Science.gov

Sample records for 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09

  1. Predictors of reported influenza vaccination in HIV-infected women in the United States, 2006-07 and 2007-08 seasons

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Keri N.; Anastos, Kathryn; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Celentano, David D.; Sharp, Gerald B.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; French, Audrey L.; Diamond, Don J.; Holman, Susan; Young, Mary; Gange, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cumulative incidence of self-reported influenza vaccination (“vaccination coverage”) and investigate predictors in HIV-infected women. Methods In an ongoing cohort study of HIV-infected women in five US cities, data from two influenza seasons (2006-07 n=1,209 and 2007-08 n=1,161) were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals ([,]) from Poisson regression with robust variance models using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results In our study, 55% and 57% of HIV-infected women reported vaccination during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 seasons, respectively. Using data from both seasons, older age, non-smoking status, CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) count ≥200 cells/mm3, and reporting at least one recent healthcare visit was associated with increased vaccination coverage. In the 2007-08 season, a belief in the protection of the vaccine (aPR=1.38 [1.18, 1.61]) and influenza vaccination in the previous season (aPR=1.66 [1.44, 1.91]) most strongly predicted vaccination status. Conclusion Interventions to reach unvaccinated HIV-infected women should focus on changing beliefs about the effectiveness of influenza vaccination and target younger women, current smokers, those without recent healthcare visits, or a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3. PMID:20303362

  2. Middle School Mathematics: 2006-07 to 2008-09. Impact Evaluation. E&R Report No. 10.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeplow, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-07, seven Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) middle schools piloted Algebraic Thinking as an alternate approach to teaching middle school mathematics. Algebraic Thinking was developed to help students in grade 6 reach higher mathematics courses by combining the regular and advanced middle school mathematics courses into one…

  3. Enrollment Projections for Presentation & Discussion: 2008-09 Pupil Population Estimating Conference. Research Brief. Volume 0704

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie; Froman, Terry; Romanik, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Research Services calculates enrollment projections on an annual basis. These projections are presented each year at the district's Pupil Population Estimating Conference. For this year's projections, two years of trend data (2006-07 and 2007-08) were used to project student enrollment for 2008-09. Projections are provided by individual grade…

  4. A combined remote sensing - sea ice model approach to derive thin ice thicknesses within the Laptev Sea polynyas continuously for the winters 2007/08 and 2008/09

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, David; Adams, Susanne; Heinemann, Guenther; Willmes, Sascha; Ebner, Lars; Bauer, Martin; Timmermann, Ralph

    2013-04-01

    The polynyas of the Laptev Sea are regions of particular interest due to the strong formation of Arctic sea ice. The determination of ice formation requires accurate retrieval of polynya area and thin-ice thickness distribution within the polynya. Based on ice-surface temperatures from MODIS satellite data and NCEP atmospheric reanalysis data daily thin-ice thickness distributions have been retrieved for ice thicknesses up to 20 cm. However, the average coverage is only 70% since the MODIS thin-ice thickness algorithm is restricted to night scenes and cloud-free conditions. Studies with the ice-ocean model FESOM with hourly COSMO atmospheric forcing simulate polynya area and thin-ice thickness generally realistic (RMSE = 11 cm, BIAS = + 3cm with respect to the MODIS data set). This allows us to perform assimilation runs in which an optimal interpolation is applied for ice thicknesses below 20cm. Errors of MODIS-derived thin ice thickness are computed from sensitivity studies based on input data errors, the FESOM error is determined from the comparison with the MODIS product. Assimilation runs using FESOM-COSMO have been performed for the winters 2007/08 and 2008/09. The polynya ice production for the Laptev Sea calculated by FESOM amounts to 36 km3 for 2007/08 and 59 km3 for 2008/09, if the polynya area is defined as the region with a maximum ice thickness of hi = 15 cm. These results are consistent with recent satellite and model based studies defining polynya area by means of ice concentration, e.g. a threshold of 70%. However, our new simulations reveal that a large part of the ice production occurs in areas with hi > 15cm. During a polynya event an anomalous low hi can prevail over an extended area for days or even weeks leading to strong ice growth. Although the growth rate is larger for thinner ice (16 cm/day for hi <= 5 cm in average), thicker thin-ice (15 cm < hi <= 50 cm) occurs more frequently and the growth rate of 4cm/day is significantly larger than

  5. Report on the MLA "Job Information List", 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2008 made its consequences painfully evident in the 2008-09 MLA (Modern Language Association) "Job Information List" ("JIL"). After trending upward between 2003-04 and 2007-08, the number of jobs advertised in the "JIL" in 2008-09 declined since 2007-08 by 446 (24.4%) in English and 453 (27.0%) in foreign languages. In the…

  6. Overview of Governor Schwarzenegger's Proposed 2008-09 State Budget. Commission Report 08-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On January 10, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released his proposed budget for the 2008-09 fiscal year. State revenues for the 18 months covering the last half of 2007-08 and 2008-09 are projected to be nearly $16 billion below planned expenditures. The budget seeks to close this shortfall by cutting 2008-09 funding for most programs by 10%…

  7. Degrees Conferred by Connecticut Institutions of Higher Education Highlights, 2007-08. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the degrees conferred by Connecticut institutions of higher education in 2007-08. Connecticut colleges and universities awarded 36,634 degrees in 2007-08 (up 1.6% over 2006-07), the state's seventh consecutive year of growth and a 28 percent increase since 1998. Once again, the top five degree-producing disciplines were…

  8. Academic Competitiveness and National SMART Grant Programs: 2006-07 and 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Berkner, Lutz; Li, Xiaojie; Woo, Jennie; Lee, John; Topper, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Education is vitally interested in whether the financial incentives provided by the grants affect student behavior. That is, will the Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACGs) induce more economically disadvantaged high school students to complete a rigorous high school program and enroll and succeed in postsecondary education? Will…

  9. 2008-09 Baccalaureate and beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). First Look. NCES 2011-236

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Green, Caitlin; Henke, Robin; Lew, Terry; Woo, Jennie; Shepherd, Bryan; Siegel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the 2008-09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09), which describes the enrollment and employment experiences, 1 year after they graduated, of a national sample of college graduates who completed a bachelor's degree in the 2007-08 academic year. The tables in this report…

  10. Annual Report on State Financial Aid Programs: 2007-08 Accounting, 2008-09 Estimates, and Notable Events and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The state of Washington has a long-standing commitment to postsecondary education opportunities for all students, regardless of income. The purpose of this report is to provide the members of the Higher Education Coordinating Board with: (1) An overview of state, federal, and institutional financial aid in Washington; (2) A description of notable…

  11. 2007-08 Distance Education Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on distance education within the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) for the 2007-08 academic year and provides documentation of the substantial growth of distance education within all colleges and universities. Distance education is a field of continuous improvement and change, and NSHE institutions are constantly…

  12. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Christina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This paper features another expanded Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Report (FPI). The purpose of APPA's Facilities Performance Indicators is to provide a representative set of statistics about facilities in educational institutions. The 2008-09 iteration of the Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Survey was posted and…

  13. Runoff simulations from the Greenland ice sheet at Kangerlussuaq from 2006-2007 to 2007/08. West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Hasholt, Bent; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Liston, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on runoff from a large sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) - the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland - for the runoff observation period 2006/07 to 2007/08. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff. Independent in situ end-of-winter snow depth and high-resolution runoff observations were used for validation of simulated accumulation and ablation processes. Runoff was modeled on both daily and hourly time steps, filling a data gap of runoff exiting part of the GrIS. Using hourly meteorological driving data instead of smoothed daily-averaged data produced more realistic meteorological conditions in relation to snow and melt threshold surface processes, and produced 6-17% higher annual cumulative runoff. The simulated runoff series yielded useful insights into the present conditions of inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Kangerlussuaq runoff, and provided an acceptable degree of agreement between simulated and observed runoff. The simulated spatial runoff distributions, in some areas of the GrIS terminus, were as high as 2,750 mm w.eq. of runoff for 2006/07, while only 900 mm w.eq was simulated for 2007/08. The simulated total runoff from Kangerlussuaq was 1.9 km{sup 3} for 2006/07 and 1.2 km{sup 3} for 2007/08, indicating a reduction of 35-40% caused by the climate conditions and changes in the GrIS freshwater storage. The reduction in runoff from 2006/07 to 2007/08 occurred simultaneously with the reduction in the overall pattern of satellite-derived GrIS surface melt from 2007 to 2008.

  14. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2008/09.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Chui, A W M; Lo, S V

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong domestic health spending for financial years 1989/90 to 2008/09, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider and function. Total expenditure on health (TEH) was HK$84,391 million in financial year 2008/09, which represents an increase of HK$5030 million or 6.3% over the preceding year. Amid the financial tsunami in late 2008, TEH grew faster relative to gross domestic product (GDP) leading to a marked increase as a percentage of GDP from 4.8% in 2007/08 to 5.1% in 2008/09. During the period 1989/90 to 2008/09, TEH per capita (at constant 2009 prices) grew at an average annual rate of 4.9%, which was faster than that of per capita GDP by 2.0 percentage points. 6.4% when compared with 2007/08, reaching HK$41 257 million and HK$43 134 million, respectively. Consequently, public and private shares of total health expenditure remained the same in the 2 years at 48.9% and 51.1%, respectively. Regarding private spending, the most important source of health financing was out-of-pocket payments by households (35.4% of TEH), followed by employer-provided group medical benefits (7.5%) and private insurance (6.4%). During the period, a growing number of households (mostly in middle to high-income groups) subscribed to pre-payment plans for financing health care. As such, private insurance has taken on an increasingly important role for financing private spending. Of the HK$84 391 million total health expenditure in 2008/09, current expenditure comprised HK$81 186 million (96.2%), whereas HK$3206 million (3.8%) was for capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Analysed by health care function, services for curative care accounted for the largest share of total health spending (66.1%), which was made up of ambulatory services (32.8%), in-patient curative care (28.8%), day patient hospital services (3.9%) and home care (0.5%). Notwithstanding the small share of total spending for day patient

  15. ERS Survey: 2008-09 Salaries of School Business Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licciardi, Chris; Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    How much were school business officials being paid during the 2008-09 school year? How do their salaries compare with those of other administrators, with those of classroom teachers, and with increases in the cost of living? In this article, the authors provide school business officials with information to address these and related questions. The…

  16. ARL Annual Salary Survey, 2006-07. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2006-07" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,824…

  17. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2007-08: Methodology and User Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2007-08 is to convert the 8,076 foods and beverages in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 4.1 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2007-08...

  18. Student Financing of Undergraduate Education: 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-162

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Christina Chang

    2010-01-01

    In 2007-08, approximately 21 million students were enrolled in undergraduate postsecondary education in the United States. These Web Tables provide a comprehensive source of information on financial aid that was awarded to undergraduate students during the 2007-08 academic year. Included are estimates of tuition, price of attendance, and financial…

  19. Summary of the Governor's Proposed 2008-09 Budget for Higher Education. FS 08-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Thursday, January 10, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released his proposed budget for the 2008-09 fiscal year. The proposal attempts to address an estimated $14.5 billion deficit projected for the next 18 months by reducing 2008-09 State funding for most programs by an average 10% below the figure projected based on growth in workload and…

  20. School Finance 2006-07: State Leaders Settle Up with Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian; Perry, Mary

    2006-01-01

    EdSource's annual public education budget report, "School Finance 2006-07: State Leaders Settle Up with Education," offers a comprehensive look at this year's funding decisions for schools, recent budget history, and how the state's schools are funded. In contrast with last year's budget battles, the process for 2006-07 notably lacked…

  1. 2008-09 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2008-09 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, Selenium, PBDEs, PCBs, Pesticides and PFCs.

  2. Know Your Rights Handbook: The 2007-08 New York State Education Budget and Reform Law and State Education Department Regulations, as Amended in 2008-09. New York City Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    In April 2007, the New York State Legislature and the Governor passed historic education legislation to provide a multi-year, massive infusion of new school funding; the creation of a clear cut system of accountability that will focus on putting into practice key educational strategies; and a fair and simple funding formula, known as Foundation…

  3. Salmonella on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted the Beef 2007-08 study, which focused on beef cow-calf health and management practices in 24 States from three regions of the United States. These States represented 79.6 percent of U.S. operations with ...

  4. Campylobacter on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Health Monitoring System conducted the Beef 2007-08 study, which focused on beef cow-calf health and management practices in 24 States from three regions of the United States. These States represented 79.6 percent of U.S. operations with beef cow...

  5. Enterococcus on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted the Beef 2007-08 study, which focused on beef cow-calf health and management practices in 24 States from three regions of the United States. These States represented 79.6 percent of U.S. operations with ...

  6. Profile of Undergraduate Students: 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staklis, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    These tables provide comprehensive information on undergraduates who were enrolled in U.S. postsecondary institutions during the 2007-08 academic year. Estimates for enrolled students are presented by attendance status, degree program, undergraduate major, average grades, student characteristics, financial aid status and credit card debt, work,…

  7. Graduate and First-Professional Students: 2007-08. Stats in Brief. NCES 2011-174

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Cataldi, Emily Forrest

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon data from the 2007-08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08), a nationally representative survey of all postsecondary students, this Statistics in Brief offers an overview of the enrollment characteristics of graduate and first-professional students, when they started their programs, how they combined school and work, the…

  8. Tuition and Fees in the West 2007-08. Policy Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of "Policy Insights" reviews the results from WICHE's (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's) annual survey of tuition and fees at public colleges and universities in the region. Complete data are available in "Tuition and Fees in Public Higher Education in the West, 2007-08: Detailed Tuition and Fees…

  9. Progress in Student Academic Achievement: Evaluation of New City Charter School in 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozali-Lee, Edith

    2010-01-01

    This report describes New City Charter School student achievement in the 2008-09 school year, the school's sixth operating year. The number of students enrolled in the school was 125, an increase from 60 students enrolled the first year of the school. Student academic achievement is measured using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement…

  10. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2007-08 school year alone, approximately $83 billion in new aid was…

  11. Comparison of Original and Revised Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2014-179

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stacy; Radwin, David

    2014-01-01

    The web tables in this report provide original and revised estimates of statistics previously published in 2007-08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08): Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2007-08 (NCES 2009-166). The revised estimates were generated using revised weights that were updated in August 2013. NPSAS:08 data were…

  12. The Division III Financial Aid Reporting Process: Findings and Review Results, 2005-06 through 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report marks the completion of the 2008-09 reporting cycle and the fourth year of the Division III Financial Aid Reporting Program. The report examines findings for all reporting institutions from each of the four reporting cycles, and details the outcomes of the Division III Financial Aid Committee's 2008-09 review process. Four calculations…

  13. Water-Quality Data from Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannarr, Kristofor E.; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2010-01-01

    Significant Findings The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Klamath Lake water-quality monitoring program collected data from multiparameter continuous water-quality monitors, weekly water-quality samples, and meteorological stations during May-November 2007 and 2008. The results of these measurements and sample analyses are presented in this report for 29 stations on Upper Klamath Lake and 2 stations on Agency Lake, as well as quality-assurance data for the water-quality samples. Some of the significant findings from 2007 and 2008 are listed below. In 2007-08, ammonia concentrations were at or near the detection limit at all stations during the second week in June, after which they began to increase, with peak concentrations occurring from July through November. The concentration of un-ionized ammonia, which can be toxic to aquatic life, first began to increase in mid-June and peaked in July or August at most sites. Concentrations of un-ionized ammonia measured in the Upper Klamath Lake in 2007-08 did not reach concentrations that would have been potentially lethal to suckers. Samples collected for the analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) late in the 2007 season showed no evidence of an increase in DOC subsequent to the breaching of the Williamson River Delta levees on October 30. In 2007-08, the lakewide daily median of dissolved oxygen concentration began to increase in early June, and peaked in mid- to late June. The lakewide daily median pH began to increase from early June and peaked in late June (2007) or early July (2008). Lakewide daily median pH slowly decreased during the rest of both seasons. The 2007 lakewide daily median specific conductance values first peaked on July 1, coincident with a peak in dissolved oxygen concentration and pH, followed by a decrease through mid-July. Specific conductance then remained relatively stable until mid-October when a sharp increase began that continued until the end of the season. Lakewide specific conductance

  14. Knowledge Discovery in our World Information Society: Opportunities for the International Polar Year 2007-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkman, P. A.

    2005-12-01

    The World Data Center system emerged in 1957-58 with the International Geophysical Year (which was renamed from the 3rd International Polar Year) to preserve and provide access to scientific data collected from observational programs throughout the Earth system. Fast forward a half century ... access to diverse digital information has become effectively infinite and instantaneous with nearly 20,000 petabytes of information produced and stored on print, optical and magnetic media each year; microprocessor speeds that have increased 5 orders of magnitude since 1972; existence of the Internet; increasing global capacity to collect and transmit information via satellites; availability of powerful search engines; and proliferation of data warehouses like the World Data Centers. The problem is that we already have reached the threshold in our world information society when accessing more information does not equate with generating more knowledge. In 2007-08, the International Council of Science and World Meteorological Organization will convene the next International Polar Year to accelerate our understanding of how the polar regions respond to, amplify and drive changes elsewhere in the Earth system (http://www.ipy.org). Beyond Earth system science, strategies and tools for integrating digital information to discover meaningful relationships among the disparate data would have societal benefits from boardrooms to classrooms. In the same sense that human-launched satellites became a strategic focus that justified national investments in the International Geophysical Year, developing the next generation of knowledge discovery tools is an opportunity for the International Polar Year 2007-08 and its affiliated programs to contribute in an area that is critical to the future of our global community. Knowledge is the common wealth of humanity. H.E. Mr. Adama Samassekou President, World Summit on the Information Society

  15. 2006/07 Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Yarbrough, David W; Miller, William A; Petrie, Thomas; Childs, Phillip W; Syed, Azam M

    2008-12-01

    Most recent improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that in the near future, residences will be routinely constructed to operate with very low heating and cooling loads. In that light, the application of novel building materials containing active thermal components (e.g., phase change materials [PCMs,] sub-venting, radiant barriers, and integrated hydronic systems) is like a final step in achieving relatively significant heating and cooling energy savings from technological improvements in the building envelope. It is expected that optimized building envelope designs using PCMs for energy storage can effectively bring notable savings in energy consumption and reductions in peak hour power loads. During 2006/07, a research team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a series of laboratory and field tests of several wall and roof assemblies using PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. This report summarizes the test results from the perspective of energy performance. The ORNL team is working on both inorganic and organic PCMs; this report discusses only paraffinic PCMs. A limited economical analysis also is presented. PCMs have been tested as a thermal mass component in buildings for at least 40 years. Most of the research studies found that PCMs enhanced building energy performance. In the case of the application of organic PCMs, problems such as high initial cost and PCM leaking (surface sweating) have hampered widespread adoption. Paraffinic hydrocarbon PCMs generally performed well, with the exception that they increased the flammability of the building envelope.

  16. Channel morphodynamics in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Channel morphodynamics in response to flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam are examined in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River. Measures include changes in channel morphology and indicators of sediment transport in four 6 kilometer long reaches located downstream from Gavins Point Dam, near Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri. Each of the four reaches was divided into 300 transects with a 20-meter spacing and surveyed during the summer in 2006 and 2007. A subset of 30 transects was randomly selected and surveyed 7-10 times in 2006-07 over a wide range of discharges including managed and natural flow events. Hydroacoustic mapping used a survey-grade echosounder and a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System to evaluate channel change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to evaluate bed-sediment velocity. Results indicate varying amounts of deposition, erosion, net change, and sediment transport in the four Lower Missouri River reaches. The Yankton reach was the most stable over monthly and annual time-frames. The Kenslers Bend and Little Sioux reaches exhibited substantial amounts of deposition and erosion, although net change was generally low in both reaches. Total, or gross geomorphic change was greatest in the Kenslers Bend reach. The Miami reach exhibited varying rates of deposition and erosion, and low net change. The Yankton, Kenslers Bend, and Miami reaches experienced net erosion during the time period that bracketed the managed May 2006 spring rise event from Gavins Point Dam.

  17. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: results of the NAHMS Beef 2007-08 study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) Beef 2007-08 study, 567 producers from 24 states were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Producers choosing to participate were pr...

  18. Student Financing of Graduate and First-Professional Education: 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Ho, Phoebe

    2010-01-01

    In 2007-08, about 3 million students were enrolled in graduate or first-professional degree programs in the United States. These students exhibited wide variation both demographically and in the types of programs and institutions they attended. They pursued degrees in all types of fields, from the physical and life sciences to the arts and…

  19. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…

  20. Borrowing at the Maximum: Undergraduate Stafford Loan Borrowers in 2007-08. Stats in Brief. NCES 2012-161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Christina Chang; Skomsvold, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 2007-08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08), this Statistics in Brief examines the extent to which undergraduate students borrow the maximum possible within the limits of the Stafford loan program (the program maximum) and their own financial need and student budgets (the individual maximum). Students who…

  1. School Process and Teacher Job Satisfaction at Alternative Schools: A Multilevel Study Using SASS 2007-08 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jiangang; Izumi, Masashi; Gao, Xingyuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between public alternative schools' teacher job satisfaction and school processes. Based on a multilevel analysis of the national School and Staffing Survey 2007-08 data, we found that among the seven school processes, public alternative schools' administrative support, staff collegiality, career and working…

  2. Public High School Teachers of Career and Technical Education in 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-235

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersudskaya, Vera; Cataldi, Emily Forrest

    2011-01-01

    These Web Tables focus on public school teachers in grades 9-12 who taught primarily career and technical education (CTE), academic, or other subjects during the 2007-08 school year. CTE teachers are grouped based on their main subject area: nonoccupational CTE, including family and consumer sciences education and general labor market preparation,…

  3. Supplemental Education Services: 2008-09 & 2009-10. Implementation Insights. E&R Report No. 11.01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeplow, Colleen; Baenen, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This report describes Supplemental Education Services (SES) within Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in terms of the schools, providers, and student participants in 2008-09 and 2009-10. It is the first in a series of three reports related to SES. NCLB requires schools receiving Title I funding in their second year of school improvement to…

  4. A Brief Look at: 2008-09 WCPSS Dropout Rate. E&R Report No. 10.03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, 2010

    2010-01-01

    On March 4th, 2010, the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction released its annual statewide Dropout Report covering the 2008-09 school year. The charts in this report show the dropout rate for Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) compared to the state as a whole, to other large school districts in North Carolina, and by federal No…

  5. NovaNET 2008-09 Evaluation. Impact Evaluation. E&R Report No. 09.36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgakov-Cook, Dina

    2010-01-01

    NovaNET is a technology-based teacher-facilitated educational approach used at schools to support students at risk of not meeting graduation requirements to accrue credits in a variety of subjects. NovaNET contributes to the WCPSS goal of closing achievement gaps and creating opportunities for all students to graduate on time. In 2008-09, 38…

  6. Effects of the Economy on the Admission Process: 2008-09. National Association for College Admission Counseling, September 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for College Admission Counseling, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2008-09 college admission cycle took place during a period of heightened economic uncertainty. When added to the annual uncertainty of the admission process--for both students seeking college admission offers and colleges seeking to predict their annual enrollment yield--the economic environment caused great concern among colleges and students…

  7. Extreme subsurface warm events in the South China Sea during 1998/99 and 2006/07: observations and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fuan; Zeng, Lili; Liu, Qin-Yan; Zhou, Wen; Wang, Dongxiao

    2017-03-01

    Conductivity-temperature-depth observations, objectively analyzed data, and model output are used to investigate the variability of subsurface temperature in the South China Sea (SCS) during 1948-2010. Two extreme subsurface warm events are identified during 1998/99 and 2006/07, with no corresponding extreme surface warming except in 1998. Mixed-layer heat budget analysis reveals that the lack of significant heat input from surface net heat flux or from current advection is responsible for the absence of extreme surface warming during 1999, and 2006/07. The surface net heat flux alone cannot explain the first phases of subsurface warming during 1998/99 and 2006/07. Warm advection from the southern SCS in 1998/99 and from the Kuroshio intrusion in 2006/07, induced by anomalous ocean currents, is likely the major contributor to warming of the subsurface water. During the second phase of warming, the surface net heat flux plays a damping role to cool the subsurface water, and the warm advection induced by anomalous SCS western boundary currents from the southern SCS leads to extremely warm subsurface water anomalies. The results show the importance of the Pacific western boundary currents, especially the Kuroshio, in maintaining extreme subsurface warm events in the SCS.

  8. Social Sciences and Humanities in the IPY 2007/08: An Integrating Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupnik, I.

    2004-12-01

    Our understanding of the human dimension of polar regions is immensely greater today than at the beginning of polar science. In the IPY 2007/2008, social sciences and humanities aspire to become fully engaged members of a new multidisciplinary effort. They are eager to address issues of partnership and public involvement, socio-economic development, governance, cultural viability and human rights of polar residents. These societal issues are among the top priorities of the IPY 2007/2008 mission to enhance the understanding of human-environmental interactions in the polar systems and to promote the value of polar science and global monitoring among the public at large. Other social issues-security, diplomacy, demography, health, education, communications-are also critical to polar research and to the scientific advance into the Arctic and Antarctica. The success of IPY 2007/08 requires the articulation of the common interest among scientists, polar peoples, economic actors, and sovereign nations, facing current global change. Experience from various regions present convincing evidence that lasting progress in the understanding and preservation of the environment can only be achieved if local populations are respected and involved. Research made at the "poles" is, thus, crucial for establishing models of equity and involvement, partnership and outreach. In this mission of the IPY 2007/2008 program social scientists and humanists are to make credible contributions. One of the key missions for social scientists under the IPY 2007/2008 program is to develop cooperative observation programs involving interested indigenous experts, subsistence users, and other polar residents. Through generations of life in the polar environment, polar people have developed long-standing knowledge and observation techniques in recording and interpreting a broad range of signals and phenomena in the polar systems. Efforts to integrate local experts into year-round circumpolar observing

  9. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Fuller, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    measurements made at Essexville and Harbor Beach (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2008), and monthly precipitation measured in Harbor Beach, Sebewaing, and Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Danny Costello, written commun., 2007-08). In December 2007, the water level in Lake Huron dropped to a new monthly mean low of 576.38 ft for the period from 1988 through 2007 (the previous lowwater level of 576.57 ft was measured in March 2003). The net decline in the water level of Lake Huron from January 2006 through December 2007 was 0.68 ft. In 2006, annual precipitation measured at Harbor Beach was 3.2 in. above the long-term average of 31.1 in., with 10.6 in. measured during the 2006 growing season (May through August). In 2007, annual precipitation measured at Harbor Beach was 1.4 in. below normal, with 9.7 in. measured during the growing season. In the two wells equipped with continuous waterlevel recorders, the water level rose 0.32 ft from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007 in well H9r, but declined 1.11 ft in well H25Ar. Curiously, well H9r is drilled adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and, as previously noted, there was a 0.68 ft decline in the water level in Saginaw Bay during that period. Twenty four wells were measured on a quarterly or periodic basis from December 2005 through December 2007 (well H26 was destroyed during summer 2007 reducing the total number of wells from 25). These wells are completed in the glacial, Saginaw and Marshall aquifers, and the Coldwater confining unit. Although each quarterly or periodic measurement only provides a “snapshot” water level (measured in ft below land surface, and altitude, in ft above sea level), the data adequately define the generalized water-level trend in the aquifer near the well. Water levels in 6 quarterly-measured wells had net rises ranging from 0.09 to 1.45 ft for the period, while water levels in 18 of the wells had net declines ranging from 0.26 to 2.19 ft (tables 1 and

  10. Trends in Student Financing of Undergraduate Education: Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-218

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersudskaya, Vera; Wei, Christina Chang

    2011-01-01

    From 1995-96 to 2007-08, the number of undergraduates in the United States grew from about 16.7 million to 21 million (Horn and Berktold 1998; Wei et al. 2009). In 2007-08, two-thirds of all undergraduates received some type of financial aid, including grants, loans, work-study, or some combination of these types of aid. These Web Tables provide…

  11. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13...

  12. Evaluation of New Texas Charter Schools: Second Interim Report (2007-10). Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) was awarded Charter School Program (CSP) funding in 2007, and specified that the required evaluation would focus on the experiences and outcomes of new charter schools authorized to begin serving students across 4 school years: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10. TEA categorizes charter schools in terms of…

  13. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  14. Assessment of Contaminant Exposure and Effects on Ospreys Nesting along the Lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Branden L.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Davis, Jay W.; Schulz, Edmund P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contaminants on osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the lower Duwamish River (LDR), Washington, and used the upper reach of the Willamette River (WR), Oregon, as a reference site. Osprey eggs and nestling blood (plasma) were collected at nests along the LDR (11 eggs, 7 plasmas) and WR (10 eggs, 6 plasmas) in 2006-07 and analyzed for contaminants. Additionally, hematology and serum chemistries were determined in the blood/plasma samples of nestlings (about 35-45 days old) and were used as potential indicators of stress induced by contaminant exposure. Detailed foraging information for ospreys nesting along the LDR was collected and evaluated to better understand contaminant profiles observed in the eggs and plasma. Additional residue data from 26 osprey eggs collected and analyzed in 2002-03 from nests along the LDR, Snohomish River Estuary (SRE) and Lake Washington (LW) in the Puget Sound (PS) region also were evaluated.

  15. Obesity in K-8 students - New York City, 2006-07 to 2010-11 school years.

    PubMed

    2011-12-16

    Overweight and obese children are more likely to develop risk factors that can lead to respiratory, metabolic, and cardiovascular illness. The increase in prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States since the 1960s has been well documented. In New York City, in 1996, an estimated 19.7% of third grade children and 21.2% of sixth grade children in public and private schools were found to be overweight; in 2003, an estimated 43% of the city's public elementary school students were found to be overweight, and 24% of these students were obese. To update city data on childhood obesity and evaluate public health interventions, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene analyzed body mass index (BMI) data for public schoolchildren in kindergarten through eighth grade (K-8), using data from the 2006-07 to 2010-11 school years. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, overall, the prevalence of obesity in grades K-8 decreased 5.5%, from 21.9% in 2006-07 to 20.7% in 2010-11. Obesity decreased significantly among children in all age groups and in all socioeconomic and racial/ethnic populations; however, the decrease was smaller among black (1.9%) and Hispanic (3.4%) children than among Asian/Pacific Islander (7.6%) and white (12.5%) children. Despite the decreases in obesity, continued public health interventions are needed to further reduce the prevalence of obesity and to eliminate disparities among schoolchildren in New York City.

  16. Public School Teacher Autonomy in the Classroom across School Years 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-089

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2015-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief explores teacher autonomy in the classroom during the 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 school years. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), the Statistics in Brief examines a construct of teacher autonomy based on teachers' responses to six questions regarding…

  17. Characteristics of Public School Districts in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-320

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aritomi, Paola; Coopersmith, Jared; Gruber, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school district data file of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public school sample…

  18. Supplemental Figures, Tables, and Standard Error Tables for Student Financing of Undergraduate Education: 2007-08. Sticker, Net, and Out-of-Pocket Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the supplemental figures, tables, and standard error tables for the report "Student Financing of Undergraduate Education: 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-162." (Contains 6 figures and 10 tables.) [For the main report, see ED511828.

  19. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupp, Linda; Zajac, David

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a profile of undergraduate transfer students admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia from British Columbia colleges over the five-year fiscal period, 2003-04 to 2007-08 (Summer 2003 to Winter 2008). It includes a general profile of BC college transfer students, their academic performance while at UNBC, and a…

  20. Trends in Student Financing of Graduate and First-Professional Education: Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-217

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie; Skomsvold, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In 2007-08, graduate and first-professional students received a total of $36.7 billion in federal loans; federal grants; and grants from institutions, employers, and other sources (College Board 2008, figure 2b). In addition to these funds, they also received teaching and research assistantships and sought loans from private sources. These Web…

  1. Trends in the Receipt of Pell Grants: Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 1995-96, 1999-2000, 2003-04, and 2007-08 administrations of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, these tables focus on trends in the receipt of federal Pell Grants and among Pell Grant recipients. Data include the percentages of Pell Grant recipients and the average Pell Grant received each survey year. Also shown are…

  2. Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2010-341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillwell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the number of high school graduates, the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR), and the dropout data for grades 9 through 12 for public schools in school year 2007-08. The counts of graduates, dropouts, and enrollments by grade are from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) nonfiscal…

  3. Alternative Schools and Programs for Public School Students at Risk of Educational Failure: 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2010-026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Priscilla Rouse; Lewis, Laurie; Tice, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This report provides national estimates on the availability of alternative schools and programs for students at risk of educational failure in public school districts during the 2007-08 school year. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) previously reported results from a similar survey of alternative schools and programs conducted…

  4. A Formative Study of the Implementation of the Inquiry Team Process in New York City Public Schools: 2007-08 Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marian A.; Kannapel, Patricia; Gujarati, Joan; Williams, Hakim; Oettinger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    During the 2007-08 school year, the New York City Department of Education launched the second phase of its ambitious and innovative initiative known as "Children First." Ultimately, this initiative aims to intensify the focus by all educators on student performance and in doing so to stimulate the development of evidence-based cultures…

  5. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2010-309

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Amber M.; Sable, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This First Look presents national and state level data on student enrollment by grade and by race/ethnicity within grade, the numbers of teachers and other education staff, and several student/staff ratios for the 2007-08 school year. It uses data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data…

  6. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-347

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2008-09, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

  7. 2008/09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). Full-Scale Methodology Report. NCES 2014-041

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Janson, Natasha; Siegel, Peter; Bennett, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the methodological procedures and evaluations of the 2008/09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). RTI, with the assistance of MPR, conducted B&B:08/09 for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the U.S. Department of Education. Chapter 1 describes the background, legislative…

  8. Numbers and Types of Public Elementary and Secondary Schools from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-345

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Su

    2010-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools in the United States and other jurisdictions in the 2008-09 school year, using data from the Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported…

  9. Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2011-312

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillwell, Robert; Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the number of high school graduates, the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR), and the dropout data for grades 9-12 for public schools in school year 2008-09. State Education Agencies report these counts of graduates, dropouts, and enrollments to the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core of Data…

  10. Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Blakey, Charlie; Parnell, Winsome

    2014-12-28

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. Insight into nut consumption patterns provides important information to help design strategies to encourage intake. The present study aimed to describe nut consumption in terms of the percentage of consumers, mean grams eaten among the population and nut consumers, and to identify the predictors of nut consumption. Data from the 24 h dietary recalls of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n 4721) were used to measure nut consumption. On the recall day, the percentages of consumers of whole nuts, nut butters and nuts from hidden sources were 6.9% (n 240), 7.2% (n 346) and 19.2% (n 732), respectively (28.9% (n 1167) combined (total)). The mean grams consumed by the population were relatively low for whole nuts (2.8 g/d), nut butters (0.9 g/d), nuts from hidden sources (1.5 g/d) and total nuts (5.2 g/d). Among consumers, the mean daily grams of whole nuts, nut butters, nuts from hidden sources and total nuts eaten were 40.3, 12.9, 7.8 and 17.9 g/d, respectively. Those aged 15-18 years had the lowest whole nut consumption, but had the highest nut butter consumption. The consumption of total nuts was positively associated with education and socio-economic status, while whole nut consumption was inversely associated with BMI. In conclusion, the low percentage of nut consumers is of concern and new strategies to increase nut consumption are required. Future public health initiatives should be mindful of these patterns and predictors. In particular, different forms of nuts may appeal to different age and socio-economic groups.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period.

