Science.gov

Sample records for 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09

  1. Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2009, 2007-08, and 2008-09, and change in water in storage, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area. This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from the time before substantial groundwater irrigation development had occurred (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this report) to 2009, from 2007-08, and from 2008-09. The report also presents change in water in storage in the aquifer, from predevelopment to 2009. Ninety-nine percent of the water-level changes from predevelopment to 2009 ranged from a rise of 41 feet to a decline of 178 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were a decline of 14.0 feet from predevelopment to 2009, a decline of 0.1 foot from 2007-08, and a decline of 0.3 foot from 2008-09. Total water in storage in the aquifer in 2009 was about 2.9 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 274 million acre-feet since predevelopment.

  2. Guide for Accredited Private School Education Planning and Results Reporting. Requirements for Three-Year Education Plans for 2007/08-2009/10 and Annual Education Results Reports for November 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Guide to Accredited Private School Education Planning and Results Reporting, 2007-2010 provides the provincial requirements for: 1) Private school authority three-year education plans for 2007-2010. These plans cover the 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10 school years. 2) Private school authority annual education results report for the 2006/07

  3. Report on the MLA "Job Information List", 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2008 made its consequences painfully evident in the 2008-09 MLA (Modern Language Association) "Job Information List" ("JIL"). After trending upward between 2003-04 and 2007-08, the number of jobs advertised in the "JIL" in 2008-09 declined since 2007-08 by 446 (24.4%) in English and 453 (27.0%) in foreign languages. In the…

  4. Overview of Governor Schwarzenegger's Proposed 2008-09 State Budget. Commission Report 08-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On January 10, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released his proposed budget for the 2008-09 fiscal year. State revenues for the 18 months covering the last half of 2007-08 and 2008-09 are projected to be nearly $16 billion below planned expenditures. The budget seeks to close this shortfall by cutting 2008-09 funding for most programs by 10%…

  5. Degrees Conferred by Connecticut Institutions of Higher Education Highlights, 2007-08. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the degrees conferred by Connecticut institutions of higher education in 2007-08. Connecticut colleges and universities awarded 36,634 degrees in 2007-08 (up 1.6% over 2006-07), the state's seventh consecutive year of growth and a 28 percent increase since 1998. Once again, the top five degree-producing disciplines were…

  6. Academic Competitiveness and National SMART Grant Programs: 2006-07 and 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Berkner, Lutz; Li, Xiaojie; Woo, Jennie; Lee, John; Topper, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Education is vitally interested in whether the financial incentives provided by the grants affect student behavior. That is, will the Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACGs) induce more economically disadvantaged high school students to complete a rigorous high school program and enroll and succeed in postsecondary education? Will…

  7. 2008-09 Diversity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to Board of Regents' policy, the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) prepares a diversity report intended to provide an overview of the current status of enrollment and employment of members of diverse groups across the System. The information presented in this report follows the NSHE "2007-08 Diversity Report" that was presented to…

  8. 2008-09 Baccalaureate and beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). First Look. NCES 2011-236

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Green, Caitlin; Henke, Robin; Lew, Terry; Woo, Jennie; Shepherd, Bryan; Siegel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the 2008-09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09), which describes the enrollment and employment experiences, 1 year after they graduated, of a national sample of college graduates who completed a bachelor's degree in the 2007-08 academic year. The tables in this report provide a sampling…

  9. Restructuring under the No Child Left Behind Act in Maryland. 2007-08 Follow-Up Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman-Sheldon, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    This report, the Center on Education Policy's (CEP's) third annual review of Maryland's efforts to restructure schools under the No Child Left Behind Act, finds that (1) although between school years 2006-07 and 2007-08 the number of schools in the restructuring implementation phase declined slightly, there was a drastic increase in the number of…

  10. Annual Report on State Financial Aid Programs: 2007-08 Accounting, 2008-09 Estimates, and Notable Events and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The state of Washington has a long-standing commitment to postsecondary education opportunities for all students, regardless of income. The purpose of this report is to provide the members of the Higher Education Coordinating Board with: (1) An overview of state, federal, and institutional financial aid in Washington; (2) A description of notable…

  11. 2007-08 Distance Education Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on distance education within the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) for the 2007-08 academic year and provides documentation of the substantial growth of distance education within all colleges and universities. Distance education is a field of continuous improvement and change, and NSHE institutions are constantly…

  12. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Christina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This paper features another expanded Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Report (FPI). The purpose of APPA's Facilities Performance Indicators is to provide a representative set of statistics about facilities in educational institutions. The 2008-09 iteration of the Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Survey was posted and…

  13. Runoff simulations from the Greenland ice sheet at Kangerlussuaq from 2006-2007 to 2007/08. West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Hasholt, Bent; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Liston, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on runoff from a large sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) - the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland - for the runoff observation period 2006/07 to 2007/08. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff. Independent in situ end-of-winter snow depth and high-resolution runoff observations were used for validation of simulated accumulation and ablation processes. Runoff was modeled on both daily and hourly time steps, filling a data gap of runoff exiting part of the GrIS. Using hourly meteorological driving data instead of smoothed daily-averaged data produced more realistic meteorological conditions in relation to snow and melt threshold surface processes, and produced 6-17% higher annual cumulative runoff. The simulated runoff series yielded useful insights into the present conditions of inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Kangerlussuaq runoff, and provided an acceptable degree of agreement between simulated and observed runoff. The simulated spatial runoff distributions, in some areas of the GrIS terminus, were as high as 2,750 mm w.eq. of runoff for 2006/07, while only 900 mm w.eq was simulated for 2007/08. The simulated total runoff from Kangerlussuaq was 1.9 km{sup 3} for 2006/07 and 1.2 km{sup 3} for 2007/08, indicating a reduction of 35-40% caused by the climate conditions and changes in the GrIS freshwater storage. The reduction in runoff from 2006/07 to 2007/08 occurred simultaneously with the reduction in the overall pattern of satellite-derived GrIS surface melt from 2007 to 2008.

  14. Nebraska Reading First 2007-08 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Emily; Trainin, Guy; Javorsky, Kristin; Murphy-Yagil, Malinda; Cook, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The 2007-08 Annual Report presents and analyzes the performance of students in Nebraska Reading First schools during the 2007-08 school year. Teacher log information is also presented, and a district performance comparison is made from the year just previous to Reading First implementation across the four years of implementation. [This report was…

  15. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2008/09.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Chui, A W M; Lo, S V

    2012-08-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong domestic health spending for financial years 1989/90 to 2008/09, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider and function. Total expenditure on health (TEH) was HK$84,391 million in financial year 2008/09, which represents an increase of HK$5030 million or 6.3% over the preceding year. Amid the financial tsunami in late 2008, TEH grew faster relative to gross domestic product (GDP) leading to a marked increase as a percentage of GDP from 4.8% in 2007/08 to 5.1% in 2008/09. During the period 1989/90 to 2008/09, TEH per capita (at constant 2009 prices) grew at an average annual rate of 4.9%, which was faster than that of per capita GDP by 2.0 percentage points. 6.4% when compared with 2007/08, reaching HK$41 257 million and HK$43 134 million, respectively. Consequently, public and private shares of total health expenditure remained the same in the 2 years at 48.9% and 51.1%, respectively. Regarding private spending, the most important source of health financing was out-of-pocket payments by households (35.4% of TEH), followed by employer-provided group medical benefits (7.5%) and private insurance (6.4%). During the period, a growing number of households (mostly in middle to high-income groups) subscribed to pre-payment plans for financing health care. As such, private insurance has taken on an increasingly important role for financing private spending. Of the HK$84 391 million total health expenditure in 2008/09, current expenditure comprised HK$81 186 million (96.2%), whereas HK$3206 million (3.8%) was for capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Analysed by health care function, services for curative care accounted for the largest share of total health spending (66.1%), which was made up of ambulatory services (32.8%), in-patient curative care (28.8%), day patient hospital services (3.9%) and home care (0.5%). Notwithstanding the small share of total spending for day patient

  16. ERS Survey: 2008-09 Salaries of School Business Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licciardi, Chris; Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    How much were school business officials being paid during the 2008-09 school year? How do their salaries compare with those of other administrators, with those of classroom teachers, and with increases in the cost of living? In this article, the authors provide school business officials with information to address these and related questions. The…

  17. ARL Annual Salary Survey, 2006-07. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2006-07" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,824…

  18. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in five European countries during season 2006/07 and trends over six consecutive seasons

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Patricia R; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Szucs, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The objectives of the survey were to identify the level of influenza vaccination coverage in five European countries between 2001 and 2007, to understand the drivers and barriers to vaccination, to assess vaccination intentions for the winter 2007/08 as well as major encouraging factors for vaccination. Methods Between 2001 and 2007, representative household surveys were performed with telephone or mailed (France) interviews of individuals aged 14 and above. The questionnaire used in the UK, Germany, Italy, France and Spain was essentially the same in all seasons. The data were subsequently pooled. Four target groups were defined for the analysis: 1) persons aged 65 years and over; 2) persons working in the medical field; 3) chronically ill persons and 4) combined target group composed of individuals belonging to one or more of the previous groups 1, 2 or 3. Results In 2006/07, vaccination coverage was, 25.0% in UK, 27.4% in Germany, 21.8% in Spain, 24.2% in France and 24.4% in Italy. During six influenza seasons (2001–2007), vaccination coverage showed a slight positive trend in the five countries (p ≤ 0.0001). In the elderly (≥ 65 years), across all countries, no significant trend was seen; the vaccination rate decreased non-significantly from a peak of 64.2% in season 2005/06 to 61.1% in season 2006/07. The most frequent reason for getting vaccinated was a recommendation by the family doctor or nurse (51%), and this was also perceived as the major encouraging factor for vaccination (61%). The main reason for not getting vaccinated was feeling unlikely to catch the flu (36%). Conclusion In the UK, Germany and Spain, influenza vaccination coverage rates in season 2006/07 dropped slightly compared to the previous season. However, a trend of increasing vaccination coverage was observed from 2001/02 to 2006/07 across Europe. The family doctor is the major source of encouragement for individuals getting vaccinated. Efforts to overcome the barriers to

  19. No effect of 2008/09 seasonal influenza vaccination on the risk of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza infection in England.

    PubMed

    Pebody, Richard; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Malkani, Rashmi; McCartney, Christine; Ellis, Joanna; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-03-21

    This study reports effectiveness of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) against confirmed pandemic influenza infection in England using a retrospective test-negative case-control study. Cases and controls were frequency matched by age, swabbing-week and region. On univariable and multivariable analysis adjusted for underlying clinical risk factors, cases were no more or less likely than controls to be vaccinated with 2008-09 or 2007-08 season TIV. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness for the former was -6% (-43% to 22%). Vaccine effectiveness did not differ significantly by age-group or hospitalisation status. There was no evidence prior vaccination with TIV significantly altered subsequent risk of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection. PMID:21292008

  20. Student Financing of Undergraduate Education: 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-162

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Christina Chang

    2010-01-01

    In 2007-08, approximately 21 million students were enrolled in undergraduate postsecondary education in the United States. These Web Tables provide a comprehensive source of information on financial aid that was awarded to undergraduate students during the 2007-08 academic year. Included are estimates of tuition, price of attendance, and financial…

  1. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2007-08: Methodology and User Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2007-08 is to convert the 8,076 foods and beverages in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 4.1 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2007-08...

  2. Summary of the Governor's Proposed 2008-09 Budget for Higher Education. FS 08-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Thursday, January 10, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released his proposed budget for the 2008-09 fiscal year. The proposal attempts to address an estimated $14.5 billion deficit projected for the next 18 months by reducing 2008-09 State funding for most programs by an average 10% below the figure projected based on growth in workload and…

  3. School Finance 2006-07: State Leaders Settle Up with Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian; Perry, Mary

    2006-01-01

    EdSource's annual public education budget report, "School Finance 2006-07: State Leaders Settle Up with Education," offers a comprehensive look at this year's funding decisions for schools, recent budget history, and how the state's schools are funded. In contrast with last year's budget battles, the process for 2006-07 notably lacked conflict.…

  4. Distance Education at Postsecondary Institutions: 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-044

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsad, Basmat; Lewis, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    This report provides national estimates on distance education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions in the 2006-07 academic year. While this report covers many of the topics in the previous three reports, the data are not comparable. The definition of distance education in the 2006-07 study reflected two major changes from earlier studies.…

  5. Know Your Rights Handbook: The 2007-08 New York State Education Budget and Reform Law and State Education Department Regulations, as Amended in 2008-09. New York City Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    In April 2007, the New York State Legislature and the Governor passed historic education legislation to provide a multi-year, massive infusion of new school funding; the creation of a clear cut system of accountability that will focus on putting into practice key educational strategies; and a fair and simple funding formula, known as Foundation…

  6. Tuition and Fees in the West 2007-08. Policy Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of "Policy Insights" reviews the results from WICHE's (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's) annual survey of tuition and fees at public colleges and universities in the region. Complete data are available in "Tuition and Fees in Public Higher Education in the West, 2007-08: Detailed Tuition and Fees Tables," published…

  7. Enterococcus on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted the Beef 2007-08 study, which focused on beef cow-calf health and management practices in 24 States from three regions of the United States. These States represented 79.6 percent of U.S. operations with ...

  8. Graduate and First-Professional Students: 2007-08. Stats in Brief. NCES 2011-174

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Cataldi, Emily Forrest

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon data from the 2007-08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08), a nationally representative survey of all postsecondary students, this Statistics in Brief offers an overview of the enrollment characteristics of graduate and first-professional students, when they started their programs, how they combined school and work, the…

  9. Salmonella on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted the Beef 2007-08 study, which focused on beef cow-calf health and management practices in 24 States from three regions of the United States. These States represented 79.6 percent of U.S. operations with ...

  10. Campylobacter on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Health Monitoring System conducted the Beef 2007-08 study, which focused on beef cow-calf health and management practices in 24 States from three regions of the United States. These States represented 79.6 percent of U.S. operations with beef cow...

  11. Profile of Undergraduate Students: 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staklis, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    These tables provide comprehensive information on undergraduates who were enrolled in U.S. postsecondary institutions during the 2007-08 academic year. Estimates for enrolled students are presented by attendance status, degree program, undergraduate major, average grades, student characteristics, financial aid status and credit card debt, work,…

  12. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2007-08 school year alone, approximately $83 billion in new aid was…

  13. Progress in Student Academic Achievement: Evaluation of New City Charter School in 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozali-Lee, Edith

    2010-01-01

    This report describes New City Charter School student achievement in the 2008-09 school year, the school's sixth operating year. The number of students enrolled in the school was 125, an increase from 60 students enrolled the first year of the school. Student academic achievement is measured using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement…

  14. 2008-09 Overview of M-DCPS' Academic Performance. Information Capsule. Volume 0902

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    This Information Capsule answers the most frequently asked questions about M-DCPS' academic performance during the 2008-09 school year. M-DCPS earned a performance grade of "B" in 2009 and was only four points short of an "A." Over half of the District's schools (58 percent) earned an "A" and the percent of…

  15. The Division III Financial Aid Reporting Process: Findings and Review Results, 2005-06 through 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report marks the completion of the 2008-09 reporting cycle and the fourth year of the Division III Financial Aid Reporting Program. The report examines findings for all reporting institutions from each of the four reporting cycles, and details the outcomes of the Division III Financial Aid Committee's 2008-09 review process. Four calculations…

  16. Water-Quality Data from Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannarr, Kristofor E.; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2010-01-01

    Significant Findings The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Klamath Lake water-quality monitoring program collected data from multiparameter continuous water-quality monitors, weekly water-quality samples, and meteorological stations during May-November 2007 and 2008. The results of these measurements and sample analyses are presented in this report for 29 stations on Upper Klamath Lake and 2 stations on Agency Lake, as well as quality-assurance data for the water-quality samples. Some of the significant findings from 2007 and 2008 are listed below. In 2007-08, ammonia concentrations were at or near the detection limit at all stations during the second week in June, after which they began to increase, with peak concentrations occurring from July through November. The concentration of un-ionized ammonia, which can be toxic to aquatic life, first began to increase in mid-June and peaked in July or August at most sites. Concentrations of un-ionized ammonia measured in the Upper Klamath Lake in 2007-08 did not reach concentrations that would have been potentially lethal to suckers. Samples collected for the analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) late in the 2007 season showed no evidence of an increase in DOC subsequent to the breaching of the Williamson River Delta levees on October 30. In 2007-08, the lakewide daily median of dissolved oxygen concentration began to increase in early June, and peaked in mid- to late June. The lakewide daily median pH began to increase from early June and peaked in late June (2007) or early July (2008). Lakewide daily median pH slowly decreased during the rest of both seasons. The 2007 lakewide daily median specific conductance values first peaked on July 1, coincident with a peak in dissolved oxygen concentration and pH, followed by a decrease through mid-July. Specific conductance then remained relatively stable until mid-October when a sharp increase began that continued until the end of the season. Lakewide specific conductance

  17. Dental school vacant budgeted faculty positions, academic years 2005-06 and 2006-07.

    PubMed

    Chmar, Jacqueline E; Weaver, Richard G; Valachovic, Richard W

    2008-03-01

    The annual turnover of dental school faculty creates a varying number of vacant budgeted positions at any given time. The American Dental Education Association (ADEA) conducts an annual survey to determine the status and characteristics of these vacant faculty positions. In addition, ADEA conducts an annual survey of dental educators to maintain a database on the size and characteristics of dental school faculty, including data on the distribution of full-time, part-time, and volunteer faculty, reasons for faculty separations, and sources of new faculty. The number of vacant budgeted faculty positions within U.S. dental schools increased throughout the 1990s, with a peak of 358 positions in 2000. Following this peak, the number of vacancies declined, falling to 275 in 2004-05. Since that time, there has been a rapid increase in the number of estimated vacancies, reaching 417 in 2005-06, then falling slightly to 406 in 2006-07. The 2005-06 and 2006-07 faculty vacancies surveys explore these increases, along with information relevant to trends in the faculty workforce, factors influencing faculty vacancies, and the impact of vacant positions on dental schools. PMID:18383641

  18. Knowledge Discovery in our World Information Society: Opportunities for the International Polar Year 2007-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkman, P. A.

    2005-12-01

    The World Data Center system emerged in 1957-58 with the International Geophysical Year (which was renamed from the 3rd International Polar Year) to preserve and provide access to scientific data collected from observational programs throughout the Earth system. Fast forward a half century ... access to diverse digital information has become effectively infinite and instantaneous with nearly 20,000 petabytes of information produced and stored on print, optical and magnetic media each year; microprocessor speeds that have increased 5 orders of magnitude since 1972; existence of the Internet; increasing global capacity to collect and transmit information via satellites; availability of powerful search engines; and proliferation of data warehouses like the World Data Centers. The problem is that we already have reached the threshold in our world information society when accessing more information does not equate with generating more knowledge. In 2007-08, the International Council of Science and World Meteorological Organization will convene the next International Polar Year to accelerate our understanding of how the polar regions respond to, amplify and drive changes elsewhere in the Earth system (http://www.ipy.org). Beyond Earth system science, strategies and tools for integrating digital information to discover meaningful relationships among the disparate data would have societal benefits from boardrooms to classrooms. In the same sense that human-launched satellites became a strategic focus that justified national investments in the International Geophysical Year, developing the next generation of knowledge discovery tools is an opportunity for the International Polar Year 2007-08 and its affiliated programs to contribute in an area that is critical to the future of our global community. Knowledge is the common wealth of humanity. H.E. Mr. Adama Samassekou President, World Summit on the Information Society

  19. Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2007, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2006-07, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2008-159

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    This First Look report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2007 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2007-08 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2007, and 12-Month Enrollment covering academic year…

  20. 2006/07 Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Yarbrough, David W; Miller, William A; Petrie, Thomas; Childs, Phillip W; Syed, Azam M

    2008-12-01

    Most recent improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that in the near future, residences will be routinely constructed to operate with very low heating and cooling loads. In that light, the application of novel building materials containing active thermal components (e.g., phase change materials [PCMs,] sub-venting, radiant barriers, and integrated hydronic systems) is like a final step in achieving relatively significant heating and cooling energy savings from technological improvements in the building envelope. It is expected that optimized building envelope designs using PCMs for energy storage can effectively bring notable savings in energy consumption and reductions in peak hour power loads. During 2006/07, a research team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a series of laboratory and field tests of several wall and roof assemblies using PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. This report summarizes the test results from the perspective of energy performance. The ORNL team is working on both inorganic and organic PCMs; this report discusses only paraffinic PCMs. A limited economical analysis also is presented. PCMs have been tested as a thermal mass component in buildings for at least 40 years. Most of the research studies found that PCMs enhanced building energy performance. In the case of the application of organic PCMs, problems such as high initial cost and PCM leaking (surface sweating) have hampered widespread adoption. Paraffinic hydrocarbon PCMs generally performed well, with the exception that they increased the flammability of the building envelope.

  1. Channel Morphodynamics in Four Reaches of the Lower Missouri River, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Channel morphodynamics in response to flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam are examined in four reaches of the Lower Missouri River. Measures include changes in channel morphology and indicators of sediment transport in four 6 kilometer long reaches located downstream from Gavins Point Dam, near Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri. Each of the four reaches was divided into 300 transects with a 20-meter spacing and surveyed during the summer in 2006 and 2007. A subset of 30 transects was randomly selected and surveyed 7-10 times in 2006-07 over a wide range of discharges including managed and natural flow events. Hydroacoustic mapping used a survey-grade echosounder and a Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System to evaluate channel change. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to evaluate bed-sediment velocity. Results indicate varying amounts of deposition, erosion, net change, and sediment transport in the four Lower Missouri River reaches. The Yankton reach was the most stable over monthly and annual time-frames. The Kenslers Bend and Little Sioux reaches exhibited substantial amounts of deposition and erosion, although net change was generally low in both reaches. Total, or gross geomorphic change was greatest in the Kenslers Bend reach. The Miami reach exhibited varying rates of deposition and erosion, and low net change. The Yankton, Kenslers Bend, and Miami reaches experienced net erosion during the time period that bracketed the managed May 2006 spring rise event from Gavins Point Dam.

