated fusion and fission pathways. The role of mitochondrial chaperones in mitochondrial morphological changes and pathology is currently unclear. Here we report that altered levels of DnaJA3 (Tid1/mtHsp40) a mitochondrial member of the DnaJ protein family, and heat shock protein (Hsp) co-chaperone of matrix 70 kDa Hsp70 (mtHsp70/mortalin/HSPA9), induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Suppression of DnaJA3 induced mitochondrial fragmentation in HeLa cells. Elevated levels of DnaJA3 in normal Hs68 fibroblast cells and HeLa, SKN-SH, U87 and U251 cancer cell lines induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation induction was not observed in HeLa cells when other DnaJA family members, or mitochondrial DnaJ protein HSC20, were ectopically expressed, indicating that the effects on mitochondrial morphology were specific to DnaJA3. We show that the DnaJ domain (amino acids 88-168) of DnaJA3 is sufficient for the induction of mitochondrial fragmentation. Furthermore, an H121Q point mutation of the DnaJ domain, which abrogates interaction and activation of mtHsp70 ATPase, eliminates fragmentation induced by DnaJA3. This suggests that DnaJA3 interaction with mtHsp70 may be critical in mitochondrial morphological changes. DnaJA3-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was dependent on fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Ectopic expression of the mitofusins (Mfn1 and Mfn2), however, does not rescue DnaJA3-induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Lastly, elevated levels of DnaJA3 inducing mitochondrial fragmentation were associated with reduction in cell viability. Taken together, elevated DnaJA3 induces Drp1-depedendent mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased cell viability.

  16. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-07

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature.

  17. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  18. Novel bioactive oxazolomycin isomers produced by Streptomyces albus JA3453.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H; Wada, K; Nitoda, T; Kawazu, K

    1998-03-01

    Two novel oxazolomycin isomers, oxazolomycins B (2) and C (3), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an oxazolomycin-producing strain, Streptomyces albus JA3453. Both compounds are geometrical isomers of oxazolomycin (1), the configurations of their triene moieties being (4'E, 6'E, 8'E) (2) and (4'Z, 6'E, 8'E) (3) while that of oxazolomycin (1) is (4'Z, 6'Z, 8'E). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against crown gall formation with the same MIC (0.8 microgram/disk) as oxazolomycin. Compounds 2 and 3 showed no antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, in contrast to oxazolomycin which has specific anti-A. tumefaciens activity.

  19. Gender differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: findings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bratberg, Grete H; Taraldsen, Gunnar; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Colton, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression during adolescence are well documented. However, little attention has been given to differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning between boys and girls with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations between such symptoms and subjective well-being, self-esteem, school functioning and social relations in adolescents. Data were taken from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT), in which 8984 (91% of all invited) adolescents, aged 13-19 years, completed an extensive self-report questionnaire. Although prevalence rates of symptoms of anxiety and depression were higher in girls than in boys, a significant interaction between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in respect of each of the following outcome variables: subjective well-being, self-esteem, academic problems, frequency of meeting friends and the feeling of not having enough friends. These interactions indicate that the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower subjective well-being and self-esteem, more academic problems in school and lower social functioning were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings may contribute to an earlier assessment and more efficient treatment of male adolescent anxiety and depression. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  20. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012).

  1. Épidémiologie descriptive de la brûlure dans un territoire de santé exemple du « territoire nord franche-comté » durant l’année 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, J.L.; Bitar, M.P.; Marx, T.; Macher, J.M.; Desmettre, T.; Ravat, F.; Labourey, J.M.; Capellier, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cette étude est une analyse épidémiologique rétrospective du recours aux services de santé du nord de la Franche-Comté en raison d’une brûlure durant l’année 2014 (114 patients). L’âge moyen était de 26 ans (8 mois-81 ans), 1/3 des brûlures ont touché des enfants de moins de 15 ans. Les brûlures, plus fréquentes l’été, surviennent principalement autour de l’heure des repas, les jours « sans école », à domicile, avec un liquide chaud. Elles sont peu étendues (4,81% de la SCT) et souvent superficielles. Elles nécessitent un passage dans un Service d’Accueil des Urgences dans 88,59% des cas, suivi d’un transfert en CTB (Lyon plus que Nancy ou Metz) dans 12,28% des cas. PMID:27252605

  2. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  3. THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2011ja: CLUES FROM CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak; Yadav, Naveen; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-09-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shocks the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work, we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low-density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with M{sub ZAMS} {approx}> 12 M{sub Sun }. Our results suggest that a fraction of Type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds.

  4. Mutations in jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine-12-hydroxylases suppress multiple JA-dependent wound responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Arati N; Zhang, Tong; Kwasniewski, Misha; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Koo, Abraham J

    2016-09-01

    Plants rapidly perceive tissue damage, such as that inflicted by insects, and activate several key defense responses. The importance of the fatty acid-derived hormone jasmonates (JA) in dictating these wound responses has been recognized for many years. However, important features pertaining to the regulation of the JA pathway are still not well understood. One key unknown is the inactivation mechanism of the JA pathway and its relationship with plant response to wounding. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 enzymes in the CYP94 clade metabolize jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a major metabolite of JA responsible for many biological effects attributed to the JA signaling pathway; thus, CYP94s are expected to contribute to the attenuation of JA-Ile-dependent wound responses. To directly test this, we created the double and triple knock-out mutants of three CYP94 genes, CYP94B1, CYP94B3, and CYP94C1. The mutations blocked the oxidation steps and caused JA-Ile to accumulate 3-4-fold the WT levels in the wounded leaves. Surprisingly, over accumulation of JA-Ile did not lead to a stronger wound response. On the contrary, the mutants displayed a series of symptoms reminiscent of JA-Ile deficiency, including resistance to wound-induced growth inhibition, decreased anthocyanin and trichomes, and increased susceptibility to insects. The mutants, however, responded normally to exogenous JA treatments, indicating that JA perception or signaling pathways were intact. Untargeted metabolite analyses revealed >40% reduction in wound-inducible metabolites in the mutants. These observations raise questions about the current JA signaling model and point toward a more complex model perhaps involving JA derivatives and/or feedback mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan.

  6. Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.

    PubMed

    Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far.

  7. Anxiety, depression and timing of insulin treatment among people with type 2 diabetes: Nine-year follow-up of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Iversen, M M; Nefs, G; Tell, G S; Espehaug, B; Midthjell, K; Graue, M; Pouwer, F

    2015-10-01

    Depression and anxiety have been found to be predictors of poor health outcomes in diabetes, but mechanisms are still unclear. To examine whether symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with timing of initiating insulin therapy. A cohort study of insulin-naive particpants with type 2 dabetes completed the Hospital Anxiey and Depression Scale, HADS-A (n = 731) and/or the HADS-D (n = 768) in the communy-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995-1997). Information on insulin initiation was retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database from January 1, 2004 to November 21, 2012. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the association between symptoms of anxiety, depression and time to insulin initiation. At baseline, 19% reported anxiety symptoms (score≥8) and 18% depressive symptoms (score≥8). After a mean follow-up of 4.4 (SD 3.6) years, 337 (40%) participants had started insulin therapy. After adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical variables, anxiety symptoms were associated with later initiation of insulin therapy (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-0.99), while depressive symptoms were not. Considering groups simultaneously, having both elevated depressive and elevated anxiety symptoms was associated with later time to insulin initiation (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), while having only anxiety symptoms (without depressive) HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.50-1.32) or only depressive symptoms (without anxiety) (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.68-1.72) were not. Anxiety was associated with a later initiation of insulin, while depressive symptoms were not. Persons with both elevated levels of anxiety and depression were also less likely to start insulin therapy. These results need further testing in other prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-Smoking Tobacco Affects Endothelial Function in Healthy Men in One of the Largest Health Studies Ever Performed; The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway; HUNT3

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral tobacco (snuff) is taking a large market share in Scandinavia, especially with young users. However, long-term health effects are unknown. Small studies show association between snuff and reduced endothelial function, representing an early stage of vascular injury that often precedes manifest cardiovascular disease by several years. We therefore determined the associations between snuff and endothelial function in a large sample of healthy Norwegian men. Methods and Design In the Fitness substudy of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Aerobic fitness was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). A cross-sectional design including 1 592 self-reported healthy men compared these observations with records of present tobacco use, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status, using general linear models. Results FMD was lower in snuff users (FMD: 4.12%, 3.63, 4.61) compared to non-users (FMD: 4.52%, 4.27, 4.78) after adjustment for age (difference: -0.57%, -1.12, -0.01). After further adjustment for potential confounders, FMD still tended to be lower in snuff users than in non-users (difference: -0.53%, -1.09, 0.02). This difference was even more pronounced in the inactive snuff users (-0.83%, -1.59, -0.06) and in the low fit snuff users (-0.74%, CI -0.55, 0.079). Conclusions Oral tobacco is associated with a tendency towards reduced endothelial function, indicating vascular changes that precede cardiovascular disease. The strongest associations were found in men with low physical activity or reduced aerobic fitness. PMID:27490361

  9. Use of alcohol and drugs with addiction potential among older women and men in a population-based study. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3).

    PubMed

    Tevik, Kjerstin; Selbæk, Geir; Engedal, Knut; Seim, Arnfinn; Krokstad, Steinar; Helvik, Anne-S

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the consumption habits of older adults in Norway with respect to alcohol and the use of drugs with addiction potential, such as benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics and opioids, among regular drinkers. We studied the prevalence of self-reported consumption of alcohol on a regular basis in community-living older men and women (≥ 65 years). Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of dispensed prescribed drugs with addiction potential in older men and women who were regular drinkers. We used data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3). Of 12,361 older adults in the HUNT3 study, 11,545 had answered the alcohol consumption item and were included in our study. Regular drinkers were defined as consuming alcohol one or more days a week. Data on dispensed drugs with addiction potential were drawn from the Norwegian Prescription Database. Addiction potential was defined as at least one prescription for benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics or opioids during one year for a minimum of two consecutive years. In total 28.2% of older Norwegian adults were regular drinkers. Men in the study were more likely to be regular drinkers than women. Drugs with addiction potential were used by 32.4% of participants, and were more commonly used by women. Nearly 12% of participants used benzodiazepines, 19% z-hypnotics and 12.4% opioids. Among regular drinkers, 29% used drugs with addiction potential, which was also more common among women. Adjusted for age, gender and living situation, use of z-hypnotics was associated with regular alcohol intake, while use of opioids was associated with no regular alcohol intake. The prevalence of the use of drugs with addiction potential was high in a Norwegian population of older adults who reported regular consumption of alcohol. Strategies should be developed to reduce or prevent alcohol consumption among older adults who use drugs with addiction potential.

  10. Expression of a Flax Allene Oxide Synthase cDNA Leads to Increased Endogenous Jasmonic Acid (JA) Levels in Transgenic Potato Plants but Not to a Corresponding Activation of JA-Responding Genes.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, K.; Atzorn, R.; Brash, A.; Kuhn, H.; Wasternack, C.; Willmitzer, L.; Pena-Cortes, H.

    1995-01-01

    Both jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are thought to be significant components of the signaling pathway regulating the expression of plant defense genes in response to various stresses. JA and MeJA are plant lipid derivatives synthesized from [alpha]-linolenic acid by a lipoxygenase-mediated oxygenation leading to 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which is subsequently transformed by the action of allene oxide synthase (AOS) and additional modification steps. AOS converts lipoxygenase-derived fatty acid hydroperoxide to allene epoxide, which is the precursor for JA formation. Overexpression of flax AOS cDNA under the regulation of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic potato plants led to an increase in the endogenous level of JA. Transgenic plants had six- to 12-fold higher levels of JA than the nontransformed plants. Increased levels of JA have been observed when potato and tomato plants are mechanically wounded. Under these conditions, the proteinase inhibitor II (pin2) genes are expressed in the leaves. Despite the fact that the transgenic plants had levels of JA similar to those found in nontransgenic wounded plants, pin2 genes were not constitutively expressed in the leaves of these plants. Transgenic plants with increased levels of JA did not show changes in water state or in the expression of water stress-responsive genes. Furthermore, the transgenic plants overexpressing the flax AOS gene, and containing elevated levels of JA, responded to wounding or water stress by a further increase in JA and by activating the expression of either wound- or water stress-inducible genes. Protein gel blot analysis demonstrated that the flax-derived AOS protein accumulated in the chloroplasts of the transgenic plants. PMID:12242357

  11. Optimal functional levels of activation-induced deaminase specifically require the Hsp40 DnaJa1

    PubMed Central

    Orthwein, Alexandre; Zahn, Astrid; Methot, Stephen P; Godin, David; Conticello, Silvestro G; Terada, Kazutoyo; Di Noia, Javier M

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine at the immunoglobulin genes, thereby initiating antibody affinity maturation and isotype class switching during immune responses. In contrast, off-target DNA damage caused by AID is oncogenic. Central to balancing immunity and cancer is AID regulation, including the mechanisms determining AID protein levels. We describe a specific functional interaction between AID and the Hsp40 DnaJa1, which provides insight into the function of both proteins. Although both major cytoplasmic type I Hsp40s, DnaJa1 and DnaJa2, are induced upon B-cell activation and interact with AID in vitro, only DnaJa1 overexpression increases AID levels and biological activity in cell lines. Conversely, DnaJa1, but not DnaJa2, depletion reduces AID levels, stability and isotype switching. In vivo, DnaJa1-deficient mice display compromised response to immunization, AID protein and isotype switching levels being reduced by half. Moreover, DnaJa1 farnesylation is required to maintain, and farnesyltransferase inhibition reduces, AID protein levels in B cells. Thus, DnaJa1 is a limiting factor that plays a non-redundant role in the functional stabilization of AID. PMID:22085931

  12. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation.

  13. Etude des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de réintégration sociale des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale: région de l'Extrême-nord, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sanou Sobze; Adogaye, Sali Ben Béchir; Rodrigue, Mabvouna Biguioh; Maurice, Douryang; Vivaldi, Teikeu Tessa Vladimir; Amede, Saah Fopa Michael; Marie, Ovaga Eyenga Landry; Meriam, Ausseil Sandra; Colizzi, Vittorio; Gianluca, Russo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La fistule obstétricale est un orifice entre le vagin et la vessie ou le rectum, voire les deux. Ses impacts sont des conséquences anatomo-fonctionnelles et sociales. On estime à plus de 19 000 le nombre de femmes qui souffrent de fistule obstétricale au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive conduite dans trois districts de santé de la région de l'Extrême-nord. Vingt-huit femmes victimes de fistules obstétricales, quarante-deux membres de leur entourage et vingt-quatre agents de santé ont été interviewés entre Novembre et Décembre 2013. Trois types de questionnaires ont été utilisés. Les données ont été analysées dans Epi Info version 7.1.4.0. Les moyennes et les fréquences ont été calculées avec un intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats 46,4% des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricales interviewées avaient subi une intervention chirurgicale réparatrice parmi lesquelles, 61,5% bénéficiaient de la réintégration. Le fonds de commerce (62,5%) était l'aide la plus reçue. Vingt-deux membres de l'entourage savaient pourquoi on fait la réintégration. Selon eux, les considérations socioculturelles (68,2%), sont la principale barrière de la réintégration. D'après les agents de santé, le suivi psychosocial (58,3%) est la principale activité de la réintégration dans les centres de prise en charge de la fistule. Conclusion La prise en charge des fistules obstétricales au Cameroun souffre de manque de réintégration sociale. Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un accent devrait être mis sur l'appui matériel, financier et sur le suivi psychosocial des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale. PMID:26113915

  14. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes: 17-Year Follow-Up of the Second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2), Norway.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S; Espehaug, Birgitte; Midthjell, Kristian; Graue, Marit; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin. 948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995-97 completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications. At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948) reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948) elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n = 93/948) reported both. After a mean follow-up of 12 years (SD 5.1, range 0-17), 541 participants (57%) had died. Participants with elevated anxiety symptoms only had a decreased mortality risk (unadjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.96). Adjustment for HbA1c attenuated this relation (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50-1.07). Those with elevated depression symptoms alone had an increased mortality risk (fully adjusted model HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.84). Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with increased mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.96-1.74). Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with excess mortality risk in people with Type 2 diabetes not using insulin. No significant association with mortality was found among people with elevated anxiety symptoms. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with mortality. The hypothesis that elevated levels of anxiety symptoms leads to behavior that counteracts the adverse health effects of Type 2 diabetes needs further investigation.

  15. Midlife mental distress and risk for dementia up to 27 years later: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) in linkage with a dementia registry in Norway.

    PubMed

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Bergh, Sverre; Stewart, Robert; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2015-03-10

    Dementia is an increasing public health challenge, and the number of individuals affected is growing rapidly. Mental disorders and symptoms of mental distress have been reported to be risk factors for dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether midlife mental distress is a predictor for onset of dementia later in life. Using data from a large population-based study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study; HUNT1) linked to a dementia registry (The Health and Memory study; HMS) enabling a maximum 27 years of follow-up, we ascertained mental distress and subsequent dementia status for 30,902 individuals aged 30-60 years at baseline. In HUNT1, self-reported mental distress was assessed using the four-item Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI-4). Dementia status was ascertained from HMS, which included patient and caregiver history, cognitive testing and clinical and physical examinations from the hospitals and nursing homes serving the catchment area of HUNT1. In the main analysis, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were computed for the prospective association between mental distress and dementia. In secondary analyses, two-way age and gender interactions with mental distress on later dementia were examined. A 50% increased odds for dementia among HUNT1-participants reporting mental distress was found (crude odds ratio (OR): 1.52; 95% CI 1.15-2.01), and a 35% increase in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.01-1.80). In secondary analyses, we found evidence for a two-way interaction with age on the association between mental distress and dementia (p = 0.030): the age- and gender adjusted OR was 2.44 (95% CI 1.18-5.05) in those aged 30-44 years at baseline, and 1.24 (0.91-1.69) in 45-60 year olds. Our results indicate an association between midlife mental distress and increased risk of later dementia, an association that was stronger for distress measured in early compared to later midlife. Mental distress should be investigated further as

  16. Dermal sensitization potential of ja-2 solid propellant in guinea pigs. Report for 4 April-9 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M.; Brown, L.D.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-11-01

    JA-2 Solid Propellant was evaluated for its potential to produce dermal sensitization in male guinea pigs. The Buehler test, which utilizes repeated closed patch inductions with the test compound, was used for this evaluation. No evidence that JA-2 Solid Propellant induced sensitization was obtained in the study.

  17. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-06

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  19. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  20. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  1. A promotores de salud intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in a high-risk Hispanic border population, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Balcázar, Héctor G; de Heer, Hendrik; Rosenthal, Lee; Aguirre, Melissa; Flores, Leticia; Puentes, Flor A; Cardenas, Victor M; Duarte, Maria O; Ortiz, Melchor; Schulz, Leslie O

    2010-03-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Hispanic population of the United States, together with low rates of health insurance coverage, suggest a potential cardiovascular health crisis. The objective of Project HEART (Health Education Awareness Research Team) was to promote behavior changes to decrease CVD risk factors in a high-risk Hispanic border population. Project HEART took place from 2005 through 2008 as a randomized community trial with a community-based participatory research framework using promotores de salud (community health workers). A total of 328 participants with at least 1 CVD risk factor were selected by randomizing 10 US Census tracts in El Paso, Texas, to either the experimental or the control group. The experimental group (n = 192) was assigned to a series of 8 health classes using the Su Corazón, Su Vida curriculum. After 2 months of educational sessions, the group was followed for 2 months. The control group (n = 136) was given basic educational materials at baseline, and no other intervention was used. Main outcomes of interest included changes in health behaviors and clinical measures. Participants in the experimental group showed more awareness of CVD risk factors, more confidence in the control of these factors, and improved dietary habits (ie, lower salt and cholesterol intake, better weight-control practices) compared with the control group. Total cholesterol was 3% lower in the experimental than in the control participants, and nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were both 5% lower. The HEART trial suggests that community health education using promotores de salud is a viable strategy for CVD risk reduction in a Hispanic border community.

  2. Urinary concentrations of dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity among adult participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence from recent studies has suggested a possible link between exposure to environmental pesticides and obesity. In this study, we assessed the potential associations between exposure to dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity in adults. Study participants aged 20-85 years were selected from the 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and were categorized as obese and non-obese based on body mass index. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of dichlorophenols were determined to assess level of exposure to environmental pesticides. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using SAS 9.3 to assess the association between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) levels in urine and obesity with adjustment for potential confounders. Significantly higher geometric means of urinary concentrations of both 2,5-DCP (p<0.0001) and 2,4-DCP (p=0.0170) were seen in obese adults, compared to that in non-obese adults. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in the study participants across increasing levels of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend<0.0001). Urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP were significantly associated with obesity among the second (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.93), third (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.87), and fourth (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.17) inter-quartiles after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, total fat intake, and physical activity. A statistically significant association was not seen between urinary 2,4-DCP and obesity. Our findings suggest a potential relationship between exposure to the fumigant insecticide paradichlorobenzene, measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP, and obesity in adults. Because we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality in our study, prospective studies measuring exposure during etiologically relevant periods are warranted.

  3. Summary of Fluvial Sediment Collected at Selected Sites on the Gunnison River in Colorado and the Green and Duchesne Rivers in Utah, Water Years 2005-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Cory A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Elliott, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin provides habitat for 14 native fish, including four endangered species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 - Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), bonytail (Gila elegans), and humpback chub (Gila cypha). These endangered fish species once thrived in the Colorado River system, but water-resource development, including the building of numerous diversion dams and several large reservoirs, and the introduction of nonnative fish, resulted in large reductions in the numbers and range of the four species. Knowledge of sediment dynamics in river reaches important to specifc life-stages of the endangered fishes is critical to understanding the effects of flow regimes on endangered fish habitats. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Wyoming State Engineer's Office, implemented daily sediment sampling at three locations in critical habitat reaches in the Upper Colorado River Basin. This report presents a summary of data collected at these sites, including water and suspended-sediment discharge, streambed compositions, and channel and flood-plain topography. The locations are at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations 09152500, Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado; 09261000, Green River near Jensen, Utah; and 09302000, Duchesne River near Randlett, Utah.

  4. Depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life among participants in the Pasos Adelante chronic disease prevention and control program, Arizona, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Cutshaw, Christina A; Staten, Lisa K; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Davidson, Christopher; Roe, Denise J

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States and have been associated with depressive symptoms and poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study examined whether depressive symptoms and HRQOL indicators changed among participants in Pasos Adelante, a chronic disease prevention and control program implemented in a US-Mexico border community. Pasos Adelante was a 12-week promotora-led program that included educational sessions and walking groups. We used the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Center for Disease Control's "Healthy Days" measures to measure depressive symptoms and HRQOL. We used linear mixed-effects models and general estimating equations to analyze changes in CES-D scores and HRQOL indicators from baseline to postprogram and from postprogram to 3-month follow-up. At baseline, participants had a mean of 7.1 physically unhealthy days, 7.4 mentally unhealthy days, and 3.9 days of activity limitation. The mean number of physically and mentally unhealthy days declined significantly from baseline to postprogram, but the mean number of activity limitation days did not. At baseline, 42.6% of participants reported their health as fair/poor; 20.8% of participants reported frequent mental distress, and 31.8% had a CES-D score of 16 or more. All 3 proportions declined from baseline to postprogram. No significant changes occurred between postprogram and follow-up. Participants in Pasos Adelante showed improvement in depressive symptoms and several HRQOL indicators. Future studies should use an experimental design with a comparison group to determine whether these findings can be replicated and to examine potential mediators and moderators of program effects.

  5. Overview of incursions of Asian H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus into Great Britain, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dennis J; Manvell, Ruth J; Irvine, Richard; Londt, Brandon Z; Cox, Bill; Ceeraz, Vanessa; Banks, Jill; Browna, Ian H

    2010-03-01

    Since 2005 there have been five incursions into Great Britain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N1 related to the ongoing global epizootic. The first incursion occurred in October 2005 in birds held in quarantine after importation from Taiwan. Two incursions related to wild birds: one involved a single dead whooper swan found in March 2006 in the sea off the east coast of Scotland, and the other involved 10 mute swans and a Canada goose found dead over the period extending from late December 2007 to late February 2008 on or close to a swannery on the south coast of England. The other two outbreaks occurred in commercial poultry in January 2007 and November 2007, both in the county of Suffolk. The first of these poultry outbreaks occurred on a large turkey farm, and there was no further spread. The second outbreak occurred on a free-range farm rearing turkeys, ducks, and geese and spread to birds on a second turkey farm that was culled as a dangerous contact. Viruses isolated from these five outbreaks were confirmed to be Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses; the quarantine outbreak was attributed to a clade 2.3 virus and the other four to clade 2.2 viruses. This article describes the outbreaks, their control, and the possible origins of the responsible viruses.

  6. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) developed and tested its first wave of adult self-reported health outcome item banks: 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Cella, David; Riley, William; Stone, Arthur; Rothrock, Nan; Reeve, Bryce; Yount, Susan; Amtmann, Dagmar; Bode, Rita; Buysse, Daniel; Choi, Seung; Cook, Karon; Devellis, Robert; DeWalt, Darren; Fries, James F; Gershon, Richard; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Lai, Jin-Shei; Pilkonis, Paul; Revicki, Dennis; Rose, Matthias; Weinfurt, Kevin; Hays, Ron

    2010-11-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are essential when evaluating many new treatments in health care; yet, current measures have been limited by a lack of precision, standardization, and comparability of scores across studies and diseases. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) provides item banks that offer the potential for efficient (minimizes item number without compromising reliability), flexible (enables optional use of interchangeable items), and precise (has minimal error in estimate) measurement of commonly studied PROs. We report results from the first large-scale testing of PROMIS items. Fourteen item pools were tested in the U.S. general population and clinical groups using an online panel and clinic recruitment. A scale-setting subsample was created reflecting demographics proportional to the 2000 U.S. census. Using item-response theory (graded response model), 11 item banks were calibrated on a sample of 21,133, measuring components of self-reported physical, mental, and social health, along with a 10-item Global Health Scale. Short forms from each bank were developed and compared with the overall bank and with other well-validated and widely accepted ("legacy") measures. All item banks demonstrated good reliability across most of the score distributions. Construct validity was supported by moderate to strong correlations with legacy measures. PROMIS item banks and their short forms provide evidence that they are reliable and precise measures of generic symptoms and functional reports comparable to legacy instruments. Further testing will continue to validate and test PROMIS items and banks in diverse clinical populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-related macular degeneration and protective effect of HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, D T Q; Mendes, T S; Cíntron-Colon, H R; Wang, S Y; Bhisitkul, R B; Singh, K; Lin, S C

    2014-04-01

    To determine the association of hydroxymethylglutarylcoenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase inhibitor (statin) use with the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This cross-sectional study included 5604 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2008, ≥ 40 years of age, who were ascertained with regard to the diagnosis of AMD, the use of statins, and comorbidities and health-related behaviors such as smoking. The mean age of participants denying or confirming a history of AMD was 68 (SEM 0.90) and 55 (SEM 0.36) years, respectively. Individuals 68 years of age or older who were classified as long-term users of statins had statistically significant less self-reported AMD (odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.84; P=0.002), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. No significant association was found between the prevalence of AMD and statin consumption among subjects between 40 and 67 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.85-3.03; P=0.137). Our results suggest a possible beneficial effect of statin intake for the prevention of AMD in individuals 68 years of age or older.

  8. [Methodological quality of articles on therapeutic procedures published in Cirugía Española. Evaluation of the period 2005-2008].

    PubMed

    Manterola, Carlos; Grande, Luís

    2010-04-01

    To determine methodological quality of therapy articles published in Cirugía Española and to study its association with the publication year, the centre of origin and subjects. A literature study which included all therapy articles published between 2005 and 2008. All kinds of clinical designs were considered, excluding editorials, review articles, letters to editor and experimental studies. Variables analysed included: year of publication, centre of origin, design, and methodological quality of articles. A valid and reliable scale was applied to determine methodological quality. A total of 243 articles [206 series of cases (84.8%), 27 cohort studies (11.1%), 9 clinical trials (3.7%) and 1 case control study (0.4%)] were found. Studies came preferentially from Catalonia and Valencia (22.3% and 12.3% respectively). Thematic areas most frequently found were hepato-bilio-pancreatic and colorectal surgery (20.0% and 16.6%, respectively). Average and median of the methodological quality score calculated for the entire series were 9.5+/-4.3 points and 8 points, respectively. Association between methodological quality and geographical area (p=0.0101), subject area (p=0.0267), and university origin (p=0.0369) was found. A significant increase of methodological quality by publication year was observed (p=0.0004). Methodological quality of therapy articles published in Cirugía Española between 2005 and 2008 is low; but an increase tendency with statistical significance was observed.