  12. Are Student Protests in Arab States Caused by Economic and Political Grievances? Empirical Evidence from the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Mason, Jessica; Seybolt, Taylor; DeLuca, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of protests by students (age 18 and older) in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen by using subsamples of students from nationally representative and acclaimed public opinion data (the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"). We find between 22.1% (Jordan) and 54.7% (Yemen) participated in either the signing of petitions, or…

  13. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2006-07 (Fiscal Year 2007). First Look. NCES 2009-338

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2006-07 (fiscal year 2007, or FY 07). The School District Finance Survey is a district-level survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) by state education agencies (SEAs) in the 50 states and the District of…

  14. Parent and Family Involvement in Education, 2006-07 School Year, From the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007. First Look. NCES 2008-050

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrold, Kathleen; O'Donnell, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on parents' and families' involvement in their children's education in the United States according to parents' reports for the 2006-07 school year. It also incorporates basic demographic information about children, parent/guardian characteristics, and household characteristics. The data come from the Parent and Family…

  15. A Closer Look at the Student Achievement Trends in the District of Columbia between 2006-07 and 2012-13. CALDER Working Paper No. 119

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özek, Umut

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a closer look at the student achievement trends in the District of Columbia between 2006-07 and 2012-13. We have three main conclusions. First, we find that overall, math scores in the District have improved. The improvements in reading scores during this time frame, however, were primarily limited to the first year after…

  16. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-305

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Noel, Amber; Hoffman, Lee

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2006-07, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by State…

  17. Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary Schools in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-321

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The 2007-08 SASS sample is a…

  18. Teacher Absences: Types, Frequency, and Impact on Student Achievement, Wake County Public School System, 2007-08. Measuring Up. E&R Report No. 09.37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speas, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007-08, the WCPSS teacher absence rate was 10.3 days, slightly higher than a national rate of 9.5 days in 2004-05 but lower than the 11.3 to 14.6 days reported in large school districts more recently. In comparison with other studies, WCPSS teachers averaged smaller proportions of personal and sick leave days, slightly more annual leave days,…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

  1. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

  3. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

  7. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

  18. Shell anomalies observed in a population of Archaias angulatus (Foraminifera) from the Florida Keys (USA) sampled in 1982-83 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souder, H.C.; McCloskey, B.; Hallock, P.; Byrne, R.

    2010-01-01

    Archived specimens of Archaias angulatus collected live at a depth of < 2. m in John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, Key Largo, Florida, in June, September and December 1982, and March 1983, were compared to specimens collected live from the same site and months in 2006-07. Shells were examined using light microscopy for anomalous features, which were then documented using scanning electron microscopy. Seven different types of morphological abnormalities and five different surface texture anomalies were observed. Physical abnormalities included profoundly deformed, curled, asymmetrical, and uncoiled shells, irregular suture lines, surface protrusions, and breakage/repair. Textural anomalies observed were surface pits, dissolution features, microborings, microbial biofilms, and the presence of epibionts including bryzoans, cyanobacteria and foraminifers. The same kinds of features were found in this A. angulatus population in both 1982-83 collections and 2006-07 collections. Within-date variability was higher in specimens collected in 1982-83, while between-date variability was higher in 2006-07; overall the range of variability was similar. Given that the site was originally chosen for study because these foraminifers were so abundant, the lack of significant change indicates that the variability of the geochemical habitat is still within the range that A. angulatus can thrive. ?? 2010.

  19. Estimates of groundwater age from till and carbonate bedrock hydrogeologic units at Jefferson Proving Ground, Southeastern Indiana, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.; Lampe, David C.; Egler, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    During 2007-08, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, conducted a study to evaluate the relative age of groundwater in Pre-Wisconsinan till and underlying shallow and deep carbonate bedrock units in and near an area at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), southeastern Indiana, which was used during 1984-94 to test fire depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The shallow carbonate unit includes about the upper 40 feet of bedrock below the bedrock-till surface; the deeper carbonate unit includes wells completed at greater depth. Samples collected during April 2008 from 15 wells were analyzed for field water-quality parameters, dissolved gases, tritium, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds; samples from 14 additional wells were analyzed for tritium only. Water-level gradients in the Pre-Wisconsinan till and the shallow carbonate unit were from topographically higher areas toward Big Creek and Middle Fork Creek, and their tributaries. Vertical gradients were strongly downward from the shallow carbonate unit toward the deep carbonate unit at 3 of 4 paired wells where water levels recovered after development; indicating the general lack of flow between the two units. The lack of post development recovery of water levels at 4 other wells in the deep carbonate unit indicate that parts of that unit have no appreciable permeability. CFC and tritium-based age dates of Pre-Wisconsinan till groundwater are consistent with infiltration of younger (typically post-1960 age) recharge that 'mixes' with older recharge from less permeable or less interconnected strata. Part of the recharge to three till wells dated from the early to mid-1980s (JPG-DU-03O, JPG-DU-09O, and JPG-DU-10O). Age dates of young recharge in water from two till wells predated 1980 (JPG-DU-04O and JPG-DU-06O). Tritium-based age dates of water from seven other till wells indicated post-1972 age recharge. Most wells in the Pre-Wisconsinan till have the potential to produce

  20. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  1. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  2. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  3. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  4. U.S. Geological Survey external quality-assurance project report to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2007-08. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples, and a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL), Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL), and 12 other participating laboratories. A blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in HAL total Hg concentration data. A co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and prototype precipitation collectors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the U.S. NADP data-quality objectives continued to be achieved during 2007-08. Results also indicate that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new E-gages is not likely to create step-function type shifts in NADP precipitation-depth records, except for sites where annual precipitation depth is dominated by snow because the E-gages tend to catch more snow than the original NADP rain gages. Evaluation of prototype precipitation collectors revealed no difference in sample volumes and analyte concentrations between the original NADP collectors and modified, deep-bucket collectors, but the Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc. (YES) collector obtained samples of significantly higher volumes and analyte concentrations than the standard NADP collector.

  5. Characterization of the influenza A H5N1 viruses of the 2008-09 outbreaks in India reveals a third introduction and possible endemicity.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Alok K; Pawar, Shailesh D; Cherian, Sarah S; Koratkar, Santosh S; Jadhav, Santosh M; Pal, Biswajoy; Raut, Satish; Thite, Vishal; Kode, Sadhana S; Keng, Sachin S; Payyapilly, Bestin J; Mullick, Jayati; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2009-11-16

    Widespread infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 was reported from backyard and commercial poultry in West Bengal (WB), an eastern state of India in early 2008. Infection gradually spread to Tripura, Assam and Sikkim, the northeastern states, with 70 outbreaks reported between January 2008 and May 2009. Whole genome sequence analysis of three isolates from WB, one isolate from Tripura along with the analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of 17 other isolates was performed during this study. In the HA gene phylogenetic tree, all the 2008-09 Indian isolates belonged to EMA3 sublineage of clade 2.2. The closest phylogenetic relationship was found to be with the 2007-09 isolates from Bangladesh and not with the earlier 2006 and 2007 Indian isolates implying a third introduction into the country. The receptor-binding pocket of HA1 of two isolates from WB showed S221P mutation, one of the markers predicted to be associated with human receptor specificity. Two substitutions E119A (2 isolates of WB) and N294S (2 other isolates of WB) known to confer resistance to NA inhibitors were observed in the active site of neuraminidase. Several additional mutations were observed within the 2008-09 Indian isolates indicating genetic diversification. Overall, the study is indicative of a possible endemicity in the eastern and northeastern parts of the country, demanding active surveillance specifically in view of the critical mutations that have been observed in the influenza A H5N1 viruses.

  6. 2007-08 Diversity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The changing composition of Nevada's population in the next twenty years will have many ramifications for NSHE (Nevada System of Higher Education) institutions, particularly in terms of the recruitment and retention of minority students and faculty. According to the Nevada State Demographer, minority groups in Nevada will continue to grow at a…

  7. Self-Reported Experience of Racial Discrimination and Health Care Use in New Zealand: Results From the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether reported experience of racial discrimination in health care and in other domains was associated with cancer screening and negative health care experiences. Methods. We used 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey data (n = 12 488 adults). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship of reported experience of racial discrimination in health care (unfair treatment by a health professional) and in other domains (personal attack, unfair treatment in work and when gaining housing) to breast and cervical cancer screening and negative patient experiences adjusted for other variables. Results. Racial discrimination by a health professional was associated with lower odds of breast (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.14, 0.996) and cervical cancer (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.30, 0.87) screening among Maori women. Racial discrimination by a health professional (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.14) and racial discrimination more widely (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.35, 1.79) were associated with negative patient experiences for all participants. Conclusions. Experience of racial discrimination in both health care and other settings may influence health care use and experiences of care and is a potential pathway to poor health. PMID:22420811

  8. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  9. Electron donor concentrations in sediments and sediment properties at the agricultural chemicals team research site near New Providence, Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maharjan, Bijesh; Korom, Scott F.; Smith, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of electron donors in aquifer sediments are important to the understanding of the fate and transport of redox-sensitive constituents in groundwater, such as nitrate. For a study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 50 sediment samples were collected from below the water table from 11 boreholes at the U.S. Geological Survey Agricultural Chemicals Team research site near New Providence, Iowa, during 2006-07. All samples were analyzed for gravel, sand (coarse, medium, and fine), silt, clay, Munsell soil color, inorganic carbon content, and for the following electron donors: organic carbon, ferrous iron, and inorganic sulfide. A subset of 14 sediment samples also was analyzed for organic sulfur, but all of these samples had concentrations less than the method detection limit; therefore, the presence of this potential electron donor was not considered further. X-ray diffraction analyses provided important semi-quantitative information of well-crystallized dominant minerals within the sediments that might be contributing electron donors.

  10. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2009-326

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiman, Samantha; DeVoe, Jill F.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings on crime and violence in U.S. public schools, using data from the 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2008). SSOCS provides information about school crime-related topics from the perspective of schools by asking school principals about the frequency of incidents, such as physical attacks, robberies, and…

  11. New College Graduates at Work: Employment among 1992-93, 1999-2000, and 2007-08 Bachelor's Degree Recipients 1 Year after Graduation. Stats in Brief. NCES 2014-003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staklis, Sandra; Skomsvold, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines the employment outcomes of college graduates 1 year after earning a bachelor's degree. It compares 2007-08 bachelor's degree recipients who graduated at the start of the recent recession with their peers who graduated in 1992-93 and 1999-2000. Different labor market conditions characterized these three time…

  12. Relation of nutrient concentrations, nutrient loading, and algal production to changes in water levels in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment has led to excessive algal growth in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota. Water- and sediment-quality data were collected during 2008-09 to assess internal and external nutrient loading. Data collection was focused in Kabetogama Lake and its inflows, the area of greatest concern for eutrophication among the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. Nutrient and algal data were used to determine trophic status and were evaluated in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels following changes to dam operation starting in 2000. Analyses were used to estimate external nutrient loading at inflows and assess the potential contribution of internal phosphorus loading. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for a few occasionally stratified areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, combined with larger bottom-water nutrient concentrations, larger sediment phosphorus concentrations, and estimated phosphorus release rates from sediment cores indicate that Lost Bay may be one of several areas that may be contributing substantially to internal loading. Internal loading is a concern because nutrients may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, microcystin, was detected in 7 of 14 cyanobacterial bloom samples, with total concentrations exceeding 1.0 microgram per liter, the World Health Organization's guideline for finished drinking water for the congener, microcystin-LR. Comparisons of the results of this study to previous studies indicate that chlorophyll-a concentrations and trophic state indices have improved since 2000, when the rules governing dam operation changed. However, total-phosphorus concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000.

  13. AITI and GELATI - Initiatives to promote education and training for the next generation of educators and scientists during the IPY 2007/08 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, S. W.; Bouchard, M.; Das, S.; Gillermann, J.; Greve, R.; Matsuoka, K.; Pasotti, J.; Tweedie, C.

    2005-05-01

    The fourth International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007/08 provides a unique opportunity to enhance international collaboration in research and education. Here we present an IPY-teaching initiative (AITI), which proposes to develop an interdisciplinary international short course series promoting and fostering education and training of the next generation(s) of scientists and educators interested in natural and social sciences related to Polar Regions; a short course series (GELATI) focusing on the impact of the cryosphere on the Earth system. The main goals of the short course series are to: a) provide education and training for the next generation of graduate students, science teachers, researchers in science related to Polar Regions; b) provide training for junior faculty c) integrate research and education; d) create awareness for Polar Regions related questions in class-rooms and beyond; e) create international partnerships in education and training; f) promote multidisciplinary thinking; g) increase gender diversity in science and teaching; h) encourage minority participation. To achieve these goals it is intended to develop a curriculum of specialized and interdisciplinary courses considering various aspects of science and scientific activities, which study, or are concerned with processes/developments in Polar Regions. Due to the vast dimensions and distribution of Polar Regions across international boundaries as well as the complexity of environmental studies in Polar Regions these courses will internationally pool students and instructors. Pooling of experts and students internationally will not only ensure highest standards but also foster international partnership. To allow the integration of research and teaching and to provide the best possible study environment the up to two to three weeklong, courses will be held at international field stations or will be incorporated into large research projects. To ensure training of the next generation of

  14. Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  15. Under-Five Child Mortality and Morbidity Associated with Consanguineous Child Marriage in Pakistan: Retrospective Analysis using Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-91, 2006-07, 2012-13.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mudasir; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Chaudhry, Ashraf; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2017-01-02

    Objective To assess the combined effect of consanguineous and child marriages (CCM) on children health, which has not previously been explored, either globally or locally. Methods We analyzed secondary data from a series of cross-sectional, nationally representative Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys 1990-91, 2006-07, and 2012-13. A total of 5406 mothers with 10,164 children were included in the analysis. Child health was assessed by variables such as history of diarrhea, acute respiratory infection (ARI), ARI with fever, Under-5 child mortality (U5CM) and small-size birth (SSB). Associations among variables were assessed by calculating unadjusted Odd Ratios (OR) and adjusted OR (AOR). Results A majority (n = 6,247, 61%) of the births were to mothers having CCM as compare to non-CCM (3917, 39%). There was a significant association between CCM and U5CM during 1990-91 (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.49) and 2006-07 (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.51), and infant mortality in 1990-91 (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.85) and 2006-07 (AOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.17-2.21). A significant association was also found between CCM and SSB infants in the period 2006-07 (AOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.42) and 2012-13 (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46). We noted no effect of CCM on diarrhea, ARI, and ARI with fever. Conclusion CCM increases the likelihood of U5CM, infant mortality and SSB infants. Further quantitative and qualitative research should be conducted to assess the effects of environmental, congenital and genetic factors on the health of children born to mothers in CCM.

  16. Seasonal influenza immunisation in Europe. Overview of recommendations and vaccination coverage for three seasons: pre-pandemic (2008/09), pandemic (2009/10) and post-pandemic (2010/11).

    PubMed

    Mereckiene, J; Cotter, S; Nicoll, A; Lopalco, P; Noori, T; Weber, Jt; D'Ancona, F; Levy-Bruhl, D; Dematte, L; Giambi, C; Valentiner-Branth, P; Stankiewicz, I; Appelgren, E; O Flanagan, D

    2014-04-24

    Since 2008, annual surveys of influenza vaccination policies, practices and coverage have been undertaken in 29 European Union (EU)/ European Economic Area (EEA) countries. After 2009, this monitored the impact of European Council recommendation to increase vaccination coverage to 75% among risk groups. This paper summarises the results of three seasonal influenza seasons: 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11. In 2008/09, 27/29 countries completed the survey; in 2009/10 and 2010/11, 28/29 completed it. All or almost all countries recommended vaccination of older people (defined as those aged ≥50, ≥55, ≥59, ≥60 or ≥65 years), and people aged ≥6 months with clinical risk and healthcare workers. A total of 23 countries provided vaccination coverage data for older people, but only 7 and 10 had data for the clinical risk groups and healthcare workers, respectively. The number of countries recommending vaccination for some or all pregnant women increased from 10 in 2008/09 to 22 in 2010/11. Only three countries could report coverage among pregnant women. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage during and after the pandemic season in older people and clinical groups remained unchanged in countries with higher coverage. However, small decreases were seen in most countries during this period. The results of the surveys indicate that most EU/EEA countries recommend influenza vaccination for the main target groups; however, only a few countries have achieved the target of 75% coverage among risk groups. Coverage among healthcare workers remained low.

  17. [Characterization of a nonspecific inhibitor found in human sera raised against the 2006/07 influenza vaccine strain A/Hiroshima/52/2005 (H3N2) virus].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akiko; Morikawa, Saeko; Kase, Tetsuo; Irie, Sin; Hirota, Yoshio

    2012-07-01

    The serology of influenza viruses typically uses hemagglutination inhibition (HI) or the neutralization test (NT). However, the sera of many humans and animals contain nonspecific inhibitors of hemagglutinin that must be inactivated or removed from the serum before use in the HI assay. Any nonspecific inhibitor in human serum is typically inactivated by pre-treatment with receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE). However, during the 2006/07 influenza circulating season, we observed that influenza vaccine strain A/Hiroshima/52/ 2005 (H3N2) exhibited susceptibility to an RDE-resistant inhibitor in human serum. We report herein on a preliminary characterization of this inhibitor, including the development of a novel inhibitor-inactivating technique for pre-treatment of human serum to be used for HI with the A/Hiroshima/52/2005 (H3N2) virus.

  18. NSHE Diversity Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report includes information on Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) student enrollments in the context of Nevada's changing demographics. In addition, the report provides data on the recruitment and performance of NSHE students within defined ethnic/racial categories. As required by Board policy, the report also provides data on the…

  19. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Facilities Performance Indicators Survey" ("FPI") supersedes and builds upon the two major surveys APPA conducted in the past: the Comparative Costs and Staffing (CCAS) survey and the Strategic Assessment Model (SAM). The "FPI" covers all the materials collected in CCAS and SAM, along with some select new data points and improved survey…

  20. Higher Education Accountability Report 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report is one of several efforts designed to monitor outcomes in Washington's higher education system, and fulfills the biennial requirement that the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) inform the higher education and fiscal committees of the legislature of progress toward goals. The portrait that emerges from this review of…

  1. 2007/08 Annual Service Plan Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since receiving "Campus 2020 Thinking Ahead: The Report," the Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development has been reviewing its recommendations to improve post-secondary education in British Columbia. Several of these have been implemented, including: undertaking a review of student financial assistance and completing a…

  2. 2008-09 Financial Aid Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) is to provide higher education services to the citizens of the State at an excellent level of quality consistent with the state's resources. The information in this report is provided by the financial aid officers at each NSHE institution. Each fall, institutions submit a detailed…

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in aquatic invertebrates and fish and observations about nitrogen and carbon isotope composition in relation to trophic structure and bioaccumulation patterns, Lake Worth and Meandering Road Creek, Fort Worth, Texas, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    During 2007-08 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, evaluated the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic invertebrates and fish from one site in the main body of Lake Worth, two sites in a small inlet in Lake Worth (upper and lower Woods Inlet), and one site in Meandering Road Creek in Fort Worth, Texas. The four sites sampled during 2007-08 were located at or near sites where surficial bed-sediment samples had been collected and analyzed for PCBs during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies so that PCB concentrations in aquatic invertebrates and fish and PCB concentrations in surficial bed-sediment samples could be compared. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes were used to help assess differences in the amount of these isotopes by species and sampling location. The sum of 15 PCB-congener concentrations was highest for aquatic invertebrates and fish from the upper Woods Inlet site and lowest for the same aquatic invertebrates and fish from Lake Worth site, where PCBs historically had not been detected in lake bed sediment. An increase in the ratio of the heavier nitrogen-15 (15N) isotope to the lighter nitrogen-14 (14N) isotope, referred to as enrichment of 15N, was highest in largemouth bass (representing the highest trophic level sampled) at all sites and lowest for true midge larvae inhabiting surficial bed sediment in the lake (representing the lowest trophic level sampled). Enrichment of 15N was less variable in largemouth bass and other fish from the highest trophic level compared with shorter lived, primary consumer invertebrates from lower trophic levels, such as true midge larvae, mayfly nymphs, and zooplankton. The delta carbon-13 (delta13C) values measured in true midge larvae collected at the Lake Worth and upper and lower Woods Inlet sites were more negative compared with the delta13C values measured for all other taxa, indicating true midge larvae were more depleted of carbon-13 (13C) compared

  4. From the Sun to the Ice - Then Where? A Bi-polar, Integrated View of the Role of Polar Snow and Floating Ice Covers in the Earth's Heat Budget During IPY 2007/08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Grenfell, T.; Jeffries, M.; Perovich, D.; Sturm, M.

    2003-12-01

    The polar regions play a key role in the disposition of energy and in particular solar radiation in the earth's climate system. With the largest seasonal variations in surface albedo occurring over the polar oceans and with substantial changes in the extent and nature of the snow and ice covers in recent decades, the polar regions are a critical link between top-of-the atmosphere radiative fluxes and solar energy absorbed by the earth system. While recent studies have greatly improved our knowledge of the heat budget of the polar oceans, we are still far from understanding a number of fundamental questions related to the role of snow and ice in the global radiation budget and their importance for albedo feedback processes. For example, currently albedo parameterizations in large-scale sea ice and climate models are only partially successful in taking into account the physical processes driving seasonal and interannual albedo changes. In fact, the majority of models employ different albedo parameterizations for northern and southern hemisphere snow and sea ice. This is dictated by the strong contrasts in snow and ice melt processes in Arctic and Antarctic, which in of themselves are not all that well understood. Our own research in the Western Arctic and in the southern Ross Sea indicates that snow may play a crucial, currently underestimated role in governing these processes and hence the nature and magnitude of ice-albedo feedback processes. Here, we propose that an integrated, bi-polar examination of the interaction between snow and floating ice covers (sea and lake ice), coupled with a global-scale analysis of the role of polar ice masses in affecting the earth's radiation budget would provide an interesting and scientifically significant cryospheric thread within the framework of the IPY 2007/08. This work would also address other important aspects such as large-scale cloud radiative forcing over ice surfaces and spatio-temporal partitioning of the radiation

  5. Assessment of Energetic Compounds, Semi-volatile Organic Compounds, and Trace Elements in Streambed Sediment and Stream Water from Streams Draining Munitions Firing Points and Impact Areas, Fort Riley, Kansas, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coiner, R.L.; Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of energetic compounds (explosive and propellant residues) and associated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and trace elements in streambed sediment and stream water from streams draining munitions firing points and impact areas at Fort Riley, northeast Kansas, was performed during 2007-08 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army. Streambed sediment from 16 sampling sites and stream-water samples from 5 sites were collected at or near Fort Riley and analyzed for as many as 17 energetic compounds, 65 SVOCs, and 27 trace elements. None of the energetic compounds or SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment collected from sites within the Fort Riley Military Reservation. This may indicate that these compounds either are not transported from dispersal areas or that analytical methods are not sensitive enough to detect the small concentrations that may be transported. Concentrations of munitions-associated trace elements did not exceed sediment-quality guidelines recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and are not indicative of contamination of streambed sediment at selected streambed sampling sites, at least in regards to movement from dispersal areas. Analytical results of stream-water samples provided little evidence of contamination by energetic compounds, SVOCs, or associated trace elements. Perchlorate was detected in 19 of 20 stream-water samples at concentrations ranging from an estimated 0.057 to an estimated 0.236 ug/L (micrograms per liter) with a median concentration of an estimated 0.114 ug/L, substantially less than the USEPA Interim Health Advisory criterion (15 ug/L), and is in the range of documented background concentrations. Because of these small concentrations and possible natural sources (precipitation and groundwater), it is likely that the occurrence of perchlorate in stream water is naturally occurring, although a definitive identification of the source of perchlorate in

  6. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program: annual report, 2006-07.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Cannan, David; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Bishop, Ruth F; Barnes, Graeme L

    2007-12-01

    The National Rotavirus Reference Centre, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, conducts a laboratory based rotavirus surveillance program. This report describes the serotypes of rotavirus strains responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2007. One thousand and two faecal samples from across Australia were examined using a combined approach of monoclonal antibody immunoassays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and polyacrylamide gel analysis. Serotype G1 was the dominant serotype nationally, representing 36.7% of all strains, followed by serotype G9 (31.1%), and serotype G3 (23.3%). Serotype G2 represented less than 5% of strains, while no serotype G4 strains were identified. All G1, G3 and G9 strains assayed for P genotype contained the P[8] genotype, bar one G1 strain, which possessed a P[6]. Uncommon rotavirus genotypes, G8 (n = 1) and G12 (n = 2) were identified in children with acute gastroenteritis during this study period.

  7. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in the District of Columbia. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 131

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment trends between 2002/03 and 2008/09 and achievement trends between 2006/07 and 2008/09 in the District of Columbia. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in District of Columbia public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and…

  8. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in the District of Columbia. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 131

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment trends between 2002/03 and 2008/09 and achievement trends between 2006/07 and 2008/09 in the District of Columbia. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in District of Columbia public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and…

  9. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2007/08.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Cannan, David; Boniface, Karen; Bishop, Ruth F; Barnes, Graeme L

    2008-12-01

    The National Rotavirus Reference Centre together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide conducts a laboratory based rotavirus surveillance program. This report describes the types of rotavirus strains responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2008, the first complete year of surveillance following introduction of rotavirus into the National Immunisation Program. Six hundred faecal samples from across Australia were examined using a combined approach of monoclonal antibody immunoassays and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Of the 419 confirmed as rotavirus positive, serotype G1 was the dominant serotype nationally, representing 52% of specimens, followed by serotype G2 (19.8%), serotype G9 (12.2%), and serotype G3 (11%). No serotype G4 strains were identified. All G1, G3 and G9 strains assayed for P genotype contained the P[8] genotype, while all G2 strains contained the P[4] genotype, except one G2 strain which possessed a P[8]. Uncommon rotavirus genotypes, G8 (n = 2) and P[9] (n = 2) were identified during this study period. There was no evidence of unexpected changes in serotype distribution during the first 12 months of rotavirus vaccine use in the National Immunisation Program.

  10. Grade Level of Achievement: 2007-08 Report on Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the outcomes of the analysis of Grade Level of Achievement (GLA) data at the provincial level to inform the program planning and evaluation needs of Alberta Education as well as school and central office based administrators. GLA data reported to Alberta Education is a teacher's judgment of a student's academic progress. GLA…

  11. Colorado Preschool & Kindergarten Program: 2007-08 Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Colorado Preschool and Kindergarten Program (CPKP) began as the Colorado Preschool Project in 1988 when it was authorized to serve 2,000 four and five year olds in need of language development. The General Assembly created this program in recognition of the need to adequately prepare children with specific at-risk factors to learn. The intent…

  12. Student Employee Handbook. EP-2008-09-136-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This student employee handbook offers tips on planning, design process, and presentation of a student Lunar Nautics project. Each section includes mission, task, challenge, and guide questions. With the activities presented, students will learn to design a Lunar Lander, Lunar Miner, and Lunar Base; investigate the geography and geology of the moon…

  13. 2008-09 Tuition and Fee Rates: A National Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    State law directs the Higher Education Coordinating Board to recommend state tuition and fee policies to the Governor and Legislature. As part of its analysis, the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board conducted an annual survey of tuition and fee rates at public colleges and universities in all 50 states to determine how Washington…

  14. School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2008-2009, the survey was distributed to approximately 90,200 parents, 54,200 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…

  15. Findings from the Reading First Implementation Study, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamse, Beth; Boulay, Beth; Rulf-Fountain, Alyssa; Unlu, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    "The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (PL 107-110) established the Reading First Program (Title I, Part B, Subpart 1), a major federal initiative designed to help ensure that all children can read at or above grade level by the end of third grade. Reading First (RF) builds upon research indicating that effective reading instruction on…

  16. Net Costs Due to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination — United States, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Reed, Carrie; Kim, Inkyu K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Meltzer, Martin I.; Finelli, Lyn; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality across all age groups, and influenza vaccination was recommended in 2010 for all persons aged 6 months and above. We estimated the averted costs due to influenza vaccination, taking into account the seasonal economic burden of the disease. Methods We used recently published values for averted outcomes due to influenza vaccination for influenza seasons 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09, and age cohorts 6 months-4 years, 5-19 years, 20-64 years, and 65 years and above. Costs were calculated according to a payer and societal perspective (in 2009 US$), and took into account medical costs and productivity losses. Results When taking into account direct medical costs (payer perspective), influenza vaccination was cost saving only for the older age group (65≥) in seasons 2005-06 and 2007-08. Using the same perspective, influenza vaccination resulted in total costs of $US 1.7 billion (95%CI: $US 0.3–4.0 billion) in 2006-07 and $US 1.8 billion (95%CI: $US 0.1–4.1 billion) in 2008-09. When taking into account a societal perspective (and including the averted lost earnings due to premature death) averted deaths in the older age group influenced the results, resulting in cost savings for all ages combined in season 07-08. Discussion Influenza vaccination was cost saving in the older age group (65≥) when taking into account productivity losses and, in some seasons, when taking into account medical costs only. Averted costs vary significantly per season; however, in seasons where the averted burden of deaths is high in the older age group, averted productivity losses due to premature death tilt overall seasonal results towards savings. Indirect vaccination effects and the possibility of diminished case severity due to influenza vaccination were not considered, thus the averted burden due to influenza vaccine may be even greater than reported. PMID:26230271

  17. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2004-05 school year alone, approximately $74 billion in new aid was…

  18. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed criterion in all but four stream samples (266 of 270). Similarly, only 2 of 84 Missouri River samples had total phosphorus concentrations less than the proposed criterion. The proposed total nitrogen criterion for the Corn Belt and Northern Great Plains ecoregion was surpassed in 80 percent of the water samples collected from the stream sites. Samples with total nitrogen concentrations greater than the proposed criterion were most common at Papillion Creek and Big Papillion Creek sites, where the proposed criterion was surpassed in 90 and 96 percent of the samples collected, respectively. Elevated concentrations of total nitrogen were less common at the Missouri River sites, with 33 percent of the samples analyzed having concentrations that surpassed the proposed nutrient criterion for total nitrogen. The three constituents with measured concentrations greater than their respective health-based screening levels were nickel, zinc, and dichlorvos. Differences in water quality during the beginning, middle, and end of the combined sewer overflow discharge and the stream hydrograph rise, peak, and recession were investigated. Concentrations from the ending part of the combined sewer overflow hydrograph were significantly different than those from the beginning and middle parts for 3 and 11 constituents, respectively. No constituents were significantly different between the beginning and middle parts of the combined sewer overflow discharge hydrograph. For the stream site upstream from combined sewer overflow outfalls on Cole Creek, the constituents with geometric mean values for the hydrograph rise that were at least twice those for the values of the peak and recession were specific conductance, magnesium, nitrite, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), methyl salicylate, p-cresol, and Escherichia coli. Similarly, the constituents where the hydrograph peak was at least twice that for the rise and recession at the upstream Cole Creek site were total suspended solids, silver, an

  19. Leprosy elimination campaign in Qazvin province, Islamic Republic of Iran (2006-07).

    PubMed

    Qasemi-Barqi, R; Bijani, B; Pahlevan, A A

    2011-12-01

    Multi-drug therapy (MDT) and Leprosy Elimination Campaigns (LEC) are the major strategies for eliminating leprosy. We report the results of a LEC conducted in 2006 in Qazvin. A total of 1987 individuals (1379 household contacts of 319 registered leprosy patients and 608 people from 3 endemic villages with a high prevalence of leprosy) were examined for detection of new cases of leprosy. All new cases were given MDT and were reviewed after a year. There were 256 suspected cases of leprosy, 13 of whom were confirmed as new cases (7 were classified as multibacillary leprosy). None had visible deformity nor was < 20 years old. All patients completed the recommended MDT course. The few cases detected suggest that in low prevalence areas, a long-term approach of integrated leprosy services and disability management may be more appropriate than LEC as a leprosy elimination strategy.

  20. Potentiometric Surface of the Ozark Aquifer near Springfield, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Joseph M.; Mugel, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A study of the water resources of the Springfield, Missouri, area in the 1970s determined that a cone of depression, formed by ground-water pumping, had developed in the Ozark aquifer beneath the city (Emmett and others, 1978). Continued ground-water usage in the 1970s and 1980s caused concern that ground-water resources would not be sufficient to meet the future needs of Springfield, Missouri, during periods of drought. As a result, a ground-water flow model of the Springfield area was developed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to assess the future role of ground water as a water source for the area (Imes, 1989). Results of the USGS model led to a decision by the City Utilities of Springfield to primarily rely on surface water from Stockton Lake as a source of city drinking water. Municipal and industrial ground-water usage continues in Springfield, but at lower rates than previously experienced (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). Rapid growth in the area has caused commercial, industrial, and domestic water use to increase. Population growth has been especially rapid in Nixa, Ozark, and Republic, and water use in the vicinity of these cities has grown an estimated 39 percent since 1990 (Dintelmann and others, 2006). Unlike Springfield, ground water is the primary source of water for these cities. The increased stress on the Ozark aquifer, the primary aquifer in the study area, has raised new concerns about possible further water-level declines in the areas of increased ground-water use. Although there continues to be new development in the Ozark aquifer, since 1987 no new water-supply wells that produce water from the Springfield Plateau aquifer have been allowed to be constructed in most of Greene and northern Christian counties (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). There is concern that if the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer continues to decline, increased leakage of contaminants into the Ozark aquifer from the overlying Springfield Plateau aquifer could occur (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). To address this concern, the USGS, in cooperation with Greene County, Missouri, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, constructed a map of the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer for 2006?2007. The map can be compared to previously constructed potentiometric-surface maps by Emmett and others (1978) and Imes (1989) to evaluate changes in ground-water flow directions, but the comparison is beyond the scope of this report.

  1. 2006-07 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report outlines accomplishments relative to items listed in the February 23, 2006 Management Letter from the Assistant Deputy Minister of Advance Education to the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT). A major focus of BCCAT during this year was the redesign and launch of BCCAT.bc.ca, implementing a number of…

  2. 2006-07 north metropolitan Perth breastfeeding cohort study: how long are mothers breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Forde, Karen A; Miller, Laura J

    2010-07-01

    Information about local breastfeeding rates and predictors of breastfeeding outcomes can assist with improving health planning and community support. Longitudinal infant feeding data were collected during scheduled contacts with a Community Child Health Nurse and a telephone survey at 6 months for 3828 infants in Perth, Western Australia. Breastfeeding rates were below recommended targets. Regression analyses identified several significant protective and risk predictors of breastfeeding outcomes. Factors that increased the likelihood of use of artificial baby milk in hospital were low birth weight, multiple births, private hospital, primiparity and mother of Asian ethnicity. At 6 months, factors that reduced the likelihood of breastfeeding were young mother, no tertiary education, multiple births, use of artiicial baby milk in hospital, low birth weight and mother seeking postnatal professional breastfeeding advice within 14 days. A strong commitment by health leaders and professionals is required across the continuum of care to provide timely and consistent support to maintain breastfeeding.