  2. Antiviral drug susceptibilities of seasonal human influenza viruses in Lebanon, 2008-09 season.

    PubMed

    Zaraket, Hassan; Saito, Reiko; Wakim, Rima; Tabet, Carelle; Medlej, Fouad; Reda, Mariam; Baranovich, Tatiana; Suzuki, Yasushi; Dapat, Clyde; Caperig-Dapat, Isolde; Dbaibo, Ghassan S; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of antiviral drug-resistant strains of the influenza virus in addition to the rapid spread of the recent pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus highlight the importance of surveillance of influenza in identifying new variants as they appear. In this study, genetic characteristics and antiviral susceptibility patterns of influenza samples collected in Lebanon during the 2008-09 season were investigated. Forty influenza virus samples were isolated from 89 nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from patients with influenza-like illness. Of these samples, 33 (82.5%) were A(H3N2), 3 (7.5%) were A(H1N1), and 4 (10%) were B. All the H3N2 viruses were resistant to amantadine but were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir; while all the H1N1 viruses were resistant to oseltamivir (possessed H275Y mutation, N1 numbering, in their NA) but were sensitive to amantadine and zanamivir. In the case of influenza B, both Victoria and Yamagata lineages were identified (three and one isolates each, respectively) and they showed decreased susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir when compared to influenza A viruses. Influenza circulation patterns in Lebanon were very similar to those in Europe during the same season. Continued surveillance is important to fully elucidate influenza patterns in Lebanon and the Middle East in general, especially in light of the current influenza pandemic. PMID:20513088

  3. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to Simon Fraser University 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jacy; Chan, Liny; Chuang, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data and analysis about students admitted to Simon Fraser University (SFU) who have BC College experience in the period 2003/04 to 2007/08. The first and second sections of the report focus on the profile of students admitted to SFU on the basis of BC College transfer including number of credits transferred, institution…

  4. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of Victoria 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Jim; Wilson, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the population of college transfer students who entered the University of Victoria (UVic) from 2003/04 to 2007/08, updating a June 2004 report. Section A provides a general profile of the 6,917 British Columbia (BC) college transfer students who first registered and commenced studies at UVic in any session between summer 2003…

  5. School Process and Teacher Job Satisfaction at Alternative Schools: A Multilevel Study Using SASS 2007-08 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jiangang; Izumi, Masashi; Gao, Xingyuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between public alternative schools' teacher job satisfaction and school processes. Based on a multilevel analysis of the national School and Staffing Survey 2007-08 data, we found that among the seven school processes, public alternative schools' administrative support, staff collegiality, career and working…

  6. Student Financing of Graduate and First-Professional Education: 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Ho, Phoebe

    2010-01-01

    In 2007-08, about 3 million students were enrolled in graduate or first-professional degree programs in the United States. These students exhibited wide variation both demographically and in the types of programs and institutions they attended. They pursued degrees in all types of fields, from the physical and life sciences to the arts and…

  7. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…

  8. Program Planning and Review to Promote Responsiveness to Public Needs, 2007-08. Commission Report 08-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This annual report provides a summary of program planning and review activities conducted by the Commission during the 2007-08 academic year. Recommendations that will enable the Commission to better meet and respond to its statewide statutes and obligations regarding academic and vocational program review include: (1) The Program Review Advisory…

  9. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: results of the NAHMS Beef 2007-08 study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) Beef 2007-08 study, 567 producers from 24 states were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Producers choosing to participate were pr...

  10. Public High School Teachers of Career and Technical Education in 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-235

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersudskaya, Vera; Cataldi, Emily Forrest

    2011-01-01

    These Web Tables focus on public school teachers in grades 9-12 who taught primarily career and technical education (CTE), academic, or other subjects during the 2007-08 school year. CTE teachers are grouped based on their main subject area: nonoccupational CTE, including family and consumer sciences education and general labor market preparation,…

  11. Trends in Undergraduate Stafford Loan Borrowing: 1989-90 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-183

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Christina Chang

    2010-01-01

    These tables show undergraduate Stafford loan borrowing rates and average Stafford loan amounts from 1989-90 to 2007-08, using data from six separate administrations of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS): NPSAS:90, NPSAS:93, NPSAS:96, NPSAS:2000, NPSAS:04, and NPSAS:08. The estimates that appear in these tables reflect the newly…

  12. Profile of Students in Graduate and First-Professional Education: 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-177

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Ho, Phoebe

    2010-01-01

    More than 3 million students were enrolled in graduate or first-professional programs in the United States during the 2007-08 academic year. These students varied widely both in their demographic characteristics and in the degree programs they pursued. These Web Tables use data from the most recent National Postsecondary Student Aid Study…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in…

  16. NovaNET 2008-09 Evaluation. Impact Evaluation. E&R Report No. 09.36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgakov-Cook, Dina

    2010-01-01

    NovaNET is a technology-based teacher-facilitated educational approach used at schools to support students at risk of not meeting graduation requirements to accrue credits in a variety of subjects. NovaNET contributes to the WCPSS goal of closing achievement gaps and creating opportunities for all students to graduate on time. In 2008-09, 38…

  17. A Brief Look at: 2008-09 WCPSS Dropout Rate. E&R Report No. 10.03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, 2010

    2010-01-01

    On March 4th, 2010, the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction released its annual statewide Dropout Report covering the 2008-09 school year. The charts in this report show the dropout rate for Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) compared to the state as a whole, to other large school districts in North Carolina, and by federal No…

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in reading at grades 4 and 8 and in math at grade 8. In grade 4 math, however, the percentage scoring…

  20. Profile of Undergraduate Students: Trends from Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-220

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staklis, Sandra; Chen, Xianglei

    2010-01-01

    From 1995-96 to 2007-08, the number of students enrolled in undergraduate education in the United States grew from about 16.7 million to 21 million. These Web Tables provide information on undergraduates during the 1995-96, 1999-2000, 2003-04, and 2007-08 academic years. Estimates are presented for all undergraduates and for undergraduates who…

  1. Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2008-09: annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Gerard J; Wright, Phil; Johansen, Cheryl A; Whelan, Peter I

    2010-09-01

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 8,677 notifications of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in Australia from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. The alphaviruses, Barmah Forest and Ross River, accounted for 6,574 (78%) of these notifications during 2008-09. There were 1,009 notifications of dengue virus infection locally-acquired in North Queensland and 484 notified cases resulted from overseas travel. Notification rates of dengue virus infection for 2008-09, regardless of where infection was acquired, exceeded the five-year mean rate and may be attributed to increased disease activity in the Asia-Pacific region. North Queensland was the site of several outbreaks of locally-acquired dengue virus infection involving all 4 serotypes. These dengue outbreaks affected several locations with over 1,000 notifications. Detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks across Australia provides an early warning of increased levels of Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus activity. Increased levels of flavivirus activity were detected in western and northern Australia, which prompted public health action. This action preceded 4 notifications of Murray Valley encephalitis infections, 2 (fatal) cases acquired in the Northern Territory and two in Western Australia. There were no notifications of locally-acquired malaria in Australia and 567 notifications of overseas-acquired malaria during 2008-09. This annual report presents information of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in Australia and notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. PMID:21090179

  2. Social Sciences and Humanities in the IPY 2007/08: An Integrating Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupnik, I.

    2004-12-01

    Our understanding of the human dimension of polar regions is immensely greater today than at the beginning of polar science. In the IPY 2007/2008, social sciences and humanities aspire to become fully engaged members of a new multidisciplinary effort. They are eager to address issues of partnership and public involvement, socio-economic development, governance, cultural viability and human rights of polar residents. These societal issues are among the top priorities of the IPY 2007/2008 mission to enhance the understanding of human-environmental interactions in the polar systems and to promote the value of polar science and global monitoring among the public at large. Other social issues-security, diplomacy, demography, health, education, communications-are also critical to polar research and to the scientific advance into the Arctic and Antarctica. The success of IPY 2007/08 requires the articulation of the common interest among scientists, polar peoples, economic actors, and sovereign nations, facing current global change. Experience from various regions present convincing evidence that lasting progress in the understanding and preservation of the environment can only be achieved if local populations are respected and involved. Research made at the "poles" is, thus, crucial for establishing models of equity and involvement, partnership and outreach. In this mission of the IPY 2007/2008 program social scientists and humanists are to make credible contributions. One of the key missions for social scientists under the IPY 2007/2008 program is to develop cooperative observation programs involving interested indigenous experts, subsistence users, and other polar residents. Through generations of life in the polar environment, polar people have developed long-standing knowledge and observation techniques in recording and interpreting a broad range of signals and phenomena in the polar systems. Efforts to integrate local experts into year-round circumpolar observing

  3. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  4. Evaluation of New Texas Charter Schools: Second Interim Report (2007-10). Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Catherine; Sheehan, Daniel; Rainey, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) was awarded Charter School Program (CSP) funding in 2007, and specified that the required evaluation would focus on the experiences and outcomes of new charter schools authorized to begin serving students across 4 school years: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10. TEA categorizes charter schools in terms of…

  5. Assessment of Contaminant Exposure and Effects on Ospreys Nesting along the Lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Branden L.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Davis, Jay W.; Schulz, Edmund P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contaminants on osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the lower Duwamish River (LDR), Washington, and used the upper reach of the Willamette River (WR), Oregon, as a reference site. Osprey eggs and nestling blood (plasma) were collected at nests along the LDR (11 eggs, 7 plasmas) and WR (10 eggs, 6 plasmas) in 2006-07 and analyzed for contaminants. Additionally, hematology and serum chemistries were determined in the blood/plasma samples of nestlings (about 35-45 days old) and were used as potential indicators of stress induced by contaminant exposure. Detailed foraging information for ospreys nesting along the LDR was collected and evaluated to better understand contaminant profiles observed in the eggs and plasma. Additional residue data from 26 osprey eggs collected and analyzed in 2002-03 from nests along the LDR, Snohomish River Estuary (SRE) and Lake Washington (LW) in the Puget Sound (PS) region also were evaluated.

  6. Nut consumption is associated with better nutrient intakes: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alex; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2016-01-14

    A limited number of studies have examined associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes or diet quality. None has investigated these associations in the Southern Hemisphere. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes among adult New Zealanders. Data from the 24-h recalls of 4721 participants from the cross-sectional 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (2008/09 NZANS) were used to determine whole nut intake and total nut intake from all sources as well as nutrient intakes. Regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate differences in nutrient intakes between those consuming and those not consuming nuts. From adjusted models, compared with non-whole nut consumers, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of energy and percentage of energy from total fat, MUFA and PUFA, whereas percentage of energy from SFA and carbohydrate was lower (all P≤0·025). After the additional adjustment for energy intake, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin E, folate, Cu, Mg, K, P and Zn (all P≤0·044), whereas cholesterol and vitamin B12 intakes were significantly lower (both P≤0·013). Total nut consumption was associated with similar nutrient profiles as observed in whole nut consumers, albeit less pronounced. Nut consumption was associated with better nutrient profiles, especially a lower intake of SFA and higher intakes of unsaturated fats and a number of vitamins and minerals that could collectively reduce the risk for chronic disease, in particular for CVD. PMID:26481949

  7. Public School Teacher Autonomy in the Classroom across School Years 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-089

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2015-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief explores teacher autonomy in the classroom during the 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 school years. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), the Statistics in Brief examines a construct of teacher autonomy based on teachers' responses to six questions regarding…

  8. Numbers and Types of Public Elementary and Secondary Schools From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2010-305

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary schools in the United States and the territories in the 2007-08 school year, using data from the Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. Appended are: (1) methodology and technical notes; and (2)…

  9. Trends in the Receipt of Pell Grants: Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 1995-96, 1999-2000, 2003-04, and 2007-08 administrations of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, these tables focus on trends in the receipt of federal Pell Grants and among Pell Grant recipients. Data include the percentages of Pell Grant recipients and the average Pell Grant received each survey year. Also shown are…

  10. A Formative Study of the Implementation of the Inquiry Team Process in New York City Public Schools: 2007-08 Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marian A.; Kannapel, Patricia; Gujarati, Joan; Williams, Hakim; Oettinger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    During the 2007-08 school year, the New York City Department of Education launched the second phase of its ambitious and innovative initiative known as "Children First." Ultimately, this initiative aims to intensify the focus by all educators on student performance and in doing so to stimulate the development of evidence-based cultures at all…

  11. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2007-08 (Fiscal Year 2008). First Look. NCES 2010-323

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honegger, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    This publication contains data on revenues and expenditures per pupil made by school districts for school year 2007-08. Median per pupil revenue and expenditure data are reported by state, as well as values at the 5th and 95th percentiles. Data for charter schools are reported separately. There are also discussions on the different types of school…

  12. Characteristics of Public School Districts in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-320

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aritomi, Paola; Coopersmith, Jared; Gruber, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school district data file of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public school sample…

  13. Numbers and Types of Public Elementary and Secondary Local Education Agencies From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2010-306

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Su

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary local education agencies (LEAs) in the United States and other jurisdictions in the 2007-08 school year, using data from the Local Education Agency Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that…

  14. Race and Gender Demographics. NCAA[R] Member Institutions' Personnel Report: The NCAA Minority Opportunities and Interests Committee's Biennial Study, 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Nicole M., Comp.; DeHass, Denise, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) compiled this statistical information regarding the ethnicity and gender demographic information of athletics administrators and coaches in intercollegiate athletics at its member institutions. The proceeding charts, graphs and tables show the results from the 2007-08 academic year. Also included…

  15. Principal Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2008-09 Principal Follow-Up Survey. First Look. NCES 2010-337

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    While the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has conducted surveys of attrition and mobility among school teachers for two decades, little was known about similar movements among school principals. In order to inform discussions and decisions among policymakers, researchers, and parents, the 2008-09 Principal Follow-up Survey (PFS)…

  16. Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2008, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Staff, 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions, such as Puerto Rico. This First Look presents data from the Winter 2008-09 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS),…

  17. Limited English Proficient Students: Progress of 2008-09 High School Cohort. Data Trends. D&A Report No. 13.14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) entering U.S. schools in grade 9 face a tight timeline to simultaneously learn English and graduate from high school in four or five years. This study focuses on student outcomes and progress indicators for the cohort of ninth graders new to WCPSS in 2008-09 who had limited English proficiency. Based…

  18. 2008/09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). Full-Scale Methodology Report. NCES 2014-041

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Janson, Natasha; Siegel, Peter; Bennett, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the methodological procedures and evaluations of the 2008/09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). RTI, with the assistance of MPR, conducted B&B:08/09 for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the U.S. Department of Education. Chapter 1 describes the background, legislative…

  19. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment and Staff Counts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-347

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers of public school students and staff in the United States and other jurisdictions in school year 2008-09, using data from the State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. The CCD is an annual collection of data that are reported by state…

  20. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2008-09 (Fiscal Year 2009). First Look. NCES 2012-313

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Noel, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey (F-33) of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system for school year (SY) 2008-09 (fiscal year [FY] 2009). The F-33 is a district-level financial survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Governments Division of…

  1. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period. PMID:26647761

  2. Parent and Family Involvement in Education, 2006-07 School Year, From the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007. First Look. NCES 2008-050

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrold, Kathleen; O'Donnell, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on parents' and families' involvement in their children's education in the United States according to parents' reports for the 2006-07 school year. It also incorporates basic demographic information about children, parent/guardian characteristics, and household characteristics. The data come from the Parent and Family…

  3. Are Student Protests in Arab States Caused by Economic and Political Grievances? Empirical Evidence from the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Mason, Jessica; Seybolt, Taylor; DeLuca, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of protests by students (age 18 and older) in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen by using subsamples of students from nationally representative and acclaimed public opinion data (the 2006-07 "Arab Barometer"). We find between 22.1% (Jordan) and 54.7% (Yemen) participated in either the signing of petitions, or…

  4. Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2006, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2008-172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.; Miller, Elise

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions, such as Puerto Rico. This report presents information from the Winter 2006-07 IPEDS web-based data collection. Tabulations represent data…

  5. Numbers and Types of Public Elementary and Secondary Education Agencies from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2006-07. First Look. NCES 2009-303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lee

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings on the numbers and types of public elementary and secondary local education agencies (LEAs) in the United States and other jurisdictions in the 2006-07 school year, using data from the Local Education Agency Universe Survey of the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. Appended are the methodology and technical…

  6. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2006-07 (Fiscal Year 2007). First Look. NCES 2009-338

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2006-07 (fiscal year 2007, or FY 07). The School District Finance Survey is a district-level survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) by state education agencies (SEAs) in the 50 states and the District of…

  7. Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary Schools in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-321

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The 2007-08 SASS sample is a…

  8. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 1390 for non-Title I students and 1220 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 1420 for non-Title I students and 1270 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Tennessee's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 501 for non-Title I students and 486 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 512 for non-Title I students and 495 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kentucky's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 455 for non-Title I students and 451 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, 82% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 90% of non-Title I 4th graders and 78% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2004 and 2009, the percentage…

  12. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Idaho's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2007, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 209 for non-Title I students and 205 for Title I students. In 2007, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 211 for non-Title I students and 208 for Title I students. Between 2007 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles California's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 341 for non-Title I students and 315 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 379 for non-Title I students and 340 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2008, the mean scale…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Delaware's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 474 for non-Title I students and 464 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 478 for non-Title I students and 467 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  15. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Utah's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2004, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 167 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. In 2009 the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 168 for non-Title I students and 164 for Title I students. Between 2004 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  16. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, 59% of non-Title I 4th graders and 29% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 64% of non-Title I 4th graders and 31% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level in reading. Between 2006 and 2009, the…

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Missouri's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 661 for non-Title I students and 642 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 661 for non-Title I students and 648 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, there was no…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles New Hampshire's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Arizona's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 478 for non-Title I students and 445 for Title I students. In 2008, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-title I students and 450 for title I students. Between 2005 and 2008, the mean scale…

  1. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…

  3. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Kansas' test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 80 for non-Title I students and 73 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 84 for non-Title I students and 78 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Maine's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 438 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 477 for non-Title I students and 441 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale score…

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2005, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 2297 for non-Title I students and 2207 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 2334 for non-Title I students and 2235 for Title I students. Between 2005 and 2009, the mean scale…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Colorado's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2003, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 598 for non-Title I students and 558 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 599 for non-Title I students and 556 for Title I students. Between 2003 and 2009, the mean scale…

  7. Trend in prevalence of uncontrolled total serum cholesterol for cardio-cerebro-vascular disease in a mediterranean area, 1988/89-2008/09

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Vincenzo; Lamaida, Norman; Capuano, Ernesto; Borrelli, Maria Immacolata; Capuano, Rocco; Notari, Elisabetta; Iannone, Anna Grazia; Marchese, Federica; Sonderegger, Matteo; Capuano, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine trends of uncontrolled total serum cholesterol, treatment and control in a Mediterranean region (Campania). METHODS: We considered and compared the data collected as part of “Montecorvino Rovella Project” 1988-1989 and cross-sectional data from the two phases of the “VIP Project-Valle dell’Irno Prevenzione”: 1998-1999 (1st phase) and 2008-2009 (2nd phase), in the 35-74-year-old-population. RESULTS: Data show a reduction of mean cholesterolemia in the last twenty years of 7.3 mg/dL for men and unchanged values for women. In the three surveys the mean values for serum cholesterol are in men: 205.2 ± 47.1 mg/dL (1988/89), 200 ± 38.9 mg/dL (1998/99) and 197.9 ± 40.2 mg/dL (2008/09); in the women: 203.1 ± 42.5 mg/dL (1988/89), 198.9 ± 37.9 mg/dL (1998/99) and 203.3 ± 39.3 mg/dL (2008/09). Prevalence of uncontrolled high cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL for men decreased from 20.8% (1988/89) to 14.3% (1998/99) and 13.9% (2008/9), P = 0.002; for women the values decreased from 19.9% (1988/89), to 18.2% (1998/99) and 18.1% (2008/09), P = 0.007. Is statistically increased the number of patients treated and those treated to target. CONCLUSION: Encouraging increases in awareness, treatment, and control of hypercholesterolemia occurred from 1988 through 2008. Nevertheless, control of hypercholesterolemia remains poor. PMID:24340140

  8. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  9. U.S. Geological Survey external quality-assurance project report to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2007-08. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples, and a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL), Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL), and 12 other participating laboratories. A blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in HAL total Hg concentration data. A co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and prototype precipitation collectors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the U.S. NADP data-quality objectives continued to be achieved during 2007-08. Results also indicate that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new E-gages is not likely to create step-function type shifts in NADP precipitation-depth records, except for sites where annual precipitation depth is dominated by snow because the E-gages tend to catch more snow than the original NADP rain gages. Evaluation of prototype precipitation collectors revealed no difference in sample volumes and analyte concentrations between the original NADP collectors and modified, deep-bucket collectors, but the Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc. (YES) collector obtained samples of significantly higher volumes and analyte concentrations than the standard NADP collector.

  10. Electron donor concentrations in sediments and sediment properties at the agricultural chemicals team research site near New Providence, Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maharjan, Bijesh; Korom, Scott F.; Smith, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of electron donors in aquifer sediments are important to the understanding of the fate and transport of redox-sensitive constituents in groundwater, such as nitrate. For a study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 50 sediment samples were collected from below the water table from 11 boreholes at the U.S. Geological Survey Agricultural Chemicals Team research site near New Providence, Iowa, during 2006-07. All samples were analyzed for gravel, sand (coarse, medium, and fine), silt, clay, Munsell soil color, inorganic carbon content, and for the following electron donors: organic carbon, ferrous iron, and inorganic sulfide. A subset of 14 sediment samples also was analyzed for organic sulfur, but all of these samples had concentrations less than the method detection limit; therefore, the presence of this potential electron donor was not considered further. X-ray diffraction analyses provided important semi-quantitative information of well-crystallized dominant minerals within the sediments that might be contributing electron donors.