  9. A Foot in the Door: Using Alternative Staffing Organizations to Open up Opportunities for Disadvantaged Workers. Report on the Alternative Staffing Demonstration, 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Shayne; Freely, Joshua; Maguire, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Despite the current recession, temporary employment will likely represent an increasing share of the labor market in the future, particularly for entry-level and low-wage occupations. In recent economic downturns, the temporary help sector has been among the first to rebound, coming back strongly after times of high unemployment. In this climate,…

  10. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among youth aged 10-17 years by sex: data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 16 states, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Karch, Debra L; Logan, J; McDaniel, Dawn D; Floyd, C Faye; Vagi, Kevin J

    2013-07-01

    We examined the circumstances that precipitated suicide among 1,046 youth aged 10-17 years in 16 U.S. states from 2005 to 2008. The majority of deaths were among male subjects (75.2%), non-Hispanic whites (69.3%), those aged 16-17 years (58.1%), those who died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation (50.2%) and those who died in a house or an apartment (82.5%). Relationship problems, recent crises, mental health problems, and intimate partner and school problems were the most common precipitating factors and many differed by sex. School problems were reported for 25% of decedents, of which 30.3% were a drop in grades and 12.4% were bullying related. Prevention strategies directed toward relationship-building, problem-solving, and increasing access to treatment may be beneficial for this population.

  11. [Analysis of syphilis and gonorrhoea cases, based on data from the National STD Centre, Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Semmelweis University (2005-2008)].

    PubMed

    Pónyai, Katinka; Marschalkó, Márta; Schöffler, Mária; Ostorházi, Eszter; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Várkonyi, Viktória; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2009-09-20

    The STD Department of Semmelweis University Budapest is the National Centre of Hungary, which is responsible for screening and care of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including syphilis and gonorrhoea. 42,114 patients attended the STD Department and 25,362 anonymous screening (HIV: 12,337, syphilis: 13,025) were done between January 2005 and December 2008. During this period 600 syphilitic and 339 gonorrhoea infections were diagnosed. The obligatory HIV screening of patients with sexually transmitted infections (STI) resulted positive result in 47 cases, and 63 patients infected with HIV acquired new syphilitic or gonorrhoea infection. Contact tracing was successful in around 400 syphilis cases, and 150-200 gonorrhoea cases per year. We present our statistical data in order to call attention to the resurgence of syphilis and gonorrhoea and the importance of STD co-infections.

  12. Potential risks, prognostic indicators, and diagnostic and treatment modalities affecting survival in dogs with presumptive aspiration pneumonia: 125 cases (2005-2008).

    PubMed

    Tart, Kelly M; Babski, Danielle M; Lee, Justine A

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate a clinical population of dogs diagnosed with presumptive aspiration pneumonia (AP) and determine diagnostic and treatment modalities contributing to survival. Retrospective study. A university veterinary teaching hospital in an urban setting. One hundred and twenty-five dogs with presumed AP treated from 2005 to 2008. None. Dogs with presumptive AP identified by a review of medical records had an overall survival of 81.6% (102/125). Male large-breed dogs (mean 24.9 kg; 82/125) were overrepresented and were more likely to develop AP in this study population. Recent anesthesia had been performed in 16% (20/125), and vomiting was reported in 64% (80/125). The most common radiographic findings were a predominantly alveolar pattern (187/272, [68.8%] total lung lobes) in the right middle lung lobe (80/115, [69.6%]). A mean of 2 lung lobes were involved radiographically, and the relationship between survival and the number of lung lobes affected was statistically significant (P=0.04). Neutrophilia with a left shift was common with no significant change on consecutive daily evaluations. The mean PaO(2) was 77.7 mm Hg (SD, 17.5 mm Hg) (range, 40.7-100 mm Hg) with a median alveolar-arterial gradient of 41.1 mm Hg (range, 8.1-81.8 mm Hg). In this study population, 37.6% (47/125) of dogs had microbial cultures performed and of these, 76.6% (36/47) were positive for growth; Escherichia coli (38.8%), Mycoplasma spp. (21.3%), Pasturella spp. (19.1%), and Staphylococcus spp. (17%) were the most common isolates in either single or multiagent infections. No treatment modality was statistically associated with increased survival. Colloid therapy was a negative prognostic indicator. In this study the overall prognosis for AP was good. Patients with only 1 affected lung lobe appeared more likely to survive. Supportive treatment modalities are warranted for the hospitalized patient, although no individual treatment method was found to be clearly superior to others.

  13. A Foot in the Door: Using Alternative Staffing Organizations to Open up Opportunities for Disadvantaged Workers. Report on the Alternative Staffing Demonstration, 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Shayne; Freely, Joshua; Maguire, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Despite the current recession, temporary employment will likely represent an increasing share of the labor market in the future, particularly for entry-level and low-wage occupations. In recent economic downturns, the temporary help sector has been among the first to rebound, coming back strongly after times of high unemployment. In this climate,…

  14. Newsprint media representations of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme for cervical cancer prevention in the UK (2005-2008).

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Langan, Mairi; Bedford, Helen; Petticrew, Mark

    2010-03-01

    In September 2008, the human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme was introduced in the UK for schoolgirls aged between 12 and 18 years of age. The vaccine shows high efficacy in preventing infection against HPV types 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer. However, to be most effective, the vaccine needs to be administered before exposure to the viruses and therefore, ideally, before young people become sexually active. The introduction of any new vaccine, and perhaps particularly one given to young teenage girls to prevent a sexually transmitted cancer-causing virus, has the potential to attract a great deal of media attention. This paper reports on content analysis of 344 articles published between January 2005 and December 2008 in 15 UK newspapers. It includes both manifest and latent analysis to examine newsprint media coverage of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme and its role in HPV advocacy. We concluded that the newspapers were generally positive towards the new HPV vaccination and that over the 4 years period the newsworthiness of the HPV vaccination programme increased. In 2008 two events dominated coverage, firstly, the introduction of the HPV programme in September 2008 and secondly, in August 2008 the diagnosis on camera of cervical cancer given to Jade Goody, a 27 year old mother of two, who gained fame and notoriety in the UK through her participation in several reality television shows. There are two conclusions from this study. Firstly, the positive media coverage surrounding the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme is to be welcomed as it is likely to contribute towards influencing public perceptions about the acceptability and need for HPV vaccination. Secondly, the focus on prevalence rates of HPV infection among women and on women's sexual behaviours, in relation to HPV vaccination 'encouraging' promiscuity, is an unhelpful aspect of media coverage.

  15. Channel Morphology and Bed Sediment Characteristics Before and After Habitat Enhancement Activities in the Uridil Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Years 2005-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphic data were collected by the United States Geological Survey from July 2005 to June 2008 (a time period within water years 2005 to 2008) to monitor the effects of habitat enhancement activities conducted in the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust's Uridil Property, located along the Platte River, Nebraska. The activities involved the removal of vegetation and sand from the tops of high permanent islands and the placement of the sand into the active river channel. This strategy was intended to enhance habitat for migratory water birds by lowering the elevations of the high islands, thereby eliminating a visual obstruction for roosting birds. It was also thought that the bare sand on the lowered island surfaces could serve as potential habitat for nesting water birds. Lastly, the project supplied a local source of sediment to the river to test the hypothesis that this material could contribute to the formation of lower sandbars and potential nesting sites downstream. Topographic surveys on the islands and along river transects were used to quantify the volume of removed sand and track the storage and movement of the introduced sand downstream. Sediment samples were also collected to map the spatial distribution of river bed sediment sizes before and after the management activities. While the project lowered the elevation of high islands, observations of the sand addition indicated the relatively fine-grained sand that was placed in the active river channel was rapidly transported by the flowing water. Topographic measurements made 3 months after the sand addition along transects in the area of sediment addition showed net aggradation over measurements made in 2005. In the year following the sand addition, 2007, elevated river flows from local rain events generally were accompanied by net degradation along transects within the area of sediment addition. In the spring of 2008, a large magnitude flow event of approximately 360 cubic meters per second occurred in the study reach and was accompanied by net aggradation in the managed area. These observations illustrate the high sediment transport capacity of the river channel both at lower flows, when the sand was added, and during higher flow events. This field experiment also serves as a practical example of the dynamic response of a Platte River channel to a relatively small-scale sand augmentation project directed toward enhancing in-channel habitat for avian species.

  16. The use of old cartographic datasets along with remote sensing data for better understand and map the 2005-2008 floods in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, V.; Flueraru, C.; Stancalie, G.

    2009-04-01

    Floods are the major disaster affecting many countries in the world year after year. From Romania perspective, floods are among the most hazardous natural disasters in terms of human suffering and economic losses. Major floods occurred in 2005, 2006 and 2008, the worst ones in more than 40 years, have affected large regions of Romania: in the Timis county (April 2005) over 1 300 homes have been damaged or destroyed, 3 800 people have been evacuated and about 30 000 hectares of agricultural land flooded; in five counties situated in eastern Romania (July 2005) 11 000 homes were inundated, 8 600 people have been evacuated, 20 people were killed, 53 000 ha farmland flooded, 379 bridges damaged or destroyed; in 12 counties along the Danube (April 2006) 3 077 homes were affected (1.049 completely destroyed), 16 000 people evacuated, five people killed, 144 000 hectares of land flooded; in six counties from the North-East part of Romania (July 2008) 3 985 houses were affected (over 300 totally destroyed), 15 834 people evacuated and 35 084 hectares of agricultural land inundated. Flood management evolves and changes as more knowledge and technology becomes available to the environmental community. Satellite imagery can be very effective for flood management in detailed mapping that is required for the production of hazard assessment maps and for input to various types of hydrological models, as well as in monitoring land use/cover changes over the years to quantify prominent changes in land use/cover in general and extent of impervious area in particular. In the same time, the wealth of old cartographic documents is an important cultural and scientific heritage. By careful studying this kind of documents, a modern manager can better understand the way territory was managed in the past and the implications of that management in today's floods reality. Good quality photo cameras, flat-bed and large size scanners were used to convert the analogue old cartographic materials into digital files. Specially, highly compressed, file formats were used to reduce the raster database size without affecting the documents quality. Digitisation and online distribution of this kind of documents, via an online system, provided new ways to access and to interact with our patrimony and new tangible arguments for the flood decision makers. The research included the development of key components and modules providing characterisation (based on metadata), virtual storage, discovery and access services, including intuitive query and browsing mechanisms and exploiting the potential of semantic web and advanced storage technologies. For all the mentioned flood events various processing techniques (classification, geo-referencing, filtering, and photo-interpretation) were used to combine the optical and radar images in order to delineate the flooded areas. The resulted flood masks were integrated in GIS environment with the old cartographic database and also with digital layers that represent the current geographic reality.

  17. Effectiveness of the Pasos Adelante chronic disease prevention and control program in a US-Mexico border community, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Staten, Lisa K; Cutshaw, Christina A; Davidson, Christopher; Reinschmidt, Kerstin; Stewart, Rosie; Roe, Denise J

    2012-01-01

    Pasos Adelante is a lifestyle intervention program facilitated by community health workers (promotores) targeting chronic disease prevention and control in Mexican Americans. Initial studies of Pasos Adelante indicated significant improvements in self-reported nutrition and physical activity. This study examined whether Pasos Adelante participants living in a US border community showed improvements in selected physiological measures after participating in the program and whether changes were maintained at 3-month follow-up. The program took place in 12-week sessions from January 2005 to May 2008 and included walking groups and education targeting nutrition and physical activity. Questionnaires, anthropometric measures, and laboratory tests were conducted at baseline (n = 305), conclusion of program (n = 254), and 3-month follow-up (n = 221). Participants demonstrated decreases in body mass index (P = .04), waist and hip circumference (P < .001), diastolic and systolic blood pressure (P < .001), and total cholesterol (P = .008) from baseline to program conclusion. No values worsened significantly between program conclusion and follow-up, except systolic blood pressure. Glucose levels improved between conclusion and follow-up (P = .01). These results support the initial findings of improvements in participants' self-reported physical activity and nutrition patterns through changes in objective measures. This evidence-based program demonstrates the potential for a promotores-facilitated chronic disease prevention and control program to improve physical health and targets both primary and secondary prevention in Hispanic communities and organizations.

  18. Influence of temperature, salinity and E. coli tissue content on immune gene expression in mussel: results from a 2005-2008 survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Toubiana, Mylène; Monfort, Patrick; Roch, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Several bivalves, including mussels, suffered from mortalities particularly in summer. To look for the possible effect of environmental parameters on immune capacities, Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected monthly from August 2005 to July 2008 from the Palavas Laguna, French Mediterranean coast. Q-PCR was used to quantify the expression of three antimicrobial peptide genes (defensin, mytilin B and myticin B), in addition to lysozyme and HSP70. House keeping gene was 28S rRNA. Defensin, myticin B and lysozyme appeared more expressed in spring-summer than in winter. In contrast, HSP70 expression was higher in winter. Statistical studies using principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression models revealed positive influence of temperature on 28S rRNA, defensin, myticin B and lysozyme expressions, but not on mytilin B and HSP70. The positive influence was significant for defensin and lysozyme expression, but relationships cannot be quantified. Similarly, salinity appeared to influence defensin expression, but this relationship cannot be quantified neither. E. coli tissue content appeared without influence. Consequently, there was no clear relationship between environmental parameters and immune-related gene expressions, demonstrating anti-infectious capabilities cannot be evaluated using only the expression of such genes as markers.

  19. Compilation of Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting for the Allison Woods Research Station in Iredell County, North Carolina, 2005-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Brad A.; Abraham, Joju

    2010-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected to describe the hydrologic conditions at the Allison Woods research station near Statesville, North Carolina, in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of North Carolina. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, from April 2005 through September 2008 are presented in this report. Data presented include well-construction characteristics and periodic groundwater-level measurements for 29 wells, borehole geophysical logs for 8 wells, hourly groundwater-level measurements for 5 wells, continuous water-quality measurements for 3 wells, periodic water-quality samples for 12 wells and 1 surface-water station, slug-test results for 11 wells, and shallow groundwater-flow maps. In addition, the geology and hydrogeology at the site are summarized.

  20. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  1. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  2. Aniline is an inducer, and not a precursor, for indole derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Mohammed; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway.

  3. Aniline Is an Inducer, and Not a Precursor, for Indole Derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mujahid; Ch, Sasikala; Ch, Ramana V.

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway. PMID:24533057

  4. Resistance of Fusarium poae in Arabidopsis leaves requires mainly functional JA and ET signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Dinolfo, María Inés; Castañares, Eliana; Stenglein, Sebastián A

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium poae has been considered as a minor species among those that cause the FHB disease but in recent years several researchers have documented a high frequency of occurrence in several crops. We evaluated the ability of F. poae to produce symptoms in A. thaliana leaves. Moreover, we analyzed the defense of A. thaliana against F. poae using SA, JA, and ET mutants and we monitored the expression level of genes involved in the main signaling pathways related to plant defense. Symptoms were observed in the inoculated leaves demonstrating the ability of F. poae to infect A. thaliana leaves. Moreover, the npr1-1 mutants presented low symptoms compared to Col-0, etr2-1, and coi1-1 and that the coi1-1 mutant was the most susceptible genotypes followed by etr2-1 genotypes. The RT-PCR revealed that PDF1.2, CHI/PR3, and ERF1, three important JA-ET responsive genes and NPR1 and PR1, which are regulated by SA signaling, were expressed upon F. poae inoculation. Our results suggest that JA and ET could play a key role in Arabidopsis leaves defense against F. poae representing the first evaluation of the response of the main A. thaliana phytohormones involved in plant defense in the presence of F. poae. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  6. High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from -50 to 80 deg C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Proving Ground (MD): Army Research Laboratory (US); 2005 Jul. Report No.: ARL-TR-3546. 11. Hoffman HJ. Uniaxial compressive gun propellant test. In: Solid ...ARL-MR-0894 ● JULY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from –50...Research Laboratory High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from –50 to 80 °C by Stephen L Howard, Michael G Leadore

  7. The crosstalk between Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and Jasmonic Acid (JA) signaling existing in Arabidopsis and cotton

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Linxuan; Xiong, Fangjie; Zhuo, Fengping; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Zuoren; Datla, Raju; Ren, Maozhi; Li, Fuguang

    2017-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as an important regulator of cell growth, development and stress responses in most examined diploid eukaryotes. However, little is known about TOR in tetraploid species such as cotton. Here, we show that TORC1-S6K-RPS6, the major signaling components, are conserved and further expanded in cotton genome. Though the cotton seedlings are insensitive to rapamycin, AZD8055, the second-generation inhibitor of TOR, can significantly suppress the growth in cotton. Global transcriptome analysis revealed that genes associated with jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and transduction were significantly altered in AZD8055 treated cotton seedlings, suggesting the potential crosstalk between TOR and JA signaling. Pharmacological and genetic approaches have been employed to get further insights into the molecular mechanism of the crosstalk between TOR and JA. Combination of AZD8055 with methyl jasmonate can synergistically inhibit cotton growth, and additionally JA levels were significantly increased when cotton seedlings were subjected to AZD8055. JA biosynthetic and signaling mutants including jar1, coi1-2 and myc2-2 displayed TOR inhibitor-resistant phenotypes, whereas COI1 overexpression transgenic lines and jaz10 exhibited sensitivity to AZD8055. Consistently, cotton JAZ can partially rescue TOR-suppressed phenotypes in Arabidopsis. These evidences revealed that the crosstalk between TOR and JA pathway operates in cotton and Arabidopsis. PMID:28374843

  8. The crosstalk between Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and Jasmonic Acid (JA) signaling existing in Arabidopsis and cotton.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Linxuan; Xiong, Fangjie; Zhuo, Fengping; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Zuoren; Datla, Raju; Ren, Maozhi; Li, Fuguang

    2017-04-04

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as an important regulator of cell growth, development and stress responses in most examined diploid eukaryotes. However, little is known about TOR in tetraploid species such as cotton. Here, we show that TORC1-S6K-RPS6, the major signaling components, are conserved and further expanded in cotton genome. Though the cotton seedlings are insensitive to rapamycin, AZD8055, the second-generation inhibitor of TOR, can significantly suppress the growth in cotton. Global transcriptome analysis revealed that genes associated with jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and transduction were significantly altered in AZD8055 treated cotton seedlings, suggesting the potential crosstalk between TOR and JA signaling. Pharmacological and genetic approaches have been employed to get further insights into the molecular mechanism of the crosstalk between TOR and JA. Combination of AZD8055 with methyl jasmonate can synergistically inhibit cotton growth, and additionally JA levels were significantly increased when cotton seedlings were subjected to AZD8055. JA biosynthetic and signaling mutants including jar1, coi1-2 and myc2-2 displayed TOR inhibitor-resistant phenotypes, whereas COI1 overexpression transgenic lines and jaz10 exhibited sensitivity to AZD8055. Consistently, cotton JAZ can partially rescue TOR-suppressed phenotypes in Arabidopsis. These evidences revealed that the crosstalk between TOR and JA pathway operates in cotton and Arabidopsis.

  9. Differential Expression of Carotenogenic Genes, Associated Changes on Astaxanthin Production and Photosynthesis Features Induced by JA in H. pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Zhao, Yuefeng; Wang, Yitao; Lv, Hongxin; Liming Yang; Chen, Lingling; Ye, Naihao

    2012-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an organism that under certain conditions can produce astaxanthin, an economically important carotenoid. In this study, the transcriptional expression patterns of eight carotenogenic genes of H. pluvialis in response to jasmonic acid (JA) were evaluated using real-time PCR. Astaxanthin accumulation action and photosynthesis flourescence were monitored at the same time. The results showed all eight genes exhibited higher transcriptional expression significantly under JA treatments. JA25 (25 mg/L) induction had greater effect (>10-fold up-regulation) on the transcriptional expression of pds, crtR-B and lyc than on ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, bkt2, and crtO. JA50 (50 mg/L) treatment had greater impact on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, crtR-B and crtO than on pds, lyc and bkt2. Astaxanthin biosynthesis in the presence of JA appeared to be up-regulated mainly by psy, pds, crtR-B, lyc, bkt2 and crtO at the transcriptional level and ipi-1, ipi-2 at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Under JA induction, the photosynthetic efficiency [Y (II)] and the maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) decreased significantly, but the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ) increased drastically with the accumulation of astaxanthin. PMID:22870309

  10. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav

    2010-05-01

    Reliable predictive models are needed to describe potential future climate changes and their impacts. Land surface-atmosphere feedbacks and their impacts on climate are a current priority in the climate modelling community, but reliable records of long-term land use and vegetation change required for model evaluation are limited. Palaeoecological and palaeo-climatic data provide a unique record of the past changes in vegetation, land use and climate on time scales relevant to vegetation processes and global change projections. The application of a new technique (the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to landscape reconstruction using fossil pollen data makes robust comparisons with vegetation model output possible . The model corrects for biases caused by e.g. inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal. Our results show that pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, generally underestimate the unforested areas and certain broad-leaved trees such as Corylus and Tilia, while they often overestimate Betula and Pinus (see Cui et al. BG 6.2). Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications (plant functional types (PFTs)), such as grass (i.e. open land), deciduous trees, and conifers. Therefore, the observed large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are expected to influence model outcomes of the Holocene regional climate in NW Europe. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene, and to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. We use the REVEALS model, theoretically derived and empirically tested, to estimate the percentage cover of taxa and groups of taxa (PFTs) from fossil pollen data for selected time windows of the Holocene, at a spatial resolution

  11. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants via salicylic acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Meng-Meng; Yang, Dong-Yue; Zhu, Shao-Bo; Ma, Na-Na; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of SA, which resulted in significant physiological and gene expression changes in transgenic tobacco plants, leading to the decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco. NAC family, the largest transcription factors in plants, responses to different environmental stimuli. Here, we isolated a typical NAC transcription factor (SlJA2) from tomato and got transgenic tobacco with SlJA2 over-expression. Expression of SlJA2 was induced by heat stress (42 °C), chilling stress (4 °C), drought stress, osmotic stress, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of salicylic acid by regulating expression of salicylic acid degradation gene under heat stress. Compared to WT plants, stomatal apertures and water loss increased in transgenic plants, and the damage of photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll breakdown were more serious in transgenic plants under heat stress. Meanwhile, more H2O2 and O2(·-) were accumulated transgenic plants and proline synthesis was restricted, which resulted in more serious oxidative damage compared to WT. qRT-PCR analysis showed that over-expression of SlJA2 could down-regulate genes involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and response to heat stress. All the above results indicated that SlJA2 may be a negative regulator responded to plant's heat tolerance. Thus, this study provides new insight into roles of NAC family member in plant response to abiotic stress.

  12. Priming for JA-dependent defenses using hexanoic acid is an effective mechanism to protect Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, Zhana; Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; Camañes, Gemma; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no significant changes in the SA marker gene PR-1 in either the SA or ABA hormone balance were observed in the infected and treated plants. In contrast, the JA signaling pathway showed dramatic changes after hexanoic acid treatment, mainly when the pathogen was present. The impaired JA mutants, jin1-2 and jar1, were unable to display hexanoic acid priming against the necrotroph. In addition, hexanoic acid-treated plants infected with B. cinerea showed priming in the expression of the PDF1.2, PR-4 and VSP1 genes implicated in the JA pathways. Moreover, JA and OPDA levels were primed at early stages by hexanoic acid. Treatments also stimulated increased callose accumulation in response to the pathogen. Although callose accumulation has proved an effective IR mechanism against B. cinerea, it is apparently not essential to express hexanoic acid-induced resistance (HxAc-IR) because the mutant pmr4.1 (callose synthesis defective mutant) is protected by treatment. We recently described how hexanoic acid treatments can protect tomato plants against B. cinerea by stimulating ABA-dependent callose deposition and by priming OPDA and JA-Ile production. We clearly demonstrate here that Hx-IR is a dependent plant species, since this acid protects Arabidopsis plants against the same necrotroph by priming JA-dependent defenses without enhancing callose accumulation.

  13. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  14. Visualization and Measurement of the Deflagration of Metal-Foil Bounded JA2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ARL‐TR‐7322 ● JUNE 2015          US Army Research Laboratory      Visualization and  Measurement  of the  Deflagration of Metal‐Foil Bounded...Visualization and  Measurement  of the  Deflagration of Metal‐Foil Bounded JA2    John J Ritter and Anthony Canami  Weapons and Materials Research...

  15. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Meldau, Stefan; Ullman-Zeunert, Lynn; Govind, Geetha; Bartram, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-11-13

    Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from increased nitrogen or CO

  16. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. Results As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from

  17. Carbon catabolite repression-independent and pH-dependent production of indoles by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2013-10-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 produces indole derivatives (indoles) from aniline, anthranilate or L-tryptophan. Glucose repressed indole production in R. benzoatilyticus JA2, while malate had no effect. Growth of R. benzoatilyticus JA2 on glucose resulted in decrease in culture pH (6.4) compared with malate (8.4). Growth of R. benzoatilyticus JA2 on sugar carbon sources decreased culture pH (6.4-6.6) and indole production. Further, culture pH of 6.4 repressed the indole production, and pH 8.4 promoted the production irrespective of carbon sources used for growth. Moreover, correlation between indole production and culture pH was observed, where acidic pH inhibited indole production, while alkaline pH promoted the production, suggesting the role of pH in indole production. Tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme activities are significantly high in malate-grown cultures (pH 8.4) compared with that of the glucose (pH 6.4)-grown cultures and corroborated well with indole production, indicating their role in indole production. These results confirm that indole production in R. benzoatilyticus JA2 is pH dependent rather than carbon catabolite repression.

  18. OsJAR1 is required for JA-regulated floret opening and anther dehiscence in rice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuguo; Chen, Yi; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Mulder, Patrick P J; Heijmans, Jeroen; Hoogenboom, Angela; Agalou, Adamantia; Michel, Corinne; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Dreni, Ludovico; Kater, Martin M; Bouwmeester, Harro; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F

    2014-09-01

    Jasmonates are important phytohormones regulating reproductive development. We used two recessive rice Tos17 alleles of OsJAR1, osjar1-2 and osjar1-3, to study the biological function of jasmonates in rice anthesis. The florets of both osjar1 alleles stayed open during anthesis because the lodicules, which control flower opening in rice, were not withering on time. Furthermore, dehiscence of the anthers filled with viable pollen, was impaired, resulting in lower fertility. In situ hybridization and promoter GUS transgenic analysis confirmed OsJAR1 expression in these floral tissues. Flower opening induced by exogenous applied methyl jasmonate was impaired in osjar1 plants and was restored in a complementation experiment with transgenics expressing a wild type copy of OsJAR1 controlled by a rice actin promoter. Biochemical analysis showed that OsJAR1 encoded an enzyme conjugating jasmonic acid (JA) to at least Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp and Val and both osjar1 alleles had substantial reduction in content of JA-Ile, JA-Leu and JA-Val in florets. We conclude that OsJAR1 is a JA-amino acid synthetase that is required for optimal flower opening and closing and anther dehiscence in rice.

  19. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress.

  20. Draft genome sequence of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T with special reference to hopanoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tushar, L; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-12-01

    Hopanoids are present in vast amounts as integral components of bacteria and plants with their primary function to strengthen rigidity of the plasma membrane. To establish their roles more precisely, we conducted sequencing of the whole genome of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643(T) isolated from a fresh water stream of Udaipur in Himachal Pradesh, India, by using the Illumina HiSeq pair end chemistry of 2 × 100 bp platform. Determined genome showed a high degree of similarity to the genome of R. vannielii ATCC17100(T) and the 13.7 million reads generated a sequence of 3,649,277 bp possessing 3,611 putative genes. The genomic data were subsequently investigated with respect to genes involved in various features. The machinery required for the degradation of aromatic compounds and resistance to solvents as well as all that required for photosynthesis are present in this organism. Also, through extensive functional annotation, 18 genes involved in the biosynthesis of hopanoids are predicted, namely those responsible for the synthesis of diploptene, diplopterol, adenosylhopane, ribosylhopane, aminobacteriohopanetriol, glycosyl group containing hopanoids and unsaturated hopanoids. The hopanoid biosynthetic pathway was then inferred based on the genes identified and through experimental validation of individual hopanoid molecules. The genome data of R. udaipurense JA643(T) will be useful in understanding the functional features of hopanoids in this bacterium.

  1. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  2. Kinetics and regulation of lactose transport and metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis JA6.

    PubMed

    Santos, A M; Silveira, W B; Fietto, L G; Brandão, R L; Castro, I M

    2014-07-01

    Kluyveromyces lactis strains are able to assimilate lactose. They have been used industrially to eliminate this sugar from cheese whey and in other industrial products. In this study, we investigated specific features and the kinetic parameters of the lactose transport system in K. lactis JA6. In lactose grown cells, lactose was transported by a system transport with a half-saturation constant (K s) of 1.49 ± 0.38 mM and a maximum velocity (V max) of 0.96 ± 0.12 mmol. (g dry weight)(-1) h(-1) for lactose. The transport system was constitutive and energy-dependent. Results obtained by different approaches showed that the lactose transport system was regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level and by glucose and other sugars at a post-translational level. In K. lactis JA6, galactose metabolization was under glucose control. These findings indicated that the regulation of lactose-galactose regulon in K. lactis was similar to the regulation of galactose regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  3. Acute oral toxicity of JA-2 solid propellant in icr mice. Report for 17 December 1985-17 January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.W.; Frost, D.F.; Wheller, C.R.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute oral toxicity of JA-2 Solid Propellant was determined in male and female ICR mice by using an oral gavage, split-dose method. The MLD was 3774.6 + or - 150.5 mg/kg for male mice and 3528.8 + or - 133.8 mg/kg for female mice. JA-2 produced component, diethyleneglycol dinitrate and nitroglycerin. These signs included tremors, inactivity, depression of reflexes, loss of equilibrium, opisthotonus, and increased respiratory activity. Other clinical signs observed were associated with the general malaise of the animals following dosing and included perianal staining, hunched posture, squinting, and rough coat. Most animals exhibited signs by 2 hours after dosing and either had died or the signs had cleared within 5 days of dosing. According to the classification scheme of Hodge and Sterner, these results place JA-2 in the slightly toxic class.