  3. Impact. Volume 19 Number 3 Fall-Winter 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly publication focuses on Supporting Success in School and Beyond for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Editorial introduction notes that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are reported as the sixth most commonly classified disability among young people receiving special education services in American schools, and it…

  4. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Hungary 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodoczky, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Hungary's arts and cultural education. The cultural area "arts" has the following sub-areas: music, dance and drama, visual culture, film and media. In accordance with the contemporary approach to art, these are all independent branches of art. Although they have a number of common features, they are very different…

  5. Faculty Salaries at California Public Universities, 2007-08. Commission Report 07-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Commission has expressed concerns about the preparation of University of California and California State University executive compensation and faculty salary studies. In response to the Commission's direction, a Compensation Study Advisory Committee was convened to explore the utility of salary and compensation studies and suggest…

  6. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Czech Republic 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajdova, Andrea; Slavik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Czech Republic's arts and cultural education. The decisions related to cultural and creative dimension of education are made at the central level, by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The Ministry is responsible for the development of the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE). One of the aims…

  7. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Italy 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinque, Gaetano; Meconi, Rolando

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Italy's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education is responsible for setting the national curriculum and for the cultural axes. The decisions on all the cultural and creative aims for each type of education are taken at national level and at the level of each individual school. At national level the guidelines…

  8. Focus. Volume 25, Number 2, Fall-Winter 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Emma, Ed.; Johnson, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of "Focus" is to provide coverage of poverty-related research, events, and issues, and to acquaint a large audience with the work of the Institute for Research on Poverty by means of short essays on selected pieces of research. This issue features articles drawn from four of the conference papers presented at the September 2007 IRP…

  9. Challenges Facing the 2007-08 California State Budget. Commission Report 06-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the State of California's fiscal condition and guides the reader through numerous factors that will influence State spending on higher education in the coming fiscal year. It also offers insight and observations on challenging policy decisions the Governor, the Legislature, and higher education leaders face in the coming…

  10. Profile of BC College Transfer Students 2003/04 to 2007/08. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the results from five reports commissioned by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) that profiled the academic experiences and demographics of BC college transfer students: those students who transferred from a BC college, university college, or institute to a BC university during the period…

  11. 2007-08 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines accomplishments relative to items listed in the April 16, 2007 Management Letter from the Assistant Deputy Minister of Advance Education to the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT). The letter charged the Council to continue its role in facilitating student transfer and admission throughout the British…

  12. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2005-06 school year alone, approximately $78 billion in new aid was…

  13. Michigan Higher Education: Facts and Fiction. Policy Brief. No. S2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    State universities in Michigan argue that they have been starved for money and that falling real appropriations from the state legislature have jeopardized the quality of higher education. They contend that this has resulted in a loss of competitiveness for Michigan at a time when the state faces economic stagnation caused by globalization's…

  14. Mental and Social Health Atlas I in Saudi Arabia: 2007-08.

    PubMed

    Al-Habeeb, A A; Qureshi, N A

    2010-05-01

    Based on the World Health Organization's Mental Health Atlas, the first Mental and Social Health Atlas in Saudi Arabia describes the historical background of mental health and social services in the country and identifies several deficiencies in the system including infrastructure and logistics and lack of epidemiological data. There is now great progress in strategic planning for developing and improving mental health care services across the nation, with suggestions to develop psychiatric services for identified special populations, to establish community mental health care services, to improve research and training in mental health, and to update mental health annual information systems using advanced information technology.

  15. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in modifying the water quality and stage of the wetland in Punta Cabullones. The role of the tidal fluctuations becomes important during those times when the outlets/inlets to the sea are not blocked by a sand bar and is allowed to freely flow into the wetland interior. The salinity of the wetland varies from brackish to hypersaline. The hypersaline conditions, including the occurrence of saltflats, within the Punta Cabullones wetland area result from a high evapotranspiration rate. The hypersaline conditions are further enhanced by a sand bar that blocks the inlet/outlet of the wetland’s easternmost channel, particularly during the dry season. Groundwater in Punta Cabullones mostly is present within beds of silisiclastic sand and gravel. During the study period, the depth to groundwater did not exceed 4 feet below land surface. The movement and direction of the groundwater flow in Punta Cabullones are driven by density variations that in turn result from the wide range of salinities in the groundwater. The salinity of the groundwater decreases within the first 60 to 100 feet of depth and decreases outward from a mound of hypersaline groundwater centered on piezometer nest PN2. The main groundwater types within the Punta Cabullones area vary from calcium-bicarbonate type in the northernmost part of the study area to a predominantly sodium-potassium-chloride groundwater type southward. According to stable-isotope data, groundwater within the study area is both modern meteoric water and seawater highly affected by evaporation. The chemical and stable-isotopic character of local groundwater is highly influenced by evapotranspiration because of its shallow depth. Equivalent freshwater heads indicate groundwater moves away from a mound centered on piezometer nest PN2, in a pattern similar to the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity. Vertical groundwater flow occurs in Punta Cabullones due to local differences in density. In the wetland subarea of Punta Cabullones, groundwater and surface water are hydraulically coupled. Locally, surface-hypersaline water sinks into the aquifer, providing recharge and serving as a mechanism to redistribute salt throughout the study area. The evapotranspiration in the wetland subarea is estimated at about 11 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) that is equivalent to about 12,586 acre-feet per year. The balance of evapotranspiration, in excess of the about 0.5 Mgal/d of groundwater flow within the wetland, is supplied by saline to hypersaline surface water that may include seawater and meteoric water highly affected by evaporation with dissolved salts. In one of the extreme scenarios in which no groundwater is intercepted by pumpage at the Restaurada well field, the amount of saline to hypersaline water in the wetland consumed by evapotranspiration is about 10.5 Mgal/d. In the opposite extreme in which the entire regional groundwater flow is intercepted by pumpage in the Restaurada well field, the entire evapotranpiration requirement is met by saline to hypersaline water. Hydrologic, isotopic, and chemical data indicate that all of, or a large portion of, the historical groundwater flow to Punta Cabullones is being captured by the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewer Authority pumpage at the Restaurada well field at a rate of about 2 Mgal/d. As a consequence, seawater intrusion into the aquifer at the Punta Cabullones area seems to be occurring, while the current pumpage at the Restaurada well field is sustained by storage depletion of the aquifer.

  16. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Oden, Timothy D.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, completed an initial reconnaissance-level survey of naturally occurring contaminants (arsenic, other selected trace elements, and radionuclides) in water from municipal supply wells in the Houston area. The purpose of this reconnaissance-level survey was to characterize source-water quality prior to drinking water treatment. Water-quality samples were collected from 28 municipal supply wells in the Houston area completed in the Evangeline aquifer, Chicot aquifer, or both. This initial survey is part of ongoing research to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of these constituents in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. Samples were analyzed for major ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bromide, chloride, fluoride, silica, and sulfate), selected chemically related properties (residue on evaporation [dissolved solids] and chemical oxygen demand), dissolved organic carbon, arsenic species (arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsinate [DMA], and monomethylarsonate [MMA]), other trace elements (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc), and selected radionuclides (gross alpha- and beta-particle activity [at 72 hours and 30 days], carbon-14, radium isotopes [radium-226 and radium-228], radon-222, tritium, and uranium). Field measurements were made of selected physicochemical (relating to both physical and chemical) properties (oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, specific conductance, water temperature, and alkalinity) and unfiltered sulfides. Dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand are presented but not discussed in the report. Physicochemical properties, major ions, and trace elements varied considerably. The pH ranged from 7.2 to 8.1 (median 7.6); specific conductance ranged from 314 to 856 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, with a median of 517 microsiemens per centimeter; and alkalinity ranged from 126 to 324 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate (median 167 milligrams per liter). The range in oxidation-reduction potential was large, from -212 to 244 millivolts, with a median of -84.6 millivolts. The largest ranges in concentration for filtered major ion constituents were obtained for cations sodium and calcium and for anions chloride and bicarbonate (bicarbonate was calculated from the measured alkalinity). Filtered arsenic was detected in all 28 samples, ranging from 0.58 to 15.3 micrograms per liter (median 2.5 micrograms per liter), and exceeded the maximum contaminant level established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of 10 micrograms per liter in 2 of the 28 samples. As(III) was the most frequently detected arsenic specie. As(III) concentrations ranged from less than 0.6 to 14.9 micrograms arsenic per liter. The range in concentrations for the arsenic species As(V) was from less than 0.8 to 3.3 micrograms arsenic per liter. Barium, boron, lithium, and strontium were detected in quantifiable (equal to or greater than the laboratory reporting level) concentrations in all samples and molybdenum in all but one sample. Filtered iron, manganese, nickel, and vanadium were each detected in at least 18 of the 28 samples. All other selected trace elements were each detected in 16 or fewer samples. Radionuclides were detected in most samples. The gross alpha-particle activities at 30 days and 72 hours ranged from R-0.94 to 15.5 and R-1.1 to 17.2 picocuries per liter, respectively ('R' indicates nondetected result less than the sample-specific critical level). The combined radium (radium-226 plus radium-228) concentrations ranged from an estimat

  17. Faculty Salaries at California's Public Universities, 2007-08. Commission Report 07-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    To prepare this report, the Commission examined faculty salary data supplied by the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) systems. This report compares faculty salaries at California's public universities with faculty salaries at comparable institutions of higher education. Based on five-year trend projections,…

  18. School-Based Health Centers: National Census School Year 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strozer, Jan; Juszczak, Linda; Ammerman, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care's (NASBHC) 2007-2008 Census is the 11th request for data from school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986. The Census: (1) provides a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collects relevant trend data on demographics,…

  19. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Liechtenstein 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens-Fisler, Marion; Schadler, Eva-Maria

    2008-01-01

    Arts education is compulsory for all pupils aged 6 to 11 in primary education (ISCED level 1) and for all pupils aged 12 to 15 in lower secondary schools (ISCED level 2). The following arts subjects are included in the arts curriculum: (1) Visual arts; (2) Music; (3) Drama (as an optional subject through the two theatre groups proposed in the…

  20. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Lithuania 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siaulytiene, Dalia

    2008-01-01

    Artistic education at general education schools in Lithuania is organised by teaching separate art subjects. Art education based on the integrated approach or project method may be organized at primary school, in grades one to four, according to the individual curriculum prepared by the teacher. Arts subjects included in Lithuanian arts curriculum…

  1. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter. Median specific conductance measurements at sites ranged from 1,120 microsiemens per centimeter at site 8 in the Washita arm to 2,100 microsiemens per centimeter in the Red River arm. The spatial distribution of specific conductance in Lake Texoma was similar to that of bromide and chloride, with larger specific conductance values in the Red River arm compared to those in the Washita arm.

  2. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,528 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008 and Food ...

  3. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. Orthophosphate was the primary dissolved species of phosphorus present in all surface-water and groundwater samples. The average concentration of dissolved orthophosphate in surface water was largest in samples collected from near Teton Village; samples from all other sites had similar average concentrations. Concentrations of dissolved orthophosphate in groundwater also were typically greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. The aquatic plant communities in Fish Creek typically were composed of a mixture of macrophytes, macroalgae, microalgae, and moss. The composition of the aquatic plant community in Fish Creek appeared to shift in the downstream direction in 2007. On average, the proportion of macrophytes ranged from about 1 percent at site A-R1U, the most upstream site, to 54 percent of the plant community at site A-R6D, the farthest downstream site sampled during 2007. The downstream increase in macrophytes was accompanied by a downstream decrease in microalgae. The average proportion of microalgae ranged from 80 percent at site A-R1U to 24 percent at site A-R6D. The proportion of the macroalgae Cladophora in the aquatic plant community was relatively high at sites A-Wck and A-R3D in both 2007 and 2008.

  4. Annual Report to Congress of the Office for Civil Rights. Fiscal Years 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the Office for Civil Rights's (OCR's) "Annual Report to Congress" for fiscal years 2007 and 2008. This report details OCR's accomplishments in enforcing the civil rights laws under which OCR has been granted jurisdiction to address and remedy discrimination. These enforcement efforts include complaint investigation and resolution,…

  5. Office for Civil Rights Annual Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report details the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' (OCRs') accomplishments in enforcing the civil rights laws under which OCR has been granted jurisdiction to address and remedy discrimination. These enforcement efforts include complaint investigation and resolution, compliance reviews and technical assistance, as well…

  6. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Slovakia 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Marta; Aichova, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    The decisions related to the national curriculum are made at central level. The curriculum development is under responsibility of the National Institute for Education (organisation directly managed by the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic). "Zakladna skola" provides teaching of compulsory subjects, included separate compulsory…

  7. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Germany 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmar, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Education of the land (regional level) is responsible for setting the specified aims for the cultural and creative dimensions of education. The ministry decides also about the creation and the implementation of the arts curriculum. The arts curriculum at ISCED levels 1 and 2 (age group: 6-15/16) is organised as separate subjects.…

  8. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe: Austria 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Michael; Schad, Anke; Nagel, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Austria's arts and cultural education. The Austrian arts curriculum is organised as separate subjects. It includes music, visual arts and crafts (divided into two separate subjects: technical crafts and textile arts). The Austrian curriculum refers to "Bildungs- und Lehraufgaben", i.e. educational and teaching…

  9. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Romania 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirea, Veronica-Gabriela; Modrescu, Alexandru; Modrescu, Tincuta

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Romania's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education, Research and Youth is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of formal education provided by the national education system. However, the Ministry of Culture and Cults promotes programmes and projects in the domain of adult…

  10. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Poland 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakowicz-Nawrocka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Setting the aims for cultural and artistic aspects of general education is the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education. Educational aims specified in the core curriculum refer to arts and culture in the following way: ...As part of its educational activities, the school should ensure in particular that pupils: ...8) learn about the…

  11. Groundwater budgets for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys, Mohave County, Arizona, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, Bradley D.; Truini, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Figures 9, 10, and 11 from this report present water budgets for Detritial, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys in Northwestern Arizona. These figures show average values for each water-budget component. Uncertainty is discussed but not shown on these report figures. As an aid to readers, these figures have been implemented as interactive, web-based figures here. Water-budget parameters can be varied within reasonable bounds of uncertainty and the effects those changes have on the water budget will be shown as they are varied. This can aid in understanding sensitivity-which parameters most or least affect the water budgets-and also could provide a generally improved sense of the hydrologic cycle represented in these water budgets.

  12. Health and Safety Incidents Among MOD (Ministry of Defence) Personnel 2007/08

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-05

    regulars. Note that the Naval Service includes both the Royal Navy and the Royal Marines. 35. DASA receive regular notifications of deaths to Service...and untrained regular Service personnel. The data excludes the Home Service of the Royal Irish Regiment, mobilised reservists, full time reservists...conditions (such as mesothelimoa among asbestos workers) to be referred to these officials. Inquests are usually held within a few months of the death

  13. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Cyprus 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitri, Eliza

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Cyprus's arts and cultural education. The Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of education. Decisions about the creation of the curriculum related to culture and creativity within education, as well as the arts curriculum are made at a central…

  14. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Slovenia 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plevnik, Primoz; Podobnik, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Slovenia's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education and Sport is responsible for laying down the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of education. Concerning the creation of the curriculum related to culture and creativity (both within education) and the arts curriculum, most curricular decisions are made…

  15. Mars Exploration Program 2007-08 Science Planning, with MEP Requests of MEPAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, David; Meyer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the planning for the Mars Exploration Program. This includes information on the Mars Science Orbiter, the 2016-2018 planning teams, and updates to the Mars Exploration Analysis Group.

  16. Hydrologic Data for Deep Creek Lake and Selected Tributaries, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Davies, William J.; Gellis, Allen C.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; McPherson, Wendy S.; Soeder, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent and ongoing efforts to develop the land in the area around Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland, are expected to change the volume of sediment moving toward and into the lake, as well as impact the water quality of the lake and its many tributaries. With increased development, there is an associated increased demand for groundwater and surface-water withdrawals, as well as boat access. Proposed dredging of the lake bottom to improve boat access has raised concerns about the adverse environmental effects such activities would have on the lake. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDDNR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study during 2007 and 2008 to address these issues. This study was designed to address several objectives to support MDDNR?s management strategy for Deep Creek Lake. The objectives of this study were to: Determine the current physical shape of the lake through bathymetric surveys; Initiate flow and sediment monitoring of selected tributaries to characterize the stream discharge and sediment load of lake inflows; Determine sedimentation rates using isotope analysis of sediment cores; Characterize the degree of hydraulic connection between the lake and adjacent aquifer systems; and Develop an estimate of water use around Deep Creek Lake. Summary of Activities Data were collected in Deep Creek Lake and in selected tributaries from September 2007 through September 2008. The methods of investigation are presented here and all data have been archived according to USGS policy for future use. The material presented in this report is intended to provide resource managers and policy makers with a broad understanding of the bathymetry, surface water, sedimentation rates, groundwater, and water use in the study area. The report is structured so that the reader can access each topic separately using any hypertext markup (HTML) language reader. In order to establish a base-line water-depth map of Deep Creek Lake, a bathymetric survey of the lake bottom was conducted in 2007. The data collected were used to generate a bathymetric map depicting depth to the lake bottom from a full pool elevation of 2,462 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929). Data were collected along about 90 linear miles across the lake using a fathometer and a differentially corrected global positioning system. As part of a long-term monitoring plan for all surface-water inputs to the lake, streamflow data were collected continuously at two stations constructed on Poland Run and Cherry Creek. The sites were selected to represent areas of the watershed under active development and areas that are relatively stable with respect to development. Twelve months of discharge data are provided for both streams. In addition, five water-quality parameters were collected continuously at the Poland Run station including pH, specific conductance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Water samples collected at Poland Run were analyzed for sediment concentration, and the results of this analysis were used to estimate the annual sediment load into Deep Creek Lake from Poland Run. To determine sedimentation rates, cores of lake-bottom sediments were collected at 23 locations. Five of the cores were analyzed using a radiometric-dating method, allowing average rates of sedimentation to be estimated for the time periods 1925 to 2008, 1925 to 1963, and 1963 to 2008. Particle-size data from seven cores collected at locations throughout the study area were analyzed to provide information on the amount of fine material in lake-bed sediments. Groundwater levels were monitored continuously in four wells and weekly in nine additional wells during October, November, and December of 2008. Water levels were compared to recorded lake levels and precipitation during the same period to determine the effect of lake-level drawdown and recovery on the adjacent aquifer systems. Water use in the Deep Creek Lake wa

  17. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Malta 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Sina Farrugia

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Malta's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Youth and Sport is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of education. It is the duty of the state to ensure the existence of a system of schools and institutions accessible to all Maltese citizens catering for the full…

  18. The Literacy Programs of Save the Children: Results from the 2008-09 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiter, Andrea S.; Arcaira, Erikson R.; White, Richard N.; Reisner, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 2003-04 school year, Save the Children, U.S. Programs, has supported programming designed to improve reading skills among struggling students in rural areas. The literacy program includes both afterschool and in-school interventions with small groups of children. These are implemented by well-trained paraprofessionals and are designed to…

  19. Seeking Quality in the Face of Adversity: Fordham Sponsorship Accountability Report, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As a charter school sponsor (authorizer), the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation submits an accountability report to the Ohio Department of Education at the end of November each year. The report includes profiles of each Fordham-sponsored school, as well as graphics comparing the achievement data of its schools, their home districts, and statewide…

  20. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Thermal Protection Systems. EP-2008-09-122-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Nick; McWilliams, Harold; Wagoner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, and their partners at other NASA centers and in private industry, are designing and beginning to develop the next generation of spacecraft to transport cargo, equipment, and human explorers to space. These vehicles--the Ares I and Ares V launch…

  1. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Spacecraft Structures. EP-2008-09-121-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Nick; McWilliams, Harold; Wagoner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center along with their partners at other NASA centers, and in private industry, are designing and beginning to develop the next generation of spacecraft to transport cargo, equipment, and human explorers to space. These vehicles are part of the Constellation…

  2. British Columbia Council on Admissions & Transfer Annual Report, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The role of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) is to facilitate admission, articulation, and transfer arrangements in the BC post-secondary system. BCCAT carries out this work in various ways; for example, engaging in research on admissions and student transitions, evaluating the effectiveness of the transfer system…

  3. State Plan for Alabama Higher Education, 2003-04 to 2008-09.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    The State Plan for Alabama Higher Education is intended to focus public attention on important strategic issues facing Alabama higher education and the state and to articulate Alabamas needs and its vision for higher education. It is designed to commit resources necessary to provide high quality teaching, scholarship, research, and public service…

  4. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.

  5. No safe place for childbirth: women and midwives bearing witness, Gaza 2008-09.

    PubMed

    Wick, Laura; Hassan, Sahar

    2012-12-01

    Women seek to give birth in a place where they feel safe, protected and secure. However, in conflict settings, many are forced to give birth in dangerous and frightening situations, where even the most rudimentary help and protection is unavailable. This study, based on interviews with women who gave birth and midwives during the 22-day Israeli attack on Gaza in December 2008 - January 2009, illustrates the vulnerability and trauma women experience when there is no safe place for childbirth. They recounted their overwhelming fear of not knowing when they would go into labour, not reaching a hospital or skilled attendant during the bombing, complications in labour without emergency care, and fear for the safety of their families and being separated from them. Most of the midwives were unprepared both materially and psychologically to attend births outside a hospital setting, while physicians were overwhelmed with severely injured patients. The capacity of midwifery care to keep birth normal whenever possible is particularly crucial in situations of political instability, conflict, poverty and disaster. Planning for emergency care by mapping the location of midwives, supplying them with basic equipment and medications, and legitimizing their profession with an appropriate scope of practice, licensing, back-up, and incentives would facilitate their ability to respond to birthing women's needs.

  6. On the Brink: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an outstanding system of higher education requires investments in the faculty members who cultivate the human capital upon which our economy's recovery and future growth will depend. Sadly, the record of the last three decades shows that, when measured by the inflation-adjusted salaries paid to college faculty members or by the…

  7. Pharmaceutical compounds in Merrimack River water used for public supply, Lowell, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, Andrew J.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, to determine the occurrence of 14 commonly used human-health pharmaceutical compounds and fecal-indicator bacteria in Merrimack River water used as a drinking-water source by 135,000 residents in eastern Massachusetts. The study was designed to complement the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program's Source Water-Quality Assessment, which identifies patterns of occurrence of 280 primarily unregulated organic wastewater contaminants in source water used by community water systems and determines whether these patterns also occur in treated drinking water prior to distribution. The study involved periodic collection and analysis of raw Merrimack River water and treated drinking water over the course of 1 year. Water samples were collected periodically without regard to flow regime or antecedent weather conditions at the Lowell Regional Water Utility's Merrimack River intake upstream from Lowell, Mass. The same parcel of water was then sampled as finished water following treatment. Despite the presence of many potential sources of contamination in the drinking-water source area, only 2 of the 14 pharmaceutical analytes were detected at reportable concentrations in the source-water samples, and these occurred in only one set of periodic samples. Acetaminophen, a nonprescription analgesic, and caffeine were detected in the September source-water samples at concentrations of 0.084 and 0.068 micrograms per liter, respectively. Three other compounds-carbamazepine, an antiepileptic; cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine; and diphenhydramine, a nonprescription antihistamine-were detected in source-water samples, but at concentrations too low to be reliably quantified. None of the 14 pharmaceuticals was found in the finished water at a reportable concentration, defined as two times the long-term detection limit used by the analytical laboratory. In addition to the pharmaceutical analyses, measurements of fecal-indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli) concentrations and several physical characteristics were made on all source-water samples. Values for these constituents were consistently within State standards. It is possible that the monthly sampling schedule missed hydrologic events that would have transported greater concentrations of sewage contaminants to the sampling site, or that the large flow volume of the river at the study site effectively diluted the contaminant signal, but it is also likely that recent efforts to separate stormwater- and wastewater-discharge systems in the reaches upstream from the Lowell Regional Water Utility have greatly reduced the potential for sewage contamination at the intake.

  8. Documentation for the 2008-09 Teacher Follow-up Survey. NCES 2011-304

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Shawna; Parmer, Randall; Chambers, Lisa; Tourkin, Steven; Lyter, Deanna M.

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) is sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education and is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. TFS is a follow-up survey of selected elementary and secondary school teachers who participated in the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is the…

  9. Community College Funding 2008-09. Enrollment Growth Outpaces Resources. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian; Leichty, Julian

    2009-01-01

    California community colleges are expected to provide a broad range of affordable educational opportunities to an increasing number of students, but the current system does not have sufficient funding to serve them all well. This report describes present budgetary sources and explains that colleges receive mostly discretionary funding. With the…

  10. SY 2008-09 Customer Satisfaction Survey Results (Full Report). DoDEA Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense Education Activity, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) Customer Satisfaction Survey is a biennial survey administered by DoDEA to parents and students to monitor DoDEA's success in meeting students' needs. The survey is administered every other year to sponsors with children in pre-kindergarten--12th grade and to students in grades 4-12. For the…

  11. 2008-09 Guide for the College-Bound Student-Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This guide is designed to help college-bound student-athletes and their families understand the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rules for progressing from being a high school athlete to a student-athlete in college. Students are encouraged to work closely with high school counselors, recruiters and college admissions officers to…

  12. Pressures of the Season: A Descriptive Look at Classroom Quality in Second and Third Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Stephen B.; Condliffe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This report presents findings from two years of classroom observation designed to help understand the in-school experiences of students who had been first graders in eight Baltimore public schools in 2007-08. During the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years, the authors conducted fieldwork to understand learning opportunities and settings for a set of…

  13. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  14. WWC Review of the Report "Teacher Incentive Pay and Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the New York City Bonus Program"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effects of offering a school-wide teacher performance bonus program on students' reading and mathematics achievement. The study sample included 309 high-poverty New York City public schools serving students in grades K-8 from 2007-08 to 2008-09. Of these schools, 181 were randomly chosen to be offered…

  15. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether offering financial incentives to teachers of fifth- through eighth-grade math students improved their students' achievement on the math section of the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. The study took place in the Metropolitan Nashville Public School District during the 2006-07 through 2008-09 school years. It…

  16. Alabama Department of Education Quick Facts, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics; Alabama public schools 2007-08; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data; public school size and enrollment; transportation; school meals; school personnel, 2007-2008; graduation requirements; student assessment; additional enrollment; and dropouts, 2006-07.

  17. Meeting Oregon's New High School Math Graduation Requirements: Examining Student Enrollment and Teacher Availability. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Sage, Nicole; Ishimaru, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Disaggregating the data across four school variables--size, locale, racial/ethnic minority population, and population eligible for free or reduced-price lunch--this study examines the extent to which Oregon grade 9-12 students enrolled in high school math courses during 2006/07 and 2007/08 would not have been on track to graduate had the new…

  18. Snapshots of Indiana's Full-Day Kindergarten Programs before and after the State's Funding Increase for the Program. REL Technical Brief. REL 2009-No. 013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Rachel; Kochanek, Julie; Mathers, Carrie; Burke, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The Indiana General Assembly increased the state grant funds for full-day kindergarten from $8.5 million for 2006/07 to $33.5 million for 2007/08. Following the increase in funding, the Indiana Department of Education and the Indiana State Board of Education requested assistance from Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest to analyze Indiana…

  19. Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in the United States: Fall 2008, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2007-08, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2007-08: First Look. NCES 2009-165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions, such as Puerto Rico. For IPEDS, a postsecondary institution is defined as an organization that is open to the public and has as its…

  20. Varicella routine vaccination and the effects on varicella epidemiology – results from the Bavarian Varicella Surveillance Project (BaVariPro), 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiology were investigated. Methods Data on varicella vaccinations, cases and complications were collected from annual parent surveys (2006-2011), monthly paediatric practice surveillance (Oct 2006 - Sep 2011; five varicella seasons) and paediatric hospital databases (2005-2009) in the area of Munich (about 238,000 paediatric inhabitants); annual incidences of cases and hospitalisations were estimated. Results Varicella vaccination coverage (1st dose) in children 18-36 months of age increased in two steps (38%, 51%, 53%, 53%, 66% and 68%); second-dose coverage reached 59% in the 2011 survey. A monthly mean of 82 (62%) practices participated; they applied a total of 50,059 first-dose and 40,541 second-dose varicella vaccinations, with preferential use of combined MMR-varicella vaccine after recommendation of two doses, and reported a total of 16,054 varicella cases <17 years of age. The mean number of cases decreased by 67% in two steps, from 6.6 (95%CI 6.1-7.0) per 1,000 patient contacts in season 2006/07 to 4.2 (95%CI 3.9-4.6) in 2007/08 and 4.0 (95%CI 3.6-4.3) in 2008/09, and further to 2.3 (95%CI 2.0-2.6) in 2009/10 and 2.2 (95%CI 1.9-2.5) in 2010/11. The decrease occurred in all paediatric age groups, indicating herd protection effects. Incidence of varicella was estimated as 78/1,000 children <17 years of age in 2006/07, and 19/1,000 in 2010/11. Vaccinated cases increased from 0.3 (95%0.2-0.3) per 1,000 patient contacts in 2006/07 to 0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.5) until 2008/09 and decreased to 0.2 (95%CI 0.2-0.3) until 2010/11. The practices treated a total of 134 complicated cases, mainly with skin complications. The paediatric hospitals recorded a total of 178 varicella patients, including 40 (22.5%) with neurological complications and one (0.6%) fatality due

  1. Financial Inequality in Higher Education: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2007-01-01

    Financial inequality is growing in U.S. higher education. In this report, the author observes increasing differences between the endowments of rich and poor institutions, between the salaries of college and university presidents and their faculties, between the salaries of athletic coaches and professors, and between well and poorly compensated…

  2. Water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for Highland and Marchand Bayous, Galveston County, Texas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Dexter W.; Mabe, Jeffrey A.; Turco, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate and fish data were collected from the same five sites identified for habitat evaluation. Three assessments were done to account for seasonal differences in biotic distribution. Stream-habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were assessed at each site three times during the study to evaluate aquatic life use. A total of 5,126 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified at all sites. During the study, 34 species of fish representing 28 families were collected from all the sites. 

  3. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

  4. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading from Surface Water and Groundwater to Sweitzer Lake, Colorado, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. Sweitzer Lake was placed on the State 303(d) list as impaired with respect to dissolved selenium. In Colorado, the Water Quality Control Division of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment is required to develop total maximum daily loads of selenium for the 303(d) list segments. The U.S. Geological survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading from surface water and ground water to Sweitzer Lake to support the total maximum daily loads development process. Surface-water and groundwater data were collected to quantify selenium concentrations and loads to Sweitzer Lake from October 2006 to October 2007. These data were used to determine the amount of selenium load (pounds annually) that would need to be reduced for the contributing sources (surface water and groundwater) to meet the State chronic aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium, herein referred to as 'a load reduction.' Selenium concentration data were also compared to the State acute aquatic-life standard of 18.4 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium. Both surface-water and groundwater-quality samples collected during this study were found to exceed the chronic standard. Surface-water quantity and quality data were collected at Garnet Canal Diversion and Diversion Drain. Groundwater flux data were collected at 10 seepage-meter sires in Sweitzer Lake, and groundwater-quality data were collected at a groundwater seep and inferred from a January 2007 sample collected at Garnet Canal Diversion. Selenium concentrations and loads were greater at Garnet Canal Diversion than those observed at Diversion Drain. Approximately one-third of Garnet Canal Diversion-s Streamflow originates from Loutzenhizer Arroyo. Selenium concentrations observed during previous studies at Loutzenhizer Arroyo indicate high selenium concentrations and high selenium loads. All selenium concentrations in samples from Garnet Canal Diversion were greater than the chronic standard and were less that the acute standard during the irrigation season. Seventy-three percent of the annual selenium load at Garnet Canal Diversion would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. All daily mean selenium concentrations and selenium-concentration samples were greater than the chronic standard at Diversion Drain, but less than the acute standard during the irrigation season. Forty percent of the mean annual selenium loads at Diversion Drain would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. Estimated groundwater selenium loads and reductions of selenium loads to Sweitzer Lake were estimated using ranges of lake-bottom areas with positive groundwater flux and groundwater selenium concentrations. Estimated annual groundwater selenium load reductions ranged from 0.900 pound of the 1.17 pounds of annual load to 86.3 points of the 88.3 pounds of annual load for the selenium concentration scenarios over the range of lake-bottom areas. Groundwater selenium load and load reductions determined from this study identify the probably minimum and maximum values for these parameters. Further data collection and analysis could refine the range of groundwater selenium loads and load reductions.

  5. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured once in 2006 and once in 2007 at Moenkopi School Spring. Flow decreased by 18.9 percent at Moenkopi School Spring. During the period of record, flow fluctuated, and a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi (1976 to 2006), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs (1993 to 2006), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa (1994 to 2006), and Pasture Canyon Springs (August 2004 to December 2006). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained even, showing neither a significant increase nor decrease in flows. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring for a trend to be apparent. In 2007, water samples were collected from 1 well and 1 spring in the Black Mesa area and were analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at Peabody well 5 for the period of record, and there is an apparent increasing trend. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record.

  6. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  7. Ground-Water Data and Flow Directions in the Vicinity of Swamp Road, Licking County, Ohio, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is proposing to build a dry dam on the South Fork Licking River to mitigate flood impacts. Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of impounded floodwaters on ground-water conditions in the Swamp Road neighborhood. To obtain a better understanding of existing ground-water conditions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NRCS, installed three monitoring wells and collected ground-water-quality samples on two occasions from these and four residential wells. In addition, transducers were placed in these seven wells to obtain hourly water-level measurements from August, 2006 to early March, 2007. Intermittent water levels also were measured in another seven residential wells in the area. Water-quality samples were collected in September 2006 and January 2007. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, inorganic elements, and fecal-indicator bacteria. In general, the ground-water quality was very hard with large iron concentrations of 1,700 ?g/L and above. Although the aquifer underlying the Swamp Road area is confined, the continuous water-level records indicate a rapid response to precipitation. Comparison of the well hydrographs with the stage hydrograph for the nearby South Fork Licking River indicates a hydraulic connection between the river and the aquifer. In the vicinity of Swamp Road, the ground-water-flow direction was southeast during the duration of the study. The ground-water-level elevations were above the planned maximum elevation for water impounded by the dam, thus the impounded floodwater should have minimal impact on ground-water conditions along Swamp Road.