  11. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  12. Public School Teacher Attrition and Mobility in the First Five Years: Results from the First through Fifth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. First Look. NCES 2015-337

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lucinda; Taie, Soheyla

    2015-01-01

    This First Look report provides selected findings from all five waves of the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (BTLS) along with data tables and methodological information. The BTLS follows a sample of public elementary and secondary school teachers who participated in the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), and whose first year of…

  13. New College Graduates at Work: Employment among 1992-93, 1999-2000, and 2007-08 Bachelor's Degree Recipients 1 Year after Graduation. Stats in Brief. NCES 2014-003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staklis, Sandra; Skomsvold, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines the employment outcomes of college graduates 1 year after earning a bachelor's degree. It compares 2007-08 bachelor's degree recipients who graduated at the start of the recent recession with their peers who graduated in 1992-93 and 1999-2000. Different labor market conditions characterized these three…

  14. Characteristics of Public and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Library Media Centers in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. NCES 2009-322

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Rebecca; Gruber, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school library media center data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public…

  15. Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results from the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-323

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Danielle; Gruber, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school principal data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public school…

  16. Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-324

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopersmith, Jared

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school teacher data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public school…

  17. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2007-08. First Look. NCES 2009-326

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiman, Samantha; DeVoe, Jill F.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings on crime and violence in U.S. public schools, using data from the 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2008). SSOCS provides information about school crime-related topics from the perspective of schools by asking school principals about the frequency of incidents, such as physical attacks, robberies, and…

  18. Who Considers Teaching and Who Teaches? First-Time 2007-08 Bachelor's Degree Recipients by Teaching Status 1 Year after Graduation. Stats in Brief. NCES 2014-002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staklis, Sandra; Henke, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines the teaching status of 2007-08 first-time bachelor's degree recipients one year after graduation. The analysis compares four groups with respect to their teaching experiences or interest in teaching: those who taught either before or after receiving their bachelor's degree, those who prepared to teach…

  19. Education and Certification Qualifications of Departmentalized Public High School-Level Teachers of Core Subjects: Evidence from the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-317

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jason G.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines the postsecondary majors and teaching certifications of public high school-level teachers of departmentalized classes in a selection of subject areas by using data from the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a sample survey of elementary and secondary schools in the United States. SASS collects data on American…

  20. Fusarium species and fumonisins associated with maize kernels produced in Rio Grande do Sul State for the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, R.; dos Santos, J.; Gomes, L.B.; Silva, C.N.; Tessmann, D.J.; Ferreira, F.D.; Machinski, M.; Del Ponte, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. are among the main fungal diseases that contribute to poor quality and the contamination of maize grains with mycotoxins. This study aimed to determine the visual incidence of fungal-damaged kernels (FDKs), the incidence of two main Gibberella (a teleomorph of Fusarium) complexes (G. fujikuroi and G. zeae) associated with maize using a seed health blotter test, and the fumonisin levels, using high performance liquid chromatography, in samples of maize grains grown across 23 municipalities during the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons. Additionally, 104 strains that were representative of all of the analysed samples were identified to species using PCR assays. The mean FDK was seven per cent, and only six of the samples had levels greater than six per cent. Fusarium spp. of the G. fujikuroi complex were present in 96% of the samples, and G. zeae was present in 18% of the samples (5/27). The mean incidence of G. fujikuroi was 58%, and the incidence of G. zeae varied from 2 to 6%. FB1 was found in 58.6%, FB2 in 37.9%, and both toxins in 37.9% of the samples. The FB1 and FB2 levels were below the quantification limits for 41.3% of the samples, and the mean FB1 levels (0.66 μg/g) were higher than the mean FB2 levels (0.42 μg/g). The PCR identification separated the 104 isolates into three of the G. fujikuroi complex: F. verticillioides (76%), F. subglutinans (4%) and F. proliferatum (2%); and G. zeae (anamorph = F. graminearum) (18%). Our results confirmed the dominance of F. verticillioides, similar to other regions of Brazil, but they differed due to the relatively higher incidence of F. graminearum. Total fumonisin levels were below the maximum limit determined by current Brazilian regulations. PMID:24159288

  1. Fusarium species and fumonisins associated with maize kernels produced in Rio Grande do Sul State for the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, R; Dos Santos, J; Gomes, L B; Silva, C N; Tessmann, D J; Ferreira, F D; Machinski, M; Del Ponte, E M

    2013-01-01

    Ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. are among the main fungal diseases that contribute to poor quality and the contamination of maize grains with mycotoxins. This study aimed to determine the visual incidence of fungal-damaged kernels (FDKs), the incidence of two main Gibberella (a teleomorph of Fusarium) complexes (G. fujikuroi and G. zeae) associated with maize using a seed health blotter test, and the fumonisin levels, using high performance liquid chromatography, in samples of maize grains grown across 23 municipalities during the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons. Additionally, 104 strains that were representative of all of the analysed samples were identified to species using PCR assays. The mean FDK was seven per cent, and only six of the samples had levels greater than six per cent. Fusarium spp. of the G. fujikuroi complex were present in 96% of the samples, and G. zeae was present in 18% of the samples (5/27). The mean incidence of G. fujikuroi was 58%, and the incidence of G. zeae varied from 2 to 6%. FB1 was found in 58.6%, FB2 in 37.9%, and both toxins in 37.9% of the samples. The FB1 and FB2 levels were below the quantification limits for 41.3% of the samples, and the mean FB1 levels (0.66 μg/g) were higher than the mean FB2 levels (0.42 μg/g). The PCR identification separated the 104 isolates into three of the G. fujikuroi complex: F. verticillioides (76%), F. subglutinans (4%) and F. proliferatum (2%); and G. zeae (anamorph = F. graminearum) (18%). Our results confirmed the dominance of F. verticillioides, similar to other regions of Brazil, but they differed due to the relatively higher incidence of F. graminearum. Total fumonisin levels were below the maximum limit determined by current Brazilian regulations. PMID:24159288

  2. Relation of nutrient concentrations, nutrient loading, and algal production to changes in water levels in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment has led to excessive algal growth in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota. Water- and sediment-quality data were collected during 2008-09 to assess internal and external nutrient loading. Data collection was focused in Kabetogama Lake and its inflows, the area of greatest concern for eutrophication among the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. Nutrient and algal data were used to determine trophic status and were evaluated in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels following changes to dam operation starting in 2000. Analyses were used to estimate external nutrient loading at inflows and assess the potential contribution of internal phosphorus loading. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for a few occasionally stratified areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, combined with larger bottom-water nutrient concentrations, larger sediment phosphorus concentrations, and estimated phosphorus release rates from sediment cores indicate that Lost Bay may be one of several areas that may be contributing substantially to internal loading. Internal loading is a concern because nutrients may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, microcystin, was detected in 7 of 14 cyanobacterial bloom samples, with total concentrations exceeding 1.0 microgram per liter, the World Health Organization's guideline for finished drinking water for the congener, microcystin-LR. Comparisons of the results of this study to previous studies indicate that chlorophyll-a concentrations and trophic state indices have improved since 2000, when the rules governing dam operation changed. However, total-phosphorus concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000.

  3. The relationship between socially-assigned ethnicity, health and experience of racial discrimination for Māori: analysis of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In New Zealand, there are significant and long-standing inequalities in a range of health outcomes, risk factors and healthcare measures between Māori (indigenous peoples) and Pākehā (European). This study expands our understanding of racism as a determinant of such inequalities to examine the concept of socially-assigned ethnicity (how an individual is classified by others ethnically/racially) and its relationship to health and racism for Māori. There is some evidence internationally that being socially-assigned as the dominant ethnic group (in this case European) offers health advantage. Methods We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey for adult participants who self-identified their ethnicity as Māori (n = 3160). The association between socially-assigned ethnicity and individual experience of racial discrimination, and socially-assigned ethnicity and health (self-rated health, psychological distress [Kessler 10-item scale]) was assessed using logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively. Results Māori who were socially-assigned as European-only had significantly lower experience of racial discrimination (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.78) than Māori who were socially-assigned as non-European. Being socially-assigned as European-only was also associated with health advantage compared to being socially-assigned non-European: more likely to respond with self-rated very good/excellent health (age, sex adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.74), and lower Kessler 10 scores (age, sex adjusted mean difference = -0.66, 95% C I = -1.22, -0.10). These results were attenuated following adjustment for socioeconomic measures and experience of racial discrimination. Conclusions Results suggest that, in a race conscious society, the way people’s ethnicities are viewed by others is associated with tangible health risk or advantage, and this is consistent with an

  4. Factors associated with non-utilization of child immunization in Pakistan: evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The proportion of incompletely immunized children in Pakistan varies from 37-58%, and this has recently resulted in outbreaks of measles and polio. The aim of this paper is to determine the factors associated with incomplete immunization among children aged 12-23 months in Pakistan. Methods Secondary analysis was conducted on nationally representative cross-sectional survey data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-07. The analysis was limited to ever-married mothers who had delivered their last child during the 23 months immediately preceding the survey (n = 2,435). ‘Complete immunization’ was defined as the child having received twelve doses of five vaccines, and ‘incomplete immunization’ was defined if he/she had missed at least one of these twelve doses. The association between child immunization status and determinants of non-utilization of vaccines was assessed by calculating unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals using a multivariable binary logistic regression. Results The findings of this research showed that nearly 66% of children were incompletely immunized against seven preventable childhood diseases. The likelihood of incomplete immunization was significantly associated with the father’s occupation as a manual worker (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.10-1.97), lack of access to information (AOR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.66), non-use of antenatal care (AOR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.07-1.66), children born in Baluchistan region (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.12-2.70) and delivery at home (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.14-1.69). Conclusions Despite governmental efforts to increase rates of immunization against childhood diseases, the proportion of incompletely immunized children in Pakistan is still high. Targeted interventions are needed to increase the immunization rates in Pakistan. These interventions need to concentrate on people with low socioeconomic and educational status in order to improve their knowledge

  5. Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  6. AITI and GELATI - Initiatives to promote education and training for the next generation of educators and scientists during the IPY 2007/08 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, S. W.; Bouchard, M.; Das, S.; Gillermann, J.; Greve, R.; Matsuoka, K.; Pasotti, J.; Tweedie, C.

    2005-05-01

    The fourth International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007/08 provides a unique opportunity to enhance international collaboration in research and education. Here we present an IPY-teaching initiative (AITI), which proposes to develop an interdisciplinary international short course series promoting and fostering education and training of the next generation(s) of scientists and educators interested in natural and social sciences related to Polar Regions; a short course series (GELATI) focusing on the impact of the cryosphere on the Earth system. The main goals of the short course series are to: a) provide education and training for the next generation of graduate students, science teachers, researchers in science related to Polar Regions; b) provide training for junior faculty c) integrate research and education; d) create awareness for Polar Regions related questions in class-rooms and beyond; e) create international partnerships in education and training; f) promote multidisciplinary thinking; g) increase gender diversity in science and teaching; h) encourage minority participation. To achieve these goals it is intended to develop a curriculum of specialized and interdisciplinary courses considering various aspects of science and scientific activities, which study, or are concerned with processes/developments in Polar Regions. Due to the vast dimensions and distribution of Polar Regions across international boundaries as well as the complexity of environmental studies in Polar Regions these courses will internationally pool students and instructors. Pooling of experts and students internationally will not only ensure highest standards but also foster international partnership. To allow the integration of research and teaching and to provide the best possible study environment the up to two to three weeklong, courses will be held at international field stations or will be incorporated into large research projects. To ensure training of the next generation of

  7. Seasonal influenza immunisation in Europe. Overview of recommendations and vaccination coverage for three seasons: pre-pandemic (2008/09), pandemic (2009/10) and post-pandemic (2010/11).

    PubMed

    Mereckiene, J; Cotter, S; Nicoll, A; Lopalco, P; Noori, T; Weber, Jt; D'Ancona, F; Levy-Bruhl, D; Dematte, L; Giambi, C; Valentiner-Branth, P; Stankiewicz, I; Appelgren, E; O Flanagan, D

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008, annual surveys of influenza vaccination policies, practices and coverage have been undertaken in 29 European Union (EU)/ European Economic Area (EEA) countries. After 2009, this monitored the impact of European Council recommendation to increase vaccination coverage to 75% among risk groups. This paper summarises the results of three seasonal influenza seasons: 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11. In 2008/09, 27/29 countries completed the survey; in 2009/10 and 2010/11, 28/29 completed it. All or almost all countries recommended vaccination of older people (defined as those aged ≥50, ≥55, ≥59, ≥60 or ≥65 years), and people aged ≥6 months with clinical risk and healthcare workers. A total of 23 countries provided vaccination coverage data for older people, but only 7 and 10 had data for the clinical risk groups and healthcare workers, respectively. The number of countries recommending vaccination for some or all pregnant women increased from 10 in 2008/09 to 22 in 2010/11. Only three countries could report coverage among pregnant women. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage during and after the pandemic season in older people and clinical groups remained unchanged in countries with higher coverage. However, small decreases were seen in most countries during this period. The results of the surveys indicate that most EU/EEA countries recommend influenza vaccination for the main target groups; however, only a few countries have achieved the target of 75% coverage among risk groups. Coverage among healthcare workers remained low. PMID:24786262

  8. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Facilities Performance Indicators Survey" ("FPI") supersedes and builds upon the two major surveys APPA conducted in the past: the Comparative Costs and Staffing (CCAS) survey and the Strategic Assessment Model (SAM). The "FPI" covers all the materials collected in CCAS and SAM, along with some select new data points and improved survey…

  9. Higher Education Accountability Report 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report is one of several efforts designed to monitor outcomes in Washington's higher education system, and fulfills the biennial requirement that the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) inform the higher education and fiscal committees of the legislature of progress toward goals. The portrait that emerges from this review of…

  10. 2007/08 Annual Service Plan Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since receiving "Campus 2020 Thinking Ahead: The Report," the Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development has been reviewing its recommendations to improve post-secondary education in British Columbia. Several of these have been implemented, including: undertaking a review of student financial assistance and completing a review of…

  11. 2008-09 Financial Aid Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) is to provide higher education services to the citizens of the State at an excellent level of quality consistent with the state's resources. The information in this report is provided by the financial aid officers at each NSHE institution. Each fall, institutions submit a detailed…

  12. Assessment of Energetic Compounds, Semi-volatile Organic Compounds, and Trace Elements in Streambed Sediment and Stream Water from Streams Draining Munitions Firing Points and Impact Areas, Fort Riley, Kansas, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coiner, R.L.; Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of energetic compounds (explosive and propellant residues) and associated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and trace elements in streambed sediment and stream water from streams draining munitions firing points and impact areas at Fort Riley, northeast Kansas, was performed during 2007-08 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army. Streambed sediment from 16 sampling sites and stream-water samples from 5 sites were collected at or near Fort Riley and analyzed for as many as 17 energetic compounds, 65 SVOCs, and 27 trace elements. None of the energetic compounds or SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment collected from sites within the Fort Riley Military Reservation. This may indicate that these compounds either are not transported from dispersal areas or that analytical methods are not sensitive enough to detect the small concentrations that may be transported. Concentrations of munitions-associated trace elements did not exceed sediment-quality guidelines recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and are not indicative of contamination of streambed sediment at selected streambed sampling sites, at least in regards to movement from dispersal areas. Analytical results of stream-water samples provided little evidence of contamination by energetic compounds, SVOCs, or associated trace elements. Perchlorate was detected in 19 of 20 stream-water samples at concentrations ranging from an estimated 0.057 to an estimated 0.236 ug/L (micrograms per liter) with a median concentration of an estimated 0.114 ug/L, substantially less than the USEPA Interim Health Advisory criterion (15 ug/L), and is in the range of documented background concentrations. Because of these small concentrations and possible natural sources (precipitation and groundwater), it is likely that the occurrence of perchlorate in stream water is naturally occurring, although a definitive identification of the source of perchlorate in

  13. From the Sun to the Ice - Then Where? A Bi-polar, Integrated View of the Role of Polar Snow and Floating Ice Covers in the Earth's Heat Budget During IPY 2007/08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Grenfell, T.; Jeffries, M.; Perovich, D.; Sturm, M.

    2003-12-01

    The polar regions play a key role in the disposition of energy and in particular solar radiation in the earth's climate system. With the largest seasonal variations in surface albedo occurring over the polar oceans and with substantial changes in the extent and nature of the snow and ice covers in recent decades, the polar regions are a critical link between top-of-the atmosphere radiative fluxes and solar energy absorbed by the earth system. While recent studies have greatly improved our knowledge of the heat budget of the polar oceans, we are still far from understanding a number of fundamental questions related to the role of snow and ice in the global radiation budget and their importance for albedo feedback processes. For example, currently albedo parameterizations in large-scale sea ice and climate models are only partially successful in taking into account the physical processes driving seasonal and interannual albedo changes. In fact, the majority of models employ different albedo parameterizations for northern and southern hemisphere snow and sea ice. This is dictated by the strong contrasts in snow and ice melt processes in Arctic and Antarctic, which in of themselves are not all that well understood. Our own research in the Western Arctic and in the southern Ross Sea indicates that snow may play a crucial, currently underestimated role in governing these processes and hence the nature and magnitude of ice-albedo feedback processes. Here, we propose that an integrated, bi-polar examination of the interaction between snow and floating ice covers (sea and lake ice), coupled with a global-scale analysis of the role of polar ice masses in affecting the earth's radiation budget would provide an interesting and scientifically significant cryospheric thread within the framework of the IPY 2007/08. This work would also address other important aspects such as large-scale cloud radiative forcing over ice surfaces and spatio-temporal partitioning of the radiation

  14. Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical

  15. Student Exchange Programs Statistical Report, Academic Year 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Through the three student exchange programs administered by the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE), approximately 23,300 residents of 15 Western states are enrolled at reduced levels of tuition across a spectrum of undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. This annual report covers Fall 2007 enrollments in the…

  16. Findings from the Reading First Implementation Study, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamse, Beth; Boulay, Beth; Rulf-Fountain, Alyssa; Unlu, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    "The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (PL 107-110) established the Reading First Program (Title I, Part B, Subpart 1), a major federal initiative designed to help ensure that all children can read at or above grade level by the end of third grade. Reading First (RF) builds upon research indicating that effective reading instruction on specific…

  17. 2008-09 Tuition and Fee Rates: A National Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    State law directs the Higher Education Coordinating Board to recommend state tuition and fee policies to the Governor and Legislature. As part of its analysis, the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board conducted an annual survey of tuition and fee rates at public colleges and universities in all 50 states to determine how Washington…

  18. Student Employee Handbook. EP-2008-09-136-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This student employee handbook offers tips on planning, design process, and presentation of a student Lunar Nautics project. Each section includes mission, task, challenge, and guide questions. With the activities presented, students will learn to design a Lunar Lander, Lunar Miner, and Lunar Base; investigate the geography and geology of the moon…

  19. Net Costs Due to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination — United States, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Reed, Carrie; Kim, Inkyu K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Meltzer, Martin I.; Finelli, Lyn; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality across all age groups, and influenza vaccination was recommended in 2010 for all persons aged 6 months and above. We estimated the averted costs due to influenza vaccination, taking into account the seasonal economic burden of the disease. Methods We used recently published values for averted outcomes due to influenza vaccination for influenza seasons 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09, and age cohorts 6 months-4 years, 5-19 years, 20-64 years, and 65 years and above. Costs were calculated according to a payer and societal perspective (in 2009 US$), and took into account medical costs and productivity losses. Results When taking into account direct medical costs (payer perspective), influenza vaccination was cost saving only for the older age group (65≥) in seasons 2005-06 and 2007-08. Using the same perspective, influenza vaccination resulted in total costs of $US 1.7 billion (95%CI: $US 0.3–4.0 billion) in 2006-07 and $US 1.8 billion (95%CI: $US 0.1–4.1 billion) in 2008-09. When taking into account a societal perspective (and including the averted lost earnings due to premature death) averted deaths in the older age group influenced the results, resulting in cost savings for all ages combined in season 07-08. Discussion Influenza vaccination was cost saving in the older age group (65≥) when taking into account productivity losses and, in some seasons, when taking into account medical costs only. Averted costs vary significantly per season; however, in seasons where the averted burden of deaths is high in the older age group, averted productivity losses due to premature death tilt overall seasonal results towards savings. Indirect vaccination effects and the possibility of diminished case severity due to influenza vaccination were not considered, thus the averted burden due to influenza vaccine may be even greater than reported. PMID:26230271

  20. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed criterion in all but four stream samples (266 of 270). Similarly, only 2 of 84 Missouri River samples had total phosphorus concentrations less than the proposed criterion. The proposed total nitrogen criterion for the Corn Belt and Northern Great Plains ecoregion was surpassed in 80 percent of the water samples collected from the stream sites. Samples with total nitrogen concentrations greater than the proposed criterion were most common at Papillion Creek and Big Papillion Creek sites, where the proposed criterion was surpassed in 90 and 96 percent of the samples collected, respectively. Elevated concentrations of total nitrogen were less common at the Missouri River sites, with 33 percent of the samples analyzed having concentrations that surpassed the proposed nutrient criterion for total nitrogen. The three constituents with measured concentrations greater than their respective health-based screening levels were nickel, zinc, and dichlorvos. Differences in water quality during the beginning, middle, and end of the combined sewer overflow discharge and the stream hydrograph rise, peak, and recession were investigated. Concentrations from the ending part of the combined sewer overflow hydrograph were significantly different than those from the beginning and middle parts for 3 and 11 constituents, respectively. No constituents were significantly different between the beginning and middle parts of the combined sewer overflow discharge hydrograph. For the stream site upstream from combined sewer overflow outfalls on Cole Creek, the constituents with geometric mean values for the hydrograph rise that were at least twice those for the values of the peak and recession were specific conductance, magnesium, nitrite, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), methyl salicylate, p-cresol, and Escherichia coli. Similarly, the constituents where the hydrograph peak was at least twice that for the rise and recession at the upstream Cole Creek site were total suspended solids, silver, an

  1. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Outcomes for the Third Year (2006-07)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, set forth a vision for technology immersion in public schools. Senate Bill 396 called for the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to establish a pilot project to "immerse" schools in technology by providing a wireless mobile computing device for each teacher and student,…

  2. 2006-07 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report outlines accomplishments relative to items listed in the February 23, 2006 Management Letter from the Assistant Deputy Minister of Advance Education to the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT). A major focus of BCCAT during this year was the redesign and launch of BCCAT.bc.ca, implementing a number of…

  3. Update on 2005-06 State Financial Aid Program Activity and 2006-07 Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The state of Washington is committed to higher education opportunity for all students, regardless of income, through its state financial aid programs. The purpose of this report is to provide the members of the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) with an overview of state and federal financial aid in Washington, an update on state financial…

  4. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Oden, Timothy D.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, completed an initial reconnaissance-level survey of naturally occurring contaminants (arsenic, other selected trace elements, and radionuclides) in water from municipal supply wells in the Houston area. The purpose of this reconnaissance-level survey was to characterize source-water quality prior to drinking water treatment. Water-quality samples were collected from 28 municipal supply wells in the Houston area completed in the Evangeline aquifer, Chicot aquifer, or both. This initial survey is part of ongoing research to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of these constituents in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. Samples were analyzed for major ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bromide, chloride, fluoride, silica, and sulfate), selected chemically related properties (residue on evaporation [dissolved solids] and chemical oxygen demand), dissolved organic carbon, arsenic species (arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsinate [DMA], and monomethylarsonate [MMA]), other trace elements (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc), and selected radionuclides (gross alpha- and beta-particle activity [at 72 hours and 30 days], carbon-14, radium isotopes [radium-226 and radium-228], radon-222, tritium, and uranium). Field measurements were made of selected physicochemical (relating to both physical and chemical) properties (oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, specific conductance, water temperature, and alkalinity) and unfiltered sulfides. Dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand are presented but not discussed in the report. Physicochemical properties, major ions, and trace elements varied considerably. The pH ranged from 7.2 to 8.1 (median 7.6); specific conductance ranged from 314 to 856 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, with a median of 517 microsiemens per centimeter; and alkalinity ranged from 126 to 324 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate (median 167 milligrams per liter). The range in oxidation-reduction potential was large, from -212 to 244 millivolts, with a median of -84.6 millivolts. The largest ranges in concentration for filtered major ion constituents were obtained for cations sodium and calcium and for anions chloride and bicarbonate (bicarbonate was calculated from the measured alkalinity). Filtered arsenic was detected in all 28 samples, ranging from 0.58 to 15.3 micrograms per liter (median 2.5 micrograms per liter), and exceeded the maximum contaminant level established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of 10 micrograms per liter in 2 of the 28 samples. As(III) was the most frequently detected arsenic specie. As(III) concentrations ranged from less than 0.6 to 14.9 micrograms arsenic per liter. The range in concentrations for the arsenic species As(V) was from less than 0.8 to 3.3 micrograms arsenic per liter. Barium, boron, lithium, and strontium were detected in quantifiable (equal to or greater than the laboratory reporting level) concentrations in all samples and molybdenum in all but one sample. Filtered iron, manganese, nickel, and vanadium were each detected in at least 18 of the 28 samples. All other selected trace elements were each detected in 16 or fewer samples. Radionuclides were detected in most samples. The gross alpha-particle activities at 30 days and 72 hours ranged from R-0.94 to 15.5 and R-1.1 to 17.2 picocuries per liter, respectively ('R' indicates nondetected result less than the sample-specific critical level). The combined radium (radium-226 plus radium-228) concentrations ranged from an estimat