  4. Acute oral toxicity of ja-2 solid propellant in sprague-dawley rats. Report for 12 November-19 December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.D.; Justus, J.D.; Wheeler, C.R.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute oral toxicity of JA-2 Solid Propellant was determined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats by using an oral gavage split-dose method. The MLD was 3990.6 + or - 349.7 mg/kg for male rats and 2545.9 + or - 421.1 mg/kg for female rats. JA-2 produced clinical signs that were attributed to its nitrate ester components, diethyleneglycol dinitrate and nitroglycerin. These signs included tremors and twitching, cyanosis, and increases in respiratory rate and depth. Other clinical signs observed were associated with the general malaise of the animals following dosing and included hunched posture, rough coat, reddish stains around the eyes and nose, and perianal staining. Most animals exhibited signs by 4 hours after dosing and either had died or the signs had cleared by 96 hours after dosing. According to the classification scheme of Hodge and Sterner, these results place JA-2 in the slightly toxic class.

  5. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  6. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  7. HiJaK: the high-resolution J, H and K spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the science drivers, design requirements and a preliminary design for a high-resolution, broad- bandwidth, slit-fed cross-dispersed near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter-class telescopes. Our concept, called the High-Resolution J, H and K Spectrometer, or HiJaK, utilizes an R6 echelle in a white-pupil design to achieve high resolution in a compact configuration with a 2048 x 2048 pixel infrared detector. We present a preliminary ray-traced optical design matched to the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope in Happy Jack, Arizona. We also discuss mechanical and cryogenic options to house our optical design.

  8. High Temperature Induces Expression of Tobacco Transcription Factor NtMYC2a to Regulate Nicotine and JA Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liming; Li, Junying; Ji, Jianhui; Li, Ping; Yu, Liangliang; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Luo, Yuming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress elevates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and activates the biosynthesis of nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by up-regulating the expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase 1 (NtPMT1), which encodes a putrescine N-methyl transferase that catalyzes nicotine formation. The JA signal suppressor JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN 1 (NtJAZ1) and its target protein, NtMYC2a, also regulate nicotine biosynthesis; however, how these proteins interact to regulate abiotic-induced nicotine biosynthesis is poorly understood. In this study, we found that high-temperature (HT) treatment activated transcription of NtMYC2a, which subsequently stimulated the transcription of genes associated with JA biosynthesis, including Lipoxygenase (LOX), Allene oxide synthase (AOS), Allene oxide cyclase (AOC), and 12-oxophytodienodate reductase (OPR). Overexpression of NtMYC2a increased nicotine biosynthesis by enhancing its binding to the promoter of NtPMT1. Overexpression of either NtJAZ1 or proteasome-resistant NtJAZ1ΔC suppressed nicotine production under normal conditions, but overexpression only of the former resulted in low levels of nicotine under HT treatment. These data suggest that HT induces NtMYC2a accumulation through increased transcription to activate nicotine synthesis; meanwhile, HT-induced NtMYC2a can activate JA synthesis to promote additional NtMYC2a activity by degrading NtJAZ1 at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:27833561

  9. Overexpression of OsMYC2 Results in the Up-Regulation of Early JA-Rresponsive Genes and Bacterial Blight Resistance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Uji, Yuya; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Shishido, Hodaka; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins act as transcriptional repressors of jasmonic acid (JA) responses and play a crucial role in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Here, we report that OsMYC2, a JAZ-interacting transcription factor in rice (Oryza sativa L.), plays an important role in the resistance response against rice bacterial blight, which is one of the most serious diseases in rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The results showed that OsMYC2 interacted with some OsJAZ proteins in a JAZ-interacting domain (JID)-dependent manner. The up-regulation of OsMYC2 in response to JA was regulated by OsJAZ8. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsMYC2 exhibited a JA-hypersensitive phenotype and were more resistant to Xoo. A large-scale microarray analysis revealed that OsMYC2 up-regulated OsJAZ10 as well as many other defense-related genes. OsMYC2 selectively bound to the G-box-like motif of the OsJAZ10 promoter in vivo and regulated the expression of early JA-responsive genes, but not of late JA-responsive genes. The nuclear localization of OsMYC2 depended on a nuclear localization signal within JID. Overall, we conclude that OsMYC2 acts as a positive regulator of early JA signals in the JA-induced resistance against Xoo in rice.

  10. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 Are New Targets of JAZ Repressors Negatively Regulating JA Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M.; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  11. JA, a new type of polyunsaturated fatty acid isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, limits the survival and induces apoptosis of heptocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhao, Wei; Hou, Ya-Qin; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Lu-Guo; Tian, Shang-Yi; Liu, Biao; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim (Juglandaceae) is a famous folk medicine for cancer treatment and some natural compounds isolated from it have been studied extensively. Previously we isolated a type of ω-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid (JA) from the bark of J. mandshurica, however little is known about its activity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells. The selective toxicity of JA was better than other classical anti-cancer drugs. Further investigation indicated that JA could induce cell apoptosis, characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of the apoptosis-associated proteins such as Caspase-3 and PARP-1. Moreover, we investigated the cellular apoptosis pathway involved in the apoptosis process in HepG2 cells. We found that proteins involved in mitochondrion (cleaved-Caspase-9, Apaf-1, HtrA2/Omi, Bax, and Mitochondrial Bax) and endocytoplasmic reticulum (XBP-1s, GRP78, cleaved-Caspase-7 and cleaved-Caspase-12) apoptotic pathways were up-regulated when cells were treated by JA. In addition, a morphological change in the mitochondrion was detected. Furthermore, we found that JA could inhibit DNA synthesis and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. The expression of G2-to-M transition related proteins, such as CyclinB1 and phosphorylated-CDK1, were reduced. In contrast, the G2-to-M inhibitor p21 was increased in JA-treated cells. Overall, our results suggest that JA can induce mitochondrion- and endocytoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis, and G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 cells, making it a promising therapeutic agent against hepatoma.

  12. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies.

  13. Seed Germination Ecology of Feather Lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha-1 was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  14. Changes in ABA, IAA and JA levels during calyx, fruit and leaves development in cape gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana L.).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Flórez, F; López-Cristoffanini, C; Jáuregui, O; Melgarejo, L M; López-Carbonell, M

    2017-06-01

    Changes in abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in developing calyx, fruits and leaves of Physalis peruviana L. plants were analysed. Plant hormones have been widely studied for their roles in the regulation of various aspects related to plant development and, in particular, into their action during development and ripening of fleshly fruits. The obtained evidences suggest that the functions of these hormones are no restricted to a particular development stage, and more than one hormone is involved in controlling various aspects of plant development. Our results will contribute to understand the role of these hormones during growth and development of calyx, fruits and leaves in cape gooseberry plants. This work offers a good, quickly and efficiently protocol to extract and quantify simultaneously ABA, IAA and JA in different tissues of cape gooseberry plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated CO2 Reduces the Resistance and Tolerance of Tomato Plants to Helicoverpa armigera by Suppressing the JA Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Kang, Le; Wang, Chenzhu; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage) but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred) of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA) level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT) plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height) was also reduced by elevated CO2. Under ambient CO2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype) plants, but elevated CO2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants. PMID:22829948

  16. SA-inducible Arabidopsis glutaredoxin interacts with TGA factors and suppresses JA-responsive PDF1.2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Ndamukong, Ivan; Abdallat, Ayed Al; Thurow, Corinna; Fode, Benjamin; Zander, Mark; Weigel, Ralf; Gatz, Christiane

    2007-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant signaling molecule that mediates the induction of defense responses upon attack by a variety of pathogens. Moreover, it antagonizes gene induction by the stress signaling molecule jasmonic acid (JA). Several SA-responsive genes are regulated by basic/leucine zipper-type transcription factors of the TGA family. TGA factors interact with NPR1, a central regulator of many SA-induced defense responses including SA/JA antagonism. In order to identify further regulatory proteins of SA-dependent signaling pathways, a yeast protein interaction screen with tobacco TGA2.2 as bait and an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA prey library was performed and led to the identification of a member of the glutaredoxin family (GRX480, encoded by At1g28480). Glutaredoxins are candidates for mediating redox regulation of proteins because of their capacity to catalyze disulfide transitions. This agrees with previous findings that the redox state of both TGA1 and NPR1 changes under inducing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing GRX480 show near wild-type expression of standard marker genes for SA- and xenobiotic-inducible responses. In contrast, transcription of the JA-dependent defensin gene PDF1.2 was antagonized by transgenic GRX480. This, together with the observation that GRX480 transcription is SA-inducible and requires NPR1, suggests a role of GRX480 in SA/JA cross-talk. Suppression of PDF1.2 by GRX480 depends on the presence of TGA factors, indicating that the GRX480/TGA interaction is effective in planta.

  17. Visualization and Measurement of the Burning Surface of Wire-Embedded Energetic Materials, Part 1: JA2 and Pentolite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    figure 4). The apparatus includes a windowed chamber capable of being pressurized up to 10 MPa. It also includes a ballast tank that adds considerably... pressures were acquired, and they can be employed to validate a state-of-the-art CFD model that ARL is developing to accelerate the development of...rates at pressure near 5.18 MPa. ..............................................................12 Figure 11. JA2 burning rates at 6.90 MPa

  18. Diverting the flux of the JA pathway in Nicotiana attenuata compromises the plant's defense metabolism and fitness in nature and glasshouse.

    PubMed

    Stitz, Michael; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    A plant's inducible defenses against herbivores as well as certain developmental processes are known to be controlled by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. We have previously shown that ectopically expressing Arabidopsis thaliana JA O-methyltransferase in Nicotiana attenuata (35S-jmt) strongly reduces the herbivory-elicited jasmonate bursts by acting as metabolic sink that redirects free JA towards methylation; here we examine the consequences of this metabolic sink on N. attenuata's secondary metabolism and performance in nature. In the glasshouse, 35S-jmt plants produced fewer seed capsules due to shorter floral styles, which could be restored to wild type (WT) levels after hand-pollination, and were more susceptible to Manduca sexta larvae attack. When transplanted into the Great Basin Desert in Utah, 35S-jmt plants grew as well as WT empty vector, but were highly attacked by native herbivores of different feeding guilds: leaf chewers, miners, and single cell feeders. This greater susceptibility was strongly associated with reduced emissions of volatile organic compounds (hexenylesters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and profound alterations in the production of direct defenses (trypsin proteinase inhibitors [TPI], nicotine, diterpene glycosides [DTGs] and phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates) as revealed by a combination of targeted and metabolomics analyses of field collected samples. Complementation experiments with JA-Ile, whose formation is outcompeted in 35S-jmt plants by the methylation reaction, restored the local TPI activation to WT levels and partially complemented nicotine and DTG levels in elicited but not systemic leaves. These findings demonstrate that MeJA, the major JA metabolite in 35S-jmt plants, is not an active signal in defense activation and highlights the value of creating JA sinks to disrupt JA signaling, without interrupting the complete octadecanoid pathway, in order to investigate the regulation of plants' defense metabolism in nature.

  19. Diverting the Flux of the JA Pathway in Nicotiana attenuata Compromises the Plant's Defense Metabolism and Fitness in Nature and Glasshouse

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, Michael; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    A plant's inducible defenses against herbivores as well as certain developmental processes are known to be controlled by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. We have previously shown that ectopically expressing Arabidopsis thaliana JA O-methyltransferase in Nicotiana attenuata (35S-jmt) strongly reduces the herbivory-elicited jasmonate bursts by acting as metabolic sink that redirects free JA towards methylation; here we examine the consequences of this metabolic sink on N. attenuata's secondary metabolism and performance in nature. In the glasshouse, 35S-jmt plants produced fewer seed capsules due to shorter floral styles, which could be restored to wild type (WT) levels after hand-pollination, and were more susceptible to Manduca sexta larvae attack. When transplanted into the Great Basin Desert in Utah, 35S-jmt plants grew as well as WT empty vector, but were highly attacked by native herbivores of different feeding guilds: leaf chewers, miners, and single cell feeders. This greater susceptibility was strongly associated with reduced emissions of volatile organic compounds (hexenylesters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and profound alterations in the production of direct defenses (trypsin proteinase inhibitors [TPI], nicotine, diterpene glycosides [DTGs] and phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates) as revealed by a combination of targeted and metabolomics analyses of field collected samples. Complementation experiments with JA-Ile, whose formation is outcompeted in 35S-jmt plants by the methylation reaction, restored the local TPI activation to WT levels and partially complemented nicotine and DTG levels in elicited but not systemic leaves. These findings demonstrate that MeJA, the major JA metabolite in 35S-jmt plants, is not an active signal in defense activation and highlights the value of creating JA sinks to disrupt JA signaling, without interrupting the complete octadecanoid pathway, in order to investigate the regulation of plants' defense metabolism in nature

  20. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  1. ABA Is an Essential Signal for Plant Resistance to Pathogens Affecting JA Biosynthesis and the Activation of Defenses in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Bruce A.T.; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Pérez-Pérez, Manuel M.; Godoy, Marta; Sánchez-Serrano, José-J.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Solano, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana defense response to the damping-off oomycete pathogen Pythium irregulare show that resistance to P. irregulare requires a multicomponent defense strategy. Penetration represents a first layer, as indicated by the susceptibility of pen2 mutants, followed by recognition, likely mediated by ERECTA receptor-like kinases. Subsequent signaling of inducible defenses is predominantly mediated by jasmonic acid (JA), with insensitive coi1 mutants showing extreme susceptibility. In contrast with the generally accepted roles of ethylene and salicylic acid cooperating with or antagonizing, respectively, JA in the activation of defenses against necrotrophs, both are required to prevent disease progression, although much less so than JA. Meta-analysis of transcriptome profiles confirmed the predominant role of JA in activation of P. irregulare–induced defenses and uncovered abscisic acid (ABA) as an important regulator of defense gene expression. Analysis of cis-regulatory sequences also revealed an unexpected overrepresentation of ABA response elements in promoters of P. irregulare–responsive genes. Subsequent infections of ABA-related and callose-deficient mutants confirmed the importance of ABA in defense, acting partly through an undescribed mechanism. The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete. PMID:17513501

  2. OsMYC2, an essential factor for JA-inductive sakuranetin production in rice, interacts with MYC2-like proteins that enhance its transactivation ability

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Nemoto, Keiichirou; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Okada, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Biosynthesis of sakuranetin, a flavonoid anti-fungal phytoalexin that occurs in rice, is highly dependent on jasmonic acid (JA) signalling and induced by a variety of environmental stimuli. We previously identified OsNOMT, which encodes naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase (NOMT); NOMT is a key enzyme for sakuranetin production. Although OsNOMT expression is induced by JA treatment, the regulation mechanism that activates the biosynthetic pathway of sakuranetin has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that JA-inducible basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor OsMYC2 drastically enhances the activity of the OsNOMT promoter and is essential for JA-inducible sakuranetin production. In addition, we identified 2 collaborators of OsMYC2, OsMYC2-like protein 1 and 2 (OsMYL1 and OsMYL2) that further activated the OsNOMT promoter in synergy with OsMYC2. Physical interaction of OsMYC2 with OsMYL1 and OsMYL2 further supported the idea that these interactions lead to the enhancement of the transactivation activity of OsMYC2. Our results indicate that JA signalling via OsMYC2 is reinforced by OsMYL1 and OsMYL2, resulting in the inductive production of sakuranetin during defence responses in rice. PMID:28067270

  3. JaTS: a fully portable seismic tomography software based on Fresnel wavepaths and a probabilistic reconstruction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Sage, Sandrine

    2004-11-01

    JaTS, a Java 2D seismic tomography software, is presented. It implements original algorithms achieving optimal accuracy with reasonable computing costs. A second-order Fast Marching Method (FMM) is used for solving the eikonal equation, therefore enabling a fast and robust computation of seismic traveltimes between sources and receivers. The wavepaths are materialized by Fresnel volumes rather than by conventional rays. This approach accounts for complex velocity models and has the advantage of considering the effects of the wave frequency in the velocity model resolution. The model is computed by a Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) which has been reformulated to integrate Fresnel wavepaths by using a probabilistic approach. In addition, various utilities are implemented, such as a tapering filter, used to decrease artifact effects occurring in the vicinity of the sources and receivers. The software also offers the possibility of reconstructing the velocity field on a grid larger than the one used for the wave propagation computation. This contributes to stabilize the estimated values. All of the seismic processing tools have been integrated with a user-friendly graphical interface. JaTS represents a tightly integrated tool suite that supports the entire process of importing the SG2 field records, first-break picking, forward modeling and velocity-field computing across multiple platforms.

  4. A Maize Jasmonate Zim-Domain Protein, ZmJAZ14, Associates with the JA, ABA, and GA Signaling Pathways in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suzhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Miaoyun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhao, Qianqian; Li, Ye; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Rumei; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins have been implicated in regulating JA signaling pathways and the cross talk between various phytohormones. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for monocotyledon studies. Although many JAZ proteins have been characterized in Arabidopsis and rice, few reports have examined the function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this report, we examined the phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern of JAZ family genes in maize. In addition, a tassel and endosperm-specific JAZ gene, ZmJAZ14, was identified using microarray data analysis and real-time RT-PCR, and its expression was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), jasmonate (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GAs). ZmJAZ14 was shown to be localized in the nucleus and possessed no transcriptional activating activity, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional regulator. We found that overexpression of ZmJAZ14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to JA and ABA treatment, as well as PEG stress, while it promoted growth under GA stimulus. Moreover, ZmJAZ14 interacted with a subset of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, and the accumulation of several marker genes involved in JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways were altered in the overexpression lines. These results suggest that ZmJAZ14 may serve as a hub for the cross talk among the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways. Our results can be used to further characterize the function of JAZ family proteins in maize, and the gene cloned in this study may serve as a candidate for drought tolerance and growth promotion regulation in maize. PMID:25807368

  5. Change in use of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance studies in kidney disease patients after US Food and Drug Administration warnings: a cross-sectional study of Veterans Affairs Health Care System data from 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Ho; Fonda, Jennifer R; Lawler, Elizabeth V; Gagnon, David; Kaufman, James S

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to gadolinium in patients with kidney disease has been linked to risk of developing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued warnings against the use of gadolinium in this population. We studied the impact of these warnings on the use of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (GE-MR) studies in patients with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the practice of measuring serum creatinine before gadolinium exposure. Cross-sectional study of patients who had undergone MR studies from October 2002 to September 2008. Patients receiving medical care in the US Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Date of MR imaging, serum creatinine level, and eGFR using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. The rate of MR studies performed with and without gadolinium from July 2005 to September 2008 in patients with different stages of kidney disease, defined using eGFR. The proportion of GE-MR studies with a screening serum creatinine level. There was a 71% decrease in the rate of GE-MR use in patients with GFR<30 mL/min/1.73 m2 2 years after the release of the first public health advisory, although studies continued to be performed in patients with stages 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease. The proportion of GE-MR studies with serum creatinine measured within 1 month before the study increased by 99%. Data available up to September 30, 2008. Indications for the GE-MR studies were not assessed. The accuracy of Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision coding was not assessed. There was a large decrease in the use of GE-MR studies in patients with GFR<30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and a large but not universal increase in the practice of measuring serum creatinine before GE-MR after the release of the FDA warnings. Copyright (c) 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Meteor Scatter Communication between Thule and Station Nord, Greenland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    capacity digital communication channel. In comparison with high yield satellite links, meteor scatter was too complex for widespread utilization then...great companionship during the field campaigns. To Mr. Eric Li , Dr. A. L. Snyder, Jr., Dr. G. S. Sales and Dr. J. A. Weitzen of the University of Lowell...geostationary satellites . Existing polar orbiting satellites intended for data collection are restricted for data of interest to the World Meteorological

  7. Lacuna maculare in latitudine nell'emisfero nord del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubergia, Gian Paolo; Piovan, Luciano

    2005-04-01

    This paper completes the study of sunspot activity as far as latitude distribution is concerned, having already outlined in this journal the lack of spots around the 9-10° of southern latitudes. We searched for a similar behaviour in the northern hemisphere. We present the confirmation of our hypothesis, thanks to the discovery of a slight anomaly in the northern hemisphere, which showed a latitudinal mobility of about 5° during periods of time greater than the duration of the typical magnetic cycles of the sunspots.

  8. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA-induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions.

  9. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  10. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  11. Assessment of iodine nutritional status in the general population in the province of Jaén.

    PubMed

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Serrano Quero, Manuel; Moreno Martínez, Macarena; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Santiago Fernández, Piedad

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency affecting both pregnant women and schoolchildren has been reported in Jaén. Iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of thyroid dysfunction and goiter, and adequate iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt, milk, and dairy products, or iodine supplementation have been shown to significantly improve iodine status in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess iodine nutritional status in the general population of a iodine-deficient area with no previous institutional campaigns of iodine prophylaxis. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Urinary iodine levels were measured in subjects from the Jaén healthcare district. The data were stratified by sex and age groups, and a survey was conducted on iodized salt consumption. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59 mcg/L and 130.11 mcg/L respectively. Urinary iodine levels were significantly higher in schoolchildren as compared to other age groups (161.52μg/L vs 109.33μg/L in subjects older than 65 years). Forty-three percent of the population had urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L, and 68% of women of childbearing age had levels less than 150μg/L. Iodine nutritional status appears to be adequate, but the proportion of the population with urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L is still very high, and iodized salt consumption is much less common than recommended by the WHO. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural basis of jasmonate-amido synthetase FIN219 in complex with glutathione S-transferase FIP1 during the JA signal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Ho, Sih-Syun; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Far-red (FR) light-coupled jasmonate (JA) signaling is necessary for plant defense and development. FR insensitive 219 (FIN219) is a member of the Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) family of proteins in Arabidopsis and belongs to the adenylate-forming family of enzymes. It directly controls biosynthesis of jasmonoyl-isoleucine in JA-mediated defense responses and interacts with FIN219-interacting protein 1 (FIP1) under FR light conditions. FIN219 and FIP1 are involved in FR light signaling and are regulators of the interplay between light and JA signaling. However, how their interactions affect plant physiological functions remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the crystal structures of FIN219–FIP1 while binding with substrates at atomic resolution. Our results show an unexpected FIN219 conformation and demonstrate various differences between this protein and other members of the GH3 family. We show that the rotated C-terminal domain of FIN219 alters ATP binding and the core structure of the active site. We further demonstrate that this unique FIN219–FIP1 structure is crucial for increasing FIN219 activity and determines the priority of substrate binding. We suggest that the increased FIN219 activity resulting from the complex form, a conformation for domain switching, allows FIN219 to switch to its high-affinity mode and thereby enhances JA signaling under continuous FR light conditions. PMID:28223489

  13. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple.

  14. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-06-30

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways.

  15. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  16. Distinct post-transcriptional modifications result into seven alternative transcripts of the CC-NBS-LRR gene JA1tr of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Cana, Elodie; Macadré, Catherine; Sévignac, Mireille; David, Perrine; Langin, Thierry; Geffroy, Valérie

    2005-03-01

    The generation of splice variants has been reported for various plant resistance (R) genes, suggesting that these variants play an important role in disease resistance. Most of the time these R genes belong to the Toll and mammalian IL-1 receptor-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) class of R genes. In Phaseolus vulgaris, a resistance gene cluster (referred to as the B4 R-gene cluster) has been identified at the end of linkage group B4. At this complex resistance cluster, three R specificities (Co-9, Co-y and Co-z) and two R QTLs effective against the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose, have been identified. At the molecular level, four resistance gene candidates encoding putative full-length, coiled-coil (CC)-NBS-LRR R-like proteins, with LRR numbers ranging from 18 to 20, have been previously characterized. In the present study, seven cDNA corresponding to truncated R-like transcripts, belonging to the CC-NBS-LRR class of plant disease R genes, have been identified. These seven transcripts correspond to a single gene named JA1tr, which encodes, at most, only five LRRs. The seven JA1tr transcript variants result from distinct post-transcriptional modifications of JA1tr, corresponding to alternative splicing events of two introns, exon skipping and multiple 'aberrant splicing' events in the open reading frame (ORF). JA1tr was mapped at the B4 R-gene cluster identified in common bean. These post-transcriptional modifications of the single gene JA1tr could constitute an efficient source of diversity. The present results provide one of the few reports of transcript variants with truncated ORFs resulting from a CC-NBS-LRR gene.

  17. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  18. The JaCVAM international validation study on the in vivo comet assay: Selection of test chemicals.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Uno, Yoshifumi; Honma, Masamitsu; Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Makoto; Tice, Raymond R; Corvi, Raffaella; Schechtman, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) sponsored an international prevalidation and validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline pH comet assay. The main objective of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for correctly identifying genotoxic carcinogens, as compared with the traditional rat liver unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. Based on existing carcinogenicity and genotoxicity data and chemical class information, 90 chemicals were identified as primary candidates for use in the validation study. From these 90 chemicals, 46 secondary candidates and then 40 final chemicals were selected based on a sufficiency of carcinogenic and genotoxic data, differences in chemical class or genotoxic or carcinogenic mode of action (MOA), availability, price, and ease of handling. These 40 chemicals included 19 genotoxic carcinogens, 6 genotoxic non-carcinogens, 7 non-genotoxic carcinogens and 8 non-genotoxic non-carcinogens. "Genotoxicity" was defined as positive in the Ames mutagenicity test or in one of the standard in vivo genotoxicity tests (primarily the erythrocyte micronucleus assay). These chemicals covered various chemicals classes, MOAs, and genotoxicity profiles and were considered to be suitable for the purpose of the validation study. General principles of chemical selection for validation studies are discussed.

  19. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  20. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system.

  1. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  2. OsNPR1 negatively regulates herbivore-induced JA and ethylene signaling and plant resistance to a chewing herbivore in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Afsheen, Sumera; Xin, Zhaojun; Han, Xiu; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-03-01

    NPR1 (a non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes1) has been reported to play an important role in plant defense by regulating signaling pathways. However, little to nothing is known about its function in herbivore-induced defense in monocot plants. Here, using suppressive substrate hybridization, we identified a NPR1 gene from rice, OsNPR1, and found that its expression levels were upregulated in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis and rice leaf folder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and to mechanical wounding and treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Moreover, mechanical wounding induced the expression of OsNPR1 quickly, whereas herbivore infestation induced the gene more slowly. The antisense expression of OsNPR1 (as-npr1), which reduced the expression of the gene by 50%, increased elicited levels of JA and ethylene (ET) as well as of expression of a lipoxygenase gene OsHI-LOX and an ACC synthase gene OsACS2. The enhanced JA and ET signaling in as-npr1 plants increased the levels of herbivore-induced trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TrypPIs) and volatiles, and reduced the performance of SSB. Our results suggest that OsNPR1 is an early responding gene in herbivore-induced defense and that plants can use it to activate a specific and appropriate defense response against invaders by modulating signaling pathways.

  3. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves.

  4. Combination comet/micronucleus assay validation performed by BioReliance under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Krsmanovic, Ljubica; Bruce, Shannon Wilson; Kelley, Tawney; Arevalo, Mirna; Atta-Safoh, Samuel; Debelie, Fekadu; La Force, Michelle L Klug; Springer, Sandra; Sly, Jamie; Paranjpe, Madhav; Lawlor, Timothy; Aardema, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    In the international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) provided three coded chemicals to BioReliance, 1,3-dichloropropene, ethionamide and busulfan, to be tested in a combined in vivo comet/micronucleus assay. Induction of DNA damage (comet) in liver, stomach and jejunum (1,3-dichloropropene only) cells, and induction of MNPCEs in bone marrow, were examined in male Sprague-Dawley (Hsd:SD) rats following oral administration of the test chemical for three consecutive days. A dose range finding (DRF) test was performed with each chemical to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Based on the results of the DRF test; 1,3-dichloropropene was tested at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; ethionamide was tested at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, and busulfan was tested at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day. The results indicated that 1,3-dichloropropene induced DNA damage only in liver cells at all three test article doses, while no effects were observed in the stomach and jejunum cells. Additionally, it did not increase MNPCEs in the bone marrow. 1,3-Dichloropropene was concluded to be negative in the MN assay but positive in the comet assay. Ethionamide did not induce DNA damage in liver. However, in stomach, statistically significant decreases (although still within historical range) in % tail DNA at all test article doses compared to the vehicle control were observed. There was no increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Thus, ethionamide was concluded to be negative in the comet/MN combined assay. Busulfan did not induce DNA damage in any of the organs tested (liver and stomach) but it did induce a significant increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Busulfan was concluded to be negative in the comet assay but positive in the MN assay.