  8. Transport and Sources of Suspended Sediment in the Mill Creek Watershed, Johnson County, Northeast Kansas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, evaluated suspended-sediment transport and sources in the urbanizing, 57.4 mi2 Mill Creek watershed from February 2006 through June 2007. Sediment transport and sources were assessed spatially by continuous monitoring of streamflow and turbidity as well as sampling of suspended sediment at nine sites in the watershed. Within Mill Creek subwatersheds (2.8-16.9 mi2), sediment loads at sites downstream from increased construction activity were substantially larger (per unit area) than those at sites downstream from mature urban areas or less-developed watersheds. Sediment transport downstream from construction sites primarily was limited by transport capacity (streamflow), whereas availability of sediment supplies primarily influenced transport downstream from mature urban areas. Downstream sampling sites typically had smaller sediment loads (per unit area) than headwater sites, likely because of sediment deposition in larger, less sloping stream channels. Among similarly sized storms, those with increased precipitation intensity transported more sediment at eight of the nine monitoring sites. Storms following periods of increased sediment loading transported less sediment at two of the nine monitoring sites. In addition to monitoring performed in the Mill Creek watershed, sediment loads were computed for the four other largest watersheds (48.6-65.7 mi2) in Johnson County (Blue River, Cedar, Indian, and Kill Creeks) during the study period. In contrast with results from smaller watersheds in Mill Creek, sediment load (per unit area) from the most urbanized watershed in Johnson County (Indian Creek) was more than double that of other large watersheds. Potential sources of this sediment include legacy sediment from earlier urban construction, accelerated stream-channel erosion, or erosion from specific construction sites, such as stream-channel disturbance during bridge renovation. The implication of this finding is that sediment yields from larger watersheds may remain elevated after the majority of urban development is complete. Surface soil, channel-bank, suspended-sediment, and streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for grain size, nutrients, trace elements, and radionuclides in the Mill Creek watershed to characterize suspended sediment between surface or channel-bank sources. Although concentrations and activities of cobalt, nitrogen, selenium, total organic carbon, cesium-137, and excess lead-210 had significant differences between surface and channel-bank samples, biases resulting from urban construction, additional sorption of constituents during sediment transport, and inability to accurately represent erosion from rills and gullies precluded accurate characterization of suspended-sediment source.

  9. Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in the United States: Fall 2009, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2008-09, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2009 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2009-10 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009, and 12-Month Enrollment covering academic…

  10. Profile of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] Candidates 2007-08 to 2011-12: Five-Year Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2011-2012 testing year held a number of significant milestones for the Graduate Management Admission Test exam. A total of 286,529 GMAT exams were administered, with 831,337 score reports sent to more than 5,200 graduate-level management programs around the world--all record numbers. This record volume reflects the increase in graduate-level…

  11. Epidemiology of Meniscal Injuries in U.S. High School Athletes from 2007/08 – 2012/13

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Joshua; Graham, William; Best, Thomas M.; Collins, Christy; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Flanigan, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Knowledge of epidemiologic trends of meniscal injuries in young active populations is limited. Better awareness of injury patterns is a first step to lowering injury rates. Our hypothesis was that meniscal injuries in high school athletes would vary by gender, sport, and type of exposure. Methods During 2007–2013, a large nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 22 sports by having certified athletic trainers complete an internet-based data collection tool. Results 1,082 meniscal injuries were reported during 21,088,365 athlete-exposures for an overall injury rate of 5.1 per 100,000 athlete exposures. The overall rate of injury was higher in competition (11.9) than practice (2.7) (RR = 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9–5.0), and 12/19 sports showed significantly higher injury rates in competition compared to practice. Of all injuries, 68.0% occurred in boys, yet among the gender-comparable sports of soccer, basketball, track and field, lacrosse, and baseball/softball injury rates were higher for girls than boys (5.5 and 2.5, respectively, RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8–2.7). Contact injury represented the most common mechanism (55.9%). Surgery was performed for the majority of injuries (63.8%), and 54.0% of athletes had associated intra-articular knee pathology. Conclusions Meniscal injury patterns among high school athletes vary by gender, sport, and type of exposure. Overall rates are higher for boys, but this is driven by football; however in gender-comparable sports girls may be at higher risk for meniscal injury. Our study is clinically relevant because recognition of distinct differences in these injury patterns will help drive evidence-based, targeted injury prevention strategies and efforts. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26506845

  12. Salaries and Wages Paid Professional and Support Personnel in Public Schools, 2007-08. A Reference Tool for School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy; Licciardi, Christopher M.; Cooke, Willa D.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents salary and wage data collected as part of the "Educational Research Service (ERS) National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools, 2007-2008." The survey, conducted in spring 2008, collected data on salaries scheduled and salaries paid for 23 selected professional positions and 10 selected support positions in public…

  13. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2007-08. Research Brief. Volume 0702

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  14. Occurrence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Park Service Police Aviation Group, conducted a high-resolution, low-altitude aerial thermal infrared survey of the Washington, D.C. section of Rock Creek Basin within the Park boundaries to identify specific locations where warm water was discharging from seeps or pipes to the creek. Twenty-three stream sites in Rock Creek Park were selected based on the thermal infrared images. Sites were sampled during the summers of 2007 and 2008 for the analysis of organic wastewater compounds to verify potential sources of sewage and other anthropogenic wastewater. Two sets of stormwater samples were collected, on June 27-28 and September 6, 2008, at the Rock Creek at Joyce Road water-quality station using an automated sampler that began sampling when a specified stage threshold value was exceeded. Passive-sampler devices that accumulate organic chemicals over the duration of deployment were placed in July 2008 at the five locations that had the greatest number of detections of organic wastewater compounds from the June 2007 base-flow sampling. During the 2007 base-flow synoptic sampling, there were ubiquitous low-level detections of dissolved organic wastewater indicator compounds such as DEET, caffeine, HHCB, and organophosphate flame retardants at more than half of the 23 sites sampled in Rock Creek Park. Concentrations of DEET and caffeine in the tributaries to Rock Creek were variable, but in the main stem of Rock Creek, the concentrations were constant throughout the length of the creek, which likely reflects a distributed source. Organophosphate flame retardants in the main stem of Rock Creek were detected at estimated concentrations of 0.2 micrograms per liter or less, and generally did not increase with distance downstream. Overall, concentrations of most wastewater indicators in whole-water samples in the Park were similar to the concentrations found at the upstream sampling station at the Maryland/District of Columbia boundary. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the dominant organic compounds found in the stormwater samples at the Joyce Road station. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were consistently found in higher concentrations either in sediment or in whole-water samples than in the dissolved samples collected during base-flow conditions at the 23 synoptic sites, or in the Joyce Road station stormwater samples.

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

  16. Trends in Graduate Borrowing: Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-180

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie; Skomsvold, Paul

    2010-01-01

    From 1995 to 2007, fall enrollment for graduate and professional students increased by 30 percent, from 2 to 2.6 million students (Snyder, Dillow, and Hoffman 2009, tables 206 and 207). Average tuition and fees also went up over this same period; the average full-time tuition and fees paid by graduate students increased 37 percent, in…

  17. Merit Aid for Undergraduates: Trends from 1995-96 to 2007-08. Stats in Brief. NCES 2012-160

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.; Choy, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief first examines merit aid and other non-need-based aid from all sources and then focuses on two sources of merit aid widely cited in empirical and policy-oriented literature--postsecondary institutions and states--examining how much merit aid students received and the characteristics of students who received it. It tracks…

  18. Fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations in the Illinois River between Hennepin and Peoria, Illinois: 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupre, David H.; Hortness, Jon E.; Terrio, Paul J.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has designated portions of the Illinois River in Peoria, Woodford, and Tazewell Counties, Illinois, as impaired owing to the presence of fecal coliform bacteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tri-County Regional Planning Commission, examined the water quality in the Illinois River and major tributaries within a 47-mile reach between Peoria and Hennepin, Ill., during water year 2008 (October 2007–September 2008). Investigations included synoptic (snapshot) sampling at multiple locations in a 1-day period: once in October 2007 during lower streamflow conditions, and again in June 2008 during higher streamflow conditions. Five locations in the study area were monitored for the entire year at monthly or more frequent intervals. Two indicator bacteria were analyzed in each water sample: fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Streamflow information from previously established monitoring locations in the study area was used in the analysis. Correlation analyses were used to characterize the relation between the two fecal-indicator bacteria and the relation of either indicator to streamflow. Concentrations of the two measured fecal-indicator bacteria correlated well for all samples analyzed (r = 0.94, p E. coli: rho = -0.43, p = 0.0157). The correlation between fecal indicators and streamflow in tributaries or in the Illinois River at Hennepin was found to be statistically significant, yet moderate in strength with coefficient values ranging from r = 0.4 to 0.6. Indirect observations from the June 2008 higher flow synoptic event may indicate continued effects from combined storm and sanitary sewers in the vicinity of the Illinois River near Peoria, Ill., contributing to observed single-sample exceedance of the State criterion for fecal coliform.

  19. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes and crayfish at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter; Johnson, Danielle; Hereford, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study provides baseline data of native and non-native fish populations in Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Nye County, Nevada, that can serve as a gauge in native fish enhancement efforts. In support of Carson Slough restoration, comprehensive surveys of Ash Meadows NWR fishes were conducted seasonally from fall 2007 through summer 2008. A total of 853 sampling stations were created using Geographic Information Systems and National Agricultural Imagery Program. In four seasons of sampling, Amargosa pupfish (genus Cyprinodon) was captured at 388 of 659 stations. The number of captured Amargosa pupfish ranged from 5,815 (winter 2008) to 8,346 (summer 2008). The greatest success in capturing Amargosa pupfish was in warm water spring-pools with temperature greater than 25 degrees C, headwaters of warm water spring systems, and shallow (depths less than 10 centimeters) grassy marshes. In four seasons of sampling, Ash Meadows speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus nevadesis) was captured at 96 of 659 stations. The number of captured Ash Meadows speckled dace ranged from 1,009 (summer 2008) to 1,552 (winter 2008). The greatest success in capturing Ash Meadows speckled dace was in cool water spring-pools with temperature less than 20 degrees C and in the high flowing water outflows. Among 659 sampling stations within the range of Amargosa pupfish, red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was collected at 458 stations, western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) at 374 stations, and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) at 128 stations. School Springs was restored during the course of this study. Prior to restoration of School Springs, maximum Warm Springs Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis pectoralis) captured from the six springs of the Warm Springs Complex was 765 (fall 2007). In four seasons of sampling, Warm Springs Amargosa pupfish were captured at 85 of 177 stations. The greatest success in capturing Warm Springs Amargosa pupfish when co-occurring with red swamp crayfish and western mosquitofish was in water with temperature greater than 26 degrees C near the springhead, and in shallow (depths less than 10 centimeters) grassy marshes. Among 177 sampling stations within the range of Warm Springs Amargosa pupfish, red swamp crayfish were collected at 96 stations and western mosquitofish were collected at 49 stations. Removal of convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) from Fairbanks Spring was followed by a substantial increase in Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) captures from 910 pre-removal to 3,056 post-removal. Red swamp crayfish was continually removed from Bradford 1 Spring, which seemed to cause an increase in the speckled dace population. Restoration of Kings Pool and Jackrabbit Springs promoted the success of native fishes with the greatest densities in restored reaches. Ongoing restoration of Carson Slough and its tributaries, as well as control and elimination of invasive species, is expected to increase abundance and distribution of Ash Meadows' native fish populations. Further analysis of data from this study will help determine the habitat characteristic(s) that promote native species and curtail non-native species.

  20. Evaluation of the 2008-09 DCSF-Funded Specialist Schools and Academies Trust STEM Pathfinder Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Iain; Harland, Jennie; Lord, Pippa; Straw, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This evaluation aimed to provide: (1) findings on the effectiveness of different activities and approaches to delivering science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), including leading practice and challenges; (2) a clear understanding of the impact of activities on pupils, teachers, the school and partners; and (3) a set of…

  1. Water-quality monitoring for a pilot piling removal field evaluation, Coal Creek Slough, Washington, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Alvarez, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Significant Findings Water and sediment quality monitoring was conducted before and after the removal of a piling field located in Coal Creek Slough near Longview, Washington. Passive chemical samplers and continuous water-quality monitoring instruments were deployed at the piling removal site, Coal Creek Slough Site 1 (CCS1), and at a comparison site, Coal Creek Slough Site 2 (CCS2), before (2008) and after (2009) piling removal. Surface and subsurface (core) sediment samples were collected before and after piling removal and were analyzed for grain size, organic carbon content, and chemicals of concern. Significant findings from this study include: * Phenanthrene was the only compound detected in wood piling samples analyzed for a large suite of semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Metals potentially associated with wood treatment were detected in the wood piling samples at low concentrations. * Organic carbon was slightly lower in core samples from CCS1 in pre-removal (2008) and post-removal (2009) samples than in surface samples from both sites in both years. * Grain-size class distributions were relatively uniform between sites and years. * Thirty-four out of 110 chemicals of concern were detected in sediments. Eight of those detected were anthropogenic waste indicator (AWI) compounds, 18 were PAHs, 4 were sterols, and 4 were metals potentially associated with wood treatment. * Nearly all reported concentrations of chemicals of concern in sediments are qualified as estimates, primarily due to interferences in extracts resulting from complex sample matrices. Indole, perylene, and fluoranthene are reported without qualification for some of the samples, and the metals are reported without qualification for all samples. * The highest frequency of detection of chemicals of concern was seen in the pre-removal surface samples at both sites. * AWI compounds were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations during the post-removal sampling compared to the pre-removal sampling. * Several PAHs were detected at relatively high concentrations in core samples, likely indicating historical sources. * Most commonly detected PAHs in sediments were 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, fluoranthene, perylene, and pyrene. * Most commonly detected AWIs in sediments were 3-methyl-1h-indole (skatol), acetophenone, indole, phenol, and paracresol. * Sedimentary concentrations of perylene exceeded available sediment quality guidelines. Perylene is widespread in the environment and has large potential natural sources in addition to its anthropogenic sources. * Concentrations of metals did not exceed sediment quality guidelines. * Multiple organochlorine pesticides, both banned and currently used, were detected at each site using passive samplers. * Commonly detected pesticides included hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole (a degradation product of pentachlorophenol), diazinon, cis-chlordane, endosulfan, DDD, and endosulfan sulfate. * PBDE concentrations detected in passive sampler extracts were less than the method detection limit at all sites with the exception of PBDE-99, detected at a concentration less than the reporting limit. * The fragrance galaxolide was detected at a concentration greater than the method detection limit. * Common PAHs, such as phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, were detected in every passive sampler. * Dissolved oxygen concentration was slightly higher at site CCS1 compared to site CCS2 in both years. * Overall, there was no systematic increase in chemicals of concern at the restoration site during post-removal monitoring compared to conditions during pre-removal monitoring. Any immediate, short-duration effects of piling removal on water quality could not be determined because monitoring was not conducted during the removal.

  2. 2008-09 Publicly Reported Assessment Results for Students with Disabilities and ELLs with Disabilities. Technical Report 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Bremer, Chris; Albus, Deb

    2011-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual report by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) that analyzes public reporting practices of assessment data for students with disabilities in K-12 schools in the United States. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) required states to disaggregate performance data at the state and district…

  3. Comparison of Mercury in Water, Bottom Sediment, and Zooplankton in Two Front Range Reservoirs in Colorado, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, conducted a study to investigate environmental factors that may contribute to the bioaccumulation of mercury in two Front Range reservoirs. One of the reservoirs, Brush Hollow Reservoir, currently (2009) has a fish-consumption advisory for mercury in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and the other, Pueblo Reservoir, which is nearby, does not. Water, bottom sediment, and zooplankton samples were collected during 2008 and 2009, and a sediment-incubation experiment was conducted in 2009. Total mercury concentrations were low in midlake water samples and were not substantially different between the two reservoirs. The only water samples with detectable methylmercury were collected in shallow areas of Brush Hollow Reservoir during spring. Mercury concentrations in reservoir bottom sediments were similar to those reported for stream sediments from unmined basins across the United States. Despite higher concentrations of fish-tissue mercury in Brush Hollow Reservoir, concentrations of methylmercury in sediment were as much as 3 times higher in Pueblo Reservoir. Mercury concentrations in zooplankton were at the low end of concentrations reported for temperate lakes in the Northeastern United States and were similar between sites, which may reflect the seasonal timing of sampling. Factors affecting bioaccumulation of mercury were assessed, including mercury sources, water quality, and reservoir characteristics. Atmospheric deposition was determined to be the dominant source of mercury; however, due to the proximity of the reservoirs, atmospheric inputs likely are similar in both study areas. Water-quality constituents commonly associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in fish (pH, alkalinity, sulfate, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon) did not appear to explain differences in fish-tissue mercury concentrations between the reservoirs. Low methylmercury concentrations in hypolimnetic water indicate low potential for increased methylmercury production following the development of anoxic conditions in summer. Based on the limited dataset, water-level fluctuations and shoreline characteristics appear to best explain differences in fish-tissue mercury concentrations between the reservoirs. Due to the shallow depth and the large annual water-level fluctuations at Brush Hollow Reservoir, proportionally larger areas of shoreline at Brush Hollow Reservoir are subjected to annual reflooding compared to Pueblo Reservoir. Moreover, presence of macrophyte beds and regrowth of terrestrial vegetation likely increase the organic content of near-shore sediments in Brush Hollow Reservoir, which may stimulate methylmercury production in littoral areas subject to reflooding. Results of a laboratory incubation experiment were consistent with this hypothesis.

  4. Salaries and Wages Paid Professional and Support Personnel in Public Schools, 2008-09. A Reference Tool for School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents salary and wage data collected as part of the "Educational Research Service (ERS) National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools, 2008-2009." The survey, conducted in fall 2008, collected data on salaries scheduled and salaries paid for 23 selected professional positions and 10 selected support positions in public…

  5. Field Trip to the Moon. LRO/LCROSS Edition. Informal Educator's Guide. EG-2008-09-48-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Field Trip to the Moon uses an inquiry-based learning approach that fosters team building and introduces participants to careers in science and engineering. The program components include the Field Trip to the Moon DVD [not included here], Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)/Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Activities, and…

  6. Assessing survival of Mid-Columbia River released juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, Washington, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Scott D.; Walker, Christopher E.; Brewer, Scott J.; Adams, Noah S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated survival of juvenile salmon over long river reaches in the Columbia River and information regarding the survival of sockeye salmon at lower Columbia River dams is lacking. To address these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate the possibility of using tagged fish released in the Mid-Columbia River to assess passage and survival at and downstream of McNary Dam. Using the acoustic telemetry systems already in place for a passage and survival study at McNary Dam, fish released from the tailraces of Wells, Rocky Reach, Rock Island, Wanapum, and Priest Rapids Dams were detected at McNary Dam and at the subsequent downstream arrays. These data were used to generate route-specific survival probabilities using single-release models from fish released in the Mid-Columbia River. We document trends in passage and survival probabilities at McNary Dam for yearling Chinook and sockeye salmon and juvenile steelhead released during studies in the Mid-Columbia River. Trends in the survival and passage of these juvenile salmonid species are presented and discussed. However, comparisons made across years and between study groups are not possible because of differences in the source of the test fish, the type of acoustic tags used, the absence of the use of passive integrated transponder tags in some of the release groups, differences in tagging and release protocols, annual differences in dam operations and configurations, differences in how the survival models were constructed (that is, number of routes that could be estimated given the number of fish detected), and the number and length of reaches included in the analysis (downstream reach length and arrays). Despite these differences, the data we present offer a unique opportunity to examine the migration behavior and survival of a group of fish that otherwise would not be studied. This is particularly true for sockeye salmon because little information is available about their survival as they pass hydroelectric dams in the lower Columbia River. Collecting information on fish released in the Mid-Columbia River, as well as on fish released 8 kilometers upstream of McNary Dam, allowed us to evaluate similarities and differences in passage and survival probabilities. In general, juvenile salmonids released in the Mid-Columbia River and detected at and downstream of McNary Dam showed trends in passage and survival probabilities that were similar to fish released 8 kilometers upstream of McNary Dam. This suggests that increased migration time or length of migration had little effect on behavior and survival of Mid-Columbia River released juvenile salmonids detected at McNary Dam.

  7. Influenza vaccination coverage among adults--National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2008-09 influenza season.

    PubMed

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; Lindley, Megan C; Kennedy, Erin D; Singleton, James A

    2012-06-15

    In the United States, annual influenza epidemics typically occur during the late fall through early spring. During these epidemics, rates of serious illness and death are highest among adults aged ≥65 years, children aged <2 years, and persons of any age who have medical conditions that increase their risk for complications from influenza. Adults aged 50-64 years who have underlying medical conditions have a substantially increased risk for hospitalization during the influenza season. Influenza illness among healthy adults aged 18-64 years typically is not as severe as the illness among adults aged ≥65 years, pregnant women, or persons with chronic medical conditions and less frequently results in hospitalization. However, influenza among healthy adults aged 18-49 years is an important cause of outpatient medical visits and worker absenteeism. An economic analysis estimated an annual average of approximately 5 million illnesses, 2.4 million outpatient visits, 32,000 hospitalizations, and 680 deaths from influenza among adults aged 18-49 years who did not have a medical condition that increased their risk for influenza complications. In this analysis, adults aged 18-49 years accounted for 10% of the total economic cost from influenza, or approximately $8.7 billion.

  8. Prediction of suspended-sediment concentrations at selected sites in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mau, David P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, Colorado Water Conservation Board, Colorado Springs City Engineering, and the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District, began a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a computational model of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport for predicting suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the Fountain Creek watershed in Colorado. Increased erosion and sedimentation damage have been identified by the Fountain Creek Watershed Plan as key problems within the watershed. A recommendation in the Fountain Creek Watershed plan for management of the basin is to establish measurable criteria to determine if progress in reducing erosion and sedimentation damage is being made. The major objective of this study was to test a computational method to predict local suspended-sediment loads at two sites with different geomorphic characteristics in order to evaluate the feasibility of using such an approach to predict local suspended-sediment loads throughout the entire watershed. Detailed topographic surveys, particle-size data, and suspended-sediment samples were collected at two gaged sites: Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07103970), and Sand Creek above mouth at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07105600). These data were used to construct three-dimensional computational models of relatively short channel reaches at each site. The streamflow component of these models predicted a spatially distributed field of water-surface elevation, water velocity, and bed shear stress for a range of stream discharges. Using the model predictions, along with measured particle sizes, the sediment-transport component of the model predicted the suspended-sediment concentration throughout the reach of interest. These computed concentrations were used with predicted flow patterns and channel morphology to determine fluxes of suspended sediment for the median particle size and for the measured range of particle sizes in the channel. Three different techniques were investigated for making the suspended-sediment predictions; these techniques have varying degrees of reliance on measured data and also have greatly differing degrees of complexity. Based on these data, the calibrated Rouse method provided the best balance between accuracy and both computational and data collection costs; the presence of substantial washload was the primary factor in eliminating the simpler and the more complex techniques. Based on this work, using the selected technique at additional sites in the watershed to determine relative loads and source areas appears plausible. However, to ensure that the methodology presented in this report yields reasonable results at other selected sites in the basin, it is necessary to collect additional verification data sets at those locations.

  9. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  10. High School Physics Courses & Enrollments: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S., both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  11. Who Teaches High School Physics? Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S., both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  12. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Two Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program is part of a long history of performance pay programs and policies in Texas. The GEEG program was state-funded and provided grants to schools to implement three-year locally-designed performance pay plans. During the 2005-06, 2006-07, and 2007-08 school years, the GEEG program operated in 99…

  13. Local and global influences on population declines of coastal waders: Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima numbers in the Moray Firth, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Ron W.; Foster, Simon; Swann, Bob; Etheridge, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Declines in numbers by several wader species in Britain have been linked to climate change, but the mechanism for the declines has rarely been explored. Britain lies at the northern end of the East Atlantic Flyway, and supports 1.3 million out of the Flyway's 8.5 million coastal waders (Charadrii) in winter and the Purple Sandpiper is one of the species whose numbers have declined. Here, we examine the dynamics of the decline as observed in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland, investigating whether the decline was due to poorer apparent survival (return rate) or poorer recruitment of young birds. The maximum number in the Moray Firth declined from 860 in 1987/88 to 236 in 2006/07, with some increase during winters 2007/08 and 2008/09. At the three main high-tide roosts (Balintore, Lossiemouth and Buckie) the maximum combined number declined from 574 to 90. Changes in survival and recruitment (percentage of first-year birds) were examined at these roosts from captured samples, which were ringed and recaptured. There were no significant changes between winters in survival rates, nor were there differences between the survival rates of age groups (first-year and adult) or bill size groups, which represented birds of different sex and breeding origin. Annual survival estimates for the three roosts ranged from 72 to 77%. The percentage of first-year birds varied among roosts and years; the lowest values were during the late 1980s/early 1990s and early 2000s. A free-running population model incorporating varying percentages of first-year birds and constant mortality for each roost provided a plausible explanation for the decline. Although modelled numbers followed the observed pattern, a discrepancy in one year was carried forward in subsequent years, so that the fit with the observed numbers was parallel rather than similar. However, it seems that the decline in numbers was largely due to poorer recruitment. We discuss whether breeding success had declined, whether the

  14. Quality Characteristics of Ground Water in the Ozark Aquifer of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.; Coiner, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of water quantity and quality concerns within the Ozark aquifer, the State of Kansas in 2004 issued a moratorium on most new appropriations from the aquifer until results were made available from a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kansas Water Office. The purposes of the study were to develop a regional ground-water flow model and a water-quality assessment of the Ozark aquifer in northwestern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma (study area). In 2006 and 2007, water-quality samples were collected from 40 water-supply wells completed in the Ozark aquifer and spatially distributed throughout the study area. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and selected isotopes. This report presents the results of the water-quality assessment part of the cooperative study. Water-quality characteristics were evaluated relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations were exceeded for dissolved solids (11 wells), sulfate and chloride (2 wells each), fluoride (3 wells), iron (4 wells), and manganese (2 wells). Maximum Contaminant Levels were exceeded for turbidity (3 wells) and fluoride (1 well). The Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for lead (0 milligrams per liter) was exceeded in water from 12 wells. Analyses of isotopes in water from wells along two 60-mile long ground-water flow paths indicated that water in the Ozark aquifer was at least 60 years old but the upper age limit is uncertain. The source of recharge water for the wells along the flow paths appeared to be of meteoric origin because of isotopic similarity to the established Global Meteoric Water Line and a global precipitation relation. Additionally, analysis of hydrogen-3 (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) indicated that there was possible leakage of younger ground water into the lower part of the Ozark aquifer. This may be caused by cracks or fissures in the confining unit that separates the upper and lower parts of the aquifer, poorly constructed or abandoned wells, or historic mining activities. Analyses of major ions in water from wells along the flow paths indicated a transition from freshwater in the east to saline water in the west. Generally, ground water along flow paths evolved from a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type to a sodium calcium bicarbonate or a sodium calcium chloride bicarbonate type as water moved from recharge areas in Missouri into Kansas. Much of this evolution occurred within the last 20 to 25 miles of the flow paths along a water-quality transition zone near the Kansas-Missouri State line and west. The water quality of the Kansas part of the Ozark aquifer is degraded compared to the Missouri part. Geophysical and well-bore flow information and depth-dependent water-quality samples were collected from a large-capacity (1,900-2,300 gallons per minute) municipal-supply well to evaluate vertical ground-water flow accretion and variability in water-quality characteristics at different levels. Although the 1,050-foot deep supply well had 500 feet of borehole open to the Ozark aquifer, 77 percent of ground-water flow entering the borehole came from two 20-foot thick rock layers above the 1,000-foot level. For the most part, water-quality characteristics changed little from the deepest sample to the well-head sample, and upwelling of saline water from deeper geologic formations below the well was not evident. However, more saline water may be present below the bottom of the well.

  15. Water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for West Fork Double Bayou, Cotton Bayou, and Hackberry Gully, Chambers County, Texas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Dexter W.; Turco, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data from two sites at West Fork Double Bayou, two sites at Cotton Bayou, and one site at Hackberry Gully in Chambers County, Texas, during July 2006-August 2007. Water-quality data-collection surveys consisted of synoptic 24-hour continuous measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen at the five sites and periodically collected samples at four sites analyzed for several properties and constituents of interest. Stream-habitat data were collected at each of four sites three times during the study. At each site, a representative stream reach was selected and within this reach, five evenly spaced stream transects were determined. At each transect, stream attributes (wetted channel width, water depth, bottom material, instream cover) and riparian attributes (bank slope and erosion potential, width of natural vegetation, type of vegetation, percentage tree canopy) were measured. Benthic macroinvertebrate and fish data were collected from the same reaches identified for habitat evaluation. A total of 2,572 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified from the four reaches; insect taxa were more abundant than non-insect taxa at all reaches. A total of 1,082 fish, representing 30 species and 13 families, were collected across all reaches. Stream-habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were assessed at the four sites to evaluate aquatic life use. Habitat quality index scores generally indicated 'intermediate' aquatic life use at most reaches. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics scores indicated generally 'intermediate' aquatic life use for the West Fork Double Bayou reaches and generally 'high' aquatic life use for the Cotton Bayou and Hackberry Gully reaches. Index of biotic integrity scores for fish indicated generally 'high' aquatic life use at one West Fork Double Bayou reach; 'intermediate' aquatic life use at the other West Fork Double Bayou reach; and generally 'intermediate' aquatic life use at the Cotton Bayou and Hackberry Gully reaches.

  16. Algal community characteristics and response to nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in streams in the Ozark Plateaus, Southern Missouri, 1993-95 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient and algae data were collected in the 1990s and 2000s by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Water- Quality Assessment program in the Ozark Highlands, southern Missouri. These data were collected at sites of differing drainage area, land use, nutrient concentrations, and physiography. All samples were collected at sites with a riffle/pool structure and cobble/gravel bed material. A total of 60 samples from 45 sites were available for analyses to determine relations between nutrient concentrations and algal community structure in this region. This information can be used by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to develop the State's nutrient criteria plan. Water samples collected for this study had total nitrogen concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 4.41 milligram per liter (mg/L) with a median of 0.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.78 mg/L with a median of 0.007 mg/L. These nutrient concentrations were transformed into nutrient categories consisting of varying percentiles of data. Algal community data were entered into the U.S. Geological Survey's Algae Data Analysis System for the computation of more than 250 metrics. These metrics were correlated with nutrient categories, and four metrics with the strongest relation with the nutrient data were selected. These metrics were Organic Nitrogen Tolerance, Oxygen Tolerance, Bahls Pollution Class, and the Saprobien index with the 25th and 80th percentile nutrient categories. These data indicate that near the 80th percentile (Total Nitrogen = 0.84 mg/L, Total Phosphorus = 0.035 mg/L) the algae communities significantly changed from nitrogen-fixing species dominance to those species more tolerant of eutrophic conditions.

  17. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Third-Year (2006-07) Traits of Higher Technology Immersion Schools and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Sheehan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, called for the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to establish a pilot project to "immerse" schools in technology by providing a wireless mobile computing device for each teacher and student, technology-based learning resources, training for teachers to integrate…

  18. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected in nearly all of the subbasins in the Cambridge drinking-water source area and from Fresh Pond during the study period. Discrete water samples were collected during base-flow conditions with an antecedent dry period of at least 3 days. Composite sampl

  19. The Toughest Test: The Student Loan Liquidity Crisis of 2007-08 in Texas. A Report to the 81st Regular Session of the Texas Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jeff; McQueen, Carla; Creusere, Marlena; Lukens, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The credit market in the United States currently suffers from a rare and serious disruption. Once flowing with liquidity, the creativity and vibrancy of these markets helped fuel an economy that had been the envy of the world. Poor repayment performance in the subprime mortgage market has now reduced the availability of funds needed for other…

  20. Long-Billed Curlew Breeding Success on Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges, South-Central Washington and North-Central Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stocking, Jessica; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Holcomb, Neil; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus) reproductive success was evaluated on the Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges of south-central Washington and north-central Oregon during the 2007 and 2008 breeding seasons. Additionally, we assisted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in collecting information on distribution, abundance, and brood habitat for this shorebird species of conservation concern. A total of 32 breeding pairs were located on the refuges in 2007 and 35 pairs were located in 2008. We monitored 17 nests in 2007 and 23 nests in 2008. Curlew pairs were most abundant on Hanford Reach National Monument in 2007 but more nests were located on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge in both years, with Columbia National Wildlife Refuge supporting few pairs. Nest success was 23.6 percent in 2007 and 32.9 percent in 2008 after taking into account exposure time and combining data for all the refuges. We were unable to detect any relationship between nest success and habitat type or habitat variables measured. However, our study was the first to document use of agricultural fields on the refuge as curlew nest habitat. We collected 39 and 28 brood locations in 2007 and 2008, respectively, and many observations were likely resightings of the same brood. Broods used a similar variety of habitats as nesting curlew and no clear habitat use pattern was detected.

  1. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Final Outcomes for a Four-Year Study (2004-05 to 2007-08)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, was based on the assumption that the use of technology in Texas public schools could be achieved more effectively by "immersing" schools in technology rather than by introducing technology resources, such as hardware, software, digital content, and educator…

  2. Stream-sediment samples reanalyzed for major, rare earth, and trace elements from ten 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, south-central Alaska, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Shew, Nora B.; Labay, Keith A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; O'Leary, Richard M.; Detra, David E.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1960s through the 1980s, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted reconnaissance geochemical surveys of the drainage basins throughout most of the Anchorage, Bering Glacier, Big Delta, Gulkana, Healy, McCarthy, Mount Hayes, Nabesna, Talkeetna Mountains, and Valdez 1:250,000-scale quadrangles in Alaska as part of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). These geochemical surveys provide data necessary to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources on public and other lands, and provide data that may be used to determine regional-scale element baselines. This report provides new data for 366 of the previously collected stream-sediment samples. These samples were selected for reanalysis because recently developed analytical methods can detect additional elements of interest and have lower detection limits than the methods used when these samples were originally analyzed. These samples were all analyzed for arsenic by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS), for gold, palladium, and platinum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after lead button fire assay separation (FA/ICP-MS), and for a suite of 55 major, rare earth, and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-AES-MS) after sodium peroxide sinter at 450 degrees Celsius.

  3. Predicting lake trophic state by relating Secchi-disk transparency measurements to Landsat-satellite imagery for Michigan inland lakes, 2003-05 and 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Jodoin, R.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Sampling for this program began in 2001; by 2010, 730 of Michigan’s 11,000 inland lakes are expected to have been sampled once. Volunteers coordinated by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment began sampling lakes in 1974 and continue to sample (in 2010) approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Michigan Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program. Despite these sampling efforts, it still is impossible to physically collect measurements for all Michigan inland lakes; however, Landsat-satellite imagery has been used successfully in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and elsewhere to predict the trophic state of unsampled inland lakes greater than 20 acres by producing regression equations relating in-place Secchi-disk measurements to Landsat bands. This study tested three alternatives to methods previously used in Michigan to improve results for predicted statewide Trophic State Index (TSI) computed from Secchi-disk transparency (TSI (SDT)). The alternative methods were used on 14 Landsat-satellite scenes with statewide TSI (SDT) for two time periods (2003– 05 and 2007–08). Specifically, the methods were (1) satellitedata processing techniques to remove areas affected by clouds, cloud shadows, haze, shoreline, and dense vegetation for inland lakes greater than 20 acres in Michigan; (2) comparison of the previous method for producing a single open-water predicted TSI (SDT) value (which was based on an area of interest (AOI) and lake-average approach) to an alternative Gethist method for identifying open-water areas in inland lakes (which follows the initial satellite-data processing and targets the darkest pixels, representing the deepest water, before regression equations are created); and (3) checking to see whether the predicted TSI (SDT) values compared well between two regression equations, one previously used in Michigan and an alternative equation from the hydrologic literature. The combination of improved satellite-data processing techniques and the Gethist method to identify open-water areas in inland lakes during 2003–05 and 2007–08 provided a stronger relation and statistical significance between predicted TSI (SDT) and measured TSI than did the AOI lake-average method; differences in results for the two methods were significant at the 99-percent confidence level. With regard to the comparison of the regression equations, there were no statistically significant differences at the 95-percent confidence level between results from the two equations. The previously used equation, in combination with the Gethist method, yielded coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.71 and 0.77 for the periods 2003–05 and 2007–08, respectively. The alternative equation, in combination with the Gethist method, yielded R2 values of 0.74 and 0.75 for 2003–05 and 2007–08, respectively. Predicted TSI (SDT) and measured TSI (SDT) values for lakes used in the regression equations compared well, with R2 values of 0.95 and 0.96 for predicted TSI (SDT) for 2003–05 and 2007–08, respectively. The R2 values for statewide predicted TSI (SDT) for all inland lakes with available open-water areas for 2003–05 and 2007–08 were 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Although the two equations predicted similar trophic-state classes, the alternative equation is planned to be used for future prediction of TSI (SDT) values for Michigan inland lakes, to promote consistency in comparing predicted values between States and for potential use in trend analysis.