  5. Profile of BC College Transfer Students 2003/04 to 2007/08. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the results from five reports commissioned by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) that profiled the academic experiences and demographics of BC college transfer students: those students who transferred from a BC college, university college, or institute to a BC university during the period…

  6. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Iceland 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnason, Gunnar J.; Hardardottir, Margret

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Iceland's arts and cultural education. The objective of arts education is to develop creativity, strengthen self-identity, and increase cultural understanding. It aims at a balance between, creation, expression and interpretation, on the one hand, and perception, discernment and evaluation, on the other. In accordance with…

  7. Focus. Volume 25, Number 2, Fall-Winter 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Emma, Ed.; Johnson, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of "Focus" is to provide coverage of poverty-related research, events, and issues, and to acquaint a large audience with the work of the Institute for Research on Poverty by means of short essays on selected pieces of research. This issue features articles drawn from four of the conference papers presented at the September 2007 IRP…

  8. Michigan Higher Education: Facts and Fiction. Policy Brief. No. S2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    State universities in Michigan argue that they have been starved for money and that falling real appropriations from the state legislature have jeopardized the quality of higher education. They contend that this has resulted in a loss of competitiveness for Michigan at a time when the state faces economic stagnation caused by globalization's…

  9. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Sweden 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurydice, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Education and Research in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture are responsible for setting the aims for the cultural and creative dimensions of education. Decisions about the creation of the curriculum related to culture and creativity within education are made on central level as well as the creation of the arts curriculum.…

  10. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Slovakia 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Marta; Aichova, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    The decisions related to the national curriculum are made at central level. The curriculum development is under responsibility of the National Institute for Education (organisation directly managed by the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic). "Zakladna skola" provides teaching of compulsory subjects, included separate compulsory art…

  11. NCAA[R] Student-Athlete Ethnicity Report. 1999-2000-2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHass, Denise, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    For the ninth consecutive year, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) compiled this statistical information regarding student-athlete race, ethnicity and resident alien status in intercollegiate athletics at its member institutions. This information provides a general view of recent historical student-athlete race and ethnicity…

  12. Hydrologic Data for Deep Creek Lake and Selected Tributaries, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Davies, William J.; Gellis, Allen C.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; McPherson, Wendy S.; Soeder, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent and ongoing efforts to develop the land in the area around Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland, are expected to change the volume of sediment moving toward and into the lake, as well as impact the water quality of the lake and its many tributaries. With increased development, there is an associated increased demand for groundwater and surface-water withdrawals, as well as boat access. Proposed dredging of the lake bottom to improve boat access has raised concerns about the adverse environmental effects such activities would have on the lake. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDDNR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study during 2007 and 2008 to address these issues. This study was designed to address several objectives to support MDDNR?s management strategy for Deep Creek Lake. The objectives of this study were to: Determine the current physical shape of the lake through bathymetric surveys; Initiate flow and sediment monitoring of selected tributaries to characterize the stream discharge and sediment load of lake inflows; Determine sedimentation rates using isotope analysis of sediment cores; Characterize the degree of hydraulic connection between the lake and adjacent aquifer systems; and Develop an estimate of water use around Deep Creek Lake. Summary of Activities Data were collected in Deep Creek Lake and in selected tributaries from September 2007 through September 2008. The methods of investigation are presented here and all data have been archived according to USGS policy for future use. The material presented in this report is intended to provide resource managers and policy makers with a broad understanding of the bathymetry, surface water, sedimentation rates, groundwater, and water use in the study area. The report is structured so that the reader can access each topic separately using any hypertext markup (HTML) language reader. In order to establish a base-line water-depth map of Deep Creek Lake, a bathymetric survey of the lake bottom was conducted in 2007. The data collected were used to generate a bathymetric map depicting depth to the lake bottom from a full pool elevation of 2,462 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929). Data were collected along about 90 linear miles across the lake using a fathometer and a differentially corrected global positioning system. As part of a long-term monitoring plan for all surface-water inputs to the lake, streamflow data were collected continuously at two stations constructed on Poland Run and Cherry Creek. The sites were selected to represent areas of the watershed under active development and areas that are relatively stable with respect to development. Twelve months of discharge data are provided for both streams. In addition, five water-quality parameters were collected continuously at the Poland Run station including pH, specific conductance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Water samples collected at Poland Run were analyzed for sediment concentration, and the results of this analysis were used to estimate the annual sediment load into Deep Creek Lake from Poland Run. To determine sedimentation rates, cores of lake-bottom sediments were collected at 23 locations. Five of the cores were analyzed using a radiometric-dating method, allowing average rates of sedimentation to be estimated for the time periods 1925 to 2008, 1925 to 1963, and 1963 to 2008. Particle-size data from seven cores collected at locations throughout the study area were analyzed to provide information on the amount of fine material in lake-bed sediments. Groundwater levels were monitored continuously in four wells and weekly in nine additional wells during October, November, and December of 2008. Water levels were compared to recorded lake levels and precipitation during the same period to determine the effect of lake-level drawdown and recovery on the adjacent aquifer systems. Water use in the Deep Creek Lake wa

  13. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Czech Republic 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajdova, Andrea; Slavik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Czech Republic's arts and cultural education. The decisions related to cultural and creative dimension of education are made at the central level, by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The Ministry is responsible for the development of the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE). One of the aims…

  14. School-Based Health Centers: National Census School Year 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strozer, Jan; Juszczak, Linda; Ammerman, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care's (NASBHC) 2007-2008 Census is the 11th request for data from school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986. The Census: (1) provides a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collects relevant trend data on demographics,…

  15. Mental and Social Health Atlas I in Saudi Arabia: 2007-08.

    PubMed

    Al-Habeeb, A A; Qureshi, N A

    2010-05-01

    Based on the World Health Organization's Mental Health Atlas, the first Mental and Social Health Atlas in Saudi Arabia describes the historical background of mental health and social services in the country and identifies several deficiencies in the system including infrastructure and logistics and lack of epidemiological data. There is now great progress in strategic planning for developing and improving mental health care services across the nation, with suggestions to develop psychiatric services for identified special populations, to establish community mental health care services, to improve research and training in mental health, and to update mental health annual information systems using advanced information technology. PMID:20799560

  16. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Romania 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirea, Veronica-Gabriela; Modrescu, Alexandru; Modrescu, Tincuta

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Romania's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education, Research and Youth is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of formal education provided by the national education system. However, the Ministry of Culture and Cults promotes programmes and projects in the domain of adult…

  17. Documentation for the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. NCES 2010-332

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourkin, Steven; Thomas, Teresa; Swaim, Nancy; Cox, Shawna; Parmer, Randall; Jackson, Betty; Cole, Cornette; Zhang, Bei

    2010-01-01

    The Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) is conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) on behalf of the United States Department of Education in order to collect extensive data on American public and private elementary and secondary schools. SASS provides data on the characteristics and qualifications of teachers and…

  18. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Lithuania 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siaulytiene, Dalia

    2008-01-01

    Artistic education at general education schools in Lithuania is organised by teaching separate art subjects. Art education based on the integrated approach or project method may be organized at primary school, in grades one to four, according to the individual curriculum prepared by the teacher. Arts subjects included in Lithuanian arts curriculum…

  19. 2007-08 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines accomplishments relative to items listed in the April 16, 2007 Management Letter from the Assistant Deputy Minister of Advance Education to the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT). The letter charged the Council to continue its role in facilitating student transfer and admission throughout the British…

  20. Higher Education: Building Connecticut's Workforce. Report on 2007-08 Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Departments of Labor and Higher Education, working in close collaboration with the constituent units of public higher education, present this comprehensive report on the employment of graduates of public colleges and universities. This report summarizes the employment and compensation experience of students who graduated from the State's 18…

  1. Office for Civil Rights Annual Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report details the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' (OCRs') accomplishments in enforcing the civil rights laws under which OCR has been granted jurisdiction to address and remedy discrimination. These enforcement efforts include complaint investigation and resolution, compliance reviews and technical assistance, as well…

  2. Annual Report to Congress of the Office for Civil Rights. Fiscal Years 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the Office for Civil Rights's (OCR's) "Annual Report to Congress" for fiscal years 2007 and 2008. This report details OCR's accomplishments in enforcing the civil rights laws under which OCR has been granted jurisdiction to address and remedy discrimination. These enforcement efforts include complaint investigation and resolution,…

  3. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in modifying the water quality and stage of the wetland in Punta Cabullones. The role of the tidal fluctuations becomes important during those times when the outlets/inlets to the sea are not blocked by a sand bar and is allowed to freely flow into the wetland interior. The salinity of the wetland varies from brackish to hypersaline. The hypersaline conditions, including the occurrence of saltflats, within the Punta Cabullones wetland area result from a high evapotranspiration rate. The hypersaline conditions are further enhanced by a sand bar that blocks the inlet/outlet of the wetland’s easternmost channel, particularly during the dry season. Groundwater in Punta Cabullones mostly is present within beds of silisiclastic sand and gravel. During the study period, the depth to groundwater did not exceed 4 feet below land surface. The movement and direction of the groundwater flow in Punta Cabullones are driven by density variations that in turn result from the wide range of salinities in the groundwater. The salinity of the groundwater decreases within the first 60 to 100 feet of depth and decreases outward from a mound of hypersaline groundwater centered on piezometer nest PN2. The main groundwater types within the Punta Cabullones area vary from calcium-bicarbonate type in the northernmost part of the study area to a predominantly sodium-potassium-chloride groundwater type southward. According to stable-isotope data, groundwater within the study area is both modern meteoric water and seawater highly affected by evaporation. The chemical and stable-isotopic character of local groundwater is highly influenced by evapotranspiration because of its shallow depth. Equivalent freshwater heads indicate groundwater moves away from a mound centered on piezometer nest PN2, in a pattern similar to the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity. Vertical groundwater flow occurs in Punta Cabullones due to local differences in density. In the wetland subarea of Punta Cabullones, groundwater and surface water are hydraulically coupled. Locally, surface-hypersaline water sinks into

  4. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Netherlands 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ree, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Netherland's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of formal education. Decisions related to the implementation of arts curriculum are made at school level. The cultural and creative aims of the whole curriculum…

  5. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Portugal 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Isabel Susana

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Portugal's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education (ME) is fundamentally responsible for establishing aims to develop the cultural and creative aspects of education, in accordance with the following aims defined for the whole curriculum. At the level of compulsory education, the Portuguese education system,…

  6. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Hungary 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodoczky, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Hungary's arts and cultural education. The cultural area "arts" has the following sub-areas: music, dance and drama, visual culture, film and media. In accordance with the contemporary approach to art, these are all independent branches of art. Although they have a number of common features, they are very different in terms…

  7. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Malta 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Sina Farrugia

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Malta's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Youth and Sport is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of education. It is the duty of the state to ensure the existence of a system of schools and institutions accessible to all Maltese citizens catering for the full…

  8. Satisfaction with Education in Alberta Survey, 2007/08. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Alberta Education conducts a set of annual telephone surveys to obtain feedback from education system stakeholders regarding their perceptions of Alberta's education system. Respondents for the survey include senior high school students, parents of children in the K-12 education system, parents of children with severe special needs, teachers in…

  9. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe: Austria 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Michael; Schad, Anke; Nagel, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Austria's arts and cultural education. The Austrian arts curriculum is organised as separate subjects. It includes music, visual arts and crafts (divided into two separate subjects: technical crafts and textile arts). The Austrian curriculum refers to "Bildungs- und Lehraufgaben", i.e. educational and teaching tasks. This…

  10. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Germany 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmar, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Education of the land (regional level) is responsible for setting the specified aims for the cultural and creative dimensions of education. The ministry decides also about the creation and the implementation of the arts curriculum. The arts curriculum at ISCED levels 1 and 2 (age group: 6-15/16) is organised as separate subjects.…

  11. Quick Facts about Financial Aid and Community Colleges, 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Community colleges are usually considered a low-cost college option, but the sticker price is only part of the real story--students often struggle to cover a range of related costs and living expenses. Financial aid can be a big help, but many community college students have a harder time paying for college than their peers at four-year schools.…

  12. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter. Median specific conductance measurements at sites ranged from 1,120 microsiemens per centimeter at site 8 in the Washita arm to 2,100 microsiemens per centimeter in the Red River arm. The spatial distribution of specific conductance in Lake Texoma was similar to that of bromide and chloride, with larger specific conductance values in the Red River arm compared to those in the Washita arm.

  13. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Cyprus 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitri, Eliza

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Cyprus's arts and cultural education. The Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for setting the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of education. Decisions about the creation of the curriculum related to culture and creativity within education, as well as the arts curriculum are made at a central…

  14. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2005-06 school year alone, approximately $78 billion in new aid was…

  15. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. Orthophosphate was the primary dissolved species of phosphorus present in all surface-water and groundwater samples. The average concentration of dissolved orthophosphate in surface water was largest in samples collected from near Teton Village; samples from all other sites had similar average concentrations. Concentrations of dissolved orthophosphate in groundwater also were typically greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. The aquatic plant communities in Fish Creek typically were composed of a mixture of macrophytes, macroalgae, microalgae, and moss. The composition of the aquatic plant community in Fish Creek appeared to shift in the downstream direction in 2007. On average, the proportion of macrophytes ranged from about 1 percent at site A-R1U, the most upstream site, to 54 percent of the plant community at site A-R6D, the farthest downstream site sampled during 2007. The downstream increase in macrophytes was accompanied by a downstream decrease in microalgae. The average proportion of microalgae ranged from 80 percent at site A-R1U to 24 percent at site A-R6D. The proportion of the macroalgae Cladophora in the aquatic plant community was relatively high at sites A-Wck and A-R3D in both 2007 and 2008.

  16. Race and Gender Demographics: NCAA[R] Member Conferences' Personnel Report, 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Nicole, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to collect data on the racial and gender breakdown of personnel at NCAA member conference offices. The NCAA Minority Opportunities and Interests Committee (MOIC) and the NCAA Committee on Women's Athletics (CWA) will use this data for comparison to similar data that were collected during the 1998-99 academic year. Data were…

  17. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,528 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008 and Food ...

  18. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Slovenia 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plevnik, Primoz; Podobnik, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Slovenia's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education and Sport is responsible for laying down the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of education. Concerning the creation of the curriculum related to culture and creativity (both within education) and the arts curriculum, most curricular decisions are made…

  19. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Liechtenstein 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens-Fisler, Marion; Schadler, Eva-Maria

    2008-01-01

    Arts education is compulsory for all pupils aged 6 to 11 in primary education (ISCED level 1) and for all pupils aged 12 to 15 in lower secondary schools (ISCED level 2). The following arts subjects are included in the arts curriculum: (1) Visual arts; (2) Music; (3) Drama (as an optional subject through the two theatre groups proposed in the…

  20. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Thermal Protection Systems. EP-2008-09-122-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Nick; McWilliams, Harold; Wagoner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, and their partners at other NASA centers and in private industry, are designing and beginning to develop the next generation of spacecraft to transport cargo, equipment, and human explorers to space. These vehicles--the Ares I and Ares V launch…

  1. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Spacecraft Structures. EP-2008-09-121-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Nick; McWilliams, Harold; Wagoner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center along with their partners at other NASA centers, and in private industry, are designing and beginning to develop the next generation of spacecraft to transport cargo, equipment, and human explorers to space. These vehicles are part of the Constellation…

  2. British Columbia Council on Admissions & Transfer Annual Report, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The role of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) is to facilitate admission, articulation, and transfer arrangements in the BC post-secondary system. BCCAT carries out this work in various ways; for example, engaging in research on admissions and student transitions, evaluating the effectiveness of the transfer system…

  3. Pharmaceutical compounds in Merrimack River water used for public supply, Lowell, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, Andrew J.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, to determine the occurrence of 14 commonly used human-health pharmaceutical compounds and fecal-indicator bacteria in Merrimack River water used as a drinking-water source by 135,000 residents in eastern Massachusetts. The study was designed to complement the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program's Source Water-Quality Assessment, which identifies patterns of occurrence of 280 primarily unregulated organic wastewater contaminants in source water used by community water systems and determines whether these patterns also occur in treated drinking water prior to distribution. The study involved periodic collection and analysis of raw Merrimack River water and treated drinking water over the course of 1 year. Water samples were collected periodically without regard to flow regime or antecedent weather conditions at the Lowell Regional Water Utility's Merrimack River intake upstream from Lowell, Mass. The same parcel of water was then sampled as finished water following treatment. Despite the presence of many potential sources of contamination in the drinking-water source area, only 2 of the 14 pharmaceutical analytes were detected at reportable concentrations in the source-water samples, and these occurred in only one set of periodic samples. Acetaminophen, a nonprescription analgesic, and caffeine were detected in the September source-water samples at concentrations of 0.084 and 0.068 micrograms per liter, respectively. Three other compounds-carbamazepine, an antiepileptic; cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine; and diphenhydramine, a nonprescription antihistamine-were detected in source-water samples, but at concentrations too low to be reliably quantified. None of the 14 pharmaceuticals was found in the finished water at a reportable concentration, defined as two times the long-term detection limit used by the analytical laboratory. In addition to the pharmaceutical analyses, measurements of fecal-indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli) concentrations and several physical characteristics were made on all source-water samples. Values for these constituents were consistently within State standards. It is possible that the monthly sampling schedule missed hydrologic events that would have transported greater concentrations of sewage contaminants to the sampling site, or that the large flow volume of the river at the study site effectively diluted the contaminant signal, but it is also likely that recent efforts to separate stormwater- and wastewater-discharge systems in the reaches upstream from the Lowell Regional Water Utility have greatly reduced the potential for sewage contamination at the intake.

  4. On the Brink: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an outstanding system of higher education requires investments in the faculty members who cultivate the human capital upon which our economy's recovery and future growth will depend. Sadly, the record of the last three decades shows that, when measured by the inflation-adjusted salaries paid to college faculty members or by the…

  5. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.

  6. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2008/09 Annual Service Plan Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Service Plan Report reflects the Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's success in achieving the overall priorities of the Government of British Columbia, in the current economic conditions and other relevant external factors related to the strategic direction and operations of this Ministry. This paper also highlights…

  7. Community College Funding 2008-09. Enrollment Growth Outpaces Resources. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian; Leichty, Julian

    2009-01-01

    California community colleges are expected to provide a broad range of affordable educational opportunities to an increasing number of students, but the current system does not have sufficient funding to serve them all well. This report describes present budgetary sources and explains that colleges receive mostly discretionary funding. With the…

  8. Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 2008-09. Research Report 01-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    The University of North Carolina presents the forty-first annual "Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina." This abstract covers the breadth of higher education activities in the State in their quantitative aspect, from simple counts of enrollment and degrees conferred to complex analyses of the flow of student transfers among…

  9. SY 2008-09 Customer Satisfaction Survey Results (Full Report). DoDEA Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense Education Activity, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) Customer Satisfaction Survey is a biennial survey administered by DoDEA to parents and students to monitor DoDEA's success in meeting students' needs. The survey is administered every other year to sponsors with children in pre-kindergarten--12th grade and to students in grades 4-12. For the…

  10. DOE EiR at Oakridge National Lab 2008/09

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Michael

    2012-11-30

    This project placed an experienced technology entrepreneur at Oak Ridge National Lab, one of DOE's premier laboratories undertaking cutting edge research in a variety of fields, including energy technologies. With the goal of accelerating the commercialization of advanced energy technologies, the task was to review available technologies at the lab and identify those that qualify for licensing and commercialization by a private startup company, backed by private venture capital. During the project, more than 1,500 inventions filed at the lab were reviewed over a 1 year period; a successively smaller number was selected for more detailed review, ultimately resulting in five, and then 1 technology, being reviewed for immediate commercialization. The chosen technology, consisting in computational chemistry based approached to optimization of enzymes, was tested in lab experiments, paid for by funds raised by ORNL for the purpose of proving out the effectiveness of the technology and readiness for commercialization. The experiments proved out that the technology worked however it's performance proved not yet mature enough to qualify for private venture capital funded commercialization in a high tech startup. As a consequence, the project did not result in a new startup company being formed, as originally intended.

  11. Documentation for the 2008-09 Teacher Follow-up Survey. NCES 2011-304

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Shawna; Parmer, Randall; Chambers, Lisa; Tourkin, Steven; Lyter, Deanna M.

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) is sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education and is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. TFS is a follow-up survey of selected elementary and secondary school teachers who participated in the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is the…

  12. Analysis of New York City's 2008-09 Approved Contract for Excellence Allocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the New York State Legislature with the leadership of the Governor passed historic education legislation that provided for a multi-year infusion of new school funding; the creation of a clear cut system of accountability for new funds distributed under the legislation; and a fair and simple funding formula, known as Foundation Aid.…

  13. Teacher Incentives in Developing Countries: Recent Experimental Evidence from Kenya. Working Paper 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glewwe, Paul; Ilias, Nauman; Kremer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent evidence on the impact of a teacher incentives program in Kenya. The results are based on a randomized trial, which removes many sources of bias that can arise in analyses of non-experimental data. One hundred schools in a rural area were randomly divided into 50 that participated in a teacher incentives program and 50…

  14. WWC Review of the Report "Teacher Incentive Pay and Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the New York City Bonus Program"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effects of offering a school-wide teacher performance bonus program on students' reading and mathematics achievement. The study sample included 309 high-poverty New York City public schools serving students in grades K-8 from 2007-08 to 2008-09. Of these schools, 181 were randomly chosen to be offered…

  15. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  16. Pressures of the Season: A Descriptive Look at Classroom Quality in Second and Third Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Stephen B.; Condliffe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This report presents findings from two years of classroom observation designed to help understand the in-school experiences of students who had been first graders in eight Baltimore public schools in 2007-08. During the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years, the authors conducted fieldwork to understand learning opportunities and settings for a set of…

  17. Prekindergarten Participation Rates in West Virginia. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraghty, Thomas M.; Holian, Laura; Gyekye, Adwoa

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, in response to concerns of state policymakers, Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia published "West Virginia's progress toward universal prekindergarten" (Cavalluzzo et al. 2009), which covered school years 2002/03-2006/07. This follow-up brief updates that report with data for 2007/08-2010/11. It compares the shares of preK seats…

  18. Meeting Oregon's New High School Math Graduation Requirements: Examining Student Enrollment and Teacher Availability. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Sage, Nicole; Ishimaru, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Disaggregating the data across four school variables--size, locale, racial/ethnic minority population, and population eligible for free or reduced-price lunch--this study examines the extent to which Oregon grade 9-12 students enrolled in high school math courses during 2006/07 and 2007/08 would not have been on track to graduate had the new…

  19. Meeting Oregon's New High School Math Graduation Requirements: Examining Student Enrollment and Teacher Availability. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Sage, Nicole; Ishimaru, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Disaggregating the data across four school variables--size, locale, racial/ethnic minority population, and population eligible for free or reduced-price lunch--this study examines the extent to which Oregon grade 9-12 students enrolled in high school math courses during 2006/07 and 2007/08 would not have been on track to graduate had the new…

  20. Snapshots of Indiana's Full-Day Kindergarten Programs before and after the State's Funding Increase for the Program. REL Technical Brief. REL 2009-No. 013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Rachel; Kochanek, Julie; Mathers, Carrie; Burke, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The Indiana General Assembly increased the state grant funds for full-day kindergarten from $8.5 million for 2006/07 to $33.5 million for 2007/08. Following the increase in funding, the Indiana Department of Education and the Indiana State Board of Education requested assistance from Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest to analyze Indiana…

  1. Alabama Department of Education Quick Facts, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics; Alabama public schools 2007-08; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data; public school size and enrollment; transportation; school meals; school personnel, 2007-2008; graduation requirements; student assessment; additional enrollment; and dropouts, 2006-07.