  5. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  6. Lotus japonicus nodulation is photomorphogenetically controlled by sensing the red/far red (R/FR) ratio through jasmonic acid (JA) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Suriyagoda, Lalith; Shigeyama, Tamaki; Tominaga, Akiyoshi; Sasaki, Masayo; Hiratsuka, Yoshimi; Yoshinaga, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Agarie, Sakae; Sakai, Tatsuya; Inada, Sayaka; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Abe, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Akashi, Ryo; Sato, Shusei; Kaneko, Takakazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirsch, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Light is critical for supplying carbon to the energetically expensive, nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. Here, we show that phytochrome B (phyB) is part of the monitoring system to detect suboptimal light conditions, which normally suppress Lotus japonicus nodule development after Mesorhizobium loti inoculation. We found that the number of nodules produced by L. japonicus phyB mutants is significantly reduced compared with the number produced of WT Miyakojima MG20. To explore causes other than photoassimilate production, the possibility that local control by the root genotype occurred was investigated by grafting experiments. The results showed that the shoot and not the root genotype is responsible for root nodule formation. To explore systemic control mechanisms exclusive of photoassimilation, we moved WT MG20 plants from white light to conditions that differed in their ratios of low or high red/far red (R/FR) light. In low R/FR light, the number of MG20 root nodules dramatically decreased compared with plants grown in high R/FR, although photoassimilate content was higher for plants grown under low R/FR. Also, the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) -responsive genes decreased in both low R/FR light-grown WT and white light-grown phyB mutant plants, and it correlated with decreased jasmonoyl-isoleucine content in the phyB mutant. Moreover, both infection thread formation and root nodule formation were positively influenced by JA treatment of WT plants grown in low R/FR light and white light-grown phyB mutants. Together, these results indicate that root nodule formation is photomorphogenetically controlled by sensing the R/FR ratio through JA signaling. PMID:21930895

  7. Incidence and Predictors of Biological Antirheumatic Drug Discontinuation Attempts among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Remission: A CORRONA and NinJa Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Radner, Helga; Mjaavatten, Maria D; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Kishimoto, Mitsumasa; Matsui, Kazuo; Okada, Masato; Reed, George; Saeki, Yukihiko; Tohma, Shigeto; Kremer, Joel; Solomon, Daniel H

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a longitudinal observational study of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARD) to describe the proportions of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in remission who discontinued these agents, and to assess the potential predictors of the decision to discontinue. We used data from the US COnsortium of Rheumatology Researchers Of North America (CORRONA) and the Japanese National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) registries, and ran parallel analyses. Patients treated with bDMARD who experienced remission (defined by the Clinical Disease Activity Index ≤ 2.8) were included. The outcome of interest was the occurrence of bDMARD discontinuation while in remission. The predictors of discontinuation were assessed in the Cox regression models. Frailty models were also used to examine the effects of individual physicians in the discontinuation decision. The numbers of eligible patients who were initially in remission were 6263 in the CORRONA and 744 in the NinJa. Among these patients, 10.0% of patients in CORRONA and 11.8% of patients in NinJa discontinued bDMARD while in remission over 5 years, whereas many of the remaining patients lost remission before discontinuing bDMARD. Shorter disease duration was associated with higher rates of discontinuation in both cohorts. In CORRONA, methotrexate use and lower disease activity were also associated with discontinuation. In frailty models, physician random effects were significant in both cohorts. Among patients who initially experienced remission while receiving bDMARD, around 10% remained in remission and then discontinued bDMARD in both registries. Several factors were associated with more frequent discontinuation while in remission. Physician preference likely is also an important correlate of bDMARD discontinuation, indicating the need for standardization of practice.

  8. Meat quality and the histological structure of breast and leg muscles in Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani × Sussex hybrids and slow-growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens.

    PubMed

    Łukasiewicz, Monika; Niemiec, Jan; Wnuk, Agnieszka; Mroczek-Sosnowska, Natalia

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of meat and the histological structure of muscles of Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani × Sussex hybrids and slow-growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens and to examine whether crossing generally available Sussex chickens with little available Ayam Cemani gives a good quality product of interest to the poultry industry and in food technology. The size of breast and leg muscle fibers varied among genotypes. The breast and leg muscles of slow-growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens had the largest fiber diameter. The histological and biochemical properties of muscles, including the type, number, proportions, diameter and metabolic profile of fibers, had a significant effect on the pH and water-binding capacity of meat, thus affecting its quality. The muscle fibers of Ayam Cemani chickens were approximately half the size of the muscle fibers of Hubbard JA 957 chickens. Ayam Cemani and Ayam Cemani × Sussex gave a product of as good quality as Hubbard JA 957 chickens. Meat from Ayam Cemani chickens is a rich source of protein and could be highly valued by gourmet consumers, connoisseurs and dieticians for its rarity and originality. The results of this study show that genotype (Ayam Cemani, Ayam Cemani × Sussex, Hubbard JA 957) affected the quality and color of meat and the histological profile of chicken breast and leg muscles. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Pro Memoria. Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943): Mortui viventes obligant - the livings are obligated to the dead.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943) was a chairman of Department of Histology and Embryology at Faculty of Medicine of King John Casimir University (Polish: Universytet Jana Kazimierza: UJK) in Lvov. He succeeded Professor Władysław Szymonowicz (1869-1939) who held this position for decades. As the most skillful followers of his tutor, Bolesław Jałowy was a great investigator of physiology of human tissue, embryogenesis, histological consequences of female sex hormones on blood clotting action as well as regeneration of nerves in addition to description of silver staining technique for reticulin fibers of skin. He was a hard working person with gentle attitude to such a subtle matter as microscopic structure of human body. However, he happened to live in brutal conditions of nationalistic struggles. His example shows how much a dedicated scientist could do in a very short time as his life was tragically ended with murdering him during World War Two. His story is a great lesson for generations of academic workers how to meet high moral standards with efficient and creative scientific work in evil and destructive, nationalistic climate that occurs usually in wartime.

  10. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day.

  11. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA.

  12. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-08-25

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment.

  13. European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA): a process evaluation performed by questionnaires and documentary analysis.

    PubMed

    Woodford Guegan, Eleanor; Cook, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) project's overarching objective was to 'establish an effective and sustainable HTA [Health technology assessment] collaboration in Europe that brings added value at the regional, national and European level'. Specific objectives were to develop a strategy and business model for sustainable European collaboration on HTA, develop HTA tools and methods and promote good practice in HTA methods and processes. We describe activities performed on behalf of the National Institute for Health Research HTA programme; evaluating the project processes and developing a data set for a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. Annual self-completion online questionnaires were sent to project participants and external stakeholders to identify their views about the project processes. Documentary review was undertaken at the project end on the final technical reports from the work packages to examine whether or not their deliverables had been achieved. The project's impact was assessed by whether or not the deliverables were produced, the objectives met and additional 'added value' generated. The project's effectiveness was evaluated by its processes, communication, administration, workings of individual work packages and involvement of external stakeholders. A two-stage Delphi exercise was undertaken to identify the data elements that should be included in a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. The data set was validated by an efficacy testing exercise. High response rates were achieved for the questionnaires sent to project participants and this was attributed to the evidence-based strategy implemented. Response rates to questionnaires sent to external stakeholders were disappointingly lower. Most of the high-level objectives were achieved, although applying the developed tools in practice will be implemented in the European network for Health

  14. Factors influencing the structure and spatial distribution of fishes in the headwater streams of the Jaú River in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kemenes, A; Forsberg, B R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of spatial variation in river channels and habitats on the distribution of fish communities in the headwater streams of the Jaú River System, a blackwater tributary of the Negro River. Collections and measurements were made in 34 headwater streams during the period of November- December, 1998. Fish were captured with fish traps and hand nets along standard reaches of two meanders. Data on benthic habitat structure, stream depth and width were collected along lateral transects in each sample reach. A total of 66 fish species from 24 families were collected and classified into seven trophic guilds: allocthonous insectivore, autochthonous insectivore, general insectivore, piscivore, detritivorous planktivore, detritivorous insectivore and insectivorous piscivore. Variations in the distribution and diversity of bottom substrates were important factors influencing fish community structures in these systems. Also, variation in stream size explained the observed variability in fish communities.

  15. An enoate reductase Achr-OYE4 from Achromobacter sp. JA81: characterization and application in asymmetric bioreduction of C=C bonds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Pei, Xiao-Qiong; Wu, Zhong-Liu

    2014-01-01

    A putative enoate reductase, Achr-OYE4, was mined from the genome of Achromobacter sp. JA81, expressed in Escherichia coli, and was characterized. Sequence analysis and spectral properties indicated that Achr-OYE4 is a typical flavin mononucleotide-dependent protein; it preferred NADH over NADPH as a cofactor. The heterologously expressed protein displayed good activity and excellent stereoselectivity toward some activated alkenes in the presence of NADH, NADPH, or their recycling systems. The glucose dehydrogenase-based recycling system yielded the best results in most cases, with a product yield of up to 99 % and enantiopurity of >99 % ee. Achr-OYE4 is an important addition to the asymmetric reduction reservoir as an "old yellow enzyme" from Achromobacter.

  16. Hypogean pseudoscorpions (Arachnida) from Jaén province (Andalusia, Spain), with descriptions of four new species and a new synonymy.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Juan A; Pérez, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Four new hypogean species are described from the Jaén province (southern Spain): Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) espa- nyoli sp. nov., C. (E.) giennensis sp. nov., C. (E.) villacarrillo sp. nov. and Neobisium (Ommatoblothrus) perezruizi sp. nov. New records are given for the species Chthonius (E.) cazorlensis, C. (E.) perezi, C. (E.) tetrachelatus, Neobisium (O.) perezi, Microcreagrella caeca caeca and Allochernes masi. Chthonius (E.) verai and C. (E.) minutus are removed from the list of the Andalusian fauna. A new synonymy is proposed: Neobisium (O.) gev Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011, is a junior subjective synonym of N. (O.) perezi Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011.

  17. Time to face the challenge of multimorbidity. A European perspective from the joint action on chronic diseases and promoting healthy ageing across the life cycle (JA-CHRODIS).

    PubMed

    Onder, Graziano; Palmer, Katie; Navickas, Rokas; Jurevičienė, Elena; Mammarella, Federica; Strandzheva, Mirela; Mannucci, Piermannuccio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Marengoni, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    Research on multimorbidity has rapidly increased in the last decade, but evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve outcomes in patients with multimorbidity is limited. The European Commission is co-funding a large collaborative project named Joint Action on Chronic Diseases and Promoting Healthy Ageing across the Life Cycle (JA-CHRODIS) in the context of the 2nd EU Health Programme 2008-2013. The present manuscript summarizes first results of the JA-CHRODIS, focuses on the identification of a population with multimorbidity who has a high or very high care demand. Identification of characteristics of multimorbid patients associated with a high rate of resource consumption and negative health outcomes is necessary to define a target population who can benefit from interventions. Indeed, multimorbidity alone cannot explain the complexity of care needs and further, stratification of the general population based on care needs is necessary for allocating resources and developing personalized, cost-efficient, and patient-centered care plans. Based on analyses of large databases from European countries a profile of the most care-demanding patients with multimorbidity is defined. Several factors associated with adverse health outcomes and resource consumption among patients with multimorbidity were identified in these analyses, including disease patterns, physical function, mental health, and socioeconomic status. These results underline that a global assessment is needed to identify patients with multimorbidity who are at risk of negative health outcomes and that a comprehensive approach, targeting not only diseases, but also social, cognitive, and functional problems should be adopted for these patients. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer

  19. Re-analysis results using medians of the data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Omori, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay were reported and analyzed statistically using the simple means of % tail DNA. However, OECD test guideline TG 489 recommends use of the median for data analysis due to the hierarchical nature of the data. Comparison between the simple mean approach and the median based approach for positive/negative/equivocal chemical calls was conducted using the % tail DNA data for the 40 chemicals tested in the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, using liver and stomach as target organs. In the liver, two genotoxic chemicals, o-anisidine and 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate, were positive using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach, and two genotoxic chemicals, 2-acetylaminofluorene and busulfan were equivocal using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach. In contrast, cadmium chloride (genotoxic carcinogen) was equivocal in both organs using the median based approach, while positive and equivocal in liver and stomach, respectively, using the simple mean approach. Two data sets of sodium arsenite showed equivocal and negative results for liver using the median based approach, although both data sets were equivocal using the simple mean approach. Overall, there are no large differences in terms of the genotoxic call between both approaches. However, the median based approach recommended in OECD TG 489 has an advantage toward higher precision within the groups treated with a test chemical, whereas the approach might show the lower values for the effect.

  20. OsTGAP1 is responsible for JA-inducible diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice roots with biological impacts on allelopathic interaction.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuri; Miyamoto, Koji; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nishizawa, Yoko; Minami, Eiichi; Nojiri, Hideaki; Okada, Kazunori

    2017-08-30

    Phytocassanes and momilactones are known as major diterpenoid phytoalexins (DPs), characterized by abundant production and antimicrobial activity and their biosynthetic genes are clustered in rice genomes. The basic leucine zipper transcription factor OsTGAP1 is known to act as a regulator of the coordinated production of DPs in cultured rice cells, but the in planta functions of OsTGAP1 remain largely unknown. Here, we present evidence on the biological function of OsTGAP1 in planta. In wild-type plants, OsTGAP1 is abundantly expressed in roots compared to that in shoots. Moreover, the inductive expression of OsTGAP1 under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment was only observed in a root-specific manner consistent with the JA-inductive expressions of DP biosynthetic genes in roots. In reverse genetic approaches on OsTGAP1 overexpressing and ostgap1 knockdown plants, expressions of the biosynthetic genes relevant for DP accumulation were found to be remarkably increased and decreased, respectively. Reporter analysis in planta revealed that OsTGAP1 activated the promoters of OsDXS3 and momilactone biosynthetic gene OsKSL4, presumably through binding to the TGACGT motif. Furthermore, co-cultivation experiments with barnyardgrass suggested that the allelopathic effect of knockdown and overexpression of OsTGAP1 was significantly changed compared to the controls. These results demonstrate that OsTGAP1 positively regulates DP accumulation via transcriptional regulation of DP biosynthetic genes in rice roots, and this is indispensable for maintaining of allelopathic interactions with paddy weeds by regulating the production of specialized metabolites like momilactones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  2. Hydrogeological research on intensively exploited deep aquifers in the `Loma de Úbeda' area (Jaén, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Ramón, Antonio; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Gollonet, Javier

    2013-06-01

    The intensive use of groundwater for irrigation in the area of Úbeda (`Loma de Úbeda', Jaén, southern Spain) has transformed an area of traditionally rain-fed dry farmland into fields with some of the highest olive oil productivity in the world. Early hydrogeological research studies, initiated just after the beginning of the groundwater exploitation, revealed that the water was collected from three different overlapping aquifers occupying an area of over 1,100 km2, with the lower aquifers located at depths from 300 to over 700 m in an area of 440 km2. Multidisciplinary research, based on geological characterization, and piezometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, has led to a conceptual model of functioning in this complex hydrogeological system. The proposed model allows for the identification of the recharge areas, and the discharge, which is at present mainly associated with the groundwater pumping. Areas of mixing of waters from the different aquifers and the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality are described.

  3. p-Chloroaniline, t-butylhydroquinone, and methyl carbamate: Rat in vivo comet test, JaCVAM trial phase 4.2.

    PubMed

    Barfield, William; Burlinson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined p-Chloroaniline, t-butylhydroquinone, and methyl carbamate. All test materials and controls were dosed orally by gavage. p-Chloroaniline produced a statistically significant increase in the mean and median % tail intensity which was also outside of the historical control range in the liver and stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats. t-Butylhydroquinone caused a statistically significant increase in the mean % tail intensity in the liver and stomach and a statistically significant increase in the median % tail intensity in the liver; however, these results are not considered to be biologically significant as all values obtained fell within the current vehicle historical control range and within the negative control range for mean % tail intensity set by the Validation Management Team (VMT) as a requirement for an acceptable assay. Methyl carbamate did not induce a statistically significant change in the mean or median % tail intensity in either liver or stomach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Java Tomography System (JaTS), a Seismic Tomography Software Using Fresnel Volumes, a Fast Marching Eikonal Solver and a Probabilistic Reconstruction Method: Conclusive Synthetic Test Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Sandrine; Grandjean, Gilles; Verly, Jacques

    Problems related to landscape management, natural hazards and civil engineering involve subsurface structures that can be delineated by geophysical imaging. Seismic tomography can accurately characterize a medium according to its velocity variations. Traditional seismic travel time tomography based on ray-tracing methods assumes that the waves frequency is infinite. Therefore, only the medium located along the ray path has an impact on the wave propagation. In subsurface tomography, the infinite frequency assumption does not hold, as targets have about the same size as the wavelength. The seismic waves propagation is affected not only by the medium along the shortest travel time path but also by the medium located in its vicinity. In this study, Fresnel volumes are used to determine the medium affecting the wave propagation given the seismic waves frequency. The choice of the travel time computation and reconstruction methods determines the overall efficiency and soundness of the tomography process. In this research, a second order Fast Marching eikonal solver is used for computing travel times. The Fast Marching Method is an original approach that propagates a monotonously expanding wave front in a medium. It is fast, reliable and easy to implement in both 2D and 3D. An innovative probabilistic approach enables the iterative reconstruction process based upon Fresnel volumes. This study compares the performances of JaTS, our java Fresnel volume tomography software to those of Sardine, a ray-tracing tomography software, over an unfavourable synthetic case.

  5. Simulated herbivory in chickpea causes rapid changes in defense pathways and hormonal transcription networks of JA/ethylene/GA/auxin within minutes of wounding

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Saurabh Prakash; Srivastava, Shruti; Goel, Ridhi; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Priya; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P.

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ −1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0.05. In silico analysis showed the activation of defenses through up-regulation of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, pathogenesis, oxidases and CYTP450 besides differential regulation of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors of the WRKY, MYB, ERFs, bZIP families. A substantial change in the regulation of hormonal networks was observed with up-regulation of JA and ethylene pathways and suppression of growth associated hormone pathways like GA and auxin within 20 minutes of wounding. Secondary qPCR comparison of selected genes showed that oral secretions often increased differential expression relative to mechanical damage alone. The studies provide new insights into early wound responses in chickpea. PMID:28300183

  6. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.; Plasil, R.; Glosik, J.; Gerlich, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of the N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.

  7. Simulated herbivory in chickpea causes rapid changes in defense pathways and hormonal transcription networks of JA/ethylene/GA/auxin within minutes of wounding.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh Prakash; Srivastava, Shruti; Goel, Ridhi; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Priya; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P

    2017-03-16

    Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ -1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0.05. In silico analysis showed the activation of defenses through up-regulation of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, pathogenesis, oxidases and CYTP450 besides differential regulation of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors of the WRKY, MYB, ERFs, bZIP families. A substantial change in the regulation of hormonal networks was observed with up-regulation of JA and ethylene pathways and suppression of growth associated hormone pathways like GA and auxin within 20 minutes of wounding. Secondary qPCR comparison of selected genes showed that oral secretions often increased differential expression relative to mechanical damage alone. The studies provide new insights into early wound responses in chickpea.

  8. Prevalence of total knee arthroplasty and its predictive factors in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Analysis using the NinJa cohort.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Tetsuro; Nishino, Jinju; Shoda, Naoko; Koizumi, Yasuhiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Kadono, Yuho; Tanaka, Sakae; Tohma, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and the predictive factors for undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The data of 1,134 patients with RA who were enrolled in the Japanese nationwide cohort database NinJa in 2003 and consecutively followed up until 2009 were analyzed. Seventy-six patients underwent TKA during the observation period. The yearly progression of the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire or mHAQ score from 2003 to 2004, but not the yearly progression of the Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints or DAS28 or patient visual analog scale (VAS) score, was significantly higher in the patients who underwent TKA than those who did not. Multivariate analysis showed that knee involvement in the disease, high Steinbrocker stage (III or IV), and high patient VAS score at the time of enrollment were powerful predictive factors, with hazard ratios of 4.01, 3.71, and 1.20, respectively. According to survival analysis with TKA as an endpoint, patients with knee involvement in the disease at the time of enrollment had a significantly worse 5-year survival rate than did those without knee involvement (83.5% vs. 97.0%, respectively). Several factors were elucidated as predictive factors for undergoing TKA among patients with RA.

  9. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and administration of RA-related drugs in patients with RA: The NinJa 2012 study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saisho, Koichiro; Yoshikawa, Norie; Sugata, Ko; Hamada, Hiroaki; Tohma, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the administration of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic-drugs (DMARDs), using data from the National Database of Rheumatic Disease by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) 2012 study. From a total of 11,940 RA patients, 7135 who underwent an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) test were studied. Renal dysfunction staging was assessed using Japanese eGFR equations and classified according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. The prevalence of GFR stages was as follows: stage G1, 25.4%; stage G2, 55.9%; stage G3, 17.5%; stage G4, 0.8%; and stage G5, 0.2%. Overall, 92.7% of patients received at least one DMARD. Sulfasalazine, tacrolimus, and biologics (except inflixmab) were administered in all GFR stages. Methotrexate was not prescribed in patients with stage G5, but methotrexate 3.5 mg/week (mean) was prescribed in four patients (6.8%) with stage G4. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids were prescribed in 40.5% and 43.7% of patients, respectively. The prevalence of kidney disease in this large sample of RA patients was higher than that in the general population, and the results suggest that RA patients with renal dysfunction require careful drug selection.

  10. Physical and metabolic interactions of Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 during growth on crude oil and effect of a chemical surfactant on them.

    PubMed

    Van Hamme, J D; Ward, O P

    2001-10-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-microm cocci rather than 2.5-microm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects.

  11. Physical and Metabolic Interactions of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain F9-D79 during Growth on Crude Oil and Effect of a Chemical Surfactant on Them

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Ward, Owen P.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-μm cocci rather than 2.5-μm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects. PMID:11571196

  12. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity.

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M; De Tissera, Sashini; Segovia, Simón; Mitchell, Wayne; Land, Miriam L; Dassanayake, Asela; Köpke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  14. [Intentional roundings in general medical practice: the experience of the Azienda Ospedali Riuniti Marche Nord (Italy).

    PubMed

    Frassini, Serena; Giovannini, Donatella; Gargiulo, Mariarosaria; Warid, Amina; Tonucci, Sonia; Capalbo, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The "intentional roundings" are planned rounds, conducted at regular intervals by nursing staff to anticipate care, comfort, hospitality and psychological needs of hospitalized users. These purposes are achieved with a structured way to make observations and carry out activities for well-being and patient safety, documenting what was done with a structured ad hoc form. In the United Kingdom, as well as in the USA, intentional rounding is an established model of care that improve the safety of provided care, to reduce the occurrence of preventable events, address proactively basic caring needs, and that increase users and staff satisfaction. Implementing in a medical pilot unit the care model named "intentional rounding". The care team carried intentional rounds every two hours, in a systematic and documented manner. All patients received admission informations about the organizational method and were invited to participate by completing a satisfaction questionnaire at discharge. At the end of the experimental period organizational impact have been investigated, specifically users and hospital staff satisfaction. About privacy, courtesy, nurse support and quality of care provided, level of satisfaction of patients and caregivers reached high percentage of approval (90-99%). Nurses and other healthcare personnel have perceived they delivered either a safer and most satisfying healthcare (90-94%) as well as inter- and intra-professional dynamics communications (95%). Value of roundings have been less appreciated concerning the optimization about the worktime management (79%). Calls to the bell have had a notable change of their reasons unlikely about the quantity. Intentional roundings affects very positively to users satisfaction level and to the perception of the quality of care provided; the care team, though express the need to make some changes for a real implementation, recognize the proactivity of intentional roundings as an added value.

  15. Impacts potentiels d'un changement climatique sur le pergelisol dans le nord canadien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obretin, Calin

    This thesis explores the potential impacts of a climate change due to the greenhouse gases on the state and the evolution of the permafrost in the Canadian North. The permafrost represents the half of the Canadian national territory and a change of its current state will echo in all spheres of activity, on the biosphere and on the environment generally. In spite of the evident importance of the subject, there is no precise idea as to how the permafrost will react to the climate change and to what extent the frozen layer will be disrupted. This thesis investigates this problem by using a methodological approach inspired by the Canadian model on the evolution of permafrost (TTOP) coupled with a theoretical approach based on the theory of the complex neuronal systems. The general objective of this thesis is to improve the Canadian model of evolution of permafrost (TTOP-Temperature one the Top Of Permafrost) created by Smith and Riseborough in 1996, its structure of computation, spatial resolution and to determine the state of the permafrost in the study area between 2010 and 2100. The study zone is situated in the Mackenzie Basin (N-W.T) on a north-south transect of 1440 by 720 km. The first objective of the research is to derive maps of the annual values of temperature on the top of the permafrost from 2010 to 2100 by using an improved dynamic model of the evolution of permafrost (TTOP-A). Thereafter, these values are compared with those obtained by Smith and Riseborough (1996). The values of the evolution of air temperature for this period are supplied by the climatic scenarios CGCM32 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1. Secondly, this thesis has as an objective the production of the maps of the thickness of permafrost for 2100 with a spatial resolution of 25 km. More exactly, we determine the evolution of the values of thickness of permafrost for the three climatic scenarios mentioned above. Furthermore, the study proposes: i) a new method for downscaling of climate data by using a Determined Stochastic Model, ii) the integration of soil type, iii) the integration of the soil humidity, iv) the integration of the values of thickness of the snow layer and v) the integration of remote sensing data (SSM/I). As a rule, the results obtained by the TTOP-A model reveal that the mean values of temperature at the surface of the permafrost follow closely the values of air temperature and that they are similar to those found by Smith and Riseborough (1996) and Heginbottom and coll. (1995). Also, the differences of the values of temperature on the surface of permafrost between 2010 and 2100 are similar to the values published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Concerning the second objective of this thesis, the spatio-temporal dynamics of the permafrost until 2100 demonstrates that, in the study zone, the surface perturbed by global warming will be 37 %, 60 % and 29 % according to the scenarios CGCM3 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1 respectively. The permafrost layer inside this zone will disappear by 20 %, 32 % and 18 % according to the scenarios mentioned before. These results lead us to believe that the estimations made by Smith and Riseborough were overvalued in the context of two of three current climates scenarios compared to that of the 1996. Finally, this study demonstrates that the method of downscaling of climate data using the neuronal network within a Determined Stochastic Model gives good results and it represents a reliable option which lends itself to large-scale generalizations. Keywords: permafrost, downscaling, snow, soil humidity, climate scenarios, neuronal network, Determined Stochastic Model, climate change, CGCM3, TTOP. 2The third generation Coupled Global Climate Model [CCCma, 2010].

  16. Citrus leprosis virus C Infection Results in Hypersensitive-Like Response, Suppression of the JA/ET Plant Defense Pathway and Promotion of the Colonization of Its Mite Vector

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Gabriella D.; Ramos-González, Pedro L.; Nunes, Maria A.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Camargo, Luis E. A.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Machado, Marcos A.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Leprosis is a serious disease of citrus caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, genus Cilevirus) whose transmission is mediated by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions around the feeding sites of viruliferous mites. To get insight into this unusual pathosystem, we evaluated the expression profiles of genes involved in defense mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis upon infestation with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites by using reverse-transcription qPCR. These results were analyzed together with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the appearance of dead cells as assessed by histochemical assays. After interaction with non-viruliferous mites, plants locally accumulated ROS and triggered the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. ERF branch of the JA/ET pathways was highly activated. In contrast, JA pathway genes were markedly suppressed upon the CiLV-C infection mediated by viruliferous mites. Viral infection also intensified the ROS burst and cell death, and enhanced the expression of genes involved in the RNA silencing mechanism and SA pathway. After 13 days of infestation of two sets of Arabidopsis plants with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites, the number of mites in the CiLV-C infected Arabidopsis plants was significantly higher than in those infested with the non-viruliferous ones. Oviposition of the viruliferous mites occurred preferentially in the CiLV-C infected leaves. Based on these results, we postulated the first model of plant/Brevipalpus mite/cilevirus interaction in which cells surrounding the feeding sites of viruliferous mites typify the outcome of a hypersensitive-like response, whereas viral infection induces changes in the behavior of its vector. PMID:27933078

  17. Induced Systemic Resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus cereus AR156 through a JA/ET- and NPR1-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Activates PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nie, Pingping; Li, Xia; Wang, Shune; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei; Niu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Induced resistance response is a potent and cost effective plant defense against pathogen attack. The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus cereus AR156 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis has been investigated previously; however, the strength of induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity against Botrytis cinerea remains unknown. Here, we show that root-drench application of AR156 significantly reduces disease incidence through activation of ISR. This protection is accompanied with multilayered ISR defense response activated via enhanced accumulation of PR1 protein expression in a timely manner, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition, which is significantly more intense in plants with both AR156 pretreatment and B. cinerea inoculation than that in plants with pathogen inoculation only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger ISR in sid2-2 and NahG mutants, but not in jar1, ein2 and npr1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced ISR depends on JA/ET-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not SA. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1/WRKY53 gene expression, both of which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The results indicate that AR156 can induce ISR by the JA/ET-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components.