  4. Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Private School Universe Survey--First Look. NCES 2009-313

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughman, Stephen P.; Swaim, Nancy L.; Keaton, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted the biennial Private School Universe Survey (PSS) for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The PSS is designed to generate biennial data on the total number of private schools, students, and teachers, and to build a universe of private schools in the 50 states and the District…

  5. First-Year Undergraduate Remedial Coursetaking: 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2013-013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Education's Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Blueprint for Reform is to improve the college readiness of high school graduates (U.S. Department of Education 2010). College readiness is a complex benchmark and has been measured in several ways, including transcript analysis (Adelman 2006) and…

  6. Assessing Substance Use and Abuse among Adolescents: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa

    2007-01-01

    This brief discusses the signs and symptoms of alcohol and drug use and provides recommendations to assess substance use among youth in your program. It is not uncommon for adolescents to experiment with different substances such as alcohol or cigarettes, but this can lead to heavy and continued use, which is dangerous and may put their health at…

  7. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Jason C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in six boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer of Idaho. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Hydraulic heads (head) and water temperatures in boreholes were monitored at 86 hydraulically-isolated depth intervals located 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. The calculation of head is most sensitive to fluid pressure and the altitude of the pressure transducer at each port coupling; it is least sensitive to barometric pressure and water temperature. An analysis of errors associated with the head calculation determined the accuracy of an individual head measurement at +/- 2.3 feet. Many of the sources of measurement error are diminished when considering the differences between two closely-spaced readings of head; therefore, a +/- 0.1 foot measurement accuracy was assumed for vertical head differences (and gradients) calculated between adjacent monitoring zones. Vertical head and temperature profiles were unique to each borehole, and were characteristic of the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The vertical hydraulic gradients in each borehole remained relatively constant over time with minimum Pearson correlation coefficients between head profiles ranging from 0.72 at borehole USGS 103 to 1.00 at boreholes USGS 133 and MIDDLE 2051. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low permeability sediment layers. The presence of a sediment layer, however, was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change in a borehole. The vertical hydraulic gradients were defined for the major inflections in the head profiles and were as much as 2.2 feet per foot. Head gradients generally were downward in boreholes USGS 133, 134, and MIDDLE 2050A, zero in boreholes USGS 103 and 132, and exhibited a reversal in direction in borehole MIDDLE 2051. Water temperatures in all boreholes ranged from 10.2 to 16.3 degrees Celsius. Boreholes USGS 103 and 132 are in an area of concentrated volcanic vents and fissures, and measurements show water temperature decreasing with depth. All other measurements in boreholes show water temperature increasing with depth. A comparison among boreholes of the normalized mean head over time indicates a moderately positive correlation.

  8. Profile of Graduate and First-Professional Students: Trends from Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-219

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment in graduate and first-professional education in the United States has increased in recent years--from about 2 million students in fall 1995 to more than 2.6 million students in fall 2007 (Snyder, Dillow, and Hoffman 2009, tables 206 and 207). Increasing enrollments overall raise questions regarding the types of students entering…

  9. Seasonal patterns in nutrients, carbon, and algal responses in wadeable streams within three geographically distinct areas of the United States, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Lorenz, David L.; Petersen, James C.; Greene, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey determined seasonal variability in nutrients, carbon, and algal biomass in 22 wadeable streams over a 1-year period during 2007 or 2008 within three geographically distinct areas in the United States. The three areas are the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMIS) in Minnesota, the Ozark Plateaus (ORZK) in southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, and the Upper Snake River Basin (USNK) in southern Idaho. Seasonal patterns in some constituent concentrations and algal responses were distinct. Nitrate concentrations were greatest during the winter in all study areas potentially because of a reduction in denitrification rates and algal uptake during the winter, along with reduced surface runoff. Decreases in nitrate concentrations during the spring and summer at most stream sites coincided with increased streamflow during the snowmelt runoff or spring storms indicating dilution. The continued decrease in nitrate concentrations during summer potentially is because of a reduction in nitrate inputs (from decreased surface runoff) or increases in biological uptake. In contrast to nitrate concentrations, ammonia concentrations varied among study areas. Ammonia concentration trends were similar at UMIS and USNK sampling sites with winter peak concentrations and rapid decreases in ammonia concentrations by spring or early summer. In contrast, ammonia concentrations at OZRK sampling sites were more variable with peak concentrations later in the year. Ammonia may accumulate in stream water in the winter under ice and snow cover at the UMIS and USNK sites because of limited algal metabolism and increased mineralization of decaying organic matter under reducing conditions within stream bottom sediments. Phosphorus concentration patterns and the type of phosphorus present changes with changing hydrologic conditions and seasons and varied among study areas. Orthophosphate concentrations tended to be greater in the summer at UMIS sites, whereas total phosphorus concentrations at most UMIS and USNK sites peaked in the spring during runoff and then decreased through the remainder of the sampling period. Total phosphorus and orthophosphate concentrations in OZRK streams peaked during summer indicating a runoff-based source of both nutrients. Orthophosphate concentrations may increase in streams in the late summer when surface runoff composes less of total streamflow, and when groundwater containing orthophosphate becomes a more dominant source in streams during lower flows. Seston chlorophyll a concentrations were greatest early in the growing season (spring), whereas the spring runoff events coincided with reductions in benthic algal chlorophyll a biomass likely because of scour of benthic algae from the channel bottom that are entrained in the water column during that period. Nitrate, ammonia, and orthophosphate concentrations also decreased during that same period, indicating dilution in the spring during runoff events. The data from this study indicate that the source of water (surface runoff or groundwater) to a stream and the intensity of major runoff events are important factors controlling instream concentrations. Biological processes appear to affect nutrient concentrations during more stable lower flow periods in later summer, fall, and winter when residence time of water in a channel is longer, which allows more time for biological uptake and transformations. Management of nutrient conditions in streams is challenging and requires an understanding of multiple factors that affect in-stream nutrient concentrations and biological uptake and growth.

  10. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2007-08. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2010-349

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Chris; Sable, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  11. Military Service Members and Veterans: A Profile of Those Enrolled in Undergraduate and Graduate Education in 2007-08. Stats in Brief. NCES 2011-163

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Alexandria Walton

    2011-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief uses nationally representative data to determine the representation of military students in undergraduate and graduate education and to examine how their demographic and enrollment characteristics compare with their nonmilitary peers. The brief draws upon two nationally representative studies of postsecondary students, the…

  12. Federal Student Loans: Patterns in Tuition, Enrollment, and Federal Stafford Loan Borrowing up to the 2007-08 Loan Limit Increase. GAO-11-470R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Although a postsecondary education is vitally important to many individuals and the nation's ability to compete globally, high college tuition rates are prompting concerns that it may remain an elusive goal for some. To help students finance their education, Congress recently raised the ceiling on the amount individual students can borrow under…

  13. Analyzing Performance by Pennsylvania Grade 8 Hispanic Students on the 2007/08 State Assessment. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling; Strickland, Martha; Wise, John

    2012-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2009, the Hispanic population more than doubled in 25 of 67 Pennsylvania counties. Over the same period, the Hispanic student population in Pennsylvania schools also rose, from 4 percent to 8 percent (Pennsylvania State Data Center 2011). The focus on Hispanic students' level of academic achievement rose along with this rapid…

  14. Historical and Near Real-Time Physical, Chemical, and Biological Oceanographic Data in Support of the International Polar Year 2007-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatusko, R. L.; Allegra, A. J.; Beattie, J. A.; Dwivedi, P. H.; Grimes, D.; Hamilton, M. A.; Levitus, S.; Sun, C. L.; Woods, M. H.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), located in Silver Spring, Maryland, has extensive capabilities in archiving and providing public access to polar oceanographic and coastal data, products, and information. The World Ocean Database (WOD), a scientifically quality-controlled, global, oceanographic database, is the most comprehensive database of historical ocean profile data and plankton measurements in existence. The World Data Center for Oceanography (WDC) in Silver Spring conducts international exchange of oceanographic observations in accordance with the principles set forth by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The WDC is collocated with and operated by the NODC, and it also leads the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue (GODAR) project, which attempts to locate and rescue historical data that are at risk of being lost due to media decay or neglect, and the IOC World Ocean Database (WOD) project, which is intended to stimulate international exchange of modern oceanographic data. The WOD will continue to be enhanced as new data is received through the WDC, IOC projects, and data incorporated into the NODC Archive Management and Metadata System (AMS). The Ocean Archive System (OAS) is the public Web interface to the AMS, and it provides access to original sets of ocean data as they were provided to (and archived by) the NODC. The NODC also participates in the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), which is a cooperative international program designed to develop and maintain a global ocean T-S resource with data that are as up-to-date and of the highest quality as possible. It also operates the long-term archive for Argo data, also known as the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR). The NOAA Central Library, also a division of NODC, maintains the largest meteorological collection in the western hemisphere and supports extensive oceanographic and fishery materials and data related to exploration in the polar regions, which is augmented by the collection at the Regional Branch in Seattle, WA. This presentation will describe the various ongoing activities within NODC that can support the mission of the International Polar Year 2007.

  15. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2008-09 (Fiscal Year 2009). First Look. NCES 2011-329

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank; Zhou, Lei; Nakamoto, Nanae

    2011-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the Institute of Education Sciences of the U.S. Department of Education. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the data collection for the finance surveys on behalf of NCES. State education…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; McMurrer, Jennifer; Silva, Malini R.

    2011-01-01

    Title I provides extra instructional services designed to raise achievement for low-performing students in schools with relatively high poverty rates, and for all students in many of the nation's highest-poverty schools. To learn more about how well Title I students are performing academically, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) compared…

  17. Smoking and poverty in Brazil: an analysis of the profile of the smoking population based on the 2008-09 Brazilian government Family Budget Survey.

    PubMed

    Bazotti, Angelita; Finokiet, Manuela; Conti, Irio Luiz; França, Marco Tulio Aniceto; Waquil, Paulo Dabdab

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the Brazilian population who spent money with tobacco products. POF dataset was used from IBGE of the years 2008 and 2009. The same definition that IBGE usually use for tobacco consumer was applied, which is someone has spent money with any kind of tobacco products and its derivatives. It was used individual aspects taking into account such as gender, schooling, age (over 14 years old), income lines, regions and ethnics to characterize these populations. Descriptive statistics were employed to estimate the results and the complex sample design of the survey was considered. According to our results, on average, 10% of the Brazilian population have spent money with tobacco products. Besides, these people are older, earn low salaries and have less schooling than someone who does not consume tobacco. Moreover, for this population 1.5% of the family budget is spent on tobacco products. Last but not least, the most of tobacco consumers are men. In general, money which is spent on tobacco products can cause impressive effects on domestic budget because this value could supply other important necessities to the family. Although there are many monitoring and prevention strategies to avoid tobacco consume, deep knowledge about this population that actually consume these products can increase the efficacy of more specific policies.

  18. Initial Results on the Pliocene and Quaternary Evolution of the Western Arctic from the Deep Drilling in 2008/09 at Lake Elgygytgyn, Chukotka (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Minyuk, P.; Koeberl, C.; El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    Lake Elgygytgyn, located 100 km to the north of the Arctic Circle (67°30' N, 172°05' E) in a crater of 18 km diameter, was formed 3.6 Ma ago by a meteorite impact event. From Oct. 2008 until May 2009 an ICDP drilling campaign was conducted at Lake Elgygytgyn, achieving its three major objectives. First, drilling from the ice cover in the lake center penetrated the entire, 315 m thick lake sediment succession in 170 m water depth. The sediments show no indications for hiatuses due to glaciation or desiccation. Hence, their temporal length and geologic significance is absolutely unprecedented, for the first time providing deep and widely continuous insights into the climatic and environmental evolution of the terrestrial Arctic since Pliocene times. This is particularly true for the lowermost 40 m and uppermost 140 m of the sequence, which were drilled with almost 100 % recovery and, using the chronological information we have available, likely reflect the initial lake stage during the Pliocene and the last ca. 2.8 Ma, respectively. In between, the quality of the record is restricted due to lower recovery as a consequence of technical problems and/or sequences of coarse sand and gravel interbedded with lacustrine mud. Second, a ca. 200 m thick, almost complete section of impact breccias was recovered underneath the lake sediments, consisting of a ca. 100 m thick suevite layer above broken and fractured volcanic basement rocks. Investigation of this core sequence promises new information concerning the Elgygytgyn impact event, including the composition and nature of the meteorite, the energy released, and the shock behavior of the volcanic basement rocks. Third, a 142 m long sequence was recovered from the permafrost deposits in the western lake catchment, only a few hundred meters from the lake shore. The core consists of gravelly and sandy alluvial fan deposits, which are continuously frozen and rich with ground ice. The sediment and ice composition promises to provide complementary information on the regional climatic history and lake-level fluctuations. Besides, a thermistor chain installed in the drill hole as part of the “Thermal State of Permafrost Network” of the International Permafrost Association will contribute to the understanding of the permafrost behavior in light of contemporary rapid change. Processing and subsampling of the drill cores commenced in autumn 2009 and will be completed by the end of 2010. The presentation will summarize the operational success of the drilling campaign and highlight the scientific results obtained so far based on the limited onsite and ongoing offsite core processing. Special attention will be put on the lake sediment record and its significance for climatic and environmental changes in the area during Pliocene and Quaternary times.

  19. Estimated suspended-sediment loads and yields in the French and Brandywine Creek Basins, Chester County, Pennsylvania, water years 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Olson, Leif E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at four stream stations--French Creek near Phoenixville, West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, and East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown--in Chester County, Pa. Sedimentation and siltation is the leading cause of stream impairment in Chester County, and these data are critical for quantifying sediment transport. This study was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department. Data from optical turbidity sensors deployed at the four stations were recorded at 15- or 30-minute intervals by a data logger and uploaded every 1 to 4 hours to the USGS database. Most of the suspended-sediment samples were collected using automated samplers. The use of optical sensors to continuously monitor turbidity provided an accurate estimate of sediment fluctuations without the collection and analysis costs associated with intensive sampling during storms. Turbidity was used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is a measure of sedimentation and siltation. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity for each of the monitoring stations using SSC data collected from the automated samplers and turbidity data collected at each station. Instantaneous suspended-sediment loads (SSL) were computed from time-series turbidity and discharge data for the 2008 and 2009 water years using the regression equations. The instantaneous computations of SSL were summed to provide daily, storm, and water year annual loads. The annual SSL contributed from each basin was divided by the upstream drainage area to estimate the annual sediment yield. For all four basins, storms provided more than 96 percent of the annual SSL. In each basin, four storms generally provided over half the annual SSL each water year. Stormflows with the highest peak discharges generally carried the highest SSLs. For all stations, the greatest SSLs occurred during the late winter in February and March during the 2008 water year. During the 2009 water year, the greatest SSLs occurred during December and August. For French Creek near Phoenixville, the estimated annual SSL was 3,500 tons, and the estimated yield was 59.1 tons per square mile (ton/mi2) for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 4,390 tons, and the yield was 74.3 ton/mi2. For West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, the estimated annual SSL was 4,580 tons, and the estimated yield was 245 ton/mi2 for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 2,300 tons, and the yield was 123 ton/mi2. For West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, the estimated annual SSL was 7,480 tons, and the estimated yield was 136 ton/mi2 for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 4,930 tons, and the yield was 90 ton/mi2. For East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown, the estimated annual SSL was 8,900 tons, and the estimated yield was 100 ton/mi2 for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 7,590 tons, and the yield was 84 ton/mi2.

  20. Movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Idaho and Nevada, 2008-09--A supplement to Open-File Report 2010-1033

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munz, Carrie S.; Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in 2008 and 2009 as a continuation of our work in 2006 and 2007, which involved the tagging of 1,536 bull trout with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River and their tributaries in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed PIT tag interrogation systems (PTISs) at established locations soon after ice-out, and maintained the PTISs in order to collect information on bull trout movements through December of each year. We observed a marked increase of movement in 2008 and 2009. Bull trout tagged in the uppermost portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River at altitudes greater than 2,100 meters moved to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River in summer and autumn. Ten bull trout tagged upstream of the confluence of Pine Creek and the West Fork Jarbidge River moved downstream and then upstream in the East Fork Jarbidge River, and then past the PTIS at Murphy Hot Springs (river kilometer [rkm] 4.1). Two of these fish ascended Dave Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Jarbidge River, past the PTIS at rkm 0.4. One bull trout that was tagged at rkm 11 in Dave Creek on June 28, 2007 moved downstream to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River (rkm 0) on July 28, 2007, and it was then detected in the West Fork Jarbidge River moving past our PTIS at rkm 15 on May 4, 2008. Combined, the extent and types of bull trout movements observed indicated that the primarily age-1 and age-2 bull trout that we tagged in 2006 and 2007 showed increased movement with age and evidence of a substantial amount of fluvial life history. The movements suggest strong connectivity between spawning areas and downstream mainstem areas, as well as between the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River.

  1. Effectiveness of catch basins equipped with hoods in retaining gross solids and hydrocarbons in highway runoff, Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater mobilizes litter and other debris along the roadway where it is transported to the highway drainage systems. Initial treatment for stormwater runoff typically is provided by catch basins in highway settings. Modification of catch basins to include hoods that cover the catch-basin outlet is intended to enhance catch-basin performance by retaining floatable debris and various hydrophobic organic compounds that tend to float on the water surface within the sump of the catch basin. The effectiveness of six deep-sump off-line catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing the mass of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter and concentrations of oil and grease (OG) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was examined along the Southeast Expressway, in Boston, Massachusetts. Two deep-sump catch basins were equipped with cast-iron hoods. Three were equipped with molded plastic hoods, known as an Eliminator, and a single catch basin was equipped with a fiberglass anti-siphoning hood, known as a Snout. Samples of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter, excluding gravel and metallic materials, were routinely collected for a 6-month period from a collection structure mounted at the end of each catch-basin outlet pipe. After about 6 months, all floatable, saturated low-density and high-density solids were removed from each catch basin. In addition to the collection of samples of gross solids, samples of sump water from five catch basins and flow-weighted composite samples of stormwater from the outlet of one catch basin were collected and analyzed for concentrations of OG and TPH. A mass balance approach was used to assess the effectiveness of each catch basin equipped with a hood in retaining gross solids. The effectiveness of the deep-sump catch basins fitted with one of three types of hoods in retaining gross solids ranged from 27 to 52 percent. From 45 to 90 percent of the gross solids collected from the catch-basin sumps were composed of materials made of high-density plastics that did not float in water, and as a result, the effect that the catch-basin hoods had on these materials likely was marginal. The effectiveness for the deep-sump hooded catch basins, excluding the mass of high-density materials identified in the solids collected from the outlet pipe and the sump of the catch basins, ranged from 13 to 38 percent. The effectiveness for each catch basin, based solely on the material that remained floating at the end of the monitoring period, was less than 11 percent; however, these values likely underestimate the effectiveness of the hooded catch basins because much of the low-density material collected from the sumps may have been retained as floatable material before it was saturated and settled during non-storm conditions. The effectiveness of the catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing gross solids was not greatly different among the three types of hoods tested in this study. Concentrations of OG and TPH collected from the water surface of the catch-basins varied from catch basin to catch basin and were similar to concentrations of flow-weighted composite samples collected during storms. Comparisons indicate concentrations of OG and TPH in flow-weighted composite samples collected at the outlet of a catch basin equipped with an Eliminator hood were not substantially different from concentrations of the respective constituents in flow-weighted composite samples collected during a previous study from catch basins containing cast-iron hoods in the same study area. The similarity between these flow-weighted concentrations and the concentrations of the respective constituents in a vertical profile sample collected from the catch-basin sump indicates that OG and TPH are emulsified in the sump of each catch basin during storms and circumvent the hoods.

  2. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2008-09. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-301

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris; Mitchell, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  3. Preliminary assessment of chloride concentrations, loads, and yields in selected watersheds along the Interstate 95 corridor, southeastern Connecticut, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Mullaney, John R.; Morrison, Jonathan; Mondazzi, Remo

    2011-01-01

    Water-quality conditions were assessed to evaluate potential effects of road-deicer applications on stream-water quality in four watersheds along Interstate 95 (I-95) in southeastern Connecticut from November 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009. This preliminary study is part of a four-year cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT). Streamflow and water quality were studied at four watersheds?Four Mile River, Oil Mill Brook, Stony Brook, and Jordan Brook. Water-quality samples were collected and specific conductance was measured continuously at paired water-quality monitoring sites upstream and downstream from I-95. Specific conductance values were related to chloride (Cl) concentrations to assist in determining the effects of road-deicing operations on the levels of Cl in the streams. Streamflow and water-quality data were compared with weather data and with the timing, amount, and composition of deicers applied to state highways. Grab samples were collected during winter stormwater-runoff events, such as winter storms or periods of rain or warm temperatures in which melting takes place, and periodically during the spring and summer. Cl concentrations at the eight water-quality monitoring sites were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended chronic and acute Cl toxicity criteria of 230 and 860 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations in streams, particularly at sites downstream from I-95, peaked during discharge events in the winter and early spring as a result of deicers applied to roads and washed off by stormwater or meltwater. During winter storms, deicing activities, or subsequent periods of melting, specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations peaked as high as 703 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) and 160 mg/L at the downstream sites. During most of the spring and summer, specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations decreased during discharge events because the low-ionic strength of stormwater had a diluting effect on stream-water quality. However, peaks in specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations at Jordan Brook and Stony Brook corresponded to peaks in streamflow well after winter snow or ice events; these delayed peaks in Cl concentration likely resulted from deicing salts that remained in melting snow piles and (or) that were flushed from soils and shallow groundwater, then discharged downstream. Cl loads in streams generally were highest in the winter and early spring. The estimated load for the period of record at the four monitoring sites downstream from I-95 ranged from 0.33 ton per day (ton/d) at the Stony Brook watershed to 0.59 ton/d at the Jordan Brook watershed. The Cl yields ranged from 0.07 ton per day per square mile (ton/d/)mi2) at Oil Mill Brook, one of the least developed watersheds, to 0.21 (ton/d)/mi2) at Jordan Brook, the watershed with the highest percentage of urban development and impervious surfaces. The median estimates of Cl load from atmospheric deposition ranged from 11 to 19 tons, and contributed 4.3 to 7.1 percent of the Cl load in streamflow from the watershed areas. A comparison of the Cl load input and output estimates indicates that less Cl is leaving the watersheds than is entering through atmospheric deposition and application of deicers. The lag time between introduction of Cl to the watershed and transport to the stream, and uncertainty in the load estimates may be the reasons for this discrepancy. In addition, estimates of direct infiltration of Cl to groundwater from atmospheric deposition, deicer applications, and septic-tank drainfields to groundwater were outside the scope of the November 2008 to September 2009 assessment. However, increased concentrations of ions were observed between upstream and downstream sites and could result from deicer appli

  4. Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Local Education Agency Universe Survey: School Year 2008-09, Version 1a. NCES 2010-351

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) nonfiscal surveys consist of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) by state education agencies (SEAs) in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the four U.S. Island Areas (American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin…

  5. Lunar Nautics: Designing a Mission to Live and Work on the Moon. An Educator's Guide for Grades 6-8. EG-2008-09-129-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Lunar Nautics is a hands-on curriculum targeted to youth in grades 6 to 8, that allows the students to design, test, analyze and manage a space mission from initial concept to project funding. Lunar Nautics provides opportunities for development of problem solving skills and critical thinking skills that are needed to design, organize and manage a…

  6. Female Students in High School Physics: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2011-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S., both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. The authors received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  7. AN EPIZOOTIC OF EMERGING NOVEL AVIAN POX IN CARRION CROWS (CORVUS CORONE) AND LARGE-BILLED CROWS (CORVUS MACRORHYNCHOS) IN JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takenaka, Makiko; Murakami, Mami; Yanai, Tokuma; Fukushi, Hideto; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen; Matsuno, Keita; Nagano, Masashi; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-04-28

    In 2006-10, an epizootic of emerging avian pox occurred in Carrion Crows ( Corvus corone ) and Large-billed Crows ( Corvus macrorhynchos ), leading to mortality of juvenile crows in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. We diagnosed 27 crows with proliferative skin lesions (19 carcasses and eight biopsied cases [one in zoo captivity]) as avian pox clinically, histopathologically by detection of Avipoxvirus-specific 4b core protein (P4b) gene, and epidemiologically. The fatal cases demonstrated intensively severe infection and aggressive lesions with secondary bacterial infection. Since the first identification of avian pox in Sapporo, Japan, in 2006, the frequency of mortality events has increased, peaking in 2007-08. Mortalities have subsequently occurred in other areas, suggesting disease expansion. In Sapporo, prevalence of avian pox evaluated by field censuses during 2007-12 was 17.6% (6.6-27.2%), peaked during 2007-08 and 2008-09, and then decreased. All diseased crows were juveniles, except for one adult. The number of crows assembling in the winter roosts had been stable for >10 yr; however, it declined in 2007-08, decreased by about 50% in 2008-09, and recovered to the previous level in 2009-10, correlated with the avian pox outbreak. Thus, avian pox probably contributed to the unusual crow population decline. All P4b sequences detected in six specimens in Sapporo were identical and different from any previously reported sequences. The sequence detected in the zoo-kept crow was distinct from any reported clades, and interspecies transmission was suspected. This report demonstrates an emerging novel avian pox in the Japanese avifauna and in global populations of Carrion Crows and Large-billed Crows. Longitudinal monitoring is needed to evaluate its impact on the crow population.

  8. Water-Quality and Biological Assessment of the Iowa River and Tributaries Within and Contiguous to the Meskwaki Settlement of the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace metals, wastewater, or fuel contaminants were found to exceed drinking-water regulations for the USEPA or State of Iowa targeted constituents. Bacteria densities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) ranged from less than 10 to more than 600,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters of water and were largest following intense rainfall runoff. The largest densities were recorded in samples collected from the tributaries, most notably from Cattail Creek downstream from the tribal headquarters area and Onion Creek downstream from the sewage lagoons. Arsenic and nickel concentrations in bottom sediment from Onion Creek exceeded the USEPA threshold effects level in a composite sample collected during the habitat assessment in July 2007. Suspended-sediment concentration was estimated in terms of total suspended solids. Overall, Onion and Bennett Creeks were the least turbid, whereas the ephemeral Cattail Creek had the most turbid samples. Aquatic-community data were collected at four sites on the Meskwaki Settlement during the summer of 2007 to provide a baseline biological assessment of stream conditions. This assessment was based on sampling of the fish, benthic macroinvertebrate, and periphyton communities along with physical habitat characteristics. Individual biological metrics were derived from the data collected during the community surveys. These metrics were used to calculate Indexes of Biological Integrity (IBIs). The calculated values from the IBIs provided a numerical value that was used to provide an assessment of the biological condition at each biological sampling site. The fish community samples indicated that all of the sampling sites would be considered in fair condition, with one exception being a collection site on the Iowa River at Highway 49 near Tama, Iowa, which was classified in poor condition. The benthic macroinvertebrate IBI indicated a classification of good for three of the four biological sampling sites, with the Iowa River near Montour, Iowa,

  9. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum-based flocculent used in the lower reservoir. Suspended-sediment concentrations and turbidity measurements were largest at the site downstream from the lower reservoir. This is because of the large amounts of debris deposited in the lower reservoir from the breach, which in turn were redeposited into the East Fork Black River during releases. When these constituents were plotted over time, the concentrations decreased and were similar to the other two sites in the study. Trend analyses were studied at one site with historical data. No major trends were discovered for streamflow, turbidity, suspended-sediment concentrations, or suspended-sediment discharges before or after the event. Although long-term effects of the elevated turbidity, major trace metals, and suspended sediments in the study area as a result of the reservoir embankment breach are not expected, there could possibly be other effects not measured during this study that could potentially affect the surface-water quality, such as loss of riparian habitat, changes in biological ecosystems, and large-scale reworking of sediments.

  10. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Physical Aquatic Habitat Availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6-263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6-673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9-748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8-808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities. A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties. To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach-average basis, annual topographic change contributed little to habitat area variation. Net erosion occurred at Yankton (the upstream reach) and because erosion was distributed uniformly, there was little affect on many habitat metrics. Topographic change was spatially nonuniform at Little Sioux and Kenslers Bend reaches. Shallow water habitat units and some reach-scale patch statistics (edge density, patch density, and Simpson's Diversity Index) were affected by these changes. Erosion dominated at the downstream reach but habitat metrics did not vary substantially from 2006 to 2007. Among habitat metrics that were explored, zones of convergent flow were identified as areas that most closely correspond to spawning habitats of other sturgeon species, as identified in the scientific literature, and that are consistent with sparse data on pallid sturgeon spawning locations in the Lower Missouri River. Areas of convergent zone habitat varied little with discharges that would be associated with spring pulsed flows, and relations with discharge changed negligibly between 2006 and 2007. Other habitat measures show how physical habitat varies with discharge and among the four reaches. Wake habitats defined by velocity gradients seem to correspond with migration pathways of adult pallid sturgeon. Habitats with low Froude-number correspond to low energy areas that may accumulate passively transporting particles, organic matter, and larval fish. Among the modeled reaches, Yankton had substantially longer water residence time for equivalent flow exceedances than the other three modeled reaches. Longer residence times result from greater flow resistance in the relatively wide, shallow channel and may be associated with longer residence times of passively transported particulate materials.

  11. Lunar Plant Growth Chamber: Human Exploration Project STS-118 Design Challenge. A Standards-Based High School Unit Guide. Engineering by Design: Advancing Technological Literacy. A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-94-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Daniel W.; Fuller, Jeremy; Watson, Janice; St. Hilaire, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) was funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA Engineers and Scientists--as well as future generations of explorers--must consider, such…

  12. Strategies for Longitudinal Analysis of the Career Paths of Beginning Teachers: Results from the First through Fourth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. Research and Development Report. NCES 2013-336

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lucinda; Brauen, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    To learn more about the early career patterns of beginning teachers, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences within the U.S. Department of Education undertook the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (BTLS). The ultimate purpose of this report is to develop a strategy for the longitudinal analysis…

  13. In-season and out-of-season variation of rotavirus genotype distribution and age of infection across 12 European countries before the introduction of routine vaccination, 2007/08 to 2012/13.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, Daniel; Vivancos, Roberto; Read, Jonathan M; Pitzer, Virginia E; Cunliffe, Nigel; French, Neil; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren

    2016-01-01

    The EuroRotaNet surveillance network has conducted rotavirus genotype surveillance since 2007 in 16 European countries. Using epidemiological and microbiological data from 39,786 genotyped rotavirus-positive specimens collected between September 2007 and August 2013, we assessed genotype distribution and age distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases in and out of peak season in 12 countries which were yet to implement routine rotavirus vaccination. In multinomial multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for year, country and age, the odds of infection caused by genotype-constellation 2 DS-1-like stains (adjusted multinomial odds ratio (aM-OR) = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.37; p < 0.001), mixed or untypable genotypes (aM-OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.40-1.72; p < 0.001) and less common genotypes (aM-OR = 2.11; 95% CI:1.78-2.51; p < 0.001) increased out of season relative to G1P[8]. Age varied significantly between seasons; the proportion of RVGE cases younger than 12 months in the United Kingdom increased from 34% in season to 39% out of season (aM-OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.20-2.30), and the proportion five years and older increased from 9% in season to 17% out of season (aM-OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.67-3.82). This study provides further understanding of the rotavirus ecology before vaccine introduction, which will help interpret epidemiological changes in countries introducing or expanding rotavirus vaccination programmes.

  14. Water quality of the Chokosna, Gilahina, Lakina Rivers, and Long Lake watershed along McCarthy Road, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.; Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chokosna, Gilahina, and Lakina River basins, and the Long Lake watershed are located along McCarthy Road in Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve. The rivers and lake support a large run of sockeye (red) salmon that is important to the commercial and recreational fisheries in the larger Copper River. To gain a better understanding of the water quality conditions of these watersheds, these basins were studied as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service during the open water periods in 2007 and 2008. Water type of the rivers and Long Lake is calcium bicarbonate with the exception of that in the Chokosna River, which is calcium bicarbonate sulfate water. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 63 to 222 milligrams per liter, indicating a high buffering capacity in these waters. Analyses of streambed sediments indicated that concentrations of the trace elements arsenic, chromium, and nickel exceed levels that might be toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, these concentrations reflect local geology rather than anthropogenic sources in this nearly pristine area. Benthic macroinvertebrate qualitative multi-habitat and richest targeted habitat samples collected from six stream sites along McCarthy Road indicated a total of 125 taxa. Insects made up the largest percentage of macroinvertebrates, totaling 83 percent of the families found. Dipterans (flies and midges) accounted for 43 percent of all macroinvertebrates found. Analysis of the macroinvertebrate data by non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated differences between (1) sites at Long Lake and other stream sites along McCarthy Road, likely due to different basin characteristics, (2) the 2007 and 2008 data, probably from the higher rainfall in 2008, and (3) macroinvertebrate data collected in south-central Alaska, which represents a different climate zone. The richness, abundance, and community composition of periphytic algae taxa was variable between sampling sites. Taxa richness and diversity were highest at the Long Lake outflow site, suggesting that the lake may have contributed planktonic taxa to the periphytic community and (or) created physical and chemical conditions at the outlet that were favorable to a variety of taxa. Long Lake is fed by groundwater and by clear water (non glacial) streams, resulting in relatively high Secchi-disc readings ranging from 17.5 to 23 feet. Depth profiles of water temperature in the lake show a strong stratification during the summer from the surface to about 13 feet, with temperatures ranging from 16 to 5 °C. Depth profiles of dissolved oxygen in the lake show a strong stratification between 26 and 33 feet, below which the concentrations of dissolved oxygen decrease from 10 to 2 milligrams per liter. Because the Long Lake outlet stream supports a large run of sockeye salmon and water temperature is an important factor during its life cycle, a logistic model was used to simulate 1998–2006 water temperatures at this site. Analysis of simulation results for 1998–2008 indicated no significant trends in water temperature. 2007 water temperatures were the highest during the 10-year period.

  15. Wastewater indicator compounds in wastewater effluent, surface water, and bed sediment in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway and implications for water resources and aquatic biota, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasek, Abigail A.; Lee, Kathy E.; Hansen, Donald S.