  2. Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Hamilton, Laura; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ballou, Dale; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Pepper, Matthew; Lockwood, J. R.; Stecher, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Project on Incentives in Teaching (POINT) was a three-year study conducted in the Metropolitan Nashville School System from 2006-07 through 2008-09, in which middle school mathematics teachers voluntarily participated in a controlled experiment to assess the effect of financial rewards for teachers whose students showed unusually large gains…

  3. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether offering financial incentives to teachers of fifth- through eighth-grade math students improved their students' achievement on the math section of the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. The study took place in the Metropolitan Nashville Public School District during the 2006-07 through 2008-09 school years. It…

  4. Varicella routine vaccination and the effects on varicella epidemiology – results from the Bavarian Varicella Surveillance Project (BaVariPro), 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiology were investigated. Methods Data on varicella vaccinations, cases and complications were collected from annual parent surveys (2006-2011), monthly paediatric practice surveillance (Oct 2006 - Sep 2011; five varicella seasons) and paediatric hospital databases (2005-2009) in the area of Munich (about 238,000 paediatric inhabitants); annual incidences of cases and hospitalisations were estimated. Results Varicella vaccination coverage (1st dose) in children 18-36 months of age increased in two steps (38%, 51%, 53%, 53%, 66% and 68%); second-dose coverage reached 59% in the 2011 survey. A monthly mean of 82 (62%) practices participated; they applied a total of 50,059 first-dose and 40,541 second-dose varicella vaccinations, with preferential use of combined MMR-varicella vaccine after recommendation of two doses, and reported a total of 16,054 varicella cases <17 years of age. The mean number of cases decreased by 67% in two steps, from 6.6 (95%CI 6.1-7.0) per 1,000 patient contacts in season 2006/07 to 4.2 (95%CI 3.9-4.6) in 2007/08 and 4.0 (95%CI 3.6-4.3) in 2008/09, and further to 2.3 (95%CI 2.0-2.6) in 2009/10 and 2.2 (95%CI 1.9-2.5) in 2010/11. The decrease occurred in all paediatric age groups, indicating herd protection effects. Incidence of varicella was estimated as 78/1,000 children <17 years of age in 2006/07, and 19/1,000 in 2010/11. Vaccinated cases increased from 0.3 (95%0.2-0.3) per 1,000 patient contacts in 2006/07 to 0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.5) until 2008/09 and decreased to 0.2 (95%CI 0.2-0.3) until 2010/11. The practices treated a total of 134 complicated cases, mainly with skin complications. The paediatric hospitals recorded a total of 178 varicella patients, including 40 (22.5%) with neurological complications and one (0.6%) fatality due

  5. Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in the United States: Fall 2008, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2007-08, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2007-08: First Look. NCES 2009-165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) collects institution-level data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions, such as Puerto Rico. For IPEDS, a postsecondary institution is defined as an organization that is open to the public and has as its…

  6. Financial Inequality in Higher Education: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2007-01-01

    Financial inequality is growing in U.S. higher education. In this report, the author observes increasing differences between the endowments of rich and poor institutions, between the salaries of college and university presidents and their faculties, between the salaries of athletic coaches and professors, and between well and poorly compensated…

  7. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

  8. Higher Education Capital Improvements, 1997-98 through 2006-07. Status Report Presented to the Legislative Capital Development Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    This report summarizes a $1,219.6 million ten-year higher education capital improvement program in Colorado for 354 projects, including academic facilities, building safety and protection systems, research and clinical space, student housing, auxiliary services, and athletics. Summary text and graphs describe the purpose of the capital…

  9. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured once in 2006 and once in 2007 at Moenkopi School Spring. Flow decreased by 18.9 percent at Moenkopi School Spring. During the period of record, flow fluctuated, and a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi (1976 to 2006), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs (1993 to 2006), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa (1994 to 2006), and Pasture Canyon Springs (August 2004 to December 2006). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained even, showing neither a significant increase nor decrease in flows. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring for a trend to be apparent. In 2007, water samples were collected from 1 well and 1 spring in the Black Mesa area and were analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at Peabody well 5 for the period of record, and there is an apparent increasing trend. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record.

  10. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  11. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading from Surface Water and Groundwater to Sweitzer Lake, Colorado, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. Sweitzer Lake was placed on the State 303(d) list as impaired with respect to dissolved selenium. In Colorado, the Water Quality Control Division of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment is required to develop total maximum daily loads of selenium for the 303(d) list segments. The U.S. Geological survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading from surface water and ground water to Sweitzer Lake to support the total maximum daily loads development process. Surface-water and groundwater data were collected to quantify selenium concentrations and loads to Sweitzer Lake from October 2006 to October 2007. These data were used to determine the amount of selenium load (pounds annually) that would need to be reduced for the contributing sources (surface water and groundwater) to meet the State chronic aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium, herein referred to as 'a load reduction.' Selenium concentration data were also compared to the State acute aquatic-life standard of 18.4 micrograms per liter for dissolved selenium. Both surface-water and groundwater-quality samples collected during this study were found to exceed the chronic standard. Surface-water quantity and quality data were collected at Garnet Canal Diversion and Diversion Drain. Groundwater flux data were collected at 10 seepage-meter sires in Sweitzer Lake, and groundwater-quality data were collected at a groundwater seep and inferred from a January 2007 sample collected at Garnet Canal Diversion. Selenium concentrations and loads were greater at Garnet Canal Diversion than those observed at Diversion Drain. Approximately one-third of Garnet Canal Diversion-s Streamflow originates from Loutzenhizer Arroyo. Selenium concentrations observed during previous studies at Loutzenhizer Arroyo indicate high selenium concentrations and high selenium loads. All selenium concentrations in samples from Garnet Canal Diversion were greater than the chronic standard and were less that the acute standard during the irrigation season. Seventy-three percent of the annual selenium load at Garnet Canal Diversion would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. All daily mean selenium concentrations and selenium-concentration samples were greater than the chronic standard at Diversion Drain, but less than the acute standard during the irrigation season. Forty percent of the mean annual selenium loads at Diversion Drain would need to be reduced in order to meet the chronic standard. Estimated groundwater selenium loads and reductions of selenium loads to Sweitzer Lake were estimated using ranges of lake-bottom areas with positive groundwater flux and groundwater selenium concentrations. Estimated annual groundwater selenium load reductions ranged from 0.900 pound of the 1.17 pounds of annual load to 86.3 points of the 88.3 pounds of annual load for the selenium concentration scenarios over the range of lake-bottom areas. Groundwater selenium load and load reductions determined from this study identify the probably minimum and maximum values for these parameters. Further data collection and analysis could refine the range of groundwater selenium loads and load reductions.

  12. Ground-Water Data and Flow Directions in the Vicinity of Swamp Road, Licking County, Ohio, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is proposing to build a dry dam on the South Fork Licking River to mitigate flood impacts. Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of impounded floodwaters on ground-water conditions in the Swamp Road neighborhood. To obtain a better understanding of existing ground-water conditions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NRCS, installed three monitoring wells and collected ground-water-quality samples on two occasions from these and four residential wells. In addition, transducers were placed in these seven wells to obtain hourly water-level measurements from August, 2006 to early March, 2007. Intermittent water levels also were measured in another seven residential wells in the area. Water-quality samples were collected in September 2006 and January 2007. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, inorganic elements, and fecal-indicator bacteria. In general, the ground-water quality was very hard with large iron concentrations of 1,700 ?g/L and above. Although the aquifer underlying the Swamp Road area is confined, the continuous water-level records indicate a rapid response to precipitation. Comparison of the well hydrographs with the stage hydrograph for the nearby South Fork Licking River indicates a hydraulic connection between the river and the aquifer. In the vicinity of Swamp Road, the ground-water-flow direction was southeast during the duration of the study. The ground-water-level elevations were above the planned maximum elevation for water impounded by the dam, thus the impounded floodwater should have minimal impact on ground-water conditions along Swamp Road.

  13. Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in the United States: Fall 2009, Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2008-09, and 12-Month Enrollment: 2008-09. First Look. NCES 2010-161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2009 data collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2009-10 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009, and 12-Month Enrollment covering academic year…

  14. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 5: Are There Differences in Achievement between Boys and Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, looks at the achievement of boys and girls on the state reading and mathematics tests used for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) accountability. The report addresses four main questions: (1) What is the current status of performance differences between boys and…

  15. Trends in Graduate Borrowing: Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2010-180

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie; Skomsvold, Paul

    2010-01-01

    From 1995 to 2007, fall enrollment for graduate and professional students increased by 30 percent, from 2 to 2.6 million students (Snyder, Dillow, and Hoffman 2009, tables 206 and 207). Average tuition and fees also went up over this same period; the average full-time tuition and fees paid by graduate students increased 37 percent, in…

  16. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes and crayfish at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter; Johnson, Danielle; Hereford, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study provides baseline data of native and non-native fish populations in Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Nye County, Nevada, that can serve as a gauge in native fish enhancement efforts. In support of Carson Slough restoration, comprehensive surveys of Ash Meadows NWR fishes were conducted seasonally from fall 2007 through summer 2008. A total of 853 sampling stations were created using Geographic Information Systems and National Agricultural Imagery Program. In four seasons of sampling, Amargosa pupfish (genus Cyprinodon) was captured at 388 of 659 stations. The number of captured Amargosa pupfish ranged from 5,815 (winter 2008) to 8,346 (summer 2008). The greatest success in capturing Amargosa pupfish was in warm water spring-pools with temperature greater than 25 degrees C, headwaters of warm water spring systems, and shallow (depths less than 10 centimeters) grassy marshes. In four seasons of sampling, Ash Meadows speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus nevadesis) was captured at 96 of 659 stations. The number of captured Ash Meadows speckled dace ranged from 1,009 (summer 2008) to 1,552 (winter 2008). The greatest success in capturing Ash Meadows speckled dace was in cool water spring-pools with temperature less than 20 degrees C and in the high flowing water outflows. Among 659 sampling stations within the range of Amargosa pupfish, red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was collected at 458 stations, western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) at 374 stations, and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) at 128 stations. School Springs was restored during the course of this study. Prior to restoration of School Springs, maximum Warm Springs Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis pectoralis) captured from the six springs of the Warm Springs Complex was 765 (fall 2007). In four seasons of sampling, Warm Springs Amargosa pupfish were captured at 85 of 177 stations. The greatest success in capturing Warm Springs Amargosa pupfish when co-occurring with red swamp crayfish and western mosquitofish was in water with temperature greater than 26 degrees C near the springhead, and in shallow (depths less than 10 centimeters) grassy marshes. Among 177 sampling stations within the range of Warm Springs Amargosa pupfish, red swamp crayfish were collected at 96 stations and western mosquitofish were collected at 49 stations. Removal of convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) from Fairbanks Spring was followed by a substantial increase in Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) captures from 910 pre-removal to 3,056 post-removal. Red swamp crayfish was continually removed from Bradford 1 Spring, which seemed to cause an increase in the speckled dace population. Restoration of Kings Pool and Jackrabbit Springs promoted the success of native fishes with the greatest densities in restored reaches. Ongoing restoration of Carson Slough and its tributaries, as well as control and elimination of invasive species, is expected to increase abundance and distribution of Ash Meadows' native fish populations. Further analysis of data from this study will help determine the habitat characteristic(s) that promote native species and curtail non-native species.

  17. Atmospheric winter conditions 2007/08 over the Arctic Ocean based on NP-35 data and regional model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, M.; Zinoviev, N. S.; Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A.; Kustov, V. J.; Makshtas, A. P.; Sokolov, V. T.; Neuber, R.; Maturilli, M.; Klaus, D.; Handorf, D.; Graeser, J.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric measurements on the drifting Arctic sea ice station "North Pole-35" crossing the Eastern part of the Arctic Ocean during winter 2007/2008 have been compared with regional atmospheric HIRHAM model simulations. The observed near-surface temperature, mean sea level pressure and the vertical temperature, wind and humidity profiles are satisfactorily reproduced by the model. The strongest temperature differences between observations and the simulations occur near the surface due to an overestimated vertical mixing of heat in the stable Arctic boundary layer (ABL). The observations show very strong temperature inversions near the surface, whereas the simulated inversions occur frequently between the surface and 415 m at too high levels. The simulations are not able to reproduce the observed inversion strength. The regional model underestimates the wind speeds and the sharp vertical wind gradients. The strength of internal atmospheric dynamics on the temporal development of atmospheric surface variables and vertical profiles of temperature, wind and relative humidity has been examined. Although the HIRHAM model systematically overestimates relative humidity and produces too high long-wave downward radiation during winter, two different atmospheric circulation states, which are connected to higher or lower pressure systems over the Eastern part of the Arctic Ocean, are simulated in agreement with the NP-35 observations. Sensitivity studies with reduced vertical mixing of heat in the stable ABL have been carried out. A slower increase in the stability functions with decreasing Richardson number under stable stratification has an impact on the horizontal and vertical atmospheric structure. Changes in synoptical cyclones on time scales from 1-3 days over the North Atlantic cyclone path are generated, which influences the atmospheric baroclinic and planetary waves on time scales up to 20 days over the Arctic Ocean basin. The use of increased vertical stability in the model simulation leads to diminished planetary-scale variability over the Arctic Ocean.

  18. A Report on the Talent Search Program: 2007-08, With Select Comparative Data, 2002-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Talent Search (TS) program is one of the federal TRIO programs, a group of eight outreach programs funded by the U.S. Department of Education that are designed to support and assist students from disadvantaged backgrounds to progress through the academic pipeline from middle school to attainment of a postbaccalaureate degree. (Contains 6…

  19. Fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations in the Illinois River between Hennepin and Peoria, Illinois: 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupre, David H.; Hortness, Jon E.; Terrio, Paul J.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has designated portions of the Illinois River in Peoria, Woodford, and Tazewell Counties, Illinois, as impaired owing to the presence of fecal coliform bacteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tri-County Regional Planning Commission, examined the water quality in the Illinois River and major tributaries within a 47-mile reach between Peoria and Hennepin, Ill., during water year 2008 (October 2007–September 2008). Investigations included synoptic (snapshot) sampling at multiple locations in a 1-day period: once in October 2007 during lower streamflow conditions, and again in June 2008 during higher streamflow conditions. Five locations in the study area were monitored for the entire year at monthly or more frequent intervals. Two indicator bacteria were analyzed in each water sample: fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Streamflow information from previously established monitoring locations in the study area was used in the analysis. Correlation analyses were used to characterize the relation between the two fecal-indicator bacteria and the relation of either indicator to streamflow. Concentrations of the two measured fecal-indicator bacteria correlated well for all samples analyzed (r = 0.94, p E. coli: rho = -0.43, p = 0.0157). The correlation between fecal indicators and streamflow in tributaries or in the Illinois River at Hennepin was found to be statistically significant, yet moderate in strength with coefficient values ranging from r = 0.4 to 0.6. Indirect observations from the June 2008 higher flow synoptic event may indicate continued effects from combined storm and sanitary sewers in the vicinity of the Illinois River near Peoria, Ill., contributing to observed single-sample exceedance of the State criterion for fecal coliform.

  20. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2007-08. Research Brief. Volume 0702

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  1. Merit Aid for Undergraduates: Trends from 1995-96 to 2007-08. Stats in Brief. NCES 2012-160

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.; Choy, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief first examines merit aid and other non-need-based aid from all sources and then focuses on two sources of merit aid widely cited in empirical and policy-oriented literature--postsecondary institutions and states--examining how much merit aid students received and the characteristics of students who received it. It tracks…

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 3: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    A main goal of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is to close gaps in test scores between different groups of students while raising achievement for all groups. Of particular concern are the persistent achievement gaps between African American, Latino, and Native American students and their white and Asian counterparts, and between students from…

  3. Profile of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] Candidates 2007-08 to 2011-12: Five-Year Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2011-2012 testing year held a number of significant milestones for the Graduate Management Admission Test exam. A total of 286,529 GMAT exams were administered, with 831,337 score reports sent to more than 5,200 graduate-level management programs around the world--all record numbers. This record volume reflects the increase in graduate-level…

  4. A Report on the Educational Opportunity Centers Program: 2007-08, with Select Comparative Data, 2002-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Educational Opportunity Centers (EOC) program is one of the federal TRIO programs, a group of eight outreach programs funded by the U.S. Department of Education that are designed to support and assist students from disadvantaged backgrounds to progress through the academic pipeline from middle school to attainment of a postbaccalaureate…

  5. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  6. Who Teaches High School Physics? Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S., both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  7. High School Physics Availability: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S.--both public and private--to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  8. High School Physics Courses & Enrollments: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S., both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  9. Field Trip to the Moon. LRO/LCROSS Edition. Informal Educator's Guide. EG-2008-09-48-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Field Trip to the Moon uses an inquiry-based learning approach that fosters team building and introduces participants to careers in science and engineering. The program components include the Field Trip to the Moon DVD [not included here], Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)/Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Activities, and…

  10. Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2008-09. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. NCJ 228416

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Allen J.; Harrison, Paige M.; Guerino, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-79) (PREA) requires the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) to carry out a comprehensive statistical review and analysis of the incidents and effects of prison rape for each calendar year. This report fulfills the requirement under Sec. 4(c)(2)(B)(ii) of the Act to provide a list of juvenile…

  11. Equine influenza outbreak in India (2008-09): virus isolation, sero-epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of HA gene.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Nitin; Bera, B C; Singh, B K; Shanmugasundaram, K; Gulati, B R; Barua, Sanjay; Vaid, R K; Gupta, A K; Singh, R K

    2010-07-14

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) was reported in India in June, 2008 after a gap of two decades. The outbreak started from Jammu and Kashmir (Katra), northern state of India and spread to the other parts of the country affecting equines in 11 states. The virus (H3N8) was isolated from nasal swabs obtained from clinical cases in various locations in the country including Katra (Jammu and Kashmir), Mysore (Karnataka) and Ahmedabad (Gujarat) using embryonated chicken eggs. The virus isolates were identified as H3N8 by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test titration with standard serum and by sequencing of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) gene and partial sequence of neuraminidase (NA) gene. Paired serum samples (n=271) showing more than fourfold rise in antibody titres tested from 11 states confirmed equine influenza. Serum samples (n=2517) of equines from 13 states of the country screened by HI test revealed 687 (26.85%) samples positive for antibodies to EI (H3N8). Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene confirmed the virus to be closely related to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage in American lineage. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequence of HA gene with EIV isolates from various lineages showed substitutions in the antigenic regions C and D. HA1 gene sequence had highest amino acid identity to A/eq/Gansu/7/08 and A/eq/Hubei/6/08 isolates from China and Inner-Mongolia isolate, while the complete HA gene sequence was closest to A/eq/A/eq/Newmarket/5/03, A/eq/Bari/05 and A/eq/Kentucky/05/02 isolates. Recent outbreaks of Mongolia, China and India by clade 2 EI viruses imply their predominance in Asia in addition to Europe. PMID:20053509

  12. Comparison of Mercury in Water, Bottom Sediment, and Zooplankton in Two Front Range Reservoirs in Colorado, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, conducted a study to investigate environmental factors that may contribute to the bioaccumulation of mercury in two Front Range reservoirs. One of the reservoirs, Brush Hollow Reservoir, currently (2009) has a fish-consumption advisory for mercury in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and the other, Pueblo Reservoir, which is nearby, does not. Water, bottom sediment, and zooplankton samples were collected during 2008 and 2009, and a sediment-incubation experiment was conducted in 2009. Total mercury concentrations were low in midlake water samples and were not substantially different between the two reservoirs. The only water samples with detectable methylmercury were collected in shallow areas of Brush Hollow Reservoir during spring. Mercury concentrations in reservoir bottom sediments were similar to those reported for stream sediments from unmined basins across the United States. Despite higher concentrations of fish-tissue mercury in Brush Hollow Reservoir, concentrations of methylmercury in sediment were as much as 3 times higher in Pueblo Reservoir. Mercury concentrations in zooplankton were at the low end of concentrations reported for temperate lakes in the Northeastern United States and were similar between sites, which may reflect the seasonal timing of sampling. Factors affecting bioaccumulation of mercury were assessed, including mercury sources, water quality, and reservoir characteristics. Atmospheric deposition was determined to be the dominant source of mercury; however, due to the proximity of the reservoirs, atmospheric inputs likely are similar in both study areas. Water-quality constituents commonly associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in fish (pH, alkalinity, sulfate, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon) did not appear to explain differences in fish-tissue mercury concentrations between the reservoirs. Low methylmercury concentrations in hypolimnetic water indicate low potential for increased methylmercury production following the development of anoxic conditions in summer. Based on the limited dataset, water-level fluctuations and shoreline characteristics appear to best explain differences in fish-tissue mercury concentrations between the reservoirs. Due to the shallow depth and the large annual water-level fluctuations at Brush Hollow Reservoir, proportionally larger areas of shoreline at Brush Hollow Reservoir are subjected to annual reflooding compared to Pueblo Reservoir. Moreover, presence of macrophyte beds and regrowth of terrestrial vegetation likely increase the organic content of near-shore sediments in Brush Hollow Reservoir, which may stimulate methylmercury production in littoral areas subject to reflooding. Results of a laboratory incubation experiment were consistent with this hypothesis.