  18. Nicotiana attenuata MPK4 suppresses a novel jasmonic acid (JA) signaling-independent defense pathway against the specialist insect Manduca sexta, but is not required for the resistance to the generalist Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2013-08-01

    How plants tailor their defense responses to attack from different insects remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MPK4, in the resistance of a wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to two herbivores, the specialist Manduca sexta and the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in MPK4 (irMPK4) were generated and characterized for traits important for defense against herbivores. Only the oral secretions (OS) from M. sexta, but not the OS from S. littoralis or mechanical wounding, induced elevated levels of jasmonic acid (JA) in irMPK4 plants relative to the wild-type plants. Moreover, silencing of MPK4 strongly increased the resistance of N. attenuata to M. sexta in a fashion that was independent of COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1)-mediated JA signaling. Untargeted metabolomic screening identified several new MPK4-dependent putative defensive compounds against M. sexta. By contrast, silencing of MPK4 did not affect the growth of the generalist insect S. littoralis, and we propose that this was because of the very low levels of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in S. littoralis OS. Thus, MPK4 is likely to be a key signaling element that enables plants to tailor defense responses to different attackers. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) improved anti-adipogenic activity associated with the oxidative stress system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-11

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  20. Induced Systemic Resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus cereus AR156 through a JA/ET- and NPR1-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Activates PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Pingping; Li, Xia; Wang, Shune; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei; Niu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Induced resistance response is a potent and cost effective plant defense against pathogen attack. The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus cereus AR156 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis has been investigated previously; however, the strength of induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity against Botrytis cinerea remains unknown. Here, we show that root-drench application of AR156 significantly reduces disease incidence through activation of ISR. This protection is accompanied with multilayered ISR defense response activated via enhanced accumulation of PR1 protein expression in a timely manner, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition, which is significantly more intense in plants with both AR156 pretreatment and B. cinerea inoculation than that in plants with pathogen inoculation only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger ISR in sid2-2 and NahG mutants, but not in jar1, ein2 and npr1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced ISR depends on JA/ET-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not SA. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1/WRKY53 gene expression, both of which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The results indicate that AR156 can induce ISR by the JA/ET-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components. PMID:28293243

  1. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties. PMID:23344050

  2. Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Martus, Hans-Joerg

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treated groups liver and stomach showed significantly elevated DNA damage at each dose level and a significant dose-response relationship. 2,6-diaminotoluene induced significantly elevated DNA damage in the liver at each dose and a statistically significant dose-response relationship whereas no DNA damage was obtained in the stomach. 5-fluorouracil did not induce DNA damage in either liver or stomach.

  3. Four new species of Pomphopsilla Jałoszyński and a new record of Cephennodes glabella Castellini in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-04-07

    Four new species of the genus Pomphopsilla Jałoszyński are described, all based on specimens collected in the north-eastern part of DR Congo: P. pygmaea sp. n., P. pseudosoror sp. n., P. similis sp. n., and P. gumovskyi sp. n. Previously Pomphopsilla, represented by two species, was known to occur in Kenya; the only genera of Cephenniini recorded from DR Congo were Cephennodes Reitter and Cephennomicrus Reitter. Cephennodes (s. str.) glabella Castellini, so far known only from the type series, is recorded from the same region of Congo, based on numerous specimens collected by yellow pan traps. Because figures in the original description of this species were relatively schematic, the aedeagus and modifications of the head in the male are illustrated.

  4. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes.

  5. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Ediacaran Jaíba Formation, Upper Bambuí Group, Brazil: Insights into Paleogeography and Sedimentary Environments after a Neoproterozoic Glaciation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caxito, F.; Uhlein, G. J.; Sial, A. N.; Uhlein, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe, leading to a number of controversial hypotheses (e.g. the Snowball Earth glaciations). In eastern Brazil, the Bambuí Gr. is a thick carbonatic-siliciclastic unit that covers the São Francisco Craton and preserves remnants of a Neoproterozoic glaciation and their respective cap carbonate (1). Recent findings of Cloudina in the Januária region (2) suggest that at least part of the sequence might be upper Ediacaran or even Cambrian. Here we present the first carbon-oxygen isotope data for the Jaíba Fm., a ca. 50 m thick carbonate unit that occurs in the topmost portion of the Bambuí Gr. in this same region. The Jaíba Fm. post-dates the cap carbonate sequence and the fossil-bearing layers, and thus was probably deposited in the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. Three stratigraphic columns were analyzed, and yielded similar ratios. Values of δ13CVPDB are between 0.8 and 3.4 ‰, while δ18OVPDB values are mostly around -8 ‰. These values contrasts with the negative δ13C values found for the base of the Bambuí Gr., followed by highly positive δ13C (up to +14‰) on its middle portion. The unusually high δ13C values are commonly interpreted as evidence for deposition on a restricted basin, such as in a foreland setting. The return to values which are close to the PDB standard in the uppermost Bambuí Gr. might thus indicate a change in the paleogeography and tectonic environment of the basin, suggesting an open, ventilated environment along with a recovery of the biological and hydrological cycle after a Late Neoproterozoic glaciation. Ongoing detailed sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic work might help to further clarify these issues and to provide new clues for unraveling Late Neoproterozoic paleoclimate, paleogeography and ocean chemistry. We thank FAPEMIG (Brazil) for finnacial support through grants n. APQ-00914-14 and PPM

  6. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity.

  7. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study.

  8. Necessity of a Security Barrier in the Nord Kivu and Ituri Border Provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    the Combined Arms Research Library is a limiting factor. In his research, he has also been limited by a lack of experience with the English language...served a single strategic purpose for 2000 years. It has a construction history that illustrates successive advances in defense techniques and adaptation...to changing political contexts. The Great Wall has an incomparable symbolic significance in the history of China. Its purpose was to protect China

  9. Indian and Northern Affairs Annual Report, 1976-1977. Affaires Indiennes et du Nord Rapport Annuel, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The report presents information on Indian and northern affairs in the areas of education, economics, Native claims, social and cultural development, conservation, and community development. Discussed are the Parks Canada Program which preserves Canada's natural and human heritage by means of national and historic parks and sites, and conservation…

  10. Cout direct hospitalier des accidents vasculaires cérébraux à Parakou au nord du Benin

    PubMed Central

    Adoukonou, Thierry; Kouna-Ndouongo, Philomène; Codjia, Jean-Mannix; Covi, Richmine; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, Francis; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Houinato, Dismand

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les accidents vasculaires cérébraux constituent un véritable problème de santé publique en Afrique avec une charge importante. Les données fiables sur sa réelle charge économique sont rares en Afrique. L'objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer le coût direct hospitalier des AVC à Parakou au Bénin. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale économique ayant inclus des patients hospitalisés pour un AVC à l'hôpital de Parakou entre le 1er Juin 2010 au 31Mai 2011. Les données concernant les différents postes de consommation ont été collectées selon la méthode dite bottom-up. Le coût était envisagé du point de vue de la société et du patient. L'unité du coût était le franc CFA (valeur en 2011). Une régression linéaire multiple était utilisée pour déterminer les meilleurs prédicteurs du coût. Résultats Ils étaient 78 patients dont 52 hommes, âgés en moyenne de 57 ans ± 10.9. Le NIHSS moyen était de 14,4. Le taux de mortalité était de 20,5%. Le coût direct moyen était de 316.810,3 (±230.774,8) F CFA (environ 704 ± 512 Euros). Les grands postes de consommation étaient les explorations paracliniques (34.3%) les soins et médicaments (28.4%) et les frais d'hospitalisation (17.9%). Les meilleurs prédicteurs du coût élevé étaient un AVC hémorragique, un NIHSS élevé à l'admission et une longue durée d'hospitalisation. Conclusion Cette étude suggère un coût élevé de la prise en charge actuelle des AVC à Parakou. PMID:24839529

  11. Does high blood pressure reduce the risk of chronic low back pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Heuch, I; Heuch, I; Hagen, K; Zwart, J A

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested inverse relationships between blood pressure and prevalence of conditions such as migraine and headache. It is not yet clear whether similar relationships can be established for back pain in particular in prospective studies. Associations between blood pressure and chronic low back pain were explored in the cross-sectional HUNT 2 survey of a Norwegian county in 1995-1997, including 39,872 individuals who never used antihypertensive medication. A prospective study, comprising 17,209 initially back pain-free individuals and 5740 individuals reporting low back pain, was established by re-examinations in the HUNT 3 survey in 2006-2008. Associations were assessed by logistic regression with respect to systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure, with adjustment for education, work status, physical activity, smoking, body mass and lipid levels. In the cross-sectional study, all three blood pressure measures showed inverse relationships with prevalence of low back pain in both sexes. In the prospective study of disease-free women, baseline pulse pressure and systolic pressure were inversely associated with risk of low back pain [odds ratio (OR) 0.93 per 10 mm Hg increase in pulse pressure, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.98, p = 0.007; OR 0.95 per 10 mm Hg increase in systolic pressure, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p = 0.005]. Results among men were equivocal. No associations were indicated with the occurrence of pain in individuals with low back pain at baseline. Results for low back pain are consistent with the theory of hypertension-associated hypalgesia, predicting diminished pain sensitivity with increasing blood pressure, possibly with modified reactions in people suffering from long-lasting pain. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  12. Depression in older cat and dog owners: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)-3.

    PubMed

    Enmarker, Ingela; Hellzén, Ove; Ekker, Knut; Berg, Anne-Grethe T

    2015-01-01

    Depression constitutes a major health problem for older people, in this study defined as people 65 years of age and older. Previous studies have shown that mental health among older people who live with animals could be improved, but contrary results exist as well. Therefore, the objective of the present population study was to compare the self-rated depression symptoms of both female and male non-pet owners, cat owners, and dog owners. The participants in this cross-sectional population study included 12,093 people between the ages of 65 and 101. One thousand and eighty three participants owned cats and 814 participants owned dogs. Self-rated depression symptoms were measured using HADS-D, the scale of self-administered depression symptoms in HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The main results showed higher mean values on the HADS-D for cat owners than for both dog and non-pet owners. The latter group rated their depression symptoms the lowest. When dividing the ratings into low- and high-depression symptoms, the logistic regression analysis showed that it was more likely that males who owned cats perceived lower depression symptoms than females who owned cats. No interactions were recognized between pet ownership and subjective general health status, loneliness, or marital status. Our results provide a window into the differences in health factors between older females and males who own cats and dogs in rural areas. RESULTS from population studies like ours might increase the available knowledge base when using cats and dogs in clinical environments such as nursing homes.

  13. Salinisation des nappes côtières : cas de la nappe nord du Sahel de Sfax, Tunisie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, Rouaida; Zaïri, Moncef; Smida, Habib; Ben Dhia, Hamed

    2005-04-01

    The intensive agricultural and economic activities induce the increase of the risk of groundwater quality degradation through high groundwater pumping rates. The salinization and contamination are the main sources of this pollution, especially in coastal aquifers. The explanation of the origin of salinity for the shallow aquifer of Northern Sahel of Sfax was analysed by a chemical study of the groundwater main compounds. The partitioning of groundwaters into homogenous groups is undertaken by graphical techniques, including a Stiff pattern diagram, an expanded Durov diagram and several binary diagrams. The study indicates the presence of various salinization processes. In the recharge area, salinization is the result of dissolution/precipitation of the aquifer formation material (group I). The irrigation water return and the intensive pumping have been identified as major sources of salinization in the south by direct cation exchange and mixing reactions (groups II and III). The anomaly of high groundwater salinity observed near the Hazeg zone was explained by the presence of a seawater intrusion in this area. This hypothesis is related to the high chloride concentration, to the presence of inverse cation exchange reactions (group IV), and to the piezometric level inferior to sea level. To cite this article: R. Trabelsi et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  14. Seismic Site Characterization Techniques Applied to the NATO RSG-11 Test Site in Muenster Nord, Federal Republic of Germany,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    see NATO (1981). rarely undertaken in site surveys. SH waves are recorded (i.e. with the source at both ends of the used instead of shear- vertical (SV... vertical geophones as re- method can be extended to include the more ceivers and a downward blow from a sledge complicated case of multilayered...being 1 and 10 m, respec- val between takeouts was used to connect the 12 tively. Note that the velocity of the deepest lay- Mark Products vertical

  15. Indian and Northern Affairs Annual Report, 1976-1977. Affaires Indiennes et du Nord Rapport Annuel, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The report presents information on Indian and northern affairs in the areas of education, economics, Native claims, social and cultural development, conservation, and community development. Discussed are the Parks Canada Program which preserves Canada's natural and human heritage by means of national and historic parks and sites, and conservation…

  16. A Community Documents Its History: A Brief Account of the Shaker Historical Society and the Elizabeth Nord Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Bonnie J.

    This paper provides a detailed account of the inception and growth both of the Shaker Historical Society and its museum and library in Shaker Heights, Ohio. It analyzes secondary sources of information and history, primary sources such as eyewitness accounts, records, annual reports, unpublished histories, and museum circulation records. Library…

  17. Etude de la variabilite climatique des hautes latitudes nord, derivee d'observations satellites micro-ondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialon, Arnaud

    Observing sub-polar ecosystems is important as they are suspected to change significantly in response to the expected increase in temperature for the next decades. To bypass the lack of meteorological stations in the Northern High Latitudes, remote sensing is an interesting alternative tool, covering almost the entire area. This project deals with the development of a method to derive surface parameters (>50°N) from satellite data. For this study, brightness temperature data acquired by the SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in the microwave spectrum are used because they are independent of solar radiation and weakly influenced by the atmosphere. Methods used are based on brightness temperatures measured at 19 and 37 GHz, which allow to derive three geophysical parameters related to climate variability: daily maps of snowcover between 1988 and 2002; a water surface extent (open water, small lakes, reservoirs, wetlands associated with low vegetation); a temperature characterizing the surface and the air above the ground. A method to normalize the temperature is presented to overcome the variation of the time of measurement. It leads to hourly series of temperature, This allows to study climate indicators such as the annual sum of positive degree days. Trends confirm observed climate evolution: increase of surface temperature (+0.8 +/- 0.4°C for Canada/Alaska between 1992 and 2002), decrease in snow extent cover. These original databases could also be useful for validation of regional climate model. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  19. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  20. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  1. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  2. Comment on “Comparison of the composition of the Tempel 1 ejecta to the dust in Comet C/Hale Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546” by C.M. Lisse, K.E. Kraemer, J.A. Nuth III, A. Li, D. Joswiak [2007. Icarus 187, 69 86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovisier, Jacques; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique

    2008-06-01

    Lisse et al. [Lisse, C.M., Kraemer, K.E., Nuth III, J.A., Li, A., Joswiak, D., 2007. Icarus 187, 69-86] recently presented a new analysis of an ISO spectrum of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), from which they claimed the identification of many new dust species. Among them are PAHs, which were not found in our first analysis of the ISO spectra. We present here a re-examination of the ISO observations of Comet Hale-Bopp. From the absence of PAHs features in the 5.25-8.5 μm region, we infer that PAHs are at least twice less abundant than derived by Lisse et al. The carbonate feature at 7.00 μm is marginally present, but lower by a factor 2 to 3 than predicted by the model of Lisse et al.

  3. Rebuttal to “Comment on the paper “Comparison of the composition of the Tempel 1 ejecta to the dust in Comet C/Hale Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546” by C.M. Lisse, K.E. Kraemer, J.A. Nuth III, A. Li, and D. Joswiak"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, C. M.

    2008-06-01

    This response is to address the comments made by Drs. J. Crovisier and D. Bockelee-Morvan concerning the spectral analysis of Lisse et al. [Lisse, C.M., Kraemer, K.E., Nuth, J.A., Li, A., Joswiak, D., 2007. Icarus 187, 69-86] of the mid-IR ISO SWS spectrum of Comet Hale-Bopp 1995 O1 taken on October 6, 1996, and to support the conclusions made in Lisse et al. concerning the positive detection of PAHs in this comet. We also present some additional information determined from the Deep Impact and STARDUST missions, demonstrating the presence of PAHs in other comets, to support the plausibility of the Hale-Bopp PAH detection.

  4. Evaluation of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylphenol sodium salt, and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the rat comet assay as part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; van der Leede, Bas-jan; De Vlieger, Kathleen; Geys, Helena; Vynckier, An; Van Gompel, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPD), o-phenylphenol sodium salt (OPP), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were analyzed in this laboratory as coded test chemicals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of the test compounds, 24 and 21 h apart and liver and stomach were sampled 3h after the final dose administration. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage were observed in liver and stomach with PPD and OPP up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-DAT, a known genotoxic carcinogen, induced a weak but reproducible, dose-related and statistically significant increase in DNA damage in liver cells while no increases were observed in stomach cells.

  5. Do Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels Increase the Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP), but it is not known if there is any causal relationship. Objective The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP), both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline. Methods Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008) surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30–69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP. Results Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85–1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94–1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides)). Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95 per mmol/l). Conclusion Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a higher pain intensity. PMID:25233233

  6. Analyse dendroecologique et dendroclimatique des gisements de bois de lacs de la taiga de l'est de l'Amerique du Nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, Fabio

    The aim of this thesis was to reconstruct ecological processes and climate change in the taiga of Quebec over the last two millennia to understand factors that have strongly influenced the evolution of this majestic region. To obtain the finest spatial and temporal resolution in our analysis, we used annual growth rings of subfossil logs collected in six lakes as paleoecological and paleoclimatic proxies. Deposits of subfossil logs determine the structure of lake littoral ecosystems and support their food webs. Moreover, they may represent long-term carbon sinks. In the first chapter of the thesis, we described present-day stocks of subfossil logs in the selected littoral zones and established log residence time in the lakes by tree-ring or radio carbon dating. Dating also allowed precise identification of each fire that burned the riparian forests during the last millennium. This chapter showed that interactions between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the taiga are strongly influenced by wildfires whose effects can persist for centuries because of strong postfire reductions of log recruitments in lakes. At a local scale, the amount of logs and carbon preserved in littoral stocks depends on the fire history of the last millennium that is specific to each site. At a regional scale, wildfires limit significantly the amount of carbon sequestered in littoral stocks of logs. These stocks represent a negligible fraction of the total taiga carbon storage despite the abundance of lakes and the long residence time of littoral logs (up to five millennia for buried logs). In the second chapter, we combined a detailed inventory of the present-day riparian forest situated along the shoreline of two lakes with the tree-ring dating of the subfossil logs accumulated in the littoral zones facing these shores. Our objective was to determine whether changes in current riparian forest structure and composition within a given site could be attributed to different fire histories over the last millennium and to show the impacts of past fires on tree mortality, density and growth. Using our impressive paleoecological dataset (n = 1037 logs) in combination with our present-day forest inventory, we were able to reconstruct millennial forest dynamics with an unprecedented high spatial (few hundreds of square meters) and temporal (annual) resolution. Our findings help explain how the present-day landscape diversity in the taiga reflects the fire history of the last millennium, which varies from site to site. Fires have caused persistent and cumulative impacts resulting in a progressive opening of the forest coyer along with exclusion of balsam fir, a fire-sensitive tree species. The taiga landscape is a mosaic of forest stands characterized by different times since fire and different postfire forest structure trajectories. In the third chapter, we used our network of millennial tree-ring chronologies developed from the collected subfossil logs to pro duce a regional reconstruction of July-August temperatures over the last 1100 years. Our network filled a wide gap in the north-hemispheric network of paleoclimate proxies with annual resolution used for temperature reconstructions of the last millennium (see IPCC report). Moreover, our reconstruction provided direct field evidence that the climate of Northeastern North America is particularly sensitive to volcanic forcing. Indeed, successive large eruptions triggered the beginning of cold episodes in the study area that persisted for decades. In particular, two series of eruptions, centered around the Samalas event in 1257 and the Tambora event in 1815, coincided with two abrupt temperature regime shifts. In Northeastern North America, these shifts marked the onset of the Little Ice Age and the beginning of its coldest phase, respectively. Our reconstruction also showed a well-expressed Medieval Climate Anomaly, which included a few decades significantly warmer than the last 10 years. Keywords : fire ecology; forest-lake interactions; large woody debris; Little Ice Age; Medieval Climate Anomaly; millennial tree-ring chronologies; plant-climate interactions; temperature regime shifts; trajectories of forest structure and composition; volcanic forcing.

  7. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa; Strategie pour la gestion de l`eau au moyen-orient et en afrique du nord

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Water has always been of central concern to life in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Burgeoning populations are placing unprecendented pressures on the resource, calling urgently for new approaches to water planning and management if escalating conflicts are to be avoided and if environmental degradation is to be reversed. The booklet sets out the implications of the new Bank policy for the MENA region, calling for a concerted effort by government and Bank staff to address water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. It proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to achieving this objective that could lead to new Bank-supported operations to address the water sector as a whole.

  8. Étude de la transition entre le gaz atomique et le gaz moléculaire dans deux cirrus de la boucle céleste nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriault, Léo

    2010-11-01

    The infrared (IR) cirrus clouds observed at high Galactic latitude are excellent candidates to study the transition between the atomic gas and the molecular gas. In this thesis, two potential sites of H2 formation have been discovered in the North Celestial Loop (l = 135°, b = 40°) through examining the far-IR-Hl ratio and looking for an excess over that expected from an atomic medium. I call these sites the Spider and Ursa Major fields. The comparison between the IR excess map and the 12CO (J - 1 - 0) data from the Five College Radio Astronomical Observatory (resolution = 45 arcsec) shows that the IR excess peaks do not coincide with the 12CO peaks. The absence of coincidence is explained by (i) a density too small to allow CO excitation, (ii) insufficient CO self-shielding or (iii) variations of the dust properties. The comparison between 12CO data and Hi data from the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (resolution = 1 arcmin) is in agreement with the models! that predict CO formation where large velocity shears and turbulence dissipation are observed. OH observations of 108 locations over the two diffuse clouds from the Green Bank Telescope (resolution = 7 arcmin) are analyzed. OH is a precursor molecule to CO and its formation requires H2. The coincidence between the OH emission peak and the IR excess peak indicates that OH could be a better tracer of H2 than CO in these low-density regions. 12CO (7 = 1-0) and 13CO (J = 1 -0) observations from the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique and 12CO ( J = 2 - 1) observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (resolution = 20 arcsec) are analyzed on a small number of fields in both regions. Using a large velocity gradient model, we found smaller densities at the location of the IR excess peak while self-shielding should be efficient given the computed column densities.

  9. Identification d'indicateurs de risque des populations victimes de conflits par imagerie satellitaire. Etude de cas: Le nord de l'Irak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubareka, Sarah Betoul

    Remote sensing and security, terms which are not usually associated, have found a common platform this decade with the conjuring of the GMOSS network (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability), whose mandate is to discover new applications for satellite-derived imagery to security issues. This study focuses on human security, concentrating on the characterisation of vulnerable areas to conflict. A time-series of satellite imagery taken from Landsat sensors from 1987 to 2001 and the SRTM mission imagery are used for this purpose over a site in northern Iraq. Human security issues include the exposure to any type of hazard. The region of study is first characterised in order to understand which hazards are and were present in the past for the region of study. The principal hazard for the region of study is armed conflict and the relative field data was analysed to determine the links between geographical indicators and vulnerable areas. This is done through historical research and the study of open-sourced information about disease outbreaks; the movements of refugees and the internally displaced; and humanitarian aid and security issues. These open sources offer information which are not always consistent, objective, or normalized and are therefore difficult to quantify. A method for the rapid mapping and graphing and subsequent analysis of the situation in a region where limited information is available is developed. This information is coupled with population numbers to create a "risk map": A disaggregated matrix of areas most at risk during conflict situations. The results show that describing the risk factor for a population to the hazard conflict depends on three complex indicators: Population density, remoteness and economic diversity. Each of these complex indicators is then derived from Landsat and SRTM imagery and a satellite-driven model is formulated. This model based on satellite imagery is applied to the study site for a temporal study. The output are three 90 m x 90 m resolution grids which describe, at a pixel level, the risk level within the region for each of the dates studies, and the changes which occur in northern Iraq as the result of the Anfal Campaigns. Results show that satellite imagery, with a minimum of processing, can yield indicators for characterising risk in a region. Although by no means a replacement for field data, this technological source, in the absence of local knowledge, can provide users with a starting point in understanding which areas are most at risk within a region. If this data is coupled with open sourced information such as political and cultural discrimination, economy and agricultural practices, a fairly accurate risk map can be generated in the absence of field data. Keywords. SRTM, Landsat, risk indicators, Iraq, conflict, population vulnerability, segmentation, land-use, fuzzy-classification, atmospheric corrections.

  10. The flight of Arcadia: spatial CO2/SO2 variations in a cross section above the Nord East crater of Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffrida, Giovanni; Calabrese, Sergio; Bobrowski, Nicole; Finkenzeller, Henning; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Scaglione, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The CO2/SO2 ratio in volcanic plumes of open conduit volcanoes can provide useful information about the magma depth inside a conduit and the possible occurrence of an eruptive event. Moreover, the same CO2 measurement when combined with a SO2 flux measurement, commonly carried out at many volcanoes nowadays, is used to contribute to an improved estimate of global volcanic CO2 budget. Today worldwide at 13 volcanoes automated in-situ instruments (known as Multi-GAS stations) are applied to continuously determine CO2/SO2 ratios and to use this signal as additional parameter for volcanic monitoring. Usually these instruments carry out measurements of half an hour 4 - 6 times/day and thus provide continuous CO2/SO2 values and their variability. The stations are located at crater rims in a position that according to the prevailing winds is invested by the plume. Obviously, although the stations are carefully positioned, it is inevitable that other sources than the plume itself, e.g. soil degassing and surrounding fumaroles, contribute and will be measured as well, covering the 'real' values. Between July and September 2014 experiments were carried out on the North East crater (NEC) of Mount Etna, installing a self-made cable car that crossed the crater from one side to the other. The basket, called "Arcadia", was equipped with an automated standard Multi-GAS station and a GPS, which acquired at high frequency (0.5 Hz) the following parameters : CO2, SO2, H2S, Rh, T, P and geo-coordinates. The choice of NEC of the volcano Etna was based on its accessibility, the relative small diameter (about 230 m) and the presence of a relatively constant and rather concentrated plume. Actually, NEC belongs also to the monitoring network EtnaPlume (managed by the INGV of Palermo). The aim of these experiments was to observe variations of each parameter, in particular the fluctuation of the CO2/SO2 ratio within the plume, moving from the edge to the center of the crater. The gained results give a first possibility to understand if common measurements carried out at the edge of a crater are subject to over- or underestimation and about the order of derivations caused by other sources than the plume. A preliminary analysis results in a lower CO2/SO2 ratio in the central part of the crater versus the more peripheral one. The deviation between the average CO2/SO2 ratio and the center of the plume ranges from a minimum of 58% up to a maximum of 74%. An increased CO2/SO2 emission could be caused by the influence of soil and/or fumarolic degassing at the crater rim. This interpretation leads us to the conclusion that measurements by fixed installed stations might overestimate the CO2/SO2 ratio compared to values originating from the "pure" plume. Further on, it means that variations of up to 74 % (in our experiment) don't necessarily correlate with volcanic activity changes.

  11. A population based validation study of self-reported pensions and benefits: the Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Measures of disability pensions, sickness certification and long-term health related benefits are often self-reported in epidemiological studies. Few studies have examined these measures, and the validity is yet to be established. We aimed to estimate the validity of self-reported disability pension, rehabilitation benefit and retirement pension and to explore the benefit status and basic characteristics of those not responding to these items. A large health survey (HUNT2) containing self-reported questionnaire data on sickness benefits and pensions was linked to a national registry of pensions and benefits, used as “gold standard” for the analysis. We investigated two main sources of bias in self-reported data; misclassification - due to participants answering questions incorrectly, and systematic missing/selection bias - when participants do not respond to the questions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predicative value, agreement and Cohen’s Kappa were calculated for each benefit. Co-variables were compared between non-responders and responders. Results In the study-population of 40,633, 9.2% reported receiving disability pension, 1.4% rehabilitation benefits and 6.1% retirement pension. According to the registry, the corresponding numbers were 9.0%, 1.7% and 5.4%. Excluding non-responders, specificity, NPV and agreement were above 98% for all benefits. Sensitivity and PPV were lower. When including non-responders as non-receivers, specificity got higher, sensitivity dropped while the other measures changed less. Between 17.7% and 24.1% did not answer the questions on benefits. Non-responders were older and more likely to be female. They reported more anxiety, more depression, a higher number of somatic diagnoses, less physical activity and lower consumption of alcohol (p < 0.001 for all variables). For disability pension and retirement pension, non-responders were less likely to receive benefits than responders (p < 0.001). For each benefit 2.1% or less of non-responders were receivers. False positive responses were more prevalent than false negative responses. Conclusions The validity of self-reported data on disability pension, rehabilitation benefits and retirement pension is high – it seems that participants’ responses can be trusted. Compared to responders, non-responders are less likely to be receivers. If necessary, power and validity can be kept high by imputing non-responders as non-receivers. PMID:23343185

  12. Northern Scientific Training Program: Annual Report, 1999-2000 = Programme de formation scientifique dans le Nord: Rapport annuel, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Northern Scientific Training Program (NSTP) is managed by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development as part of its mandate to foster science and technology in the Canadian North. NSTP supports Canadian universities in providing training that gives advanced and graduate students the opportunity to gain professional experience in…

  13. Cadmium contamination of three bivalve species (oysters, cockles and clams) in Nord Médoc salt marshes (Gironde estuary, France): Geochemical survey and metal bioaccumulation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudrimont, M.; Schäfer, J.; Marie, V.; Maury-Brachet, R.; Bossy, C.; Durrieu, G.; Palvadeau, A.; Maneux, E.; Boudou, A.; Blanc, G.