    2012-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that aquatic biota in the St. Croix River are exposed to a wide variety of organic contaminants that originate from diverse sources including WWTP effluent. The data on wastewater indicator compounds indicate that exposures are temporally and spatially variable and that OWCs may accumulate in bed sediment. These results also indicate that OWCs in water and bed sediment increase downstream from discharges of wastewater effluent to the St. Croix River; however, the presence of OWCs in surface water and bed sediment at the Sunrise site indicates that potential sources of compounds, such as WWTPs or other sources, are upstream from the Taylors Falls-St. Croix Falls area.

  16. An Investigation of the Six-Year Persistence/Attainment of Independent Students and Students Beginning in Community Colleges, 2003-04--2008-09: A Closer Look at Academic and Social Integration Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruot, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The persistence of college students, particularly through credential attainment, is of importance to many stakeholders in higher education, including policymakers, taxpayers, parents and students. This dissertation study used longitudinal data nationally representative of higher education institutions and students, the National Center for…

  17. The Regional Salmon Outmigration Study--survival and migration routing of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during the winter of 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.; Brewer, Scott J.; Adams, Noah S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Blake, Aaron R.; Burau, Jon R.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) emigrating from natal tributaries of the Sacramento River may use a number of migration routes to navigate the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereafter called “the Delta”), each of which may influence their probability of surviving. We applied a mark-recapture model to data from acoustically tagged juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon that migrated through the Delta during the winter of 2008–09 to estimate route entrainment, survival, and migration times through the Delta. A tag-life study was conducted to determine the potential for premature tag failure. Tag failure began after 12 days and continued until the 45th day. Travel times of tagged fish exceeded minimum tag-failure times, indicating that survival estimates obtained from this study were negatively biased due to tag failure prior to fish exiting the Delta. Survival estimates were not adjusted and represent the joint probability of tag survival and fish survival. However, relative comparisons of survival among Chinook salmon choosing different routes appeared to be robust to tag failure, and migration-routing parameters were unaffected by tag failure. Migration-routing patterns were consistent among release groups. The Sacramento River was the primary migration route for all release groups except one. The percentage of fish entering the Sacramento River ranged from 33 to 55 percent. Sutter and Steamboat Sloughs were the secondary migration route for 9 of the 10 releases. The percentage of fish migrating through this route ranged from 10 to 35 percent. Entrainment into the interior Delta ranged from 15 to 33 percent. The Delta Cross Channel gates were open for 7 of the 10 releases. Entrainment into the interior Delta through the cross channel ranged from 1 to 27 percent. We estimated route-specific survival for 10 release groups that were released between November 14, 2008, and January 19, 2009. Population-level survival through the Delta (SDelta) ranged from 0.019 (standard error of 0.012) to 0.277 (standard error of 0.041) among releases, which represent the probability of a fish surviving from Sacramento to Chipps Island with an operational transmitter. Sacramento River flows throughout the study period were approximately 8,000–15,000 cubic feet per second at Freeport, suggesting that variability in flow contributed little to differences in survival between releases. Fish migrating through the Sacramento River had the highest survival for most releases. Survival in Sutter and Steamboat Sloughs was slightly lower than survival in the Sacramento River for 7 of the 10 releases, but higher than survival in the Sacramento River for 3 releases. Survival in the interior Delta was lowest for all release groups except for one release in November. With the exception of this November release, survival patterns across release groups were similar to those of previous studies.

  18. Documentation for the NCES Common Core of Data National Public Education Financial Survey (NPEFS), School Year 2008-09 (Fiscal Year 2009). Revised File Version 1b. NCES 2011-330rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Zhou, Lei; Nakamoto, Nanae

    2012-01-01

    This documentation is for the revised file (Version 1b) of the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) National Public Education Financial Survey (NPEFS) for school year 2008-2009, fiscal year 2009 (FY 09). It contains a brief description of the data collection along with information required to understand and…

  19. Spatiotemporal variations in estrogenicity, hormones, and endocrine-disrupting compounds in influents and effluents of selected wastewater-treatment plants and receiving streams in New York, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Ernst, Anne G.; Gray, James L.; Hemming, Jocelyn D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater effluents have been linked to changes in sex ratios, intersex (in males), behavioral modifications, and developmental abnormalities in aquatic organisms. Yet efforts to identify and regulate specific EDCs in complex mixtures are problematic because little is known about the estrogen activity (estrogenicity) levels of many common and emerging contaminants. The potential effects of EDCs on the water quality and health of biota in streams of the New York City water supply is especially worrisome because more than 150 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) are permitted to discharge effluents into surface waters and groundwaters of watersheds that provide potable water to more than 9 million people. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), and New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) began a pilot study to increase the understanding of estrogenicity and EDCs in effluents and receiving streams mainly in southeastern New York. The primary goals of this study were to document and assess the spatial and temporal variability of estrogenicity levels; the effectiveness of various treatment-plant types to remove estrogenicity; the concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs); and the relations between estrogenicity and concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and PPCPs. The levels of estrogenicity and selected hormones, non-hormone EDCs, and PPCPs were characterized in samples collected seasonally in effluents from 7 WWTPs, once or twice in effluents from 34 WWTPs, and once in influents to 6 WWTPs. Estrogenicity was quantified, as estradiol equivalents, using both the biological e-screen assay and a chemical model. Results generally show that (1) estrogenicity levels in effluents varied spatially and seasonally, (2) a wide range of known and unknown EDCs were present in both WWTP effluents and receiving streams, (3) some effluents may be important sources of estrogenicity in weakly diluted streams, (4) measured levels of biological estrogenicity were often higher than estimated levels of chemical estrogenicity, and (5) the type of treatment had a large effect on the removal efficacy, and consequently, the estrogenicity levels observed in treated effluents.

  20. Institutional Review Boards (IRBs): What Are They, and Why Are They Important? Part 7 in a Series on Practical Evaluation Methods. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Allen, Tiffany; Joyner, Krystle

    2008-01-01

    Many out-of-school time programs conduct evaluations. As part of an evaluation, program participants (including children, their parents, and program staff) may be asked to provide information. Researchers refer to these individuals as "human subjects," and it is essential to protect their privacy, rights, confidentiality, and privileges.…

  1. South Cascade (USA/North Cascades)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has closely monitored this temperate mountain glacier since the late 1950s. During 1958-2007, the glacier retreated about 0.7 km and shrank in area from 2.71 to 1.73 km2, although part of the area change was due to separation of contributing ice bodies from the main glacier. Maximum and average glacier thicknesses are about 170 and 80 m, respectively. Year-to-year variations of snow accumulation amounts on the glacier are largely attributable to the regional maritime climate and fluctuating climate conditions of the North Pacific Ocean. Long-term-average precipitation is about 4500 mm and most of that falls as snow during October through May. Average annual air temperature at 1,900 m altitude (the approximate ELA0) was estimated to be 1.6°C during 2000-2009. Mass balances are computed yearly by the direct glaciological method. Mass balances measured at selected locations are used in an interpolation and extrapolation procedure that computes the mass balance at each point in the glacier surface altitude grid. The resulting mass balance grid is averaged to obtain glacier mass balances. Additionally, the geodetic method has been applied to compute glacier net balances in 1970, 1975, 1977, 1979-80, and 1985-97. Winter snow accumulation on the glacier during 2007/08 and 2008/09 was larger than the long-term (1959-2009) average. The 2007/08 preliminary summer balance (-3510 mm w.e.) was slightly more negative than the long-term average and this yielded a preliminary 2007/08 net balance (-290 mm w.e.), which was less negative than the average for the period of record (-600 mm w.e.). Summer 2009 was uncommonly warm and the preliminary 2008/09 summer balance (-4980 mm w.e.) was more negative than any on record for the glacier. The 2008/09 glacier net balance (-1860 mm w.e.) was among the 10 most negative for the period of net balance record (1953-2009). Material presented here is preliminary in nature and presented prior to final review. These

  2. Prediction of snowmelt derived streamflow in a wetland dominated prairie basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Westbrook, C. J.; Guo, X.; Minke, A. G.; Brown, T.

    2010-02-01

    The eastern Canadian Prairies are dominated by cropland, pasture, woodland and wetland areas. The region is characterized by many poor and internal drainage systems and large amounts of surface water storage. Consequently, basins here have proven challenging to hydrological model predictions which assume good drainage to stream channels. The Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling platform (CRHM) is an assembly system that can be used to set up physically based, flexible, object oriented models. CRHM was used to create a prairie hydrological model for the externally drained Smith Creek Research Basin (~400 km2), east-central Saskatchewan. Physically based modules were sequentially linked in CRHM to simulate snow processes, frozen soils, variable contributing area and wetland storage and runoff generation. Five "representative basins" (RBs) were used and each was divided into seven hydrological response units (HRUs): fallow, stubble, grassland, river channel, open water, woodland, and wetland as derived from a supervised classification of SPOT 5 imagery. Two types of modelling approaches calibrated and uncalibrated, were set up for 2007/08 and 2008/09 simulation periods. For the calibrated modelling, only the surface depression capacity of upland area was calibrated in the 2007/08 simulation period by comparing simulated and observed hydrographs; while other model parameters and all parameters in the uncalibrated modelling were estimated from field observations of soils and vegetation cover, SPOT 5 imagery, and analysis of drainage network and wetland GIS datasets as well as topographic map based and LiDAR DEMs. All the parameters except for the initial soil properties and antecedent wetland storage were kept the same in the 2008/09 simulation period. The model performance in predicting snowpack, soil moisture and streamflow was evaluated and comparisons were made between the calibrated and uncalibrated modelling for both simulation periods. Calibrated and uncalibrated

  3. Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Toms, L.-M.L.; Thompson, J.; Rotander, A.; Hobson, P.; Calafat, A.M.; Kato, K.; Ye, X.; Broomhall, S.; Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002–2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends. Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n = 26); 2008/09 (n = 24) and 2010/11 (n = 24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n = 84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <16 years (2002/03 only); 0–4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5–15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16–30; 31–45; 46–60; and >60 years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3–19.2 ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4–17.4 ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8–7.3 ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1–6.5 ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <1 ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2–5.7 ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4–5.4 ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5–15 year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0–4 year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA). This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends

  4. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in pooled human serum by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aleysha; Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Harden, Fiona A; Hobson, Peter; White, Nicole M; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Mueller, Jochen F

    2017-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades in Australia with cessation of selected persistent and bioaccumulative OCPs ranging from the 1970s to as recently as 2007. The specific aims of this study were to use samples representative of an Australian population to assess age and gender differences in the concentration of OCPs in human blood sera and to investigate temporal trends in these chemicals. Serum was collected from de-identified, surplus pathology samples over five time periods (2002/03, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13), with 183 serum pools made from 12,175 individual samples; 26 pools in 2002/03, 85 pools in 2006/07 and 24 pools each in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), γ -hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) (γ-HCH), oxy-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and Mirex. Stratification criteria included gender and age (0-4; 5-15; 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >60 years) with age additionally stratified by adults >16 years and children 0-4 and 5-15 years. All pools from all collection periods had detectable concentrations of OCPs with a detection frequency of >60% for HCB, β-HCH, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. The overall OCP concentrations increased with age with the highest concentrations in the >60 years groups. Females did not have higher mean OCP concentrations than males except for HCB concentrations (p=0.0006). Temporal trends showed overall decreasing serum concentrations by collection period with the exception of an increase in OCP concentrations between 2006/07 and 2008/09. Excluding this data point, HCB decreased from year to year by 7-76%; β-HCH concentrations decreased by 14 - 38%; trans-nonachlor concentrations decreased by 10 - 65%; p,p'-DDE concentrations decreased by 6 - 52%; and p,p'-DDT concentrations decreased by 7 - 30%. The results indicate that OCP concentrations have decreased over time as is to be

  5. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  6. Lifetime Prevalence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Adults: Examining Variations in the Socioeconomic Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Yallop, Lauren; Brownell, Marni; Chateau, Dan; Walker, John; Warren, Michelle; Bailis, Dan; LeBow, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It has only recently been accepted that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood. Accordingly, less is known about adult diagnostic and treatment prevalence. We aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence of ADHD diagnosis and psychostimulant prescriptions for young adults in the province of Manitoba and to explore how diagnosis differs according to sociodemographic characteristics and age at diagnosis; and to investigate whether a socioeconomic gradient exists within young adults with a lifetime ADHD diagnosis, as well as the variables that moderate the gradient. Methods: Using the Manitoba Population Health Research Data Repository, our cross-sectional analysis used 24 fiscal years of data (1984/85 to 2008/09) and included all adults aged 18 to 29 during 2007/08 to 2008/09 in Manitoba (n = 207 544) who had a lifetime diagnosis of ADHD (n = 14 762). Regression analyses tested for differences in rates by sex, region, age, age at diagnosis, and socioeconomic status. Results: Lifetime prevalence for ADHD diagnosis (7.11%) and psychostimulant prescriptions (3.09%) differed according to sex, region, and age. In contrast to previous Manitoban research on childhood ADHD, the socioeconomic gradient for ADHD diagnosis was not found in young adulthood. When region was accounted for, a small negative gradient in the urban population and a positive gradient in the rural population were evident. People from the highest income quintile were significantly less likely to be diagnosed before age 18, compared with other income quintiles. Conclusions: Given the high lifetime prevalence of ADHD in Manitoban young adults and significant socioeconomic correlates for diagnosis, further investigation into the trajectory of this relatively unexplored population is recommended. PMID:26720190

  7. Moon Munchies: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge--A Standards-Based Elementary School Model Unit Guide--Design, Build, and Evaluate (Lessons 1-6). Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-92-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kim M.

    2005-01-01

    In this unit, elementary students design and build a lunar plant growth chamber using the Engineering Design Process. The purpose of the unit is to help students understand and apply the design process as it relates to plant growth on the moon. This guide includes six lessons, which meet a number of national standards and benchmarks in…

  8. Changes in malaria morbidity and mortality in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa (2001- 2009): a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a serious epidemic threat in Mpumalanga Province. In order to appropriately target interventions to achieve substantial reduction in the burden of malaria and ultimately eliminate the disease, there is a need to track progress of malaria control efforts by assessing the time trends and evaluating the impact of current control interventions. This study aimed to assess the changes in the burden of malaria in Mpumalanga Province during the past eight malaria seasons (2001/02 to 2008/09) and whether indoor residual spraying (IRS) and climate variability had an effect on these changes. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective study based on the analysis of secondary malaria surveillance data (cases and deaths) in Mpumalanga Province. Data were extracted from the Integrated Malaria Information System. Time series model (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) was used to assess the association between climate and malaria. Results Within the study period, a total of 35,191 cases and 164 deaths due to malaria were notified in Mpumalanga Province. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of malaria from 385 in 2001/02 to 50 cases per 100,000 population in 2008/09 (P < 0.005). The incidence and case fatality (CFR) rates for the study period were 134 cases per 100,000 and 0.54%, respectively. Mortality due to malaria was lower in infants and children (CFR < 0.5%) and higher in those >65 years, with the mean CFR of 2.1% as compared to the national target of 0.5%. A distinct seasonal transmission pattern was found to be significantly related to changes in rainfall patterns (P = 0.007). A notable decline in malaria case notification was observed following apparent scale-up of IRS coverage from 2006/07 to 2008/09 malaria seasons. Conclusions Mpumalanga Province has achieved the goal of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality by over 70%, partly as a result of scale-up of IRS intervention in combination with other control strategies. These

  9. Sediment-driven mercury transport in post-fire storm runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Hogue, T. S.; Jay, J.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfire alters terrestrial stores of mercury (Hg) within a watershed, releasing Hg to the atmosphere and creating conditions that can be conducive to Hg export in streamwater. Hg transport to terrestrial waters is often associated with suspended sediments and organic matter, and particulate-bound Hg delivery to downstream water bodies may be enhanced following wildfire. Burned watersheds experience increased overland flow, soil erosion, sediment transport, and, consequently, transport of sediment bound contaminants during early post-fire storm events. Southern California’s September 2006 Day Fire consumed 660km2 and almost 50% of the 512km2 Piru Creek watershed. Piru Creek drains into Pyramid Lake, a storage reservoir for the California State Water Project, which provides drinking water for Los Angeles. Streamwater was collected from Piru Creek watershed over a 1.5 year period following the Day Fire, on a monthly basis during low flow periods, and every two hours during storm events using an automated sampler. Samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total Hg, total suspended solids, and basic anions and cations. Low Hg concentrations (> 1ng Hg/ L dissolved and > 5ng Hg/L total) were measured in inter-storm samples. The first winter (2006-07) following the Day Fire was one of the driest on record, with precipitation totals (130mm) less than one third of normal. The only significant storm measured total Hg concentrations just slightly higher than the inter-storm samples, while no change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations. However, these total Hg concentrations were well correlated to TSS measurements (r2 = 0.91) and followed the storm hydrograph. The following winter (2007-08) brought higher precipitation totals (370mm) and more intense storms. Elevated, turbid stream flow was observed in Piru Creek during many of the 2007-08 storms. Little change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations of the storm samples; however, a two-order magnitude

  10. Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen; Hasholt, Bent; Steffen, Konrad; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Mcgrath, Daniel; Yde, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation

  11. Scottish Stroke Research Network: the first three years.

    PubMed

    McCormick, K; Langhorne, P; Graham, F E J; McFarlane, C

    2010-08-01

    Research networks were introduced in the UK to facilitate and improve clinical research and stroke was seen as a priority topic for local research network development. The Scottish Stroke Research Network (SSRN) is one of 11 stroke research networks in the UK. In this article we review the progress of the Scottish Stroke Research Network in the three years since inception. Between 2006-2009 the number of active hospital research sites has increased from 10 to 22 expanding to involve 20 stroke research nurses. There was a corresponding 58% increase in recruitment of participants into stroke studies, from 376 in 2006/07 to 594 in 2008/09. The majority (17/20) of our current studies are interventional. Data from one of these, the CLOTs trial (Clots in Legs Or sTocking after Stroke), demonstrates that the annual recruitment in Scotland increased from a median of 94 (range 6-122) patients per year in the six years before the SSRN, to 140 (135-158) patients per year after SSRN involvement. We currently screen about 50% of Scottish stroke patients and approximately 5% of Scottish stroke patients are participating in research studies that we support. The SSRN has made good progress in the first three years. Increasing the recruitment of screened patients remains a challenge.

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of the AFWA-NASA (ANSA) Blended Snow-Cover Product over the Lower Great Lakes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Riggs, George A.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Montesano, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) - NASA (ANSA) blended-snow product utilizes EOS standard snow products from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) to map daily snow cover and snow-water equivalent (SWE) globally. We have compared ANSA-derived SWE. with SWE values calculated from snow depths reported at approx.1500 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) coop stations in the Lower Great Lakes basin. Our preliminary results show that conversion of snow depth to SWE is very sensitive to the choice of snow density (we used either 0.2 or 03 as conversion factors). We found overall better agreement between the ANSA-derived SWE and the co-op station data when we use a snow density of 0.3 to convert the snow depths to SWE. In addition, we show that the ANSA underestimates SWE in densely-forested areas, using January and February 2008 ANSA and co-op data. Furthermore, apparent large SWE changes from one day to the next may be caused by thaw-re-freeze events, and do not always represent a real change in SWE. In the near future we will continue the analysis in the 2006-07 and 2007-08 snow seasons.

  13. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  14. Women's and men's career choices in astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand gender differences in persistence and attrition from astronomy and physics, the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students follows a cohort of people who were graduate students in astronomy or astrophysics during 2006-07. The first survey was conducted during 2007-08 and the second during 2012-13, when many of the respondents had left graduate school and were working. For respondents who had completed PhDs and were not postdocs, we tested the effects of four major concepts on attrition from physics and astronomy. These concepts included: the imposter syndrome, mentoring and advising during graduate school, work-family balance, and being female. We hypothesized that women would be more likely than men to work outside of astronomy and physics. However, results from the study show that there is no direct independent effect of being female on attrition. Rather, women are more likely to leave astronomy because they are more likely than men to (1) experience difficulties related to the need to find a job for a spouse or partner in the same geographical area, and (2) report less than satisfactory advising during graduate school. This research identifies specific areas of concern that can be addressed by the scientific community to increase the retention of all people, but especially women, in astronomy, physics, and related fields. Funded by National Science Foundation AST-1347723.

  15. Diet of a piscivorous seabird reveals spatiotemporal variation in abundance of forage fishes in the Monterey Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Lisa A.; Harvey, James T.

    2015-06-01

    Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) diet was investigated using regurgitated pellets (n = 285) collected on 19 sampling days at three locations during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 nonbreeding seasons in the Monterey Bay region. The efficacy of using nested sieves and the all-structure technique to facilitate prey detection in the pellets was evaluated, but this method did not increase prey enumeration and greatly decreased efficiency. Although 29 prey species were consumed, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) dominated and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus) also was important in the diet. Few rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) and market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) were consumed compared with great prevalence in previous studies during the 1970s. El Niño and La Niña during the study provided a unique opportunity to examine predator response to variation in prey availability. Patterns of prey number and diversity were not consistent among locations. Greatest number and diversity of prey occurred at locations within Monterey Bay during La Niña, results not evident at the outer coast location. Short-term specialization occurred but mean prey diversity indicated a generalist feeding mode. This study demonstrated the importance of periodic sampling at multiple locations within a region to detect spatiotemporal variability in the diet of opportunistic generalists.

  16. University Administrators as Forced Language Policy Agents. An Institutional Ethnography of Parallel Language Strategy and Practices at the University of Copenhagen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siiner, Maarja

    2016-01-01

    Nation states increasingly assign the responsibility for meeting the global competitiveness agenda to the universities themselves [Cirius, 2009, "Mobilitetsstatistik for de videregaaende uddannelser 2007/08" [Mobility statistics for higher education 2007/08

  17. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  18. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M; Saxena, Deep R; Jain, Yogendra K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs.

  19. Using Satellite Tracking to Optimize Protection of Long-Lived Marine Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Conservation in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Sara M.; Breed, Greg A.; Nickel, Barry A.; Makanga-Bahouna, Junior; Pemo-Makaya, Edgard; Parnell, Richard J.; Formia, Angela; Ngouessono, Solange; Godley, Brendan J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Witt, Matthew J.; Coyne, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Tractable conservation measures for long-lived species require the intersection between protection of biologically relevant life history stages and a socioeconomically feasible setting. To protect breeding adults, we require knowledge of animal movements, how movement relates to political boundaries, and our confidence in spatial analyses of movement. We used satellite tracking and a switching state-space model to determine the internesting movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n = 18) in Central Africa during two breeding seasons (2007-08, 2008-09). These movements were analyzed in relation to current park boundaries and a proposed transboundary park between Gabon and the Republic of Congo, both created to reduce unintentional bycatch of sea turtles in marine fisheries. We additionally determined confidence intervals surrounding home range calculations. Turtles remained largely within a 30 km radius from the original nesting site before departing for distant foraging grounds. Only 44.6 percent of high-density areas were found within the current park but the proposed transboundary park would incorporate 97.6 percent of high-density areas. Though tagged individuals originated in Gabon, turtles were found in Congolese waters during greater than half of the internesting period (53.7 percent), highlighting the need for international cooperation and offering scientific support for a proposed transboundary park. This is the first comprehensive study on the internesting movements of solitary nesting olive ridley sea turtles, and it suggests the opportunity for tractable conservation measures for female nesting olive ridleys at this and other solitary nesting sites around the world. We draw from our results a framework for cost-effective protection of long-lived species using satellite telemetry as a primary tool. PMID:21589942

  20. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  1. Improving tobacco dependence education among the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry faculty.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Margie R; Baba, Nadim Z

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco-related health problems are among the most preventable forms of illness. By assuming proactive tobacco use counseling roles, dental professionals can help reduce the number of people who use tobacco. Minimum standards for intervention by dental care providers were established more than a decade ago by the American Dental Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association. The goal of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry in its tobacco-cessation efforts is to move beyond those standards towards more effective interventions. The school conducted a study to determine the formal education of the faculty, evaluate the current state of tobacco dependence education (TDE) delivered to students, identify topics that dental faculty members wanted to further their education, promote tobacco dependence education among the dental faculty, and enhance teaching moments on the clinic floor. A fifty-seven question survey was e-mailed to all faculty members with >0.4 FTE (full-time equivalent) during the 2007-08 school year. The response rate was 80 percent (101 out of 126). The results revealed that faculty members have limited formal training; however, 73.1 percent agreed that TDE would be beneficial to them. They also believed that, upon graduation, dental professionals should be able to perform at least a ten-minute moderate intervention program and discuss options for tobacco dependence treatments with patients. This project was designed to establish a 2008-09 baseline of TDE clinical practices, knowledge, and attitudes and to assess the effects of faculty development, curricular didactic, and clinical changes.

  2. Using satellite tracking to optimize protection of long-lived marine species: olive ridley sea turtle conservation in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sara M; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry A; Makanga-Bahouna, Junior; Pemo-Makaya, Edgard; Parnell, Richard J; Formia, Angela; Ngouessono, Solange; Godley, Brendan J; Costa, Daniel P; Witt, Matthew J; Coyne, Michael S

    2011-05-11

    Tractable conservation measures for long-lived species require the intersection between protection of biologically relevant life history stages and a socioeconomically feasible setting. To protect breeding adults, we require knowledge of animal movements, how movement relates to political boundaries, and our confidence in spatial analyses of movement. We used satellite tracking and a switching state-space model to determine the internesting movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n = 18) in Central Africa during two breeding seasons (2007-08, 2008-09). These movements were analyzed in relation to current park boundaries and a proposed transboundary park between Gabon and the Republic of Congo, both created to reduce unintentional bycatch of sea turtles in marine fisheries. We additionally determined confidence intervals surrounding home range calculations. Turtles remained largely within a 30 km radius from the original nesting site before departing for distant foraging grounds. Only 44.6 percent of high-density areas were found within the current park but the proposed transboundary park would incorporate 97.6 percent of high-density areas. Though tagged individuals originated in Gabon, turtles were found in Congolese waters during greater than half of the internesting period (53.7 percent), highlighting the need for international cooperation and offering scientific support for a proposed transboundary park. This is the first comprehensive study on the internesting movements of solitary nesting olive ridley sea turtles, and it suggests the opportunity for tractable conservation measures for female nesting olive ridleys at this and other solitary nesting sites around the world. We draw from our results a framework for cost-effective protection of long-lived species using satellite telemetry as a primary tool.

  3. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  4. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  5. Can individual conditions during childhood mediate or moderate the long-term cognitive effects of poor economic environments at birth?

    PubMed

    Fritze, Thomas; Doblhammer, Gabriele; van den Berg, Gerard J

    2014-10-01

    Recent analyses revealed that the business cycle at the time of birth influences cognitive functioning at older ages, and that those individuals born during economic boom periods on average display better cognitive functioning later in life. The current study examines the impact of childhood conditions on late-life cognitive functioning and investigates whether they mediate or moderate the effects of the business cycle at the time of birth. The underlying purpose is to find potential starting points for societal interventions that may counterbalance the negative long-term outcomes of adverse living conditions early in life. We use data from 7935 respondents at ages 60+ in eleven European countries from the first three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The survey data was collected in 2004, 2006/07, and 2008/09. Country fixed-effects models are used to examine the impact of macro-economic deviations in the year of birth and the indicators of childhood circumstances on late-life cognitive functioning. This study shows that the effects of boom and recession periods at birth are not simply mediated or moderated by living conditions during childhood. Conditions at birth have biological long-run effects on late-life cognitive functioning. Individuals born during boom periods display signs of having better cognitive functioning later in life, whereas recessions negatively influence cognition. Furthermore, a series of childhood conditions in and of themselves influence late-life cognition. Good childhood cognition, high education as well as a high social status, favourable living arrangements, and good health have a positive impact. Policy interventions should aim at a better access to school or measures to improve the economic and social situations of disadvantaged households.

  6. High prevalence of Leucocytozoon spp. in the endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) in the sub-Antarctic regions of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Argilla, L S; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D; Alley, M R

    2013-04-01

    Yellow-eyed penguins (YEPs) have suffered major population declines over the past 30 years, with no single cause established. Leucocytozoon was first identified in yellow-eyed penguins in 2005. During the 2008/09 breeding season, a high mortality was seen in both mainland yellow-eyed penguins as well as those on Enderby Island of the Auckland Islands archipelago. A high overall prevalence of Leucocytozoon spp. in association with a high incidence of chick mortality was observed during this period on Enderby Island. One chick had histological evidence of leucocytozoonosis with megaloschizonts in multiple organs throughout its body. In addition, a high prevalence (73·7%) of Leucocytozoon was observed by PCR in the blood of adult Enderby yellow-eyed penguins taken during the 2006/07 season. These findings were different from the low prevalence detected by PCR on the coast of the South Island (11%) during the 2008/2009 breeding session and earlier on Campbell Island (21%) during the 2006/2007 breeding session. The Leucocytozoon spp. sequences detected lead us to conclude that the Leucocytozoon parasite is common in yellow-eyed penguins and has a higher prevalence in penguins from Enderby Island than those from Campbell Island and the mainland of New Zealand. The Enderby Island yellow-eyed penguins are infected with a Leucocytozoon spp. that is genetically distinct from that found in other yellow-eyed penguin populations. The role of Leucocytozoon in the high levels of chick mortality in the yellow-eyed penguins remains unclear.

  7. Mitigation of soil water repellency improves rootzone water status and yield in precision irrigated apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, S.; Gadd, N.; Bell, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water repellent soils are documented to impact a range of hydrological properties, yet studies evaluating the consequences of soil water repellency (SWR) and its mitigation on crop yield and quality are conspicuously absent. With global concerns on drought and water availability and the projected impacts of climate change, development of novel strategies to optimize efficient rootzone delivery of water are required. Co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer surfactants have been shown to improve wetting synergistically. The objectives of this study were to determine if this surfactant technology: 1) increased soil water content and wetting front depth in mini-sprinkler irrigated, water repellent, Goulburn Valley clay loam soils and 2) assess the consequence of SWR mitigation on yield of Malus domestica Borkh. Three trials were conducted in the apple varieties 'Pink Lady' (2006/07 and 2007/08) and 'Gala' (2007/08) growing on Goulburn Valley clay loam soils in Victoria, AU. The test design was a randomized complete block with treatments replicated 5-6 times. Plot size varied by location. SWR was mitigated by applying surfactant at initial rates of 0, 5, or 10 L ha-1 in the spring, then at 0, 2.5, or 5 L ha-1 monthly for up to four months and compared to an untreated control. Treatments were applied to tree lines using a hand held small plot sprayer (118 liters of spray solution ha-1) followed by irrigation within 1-3 days of treatment applications. At each location, plots were irrigated by mini sprinklers and received the same irrigation volumes and management practices. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was monitored at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm using a Theta probe (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK). At harvest, fruit number and weights were measured and used for crop yield estimations. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with mean values summarized and separated using Least Significant Test

  8. ICESat elevations in Antarctica along the 2007-09 Norway-USA Traverse: Validation with ground-based GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.; Neumann, T.; Robbins, J. W.; Melland, G.; Tronstad, S.

    2010-12-01

    The 2007-09 Norway-USA Traverse of East Antarctica collected dual-frequency GPS data at 5-s intervals on two of the traverse vehicles. The traverse covered a 2,400 km route from the coast to the vicinity of the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in 2007-08, and along a 2,600 km route from the South Pole to the coast in 2008-09. Side traverses were also conducted in the latter season over the so-called Recovery Lakes, for a total of over 10,000 km of GPS data collected. We use precise point processing (PPP) to post-process our single receiver kinematic GPS data, with no need for base station support. Analysis of data obtained while the vehicles were stationary shows individual solutions are accurate to <1 cm in the horizontal and <3 cm in the vertical. Analysis of elevation differences at vehicle cross-over points implies vertical position accuracies of <10 cm at the cross-over locations, when the vehicles are in motion. Correct determination of GPS antenna height (AH) relative to the snow surface is a critical aspect of this analysis. Measurements of AH made in the field varied appreciably, but we estimate that the AH error is still <10 cm based on consistency of the best quality measurements. The mean cross-over difference for the two vehicles was ca. 5 cm, in both years, which represents an unresolved bias in the AH of one or both vehicles. We compare our GPS elevations with those determined by ICESat, the orbiting laser altimetry system designed to measure ice elevation. Direct cross-over analysis at the cross-over of traverse GPS tracks and ICESat ground tracks results in RMS differences of < 20 cm in low-slope areas. Mean differences between GPS and ICESat elevations show a bias of a ca. 5 - 10 cm, with ICESat elevations lower than GPS measurements in low-slope areas, but higher than GPS measurements in high-slope areas. In general the agreement is best between 86° S and 82° S, and decreases northward of 82° S. We also compare the GPS data to two DEMs made

  9. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road

  10. Long-Term Observations on Aerosol Elemental Carbon and Mass Concentrations in Winter-Time in New Delhi: Implications for Local Source Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, S. G.; Singh, K.; Singh, N.; Gupta, P. K.