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 5: Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; Kober, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). In most states, these tests are first administered in grade…

  14. Looking For New Ways to Make Progress: School Restructuring in Maryland, 2008-09 Follow-Up Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman-Sheldon, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    This report describes Maryland's latest approaches to dealing with restructuring schools and other schools in NCLB improvement. Information for this report was obtained between September 2008 and January 2009 from interviews with Maryland State Department of Education officials and with administrators in three Maryland districts: Anne Arundel…

  15. Atmospheric River Impacts on the Precipitation and Snowpack in California during the 2008-09 Cold Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Waliser, D. E.; Guan, B.; Molotch, N. P.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow and intense filaments of moisture flux originating in the tropical and/or subtropical oceans, account for over 90% of the poleward atmospheric moisture transport and have a profound impact on the weather and hydrology on the cold season water cycle in California's mountainous region. A number of previous studies showed that extreme hydrologic events in the region are related with a few intense moisture flux events (Soong and Kim 1996; Kim 1997; Neiman et al. 2002; Ralph et al. 2006; Kim and Kang 2007). Ralph et al. (2006) also showed that a number of historically high stages in northern California rivers can be attributed to heavy precipitation during land-falling AR events. The quantitative role of ARs and the regional water cycle, however, remains unknown. The impact of ARs on the water cycle in California, especially precipitation and snowpack in the Sierra Nevada region, during the 2008-2009 cold season has been investigated from remotely sensed, in-situ, assimilated, and model-simulated data. The results show that the significant precipitation and snowpack increases in the Sierra Nevada region during the period from late February to early March 2009 are related with two land-falling AR events. A seasonal simulation using WRF nested within the ERA-Interim reanalysis showed that the model reasonably simulated the spatial and temporal evolution of atmospheric fields and precipitation in California. Details of the water cycle, snowpack, and the simulation results obtained in this work will be presented in the poster.

  16. Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

    2011-12-01

    We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

  17. Assessing survival of Mid-Columbia River released juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, Washington, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Scott D.; Walker, Christopher E.; Brewer, Scott J.; Adams, Noah S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated survival of juvenile salmon over long river reaches in the Columbia River and information regarding the survival of sockeye salmon at lower Columbia River dams is lacking. To address these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate the possibility of using tagged fish released in the Mid-Columbia River to assess passage and survival at and downstream of McNary Dam. Using the acoustic telemetry systems already in place for a passage and survival study at McNary Dam, fish released from the tailraces of Wells, Rocky Reach, Rock Island, Wanapum, and Priest Rapids Dams were detected at McNary Dam and at the subsequent downstream arrays. These data were used to generate route-specific survival probabilities using single-release models from fish released in the Mid-Columbia River. We document trends in passage and survival probabilities at McNary Dam for yearling Chinook and sockeye salmon and juvenile steelhead released during studies in the Mid-Columbia River. Trends in the survival and passage of these juvenile salmonid species are presented and discussed. However, comparisons made across years and between study groups are not possible because of differences in the source of the test fish, the type of acoustic tags used, the absence of the use of passive integrated transponder tags in some of the release groups, differences in tagging and release protocols, annual differences in dam operations and configurations, differences in how the survival models were constructed (that is, number of routes that could be estimated given the number of fish detected), and the number and length of reaches included in the analysis (downstream reach length and arrays). Despite these differences, the data we present offer a unique opportunity to examine the migration behavior and survival of a group of fish that otherwise would not be studied. This is particularly true for sockeye salmon because little information is available about their survival as they pass hydroelectric dams in the lower Columbia River. Collecting information on fish released in the Mid-Columbia River, as well as on fish released 8 kilometers upstream of McNary Dam, allowed us to evaluate similarities and differences in passage and survival probabilities. In general, juvenile salmonids released in the Mid-Columbia River and detected at and downstream of McNary Dam showed trends in passage and survival probabilities that were similar to fish released 8 kilometers upstream of McNary Dam. This suggests that increased migration time or length of migration had little effect on behavior and survival of Mid-Columbia River released juvenile salmonids detected at McNary Dam.

  18. Evaluation of the 2008-09 DCSF-Funded Specialist Schools and Academies Trust STEM Pathfinder Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Iain; Harland, Jennie; Lord, Pippa; Straw, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This evaluation aimed to provide: (1) findings on the effectiveness of different activities and approaches to delivering science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), including leading practice and challenges; (2) a clear understanding of the impact of activities on pupils, teachers, the school and partners; and (3) a set of…

  19. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Two Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program is part of a long history of performance pay programs and policies in Texas. The GEEG program was state-funded and provided grants to schools to implement three-year locally-designed performance pay plans. During the 2005-06, 2006-07, and 2007-08 school years, the GEEG program operated in 99…

  20. Local and global influences on population declines of coastal waders: Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima numbers in the Moray Firth, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Ron W.; Foster, Simon; Swann, Bob; Etheridge, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Declines in numbers by several wader species in Britain have been linked to climate change, but the mechanism for the declines has rarely been explored. Britain lies at the northern end of the East Atlantic Flyway, and supports 1.3 million out of the Flyway's 8.5 million coastal waders (Charadrii) in winter and the Purple Sandpiper is one of the species whose numbers have declined. Here, we examine the dynamics of the decline as observed in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland, investigating whether the decline was due to poorer apparent survival (return rate) or poorer recruitment of young birds. The maximum number in the Moray Firth declined from 860 in 1987/88 to 236 in 2006/07, with some increase during winters 2007/08 and 2008/09. At the three main high-tide roosts (Balintore, Lossiemouth and Buckie) the maximum combined number declined from 574 to 90. Changes in survival and recruitment (percentage of first-year birds) were examined at these roosts from captured samples, which were ringed and recaptured. There were no significant changes between winters in survival rates, nor were there differences between the survival rates of age groups (first-year and adult) or bill size groups, which represented birds of different sex and breeding origin. Annual survival estimates for the three roosts ranged from 72 to 77%. The percentage of first-year birds varied among roosts and years; the lowest values were during the late 1980s/early 1990s and early 2000s. A free-running population model incorporating varying percentages of first-year birds and constant mortality for each roost provided a plausible explanation for the decline. Although modelled numbers followed the observed pattern, a discrepancy in one year was carried forward in subsequent years, so that the fit with the observed numbers was parallel rather than similar. However, it seems that the decline in numbers was largely due to poorer recruitment. We discuss whether breeding success had declined, whether the

  1. Effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV Vaccine Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leah M.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Strumpf, Erin C.; Lévesque, Linda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in some jurisdictions is partly attributed to fears that vaccination may increase risky sexual behaviour. We assessed the effect of HPV vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Ontario. Methods: Using Ontario’s administrative health databases, we identified a population-based cohort of girls in grade 8 in the 2 years before (2005/06 and 2006/07) and after (2007/08 and 2008/09) implementation of Ontario’s grade 8 HPV vaccination program. For each girl, we then obtained data on vaccine receipt in grades 8 and 9 and data on indicators of sexual behaviour (pregnancy and non–HPV-related sexually transmitted infections) in grades 10–12. Using a quasi-experimental method known as regression discontinuity, we estimated, for each outcome, the risk difference (RD) and relative risk (RR) attributable to vaccination and to program eligibility. Results: The cohort comprised 260 493 girls, of whom 131 781 were ineligible for the program and 128 712 were eligible. We identified 15 441 (5.9%) cases of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection and found no evidence that vaccination increased the risk of this composite outcome: RD per 1000 girls −0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] −10.71 to 9.49) and RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Similarly, we found no discernible effect of program eligibility: RD per 1000 girls −0.25 (95% CI −4.35 to 3.85) and RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.06). The findings were similar when outcomes were assessed separately. Interpretation: We present strong evidence that HPV vaccination does not have any significant effect on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls. These results suggest that concerns over increased promiscuity following HPV vaccination are unwarranted and should not deter from vaccinating at a young age. PMID:25487660

  2. Algal community characteristics and response to nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in streams in the Ozark Plateaus, Southern Missouri, 1993-95 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient and algae data were collected in the 1990s and 2000s by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Water- Quality Assessment program in the Ozark Highlands, southern Missouri. These data were collected at sites of differing drainage area, land use, nutrient concentrations, and physiography. All samples were collected at sites with a riffle/pool structure and cobble/gravel bed material. A total of 60 samples from 45 sites were available for analyses to determine relations between nutrient concentrations and algal community structure in this region. This information can be used by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to develop the State's nutrient criteria plan. Water samples collected for this study had total nitrogen concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 4.41 milligram per liter (mg/L) with a median of 0.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.78 mg/L with a median of 0.007 mg/L. These nutrient concentrations were transformed into nutrient categories consisting of varying percentiles of data. Algal community data were entered into the U.S. Geological Survey's Algae Data Analysis System for the computation of more than 250 metrics. These metrics were correlated with nutrient categories, and four metrics with the strongest relation with the nutrient data were selected. These metrics were Organic Nitrogen Tolerance, Oxygen Tolerance, Bahls Pollution Class, and the Saprobien index with the 25th and 80th percentile nutrient categories. These data indicate that near the 80th percentile (Total Nitrogen = 0.84 mg/L, Total Phosphorus = 0.035 mg/L) the algae communities significantly changed from nitrogen-fixing species dominance to those species more tolerant of eutrophic conditions.

  3. An Evaluation of the Data from the Teacher Compensation Survey: School Year 2006-07. Research and Development Report. NCES 2010-329

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Johnson, Frank; Zhou, Lei; Honegger, Steven; Noel, Amber M.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are the largest component of school spending, with more funding being allocated to teacher salaries than to any other education expense (Loeb, Miller, and Strunk 2009). Teacher and staff salaries and benefits consume up to 80 percent of current expenditures (Aud et al. 2010). Yet, there is not a wealth of data on teacher compensation.…

  4. A Digest of UNC System Reports on Freshman Performance: 2006-07. Research Watch. E&R Report No. 10.05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdzkom, David

    2010-01-01

    The University of North Carolina System (UNC) annually reports statistics related to characteristics of freshmen classes from each high school and district in the state. Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) graduates were more successful at gaining admission and making academic progress at the member institutions of the UNC system than was…

  5. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Third-Year (2006-07) Traits of Higher Technology Immersion Schools and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Sheehan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, called for the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to establish a pilot project to "immerse" schools in technology by providing a wireless mobile computing device for each teacher and student, technology-based learning resources, training for teachers to integrate technology…

  6. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2007-08 (Fiscal Year 2008). First Look. NCES 2010-326

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2010-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the Institute of Education Sciences of the U.S. Department of Education. The data are reported by state education agencies (SEAs). The finance data are reported to the U.S. Census Bureau,…

  7. Profile of Graduate and First-Professional Students: Trends from Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-219

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment in graduate and first-professional education in the United States has increased in recent years--from about 2 million students in fall 1995 to more than 2.6 million students in fall 2007 (Snyder, Dillow, and Hoffman 2009, tables 206 and 207). Increasing enrollments overall raise questions regarding the types of students entering…

  8. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Final Outcomes for a Four-Year Study (2004-05 to 2007-08)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, was based on the assumption that the use of technology in Texas public schools could be achieved more effectively by "immersing" schools in technology rather than by introducing technology resources, such as hardware, software, digital content, and educator training,…

  9. Analyzing Performance by Pennsylvania Grade 8 Hispanic Students on the 2007/08 State Assessment. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling; Strickland, Martha; Wise, John

    2012-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2009, the Hispanic population more than doubled in 25 of 67 Pennsylvania counties. Over the same period, the Hispanic student population in Pennsylvania schools also rose, from 4 percent to 8 percent (Pennsylvania State Data Center 2011). The focus on Hispanic students' level of academic achievement rose along with this rapid…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 6: Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for English Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines progress in raising achievement for English language learners. It also describes the factors that make it difficult to accurately assess what ELLs know and can do. The data for this analysis were collected by CEP with technical support from the…

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08, Part 4: Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for Students with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) holds schools, districts, and states accountable for improving the academic achievement of all students, including the nearly 14% of public school students who receive special education services because they have an identified disability. By 2014, 100% of students with disabilities are expected to…

  12. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected in nearly all of the subbasins in the Cambridge drinking-water source area and from Fresh Pond during the study period. Discrete water samples were collected during base-flow conditions with an antecedent dry period of at least 3 days. Composite sampl

  13. State Test Score Trends through 2007-08. Part 1: Is the Emphasis on "Proficiency" Shortchanging Higher- and Lower-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports describing results from the Center on Education Policy's (CEP's) third annual analysis of state testing data. The report provides an update on student performance at the proficient level of achievement, and for the first time, includes data about student performance at the advanced and basic levels.…

  14. The Toughest Test: The Student Loan Liquidity Crisis of 2007-08 in Texas. A Report to the 81st Regular Session of the Texas Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jeff; McQueen, Carla; Creusere, Marlena; Lukens, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The credit market in the United States currently suffers from a rare and serious disruption. Once flowing with liquidity, the creativity and vibrancy of these markets helped fuel an economy that had been the envy of the world. Poor repayment performance in the subprime mortgage market has now reduced the availability of funds needed for other…

  15. What Is the Price of College? Total, Net, and Out-of-Pocket Prices in 2007-08. Stats in Brief. NCES 2011-175

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Christina Chang

    2010-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief illustrates the kinds of questions that national data can answer about the amounts U.S. undergraduates pay annually, on average, for postsecondary education, with and without financial aid. This brief draws upon the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS), a nationally representative survey of all postsecondary…

  16. Beginning Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the First through Third Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. First Look. NCES 2011-318

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    While the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has conducted surveys of attrition and mobility among school teachers for two decades, little was known specifically about the early career patterns of beginning teachers. In order to inform discussions and decisions among policymakers, researchers, and parents, the Beginning Teacher…

  17. First confirmation of foot and mouth disease virus serotype SAT-1 in cattle and small ruminants in Ethiopia in 2007/08.

    PubMed

    Legesse, Yoseph; Asfaw, Yilkal; Sahle, Mesfin; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted in three regional states of Ethiopia: Amhara, Oromia, and the Southern Nations Nationalities and people regional state from August 2007 to April 2008 with the objective of identifying the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in the region. Two serotypes were recorded from epithelial tissue and oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) fluid that were taken from outbreaks in study regions of Ethiopia. Serotype O FMDV was identified in Girar Jarso, Yabello, and Ankesha Guagusa districts while SAT-1 was isolated in Surma and Maji districts from tissue samples and this was the first report of the FMDV serotype in Ethiopia. Similarly, the OP fluid samples were found positive for SAT-1 FMDV in Maji and Surma districts. PMID:23250672

  18. Long-Billed Curlew Breeding Success on Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges, South-Central Washington and North-Central Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stocking, Jessica; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Holcomb, Neil; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus) reproductive success was evaluated on the Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges of south-central Washington and north-central Oregon during the 2007 and 2008 breeding seasons. Additionally, we assisted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in collecting information on distribution, abundance, and brood habitat for this shorebird species of conservation concern. A total of 32 breeding pairs were located on the refuges in 2007 and 35 pairs were located in 2008. We monitored 17 nests in 2007 and 23 nests in 2008. Curlew pairs were most abundant on Hanford Reach National Monument in 2007 but more nests were located on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge in both years, with Columbia National Wildlife Refuge supporting few pairs. Nest success was 23.6 percent in 2007 and 32.9 percent in 2008 after taking into account exposure time and combining data for all the refuges. We were unable to detect any relationship between nest success and habitat type or habitat variables measured. However, our study was the first to document use of agricultural fields on the refuge as curlew nest habitat. We collected 39 and 28 brood locations in 2007 and 2008, respectively, and many observations were likely resightings of the same brood. Broods used a similar variety of habitats as nesting curlew and no clear habitat use pattern was detected.

  19. High Five PLT Survey Results, 2007-08 to 2012-13.Data Trends. D&A Report No. 13.09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackl, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Within Professional Learning Teams, or PLTs, teachers actively collaborate, share expertise, improve their skills, examine and use various forms of data, and learn from each other--all for the purpose of improved student learning. Over the years the concept of PLTs has become increasingly familiar to Wake County Public School System (WCPSS)…

  20. Assessing Substance Use and Abuse among Adolescents: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa

    2007-01-01

    This brief discusses the signs and symptoms of alcohol and drug use and provides recommendations to assess substance use among youth in your program. It is not uncommon for adolescents to experiment with different substances such as alcohol or cigarettes, but this can lead to heavy and continued use, which is dangerous and may put their health at…

  1. Military Service Members and Veterans: A Profile of Those Enrolled in Undergraduate and Graduate Education in 2007-08. Stats in Brief. NCES 2011-163

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Alexandria Walton

    2011-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief uses nationally representative data to determine the representation of military students in undergraduate and graduate education and to examine how their demographic and enrollment characteristics compare with their nonmilitary peers. The brief draws upon two nationally representative studies of postsecondary students, the…

  2. Epidemic outbreaks, diagnostics, and control measures of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2007-08.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaguang; Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; Khan, Owais Ahmed; Al Hammad, Yousef; Abdel Rhman, Salah Shaban; Al-Blowi, Mohamed Hamad

    2010-03-01

    The first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) occurred in two "backyard" flocks of Houbara bustards and falcons in February 2007. Subsequent outbreaks were seen through the end of 2007 in "backyard" birds including native chickens, ostriches, turkeys, ducks, and peacocks. From November 2007 through January 2008, H5N1 HPAI outbreaks occurred in 19 commercial poultry premises, including two broiler breeder farms, one layer breeder farm, one ostrich farm, and 15 commercial layer farms, with approximately 4.75 million birds affected. Laboratory diagnosis of all H5N1-positive cases was conducted at the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (CVDL) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A combination of diagnostic tests was used to confirm the laboratory diagnosis. A rapid antigen-capture test and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assay on clinical and field specimens were conducted initially. Meanwhile, virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs was performed and was followed by hemagglutinin (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition tests, then rapid antigen-capture and rtRT-PCR tests on HA-positive allantoic fluid samples. In most HPAI cases, a complete laboratory diagnosis was made within 24-48 hr at the CVDL. Saudi Arabian government officials made immediate decisions to depopulate all H5N1-affected and nonaffected flocks within a 5-km radius area and applied quarantine zones to prevent the virus from spreading to other areas. Other control measures, such as closure of live bird markets and intensive surveillance tests on all poultry species within quarantine zones, were in place during the outbreaks. As a result, the HPAI outbreaks were quickly controlled, and no positive cases were detected after January 29, 2008. The KSA was declared free of HPAI on April 30, 2008, by the World Animal Health Organization. PMID:20521658

  3. First-Year Undergraduate Remedial Coursetaking: 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2013-013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Education's Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Blueprint for Reform is to improve the college readiness of high school graduates (U.S. Department of Education 2010). College readiness is a complex benchmark and has been measured in several ways, including transcript analysis (Adelman 2006) and…

  4. Historical and Near Real-Time Physical, Chemical, and Biological Oceanographic Data in Support of the International Polar Year 2007-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatusko, R. L.; Allegra, A. J.; Beattie, J. A.; Dwivedi, P. H.; Grimes, D.; Hamilton, M. A.; Levitus, S.; Sun, C. L.; Woods, M. H.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), located in Silver Spring, Maryland, has extensive capabilities in archiving and providing public access to polar oceanographic and coastal data, products, and information. The World Ocean Database (WOD), a scientifically quality-controlled, global, oceanographic database, is the most comprehensive database of historical ocean profile data and plankton measurements in existence. The World Data Center for Oceanography (WDC) in Silver Spring conducts international exchange of oceanographic observations in accordance with the principles set forth by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The WDC is collocated with and operated by the NODC, and it also leads the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue (GODAR) project, which attempts to locate and rescue historical data that are at risk of being lost due to media decay or neglect, and the IOC World Ocean Database (WOD) project, which is intended to stimulate international exchange of modern oceanographic data. The WOD will continue to be enhanced as new data is received through the WDC, IOC projects, and data incorporated into the NODC Archive Management and Metadata System (AMS). The Ocean Archive System (OAS) is the public Web interface to the AMS, and it provides access to original sets of ocean data as they were provided to (and archived by) the NODC. The NODC also participates in the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), which is a cooperative international program designed to develop and maintain a global ocean T-S resource with data that are as up-to-date and of the highest quality as possible. It also operates the long-term archive for Argo data, also known as the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR). The NOAA Central Library, also a division of NODC, maintains the largest meteorological collection in the western hemisphere and supports extensive oceanographic and fishery materials and data related to exploration in the polar regions, which is augmented by the collection at the Regional Branch in Seattle, WA. This presentation will describe the various ongoing activities within NODC that can support the mission of the International Polar Year 2007.

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; McMurrer, Jennifer; Silva, Malini R.

    2011-01-01

    Title I provides extra instructional services designed to raise achievement for low-performing students in schools with relatively high poverty rates, and for all students in many of the nation's highest-poverty schools. To learn more about how well Title I students are performing academically, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) compared…

  6. Under-Represented Minorities in High School Physics: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2011-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S., both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  7. Female Students in High School Physics: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2011-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S., both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. The authors received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  8. Movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Idaho and Nevada, 2008-09--A supplement to Open-File Report 2010-1033

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munz, Carrie S.; Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in 2008 and 2009 as a continuation of our work in 2006 and 2007, which involved the tagging of 1,536 bull trout with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River and their tributaries in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed PIT tag interrogation systems (PTISs) at established locations soon after ice-out, and maintained the PTISs in order to collect information on bull trout movements through December of each year. We observed a marked increase of movement in 2008 and 2009. Bull trout tagged in the uppermost portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River at altitudes greater than 2,100 meters moved to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River in summer and autumn. Ten bull trout tagged upstream of the confluence of Pine Creek and the West Fork Jarbidge River moved downstream and then upstream in the East Fork Jarbidge River, and then past the PTIS at Murphy Hot Springs (river kilometer [rkm] 4.1). Two of these fish ascended Dave Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Jarbidge River, past the PTIS at rkm 0.4. One bull trout that was tagged at rkm 11 in Dave Creek on June 28, 2007 moved downstream to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River (rkm 0) on July 28, 2007, and it was then detected in the West Fork Jarbidge River moving past our PTIS at rkm 15 on May 4, 2008. Combined, the extent and types of bull trout movements observed indicated that the primarily age-1 and age-2 bull trout that we tagged in 2006 and 2007 showed increased movement with age and evidence of a substantial amount of fluvial life history. The movements suggest strong connectivity between spawning areas and downstream mainstem areas, as well as between the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River.