    2003-05-01

    A historical Cd pollution of the Lot-Garonne River system (France) bas led to the contamination of sediment and water of the Gironde Estuary. In spite of the decrease of fluvial Cd inputs since the early 90ies, Cd concentrations in the Gironde oysters remain higher than European norms (5 μg.g^{-1} dry mass) and the “zone D” classification of the estuary prohibits bivalve production and harvesting for human consumption. A geochemical survey in salt marshes used for aquaculture (crustaceans) has been conducted in order to assess the heavy métal contamination level in these systems periodically alimented by the Gironde water, accompanied by caging experiments on three bivalve species of economical interest: oysters (Crassostrea gigas), cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) to study heavy metal accumulation in these organisms. Distribution of heavy metals in this system is controlled by biogeochemical processes and is independent of routine water management. Contamination levels in the studied species indicate the high accumulation of Cd by oysters. On the other hand, Cd concentrations in benthic species, such as cockles and clams, are clearly lower than European safety limits for human consumption.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Diatoms from la Chaine des Lacs Urban Watershed, Nord-Pas France, in Relation to Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, P. J.; Van de Vijver, B.; Verleyen, E.; Prygiel, J.; Ivanovsky, A.; Lesven, L.; Billon, G.

    2016-12-01

    Diatom analysis was conducted on lake sediments in la Chaîne des Lacs (CDL), a shallow eutrophic urban park and storm control system in Villeneuve d'Ascq, France, to address both the present day water quality, and the evolution of this urban system over its 40 year history. The main lake, Lac du Héron (LDH), received recent attention because of water quality problems, including eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and invasion by the macrophyte Elodea in 2012. A total of 17 sites were collected in CDL, 11 of which were in LDH, to document spatial variability, and a 26cm long core addresses historical changes. The bulk of the diatom assemblage in LDH can be classified as both eutrophic and moderately metal tolerant, using modern national diatom indices developed and used by the French regional water agencies. Surface sediment samples within LDH show large spatial variations in %Cocconeis placentula whose habitat is epiphytic growth on Elodea. Other variation is reflected in the phytoplankton composition both spatially, and interannually. Aulacoseira muzzanensis and Cyclostephanos dubius showed greater abundance in the open water habitats in LDH, whereas sites in CDL outside of LDH had greater Cyclotella meneghiniana. Temporally, Stephanodicsus (largely S. hantzschii), the dominant diatom in early spring, were present in greater abundances in the 2016 surface sediment samples than in any of the 2015 samples. One possible explanation is that the 2016 samples, taken March 30th, preferentially preserved the early spring Stephanodiscus bloom, in contrast to the 2015 samples, which were taken in January. The sediment core provides an historical record, where the uppermost 4cm plot with the bulk of the LDH surface samples and contain abundant Cocconeis, 4 -14cm is phytoplankton-rich, largely Cyclostephanos dubius and Aulacoseira muzzanensis, and represents a less weed-choked environment prior to the 2012 Elodea invasion. The base of the core is dominated by Amphora and Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, is most similar to an outlier site on the Marque River, and represents early conditions after the reservoir was established. Continued work will focus on relating these results to urban development, improvements of the sewage system, and meteorological patterns.

  15. Problemi di comunicazione interculturale tra Italiani e parlanti di italiano in Nord America (Intercultural Communication Problems Between Italians and Speakers of Italian in North America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balboni, Paolo E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines intercultural communication between Italians and speakers of Italian in North America. Argues intercultural communicative competence comprises three elements: deep cultural values or "mental software"; non-verbal means of communication; and language. Offers advice to teachers of Italian who want to help their students develop…

  16. Les granitoïdes calco-alcalins, syn-cisaillement de Bandja dans la chaîne panafricaine nord-équatoriale au Cameroun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchankam, Clovis Nguiessi; Nzentui, Jean-Paul; Nsifa, Emmanuel Nkonguin; Tempier, Paul; Tchoua, Félix

    1997-07-01

    The synkinematic calc-alkaline rocks from Bandja, in the south-western part of the Cameroon pan-african north-equatorial fold belt, show an oblique sheets mechanism, which is genetically linked to the working of the Cameroon shear zone. This mechanism is discussed as part of the shear zone models, which imply a mantle-crust interaction.

  17. Données nouvelles sur le volcanisme cénozoïque du fossé de Garoua (Nord du Cameroun)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ncounouno, Ismaïla; Déruelle, Bernard; Demaiffe, Daniel; Montigny, Raymond

    1997-07-01

    Thirty-one plugs of Cenozoic age (37 Ma) outcrop in the Garoua rift (northern Cameroon). Basaltic lavas are similar to others from the Cameroon Line. Phonolites contain Fe-salite and aenigmatite phenocrysts. Trachytes are biotite-, biotite and richterite-bearing, or peralkaline (with richtérite, arfvedsonite and Ti-aenigmatite). Rhyolites contain F-Mn-arfvedsonite and Ti-aegirine. Major and trace element distributions suggest a co-magmatic relationship between the basaltic and the felsic lavas, except the rhyolites. Late biotite fractionation governs the differentiation process of felsic lavas and fluid phases played a major role during its late stages. High initial 87Sr/ 86Sr suggest a progressive crustal contamination.

  18. Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2012-05-15

    In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels.

  19. Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Albert; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel; Renz, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed. Methods and findings Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Moreover, epidemiologic parameters of animal-borne Onchocerca spp. transmitted by the same local black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex were recorded and their impact on O. volvulus transmission success evaluated. With mitochondrial DNA markers we unambiguously confirmed the presence of infective O. volvulus larvae in vectors from the Sudan savannah region (mean Annual Transmission Potential 2009–2012: 98, range 47–221), but not from the Adamawa highland region. Transmission rates of O. ochengi, a parasite of Zebu cattle, were high in both foci. Conclusions/significance The high cattle livestock density in conjunction with the high transmission rates of the bovine filaria O. ochengi prevents the transmission of O. volvulus on the Adamawa plateau, whereas transmission in a former hyperendemic focus was markedly reduced, but not completely interrupted after 25 years of ivermectin control. This study may be helpful to gauge the impact of the presence of animal-filariae for O. volvulus transmission in terms of the growing human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan countries. PMID:26926855

  20. Un très ancien ptérosaure ptérodactyloïde de l'Oxfordien de Normandie (Nord-Ouest de la France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffetaut, Eric; Guibert, Jean-Pierre

    2001-10-01

    A long and slender wing metacarpal from the Late Oxfordian Sables de Glos of Cordebugle (Calvados, Normandy) clearly belongs to a pterodactyloid pterosaur, with an estimated wingspan of at least 2.30 m. This is currently one of the earliest records of a representative of the Pterodactyloidea.

  1. Sédimentologie et géochimie organique des sédiments superficiels de la lagune de Nador (Maroc nord-oriental)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Alami, M.; Mahjoubi, R.; Damnati, B.; Kamel, S.; Icole, M.; Taieb, M.

    1998-02-01

    The Nador lagoon is situated at the eastern end of the Moroccan Rift along the Mediterranean coast. The superficial deposits are characterised by three types of litho-facies: sand, clay-sand and clay-silt-sand. The clay minerals show a homogeneous distribution with abundant illite and, in decreasing order, kaolinite, chlorite and smectite. The highest organic matter content does not exceed 10%. Organic C, total N, humic components analysis and "Rock-Eval" pyrolysis characterise the organic matter, compared to the superficial sediments. Most of the organic matter occurs as humic-acid and humin. Its distribution is controlled by the physico-chemical conditions and by the importance and composition of the detrital inputs.

  2. Northern Scientific Training Program: Annual Report, 1999-2000 = Programme de formation scientifique dans le Nord: Rapport annuel, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Northern Scientific Training Program (NSTP) is managed by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development as part of its mandate to foster science and technology in the Canadian North. NSTP supports Canadian universities in providing training that gives advanced and graduate students the opportunity to gain professional experience in…

  3. Problemi di comunicazione interculturale tra Italiani e parlanti di italiano in Nord America (Intercultural Communication Problems Between Italians and Speakers of Italian in North America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balboni, Paolo E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines intercultural communication between Italians and speakers of Italian in North America. Argues intercultural communicative competence comprises three elements: deep cultural values or "mental software"; non-verbal means of communication; and language. Offers advice to teachers of Italian who want to help their students develop…

  4. Strategies pedagogiques dans les classes a niveaux multiples du nord de l'Ontario--Un compte rendu (Teaching Strategies for Multigraded Classes in Northern Ontario: An Account).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lataille-Demore, Diane

    2003-01-01

    A training and teaching tools development project aims to help multigrade classroom teachers in remote areas of Ontario. The project presents multiple instructional strategies, such as collaborative learning, differentiated teaching, and subject integration. Sixty teaching activities, created and tested by teachers, are contained on a CD that will…

  5. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA) | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city therefore acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compared with growing cities. Shrinking cities are well poised for transformations, because shrinking is perceived as a crisis and can mobilize the social capacity to change. Ecology is particularly well suited to contribute solutions because of the extent of vacant land in shrinking cities that can be leveraged for ecosystem-services provisioning. A crucial role of an ecology for the shrinking city is identifying innovative pathways that create locally desired amenities that provide ecosystem services and contribute to urban sustainability at multiple scales. This paper brings together the concepts of ecology for the city and shrinking cities – the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss. Ecology for the city is the application of social-ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compa

  7. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a) | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with manage

  8. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex intern...

  9. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex intern...

  10. The Challenge of Heterogeneously Licensed Systems in Open Architecture Software Ecosystems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Tools, Copyright 2005-2008 Novell, Inc. 14. libcurl. Copyright (c) 1996-2008, Daniel Stenberg <daniel@haxx.se>. 15. PostgreSQL Database Management...Tools, Copyright 2005-2008 Novell, Inc. 15. libcurl. Copyright (c) 1996-2008, Daniel Stenberg <daniel@haxx.se>. 16. PostgreSQL Database Management

  11. Agnosia

    MedlinePlus

    ... 301-496-7243; 800-241-1044; 800-241-1055 (TTY) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) 55 ... 301-496-7243; 800-241-1044; 800-241-1055 (TTY) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) 55 ...

  12. Dyssynergia Cerebellaris Myoclonica

    MedlinePlus

    ... 301-496-7243; 800-241-1044; 800-241-1055 (TTY) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) 55 ... 301-496-7243; 800-241-1044; 800-241-1055 (TTY) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) 55 ...

  13. Nutritional assessment of children in drought-affected areas--Haiti, 1990.

    PubMed

    1991-04-05

    From January through June 1990, a drought occurred in the Caribbean nation of Haiti. To determine whether the nutritional status of young children had been affected by drought-related reductions in food supply, in September 1990 a nutrition survey was conducted in the five departments most affected (Nord-Ouest, Nord, Nord-Est, Artibonite, and Centre) of Haiti's nine departments.

  14. Changing Temperatures in Saturn Stratosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-20

    NASA Cassini spacecraft obtained shifting stratospheric temperatures. The difference between the temperatures from 2005-2008 is shown in the middle, with red indicating warming in the stratosphere and blue indicating cooling.

  15. Profil étiologique des surdités neurosensorielle sévère et profonde de l'enfant dans la région du centre-nord du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Ridal, Mohammed; Outtasi, Naouar; Taybi, Zainab; Boulouiz, Redouan; Chaouki, Sanae; Boubou, Meryem; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Benmansour, Najib; Zaki, Zouheir; Ouldim, Karim; Barakat, Hamid; Hida, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham; El Alami, Mohamed Noreddine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diagnostic d'une surdité profonde est possible dès les premiers jours de vie. Or, le développement du langage et l'intégration scolaire et professionnelle ne sont pas possible que si la surdité est prise en charge précocement. L’établissement d'un diagnostc étiologique a des implications pronostiques et thérapeutiques. Méthodes C'est une étude rétrospective allant de Juin 2009 au mois de Janvier 2012 ayant recensé 250 cas d'enfants porteurs d'une surdité sévère et profonde. Résultats La moyenne d’âge au moment de l'annonce du diagnostic est de 3.7 ans. Les étiologies prédominantes sont les surdités génétiques dans 35.6% suivies des surdités acquises dans 30.8% des cas. Dans 34.4% des cas aucune étiologie n'a pu être retrouvée. Conclusion Cette étude met en évidence la prédominance éventuelle de causes génétiques de la surdité neurosensorielle de l'enfant au Maroc, et souligne la nécessité d'améliorer les politiques de prévention des maladies infectieuses et de dépistage de la surdité néonatale. Cependant, des analyses moléculaires plus ciblées et la réalisation d'un scanner des rochers systématiques sont nécessaires pour évaluer plus précisément la contribution des étiologies génétiques. PMID:25018837

  16. Grabens d'âge paléozoîque inférieuer et volcanisme tholéiitique associé dans la région de Garoua au Nord-Cameroun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béa, A.; Cochemé, J. J.; Trompette, R.; Affaton, P.; Soba, D.; Sougy, J.

    Numerous hills of flat-lying sedimentary rocks rest uncomformably upon the metamorphic-granitic basement around Garoua (Northern Cameroon). Two types are distinguished among them: (i) Sedimentary hills of Cretaceous age, coeval with the infilling of the Yola- Garoua graben (the eastern branch of the Bénoué Trough), commonly cut across by Tertiary basaltic dykes, and (ii) volcano-sedimentary or sedimentary hills of early to middle Paleozoic age. The Paleozoic hills, the subject of this paper, appear as outcrops of a few square kilometers and represent the remnants of small ESE-WNW aulacogens infilled by sandstones and volcanic material of of late Ordovician to early Devonian age. Hosséré Balché (Hosséré=hill in Peulh language) is bounded along its whole perimeter by two types of faults: sub-vertical syn-sedimentary faults marked by the presence of coarse breccia and faults which postdate the sedimentary and volcanic infilling and are roughly parallel to the previous ones. Hosséré Mangbai probably corresponds to a stratovolcano developed in a small sedimentary basin; here all the boundary faults clearly postdate volcanism and sedimentation. In general, the sedimentary infilling consists of coarse-grained continental material derived from the erosion of associated volcanic rocks and/or the Precambrian basement. Volcanic rocks comprise early basalts of continental tholeiitic affinity and trachyandesites, rhyolites and rhyolitic ignimbrites. All of them have been affected by hydrothermal metamorphism which has partially obliterated their primary mineralogy and chemical composition. As a consequence, it is suggested, although not demonstrated, that these basic and acidic volcanic lavas might derive from a simple fractional crystallization process. The small aulacogens from northern Cameroon present lithological similarities with the older, late Pan-African, molassic basins of the Transaharian Fold Belt which run with an approximate NS direction from southwestern Algeria to Ghana and Togo. However, the aulacogens are younger and in fact coeval with the lower section of the sedimentary cover of the Tassilis surrounding the Hoggar massif. The moderate and localized extensional tectonics dated Ordovician to Devonian and responsible for the opening of the small aulacogens of Northern Cameroon could be also at the origin of the development of the wide, low subsiding, platformal, cratonic basins in Western Gondwanaland.

  17. La vulnerabilite de l'universite face aux politiques gouvernementales et la cooperation internationale nord-sud (The Vulnerability of the University in the Face of Governmental Politics and North-South International Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barot, Elisabeth

    1991-01-01

    Cooperation between universities in northern and southern hemispheres in the current economic and geopolitical climate is discussed. The relationship between Canadian universities and the government is chronicled, and mechanisms of international cooperation are analyzed. Certain ethical principles are proposed as a framework for Canadian…

  18. Tectonique en radeaux au toit d'un ≪ glacier de sel ≫ sous-marin albien de Tunisie du Nord-Ouest: exemple du secteur minier de Gueurn Halfaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Jean-Marie; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Bouhlel, Salah; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Kassa, Samia; Miaadi, Fethi

    1998-10-01

    In northwestern Tunisia, the new study of the Gueurn Halfaya mining area allows us to define the relationships of the Triassic masses with the surrounding Cretaceous and Miocene formations, and to specify the genesis of several mineralizations (Fe, Sr, Pb-Zn), from an Aptian-Albian tilted block extensional setting, later tectonically inverted during the Tertiary. During the Lower-Middle Cretaceous, a sedimentary slope with boulders, determined by normal faulting, receives a submarine 'salt glacier', like in the Gulf of Mexico. This is then overlain by two successive sedimentary covers (Middle-Upper Albian and Vraconian-Turonian); the depocentres of the second cover directly overlie the saliferous Triassic rocks after the rafting of the first cover. This organisation is similar to the Kuanza basin setting in Angola. The Lower-Middle Cretaceous tectono-sedimentary evolution proposed here, very different to the 'classical' forceful diapiric interpretation, is continuously drived from the extensional tectonics (sedimentation and mineralizations, before, during and after the halokinesis), and afterwards tectonically inverted by the two Tertiary contractional events.

  19. Le mosasauridé basal Halisaurus sternbergii du Crétacé supérieur du Kansas (Amérique du Nord): une révision du spécimen type d'Uppsala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardet, Nathalie; Pereda Suberbiola, Xabier

    2001-03-01

    The type specimen of Clidastes sternbergii Wiman, 1920, a basal mosasaurid from the Santonian of Kansas (USA), is reviewed. Its attribution to Halisaurus is confirmed. H. sternbergii is mainly defined on the basis of cranial characters: frontal with a smooth dorsal surface bearing a prominent median ridge; parietal with a triangular table extending far posteriorly and bearing a medium sized circular foramen, which is located at a distance equal to twice its diameter from the frontal-parietal suture. The vertebral column and appendicular skeleton retain many plesiomorphies. H. sternbergii is the oldest species of the genus, also known in the Maastrichtian.

  20. Le cordon sableux Limani-Yagoua, extrême-nord Cameroun, et son rôle hydrauliqueThe Limani-Yagoua mega sand-ridge, northern Cameroun, and its hydrological importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngounou Ngatcha, B.; Mudry, J.; Wakponou, A.; Ekodeck, G. E.; Njitchoua, R.; Sarrot-Reynauld, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Limani-Yagoua mega sand-ridge, covering an area of 330,000 km 2 is well know in the extreme north of Cameroun. Similar structures have also been described in the Chad Republic (Bongor-Koro-Toro), Niger (Tal) and Nigeria (Bama). Two possible origins can be considered: (i) circum-lacustrine around the Lake Chad Basin, interpreted as a Holocene or Pleistocene palæo-shoreline, or (ii) æolian accumulation as a mega sand dune in an area of basin subsidence. The sand-ridge in northern Cameroun is an extremely permeable aquifer with discharge rates of 3-6 m 3 h -1. High nitrate levels (27-127 mg l -1) have been observed in several boreholes. Tritium at 4.1 ut indicates recent groundwater recharge, suggesting infiltration of rainfall damned by the sand-ridge.

  1. Déformation et métamorphisme dans la chaîne Pan-Africaine de Poli (Nord-Cameroun) :Implications géodynamiques et paléographiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngako, V.; Jegouzo, P.; Djallo, S.

    A detailed structural study in part of the pan-African orogenic belt in southern Poli (Northern) Cameroon) gives evidence for a polyphased deformation: the early phase is a southwards thrusting followed later by dome and basin folding. The existence of both metamorphic and polymetamorphic rocks within the belt during this evolution allow us to postulate for the existence of two different paleogeographic units: i) a low grade metamorphic cover («Poli serieså) with a monocyclic evolution in greenschist facies during mylonitisation of volcanic and volcanoclastic assemblages. ii) A medium grade basement with a polycyclic evolution derived from retrogressed and probably eburnian granulitic assemblages transposed during the blastomylonitic evolution.

  2. Les monchiquites de Tchircotché, vallée de la haute Bénoué (Nord du Cameroun)The monchiquites from Tchircotché, Upper Benue valley (northern Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngounouno, Ismaı̈la; Déruelle, Bernard; Demaiffe, Daniel; Montigny, Raymond

    2003-03-01

    Dykes of monchiquites of Cainozoic age (37.5±2.3 Ma) are intrusive in Cretaceous sandstones in the Tchircotché area, Upper Benue valley (northern Cameroon). The differentiation of the monchiquites is explained by crystal fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene, magnetite, ilmenite and apatite. A studied rock has low Sr-isotope ratio (0.703 69±10) , which is similar to those of the alkali basalts of the Cameroon Line. Therefore the continental crust appears to have no significant role in the genesis of the monchiquites.

  3. Évaluation de la qualité de l'eau par application de la méthode géoélectrique : exemple de la plaine d'El Mida Gabes nord (Sud tunisien)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhamdi, Abdelkader; Gouasmia, Mouez; Gasmi, Mohamed; Bouri, Salem; Ben Dhia, Hamed

    2006-12-01

    The Mida plain, which is part of the North Gabès region (southern Tunisia), is characterized by the deep sandy units of the 'Continental intercalaire' (CI) or the limestone of the Lower Senonian. A geophysical survey, by electrical sounding (ES), was undertaken in the studied region to better characterize the deep geological structure of this plain and therefore its aquifer resources potential. The analysis of the results shows that the prospected zone is characterized by the succession of several levels with contrasted resistivities, which are often affected by faults. Among these observed geoelectrical levels, the highly conductor one could host a saline aquifer. Another geoelectrical level corresponding to the resistant bedrock detected at Oudhref horst can contain better-quality water than that of the aquifer detected in the El Mida Graben. In this work, we tried to explain the origin of the salinity of this aquifer. Thus, we hypothesise about a contamination from Jebel Zemlet El Beida through a border fault and another one from the Sebkhet El Hamma. To cite this article: A. Mhamdi et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  4. Tendance à la lapidification de sols sableux ( hardé du Nord-Cameroun) Une évolution naturelle sous climat semi-aride à fort pouvoir évaporant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamotte, Mathieu; Bruand, Ary; Pédro, Georges

    1997-10-01

    In semi-arid tropics, the desertification results frequently from the degradation of the physical properties of the soils. For sandy soils, usually friable and permeable, this degradation, which consists of the development of hardness and low permeability, was related to the groundmass fabric. Even at low content, the fine clay formed wall-shaped bridges between the skeleton grains and caused a high continuity of the solid phase. This fabric resulted from natural evolution closely related with water dynamics and favoured by lithology and climate. Without necessarily human intervention, the supergeneous materials lost their characteristics of being loose, hydrated and biotic.

  5. Role of primary care physicians in treating patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction located in remote areas (from the REseau Nord-Alpin des Urgences [RENAU], Network).

    PubMed

    Yayehd, Komlavi; Ricard, Cécile; Ageron, François-Xavier; Buscaglia, Léna; Savary, Dominique; Audema, Bernard; Lacroix, Diane; Barthes, Manuela; Joubert, Patrick; Gheno, Gaël; Belle, Loic

    2015-02-01

    European guidelines for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) encourage healthcare networks to increase rates of, and decrease delays to, reperfusion. We examined the impact of training primary care physicians (PCPs) to use equipment for pre-hospital management of STEMI patients in remote areas. A network for cardiac emergencies was set up in the French Northern Alps in 2002 and a registry of STEMI patients has been kept since. In 2005, 24 local volunteer PCPs were trained and equipped with electrocardiograms, fibrinolysis kits, and automated external defibrillators to deal with cardiac emergencies in remote areas (>30-minute ambulance travelling time). In this study, when the central call dispatcher received a telephone call from a patient in a remote area reporting chest pain with a high probability of STEMI, the dispatcher sent a mobile intensive care unit (MICU) with an emergency physician on board and asked the local PCP, if available, to manage the patient while awaiting arrival of the MICU. Patients in whom the diagnosis of STEMI was confirmed were taken by MICU to an interventional cardiology hospital. We report on patients who received care from a PCP before arrival of the MICU. Between 2005 and 2010, 4,015 patients were enrolled in the registry; 180 patients were located in a remote area, of whom 140 were in an area covered by a participating PCP. Of the 62 patients attended by a PCP before MICU arrival, 27 received thrombolysis and eight patients with ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation were shocked with an automated external defibrillator by the PCP. Mean times from telephone call to thrombolysis were shorter when the patient was attended by a PCP (45.0 ± 25.5 vs 62.4 ± 23.4 min without intervention; p = 0.003). STEMI diagnosis without contraindication to thrombolysis was confirmed in 26 of 27 patients treated as such by PCPs and 1 patient was diagnosed with a Tako-Tsubo syndrome. PCP care of STEMI patients located in isolated areas appears efficient, with high rates of resuscitation and thrombolysis and a shorter delay to reperfusion. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  6. Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

  7. Morbidity, life style and psychosocial situation in cancer survivors aged 60-69 years: results from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (The HUNT-II Study)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to considerable health status differences in the elderly population, research limited to narrow age-spans might be an advantage. In this population-based controlled study we compare short-term (<5 years) (STS) and long-term (≥5 years) (LTS) cancer survivors and cancer-free controls aged 60-69 years from two Norwegian health registers; the Health Survey of North-Trøndelag County (HUNT-2 study) and the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN). We examined possible factors associated with being cancer survivor. Methods Among 9,089 individuals aged 60-69 who participated in HUNT-2, 334 had been diagnosed with invasive primary cancer from 1 month to 42 years before HUNT-2 according to CRN and self-report. An overall random sample of controls without cancer five times larger than the sample of cases (N = 1,670) were drawn from the parent cohort. Results The cancer sample comprised 128 STS and 206 LTS. For most variables no significant differences were observed between LTS and STS. LTS were significantly more women, and cases with gynaecological cancer, with physical impairment and more thyroid diseases compared to STS. When comparing all the survivors with controls, the survivors showed significantly higher rate of pensioning, decreased self-rated health, more physical impairment and thyroid diseases, daily use of medication and psychotropics and higher level of anxiety and Framingham Risk score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that increasing age, being female, physical impairment and thyroid diseases all were significantly associated with being survivor versus controls. Conclusion STS and LTS showed mostly similar situation. Compared to controls, the survivors reported somewhat poorer physical and mental health, but these differences were of doubtful clinical significance. PMID:21266091

  8. Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

  9. Connaissances et attitudes des relais communautaires sur les fièvres hémorragiques à virus Lassa et Ebola dans le département de la Donga (Nord Bénin)

    PubMed Central

    Attinsounon, Cossi Angelo; Hounnankan, Cossi Athanase; Dovonou, Comlan Albert; Alassani, Cossi Adébayo; Salifou, Sourakatou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer les connaissances et attitudes des relais communautaires vis-à-vis des fièvres hémorragiques à virus Ebola et Lassa et leur implication dans la mise œuvre des activités de prévention de ces maladies. Méthodes Une enquête transversale descriptive a été menée auprès des relais communautaires recrutés par tirage au sort dans 40 villages du département de la Donga. Ces relais faisaient la prise en charge à domicile des maladies respiratoires, diarrhéiques et du paludisme chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans. Un questionnaire anonyme a été administré par interview directe. Les données ont été analysées à l’aide du logiciel Epi-info 3.5.1. Résultats Au total 58 relais communautaires (RC) ont participé à cette enquête sur les 60 attendus. L’âge moyen était de 38,7±10,6 ans avec un sex-ratio de 3,5. Il y avait majoritairement trente cinq cultivateurs (60,3%) et treize revendeuses (22,4%). Quarante huit enquêtés (82,8%) reconnaissaient les deux maladies comme étant graves, mortelles et transmissibles. Les trois principales voies de transmission citées étaient le contact ou la consommation de gibiers (87,9%), le contact direct avec les personnes infectées (74,1%) ou leurs cadavres (46,6%). Les principaux moyens préventifs énumérés étaient en lien avec les voies de transmission. La fièvre (81,0%), les vomissements (81,0%) et la diarrhée (60,3%) venaient en tête des symptômes cités. Seulement vingt-deux RC (37,9%) disposaient de gants mais les utilisaient rarement pour examiner les enfants malades. Quant à la conduite à tenir devant un cas suspect de fièvre hémorragique virale Lassa ou Ebola, quarante-et-un relais communautaires (70,7%) feraient recours aux agents de santé sans toucher au malade, neuf (15,5%) feraient appel à l’ambulance et huit (13,8%) transporteraient le cas sur leur propre moto ou sur un taxi-moto vers le centre de santé le plus proche. Conclusion Le renforcement des capacités des relais communautaires sur les fièvres hémorragiques virales contribuerait à l’amélioration de leurs connaissances sur ces épidémies mortelles et à la qualité de leurs interventions dans la population. Introduction This study aimed to evaluate the knowledges and attitudes of community volunteers on Lassa and Ebola viral haemorrhagic fevers and their role in the implementation of activities for the prevention of these diseases. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive survey among community volunteers chosen by lot in 40 villages in the Donga Department. Children under five years of age with respiratory and diarrheal diseases and malaria were treated by these community volunteers in their home. An anonymous questionnaire was administered by direct interview. Data were analyzed using Epi-Info 3.5.1. Results Out of 60 community volunteers potentially participating in this survey a total of 58 effectively participated. The average age of community volunteers was 38.7 ± 10.6 years with a sex-ratio of 3.5. The majority of the community volunteers were farmers (thirty-five, 60.3%) and resellers (thirteen, 22.4%). Forty-eight respondents (82.8%) recognized the two diseases as being serious, life-threatening and transmissible. The three main routes of transmission cited were the contact with or the consumption of bushmeat (87.9%), the direct contact with infected people (74.1%) or with their corpses (46.6%). The main preventive measures listed were related to the routes of transmission. Fever (81.0%), vomiting (81.0%) and diarrhea (60.3%) were at the top of the cited symptoms. Only twenty-two community volunteers (37.9%) had gloves but they rarely used them to examine sick children. As regards the procedure to follow in case of suspected Lassa or Ebola viral haemorrhagic fever , forty-one community volunteers (70.7%) would make use of community-based health workers without touching the patient, nine (15.5%) would call for the ambulance and eight (13.8%) would take the patient to the nearest health center using their own motorcycle or a motorcycle-taxi. Conclusion Strengthening community volunteers’ capacity to manage viral hemorrhagic fevers would contribute to the improvement of their knowledge of these life-threatening epidemics and to the quality of population health interventions. PMID:28690743

  10. Les minéralisations épithermales à Au-Cu-Zn-Sb du district de Baia Mare (Nord Roumanie): nouvelles données minéralogiques et microthermométriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, Laurent; Milesi, Jean-Pierre; Leroy, Jacques; Marcoux, Eric

    1998-09-01

    The Au-Cu-Zn-Sb epithermal mineralisations of the Baia Mare district (north Romania) and their Mio-Pliocene calc-alkaline volcanic host rocks are linked to the presence, at depth, of the Baia Mare batholith, recognised by geophysical and field studies. The salinity and temperature evolution of fluid inclusions from Baia Sprie and Sasar deposits are interpreted as being linked to the thermal evolution of the underlying laccolith. The global evolution, however, shows many irregularities related to brittle tectonic activity and phreatomagmatism during mineral deposition.