    2009-12-01

    Fossil-fuel and bio-fuel burning are the two major sources identified for high carbonaceous aerosol loadings in several mega cities in India. In the last decade, according to a report from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB, 1999), the vehicular emission (mostly diesel-powered engines) was contributed to ~67% of the total air pollution load in New Delhi. Therefore, a policy decision was taken by the government, and most of the diesel-powered engines were converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) -powered engines by 2003. To better understand the effect of these changes on air quality, we collected high volume aerosol samples (total suspended particles, TSP) mostly for a day basis at our institute building in New Delhi almost everyday during winter season (November to January) from 2002 to 2008. We found very high mean aerosol loading, i.e., 488±47 μg m-3 in 2002 winter, which dropped significantly to 280±73 μg m-3 in 2003 winter. Thereafter, a steadily increased trend of aerosol mass loadings was observed, i.e., 339±112, 339±120, 412±107 and 444±55 μg m-3 in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 winters, respectively. Similar trend was also observed for elemental carbon (EC) concentration in TSP, which was peaked in 2002 (47±11 μg m-3) and minimized in 2003 (32±6 μg m-3), and then gradually increased to 41±8 μg m-3 in 2007 winter. These decline trends of aerosol mass and EC concentrations in 2003 can be explained well, because of the conversion of diesel engine to CNG engines of public transport facilities. However, again increase in aerosol mass and EC concentrations possibly because of a high increase in road traffic in recent years. According to the economic survey of New Delhi 2008-09, the number of vehicles (which includes all types of engines, i.e., petrol, diesel and CNG) has grown from ~3.3 millions in 1997-98 to ~5.6 millions in 2007-08. The influence of engine types and vehicle population on aerosol loading can also be explained well by SO2 and

  11. Multi-decadal surface temperature trends in East Antarctica inferred from borehole firn temperature measurements and geophysical inverse methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Atsuhiro

    The climate trend of the Antarctic interior remains unclear relative to the rest of the globe because of a lack of long-term weather records. Recent studies by other authors utilizing sparse available records, satellite data, and models have estimated a significant warming trend in the near-surface air temperature in West Antarctica and weak and poorly constrained warming trend in East Antarctica for the past 50 years. In this dissertation, firn thermal profiling was used to detect multi-decadal surface temperature trends in the interior of East Antarctica where few previous records of any kind exist. The surface temperature inversion from firn temperature profiles provides a climate reconstruction independent of firn chemistry, sparse weather data, satellite data, or ice cores, and therefore may be used in conjunction with these data sources for corroboration of climate trends over the large ice sheets. During the Norwegian-U.S. IPY Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica, in the austral summers of 2007--08 and 2008--09, thermal-profiling telemetry units were installed at five locations. Each unit consists of 16 PRTs (Platinum Resistance Thermometers) distributed in a back-filled borehole of 80 to 90 m deep. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.03 K. Geophysical inverse methods (linearized and Monte Carlo inversion) were applied to one full year of data collected from three units installed near the ice divide in the Dome Fuji/Pole of Inaccessibility region and one on Recovery Lake B, situated >500 km south to south-west of and >1000 m lower in altitude than sites near the ice divide. Three sites near the ice divide indicate that the mean surface temperatures have increased approximately 1 to 1.5 K within the past ˜50 years although the onset and the duration of this warming vary by site. On the other hand, slight cooling to no change was detected at the Recovery Lake B site. Although uncertainties remain due to limitations of the method, these results

  12. Eliminating Electricity Deficit through Energy Efficiency in India: An Evaluation of Aggregate Economic and Carbon Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Gupta, Arjun

    2010-04-30

    Electricity demand has consistently exceeded available supply in India. While the electricity deficit varies across states, nationally it was estimated to be of the order of 12percent on peak and 11percent for electricity during 2008-09. This paper explores a demand-side focused potential for energy efficiency improvement to eliminate the electricity deficit compared to a business as usual (BAU) supply-side focused scenario. The limited availability of finance and other legal and administrative barriers have constrained the construction of new power plant capacity in India. As a result, under the BAU scenario, India continues to face an electricity deficit beyond the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. The demand-side cost-effective potential achieved through replacement of new electricity-using products, however, is large enough to eliminate the deficit as early as 2013 and subsequently reduce the future construction of power plants and thus reduce air pollutant emissions. Moreover, energy efficiency improvements cost a fraction of the cost for new supply and can lead to a substantial increase in India's economic output or gross domestic product (GDP). Eliminating the deficit permits businesses that have experienced electricity cutbacks to restore production. We estimate the size of the cumulative production increase in terms of the contribution to GDP at a $505 billion between 2009 and 2017, the end of India's Twelfth Five Year Plan, which may be compared with India's 2007-08 GDP of $911 billion. The economic output is influenced by the size of the electricity savings and rate of penetration of energy efficient technologies, and that of self-generation equipment and inverters used by businesses faced with electricity cuts. Generation and inverters are estimated to service 23percent of these customers in 2009, which increase to 48percent by 2020. The reduction in the construction and operation of new power plants reduces the cumulative CO2 emissions by 65 Mt, and

  13. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  14. Illuminating infrasonic hotspots with the USArray and Southern California Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, K. T.; Shelby, R.; Hedlin, M.; deGroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Vernon, F. L.

    2011-12-01

    In this study reverse time migration is applied to acoustic-to-seismic coupled signals recorded by the 2007-08 USArray to detect and locate in two-dimensional space and time 901 sources of atmospheric infrasound in the western U.S. The events are visually inspected and ranked. Uncertainties are estimated using a bootstrap technique. The method correctly locates rocket motor detonations in Utah and a bolide explosion in Oregon. Two event catalogs are introduced summarizing the results. The origin time statistics for 2007 and 2008 events are nearly identical and suggest a human origin of most events. The event locations illuminate repeating sources of infrasound, or "infrasonic hotspots," in Nevada, Utah, and Idaho that are spatially associated with active military areas. A gap in detections during the summer of 2008 is due to the biyearly movement of USArray stations. The infrasonic arrivals often comprise several branches that are observed to a range between 200 and 1500 km to the east and west of the epicenter in the winter and summer, respectively. The optimum celerities are Gaussian distributed and centered at 295 m/s. A seasonal variation in optimum celerities exhibits good correlation with atmospheric temperature. The results indicate that regional infrasonic propagation in the 1 to 5 Hz band in the western U.S. is generally controlled by stratospheric ducts associated with seasonal winds and atmospheric temperature. The success of applying reverse time migration to detect infrasonic sources in the western U.S. is not anomalous. A pilot study of several days of Midwest seismo-acoustic USArray data shows that there are infrasonic signals that propagate across the southern portion of the array, originating in the Gulf of Mexico or further east over the Carolinas or Atlantic Ocean. Although these signals are well represented in the vertical component seismic data, the signals are exceptionally clear in the microphone data, exhibiting much higher signal

  15. Women's and men's career choices in astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel; White, Susan; Chu, Raymond Y.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS) arose from the 2003 Women in Astronomy Conference, where it was noted that a majority of young members of the American Astronomical Society were women. The astronomy community wishes to make every effort to retain young women in astronomy, so they commissioned a longitudinal study to be conducted that would pinpoint the factors that contribute to retention in general, with a focus on differences between women and men. The LSAGS follows a cohort of people who were graduate students in astronomy or astrophysics during 2006-07. The first survey was conducted during 2007-08 and the second during 2012-13. The analysis presented in this paper used a subset of the respondents, all of whom had Ph.D.s in astronomy, astrophysics, or a related field at the time of the second survey. We tested the effects of four major concepts on two measures of attrition from physics and astronomy. These concepts included the imposter syndrome, mentoring and advising during graduate school, the "two-body problem" that occurs when a couple needs to find two jobs in the same geographic area, and the sex of the respondent. While the imposter syndrome and mentoring affected the likelihood of respondents' thinking about leaving the field, they did not directly contribute to actually working in a field that was not physics or astronomy. Relationship with graduate advisors and the two-body problem both had significant effects on working in physics or astronomy, as did completing a postdoc. The sex of the respondent had no direct effect on our measures of attrition, but indirectly affected attrition because women were less likely to report positive relationships with graduate advisors and more likely to report two-body problems. This research identifies specific areas of concern that can be addressed by the scientific community to increase the retention of all people

  16. Characteristics of PETE Doctoral Level Institutions: Descriptions of Programs, Faculty and Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    The present study of Doctoral PETE programs provided an extensive description of demographic data which included: (a) doctoral program characteristics, (b) faculty, and (c) doctoral graduates. Several data sets from the academic years of 2005-06 and 2008-09 as well as selected summary data from 1996-97 through 2008-09 were used to make comparisons…

  17. 75 FR 37708 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B19 (Regional Jet Series 100 & 440...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... possible between certain internal wires and their metallic over-braided shields, which could result in the... the effective date of Canadian Airworthiness Directive CF-2008-09, and the effective date of the... (f)(2) of AD 2009-06-17 and paragraph ``B.'' of Canadian Airworthiness Directive CF-2008-09,...

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

  19. A Comparison of Supply and Demand for PETE Professionals in Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the supply and demand issues of D-PETE professionals in higher education. The three concerns addressed were: (a) doctoral graduates and their respective job placements in the academic years of 1996-97 through 2008-09, (b) an examination of two targeted academic years (2005-06 and 2008-09) to determine the supply of entry level…

  20. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  1. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

  2. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  3. Federal Education Tax Benefits: Who Receives Them and to What Extent Do They Shape the Price of College Attendance? Stats in Brief. NCES 2012-212

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Alexandria Walton; Berkner, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief applies IRS rules and data to a nationally representative sample of 2007-08 undergraduates to estimate who received education tax benefits and looks at the extent to which these benefits shaped their price of college attendance. Key findings include: (1) Nearly one-half of all 2007-08 undergraduates were estimated to have…

  4. Degrees of Debt. Student Borrowing and Loan Repayment of Bachelor's Degree Recipients 1 Year after Graduating: 1994, 2001, and 2009. Stats in Brief. NCES 2014-011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.

    2013-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines three cohorts of recent college graduates 1 year after they attained their bachelor's degree. The graduation years for the three cohorts span a 15-year period: 1992-93, 1999-2000, and 2007-08. The latest cohort (2007-08) graduated in the midst of the 2008 recession. This Statistics in Brief first examines how…

  5. The Use of Print Materials in the Internet Age: A Comparative Study of Academic Library Circulation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Daniel Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The circulation records from 1997/98 to 2007/08 for UCLA and from 2000/01 to 2007/08 for Pasadena City College (PCC) were analyzed to examine patterns in the use of print materials during a period of increasingly available online digital information resources. The analysis included examinations of longitudinal circulation patterns broken down by…

  6. 75 FR 3127 - Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft, Inc. Model 600 S2D and S2R Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...-036-AD; Amendment 39-16150; AD 2009-26-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft...: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) to supersede AD (AD) 2006-07-15... previously held by Quality Aerospace, Inc. and Ayres Corporation). AD 2006-07-15 currently...

  7. 29 CFR 18.1103 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Applicability § 18.1103 Title. These rules may be known as the United States Department of Labor Rules of Evidence and cited as 29 CFR 18.__ (1989). ... 29 Labor 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Title. 18.1103 Section 18.1103 Labor Office of...

  8. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  9. Two mechanisms of stratospheric ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere, studied using data assimilation of Odin/SMR atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, Kazutoshi; Pérot, Kristell; Murtagh, Donal; Orsolini, Yvan

    2017-02-01

    Observations from the Odin/Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) instrument have been assimilated into the DIAMOND model (Dynamic Isentropic Assimilation Model for OdiN Data), in order to estimate the chemical ozone (O3) loss in the stratosphere. This data assimilation technique is described in Sagi and Murtagh (2016), in which it was used to study the inter-annual variability in ozone depletion during the entire Odin operational time and in both hemispheres. Our study focuses on the Arctic region, where two O3 destruction mechanisms play an important role, involving halogen and nitrogen chemical families (i.e. NOx = NO and NO2), respectively. The temporal evolution and geographical distribution of O3 loss in the low and middle stratosphere have been investigated between 2002 and 2013. For the first time, this has been done based on the study of a series of winter-spring seasons over more than a decade, spanning very different dynamical conditions. The chemical mechanisms involved in O3 depletion are very sensitive to thermal conditions and dynamical activity, which are extremely variable in the Arctic stratosphere. We have focused our analysis on particularly cold and warm winters, in order to study the influence this has on ozone loss. The winter 2010/11 is considered as an example for cold conditions. This case, which has been the subject of many studies, was characterised by a very stable vortex associated with particularly low temperatures, which led to an important halogen-induced O3 loss occurring inside the vortex in the lower stratosphere. We found a loss of 2.1 ppmv at an altitude of 450 K in the end of March 2011, which corresponds to the largest ozone depletion in the Northern Hemisphere observed during the last decade. This result is consistent with other studies. A similar situation was observed during the winters 2004/05 and 2007/08, although the amplitude of the O3 destruction was lower. To study the opposite situation, corresponding to a warm and

  10. 7 CFR 989.154 - Marketing policy computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... announcing a crop year's marketing policy for Natural (sun-dried) Seedless raisins shall be 85,000 natural... 2007-08 crop Natural (sun-dried) Seedless (NS) raisins if the crop estimate is equal to, less than,...

  11. WITHDRAWN: Erratum to "Which are the best nations and institutions for revolutionary science 1987-2006? Analysis using a combined metric of Nobel prizes, Fields medals, Lasker awards and Turing awards (NFLT metric)" [Medical Hypotheses 68 (2007) 1191-1194].

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-09-27

    The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published in Medical Hypotheses, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2007.08.005. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.

  12. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy.

  13. Gender Differences in Motor Skill Proficiency from Childhood to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lisa M.; van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J.; Brooks, Lyndon O.; Beard, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Students' proficiency in three object control and three locomotor skills were assessed in 2000 (M age = 10.06 years, SD = 0.63) in New South Wales, Australia and in 2006-07 (M age = 16.44 years, SD = 0.64). In 2006-07, 266 students, 138 girls (51.9%) and 128 boys (48.1%), had at least one skill reassessed. Boys were more object control proficient…

  14. More INTEGRAL observations of H1743-322/IGR J17464-3213: evolution of the source into outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Cadolle Bel, M.

    2008-09-01

    INTEGRAL observations from the Galactic Center Key Program performed between UT 2008 Sep 23 12:36 and 2008 Sep 25 05:09 confirm the renewed activity of H1743-322/IGR J17464-3213 (See Kuulkers et al. 2008 Atel #1739). Previous observations of the field by INTEGRAL between 2008-09-20UTC02:44:28 and 2008-09-22UTC12:20:45 did not yield detections with 3-sigma upper limits of 1.5, 2.5, and 6.1 mCrab in the 20-40, 40-80 and 80-150 keV respectively.

  15. Determinants of Parents' Decision to Vaccinate Their Children against Rotavirus: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, E.; Bettinger, J. A.; Halperin, B.; Bradet, R.; Lavoie, F.; Sauvageau, C.; Gilca, V.; Boulianne, N.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus disease is a common cause of health care utilization and almost all children are affected by the age of 5 years. In Canada, at the time of this survey (2008-09), immunization rates for rotavirus were less than 20%. We assessed the determinants of a parent's acceptance to have their child immunized against rotavirus. The survey…

  16. Alabama Education Quick Facts, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics; Alabama public schools 2009-10; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data; public school size and enrollment, 2009-10 school year; transportation; school meals; school personnel, 2009-2010; graduation requirements; student assessment; additional enrollment; and dropouts in school year 2008-09.

  17. Renewal and Optimism: Five Years as an Ohio Charter Authorizer. Fordham Sponsorship Accountability Report, 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation chronicled in its last year's Fordham Sponsorship Accountability Report, "Seeking Quality in the Face of Adversity", the 2008-09 school year was a brutal one during which schools, and their peers, faced many existential threats. The 2009-10 school year was Fordham's fifth year as a charter school…

  18. Coastal and Ocean Data Assimilation: An Introduction to the Analysis, Interpolation, and Assimilation of Space-Time Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    assimilation methods for HYCOM. Under revision. Wilson-Diaz, D., A.J. Mariano, and R.H. Evans, 2008. On the heat budget of the Arabian Sea. In press, Deep Sea Res, Part I, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2008.09.003. 3

  19. Using Assessment Data to Guide Math Course Placement of California Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Snipes, Jason; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Middle school math placement and progression are topics that are part of an active policy and practice discussion in California and elsewhere. Beginning in the 2008/09 school year, California's State Board of Education recommended that students complete algebra I by the end of grade 8. Between 2003 and 2009 the proportion of grade 8 students…

  20. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports the reading and math proficiency rates of grade 8 Native…

  1. Book Vouchers: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Use and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Book vouchers serve as one component of need-based financial aid packages at the College of Southern Nevada (CSN), one of the nation's largest community colleges. This study compared the academic performance of Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) applicants in attendance at CSN during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 academic years. A basic…

  2. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09

  3. Update on the 2009-10 State Budget. Report 09-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On February 20, 2009, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law the 2009 Budget Package. This set of bills revised the current year (2008-09) budget and adopted a budget for the upcoming 2009-10 fiscal year. This 17-month spending plan was designed to address a two-year budgetary shortfall of more than $40 billion. The plan contains the…

  4. 40th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2008-2009 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 40th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2008-09. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2008-2009 academic year, the states…

  5. National Educational Technology Trends: 2010. Innovation Through State Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report provides a national perspective on Title II-D for federal fiscal year (FY) 2008 (2008-09 school year), as well as emergent trends based on data from the past seven years. Title II-D is the only federal education program with funds explicitly targeted to support state and local effective uses of educational technology in the …

  6. Deregulating School Aid in California: Revenues and Expenditures in the Second Year of Categorical Flexibility. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imazeki, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    California's system of school finance is highly regulated and prescriptive. A large share of state funding is allocated through categorical programs; that is, programs whose funding is contingent on districts using the money in a particular way or for a particular purpose. In 2008-09, the strings were taken off 40 of those programs, collectively…

  7. District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) Program: Year One Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Ghoshdastidar, Bonnie; Peng, Art

    2010-01-01

    The District Awards for Teacher Excellence's (D.A.T.E.'s) first year of implementation in 2008-09 occurred at a time when Texas was operating several state-funded performance pay programs. The three-year Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (G.E.E.G.) program was coming to its expected completion, while the Texas Educator Excellence Grant…

  8. Reporting of NSC Additional (A2) Data Elements. Updated July 29, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Since the 2008-09 academic year, the National Student Clearinghouse has provided its participating institutions with the option to include 13 additional data elements in their enrollment submissions. These additional data elements help make Clearinghouse data more comprehensive and enable StudentTracker? participants to utilize a more robust data…

  9. Continuous Improvement: Building for the Future. Superintendent's 20th Annual Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Superintendent's 20th Annual Report, a comprehensive overview of Hawaii's public schools for school year 2008-09. This report contains essential progress indicators and measures, as well as highlights and comparisons of core educational data presented in a concise and user-friendly format. Appended are: (1) Glossary; (2)…

  10. Birds of a Feather: Moving Towards a Joint Acquisition Process to Support the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    AU/ACSC/9694/2008-09 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY BIRDS OF A FEATHER Moving Towards a Joint Acquisition Process to Support the...number. 1. REPORT DATE APR 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BIRDS OF A FEATHER: Moving Towards a Joint...INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................1 " Birds of a

  11. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  12. Programs Offered and Programs Completed at North Dakota Institutions of Postsecondary Education, July 1, 2008-June 30, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepp, Julie; Domagala, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This report provides information on degree and certificate programs offered and student program completions for fiscal year 2008-09 in North Dakota's public and private postsecondary educational institutions. Institutional programs are coded in accordance with the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP Code) system provided by the National…

  13. LJ Best of 2009 Business Books: 32 Titles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cords, Sarah Statz

    2010-01-01

    It should come as no surprise that a large share of this year's business books focus squarely on the 2008-09 financial crisis and security-backed mortgage implosion. Investing books followed the trend as either alarmist titles advocating selling stocks, or books urging readers to take advantage of this time to buy undervalued investments. An…

  14. Economic Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziczek, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. automotive industry has always been a cyclical business, but its near-collapse in 2008-09 and the subsequent bankruptcy of two of the three largest domestic automakers was more than a cyclical downturn. As light vehicle sales and production slowly recover, the industry has started to hire again, though with caution. In an industry known…

  15. Using the Freshman On-Track Indicator to Predict Graduation in Two Urban Districts in the Midwest Region. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 134

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Heather; Wong, Manyee; Wan, Yinmei; Reese, Kelly; Dhillon, Sonica; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2012-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that of U.S. public high school freshmen in the fall of 2005 24.5 percent did not graduate on time in 2008/09 (Stillwell, Sable, and Plotts 2011). As states and school districts attempt to boost graduation rates, they face the challenge of identifying which students are at risk of not graduating on time. Early warning…

  16. Using the Freshman On-Track Indicator to Predict Graduation in Two Urban Districts in the Midwest Region. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 134

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Heather; Wong, Manyee; Wan, Yinmei; Reese, Kelly; Dhillon, Sonica; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2012-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that of U.S. public high school freshmen in the fall of 2005 24.5 percent did not graduate on time in 2008/09 (Stillwell, Sable, and Plotts 2011). As states and school districts attempt to boost graduation rates, they face the challenge of identifying which students are at risk of not graduating on time. Early warning…

  17. Managing the Teacher Workforce in Austere Times: The Determinants and Implications of Teacher Layoffs. CEDR Working Paper No. 2011-1.3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Theobald, Roddy

    2011-01-01

    Over 2,000 teachers in the state of Washington received reduction-in-force (RIF) notices across the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years. We link data on these RIF notices to an administrative dataset that includes student, teacher, school, and district variables to determine the factors that predict the likelihood of a teacher receiving a RIF notice.…

  18. Managing the Teacher Workforce in Austere Times: The Determinants and Implications of Teacher Layoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Theobald, Roddy

    2013-01-01

    Over 2,000 teachers in the state of Washington received reduction in force (RIF) notices across the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years. We link data on these RIF notices to an administrative data set that includes student, teacher, school, and district variables to determine the factors that predict the likelihood of a teacher receiving a RIF…

  19. LMS Transitioning to "Moodle": A Surprising Case of Successful, Emergent Change Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Alan

    2011-01-01

    During 2009-10 the University of Ballarat implemented the open-source learning management system (LMS) "Moodle" alongside its existing legacy LMS, "Blackboard". While previous IT implementations have been troublesome at the university, notably the student information and finance management systems in 2008-09, the…

  20. Budget Perspectives and Proposed Commission Recommendations. Report 09-01b

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's proposed 2009-10 budget for California postsecondary education seeks to close a two-year deficit of nearly $42 billion. The budget proposes $17.4 billion in spending reductions for 2008-09 and 2009-10, and proposes $14.3 billion in new revenues through tax and fee increases. The budget also assumes $10 billion in external borrowing…

  1. Deregulating School Aid in California: How Districts Responded to Flexibility in Tier 3 Categorical Funds in 2010-2011. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Brian M.; Fuller, Bruce; Timar, Tom; Marsh, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    California's system of school finance is highly regulated and prescriptive. A large share of state funding is allocated through categorical programs, that is, programs whose funding is contingent upon districts using the money in a particular way or for a particular purpose. In 2008-09, the strings were taken off 40 of those programs, collectively…

  2. The Fiscal Effects of School Choice Programs on Public School Districts. National Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafidi, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the author constructs the first ever estimates for each state and the District of Columbia of the short-run fixed costs of educating children in public schools. He endeavors to make cautious overestimates of these short-run fixed costs. The United States' average spending per student was $12,450 in 2008-09. The author estimates…

  3. ES Review: Selections from 2008 & 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This third edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, some of the best work from 2008-09. It features: (1) K-12 Accountability (Measuring Skills for the 21st Century (Elena Silva); Beyond the Bubble: Technology and the Future of Student Assessment (Bill Tucker); Testing the Limits (Bill Tucker); Changing the Game: The…

  4. Deepening College Students' Engagement with Religion and Theology through Community Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Serve Program at Ignatius University combines academic study of theology with a year-long community service project focused on combating poverty. An analysis of the Serve Program during the 2008-09 academic year revealed that participating students demonstrated a significant increase in their interest in theology; a greater desire to enroll in…

  5. Let the Games Begin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Carla V.

    2009-01-01

    The first faculty meeting of the year is an opportunity for administrators to model strategies that engage their teachers and promote a sense of teamwork. This article describes the first faculty meeting of the 2008-09 school year at Matoaca Middle School in Chesterfield County, Virginia, where the administrators tried to model strategies that…

  6. Foreign Science and Engineering Students in the United States. InfoBrief. NSF 10-324

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrelli, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, about 568,000 foreign students (those holding temporary visas) studied at U.S. universities and colleges, 248,000 of them in science and engineering (S&E). There was an expectation that fall 2009 foreign enrollments might be negatively affected by the 2008-09 world financial crisis because of schools' restrictions on enrollment,…

  7. The English Language Growth Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Mulligan, Denise; Davies, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The English Language Growth (ELG) Project was conducted in five Australian universities in 2008-09 to address the on-going English language development of international students from non-English speaking backgrounds. Using an online survey inviting both qualitative and quantitative responses, 798 international students provided a rich source of…

  8. The 2010 AS&U 100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Big isn't as big as it used to be for many of the largest school districts. The most recent enrollment numbers for the nation's biggest school districts seem to reflect the country's ailing economy. Forty-eight of the 100 largest public school systems in the United States in 2008-09 reported enrollment declines compared with the previous year's…

  9. The Year We Learned to Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Janice; Contreras, Kathia

    2011-01-01

    In 2008-09, Colegio Ingles had a watershed year in terms of teachers learning to enhance one another's skills. Beneath a deceptively congenial surface, teachers at this Mexican preK-9th grade school were avoiding professional confrontations and rarely observed one another's classes or shared teaching solutions and innovations. That same year, the…

  10. Effects of a Program for Developing Creative Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabanos, Natalia Larraz; Torres, Pedro Allueva

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to present an intervention program for creative skills development applied to a group of students of lower Secondary Education. Method: This program was applied in a school in Zaragoza (Spain) during the 2008-09 academic year. The study used a repeated-measures, quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent…

  11. Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2008; Graduation Rates, 2002 & 2005 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2008. First Look. NCES 2010-152

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    This First Look report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) spring 2009 data collection. This collection included five components: Student Financial Aid for full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students for the 2008-09 academic year; Enrollment for fall 2008; Graduation Rates…

  12. Reflections on "YouTestTube.com": An Online Video-Sharing Platform to Engage Students with Chemistry Laboratory Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Stephen; McCartan, Kenneth G.; Meskin, Sheryl; Gorges, Beronia; Hagan, W. Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and development of YouTestTube.com, a YouTube clone website to facilitate video-sharing, social networking, and reflections of chemistry laboratory classes for year one students within the School of Biomedical Sciences at Ulster University. The practice was first introduced in the 2008/09 academic year and has…

  13. The Education of English Language Learners in Arizona: A History of Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz De Figueriedo, Eduardo H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The state of Arizona has recently mandated the Structured English Immersion Model (SEI) in the state's public schools, and as a result the local flexibility that existed regarding the choice of program models for ELLs has ended. In the school year 2008-09, these regulations were made even more restrictive after the implementation of…

  14. Postsecondary Awards in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, by State: 2001 and 2009. Web Tables. NCES 2011-226

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott; Mason, Marcinda

    2011-01-01

    These tables provide state-level information on the conferring of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) awards (degrees and certificates) from academic years 2000-01 and 2008-09, both overall and by field. Specifically, the tables provide information on: (1) the number of awards conferred in STEM fields, overall (table 1) and by…

  15. Update on the Governor's Proposed 2009-10 Budget. Report 09-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On December 31, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the summary of his proposed budget for fiscal year 2009-10, including proposed changes to the current year (2008-09) budget. The complete budget was released on January 9, 2009. The budget plans assume current-year General Fund revenues of $91 billion--down from September's $102 billion…

  16. Riding out a Financial Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Randy C.

    2012-01-01

    After two decades of steady growth and financial stability in the Rio Rancho Public Schools, New Mexico's fastest-growing school district found itself face to face with a $3.8 million budget deficit going into the 2008-09 school year. Because people in the district hesitated to change anything that would cut into student programming, and nobody…

  17. Leaner Class Sizes Add Fiscal Stress to Florida Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    With a total price tag pushing $10 billion, Florida's "class-size-reduction mandate"--the nation's toughest--is under fire, as school districts call on lawmakers to weaken the 2002 constitutional requirement before it is fully phased in later this year. Starting with the 2008-09 school year, individual districts must meet new size caps…

  18. Fiscal Profiles, 2008: The Sixteenth in a Periodic Series of Factbooks about the Financing of California Higher Education. Commission Report 08-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report contains and analyzes statistical information about the financing of California postsecondary education from the 1965-66 fiscal year through 2008-09. In addition, there is information on California public elementary and secondary education financing as well as State government in general. The Commission compiles, analyzes, and…

  19. Budget Update--June 5, 2009. Report 09-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    With the failure of most of the May 19 ballot measures, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has released additional proposed revisions to the current year (2008-09) and budget year (2009-10) state spending plans. The Governor and Legislature adopted an 18-month spending plan in late February, but that budget now has a $24 billion deficit. The…

  20. E-Portfolios@Teacher Training: An Evaluation of Technological and Motivational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klampfer, Alfred; Köhler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years e-portfolios have received a great deal of attention in the educational discourse and it is associated with individualization of the learning process, competence-oriented assessment and institutional personnel development. Since the beginning of the academic year 2008/09 students of the Catholic College of Education Linz had the…

  1. Gaining Ground in the Middle Grades: Why Some Schools Do Better. A Large-Scale Study of Middle Grades. Practices and Student Outcomes. Narrative Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the 2008-09 school year researchers from EdSource and Stanford University conducted a large-scale study of 303 middle grades schools in California. The team surveyed 303 principals, 3,752 English Language Arts (ELA) and math teachers in grades 6-8, and 157 superintendents of the districts and charter management organizations that oversee the…

  2. Endowment Spending: Building a Stronger Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, Verne O.; Jarvis, William F.

    2010-01-01

    A large and growing body of work exists on the subject of endowment investing, but the equally important topic of endowment spending is treated less often. While the degree to which endowed institutions depend on their endowment for budgetary support varies widely, the market crisis of 2008-09 demonstrated that failure by the endowment to provide…

  3. A Lens on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Claire; Barton, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    The Kent School District in Kent, Washington, adopted the use of video study groups (VSGs) during the 2008-09 school year to help teachers apply research-based strategies to support struggling math students. This form of embedded professional development has been around since the 1960s but is getting renewed attention because video equipment is…

  4. Projecting the Need for California School Administrators over 2010/11-2017/18: The Effects of Projected Retirement and Projected Changes in Student Enrollment over Two-Year Increments. REL Technical Brief. REL 2011-No. 016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Makkonen, Reino

    2011-01-01

    This technical brief projects the need for new school-site administrators (principals and vice-principals) in California by region in two-year increments over 2010/11-2017/18. It builds on an earlier Regional Educational Laboratory West report that projected the aggregate need for school administrators over 2008/09-2017/18 based on projected…

  5. Differences in Spending in School Districts across Geographic Locales in Minnesota. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Yinmei; Norbury, Heather; Molefe, Ayrin C.; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Meyers, Coby V.; Burke, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This study examines differences in spending in school districts across geographic locales in Minnesota and factors that might contribute to these differences. The study finds that district spending per student in 2008/09 varied across locale types in Minnesota. These differences are largely accounted for by differences in regional characteristics…

  6. The Relation between Time Management Skills and Academic Achievement of Potential Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cemaloglu, Necati; Filiz, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted in the 2007-08 academic term among 849 graduate students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The "Time Management…

  7. Title III Accountability: Behind the Numbers. ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Andrea; Taylor, James; Hurlburt, Steven; Soga, Kay

    2010-01-01

    "Title III Accountability: Behind the Numbers" (2010) summarizes data reported by states in their Consolidated State Performance Reports (CSPRs) for 2004-05 through 2007-08. The CSPRs are annual reports required under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) that states use to submit information to the U.S. Department of…

  8. Arizona State Museum "Culture Craft Saturdays--Serving At-Risk Populations" Institute of Museums and Library Services Grant Museums for America Program, 2007-2008 School Year. Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Lisa; Powers, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Arizona State Museum, Tucson, received a grant for the school year 2007-08 from the Institute of Museums and Library Services, Museum for America Programs. The goals of this grant were (1) to continue a vibrant, monthly offering of family programs at the Arizona State Museum (ASM) around the topic of museum exhibitions, (2) to…

  9. "We Didn't Even Realize that Kids like Us Could Go on the Radio"--An Evaluation of a Victorian Schools Youth Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Robyn S.; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a comprehensive evaluation of the Advance programme by Victoria University in 2007/08. Advance is a flexible school-based programme for young people to volunteer or implement a project of benefit to their communities in the state of Victoria, in Australia. It is a partnership between the Office for Youth, Victorian government…

  10. Thirty-Five Years of Progress in Educating Children with Disabilities through "IDEA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    At the celebration of the 35th anniversary of P.L. 94-142 this year, significant national progress has been made in ensuring the civil rights and providing equal access to education for all children with disabilities. During the 2007-08 school year, "IDEA"-mandated programs and services were provided to more than 6 million children and…

  11. Music and Academic Success Go Together at Whitworth; University's Survey Results Also Suggest High School Music May Boost Chances of College Admittance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research by Whitworth University music professor Richard Strauch which assesses the freshman class for Whitworth's 2007-08 academic year. Strauch found that Whitworth students who stuck with their high school music program had higher GPAs and standardized test scores upon entering the university than…

  12. WWC Review of the Report “Teacher Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence from New York City Public Schools.” What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this document examined whether offering schoolwide performance bonuses to teachers had an effect on student achievement or teacher retention in New York City public schools. Researchers analyzed data on students and teachers from 396 high-need public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2007-08 through 2009-10. Of these…

  13. Effect of heifer calving date on longevity and lifetime productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longevity and lifetime productivity are important factors in profitability of the beef cow herd. Therefore, a concern for many producers is the productivity and longevity of the individual cow in their herd. The 2007-08 survey from National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) reported that the l...

  14. Effectiveness of current anthelmintic treatment programs on reducing fecal egg counts in US cow-calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) Beef 2007-08 study producers from 24 states collected fecal samples from weaned calves for evaluation of internal parasite burdens and response to treatment with an anthelmintic product. Participating producers were provided instruc...

  15. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  16. Empowering Managers, Assuring Governors: The Introduction of Dual Assurance at the University of Exeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weale, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Since the start of the academic session 2007-08, the University of Exeter has been operating a unique system of governance known as dual assurance, which has replaced a more traditional system of committees sitting under Council, the governing body. This paper describes the background to the development of dual assurance at Exeter, and the reasons…

  17. Student Mobility Research: Next Steps. Engage. Fall/Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This "Engage" newsletter features articles on student mobility research, supporting the BC Transfer System and inter-provincial initiatives. It announces the publication of five reports profiling students who transferred to British Columbia universities in the period 2003-04 to 2007-08. These reports provide detailed demographic and…

  18. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program was federally- and state-funded and provided three-year grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans from the 2005-06 to 2007-08 school years. GEEG was implemented in 99 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. Performance pay for teachers entered Texas state…

  19. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program was federally- and state-funded and provided three-year grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans from the 2005-06 to 2007-08 school years. GEEG was implemented in 99 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. This report builds on the previous GEEG evaluation…

  20. Supporting Professional Learning through Teacher Educator Enquiries: An Ethnographic Insight into Developing Understandings and Changing Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Deb; Hooker, Barbara; Wise, David; Devlin, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The Educational Doctorate (EdD) at the University of Wolverhampton offers educational practitioners the opportunity to design a research enquiry based in, on or around their professional work. The cohort, reported on here, embarked upon their EdD studies during the 2007/08 academic year. This study reports on seven participants' learning…

  1. Early Identification of High School Graduation Outcomes in Oregon Leadership Network Schools. REL 2015-079

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student characteristics related to completing high school within four years, with particular emphasis on graduation outcomes for male and English language learner students. The authors looked at a cohort of students who began grade 9 in the 2007/08 school year in four Oregon districts. Factors related to…

  2. After the Post-9/11 GI Bill: A Profile of Military Service Members and Veterans Enrolled in Undergraduate and Graduate Education. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-435

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Alexandria Walton; Bentz, Alexander; Dekker, Remmert; Paslov, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Post-9/11 GI Bill took effect on August 1, 2009, increasing the education benefits available to military service members who served after September 10, 2001. A previous National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) study used national data collected in 2007-08 to profile military undergraduate and graduate students who received benefits…

  3. Experiencing ERASMUS: Reflections on Integrating Polish Psychology Students onto a Year of a Degree in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS) supports students to pursue temporary periods of study in other European universities. During the academic year 2007/08 the UK received 15, 975 ERASMUS students. Although much research exists about the experiences of international students less attention has…

  4. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  5. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mass Distribution of Infrared Dark Clouds (Gomez+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, L.; Wyrowski, F.; Shculler, F.; Menten, K. M.; Ballesteros-Paredes, J.

    2014-01-01

    Six southern hemisphere clouds with high extinction were observed on 2007-08-25/28 with the LABOCA (Large APEX BOlometer CAmera) instrument on the APEX 12m telescope, at a frequency of 345GHz and a bandwidth of 610GHz (for the instrument, see Siringo et al. 2009A&A...497..945S). (2 data files).