  9. Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Local Education Agency Universe Survey: School Year 2008-09, Version 1a. NCES 2010-351

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) nonfiscal surveys consist of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) by state education agencies (SEAs) in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the four U.S. Island Areas (American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin…

  10. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2008-09 (Fiscal Year 2009). First Look. NCES 2011-329

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank; Zhou, Lei; Nakamoto, Nanae

    2011-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the Institute of Education Sciences of the U.S. Department of Education. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the data collection for the finance surveys on behalf of NCES. State education…

  11. Lunar Nautics: Designing a Mission to Live and Work on the Moon. An Educator's Guide for Grades 6-8. EG-2008-09-129-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Lunar Nautics is a hands-on curriculum targeted to youth in grades 6 to 8, that allows the students to design, test, analyze and manage a space mission from initial concept to project funding. Lunar Nautics provides opportunities for development of problem solving skills and critical thinking skills that are needed to design, organize and manage a…

  12. Preliminary assessment of chloride concentrations, loads, and yields in selected watersheds along the Interstate 95 corridor, southeastern Connecticut, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Mullaney, John R.; Morrison, Jonathan; Mondazzi, Remo

    2011-01-01

    Water-quality conditions were assessed to evaluate potential effects of road-deicer applications on stream-water quality in four watersheds along Interstate 95 (I-95) in southeastern Connecticut from November 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009. This preliminary study is part of a four-year cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT). Streamflow and water quality were studied at four watersheds?Four Mile River, Oil Mill Brook, Stony Brook, and Jordan Brook. Water-quality samples were collected and specific conductance was measured continuously at paired water-quality monitoring sites upstream and downstream from I-95. Specific conductance values were related to chloride (Cl) concentrations to assist in determining the effects of road-deicing operations on the levels of Cl in the streams. Streamflow and water-quality data were compared with weather data and with the timing, amount, and composition of deicers applied to state highways. Grab samples were collected during winter stormwater-runoff events, such as winter storms or periods of rain or warm temperatures in which melting takes place, and periodically during the spring and summer. Cl concentrations at the eight water-quality monitoring sites were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended chronic and acute Cl toxicity criteria of 230 and 860 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations in streams, particularly at sites downstream from I-95, peaked during discharge events in the winter and early spring as a result of deicers applied to roads and washed off by stormwater or meltwater. During winter storms, deicing activities, or subsequent periods of melting, specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations peaked as high as 703 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) and 160 mg/L at the downstream sites. During most of the spring and summer, specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations decreased during discharge events because the low-ionic strength of stormwater had a diluting effect on stream-water quality. However, peaks in specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations at Jordan Brook and Stony Brook corresponded to peaks in streamflow well after winter snow or ice events; these delayed peaks in Cl concentration likely resulted from deicing salts that remained in melting snow piles and (or) that were flushed from soils and shallow groundwater, then discharged downstream. Cl loads in streams generally were highest in the winter and early spring. The estimated load for the period of record at the four monitoring sites downstream from I-95 ranged from 0.33 ton per day (ton/d) at the Stony Brook watershed to 0.59 ton/d at the Jordan Brook watershed. The Cl yields ranged from 0.07 ton per day per square mile (ton/d/)mi2) at Oil Mill Brook, one of the least developed watersheds, to 0.21 (ton/d)/mi2) at Jordan Brook, the watershed with the highest percentage of urban development and impervious surfaces. The median estimates of Cl load from atmospheric deposition ranged from 11 to 19 tons, and contributed 4.3 to 7.1 percent of the Cl load in streamflow from the watershed areas. A comparison of the Cl load input and output estimates indicates that less Cl is leaving the watersheds than is entering through atmospheric deposition and application of deicers. The lag time between introduction of Cl to the watershed and transport to the stream, and uncertainty in the load estimates may be the reasons for this discrepancy. In addition, estimates of direct infiltration of Cl to groundwater from atmospheric deposition, deicer applications, and septic-tank drainfields to groundwater were outside the scope of the November 2008 to September 2009 assessment. However, increased concentrations of ions were observed between upstream and downstream sites and could result from deicer appli

  13. Improving Special Education in the Rochester City Schools: Report of the Strategic Support Team of the Council of the Great City Schools, Winter 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report by the Council of the Great City Schools to the Rochester City School District presents the organization's findings and recommendations for improving the special education program in the school system, placing special emphasis on the organizational structure of the program, accountability, and how the instructional program generally…

  14. Accelerating Achievement in the Denver Public Schools: Report of the Strategic Support Team of the Council of the Great City Schools, Winter 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Council of the Great City Schools reviewed the efforts of the Denver Public School System to improve student achievement, compared the district's practices with those of urban school districts that have seen significant gains in student achievement, and recommended strategies to improve student achievement in Denver. To conduct its work, the…

  15. Effectiveness of catch basins equipped with hoods in retaining gross solids and hydrocarbons in highway runoff, Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater mobilizes litter and other debris along the roadway where it is transported to the highway drainage systems. Initial treatment for stormwater runoff typically is provided by catch basins in highway settings. Modification of catch basins to include hoods that cover the catch-basin outlet is intended to enhance catch-basin performance by retaining floatable debris and various hydrophobic organic compounds that tend to float on the water surface within the sump of the catch basin. The effectiveness of six deep-sump off-line catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing the mass of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter and concentrations of oil and grease (OG) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was examined along the Southeast Expressway, in Boston, Massachusetts. Two deep-sump catch basins were equipped with cast-iron hoods. Three were equipped with molded plastic hoods, known as an Eliminator, and a single catch basin was equipped with a fiberglass anti-siphoning hood, known as a Snout. Samples of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter, excluding gravel and metallic materials, were routinely collected for a 6-month period from a collection structure mounted at the end of each catch-basin outlet pipe. After about 6 months, all floatable, saturated low-density and high-density solids were removed from each catch basin. In addition to the collection of samples of gross solids, samples of sump water from five catch basins and flow-weighted composite samples of stormwater from the outlet of one catch basin were collected and analyzed for concentrations of OG and TPH. A mass balance approach was used to assess the effectiveness of each catch basin equipped with a hood in retaining gross solids. The effectiveness of the deep-sump catch basins fitted with one of three types of hoods in retaining gross solids ranged from 27 to 52 percent. From 45 to 90 percent of the gross solids collected from the catch-basin sumps were composed of materials made of high-density plastics that did not float in water, and as a result, the effect that the catch-basin hoods had on these materials likely was marginal. The effectiveness for the deep-sump hooded catch basins, excluding the mass of high-density materials identified in the solids collected from the outlet pipe and the sump of the catch basins, ranged from 13 to 38 percent. The effectiveness for each catch basin, based solely on the material that remained floating at the end of the monitoring period, was less than 11 percent; however, these values likely underestimate the effectiveness of the hooded catch basins because much of the low-density material collected from the sumps may have been retained as floatable material before it was saturated and settled during non-storm conditions. The effectiveness of the catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing gross solids was not greatly different among the three types of hoods tested in this study. Concentrations of OG and TPH collected from the water surface of the catch-basins varied from catch basin to catch basin and were similar to concentrations of flow-weighted composite samples collected during storms. Comparisons indicate concentrations of OG and TPH in flow-weighted composite samples collected at the outlet of a catch basin equipped with an Eliminator hood were not substantially different from concentrations of the respective constituents in flow-weighted composite samples collected during a previous study from catch basins containing cast-iron hoods in the same study area. The similarity between these flow-weighted concentrations and the concentrations of the respective constituents in a vertical profile sample collected from the catch-basin sump indicates that OG and TPH are emulsified in the sump of each catch basin during storms and circumvent the hoods.

  16. Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2008-09 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. First Look. NCES 2010-353

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) is a follow-up of a sample of the elementary and secondary school teachers who participated in the previous year's Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). The TFS sample includes teachers who leave teaching in the year after the SASS data collection and those who continue to teach. The objective of TFS is to provide…

  17. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2008-09. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-301

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris; Mitchell, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  18. Estimated suspended-sediment loads and yields in the French and Brandywine Creek Basins, Chester County, Pennsylvania, water years 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Olson, Leif E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at four stream stations--French Creek near Phoenixville, West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, and East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown--in Chester County, Pa. Sedimentation and siltation is the leading cause of stream impairment in Chester County, and these data are critical for quantifying sediment transport. This study was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department. Data from optical turbidity sensors deployed at the four stations were recorded at 15- or 30-minute intervals by a data logger and uploaded every 1 to 4 hours to the USGS database. Most of the suspended-sediment samples were collected using automated samplers. The use of optical sensors to continuously monitor turbidity provided an accurate estimate of sediment fluctuations without the collection and analysis costs associated with intensive sampling during storms. Turbidity was used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is a measure of sedimentation and siltation. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity for each of the monitoring stations using SSC data collected from the automated samplers and turbidity data collected at each station. Instantaneous suspended-sediment loads (SSL) were computed from time-series turbidity and discharge data for the 2008 and 2009 water years using the regression equations. The instantaneous computations of SSL were summed to provide daily, storm, and water year annual loads. The annual SSL contributed from each basin was divided by the upstream drainage area to estimate the annual sediment yield. For all four basins, storms provided more than 96 percent of the annual SSL. In each basin, four storms generally provided over half the annual SSL each water year. Stormflows with the highest peak discharges generally carried the highest SSLs. For all stations, the greatest SSLs occurred during the late winter in February and March during the 2008 water year. During the 2009 water year, the greatest SSLs occurred during December and August. For French Creek near Phoenixville, the estimated annual SSL was 3,500 tons, and the estimated yield was 59.1 tons per square mile (ton/mi2) for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 4,390 tons, and the yield was 74.3 ton/mi2. For West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, the estimated annual SSL was 4,580 tons, and the estimated yield was 245 ton/mi2 for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 2,300 tons, and the yield was 123 ton/mi2. For West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, the estimated annual SSL was 7,480 tons, and the estimated yield was 136 ton/mi2 for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 4,930 tons, and the yield was 90 ton/mi2. For East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown, the estimated annual SSL was 8,900 tons, and the estimated yield was 100 ton/mi2 for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 7,590 tons, and the yield was 84 ton/mi2.

  19. Smoking and poverty in Brazil: an analysis of the profile of the smoking population based on the 2008-09 Brazilian government Family Budget Survey.

    PubMed

    Bazotti, Angelita; Finokiet, Manuela; Conti, Irio Luiz; França, Marco Tulio Aniceto; Waquil, Paulo Dabdab

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the Brazilian population who spent money with tobacco products. POF dataset was used from IBGE of the years 2008 and 2009. The same definition that IBGE usually use for tobacco consumer was applied, which is someone has spent money with any kind of tobacco products and its derivatives. It was used individual aspects taking into account such as gender, schooling, age (over 14 years old), income lines, regions and ethnics to characterize these populations. Descriptive statistics were employed to estimate the results and the complex sample design of the survey was considered. According to our results, on average, 10% of the Brazilian population have spent money with tobacco products. Besides, these people are older, earn low salaries and have less schooling than someone who does not consume tobacco. Moreover, for this population 1.5% of the family budget is spent on tobacco products. Last but not least, the most of tobacco consumers are men. In general, money which is spent on tobacco products can cause impressive effects on domestic budget because this value could supply other important necessities to the family. Although there are many monitoring and prevention strategies to avoid tobacco consume, deep knowledge about this population that actually consume these products can increase the efficacy of more specific policies. PMID:26816162

  20. Efficiency Assessment of a Blended-Learning Educational Methodology in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogado, Ana Belén González; Conde, Ma José Rodríguez; Migueláñez, Susana Olmos; Riaza, Blanca García; Peñalvo, Francisco José García

    The content of this presentation highlights the importance of an active learning methodology in engineering university degrees in Spain. We present of some of the outcomes from an experimental study carried out during the academic years 2007/08 and 2008/09 with engineering students (Technical Industrial Engineering: Mechanics, Civical Design Engineering: Civical building, Technical Architecture and Technical Engineering on Computer Management.) at the University of Salamanca. In this research we select a subject which is common for the four degrees: Computer Science. This study has the aim of contributing to the improvement of education and teaching methods for a better performance of students in Engineering.

  1. The transition from summit to flank activity at Mt. Etna, Sicily (Italy): Inferences from the petrology of products erupted in 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Miraglia, Lucia

    2014-04-01

    Mt. Etna is an active basaltic volcano where both flank and summit eruptions take place. In recent decades, the South-East summit crater (SEC) has in particular been characterized by 'episodic' eruptions, consisting of recurrent lava fountains associated with lava flow emissions and lasting from a few weeks to months. Recent volcanic activity shows that, if there is a transition from an episodic summit eruption to a flank eruption, then this usually takes place while the last paroxysm of the episodic eruption is still underway. By contrast, the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC was followed by the 2008-09 flank activity which started three days after the conclusion of the last paroxysm, coinciding with the strong earthquake (M = 7.9) in Sichuan (China), whose perturbations were recorded by the monitoring network of Mt. Etna. We therefore investigated the transition from a summit episodic eruption at SEC to flank activity utilizing a petrologic study of the products erupted from 2007 to 2009, integrated with literature data. The compositional variability of the products may largely be explained by a mixing between an evolved magma stored in the SEC reservoir and a more primitive magma which intrudes it. In the studied period, the most significant episodes of magma recharge occurred before the onset of the 2007-08 episodic eruption and during the 2008-09 flank activity, more precisely before June 2008. According to previous studies, the seven paroxysms of the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC have been interpreted as resulting from the disruption of a foam layer at the top of the SEC reservoir which was rebuilt before each subsequent episode. The transition from the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC to the 2008-09 flank activity was essentially triggered by the Sichuan earthquake which caused a variation of dynamic stress. It caused the volatile exolution, the pressurization of SEC stored magma, and the consequent fracturing of the surrounding rocks where magma intruded

  2. The transition summit-flank activity at Mt. Etna, Sicily (Italy): inferences from the petrology of products erupted from 2007 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Miraglia, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    Mt. Etna is an active basaltic volcano where both flank and summit eruptions take place. In particular, the South-East summit crater (SEC) during the last decades has been characterized by 'episodic' eruptions, which consist of recurrent lava fountains associated with lava flows emission, lasting from a few weeks to months. The past recent volcanic activity has shown that, if a transition from an episodic summit eruption to a flank eruption occurred, it generally took place while the last paroxysm of the episodic eruption was still underway. Differently, the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC was followed by the 2008-09 flank activity which started three days after the conclusion of the last paroxysm, in coincidence with the strong earthquake (M= 7.9) in Sichuan (China), whose perturbations have been registered by the monitoring network of Mt. Etna. We then investigated the transition from summit episodic activity at SEC to flank eruption utilizing a petrologic study of the products erupted from 2007 to 2009 integrated with data from the literature. The compositional variability of the products is mainly explainable with a mixing between an evolved magma stored in the SEC reservoir and a more primitive magma which intrudes it. In the studied period the most significant episodes of magma recharge occurred before the onset of the 2007-08 episodic activity and during the 2008-09 flank eruption, more precisely before June 2008. According to previous studies the seven episodes of the 2007-08 eruption at SEC have been interpreted to result from the disruption of a foam layer at the top of the SEC reservoir which was rebuilt before each subsequent episode. The transition from 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC to the 2008-09 flank activity was essentially triggered by the Sichuan earthquake which caused a variation of dynamic stress. It promoted the volatile exolution, the pressurization of SEC stored magma, and the consequent fracturing of the surrounding rocks where magma

  3. AN EPIZOOTIC OF EMERGING NOVEL AVIAN POX IN CARRION CROWS (CORVUS CORONE) AND LARGE-BILLED CROWS (CORVUS MACRORHYNCHOS) IN JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takenaka, Makiko; Murakami, Mami; Yanai, Tokuma; Fukushi, Hideto; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen; Matsuno, Keita; Nagano, Masashi; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-04-28

    In 2006-10, an epizootic of emerging avian pox occurred in Carrion Crows ( Corvus corone ) and Large-billed Crows ( Corvus macrorhynchos ), leading to mortality of juvenile crows in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. We diagnosed 27 crows with proliferative skin lesions (19 carcasses and eight biopsied cases [one in zoo captivity]) as avian pox clinically, histopathologically by detection of Avipoxvirus-specific 4b core protein (P4b) gene, and epidemiologically. The fatal cases demonstrated intensively severe infection and aggressive lesions with secondary bacterial infection. Since the first identification of avian pox in Sapporo, Japan, in 2006, the frequency of mortality events has increased, peaking in 2007-08. Mortalities have subsequently occurred in other areas, suggesting disease expansion. In Sapporo, prevalence of avian pox evaluated by field censuses during 2007-12 was 17.6% (6.6-27.2%), peaked during 2007-08 and 2008-09, and then decreased. All diseased crows were juveniles, except for one adult. The number of crows assembling in the winter roosts had been stable for >10 yr; however, it declined in 2007-08, decreased by about 50% in 2008-09, and recovered to the previous level in 2009-10, correlated with the avian pox outbreak. Thus, avian pox probably contributed to the unusual crow population decline. All P4b sequences detected in six specimens in Sapporo were identical and different from any previously reported sequences. The sequence detected in the zoo-kept crow was distinct from any reported clades, and interspecies transmission was suspected. This report demonstrates an emerging novel avian pox in the Japanese avifauna and in global populations of Carrion Crows and Large-billed Crows. Longitudinal monitoring is needed to evaluate its impact on the crow population. PMID:26967129

  4. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Physical Aquatic Habitat Availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E., III; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6-263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6-673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9-748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8-808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities. A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties. To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach-average basis, annual topographic change contributed little to habitat area variation. Net erosion occurred at Yankton (the upstream reach) and because erosion was distributed uniformly, there was little affect on many habitat metrics. Topographic change was spatially nonuniform at Little Sioux and Kenslers Bend reaches. Shallow water habitat units and some reach-scale patch statistics (edge density, patch density, and Simpson's Diversity Index) were affected by these changes. Erosion dominated at the downstream reach but habitat metrics did not vary substantially from 2006 to 2007. Among habitat metrics that were explored, zones of convergent flow were identified as areas that most closely correspond to spawning habitats of other sturgeon species, as identified in the scientific literature, and that are consistent with sparse data on pallid sturgeon spawning locations in the Lower Missouri River. Areas of convergent zone habitat varied little with discharges that would be associated with spring pulsed flows, and relations with discharge changed negligibly between 2006 and 2007. Other habitat measures show how physical habitat varies with discharge and among the four reaches. Wake habitats defined by velocity gradients seem to correspond with migration pathways of adult pallid sturgeon. Habitats with low Froude-number correspond to low energy areas that may accumulate passively transporting particles, organic matter, and larval fish. Among the modeled reaches, Yankton had substantially longer water residence time for equivalent flow exceedances than the other three modeled reaches. Longer residence times result from greater flow resistance in the relatively wide, shallow channel and may be associated with longer residence times of passively transported particulate materials.

  5. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum-based flocculent used in the lower reservoir. Suspended-sediment concentrations and turbidity measurements were largest at the site downstream from the lower reservoir. This is because of the large amounts of debris deposited in the lower reservoir from the breach, which in turn were redeposited into the East Fork Black River during releases. When these constituents were plotted over time, the concentrations decreased and were similar to the other two sites in the study. Trend analyses were studied at one site with historical data. No major trends were discovered for streamflow, turbidity, suspended-sediment concentrations, or suspended-sediment discharges before or after the event. Although long-term effects of the elevated turbidity, major trace metals, and suspended sediments in the study area as a result of the reservoir embankment breach are not expected, there could possibly be other effects not measured during this study that could potentially affect the surface-water quality, such as loss of riparian habitat, changes in biological ecosystems, and large-scale reworking of sediments.

  6. In-season and out-of-season variation of rotavirus genotype distribution and age of infection across 12 European countries before the introduction of routine vaccination, 2007/08 to 2012/13.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, Daniel; Vivancos, Roberto; Read, Jonathan M; Pitzer, Virginia E; Cunliffe, Nigel; French, Neil; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren

    2016-01-01

    The EuroRotaNet surveillance network has conducted rotavirus genotype surveillance since 2007 in 16 European countries. Using epidemiological and microbiological data from 39,786 genotyped rotavirus-positive specimens collected between September 2007 and August 2013, we assessed genotype distribution and age distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases in and out of peak season in 12 countries which were yet to implement routine rotavirus vaccination. In multinomial multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for year, country and age, the odds of infection caused by genotype-constellation 2 DS-1-like stains (adjusted multinomial odds ratio (aM-OR) = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.37; p < 0.001), mixed or untypable genotypes (aM-OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.40-1.72; p < 0.001) and less common genotypes (aM-OR = 2.11; 95% CI:1.78-2.51; p < 0.001) increased out of season relative to G1P[8]. Age varied significantly between seasons; the proportion of RVGE cases younger than 12 months in the United Kingdom increased from 34% in season to 39% out of season (aM-OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.20-2.30), and the proportion five years and older increased from 9% in season to 17% out of season (aM-OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.67-3.82). This study provides further understanding of the rotavirus ecology before vaccine introduction, which will help interpret epidemiological changes in countries introducing or expanding rotavirus vaccination programmes. PMID:26794258

  7. Strategies for Longitudinal Analysis of the Career Paths of Beginning Teachers: Results from the First through Fourth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. Research and Development Report. NCES 2013-336

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lucinda; Brauen, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    To learn more about the early career patterns of beginning teachers, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences within the U.S. Department of Education undertook the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (BTLS). The ultimate purpose of this report is to develop a strategy for the longitudinal analysis…

  8. Career Paths of Beginning Public School Teachers: Results from the First through Fifth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-196

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raue, Kimberley; Gray, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the career paths of beginning public school teachers and how these career paths vary by characteristics during the teachers' first year of teaching and most recent year of teaching. The career paths in this report are based on those developed for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) research and development…

  9. Lunar Plant Growth Chamber: Human Exploration Project STS-118 Design Challenge. A Standards-Based High School Unit Guide. Engineering by Design: Advancing Technological Literacy. A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-94-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Daniel W.; Fuller, Jeremy; Watson, Janice; St. Hilaire, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) was funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA Engineers and Scientists--as well as future generations of explorers--must consider, such…

  10. Spatiotemporal variations in estrogenicity, hormones, and endocrine-disrupting compounds in influents and effluents of selected wastewater-treatment plants and receiving streams in New York, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Ernst, Anne G.; Gray, James L.; Hemming, Jocelyn D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater effluents have been linked to changes in sex ratios, intersex (in males), behavioral modifications, and developmental abnormalities in aquatic organisms. Yet efforts to identify and regulate specific EDCs in complex mixtures are problematic because little is known about the estrogen activity (estrogenicity) levels of many common and emerging contaminants. The potential effects of EDCs on the water quality and health of biota in streams of the New York City water supply is especially worrisome because more than 150 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) are permitted to discharge effluents into surface waters and groundwaters of watersheds that provide potable water to more than 9 million people. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), and New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) began a pilot study to increase the understanding of estrogenicity and EDCs in effluents and receiving streams mainly in southeastern New York. The primary goals of this study were to document and assess the spatial and temporal variability of estrogenicity levels; the effectiveness of various treatment-plant types to remove estrogenicity; the concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs); and the relations between estrogenicity and concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and PPCPs. The levels of estrogenicity and selected hormones, non-hormone EDCs, and PPCPs were characterized in samples collected seasonally in effluents from 7 WWTPs, once or twice in effluents from 34 WWTPs, and once in influents to 6 WWTPs. Estrogenicity was quantified, as estradiol equivalents, using both the biological e-screen assay and a chemical model. Results generally show that (1) estrogenicity levels in effluents varied spatially and seasonally, (2) a wide range of known and unknown EDCs were present in both WWTP effluents and receiving streams, (3) some effluents may be important sources of estrogenicity in weakly diluted streams, (4) measured levels of biological estrogenicity were often higher than estimated levels of chemical estrogenicity, and (5) the type of treatment had a large effect on the removal efficacy, and consequently, the estrogenicity levels observed in treated effluents.