  11. Fiches pratiques: Pour ne pas perdre le nord...; Mariage a la russe; Un pari sur Paris; Une tenebreuse affaire (Practical Ideas: Don't Lose Your Bearings...; Marriage Russian Style; A Bet on Paris; A Gloomy Affair).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Carla; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four ideas for language classroom activities are presented, including a counting and calculation game, an exercise for developing familiarity with the parts and style of a newspaper article, an activity to help adolescents anticipating travel in a French city, and analysis of the textual structure of a current events circle. (MSE)

  12. Russian Influence on Ukrainian Strategic Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Russian construction of the Nord Stream pipeline started in April 2010, passing through the Baltic. This pipeline would strengthen Russia‘s ability...transit route, these alternate pipelines would weaken one of the key Ukrainian bargaining points with Russia. The Nord Stream and South Stream...instrument and changes in Ukrainian policy. Russia‘s development of the Nord Stream and South Stream pipeline projects may either enhance Russian influence

  13. Genetics Home Reference: nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Diseases Foundation for Ichthyosis and Related Skin Types (FIRST): Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Ichthyosis University of Kansas ...

  14. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established inducer of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a frequently medically intractable... epilepsy syndrome. The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of posttraumatic epilepsy in mice is a well established animal model of TBI that results...reduce development of post-traumatic epilepsy , and did not significantly improve memory function, but did enhance the motor recovery. These findings

  15. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established inducer of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE...a frequently medically intractable and permanent epilepsy syndrome. Unlike many TLE models, which cause global brain injury that do not replicate...the human condition, or other TBI models, which do not induce TLE reliably, the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of posttraumatic epilepsy in

  16. Human Skeletal Material from 23JA277 Blue Springs Lake Project, Jackson County, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Todd 1920; McKern and Stewart 1957) in that the surface of the entire demi-face is flat and granulated in appearance, the ventral rampart is complete...carbonized organic matter, some of which retain a wood-like structure. Dark mottles and the stain coating the bones effervesces with a three percent hydrogen

  17. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  18. Acute Oral Toxicity of JA-2 Solid Propellant in ICR Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    and nitroglycerin. These signs tremors, inactivity, depression of reflexes, loss of equilibrium, opisthotonus , and increased respiratory activity... opisthotonus , and increased respiratory activity. Other clinical signs observed were associated with the general malaise of the animals following...of 86), miscellaneous signs (29 of 88), changes in reflex activity (28 of 88), rough coat (20 of 86), opisthotonus (14 of 86), and respiratory

  19. Visualization and Measurement of the Deflagration of JA2 Bonded to Various Metal Foils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    on one side with an aluminum or copper foil, and their deflagration was videographically recorded. Foil thicknesses ranged from 1 to 3 mil. The data...Approach 2 2.1 Test-Article Fabrication 2 2.2 Measurement Techniques 3 3. Results 4 3.1 Aluminum Foils 4 3.2 Copper Foils 6 4. Conclusions 9 5...configured with a 1-mil-thick aluminum (Al) foil bounding one side.7 Giving a preliminary indication that the validity of the CFD Approved for

  20. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  1. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-31

    contribute to epileptogenesis. Task 1: Determine whether benzodiazepine modulation of IPSCs in dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered after CCI and...were measured. Analysis is preliminary and ongoing. 2. Applied α1-subunit selective benzodiazepine agonist and measured IPSC frequency, amplitude...preliminary: benzodiazepine agonist tended to increase time constant; replicates are currently too low to be quantitative. Supporting Data

  2. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Task 1: Determine whether benzodiazepine modulation of IPSCs in dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered after CCI and whether this alteration is...selective benzodiazepine agonist and measured IPSC frequency, amplitude and decay time constant in neurons from control (n=2) and CCI-treated (n=3...mice. Analysis is preliminary: benzodiazepine agonist tended to increase time constant; replicates are currently too low to be quantitative

  3. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato

    Treesearch

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Gary W. Felton; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2010-01-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C18 fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic...

  4. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.

    2014-12-01

    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  5. "City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company": The Decision and Some of Its Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. Fleming, II

    1989-01-01

    The Supreme Court's "Croson" decision has major implications for local government and school administrative units that wish to encourage the use of minority contractors. Discusses the decision and some of the effects that the rules announced in the case may have on North Carolina's local governments and schools. (MLF)

  6. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  7. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    have the promise of leading to new therapies for the prevention or treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy. BODY: Aim 2: Performed in laboratory of... electroconvulsive shock-induced seizures. J. Neurotrauma 27 (7), 1283—1295. anell, A., Clausen, F., Biork, M., Jansson, K., Phillipson, O., Nils- son

  8. Current treatments of rheumatoid arthritis: from the 'NinJa' registry.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Yukihiko; Matsui, Toshihiro; Saisho, Koichiro; Tohma, Shigeto

    2012-07-01

    In this review, recent changes in both treatments and outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan were analyzed by viewing the National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net, one of the largest clinical databases for RA patients in Japan. Regarding drug therapy, the use of methotrexate has been continuously increasing and has established a place as an anchor drug in the treatment of RA among other nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; however, the dosage used is still significantly less compared with that of western countries. In addition to methotrexate, the use of tacrolimus has increased gradually. The most prominent observed change is a rapid increase in the use of biologics, which rose to stardom in the treatment of RA in Japan and western countries. These changes in drug therapy could allow us to control RA disease activity more tightly. In line with this, the outcomes of patients with RA in Japan have been improving continuously, both clinically and functionally. Subsequently, the use of both NSAIDs and corticosteroids has decreased. In addition, overall rates of joint operations related to RA have also decreased; in particular, a significant decrease was noticed in the incidence of joint replacement and synovectomy. Overall, the trends in treatments and subsequent outcomes for RA in Japan have exactly followed those seen in western countries.

  9. The Flintlock Site (8JA1763): An Unusual Underwater Deposit in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrell, Christopher E.; Scott-Ireton, Della A.; Smith, Roger C.; Levy, James; Knetsch, Joe

    2009-06-01

    In the fall of 2001, staff of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research were led by river divers to an underwater site in the Apalachicola River containing a large concentration of prehistoric and historic artifacts lying on the riverbed. Subsequent inspection of the submerged river bank and scoured limestone river channel revealed a myriad of objects, which included iron fasteners, metal tools and implements, broken glass bottles, stone projectile points, scattered bricks and stone blocks, and other materials. Discovery of two large fragments of a wooden watercraft, a bayonet, a copper arrowhead, and flintlock gun barrels initially prompted researchers to hypothesize that the site might represent the remains of a U.S. Army boat that was attacked in 1817 by Seminole Indians while en route upriver. The episode, which caused the deaths of more than 30 soldiers and several women who were aboard the boat, led to the First Seminole War and the U.S. Army invasion of Florida. To investigate this hypothesis, a systematic survey of the riverbed was undertaken in the spring of 2002 to record underwater features and recover additional diagnostic artifacts. These activities employed side-scan sonar as well as diver visual investigations. This paper presents a case study of the value and broader significance of aggregate data where interpretation was underpinned by artefactual, historical and environmental analysis.

  10. The Impact of Conducting ATAM Evaluations on Army Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Nord, John Bergey , Stephen Blanchette, Jr., Mark Klein May 2009 ® Carnegie Mellon, Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method, and ATAM are...Nord, R.L., Bergey , J., Blanchette, Jr., S. Klein, M. Impact of Army Architecture Evaluations (CMU/SEI-2009-SR-007). Software Engineering Institute

  11. Under the Yoke: Europe’s Natural Gas Dependency on Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    environmental impact. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Gazprom, Nord Stream, South Stream, Nabucco, fracking , Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Qatar, Nigeria, Turkmenistan...WORD COUNT: 7,185 PAGES: 38 KEY TERMS: Gazprom, Nord Stream, South Stream, Nabucco, fracking , Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Qatar, Nigeria...extraction technique known as hydraulic fracturing or " fracking ". North America’s use of this technique is already increasing availability and

  12. Predictive Framework and Experimental Tests of the Kinetic Isotope Effect at Redox-Active Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavner, A.; John, S.; Black, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Electrochemical reactions provide a compelling framework to study kinetic isotope effects because redox-related processes are important for a wide variety of geological and environmental processes. In the laboratory, electrochemical reaction rates can be electronically controlled and measured in the laboratory using a potentiostat. This enables variation of redox reactions rates independent of changes in chemistry and, and the resulting isotope compositions of reactants and products can be separated and analyzed. In the past years, a series of experimental studies have demonstrated a large, light, and tunable kinetic isotope effect during electrodeposition of metal Fe, Zn, Li, Cu, and Mo from a variety of solutions (e.g. Black et al., 2009, 2010, 2011). A theoretical framework based on Marcus kinetic theory predicts a voltage-dependent kinetic isotope effect (Kavner et al., 2005, 2008), however while this framework was able to predict the tunable nature of the effect, it was not able to simultaneously predict absolute reaction rates and relative isotope rates. Here we present a more complete development of a statistical mechanical framework for simple interfacial redox reactions, which includes isotopic behavior. The framework is able to predict a kinetic isotope effect as a function of temperature and reaction rate, starting with three input parameters: a single reorganization energy which describes the overall kinetics of the electron transfer reaction, and the equilibrium reduced partition function ratios for heavy and light isotopes in the product and reactant phases. We show the framework, elucidate some of the predictions, and show direct comparisons against isotope fractionation data obtained during laboratory and natural environment redox processes. A. Kavner, A. Shahar, F. Bonet, J. Simon and E. Young (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69(12), 2971-2979. A. Kavner, S. G. John, S. Sass, and E. A. Boyle (2008), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol 72, pp. 1731

  13. State Capital Spending on PK-12 School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filardo, Mary; Bar, Michelle; Cheng, Stephanie; Ulsoy, Jessie; Allen, Marni

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the 21st Century School Fund (21CSF), with support from the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, examined the state capital outlay funding for elementary and secondary public education facility construction and modernization. The authors examined how much capital outlay has been expended by states from 2005-2008 as…

  14. Exploring and Validating Data Mining Algorithms for Use in Data Ascription

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    removed. Ccleaner [24] and Eraser [23] were used to ensure that all previous user data was deleted and overwritten. Additionally, the program Shred [20...Heidi Computers Ltd. Eraser tool. Retrieved 2007-09-10 10:50:49 -0700. http:// www.heidi.ie/node/6. [24] Piriform Ltd. Ccleaner tool, 2005-2008

  15. In My Own Time: Tuition Fees, Class Time and Student Effort in Non-Formal (Or Continuing) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolli, Thomas; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    We develop and empirically test a model which examines the impact of changes in class time and tuition fees on student effort in the form of private study. The data come from the European Union's Adult Education Survey, conducted over the period 2005-2008. We find, in line with theoretical predictions, that the time students devote to private…

  16. Constructing a Critical Professional Identity among Teacher Candidates during Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Nurit; Avissar, Ilana

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a service-learning programme designed to develop a critical professional identity among teacher candidates. The programme was held in a teacher education college in Israel over a four-year period, 2005-2008. The development of a critical professional identity is examined in relation to the post-structural…

  17. "I'm Glad I Was Designed": Un/Doing Gender and Class in Susan Price's "Odin Trilogy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    Susan Price's "Odin Trilogy" (2005-2008) is a juvenile science fiction series that depicts a future where class relations have become polarised due to late capitalist and technological developments and where ways of doing gender continue to be strongly connected with class. The society in the novels is based on slavery: people are either…

  18. Constructing a Critical Professional Identity among Teacher Candidates during Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Nurit; Avissar, Ilana

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a service-learning programme designed to develop a critical professional identity among teacher candidates. The programme was held in a teacher education college in Israel over a four-year period, 2005-2008. The development of a critical professional identity is examined in relation to the post-structural…

  19. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  20. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  1. Plant growth and elemental uptake by floating vegetation on a single stage swine wastewater lagoon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing on the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2008 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  2. 75 FR 49435 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...: Carbon monoxide (CO), ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ).\\1\\ \\1..., 2005, 2008, 2011, etc.\\15\\ \\15\\ These are known as Three-Year Cycle Inventories. See 40 CFR 51.30(b) in... pollutants (i.e., PM, ozone, nitrogen dioxide). Hence, the conformity rule has not needed to...

  3. Global Questions in the Classroom: The Formulation of Islamic Religious Education at Muslim Schools in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    My paper focuses on the formulation of Islamic Religious Education (IRE) at two Swedish Muslim schools where fieldwork was conducted in 2005-2008. Its aim is to contribute knowledge to ways in which IRE is formed as a confessional school subject within the framework and under the jurisdiction of the Swedish school system. Even though the general…

  4. A Longitudinal Study on the Effect of the Texas Behavior Support Initiative on Rural Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Alberto; Ruiz, Grace V.; Sherman, Nestor W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a school wide positive behavior initiative designed to improve student behavior. Researchers analyzed the last 3 years (2005-2008) of student discipline referral data for grades 7 and 8. Implementation resulted in a significant reduction in the number of discipline referrals. Data revealed a…

  5. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  6. A Case for Developing Community Drug Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, Hilda; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The EU Action Plan on Drugs (2005-2008) calls for member states of the European Union to provide information on five key epidemiological indicators. These are: general population surveys, prevalence and patterns of problem drug use, drug related infectious diseases, drug related deaths and mortality of drug users, and demand for drug treatment.…

  7. In My Own Time: Tuition Fees, Class Time and Student Effort in Non-Formal (Or Continuing) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolli, Thomas; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    We develop and empirically test a model which examines the impact of changes in class time and tuition fees on student effort in the form of private study. The data come from the European Union's Adult Education Survey, conducted over the period 2005-2008. We find, in line with theoretical predictions, that the time students devote to private…

  8. Promoting Distance Education in Higher Education in Cape Verde and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Fernando; Taju, Gulamo; Canuto, Louisette

    2011-01-01

    Over the past six years, the authors have been project leaders for three distance education initiatives in Cape Verde and Mozambique: (1) a blended learning master's degree in multimedia in education for faculty in Cape Verdean public higher education institutions (2005-2008); (2) a teacher training programme for 1375 elementary teachers provided…

  9. Request Modification in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication: The Role of Focused Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, D. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The pairing of telecollaboration and focused instruction can lead to measurable gains in second language learners' pragmatic competence (Belz & Vyatkina, 2005, 2008; Vyatkina & Belz, 2006). This article examines speech act production in telecollaborative exchange, focusing on the requesting behavior of American learners of German for…

  10. Young Offenders in New South Wales, Australia and the Need for Remedial Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistler, Grant; Kirkwood, Kristie; Potter, Emily; Cashin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The 2005-2008 Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy identifies young people as a key target group in need of sexual health education, screening and management. For young people who are in contact with the New South Wales (NSW) juvenile justice system, a dire need for remedial sexual health education exists. NSW young…

  11. Rates and Correlates of Undetermined Deaths among African Americans: Results from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National…

  12. The Ecology of Hope: Natural Guides to Building a Children and Nature Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Cheryl Charles, Ph.D gave the 2009 Paul F-Brandwein Lecture. The lecture addresses the impact of children's disconnect from the natural world in their everyday lives. Co-founder of the Children & Nature Network (C&NN) with Richard Louv, author of "Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder" (2005/2008), the author…

  13. A Case for Developing Community Drug Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, Hilda; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The EU Action Plan on Drugs (2005-2008) calls for member states of the European Union to provide information on five key epidemiological indicators. These are: general population surveys, prevalence and patterns of problem drug use, drug related infectious diseases, drug related deaths and mortality of drug users, and demand for drug treatment.…

  14. The Rise and Fall of Text on the Web: A Quantitative Study of Web Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocciolo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study addresses the following research question: is the use of text on the World Wide Web declining? If so, when did it start declining, and by how much has it declined? Method: Web pages are downloaded from the Internet Archive for the years 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014, producing 600 captures of 100 prominent and…

  15. Rates and Correlates of Undetermined Deaths among African Americans: Results from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National…

  16. Selective Prevention: Addressing Vulnerability to Problem Drug Use in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…

  17. Environmental Education in an Age of National Standards and Videophilia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on the work of Louv (2005, 2008) and Lowell (2008) and their ideas are explored with regard to barriers to, as well as opportunities for, effective environmental education. State curriculum standards in the U.S. include substantial environmental education (EE) content. Despite this, overall education policy stymies educators'…

  18. Request Modification in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication: The Role of Focused Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, D. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The pairing of telecollaboration and focused instruction can lead to measurable gains in second language learners' pragmatic competence (Belz & Vyatkina, 2005, 2008; Vyatkina & Belz, 2006). This article examines speech act production in telecollaborative exchange, focusing on the requesting behavior of American learners of German for…

  19. The Ecology of Hope: Natural Guides to Building a Children and Nature Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Cheryl Charles, Ph.D gave the 2009 Paul F-Brandwein Lecture. The lecture addresses the impact of children's disconnect from the natural world in their everyday lives. Co-founder of the Children & Nature Network (C&NN) with Richard Louv, author of "Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder" (2005/2008), the author…

  20. "I'm Glad I Was Designed": Un/Doing Gender and Class in Susan Price's "Odin Trilogy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    Susan Price's "Odin Trilogy" (2005-2008) is a juvenile science fiction series that depicts a future where class relations have become polarised due to late capitalist and technological developments and where ways of doing gender continue to be strongly connected with class. The society in the novels is based on slavery: people are either…

  1. Incidence, Distribution, and Genetic Variations of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter sp.' Associated with Zebra Chip of Potato in North America.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (CLs) and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ (CLp) were confirmed in potato plants affected with zebra chip/zebra complex (ZC) disease throughout Texas potato production areas in 2005-2008, in seed tubers produced from Wyoming in 2007, and in...

  2. Promoting Distance Education in Higher Education in Cape Verde and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Fernando; Taju, Gulamo; Canuto, Louisette

    2011-01-01

    Over the past six years, the authors have been project leaders for three distance education initiatives in Cape Verde and Mozambique: (1) a blended learning master's degree in multimedia in education for faculty in Cape Verdean public higher education institutions (2005-2008); (2) a teacher training programme for 1375 elementary teachers provided…

  3. Historical Analysis of Costs, Risks, and Uncertainties: Moving From a Proprietary to an Open Architected Systems, Open Business Acquisitions Management Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    intuition” or “guesswork” to calculate the ROI of their IT investments (DiMare, 2009, p. 5). According to ZapThink Research (as cited in Schmelzer , 2005...2008). A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide; 4th ed.). Newtown Square, PA: Author. Schmelzer , R. (2005, January 27

  4. Amending Moore’s Law for Embedded Applications: Panel Session

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-29

    United States Government. Reference to any specific commercial product, trade name, trademark or manufacturer does not constitute or imply endorsement...parts incl. voice I/O chip Deep Yogurt has 1/3 the size & power of Deep Dew, with 3X improvement in 3 yrs ~2005 ~2008 2002- 2004 MIT Lincoln

  5. 76 FR 11287 - Distribution of 2005 Through 2008 DART Musical Works Funds Royalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... . In the alternative, send an original, five copies, and an electronic copy on a CD either by mail or... INFORMATION: On April 8, 2010, Broadcast Music, Inc., the American Society of Composers, Authors and..., distribute to the Settling Claimants 95% of the 2005-2008 DART Musical Works Funds, for the Writers and Music...

  6. Young Offenders in New South Wales, Australia and the Need for Remedial Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistler, Grant; Kirkwood, Kristie; Potter, Emily; Cashin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The 2005-2008 Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy identifies young people as a key target group in need of sexual health education, screening and management. For young people who are in contact with the New South Wales (NSW) juvenile justice system, a dire need for remedial sexual health education exists. NSW young…

  7. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  8. J.A. Schumpeter and T.B. Veblen on economic evolution: the dichotomy between statics and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Marlies; Rainer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At present, the discussion on the dichotomy between statics and dynamics is resolved by concentrating on its mathematical meaning. Yet, a simple formalisation masks the underlying methodological discussion. Overcoming this limitation, the paper discusses Schumpeter's and Veblen's viewpoint on dynamic economic systems as systems generating change from within. It contributes to an understanding on their ideas of how economics could become an evolutionary science and on their contributions to elaborate an evolutionary economics. It confronts Schumpeter's with Veblen's perspective on evolutionary economics and provides insight into their evolutionary economic theorising by discussing their ideas on the evolution of capitalism. PMID:28057981

  9. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  10. Position Data Analysis Job Aid (PDAT-JA) Prototype Software (Version 2. 0), User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station , Alexandria, Virginia 22304-6145. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...Unrestricted Editing, Edit Line ........................ 44 23. UIC Balance Status Window ....................................... 45 24. Initial PMAD Editing...Screen ..................................... 46 25. Initial Activated PMAD Worksheet, Hot-Key Commands .............. 48 26. PMAD Worksheet, Edit Line

  11. J.A. Schumpeter and T.B. Veblen on economic evolution: the dichotomy between statics and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marlies; Rainer, Andreas

    2016-09-02

    At present, the discussion on the dichotomy between statics and dynamics is resolved by concentrating on its mathematical meaning. Yet, a simple formalisation masks the underlying methodological discussion. Overcoming this limitation, the paper discusses Schumpeter's and Veblen's viewpoint on dynamic economic systems as systems generating change from within. It contributes to an understanding on their ideas of how economics could become an evolutionary science and on their contributions to elaborate an evolutionary economics. It confronts Schumpeter's with Veblen's perspective on evolutionary economics and provides insight into their evolutionary economic theorising by discussing their ideas on the evolution of capitalism.

  12. The Mechanical Response of M30, JA2 and XM39 Gun Propellants to High-Rate Deformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    8217. - -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Mouu vs Teprtr c.2’Iodl sTeprtr I KILr I ’I ’KnclRsos tX19I-guc1.N~i oaih ftcN3 ’IS ’L Funcion o Tc nperat ire V...Propellant Test," Tentative Standard for CPIA Publication 21 Solid Propellant Mechanical Properties Manual . 1988 6. R. J. Lieb, D. Devynck, and J. J

  13. Kone Ja Keele Uurimine Ning Emakeele Didaktika (Relevance of Linguistic and Psycholinguistic Studies to Mother Tongue Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlep, Karl

    This article looks at the relevance of linguistic and psycholinguistic studies to mother tongue instruction. Particularly, the semantically-oriented research of higher level units of language and speech, is considered. As some Estonian studies imply, there are indications that the application of psycholinguistic research in teaching practices…

  14. Verification of Use of IBHVG In Screening of High-Metal Loading Igniter Materials for Optimum Ignition of JA2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    2  Figure 2. Photograph of igniter mixture candidate 12 as both powder and pellet ...reference was made relative to the LW30 standard igniter material—the IB52 pellet (11). The IB52 pellet is composed of BKNO3 with a gas-generating...component. It was sized to fit into the flash tube used in this study. Typical LW30 usage is three pellets . For this study, only one pellet was

  15. Aidinkieli Suomen Kielen Ja Vieraiden Kielten Opiskelijoiden Mielissa (Native Language Influence on the Teaching and Learning of Estonian and Finnish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muikku-Werner, Pirkko

    In recent years, language awareness has been a popular topic of lively discussion. Both linguists and language teachers have shown interest in consciousness raising that has been considered a means of establishing motivated and effective language learning. Most studies have approached the subject from the viewpoint of foreign languages, and less…

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis), Btu...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis), Btu...

  18. Mise en évidence de déformations en faille inverse avec ruptures de surface cosismiques dans des dépôts colluviaux würmiens du versant nord du mont Ventoux (Provence occidentale, France)Evidence of reverse faulting and coseismic surface ruptures in Würm colluvial deposits from the Mt Ventoux northern slope (Western Provence, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutour, Alain; Philip, Hervé; Jaurand, Erwan; Combes, Philippe

    In western Provence (France), brittle deformation of Quaternary age occurring in the vicinity of the Nı̂mes and Durance faults has been linked to palaeoseisms of significant magnitude. Our new observations made on the southern rim of the Tertiary Malaucène Basin, in the continuation of a thrust to the north of Mt Ventoux, present evidence for reverse faulting deformation in deposits of a Würm colluvial fan. The analysis of a trench section provides clear evidence for: (1) the development of two successive surface ruptures and degradation of associated scarps during the Mid-Upper Würm, and, (2) the continuation of the reverse fault within the Oligocene basement. These tectonic events were associated with earthquakes of at least 6 in magnitude. To cite this article: A. Dutour et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 849-856.

  19. La structuration de la marge pacifique nord-américaine et du ≪ terrane ≫ Caborca : apports de la découverte d'une faune du Jurassique inférieur et moyen dans la série de Pozos de Serna (Sonora, Mexique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmus, Thierry; Pérez Segura, Efrén; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang

    1997-08-01

    We document an Early and Middle Jurassic age for the lower part of Jurassic rocks of the Pozos de Serna area, on the basis of new datings of ammonites. These rocks are correlated with the Lower Jurassic levels of the Antimonio Formation. The angular unconformity between the Pozos de Serna unit and the Proterozoic and Palaeozoic basement of the Caborca terrane allows us to propose that, in its present position, the whole Caborca terrane, including its Proterozoic basement, is accreted to the North American craton.

  20. Méthode quantitative d'étude des formations détritiques azoïques: grès anté-panafricains du Centrafrique et du Nord de la République Démocratique du Congo (ex-Zaïre)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, P.

    2000-08-01

    The stratigraphical correlation of discontinuous outcrops without biostratigraphical markers requires specific methods: a statistical distribution analysis of noteworthy components that allows characterisation of sediment source areas and reconstitution of particle supply variations; and a frequency histogram study that allows comparison and grouping, and subsequent correlation. These methods, applied to Pal˦oproterozoic and Neoproterozoic sandstone formations of the Central African Republic, suggest a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian fluvio-deltaic system with a paludal-lacustrine outlet. The sediment source area corresponded to a weathered and laterised grano-gneissic basement associated with a quartzite cover with acid volcanism. The fluvio-deltaic system settled during an interglacial period between a lower fluvio-giacial episode and an upper glacial episode of global character. It was marked by a substantial detntal flow, contemporaneous with basic volcanism, which filled up extensional basins. The sedimentary dynamics of this detrital system has been determined in the Central African Republic. It forms an integral part of a global model not only peculiar to the northern periphery of the Central African Craton (Congo, Cameroon, the northern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo), but also to its southeastern (Congo, Lower-Zaire, Angola) and southwestern (Democratic Republic of Congo) borders. In the Central African Republic and Congo, the channalised and conglomeratic base of this fluvio-deltaic system are favoured for diamond prospecting.

  1. "The Right To Speak Irish": representation de la langue gaelique en tant qu'enjeu de mobilisation militante en Irlande du Nord ("The Right To Speak Irish": Representation of the Gaelic Language as a Catalyst for Militant Activism in Northern Ireland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Viviane

    2000-01-01

    The Irish language movement in Northern Ireland was formed in the 1970s. Pragmatic and symbolic implications of this minority language revival considerably evolved, reflecting and depending on important political changes happening in this European province. This article focuses on the representation of Irish language and the most recent strategy…

  2. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  3. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  4. Estimation de la recharge de la nappe quaternaire dans le Nord-Ouest du bassin du lac Tchad (Niger oriental) à partir de mesures isotopiquesRecharge of the Quaternary water table in the northwestern Lake Chad basin (southeastern Niger) estimated from isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Christian; Sabljak, Stéphane; Taupin, Jean-Denis; Marlin, Christelle; Favreau, Guillaume

    2000-03-01

    The Quaternary water table is present over almost the whole Lake Chad basin. In its Niger part, where annual rainfall varies from 0 to 350 mm, radioactive isotopes ( 3H and 14C) are interpreted in terms of renewal rate; medians are 0.10 and 0.05 %, respectively, which means a recharge of about 2 or 3 mm.yr -1. This very weak infiltration is compatible with the stable isotope contents ( 2H and 18O) in groundwater, which show a mixing of old and recent waters, infiltrated during the last humid period and the present drier times.