  7. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  8. Gender Gaps in North American Research Productivity: Examining Faculty Publication Rates in Mexico, Canada, and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Gonzalez, Laura; Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Galaz-Fontes, Jesus F.; Fisher, Donald; Snee, Iain

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses gender gaps in North American research productivity, which may be influenced by personal and family variables, as well as professional and work-related variables. The study was conducted as part of the "Changing Academic Profession (CAP) International Survey", conducted in 2007-08. Using articles as indicator…

  9. WWC Review of the Report "A Big Apple for Educators: New York City's Experiment with Schoolwide Performance Bonuses. Final Evaluation Report." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined in this paper focuses on whether monetary bonuses for teachers improved schoolwide academic achievement in New York City public schools. Study authors analyzed data from 389 high-need elementary, middle, and high schools in New York City in the first year of the bonus program (2007-08) and from 371 of those same schools in the…

  10. Changes in the Cost of Energy in One State's School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 088

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cymrot, Donald J.; Martinez, Miguel; Jones, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    To support the work of Tennessee's Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Council, this report describes data on energy expenditures in school districts for 2002/03-2007/08. Energy expenditures rose from about 2.6 percent to about 3.0 percent of total expenditures over the period, with some differences in the mix of energy types and…

  11. School Mobility, Dropout, and Graduation Rates across Student Disability Categories in Utah. REL 2015-055

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrat, Vanessa X.; Berliner, BethAnn; Voight, Adam; Tran, Loan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Yu, Airong; Chen-Gaddini, Min

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of students with disabilities in Utah public schools, and presents the single-year mobility and dropout rates for students in grades 6-12, as well as the four-year cohort dropout and graduation rates, for students who started grade 9 for the first time in 2007/08 and constituted the 2011 cohort. Results…

  12. Pressures of the Season: Classroom Quality in Baltimore Elementary Classes and Implications for Improving Instruction. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore Education Research Consortium, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This brief presents findings from 347 observations conducted in 23 second and third grade classrooms over two years to paint a picture of the in-school experiences of students who had been first graders in eighth Baltimore City Public Schools in 2007-08. Using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), an observation instrument and protocol…

  13. Out of Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2008-01-01

    "For most children and learners, things are getting better." This is an important and encouraging message from Ofsted Chief Inspector Christine Gilbert's Annual Report for 2007/08, and one to hang on to. However, it is not the whole story. From a social justice perspective it is also important to note for whom this is not the case. The Chief…

  14. WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of POWERSOURCE[C] Intervention on Student Understanding of Basic Mathematical Principles". What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the impact of "POWERSOURCE"[C], an intervention consisting of formative assessments, instructional resources, and professional development designed to help teachers provide individual instruction to their students in Algebra I. This study took place in seven districts in Arizona and California during the 2007-08 school…

  15. Higher Education Budget Cuts: How Are They Affecting Students? Report 09-27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Mallory

    2009-01-01

    The public higher education systems have received significant budget cuts in the 2009-10 fiscal year, with the University of California (UC) receiving $813 million less than in 2007-08, California State University (CSU) receiving $625 million less, and the community college system receiving $812 million less. It is important to understand the…

  16. Baccalaureate and Beyond: A First Look at the Employment Experiences and Lives of College Graduates, 4 Years On (B&B:08/12). NCES 2014-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Siegel, Peter; Shepherd, Bryan; Cooney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This report presents initial findings about the employment outcomes of bachelor's degree recipients approximately 4 years after they completed their 2007-08 degrees. These findings are based on data from the second follow-up of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12), a nationally representative longitudinal sample survey…

  17. Choice without Equity: Charter School Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Wang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    The political popularity of charter schools is unmistakable. This article explores the relationship between charter schools and segregation across the country, in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and several dozen metropolitan areas with large enrollments of charter school students in 2007-08. The descriptive analysis of the charter school…

  18. Sense of Community Belonging and Health in Canada: A Regional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the association between sense of community belonging and health among settlements of different size and across the urban to rural continuum in Canada. Using data from the recent 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), the objective is to identify the major health, social and geographic determinants of sense of…

  19. Trends in Higher Education. Volume 3: Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This third and final volume of the 2007-08 edition of "Trends" focuses on the resources that Canadian universities have to support their teaching and research activities. The volume begins by comparing the combined funding for teaching and research in Canadian universities with higher education funding in some of its most important…

  20. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  1. Development of a Contextualized ESL Bridge Curriculum. Promising Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Black Hawk College (BHC) is a comprehensive community college serving all or part of nine counties and a population of approximately 224,510 residents in a mostly rural area of north-west Illinois. This practice was fully developed and implemented for the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative during the 2007-08 academic years. Heeding BHC's strategic…

  2. Making an Economic Impact: Higher Education and the English Regions. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McLellan, Donald; McNicoll, Iain

    2010-01-01

    This is the first published study of the impact of the higher education sector on the English regions. This study presents key economic features of UK higher education in the academic year 2007/08 and those aspects of its contribution to the nine English regions that can be readily measured. The sector is analysed as a conventional industry,…

  3. The MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Second Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2009-01-01

    This is the second year report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This program, which began in 1990, provides government-funded vouchers for low-income children to attend private schools in the City of Milwaukee. The maximum voucher amount in 2007-08 was $6,607, and approximately 20,000 children use a…

  4. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Second Year Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses the progress of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) evaluation and presents a brief summary of the main findings of the seven distinct topical reports that have been completed for 2007-08--the second year of the evaluation. Those seven specialized reports build on the five reports that were released in 2008 and are:…

  5. Web-Based Evaluation System for a Problem-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azli, Naziha Ahmadi; Othman, Mohd Shahizan

    2008-01-01

    The Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University Technology Malaysia is currently moving towards a Problem-Based Laboratory implementation rather than the conventional instructional-based laboratory for final year students. The laboratory has commenced session with about 500 students' registration in the 2007/08/1. The Problem-Based Laboratory…

  6. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mathematics, reading/language arts and, beginning in the 2007-08 school year, science. (2)(i) The State may... thinking skills and understanding of challenging content, as defined by the State. These measures may..., knowledge, and skills without evaluating or assessing personal or family beliefs and attitudes, except...

  7. 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12). Data File Documentation. NCES 2015-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cominole, Melissa; Shepherd, Bryan; Siegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This publication describes the methods and procedures used in the 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12). These graduates, who completed the requirements for a bachelor's degree during the 2007-08 academic year, were first interviewed as part of the 2008 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08), and then…

  8. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  9. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... responsibilities for assessment. (a)(1) Each State, in consultation with its LEAs, must implement a system of high-quality, yearly student academic assessments that includes, at a minimum, academic assessments in mathematics, reading/language arts and, beginning in the 2007-08 school year, science. (2)(i) The State...

  10. 34 CFR 200.2 - State responsibilities for assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... responsibilities for assessment. (a)(1) Each State, in consultation with its LEAs, must implement a system of high-quality, yearly student academic assessments that includes, at a minimum, academic assessments in mathematics, reading/language arts and, beginning in the 2007-08 school year, science. (2)(i) The State...

  11. The Early Childhood Educator in a Critical Learning Community: Towards Sustainable Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Keulen, Anke

    2010-01-01

    The action research project Sustainable Change in a Critical Learning Community was conducted in the Netherlands (2007-08) to improve quality in early childhood by enhancement of critical reflection at all levels in early childhood organisations: educators individually and collectively, pedagogical leaders and coaches, and (middle) management. The…

  12. China’s Africa Policy in Nigeria: Understanding Its Strategy and Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    24-25. Nigeria, in Europa World online. London, Rutledge. Naval War College. Retrieved 31 August 2012 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/ng...www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2007-08/13/content_6023257.htm Young, Ralph and Richard Synge. Recent History (Nigeria), in Europa World online. London

  13. Wake County Public School System K-5 Assessment Results: 2009-10. Measuring Up. E&R Report No. 10.19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Anisa

    2010-01-01

    Moderate to high percentages of Wake County Public School (WCPSS) students demonstrated grade-level performance on K-5 assessments in 2009-10. Results indicate very slight changes from prior years. The percentage of students proficient in reading book level and mathematics strands increased very slightly since 2007-08. Modest declines in…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Mississippi, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Mississippi for 2010. Mississippi made changes to its state testing program in the 2007-08 school year. Therefore, subgroup and achievement gap trends could not be calculated because fewer than three consecutive years of data were available, too short a period to constitute a…

  15. American Faculty and Their Institutions: The Global View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin; Cummings, William

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on aspects of the Changing Academic Profession survey of 2007-08 that describe the place of faculty in their institutions. The authors examine the following aspects of institutional life: (1) the faculty role in institutional governance; (2) who evaluates their teaching and research; (3) the locus of their loyalties as between…

  16. The Expansion of Private Loans in Postsecondary Education. Stats in Brief. NCES 2012-184

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.

    2011-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines private loans by institution sector, tuition amount, student characteristics, and level. This study attempts to answer the following questions: (1) How did undergraduate borrowing from private sources change from 2003-04 to 2007-08 and who obtained private loans?; (2) To what extent did undergraduates combine…

  17. After the FAFSA: How Red Tape Can Prevent Eligible Students from Receiving Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Debbie Frankle

    2010-01-01

    This report sheds light on what happens to federal financial aid applicants after they submit the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Using 2007-08 financial aid data from 13 California community colleges, the Institute found that one in three likely Pell-eligible applicants did not receive a Pell Grant. Also, while few students'…

  18. Factors in Science Journal Cancellation Projects: The Roles of Faculty Consultations and Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jeanine; Fernandez, Peter; Dixon, Lana

    2014-01-01

    The economic downturn of 2007-08 forced many academic libraries in the United States to cancel journals. We surveyed life sciences librarians from ARL libraries to find out about their experiences with journal cancellations during 2008-12. Overall, we discovered that two factors were essential in decision-making: faculty consultations and data.…

  19. Public School in St. Louis: Place, Performance, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Charter School Authorizers (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report compares the demand for public education in St. Louis during the 2007-08 school year with both the supply and location of public schools operated by St. Louis Public Schools and charter schools. The geographic areas of analysis are the city of St. Louis and its zip codes. The first four sections of this report contain background…

  20. Dose reduction efforts for pediatric head CT imaging in Washington State trauma centers: follow-up survey results

    PubMed Central

    Kanal, Kalpana M.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine variation in pediatric trauma head CT imaging protocols in Washington State trauma centers (TCs) in 2012 and compare to a previous survey conducted in 2008/09. Methods A mixed-mode (online and paper) survey was sent to all adult and pediatric Washington State TCs (levels 1–5). Respondents provided information about the CT scanner used for pediatric head scans and technical information about pediatric dose reduction protocols. Mean head effective dose and organ dose for a female baby were estimated. Results were compared to previous data. Results Sixty-one of 76 TCs responded to the 2012 survey (response rate 80.3%; response rate in 2008/09 survey was 76%). In 2012, 91.7% reported having a dedicated pediatric protocol (87.7% in 2008/09). Protective shielding use ranged from 80 to 100% across both survey years. In 2012, 2.5 times more TCs provided sufficient information to conduct dose calculations than in 2008/09. Estimated mean CTDIvol was 23.1 mGy in 2012, compared to 34.8 mGy in 2008/09 (p=0.01). Estimated mean DLP was also significantly lower in 2012 than 2009/08 (307.6 mGy*cm vs. 430.1 mGy*cm, respectively; p=0.04). Wide variation in mean effective dose was observed for level 3 and 4 TCs in 2012, similar to variation observed in 2008/09 among level 4 TCs. Mean organ dose was significantly lower in 2012 for eye lens and brain, but higher for thyroid than 2008/09 (p<0.05). Conclusions While most Washington State TCs employ dose reduction protocols for pediatric head CTs, and some measures were lower in 2012, variation in protocols use and estimated dose continues to exist. More complete responses in 2012 suggest improved understanding of the importance of pediatric dose reduction efforts. Education and institutional protocols are necessary to reduce pediatric radiation dose from head CTs. PMID:24360905

  1. Learning to Leverage New Media: The Israeli Defense Forces in Recent Conflicts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    At the weekly Cabinet Meeting 17.7.06, 28 February 2009 <www.pmo.gov.il/PMOEng/Archive/Cabinet/2006/07/ govmes160706.htm>. 36. Nathan Jeffay...1860, 27 January 2009 <http://daccessdds. un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N09/204/32/PDF/N0920432.pdf?OpenElement>. 38. Gwen Ackerman and Saud Abu, Ramadan

  2. West Virginia's Progress toward Universal Prekindergarten. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  3. West Virginia's Progress Toward Universal Prekindergarten. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  4. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school"…

  5. WWC Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in New Jersey." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effect of 60 New Jersey charter schools on annual student achievement growth in reading and math. The study was based on data from a large sample of students in grades 3-8 during 5 school years (2006-07 through 2010-11). The study authors matched charter school students to students attending traditional public schools based…

  6. Student Progress and Goal Attainment Report: Adult School Programs in California. Program Year July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 285 adult schools in California enrolled 1,206,864 adult learners supported through state apportionment funds in program year 2006-07. This report presents the results of data collected by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) from all learners enrolled in California adult schools. The report analysis was prepared by…

  7. Developing and Sustaining Leadership Learning Communities: Implications of NPQICL Rollout for Public Policy Local Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Margy; Chandler, Rachel; John, Karen; Reid, Lindsay; Thorpe, Sheila; Everitt, John

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the UK government launched a new programme for early years leaders in England--the National Professional Qualification in Integrated Centre Leadership (NPQICL). In collaboration with the National College for School Leadership, Pen Green led the development, pilot and rollout of this M-level training programme, which by 2006-07 involved 17…

  8. Updating a Searchable Database of Dropout Prevention Programs and Policies in Nine Low-Income Urban School Districts in the Northeast and Islands Region. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myint-U, Athi; O'Donnell, Lydia; Phillips, Dawna

    2012-01-01

    This technical brief describes updates to a database of dropout prevention programs and policies in 2006/07 created by the Regional Education Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands and described in the Issues & Answers report, "Piloting a searchable database of dropout prevention programs in nine low-income urban school districts in the…

  9. The Achievement Progress of English Learner Students in Utah. REL 2016-155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Eric; Huang, Min; Tran, Loan; Yu, Airong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative progress of English learner students in Utah in English language proficiency (ELP) and in academic content knowledge in both English language arts (ELA) and mathematics. This study identified students in grades kindergarten, 3, and 6 who were designated as English learner students in 2006/07

  10. An Analysis of Students' Opinions about Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul; Ozdemir, Soner Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    This study examines views of students related to Blended Learning Environment (BLE). The sample group of the study consisted of 36 students enrolled in social science teacher education programme at Ahi Evran University, Education Faculty during the 2006/07 Fall Semester. This approach has been carried out both online and face to face (F2F)…

  11. Collaboration between School and Parents to Foster Information Literacy: Learning in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Siu Cheung; Li, Kai Ming

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate current parental support for student learning with information technology (IT) in Hong Kong. A total of 3340 and 3656 parents and 539 and 440 primary school heads responded to two surveys in 2005/06 and 2006/07, respectively, in this cross-sectional study. The results show a persistent positive perception of…

  12. School District Wellness Policies: Evaluating Progress and Potential for Improving Children's Health Five Years after the Federal Mandate. Brief Report. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie; Resnick, Elissa; Schneider, Linda; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Adcock, Tessa; Carrion, Violeta; Chaloupka, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This brief report updates data published in August 2010 from the most comprehensive, ongoing nationwide analysis of written wellness policies. It includes data from the 2006-07 through the 2010-11 school years, which were the first five years following the required implementation date for wellness policies. The major findings and trends presented…

  13. A Study of States' Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. NCSER 2011-3001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollmer, Julie; Cronin, Roberta; Brauen, Marsha; Howell, Bethany; Fletcher, Philip; Gonin, Rene; Jenkins, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The Study of Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) examined how states monitored the implementation of IDEA by local special education and early intervention services programs. State monitoring and improvement practices in 2004-05 and 2006-07 were the focus of the study. Prior to the…

  14. High School Attrition Rates across Texas Education Service Center Regions: 2009-10. IDRA Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roy L.

    2011-01-01

    Attrition rates are an indicator of a school's holding power, or ability to keep students enrolled in school and learning until they graduate. This study examines regional trends in Texas for the number and percent of students lost from public high school enrollment prior to graduation. A comparative analysis of 1985-86, 2005-06, 2006-07,…

  15. Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Gronberg, Timothy J.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Stecher, Brian M.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program was state-funded and provided annual grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans during the 2006-07 to 2009-10 school year. TEEG was implemented each year (i.e., Cycle) in approximately 1,000 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. Performance pay for teachers…

  16. School Policies and Practices to Improve Health and Prevent Obesity: National Secondary School Survey Results. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides updated results from one of the most comprehensive studies of health-related policies and practices in U.S. public middle and high schools to date, which was released in August 2011. The major findings and trends presented in this report describe issues relevant to childhood obesity for four school years, from 2006-07 to…

  17. An Examination of Inter-District Public School Transfers in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, David M.; Statz, Bambi; Skidmore, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Using data for all Wisconsin school districts over the 2003/04 through 2006/07 school years, we evaluate the state of Wisconsin's Open Enrollment (inter-district transfer) program to determine which school district characteristics influence parental transfer decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study of school choice in a public school…

  18. An Examination of the Movement of Educators within Wisconsin. Stated Briefly. REL 2017-195

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Ehlert, Mark; Lindsay, Jim; Wan, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    This brief examines the mobility of public school teachers and principals (including assistant principals) in Wisconsin and presents annual and five-year mobility rates between 2006/07 and 2010/11. An average of 8.0 percent of teachers changed schools between consecutive years, and 19.4 percent changed schools within a five-year span. Teachers…

  19. A Profile of Successful Pell Grant Recipients: Time to Bachelor's Degree and Early Graduate School Enrollment. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2009-156

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Christina Chang; Horn, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2006-07, the federal government awarded over $13 billion in Pell Grants to more than 5 million undergraduate students (U.S. Department of Education 2007). The goal of the Pell Grant program is to help students with financial need enroll in and graduate from college by providing them with a basic foundation of financial aid, to which they may…

  20. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  1. Career-Related Learning Standards and Extended Application Standard: Guide for Schools to Build Relevant and Rigorous Collections of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to assist teachers and administrators in the implementation of relevant and rigorous collections of evidence for the Certificate of Advanced Mastery (CAM) Career-Related Learning Standards (CRLS) and Extended Application Standard (EA). This guide also provides necessary information to help schools meet the 2006-07

  2. Applying the ECTS System to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rosario Merida; Romero, Julia Angulo; Del Pino, Carmen Gil

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the research conducted as part of a Pilot Experiment regarding the application of the ECTS to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree taught at the University of Cordoba (Spain). It analyses the Experiment, which was carried out in the Education Faculty over the course of three academic years (2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07).…

  3. Model Wellness Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, PL 105-268, the U.S. Congress established a new requirement for all local agencies with a federally funded National School Lunch program. The local agencies are required to develop and implement wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity by the start of the 2006-07

  4. A Fifty-State Survey of School Finance Policies and Programs: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.; Jordan, Teresa S.

    2009-01-01

    This overview provides a synthesis of a comprehensive survey of school finance programs in the 50 states conducted in 2006-07. Information was provided by chief state school finance officers or persons with expertise in a state's public school funding-allocation system. Brief descriptions of the major Pre-K-12 funding formulae, district-based…

  5. Teacher Attitudes about Performance Incentives in Texas: Early Reactions to the GEEG Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. Findings are based on surveys administered to GEEG teachers during the 2006-07 school year, the…

  6. Characteristics of Career Academies in 12 Florida School Districts. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; D'Souza, Stephanie; Bozick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes career academies in 12 Florida school districts in the 2006/07 school year. It examines their structure and career clusters, the high schools offering them, and the students enrolled. This study is one of the first to investigate both career academy structure and clusters using multiple data sources. It provides state…

  7. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Final Report. NCEE 2012-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis; Finney, Pamela B.; Bell, Steve; Turner, Herb; Jaciw, Andrew P.; Zacamy, Jenna L.; Gould, Laura Feagans

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experiment conducted in Alabama beginning in the 2006/07 school year, to determine the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI), which aims to improve mathematics and science achievement in the state's K-12 schools. This study is the first randomized controlled trial…

  8. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in Los Angeles Unified School District: A District and Neighborhood Matched Comparison Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The study examined whether charter schools have higher growth in student achievement than traditional public schools. The study analyzed data on 79 charter schools and 593 traditional public elementary, middle, and high schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District from 2005-06 to 2006-07. School-level academic achievement was measured using…

  9. The Achievement Progress of English Learner Students in Nevada. REL 2016-154

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Eric; Huang, Min; Tran, Loan; Yu, Airong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative progress of English learner students in Nevada in English language proficiency (ELP) and in academic content knowledge in both reading and mathematics. This study identified students in grades kindergarten, 3, and 6 who were designated as English learner students in 2006/07 and examined their…

  10. On the Relationship of SAPS to Storm-Enhanced Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics , 69, (2007) © 2007 Elsevier Science B.V. *Massachusetts...TERRESTRIALPHYSICS ELSEVIER Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics 69 (2007) 303--313 www.elevier.comlIocate/jastp 0o On the relationship of SAPS to...2006.07.021 304 J. C Foster et al. / Journal of " Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial

  11. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Fifth Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This report features analyses of student achievement growth four years after the authors carefully assembled longitudinal study panels of MPCP and Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) students in 2006-07. The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides…

  12. 38th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2006-2007 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 38th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2006-07. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2006-2007 academic year, the states…

  13. Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2006; Graduation Rates, 2000 & 2003 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2006. First Look. NCES 2008-173

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.; Miller, Elise S.

    2008-01-01

    This First Look report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) spring 2007 data collection, which included four components: Student Financial Aid for full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students for the 2006-07 academic year; Enrollment for fall 2006 and 12-month counts for…

  14. Projections of California Teacher Retirements: A County and Regional Perspective. REL 2017-181

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Makkonen, Reino; Jaquet, Karina

    2016-01-01

    This report projects California teacher retirements at the state and county levels for 2014/15-2023/24, updating a previously published report that projected California teacher retirements for 2006/07-2015/16. The current study finds that 25 percent of California teachers who were teaching in 2013/14 are projected to retire over 2014/15-2023/24.…

  15. A Description of Foundation Skills Interventions for Struggling Middle-Grade Readers in Four Urban Northeast and Islands Region School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 042

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorfass, Judith; Urbano, Carole

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted during the 2006/07 academic year, describes how four midsize urban school districts in the Northeast and Islands Region--Worcester, Massachusetts; Nashua, New Hampshire; Yonkers, New York; and Providence, Rhode Island--were providing foundation skills assessments and programs to struggling middle-grade readers. Researchers…

  16. Forward Thinking: Out-of-the-Box Ideas for Surviving the Budget Crunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Back in 2006, the stock market was rising, unemployment was still relatively low, and most of the country was not yet worried about a recession. But officials at San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) were closely monitoring the economy, and they saw clouds on the horizon. By the end of the 2006-07 academic year, the district, which serves…

  17. Characteristics of Career Academies in 12 Florida School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; D'Souza, Stephanie; Bozick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes career academies in 12 Florida school districts in the 2006/07 school year. It examines their structure and career clusters, the high schools offering them, and the students enrolled. This study is driven by three research questions: (1) How many career academies were there, and of what types? (2) What were the…

  18. Storming the Ivory Tower: The Military’s Return to American Campuses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    arguments. 6. Brooks Mather Kelley, Yale: A History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1974), p. 348; George Henry Nettleton , Yale in the World War...opposition that would de- velop in later years. Winter 2006-07 55 8. Nettleton , “Memorandum on the Attitude of the University in the Present Crisis,” 27

  19. Modification of sorghum proteins for enhanced functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is the third most widely produced crop in the United States (U.S.) and fifth in the world during fiscal year 2006/07(USDA-FAS, 2007). The use of sorghum in foods faces functional and nutritional constraints due, mainly, to the rigidity of the protein bodies. The disruption and modificatio...

  20. Effects of the California High School Exit Exam on Student Persistence, Achievement, and Graduation. Policy Brief 09-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Kurlaender, Michal

    2009-01-01

    In this policy brief the authors summarize the findings from a study investigating the impact of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) on California's lowest performing students. Utilizing longitudinal data from four large urban school districts, the authors compare students scheduled to graduate just before (2005) and after (2006-07) the…

  1. The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

  2. Outbreak of Pneumonia in the Setting of Fatal Pneumococcal Meningitis among US Army Trainees: Potential Role of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-02

    allergy ). In addition, hand hygiene and cough etiquette were reviewed with all trainees and battalion training staff. DISCUSSION We describe an...influenza for the current season if the individual received the 2008-09 influenza vaccine >14 days prior to participation in the cohort investigation...b Of individuals who reported knowing their influenza vaccination status for the current season c Self-reported history of receipt of

  3. A Brief Look at: 2009-10 WCPSS Dropout Rate. E&R Report No. 11.04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The WCPSS dropout rate in 2009-10 for grades 9-12 was 3.53%, compared to 3.47% in 2008-09. The state's rate showed a decrease in 2009-10--from 4.27% to 3.75%. Other large school districts in North Carolina, including Durham (4.32%), Forsyth (4.07%), and Mecklenburg (4.15%), had higher dropout rates in 2009-10 than did WCPSS, while Guilford (2.81%)…

  4. Neutrophilic Iron-Oxidizing "Zetaproteobacteria" and Mild Steel Corrosion in Nearshore Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    hydrothermal venting , to our knowledge, there has been only one report of a single Zetaproteobacteria sequence found in sediments associ- ated with a fish...formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents : Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73:388-403. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008 09.035. 46. Videla...low 02 concentrations, allowing FeOB to compete (6, 38). In marine habitats, such conditions are known to exist in association with hydrothermal

  5. Research Comparing Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    During the 2008-09 school year, over 5,000 charter schools operated in 40 states and Washington, D.C. and were attended by over 1.5 million students, or about three percent of the nation's public school students. Although the first U.S. charter schools opened in 1992, debate continues over whether they provide students with a better education than…

  6. Research Comparing Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools. Information Capsule. Volume 1007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    During the 2008-09 school year, over 5,000 charter schools operated in 40 states and Washington, D.C. and were attended by over 1.5 million students, or about three percent of the nation's public school students. Although the first U.S. charter schools opened in 1992, debate continues over whether they provide students with a better education than…

  7. Stability in Russia’s Chechnya and Other Regions of the North Caucasus: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-03

    Putin Meets with Members of the International Discussion Club Valdai,” at www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/mainnews/archive/2008/09/11...has claimed that Islamic extremists in North Ossetia have been targeting gambling clubs (which were banned but are still operating surreptitiously...the North Caucasus. As a recent sign of such support, Vladimir Vasilyev, head of the Duma Security Committee, stated during a late March 2009 visit

  8. Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2009 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2011-336

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jill; Murphy, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In school year 2008-09, some 7,066,000 U.S. students ages 12 through 18, or 28.0 percent of all such students, reported they were bullied at school, and about 1,521,000, or 6.0 percent, reported they were cyber-bullied anywhere (i.e., on or off school property). These Web Tables use data from the 2009 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National…

  9. The Education of English Language Learners in Arizona: A Legacy of Persisting Achievement Gaps in a Restrictive Language Policy Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews achievement gaps in both reading and math between ELL and non-ELL students in Arizona over the post-Proposition 203 period 2005-2009 and during the first year of implementation of the 4 hour ELD block, 2008-09. The study finds that Arizona has made little to no progress in closing the achievement gap between ELL and non-ELL…

  10. Sustaining and Strengthening DC Schools: Challenges and Choices for the New Mayor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Megan; Bogle, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Mayor-elect Bowser assumed control at a delicate juncture in the turbulent history of DC schools. In the 2008-09 school year, public school enrollment--in both traditional and charter schools--increased for the first time since the 1960s. In 2013-14, the District had the largest student body in over 25 years, and over the past 15 years, public…

  11. In Perfect (Imperfect) Harmony: Keene State College and Keene, New Hampshire Rebalance Community Relations through Historic Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jay V.

    2011-01-01

    At the conclusion of the 2007-08 academic year, the City of Keene and Keene State College (KSC) began to celebrate the college's 100th anniversary. Keene is the 23,000-person hub of a 70,000-person county in southwestern New Hampshire. The history of a supportive town-gown relationship began prior to the college's founding in 1909. The city had…

  12. Slew of Layoffs May Be Linked to Overhiring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    An increase in teacher hiring in recent years has led some observers to posit a link to the waves of pink slips districts are now sending across the U.S. Between the 1999-2000 and the 2007-08 school years, the teacher force increased at more than double the rate of K-12 student enrollments. Hiring teachers to reduce class sizes remains a…

  13. A new experience: the course of ethics in engineering in the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada.

    PubMed

    Gil-Martín, Luisa María; Hernández-Montes, Enrique; Segura-Naya, Armando

    2010-06-01

    A course in professional ethics for civil engineers was taught for the first time in Spain during the academic year 2007/08. In this paper a survey on the satisfaction and expectation of the course is presented. Surprisingly the students sought moral and ethical principles for their own ordinary lives as well as for their profession. Students were concerned about the law, but in their actions they were more concerned with their conscience, aware that it can be separate from the law.

  14. Past, Present, and Possibilities for the Future of the Pell Grant Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    An increase of over 100% in program expenditures for the Pell Grant program over a five year period of time, from $14.7 billion in the 2007-08 award year to $33.4 billion in the 2011-12 award year, places an otherwise popular program under scrutiny. This article considers the factors and options informing federal policy related to the Pell Grant…

  15. Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987-88 to 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-189

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jason; Ottem, Randolph; DeRoche, John

    2016-01-01

    Using data from seven administrations of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), this Statistics in Brief examines trends in public and private school principal demographics, experience, and compensation over 25 years, from 1987-88 through 2011-12. Data are drawn from the 1987-88, 1990-91, 1993-94, 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 survey…

  16. Academic performance and student engagement in level 1 physics undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, M. M.; McVitie, S.

    2009-09-01

    At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.

  17. Assessment of fish abundance and species composition at selected sites in South Dakota: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, Alison

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted surveys of streams throughout the State of South Dakota during 2008-09 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) Program. During 2008-09, as part of the stream assessment, the USGS completed surveys of fish populations and species composition at 64 sites. Fish were inventoried at 60 of the 64 sites, but not at four of the sites because water was too low to sustain fish or specific conductivity was too high to electroshock effectively. Four of the sites were surveyed in 2000-04 during the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-West (EMAP-West) project. Two wadeable sites and two boatable sites were revisited for quality-assurance/quality-control requirements. During the study, both wadeable and boatable streams were sampled using electrofishing equipment and methods. Of the 64 sites, 62 were wadeable and 2 were boatable. Procedures for sampling wadeable streams differed slightly from procedures for boatable streams. Backpack electrofishing equipment was used for wadeable streams, whereas boat electrofishing equipment was used for boatable streams. Wadeable streams also were fished in an opposite direction than boatable streams. Several species of fish were collected during the NRSA. Species diversity ranged from 0-11 species in wadeable streams and from 6-26 species in boatable streams. Many common species were sampled during the study. The most frequently sampled fish was the sand shiner (Notropis stramineus), with 609 individuals sampled. In contrast, only one heritage species, the skipjack herring (Alosa chrysochloris), was identified during 2008-09. Common anomalies found in fish caught were parasitic lesions, "black spot disease," and tumors. When comparing the fish sampling results for the four sites visited in both 2000-04 and in 2008-09, more individuals and species were collected during 2008-09 than in 2000-04 at two sites, whereas

  18. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Supreme Court's preview is presented in this article. During the 2006-07 Supreme Court term, it was the 5-4 decisions that garnered the most attention. Twenty-four of the term's 72 cases were decided by this narrowest of margins--the highest percentage of 5-4 opinions in a decade--even as the share of unanimous opinions fell "below levels seen…

  19. Impact of rotavirus vaccination in regions with low and moderate vaccine uptake in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Koch, Judith; an der Heiden, Matthias; Oberle, Doris; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Wichmann, Ole

    2012-01-01

    In Germany, routine RV-vaccination is not adopted into the national immunization schedule as of 2012. Because RV-vaccines were already on the market since 2006, in 2010 a moderate (58%) and low (22%) vaccine uptake was observed in the 5 eastern federal states (EFS) and the 11 western federal states (WFS), respectively. To assess the impact of RV-vaccination, we compared the incidence rates (IR) of RV-related hospitalizations before (2004‒2006) and in seasons after (2008/09–2010/11) RV-vaccine introduction in Germany by utilizing data from the national mandatory disease reporting system. In the EFS, the IR was significantly reduced in age-groups < 18 mo in 2008/09 and in age-groups < 24 mo in 2009/10–2010/11. In the WFS an IR-reduction was observed only in age-groups < 12 mo in 2008/09 and in age-groups < 18 mo in 2009/10–2010/11. Overall IR-reduction in age-groups < 24 mo comparing 2008–11 with 2004–06 was 36% and 25% in EFS and WFS, respectively. In addition, we computed IR-ratios (IRR) in the seasons after mid-2006 with negative binomial regression. The effect of vaccination was independent from the geographic region. Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in RV-related hospitalizations in the age-groups 6–23 mo. Most prominently, vaccination of 50% of infants led to an estimated decrease in age group 6–11 mo by 42%. No significant reduction was observed in age-groups ≥ 24 mo. In conclusion, in the German setting with low to moderate vaccine uptake, RV-related hospitalization incidence decreased substantially depending on the achieved vaccination coverage, but only in the first two years of life. PMID:22960495

  20. Tier-specific evolution of match performance characteristics in the English Premier League: it's getting tougher at the top.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Archer, David T; Hogg, Bob; Schuth, Gabor; Bush, Michael; Carling, Chris; Barnes, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of physical and technical performances in the English Premier League (EPL), with special reference to league ranking. Match performance observations (n = 14,700) were collected using a multiple-camera computerised tracking system across seven consecutive EPL seasons (2006-07 to 2012-13). Final league rankings were classified into Tiers: (A) 1st-4th ranking (n = 2519), (B) 5th-8th ranking (n = 2965), (C) 9th-14th ranking (n = 4448) and (D) 15th-20th ranking (n = 4768). Teams in Tier B demonstrated moderate increases in high-intensity running distance while in ball possession from the 2006-07 to 2012-13 season (P < 0.001; effect size [ES]: 0.68), with Tiers A, C and D producing less pronounced increases across the same period (P < 0.005; ES: 0.26, 0.41 and 0.33, respectively). Large increases in sprint distance were observed from the 2006-07 to 2012-13 season for Tier B (P < 0.001; ES: 1.21), while only moderate increases were evident for Tiers A, C and D (P < 0.001; ES: 0.75, 0.97 and 0.84, respectively). Tier B demonstrated large increases in the number of passes performed and received in 2012-13 compared to 2006-07 (P < 0.001; ES: 1.32-1.53) with small-to-moderate increases in Tier A (P < 0.001; ES: 0.30-0.38), Tier C (P < 0.001; ES: 0.46-0.54) and Tier D (P < 0.001; ES: 0.69-0.87). The demarcation line between 4th (bottom of Tier A) and 5th ranking (top of Tier B) in the 2006-07 season was 8 points, but this decreased to just a single point in the 2012-13 season. The data demonstrate that physical and technical performances have evolved more in Tier B than any other Tier in the EPL and could indicate a narrowing of the performance gap between the top two Tiers.