  5. Le role de l'identite ethnique dans l'acquisition et la retention de competences culturelles et de communication en milieu minoritaire francophone du Nord de l'Ontario (The Role of Ethnic Identity in Acquisition and Retention of Cultural and Communicative Competence in a Francophone Minority Context in Northern Ontario).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Georges

    A two-and-a-half-year study in northern Ontario (Canada) investigated the relationship between characteristics of the minority French-speaking community, home environment, and the school and classroom environments. Focus was on factors affecting the development and maintenance of cultural awareness, ethnic identity, and communicative competence in…

  6. Les manifestations tectoniques synsédimentaires associées à la compression éocène en Tunisie : implications paléogéographiques et structurales sur la marge Nord-AfricaineThe synsedimentary tectonic activity associated to Eocene shortening in Tunisia: implication in the palaeogeographic and structural evolution of the North African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghali, Abdessalem; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Bobier, Claude; Zargouni, Fouad; Krima, Anis

    2003-09-01

    In central Tunisia, a synsedimentary tectonic episode has been pointed out through the tectonic movements affecting the Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene successions. This tectonic episode has controlled, to a large extent, the palaeogeographic setting of the area during that period and confirmed the important effect induced by the Pyrenean shortening phase on the edge of the African plate, which obviously has witnessed a common history with the southern part of the European plate. To cite this article: A. El Ghali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  7. Caractérisation géométrique et cinématique des structures liées aux phases compressives de l'Éocène au Quaternaire inférieur en Tunisie : exemple de la Tunisie nord-orientale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mzali, Houcem; Zouari, Hédi

    2006-08-01

    During Eocene to Early Quaternary period, three compressive tectonic phases are recognized in Northeast Tunisia: a NW-SE to north-south phase during the Late Eocene, a N120-to-N140 phase in the Late Miocene, and a NW-SE to north-south phase in the Plio-Early Quaternary. The first Eocene phase has built NE-SW folds and remobilised east-west-to-N120 and NE-SW faults with a reverse component. The second Miocene phase is characterized by east-west-to-N120 faults with a normal component and NE-SW folds. The third phase occurred during the Plio-Early Quaternary has edified NE-SW folds associated with east-west-to-N120 dextral reverse strike-slip faults and NE-SW faults with a reverse component. To cite this article: H. Mzali, H. Zouari, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  8. Mise en évidence d'une nappe de charriage à deux unités paléogènes au plateau de Lansarine (Tunisie du Nord) : définition d'un nouvel élément structural de l'Atlas tunisien et réévaluation du calendrier des serrages tertiaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrouhi, Amara; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Vila, Jean-Marie; Zargouni, Fouad

    2007-05-01

    The Palaeogene plateau of the Lansarine area (northern Tunisia) is a thrust nappe formed by two Eocene limestone units, overlapping the marine Miocene series. The stacking of these two units and the coverage of the Neogene series are noticeable in several localities within the study area. The cartography permits the measurement of a NW-SE overthrust amplitude of 10 km with respect to the nearest southern overlapping of the Mateur peel thrusts, which are displaced themselves. The measured overthrust represents a minimal estimation based on the present erosion limits. These results indicate that the region has been exposed, at least, to two Tertiary compressive phases. The first one took place during the Late Eocene. This phase, which was characterized by a moderate folding, corresponds to the Atlasic phase. The second major phase, which has been dated to the Tortonian age, is responsible for the tangentially carrying of the Palaeogene series. These new data have allowed the recognition of a new tectonic unit in the Tunisian Atlas, which is the thrust nappe of the Jebel Lansarine.

  9. Preuves de la non-stratification du Trias dans le Turonien de la Koudiat Sidii (Nord-Ouest de la Tunisie)Evidence of the non-interbedding of the Triassic evaporites within the Turonian sediments in the Koudiat Sidii area (north-western Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhaoui, Mongi; Braham, Ahmed; Turki, Mohamed Moncef

    2001-06-01

    The cartographic and biostratigraphic datings carried out at Koudiat Sidii do not confirm the interbedding of the Triassic rocks within the Turonian sediments. Interrelationships between cartographic, drill holes and gravimetric dating show that the Triassic rocks form the core of a large anticline, flanked by Cretaceous and Neogene outcrops. Of this structure, in large parts collapsed and buried under a thick Quaternary deposit, we only see the western flank, formed by dolomitic breccia of Triassic rocks supporting a set that spreads from Upper Cenomanian to Upper Senonian. The occurrence of Triassic debris flow reworked in the Turonian allows us to interpret the Triassic material as a diapiric extrusion, which reached the surface during the Turonian times, in the tectonic corner of ancient faults trending north-south and NE-SW. During the Tertiary tightening phases, oriented NW-SE, the induced folded structures are strongly controlled by these tectonic directions. Particularly, the meridian fold corresponds to the torsion of J. Hout NE-SW fold in the neighbourhood of the north-south palaeofaults.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Coffin-Lowry syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... MalaCards: symptomatic form of coffin-lowry syndrome in female carriers Orphanet: Coffin-Lowry syndrome Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Resource list from the ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Alagille syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndrome Alliance Children's Liver Association for Support Services (CLASS) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 link) Alagille Syndrome ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials. ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: adiposis dolorosa

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders (NORD) ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ... H, Brorson H. Review of Dercum's disease and proposal of diagnostic criteria, diagnostic methods, classification and management. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2012 ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Walker-Warburg syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... proteins and other molecules outside the cell (extracellular matrix). In skeletal muscles, the anchoring function of glycosylated ... 4 links) Cure CMD Muscular Dystrophy Association National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) The Arc: For People ...

  14. 75 FR 23847 - Blocking of Specially Designated National Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Democratic Republic of the; DOB 1973; POB Nord-Kivu, DRC; alt. POB Rwanda; nationality Congo, Democratic.... MUTEBUZI, Jules), Rwanda; DOB 6 Jul 1960; POB South Kivu, DRC; nationality Congo, Democratic Republic...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: biotinidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... links) Children Living With Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK): Biotinidase Deficiency (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Biotinidase Deficiency Illinois ... Group Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 31

    MedlinePlus

    ... dominant MalaCards: spastic paraplegia 31 National Health Service (UK) Orphanet: Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia type 31 Orphanet: ... and Advocacy Resources (5 links) Contact a Family (UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Hereditary Spastic ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support and Advocacy Resources (4 links) National Ataxia Foundation National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia RareConnect Spastic Paraplegia Foundation, Inc.: About Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia GeneReviews (2 links) ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 4

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support and Advocacy Resources (4 links) National Ataxia Foundation National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia RareConnect Spastic Paraplegia Foundation, Inc.: About Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia GeneReviews (2 links) ...

  19. Severe Weather Guide - Mediterranean Ports. 7. Marseille

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Naval vessels normally utilize Avant Port Nord, the northern part of the Port, which is comprised of the following basins: Bassin Mirabeau , where the... Mirabeau -Mole de Leon Gourret GULF OF MARSEILLE ■43°16’N- NAUTICAL MILE SCALE 0 1 2 I I I 5°16’E...comprised of Avant Port Nord at the northern entrance, and the following basins: Bassin Mirabeau , Bassin Leon Bourret (Darse Sud), Bassin du President

  20. The Nordic energy market model an electricity power exchange across national borders

    SciTech Connect

    Randen, H.; Andersen, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    As a first step towards a Nordic Power Exchange the Swedish and the Norwegian electricity market were merged into one free trade area. Norwegian and Swedish participants trade on equal terms on the market. Finnish and Danish participants trade on special terms towards the common Norwegian-Swedish free trade area. Finland will be included in the free trade area in 1998. Nord Pool is responsible for two markets. The Spot Market is the Nordic market for physical delivery power. In this market participants trade power contracts for next-day delivery. A price is determined for each hour based on bids and offer from the participants. The Spot Market serves as reference price for Nord Pool's Futures and Forward Market and reference price in the bilateral wholesale market. The Futures and Forward Markets are financial markets for price hedging and risk management. Through these market the participants can hedge purchase and sale of power within a time horizon of up to three years. In the bilateral wholesale market there is a high trade activity of financial contracts that are standardized in the same manner as Nord Pools forwards. Nord Pool has therefore established a clearing service where contracts that are traded on bilateral basis can be cleared through Nord Pool and with Nord Pool as counterpart. More than 200 participants from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and England trade through Nord Pool. A general goal is to develop the market to include all four nordic countries in one common free trade area in close co-operation with the power business in the countries. There are different conditions for competition in the four countries, and much coordinating work is therefore still left to be done.

  1. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1991. Volume 17

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    FIBER OPTIC ANALOG LINK MS-9183 MS-8873 FABRY - PEROT LASER FIBER OPTIC APPLICATIONS JA-6656 JA-6686 FABRY - PEROT SCANNING FIBER OPTIC LINK JA-6567 MS...8532, MS-9353 FABRY - PEROT SPECTRUM ANALYZER FIBER OPTICS TECHNOLOGY JA-6682 JA-6458 FAR-FIELD BEAM DIVERGENCE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS JA-6505 JA-6662...9049A ADSORPTION ACOUSTICS JA-6609 MS-8943 ADVANCED DETECTION ACOUSTO- OPTICS TECHNOLOGY

  2. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory. Volume 11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    5689 JA-5786 LASER DIODES ION BEAM ETCHING JA-5666, MS-6613, MS-6850 J-63 A51 LASER DIRECT PATTERNING ION BEAM MIXING JA-5695 JA-5760, MS-6719 LASER ... FABRICATION ION BEAMS M-67 JA-5660, JA-5671 LASER ILLUMINATION ION IMPLANTATIONJA52 MS-6500, MS-6719, MS-6765 LASER INDUCED CHEMISTRY * ~~ISL

  3. [Nutritional status of Mexican school age children, living in the frontier with United States].

    PubMed

    Aviña-Barrera, Mariel A; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Perales-Torres, Adriana; Aleman-Castillo, Sanjuana

    2016-03-01

    Undernutrition and obesity coexist among Mexican children due to poverty, sedentariness and inadequate food intake. To assess the nutritional status of school age children in a Mexican city located in the frontier with United States. Cross sectional assessment of children from 28 basic schools in 2005, 2008 and 2013. Using a cluster sampling methodology, 5 children per course were selected in each school, reaching a final sample 840 children aged 7 to 12 years old. Body mass index z scores were calculated. The pre valence of overweight and obesity among these children was 49, 54 and 45% in the assessments performed in 2005, 2008 and 2013 respectively. There is a trend towards a decrease in the frequency of obesity in these children from 2005 to 2013.

  4. Erosion / Corrosion Resistant Coatings for Compressor Airfoils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-29

    to enhance durability and TOW • 19 Uncoated engine blade failures (2003-2007); 2 class A Mishaps (2005 &2008) • Zero Coated engine blade failures ...impact on Commercial Turbofan pending areas of operation Commercial Aero Fuel Savings Turbofan Engines Coated Thickness Impact Leading Edge...ASETSDefense 2012: Sustainable Surface Engineering for Aerospace and Defense Workshop, August 27-30, 2012, San Diego, CA. Sponsored by SERDP/ESTCP. 14

  5. Classifying superpotentials: Three summands case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancer, A.; Wang, M.

    2011-03-01

    We give an overview of our classification results in Dancer and Wang (2005, 2008) [1,2] for superpotentials of scalar curvature type of the cohomogeneity one Ricci-flat equations. We then give an account of the classification in the case where the isotropy representation of the principal orbit consists of exactly three distinct irreducible real summands—the left over case from Dancer and Wang (2008) [2].

  6. Multi-Year CMOR Observations of the Geminid Meteor Shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, A. R.; Jones, J.

    2011-01-01

    The three-station Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) is used here to examine the Geminid meteor shower with respect to variation in the stream properties including the flux and orbital elements over the period of activity in each of the consecutive years 2005 2008 and the variability from year to year. Attention is given to the appropriate choice and use of the D-criterion in the separating the shower meteors from the sporadic background.

  7. Understanding the Role of Licenses and Evolution in Open Architecture Software Ecosystems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-29

    Understanding the Role of Licenses and Evolution in Open Architecture Software Ecosystems Walt Scacchi Institute for Software Research. University of... Scacchi ), alspaugh@cs. georgetown.edu (Thomas A. Alspaugh) Preprint submitted to Elsevier November 29, 2010 Manuscript Click here to view linked References...2001-2002. 14. The Mono C# Compiler and Tools, Copyright 2005-2008 Novell, Inc. 15. libcurl. Copyright (c) 1996-2008, Daniel Stenberg < daniel @haxx.se

  8. Optimal Sampling Strategies for Oceanic Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Bluelink ocean data assimilation system ( BODAS ; Oke et al. 2005; 2008) that underpins BRAN is based on Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (EnOI). EnOI is well...Brassington, D. A. Griffin and A. Schiller, 2008: The Bluelink Ocean Data Assimilation System ( BODAS ). Ocean Modelling, 20, 46-70. Oke, P. R., M...1017. [published, refereed] Ocean Data Assimilation System ( BODAS ). Ocean Modelling, 20, 46-70. [published, refereed] Sakov, P., and P. R. Oke 2008

  9. Practice to introduce complementary foods to infants in Taiwan--changes from 1997 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Rong; Tzeng, Min-Su; Kao, Mei-Ding; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand present infant complementary foods eating and compare trends over the past 10 years in Taiwan. We investigated the methods used to introduce infants to complementary foods, difficulties encountered, sources of information and the principle caregiver's knowledge about infant feeding. This study focused on findings from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) and compared with those from the 1997-1999 Child NAHSIT. Interviews in both surveys were carried out by trained interviewers. In 2005-2008 survey, 50% of infants aged 7-12 months had started eating baby cereals or juice at age 4-6 months as recommended. The proportions of infants aged 10-12 months who were introduced to particular complementary foods at recommended periods varied from biscuits (51.1%) to tofu (1.1%). The proportions were higher in 2005-2008 than in 1997-1999 for only 3 items. In both survey, more than 80% of mothers were the one who made the decision to introduce their children to complementary foods. More than 75% of caregivers fed baby cereals to their babies from milk bottles. In 2005-2008, the most commonly encountered problem was that the child wouldn't eat. Nutrition knowledge of the caregivers have improved since 1999, but still needs fostering. The timing to introduce complementary foods become later than ten years ago. Whether the delay will affect the normal dietary intakes of children after one year of age needs attention. The government should not only promote breastfeeding, but also reevaluate current evidence-based recommendation on complementary food introduction time.

  10. Discovering Air Force Identity: Airpower and Innovations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    Change Culture, Reverse Careerism.” Joint Force Quarterly, 58, 3rd Qtr 2010, 82-88; Carl H. Builder, The Icarus Syndrome : The Role of Air Power Theory...Themes in Messages from Top Air Force Leaders, 2005-2008, Documented briefing to United States Air Force (Arlington, VA: RAND, 2010); Colin S . Gray...its Impact on Retention, Research Report (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Command and Staff College, 1 April 2002); Philip S . Meilinger, Airpower Myths and Facts

  11. Comparison of E layer critical frequency over the Thai station Chumphon with IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongcharoen, P.; Kenpankho, P.; Supnithi, P.; Ishii, M.; Tsugawa, T.

    2015-04-01

    In this research, as a part of working towards improving the IRI over magnetic equatorial region, the critical frequency of E layer in the ionosphere (foE) derived from the ionogram at Chumphon station (10.72°N, 99.37°E), Thailand, during 2005-2008 is analyzed. The Chumphon station is located in the magnetic equatorial region at the magnetic latitude of 3.22°N. The seasonal variation of the foE measurements is compared to the IRI foE predictions with the optional input in the sunspot number (Rz12) and the solar radio noise flux (F10.7). For a declining phase of the solar cycle 23 during the year 2005-2008, the study shows that the IRI foE prediction is similar to the foE observation during the period of 2005-2008. The maximum differences between the IRI foE prediction and foE observation are about 500 kHz during daytime period of 2007.

  12. Interannual variability in soil nitric oxide emissions over the United States as viewed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudman, R. C.; Russell, A. R.; Valin, L. C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2010-10-01

    We examine the interannual variability in the NO2 column over North America measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in 2005-2008. By comparison to a model of soil NOx emissions driven by the North American Regional Reanalysis precipitation and 0-10 cm soil temperature fields, we show the source of this observed interannual variability over much of the central United States in June is fertilizer application. We find that dry, warm conditions followed by convective precipitation induces pulsed emissions of NOx over the agricultural Great Plains. In June 2006 we infer a 50% increase in soil NOx emission and a 30% increase in the tropospheric NO2 column relative to the June 2005-2008 mean. In a case-study of fertilized corn and soybean fields over SE South Dakota, we find an associated rain-induced pulsing event reaching 4.6×1015 molec cm-2, equivalent to a surface concentration of ~2 ppbv. We calculate that soil NOx emissions resulted in a mean daily maximum 8-h ozone enhancement over the agricultural Great Plains of 5 ppbv in June 2006 (with predicted events reaching 16 ppbv) compared with a mean enhancement of 3 ppbv for soil NOx in the years 2005-2008.

  13. Interannual variability in soil nitric oxide emissions over the United States as viewed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudman, R. C.; Russell, A. R.; Valin, L. C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2010-05-01

    We examine the interannual variability in the NO2 column over North America measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in 2005-2008. By comparison to a model of soil NOx emissions driven by the North American Regional Reanalysis precipitation and 0-10 cm soil temperature fields, we show the source of this observed interannual variability over much of the central United States in June is fertilizer application. We find that dry,warm conditions followed by convective precipitation induces pulsed emissions of NOx over the agricultural Great Plains. In June~2006 we infer a 50% increase in soil NOx emission and a 30% increase in the tropospheric NO2 column relative to the June 2005-2008 mean. In a case-study of fertilized corn and soybean fields over SE South Dakota, we find an associated rain-induced pulsing event reaching 4.6×1015 molec cm-2, equivalent to a surface concentration of ~2 ppbv. We calculate that soil NOx emissions resulted in a mean daily maximum 8-h ozone enhancement over the agricultural Great Plains of 5 ppbv in June~2006 (with predicted events reaching 16 ppbv) compared with a mean enhancement of 3 ppbv for soil NOx in the years 2005-2008.

  14. Nouvelle interprétation structurale de la O faille Nord- Pyrénéenne e en vallée d'Aspe (Pyrénées-Atlantiques). Remise en question d'un plutonisme ophitique danien dans leBsecteur de BedousNew structural interpretation of the ?North-Pyrenean Fault? in the Aspe Valley (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France). Question about a so-called Danian ophitic plutonism in the Bedous area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canérot, Joseph; Majesté-Menjoulas, Claude; Ternet, Yves

    2004-02-01

    In the Aspe Valley (western Pyrenees), the Europe/Iberia boundary corresponds to a complex fracturing zone, called the 'Bielle-Accous Wrench-Faulting Corridor', which represents the classical 'North-Pyrenean Fault'. Located between the High Primary Range and the North-Pyrenean Zone, the BAWC shows different south-verging sheets mainly composed of Triassic materials. The Bedous ophite, associated with Muschelkalk and Keuper sediments, is also Triassic in age and involved in the same Pyrenean thrusting structures. So, contrary to a recent interpretation, this magmatic rock cannot be related to a supposed Danian plutonism inducing metamorphic processes in the surrounding Mesozoic formations. To cite this article: J. Canérot et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  15. Mise en évidence d'un sillon marin à brèches paléocènes dans les Pyrénées centrales (Zone interne métamorphique et Zone nord-pyrénéenne)Evidence of a marine trough, infilled by Palaeocene breccias, in the Central Pyrenees (Internal Metamorphic Zone and North-Pyrenean Zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Fondecave-Wallez, Marie-José; Combes, Pierre-Jean; Eichène, Paule

    2001-03-01

    The discovery, in several localities, of significant planktonic Foraminifera, Danian-Selandian in age (P 1c-P 3 interval), both in the matrix of polygenic, post-metamorphic and post-tectonic debris-flow breccias (Comus Breccia Fm.) and in argillaceous hemipelagites, interbedded within these breccias, evidences the occurrence, during Palaeocene, of a longitudinal east-west marine trough, particularly open towards the Atlantic Ocean, within the present Internal Metamorphic Zone (and adjacent North-Pyrenean areas) of Central Pyrenees, from Aude to Haute-Garonne. This new dating shows the major importance of the Upper(most) Cretaceous compressions in the structuration of the tectorogenic axis of the range.

  16. Magmatismes tholéiitique et alcalin des demi-grabens crétacés de Mayo Oulo Léré et de Babouri Figuil (Nord du Cameroun Sud du Tchad) en domaine d'extension continentaleTholeiitic and alkaline magmatisms of the Early-Cretaceous half-grabens of Mayo Oulo Léré and Babouri Figuil (Northern Cameroon Southern Chad) in extensional structural settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngounouno, Ismaı̈la; Déruelle, Bernard; Guiraud, René; Vicat, Jean-Paul

    2001-08-01

    Two major dykes of basalts, microgabbros, olivine dolerites (continental tholeiites), and of camptonites and benmoreites (alkaline rocks) are respectively exposed in the Mayo Oulo-Léré and Babouri-Figuil Early Cretaceous half-grabens (Northern Cameroon-Southern Chad). The tholeiites were probably derived from an asthenospheric source in connection with a lithospheric thinning occurring between Santonian and Eocene times. In contrast, the alkaline rocks may be derived from a deeper metasomatized mantle source.

  17. Datation U_Pb sur zircons des dolérites tholéiitiques pyrénéennes (ophites) à la limite Trias Jurassique et relations avec les tufs volcaniques dits « infra-liasiques » nord-pyrénéensU_Pb zircon SHRIMP dating of Pyrenean tholeiitic dolerites (ophites): evidence for an age encompassing the Trias Jurassic limit and relationships with earliest North Pyrenean 'Infraliassic' tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Philippe; Cocherie, Alain; Fanning, C. Mark; Ternet, Yves

    2003-12-01

    The tholeiitic doleritic magmatism (ophites) in the Aspe valley of the Pyrenees has been dated on the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (199±2 Ma) by the UPb method on zircon (SHRIMP). Emplacement of the ophites was probably synchronous with that of the earliest 'Infraliassic' Ségalas tuffs. The ophites are thus related to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) whose emplacement linked with the fracturing of Pangea, preceded the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. To cite this article: P. Rossi et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  18. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  19. State-Level Mandates for Financial Literacy Education, JA Finance Park, and the Impact on Eighth-Grade Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…

  20. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  1. Kommunikation ja, aber auf welcher Basis? ZE-Diskussion. Pattern Drill (Communication, Yes, but on What Basis? ZE Discussion. Pattern Drill)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Albert

    1976-01-01

    Argues for pattern drill as an indispensable link in the learning process: presentation, explanation, practice, performance. Opponents of pattern practice are suspected of confusing goal (communication) with means (drill phase). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  3. State-Level Mandates for Financial Literacy Education, JA Finance Park, and the Impact on Eighth-Grade Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…

  4. The Mechanical Response of M30, XM39, and JA2 Propellants at Strain Rates from One One-hundredth to 250 per second

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    determined by comparison with a National Bureau of Standards certified displacement dial gage ( personal communication with Aaron Anderson, MTS Project...strain increments past yield, ratios of subsequent strain energy density values relative to the strain energy density at yield. Macroscopic yield is...equations for materials requires that the boundary value problem be homogeneous, viz., the stresses within the continuum be identical to those applied at

  5. al-Khwarizmi [al-Khawarizmi; al'Khwarizmi], Abu Abd-Allah [Abdullah; Ja'far] Mohammad [Muhammad] ibn Musa [Bin Musa] (c. 800-c. 850)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born at Khawarizm (Kheva), south of the Aral Sea, he flourished in Baghdad from 813 to 833. He was an astronomer and geographer but is best known as a mathematician. The word algebra was derived from his book Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah. He brought into mathematics the use of zero and the rest of the Indian system of numerals (now known as `Arabic numerals'), and developed the decimal system. His nam...

  6. Condensed-Phase Processes during Solid Propellant Combustion. 3. Preliminary Depth-Profiling Studies on XM39, JA2, M9, M30, and HMX2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Campus Library W.C. Strahle ATTN: K. Brezinsky B.T. Zinn I. Glassman Atlanta, GA 30332 P.O. Box 710 Princeton, NJ 08540 University of Illinois Dept. of...White Rocket Center, WV 26726 B i3. Wenzel 345 E. 47th Street 1 Hercules, Inc. New York, NY 10017 ATTN: R.V. Cartwright 100 Howard Blvd. Atlantic

  7. Hg soil pollution around a decommissioned and unrestored Chlor-alkali plant: Jodar, Jaén province, SE Spain. Incidence in other environmental compartments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil pollution and its consequences around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The plant was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hidrargirism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, together with the analysis of olive-tree leaves from the same area. 75 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm. and 15-30 cm), together with 75 olive tree samples, 5 water samples. Besides, two monitoring surveys for total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere were performed. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device, with GPS georreferenciation of the analysis points. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. A local reference level was calculated as GM + 2SD (where GM is the geometric mean and SD the standard deviation). With this reference level it was possible to delimitate a contaminated soil area centered on the decommissioned chlor-alkali plant. A high affinity of local olive trees to accumulate mercury from the contaminated soil was also found, with a calculated maximum mercury content of 243.5 ng g-1. This maximum level is slightly higher than tolerable level for agronomic crops. Total mercury content in the analyzed waters was slightly higher than the chronic exposure level for aquatic life. Atmospheric mercury levels registered on the study area were much lower than most restrictive levels for chronic exposure. The area of influence of the facility (in terms of mercury content in air) was restricted to distances between 100 and 200 meters, depending on meteorological conditions. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees).

  8. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  9. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    PubMed

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. STS 127 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-127) and International Space Station (2J/A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. The toxicological assessment of 9 GSCs and 6 pairs of formaldehyde badges from the ISS is also reported. Other than a problem with traces of acrolein in the samples, the air quality was acceptable for respiration.

  11. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  12. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, Volume 10.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    Workshop, Processing Applications 8- 10 October 1984, - pp. 6.2.1-6.2.2 6674 Monolithic Integration of Fan, J.C.C. 1984 Intl. (16th) Conf. GaAs and Si on...MASS-TRANSPORT MFIE (SEE MAGNETIC FIELDMASS-TRANSPOR EQUATION JA-5545, JA-5590, MS-6394, MS-6562 INTEGRAL EQUATION) MMGS (SEE MONOLITHIC ...MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD JA-5539, JA-5557, JA-5658 TECHNIQUE) MICROCOMPUTER MMIC (SEE MONOLITHIC MICROWAVE TR-7I2, JA-5487 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT) MICROELECTRONICS

  13. Parallel Attack and the Enemy’s Decision Making Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    definition of this asymptotic notation. 6 JaJa , Joseph, An Introduction to Parallel Algorithms, Addison-Wesley, 1992, p 158 7 Ibid, Chapter 1 8 Baker, Louis...the processes within the hierarchy for the bureaucratic and organizational process models take the same amount of computational time. Notes 1 JaJa ...Press, New York, 1991 J.F.C. Fuller, The Foundations of the Science of War, London, Hutchinson and Company, 1925, p314. JaJa , Joseph, An Introduction to

  14. The Effects of the "Language for Learning" Programme on the Social Adjustment of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Zeng, Songtian

    2017-01-01

    The results of previous research on the "Language for Learning" programme suggest that it produces positive effects on the intellectual, language, and social skills of young children with and without disabilities [Benner, G. J., Trout, A., Nordness, P. N., Nelson, J. R., Knobel, M. L., Epstein, A.,…Epstein, M. H. (2002). "The…

  15. C-CARD: A Strategy to Improve Revising Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Bruce; Asaro-Saddler, Kristie; Thomas, Job

    2015-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often perform well below their peers across academic areas, with lower math and reading scores and higher school failure and grade retention rates (Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004). However, writing is the most significant academic deficit for these students (Austinner,…

  16. Engaging Students with Behavior Disorders in Mathematics Practice Using the High-"p" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.

    2011-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) demonstrate significant academic deficits across content areas (Coutinho, 1986; Lane, Barton-Arwood, Nelson, & Wehby, 2008; Nelson, Benner, Lane, & Smith, 2004; Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004; Ruhl & Berlinghoff, 1992). Mathematics, however, appears to be especially…

  17. Examining Gender and the Academic Achievement of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbance (ED) have significant academic deficits (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Lane, 2004). Even after identification and school intervention, students with ED continue to demonstrate limited academic achievement and high rates of drop out and school failure, with 80-90% scoring below grade level on tests of…

  18. Inclusive Work at a European Level: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Paul; Rumley, Glynis

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Paul Stephenson and Glynis Rumley describe the way in which educators in Kent have developed strong links with their colleagues and neighbours from Nord Pas de Calais in France. From a variety of projects undertaken, some of which were assisted by funding from European sources, children of all abilities and needs have been able to…

  19. An International Model for Developing Capacity for Addressing the Needs of "At Risk" Youth: A French-English affaire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Pam

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a bi-national project planned with Interreg (European) funding involving communities in Kent and Nord Pas-de-Calais. The focus is on "at risk" youth and training and supporting personnel, and action to address the needs of this client group. The differences in the two systems mean that the forms of the project are…

  20. Using Direct Observation to Assist in Eligibility Decisions and Intervention Planning: The Scales for Assessing Emotional Disturbance-2 Observation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordness, Philip D.; Epstein, Michael H.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A key issue in using the federal definition of emotional disturbance (ED) is the challenge of measuring five characteristics of ED (Epstein, Nordness, Cullinan, & Hertzog, 2002). Stated briefly, these five characteristics include: (1) an inability to learn; (2) relationship problems; (3) inappropriate behavior; (4) unhappiness or depression;…