  11. Documentation for the NCES Common Core of Data National Public Education Financial Survey (NPEFS), School Year 2008-09 (Fiscal Year 2009). Revised File Version 1b. NCES 2011-330rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornman, Stephen Q.; Zhou, Lei; Nakamoto, Nanae

    2012-01-01

    This documentation is for the revised file (Version 1b) of the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) National Public Education Financial Survey (NPEFS) for school year 2008-2009, fiscal year 2009 (FY 09). It contains a brief description of the data collection along with information required to understand and…

  12. An Investigation of the Six-Year Persistence/Attainment of Independent Students and Students Beginning in Community Colleges, 2003-04--2008-09: A Closer Look at Academic and Social Integration Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruot, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The persistence of college students, particularly through credential attainment, is of importance to many stakeholders in higher education, including policymakers, taxpayers, parents and students. This dissertation study used longitudinal data nationally representative of higher education institutions and students, the National Center for…

  13. South Cascade (USA/North Cascades)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has closely monitored this temperate mountain glacier since the late 1950s. During 1958-2007, the glacier retreated about 0.7 km and shrank in area from 2.71 to 1.73 km2, although part of the area change was due to separation of contributing ice bodies from the main glacier. Maximum and average glacier thicknesses are about 170 and 80 m, respectively. Year-to-year variations of snow accumulation amounts on the glacier are largely attributable to the regional maritime climate and fluctuating climate conditions of the North Pacific Ocean. Long-term-average precipitation is about 4500 mm and most of that falls as snow during October through May. Average annual air temperature at 1,900 m altitude (the approximate ELA0) was estimated to be 1.6°C during 2000-2009. Mass balances are computed yearly by the direct glaciological method. Mass balances measured at selected locations are used in an interpolation and extrapolation procedure that computes the mass balance at each point in the glacier surface altitude grid. The resulting mass balance grid is averaged to obtain glacier mass balances. Additionally, the geodetic method has been applied to compute glacier net balances in 1970, 1975, 1977, 1979-80, and 1985-97. Winter snow accumulation on the glacier during 2007/08 and 2008/09 was larger than the long-term (1959-2009) average. The 2007/08 preliminary summer balance (-3510 mm w.e.) was slightly more negative than the long-term average and this yielded a preliminary 2007/08 net balance (-290 mm w.e.), which was less negative than the average for the period of record (-600 mm w.e.). Summer 2009 was uncommonly warm and the preliminary 2008/09 summer balance (-4980 mm w.e.) was more negative than any on record for the glacier. The 2008/09 glacier net balance (-1860 mm w.e.) was among the 10 most negative for the period of net balance record (1953-2009). Material presented here is preliminary in nature and presented prior to final review. These

  14. Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Toms, L.-M.L.; Thompson, J.; Rotander, A.; Hobson, P.; Calafat, A.M.; Kato, K.; Ye, X.; Broomhall, S.; Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002–2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends. Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n = 26); 2008/09 (n = 24) and 2010/11 (n = 24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n = 84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <16 years (2002/03 only); 0–4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5–15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16–30; 31–45; 46–60; and >60 years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3–19.2 ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4–17.4 ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8–7.3 ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1–6.5 ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <1 ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2–5.7 ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4–5.4 ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5–15 year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0–4 year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA). This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends

  15. Selenium-enriched durum wheat improves the nutritional profile of pasta without altering its organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    De Vita, Pasquale; Platani, Cristiano; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Colecchia, Salvatore Antonio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Petrozza, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons (2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10) to evaluate Se-enriched pasta through foliar fertilization at various rates and timing of application on 4 durum wheat varieties. Our findings confirm the effectiveness of foliar Se fertilization to increase Se concentrations in durum wheat grain, even at high Se rates (120gSeha(-1)). Se fortification was significant across different genotypes, with greater Se accumulation in landraces ('Timilia') and obsolete varieties ('Cappelli'), with respect to modern varieties. The Se content in the grain was increased by up to 35-fold that of the untreated control. The Se concentration decreased during milling (11%), while processing and cooking of pasta did not show significant decreases. This biofortification stategy had no effects on grain quality parameters, except for reduced gluten index in the high-gluten variety PR22D89, as well as for the sensorial properties of the spaghetti. PMID:27507488

  16. Serotype Specific Invasive Capacity and Persistent Reduction in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Inci; Hanage, William P.; Lipsitch, Marc; Shea, Kimberly M.; Stevenson, Abbie; Finkelstein, Jonathan; Huang, Susan S.; Lee, Grace M.; Kleinman, Ken; Pelton, SI

    2011-01-01

    Defining the propensity of Streptoccocus pneumoniae (SP) serotypes to invade sterile body sites following nasopharyngeal (NP) acquisition has the potential to inform about how much invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) may occur in a typical population with a given distribution of carriage serotypes. Data from enhanced surveillance for IPD in Massachusetts children ≤7 years in 2003/04, 2006/07 and 2008/09 seasons and surveillance of SP NP carriage during the corresponding respiratory seasons in 16 Massachusetts communities in 2003/04 and 8 of the 16 communities in both 2006/07 and 2008/09 were used to compute a serotype specific “invasive capacity (IC)” by dividing the incidence of IPD due to serotype x by the carriage prevalence of that same serotype in children of the same age. A total of 206 IPD and 806 NP isolates of SP were collected during the study period. An approximate 50-fold variation in the point estimates between the serotypes having the highest (18C, 33F, 7F, 19A, 3 and 22F) and lowest (6C, 23A, 35F, 11A, 35B, 19F, 15A, and 15BC) IC was observed. Point estimates of IC for most of the common serotypes currently colonizing children in Massachusetts were low and likely explain the continued reduction in IPD from the pre-PCV era in the absence of specific protection against these serotypes. Invasive capacity differs among serotypes and as new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are introduced, ongoing surveillance will be essential to monitor whether serotypes with high invasive capacity emerge (e.g. 33F, 22F) as successful colonizers resulting in increased IPD incidence due to replacement serotypes. PMID:21029807

  17. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  18. Lifetime Prevalence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Adults: Examining Variations in the Socioeconomic Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Yallop, Lauren; Brownell, Marni; Chateau, Dan; Walker, John; Warren, Michelle; Bailis, Dan; LeBow, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It has only recently been accepted that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood. Accordingly, less is known about adult diagnostic and treatment prevalence. We aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence of ADHD diagnosis and psychostimulant prescriptions for young adults in the province of Manitoba and to explore how diagnosis differs according to sociodemographic characteristics and age at diagnosis; and to investigate whether a socioeconomic gradient exists within young adults with a lifetime ADHD diagnosis, as well as the variables that moderate the gradient. Methods: Using the Manitoba Population Health Research Data Repository, our cross-sectional analysis used 24 fiscal years of data (1984/85 to 2008/09) and included all adults aged 18 to 29 during 2007/08 to 2008/09 in Manitoba (n = 207 544) who had a lifetime diagnosis of ADHD (n = 14 762). Regression analyses tested for differences in rates by sex, region, age, age at diagnosis, and socioeconomic status. Results: Lifetime prevalence for ADHD diagnosis (7.11%) and psychostimulant prescriptions (3.09%) differed according to sex, region, and age. In contrast to previous Manitoban research on childhood ADHD, the socioeconomic gradient for ADHD diagnosis was not found in young adulthood. When region was accounted for, a small negative gradient in the urban population and a positive gradient in the rural population were evident. People from the highest income quintile were significantly less likely to be diagnosed before age 18, compared with other income quintiles. Conclusions: Given the high lifetime prevalence of ADHD in Manitoban young adults and significant socioeconomic correlates for diagnosis, further investigation into the trajectory of this relatively unexplored population is recommended. PMID:26720190

  19. Moon Munchies: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge--A Standards-Based Elementary School Model Unit Guide--Design, Build, and Evaluate (Lessons 1-6). Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-92-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kim M.

    2005-01-01

    In this unit, elementary students design and build a lunar plant growth chamber using the Engineering Design Process. The purpose of the unit is to help students understand and apply the design process as it relates to plant growth on the moon. This guide includes six lessons, which meet a number of national standards and benchmarks in…

  20. Effect of road salt application on seasonal chloride concentrations and toxicity in south-central Indiana streams.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kristin M; Royer, Todd V

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary information on road salt runoff is needed for management of water resources in regions experiencing urbanization and increased road density. We investigated seasonal Cl(-) concentrations among five streams in south-central Indiana that drained watersheds varying in degree of urbanization and ranging in size from 9.3 to 27 km(2). We also conducted acute toxicity tests with Daphnia pulex to assess the potential effects of the observed Cl(-) concentrations on aquatic life. Periods of elevated Cl(-) concentrations were observed during the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at all sites except the reference site. The highest Cl(-) concentration observed during the study was 2100 mg L(-1) and occurred at the most urbanized site. The Cl(-) concentration at the reference site never exceeded 22 mg L(-1). The application of road salt caused large increases in stream Cl(-) concentrations, but the elevated Cl(-) levels did not appear to be a significant threat to aquatic life based on our toxicity testing. Only the most urbanized site showed evidence of salt retention within the watershed, whereas the other sites exported the road salt relatively quickly after its application, suggesting storm drains and impervious surfaces minimized interaction between soils and salt-laden runoff. During winter at these sites, the response in stream Cl(-) concentrations appeared to be controlled by the timing and intensity of road salt application, the magnitude of precipitation, and the occurrence of air temperatures that caused snowmelt and generated runoff. PMID:20400599

  1. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding. PMID:27050576

  2. Characteristics of atmospheric Kelvin waves during warm and cold ENSO phases observed with GPS RO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Ladstädter, Florian; Steiner, Andrea; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2015-04-01

    Inter-annual variability in the Earth's troposphere at low and middle latitudes is dominated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. While ENSO emerges from an atmosphere-ocean interaction in the tropical Pacific, it has a significant impact on global weather and climate. Atmospheric wave dynamics plays a crucial role in this context. However, current understanding of this wave dynamics is mostly based on climate model output and reanalysis data. We use observational data from Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) measurements to investigate characteristics of atmospheric Kelvin waves during warm and cold ENSO phases. Due to their high accuracy and vertical resolution, RO data provide reliable and valuable information on wave-induced temperature oscillations with short vertical wavelengths of a few kilometers. After the launch of the six micro-satellites of the Formosat-3/COSMIC mission in April 2006, the number of RO measurements per day increased significantly compared to earlier time periods. With an appropriate binning strategy, the sampling is therefore sufficiently dense from mid-2006 onwards in order to capture the main characteristics of large-scale atmospheric waves. Frequencies and wavelengths of atmospheric Kelvin waves are extracted from space-time spectral analysis for overlapping 60-day time series centered on each month. In this study we focus on the northern hemisphere winter season DJF (December, January, February) using data from DJF 2006/07 to DJF 2011/12. Comparative results are presented for warm ENSO phases, which occurred in DJF 2006/07 and DJF 2009/10, and for cold ENSO phases in DJF 2007/08, DJF 2010/11, and DJF 2011/12.

  3. Sediment-driven mercury transport in post-fire storm runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Hogue, T. S.; Jay, J.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfire alters terrestrial stores of mercury (Hg) within a watershed, releasing Hg to the atmosphere and creating conditions that can be conducive to Hg export in streamwater. Hg transport to terrestrial waters is often associated with suspended sediments and organic matter, and particulate-bound Hg delivery to downstream water bodies may be enhanced following wildfire. Burned watersheds experience increased overland flow, soil erosion, sediment transport, and, consequently, transport of sediment bound contaminants during early post-fire storm events. Southern California’s September 2006 Day Fire consumed 660km2 and almost 50% of the 512km2 Piru Creek watershed. Piru Creek drains into Pyramid Lake, a storage reservoir for the California State Water Project, which provides drinking water for Los Angeles. Streamwater was collected from Piru Creek watershed over a 1.5 year period following the Day Fire, on a monthly basis during low flow periods, and every two hours during storm events using an automated sampler. Samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total Hg, total suspended solids, and basic anions and cations. Low Hg concentrations (> 1ng Hg/ L dissolved and > 5ng Hg/L total) were measured in inter-storm samples. The first winter (2006-07) following the Day Fire was one of the driest on record, with precipitation totals (130mm) less than one third of normal. The only significant storm measured total Hg concentrations just slightly higher than the inter-storm samples, while no change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations. However, these total Hg concentrations were well correlated to TSS measurements (r2 = 0.91) and followed the storm hydrograph. The following winter (2007-08) brought higher precipitation totals (370mm) and more intense storms. Elevated, turbid stream flow was observed in Piru Creek during many of the 2007-08 storms. Little change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations of the storm samples; however, a two-order magnitude

  4. Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen; Hasholt, Bent; Steffen, Konrad; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Mcgrath, Daniel; Yde, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation

  5. Surface energy budget and mass balance of Zhadang Glacier in the central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Acharya, K.; Yu, Z.; Su, F.; liang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    It is difficult to clearly investigate the surface energy budget and glacier evolution under the changed climate environments, especially on accounts of limited data set. We attempted to calculate the summer mass balance of Zhadang Glacier (5710 m above sea level), located in the central Tibetan Plateau. This small and high-altitude glacier has been retreating during the previous decades. Energy balance was calculated on a 30 m square grid on the glacier for the summer periods in 2007 and 2008. On average, net radiation contributed more than 96% of the energy gain while only less than 4% was supplied by the sensible heat flux. Most energy loss on the glacier was contributed by the turbulent heat fluxes and only roughly 30% of the total energy was available for melting. A large deficit and a surplus summer mass balance were obtained for years 2006/07 and 2007/08, respectively. The switch in mass balance from negative to positive in the summer of 2008 is caused by early precipitation (mostly snow) resulting in low temperature on the glacier. Low temperature produces less energy that contributes to melting, whereas increased snow accumulation produces higher surface albedo reflecting away incoming solar radiation. The high sensitivity of air temperature may imply that the low temperature was more important than the increased precipitation in the mass balance switch in Zhadang Glacier. Despite a continuous negative mass balance for several decades in Zhadang Glacier 2008 may have brought a temporary relief.

  6. Diet of a piscivorous seabird reveals spatiotemporal variation in abundance of forage fishes in the Monterey Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Lisa A.; Harvey, James T.

    2015-06-01

    Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) diet was investigated using regurgitated pellets (n = 285) collected on 19 sampling days at three locations during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 nonbreeding seasons in the Monterey Bay region. The efficacy of using nested sieves and the all-structure technique to facilitate prey detection in the pellets was evaluated, but this method did not increase prey enumeration and greatly decreased efficiency. Although 29 prey species were consumed, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) dominated and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus) also was important in the diet. Few rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) and market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) were consumed compared with great prevalence in previous studies during the 1970s. El Niño and La Niña during the study provided a unique opportunity to examine predator response to variation in prey availability. Patterns of prey number and diversity were not consistent among locations. Greatest number and diversity of prey occurred at locations within Monterey Bay during La Niña, results not evident at the outer coast location. Short-term specialization occurred but mean prey diversity indicated a generalist feeding mode. This study demonstrated the importance of periodic sampling at multiple locations within a region to detect spatiotemporal variability in the diet of opportunistic generalists.

  7. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  8. By Air and Land: Estimating Post-Fire Debris-Flow Susceptibility through High-Resolution Radar Reflectivity and Tipping-Bucket Gage Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, M. N.; Schmidt, K. M.; Jorgensen, D. P.; Stock, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Wildfires often increase the occurrence of post-fire hazardous flash floods and debris flows from steeplands during intense rainfall. Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds have been used to forecast when this hazard increases rapidly; one threshold for Southern California is 15 mm/hr. However, such thresholds are usually developed with point measurements that only capture a small portion of the landscape. In an attempt to limit potential loss of life, the USGS is collaborating with NOAA on a demonstration early-warning system. To address the lack of spatial rainfall coverage, NOAA deployed a small mobile radar truck (SMART-R) to the Day fire in the western Transverse Range during the 2006-07 winter, and to the Canyon and Corral fires in the Santa Monica Mountains near Malibu during the 2007-08 winter. The SMART-R's C-band Doppler radar can be used to estimate rainfall rates over entire burned areas. On topography susceptible to debris flows within these 3 fires, the USGS installed a dense array of ground-based instruments, including 8 tipping- bucket rain gages in the Day fire, and 3 each in the Canyon and Corral fires. After converting hourly time- step grids of SMART-R reflectivity (150 m node spacing) into precipitation estimates, we compared the gage data to its spatially coincident SMART-R cell.Results from the Day fire indicate that SMART-R derived seasonal and event-based rainfall totals were typically greater than gage totals during the 2006-07 winter of record-low rainfall. Both data sets, however, reflected similar spatial patterns of rainfall intensity. In contrast, for the Malibu fires there is no systematic agreement in spatial pattern or rainfall mismatch; the difference between the two data sets. Of the 9 storms recorded during this 2007-08 winter, SMART-R estimates of rainfall totals exceeded the gage totals for only 3, underestimating totals for the remaining 6. The mismatch magnitudes also exceed that of the previous winter recorded at the Day

  9. The effect of cultivation practices on soil - atmosphere carbon cycle under arid climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifschitz, David; Sternberg, Marcelo; Bonfil, David; Ben-Dor, Eyal; Eshel, Gil

    2010-05-01

    The soil - atmosphere carbon cycle was studied under arid climate conditions, in relation to crop management. Management included different tillage (Conventional vs. No Tillage, CT vs. NT respectively) and fertilization (nitrogen and phosphorus application vs. unfertilized) practices, in a continuous (winter) wheat field, for two growing seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09). The NT practice was characterized by higher CO2 effluxes than the CT during the growing season. In turn, the CT practice had higher pCO2 throughout the soil profile to a depth of 2m. This could be explained partially by a physical crust formation due to raindrop impact, emerging on the bare soil, mostly in the CT practice. The crust serves as a barrier for gas exchange (soil aeration) and in addition, also reduces rainfall infiltration, and all together harms the growing potential (the NT practice yielded higher plant biomass). Fertilization application had no apparent effect on the CO2 effluxes or the pCO2, but had a significant effect on the yield of the plant biomass. The NT practice had also higher amounts of soil organic Carbon, (SOC) mainly in the surface layer, and soil inorganic Carbon (SIC) to a depth of 2m. This is attributed to straw mulch application for the former and better gas and water conductivity (that initiates carbonate dissolution - precipitation cycles) for the latter, which is a much more dominant factor in arid area soils. The stable carbon isotope analysis (δ13C) values for the total Carbon (TC), SOC and SIC results show that the NT practice generates higher amounts of pedogenic carbonates also, and in general is clearly superior over CT in almost every aspect in the soil - atmosphere C cycle.

  10. Using Satellite Tracking to Optimize Protection of Long-Lived Marine Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Conservation in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Sara M.; Breed, Greg A.; Nickel, Barry A.; Makanga-Bahouna, Junior; Pemo-Makaya, Edgard; Parnell, Richard J.; Formia, Angela; Ngouessono, Solange; Godley, Brendan J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Witt, Matthew J.; Coyne, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Tractable conservation measures for long-lived species require the intersection between protection of biologically relevant life history stages and a socioeconomically feasible setting. To protect breeding adults, we require knowledge of animal movements, how movement relates to political boundaries, and our confidence in spatial analyses of movement. We used satellite tracking and a switching state-space model to determine the internesting movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n = 18) in Central Africa during two breeding seasons (2007-08, 2008-09). These movements were analyzed in relation to current park boundaries and a proposed transboundary park between Gabon and the Republic of Congo, both created to reduce unintentional bycatch of sea turtles in marine fisheries. We additionally determined confidence intervals surrounding home range calculations. Turtles remained largely within a 30 km radius from the original nesting site before departing for distant foraging grounds. Only 44.6 percent of high-density areas were found within the current park but the proposed transboundary park would incorporate 97.6 percent of high-density areas. Though tagged individuals originated in Gabon, turtles were found in Congolese waters during greater than half of the internesting period (53.7 percent), highlighting the need for international cooperation and offering scientific support for a proposed transboundary park. This is the first comprehensive study on the internesting movements of solitary nesting olive ridley sea turtles, and it suggests the opportunity for tractable conservation measures for female nesting olive ridleys at this and other solitary nesting sites around the world. We draw from our results a framework for cost-effective protection of long-lived species using satellite telemetry as a primary tool. PMID:21589942

  11. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M; Saxena, Deep R; Jain, Yogendra K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  12. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  13. Reducing Pb poisoning in birds and Pb exposure in game meat consumers: the dual benefit of effective Pb shot regulation.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Vallverdú-Coll, Núria; López-Antia, Ana; Taggart, Mark A; Martínez-Haro, Monica; Guitart, Raimon; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2014-02-01

    The use of lead (Pb) ammunition in the form of shot pellets has been identified as a Pb exposure risk in wildlife and their human consumers. We explore the hypothesis that Pb shot ban enforcement reduces the risk of avian Pb poisoning as well as Pb exposure in game meat consumers. We assessed compliance with a partial ban on Pb shot commencing in 2003 by examination of 937 waterbirds harvested by hunters between 2007 and 2012 in the Ebro delta (Spain). Prevalence of Pb shot ingestion was determined, as were Pb concentrations in liver and muscle tissue to evaluate the potential for Pb exposure in game meat consumers. Hunted birds with only embedded Pb shot (no steel) declined from 26.9% in 2007-08 to <2% over the following three hunting seasons after ban reinforcement. Pb shot ingestion in mallards decreased from a pre-ban value of 30.2% to 15.5% in the post-ban period. Liver Pb levels were predominantly defined by the presence of ingested shot, whereas muscle levels were defined by the presence of both ingested and embedded shot. Only 2.5% of mallard muscle tissue had Pb levels above European Union regulations for meat (0.1μg/g wet weight) in the 2008-09 season, when Pb shot ingestion prevalence was also at a minimum (5.1%). Effective restrictions in Pb ammunition use have a dual benefit since this reduces Pb exposure for game meat consumers due to embedded ammunition as well as reducing Pb poisoning in waterbirds. PMID:24309467

  14. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  15. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  16. Storm activity in North Atlantic and precipitation anomalies in European region during winter seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N. A.; Vyazilova, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the storm activity influence on the formation of wet and dry zone in North Atlantic and European region during winter seasons 1994/95, 2006/07 and 2007/08 years with positive mode of NAO, 1995/96, 2000/01 and 2005/06 years with negative mode of NAO. The study of storm activity includes the analyses of cyclonic intensity and cyclone track number. Analyses of cyclonic intensity based on calculation cyclone centers number (CCN) and sum of cyclone centers MSLP anomalies (CCMA). This analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm and the 6-hourly MSLP from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses 2 from 1979 to 2009. Precipitation anomalies were calculated from CMAP archive. Analyses had included the calculation of cyclone track number in all region [30°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E]and selected latitude zone for long cyclones (with lifetime more 2 day) and short cyclones (with lifetime less 2 day). The study had shown the special features of CCN and CCMA patterns in region for long and short cyclones. The study shows, that every winter season short cyclone track number twice as much long cyclone track number. However, the contribution of long cyclones in main determines the CCMA in region. Study had shown that winter seasons with positive NAO mode Nord Europe were outstanding by strong positive precipitation anomalies and strong cyclonic intensity, and during winter seasons with negative NAO mode in this region were observed negative precipitation anomalies and weak cyclonic activity. Standartizide anomalies of integral CCMA for selected latitude zone [55°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E] had shown the intensification of cyclonic activity over North Atlantic and North European region in last years.

  17. The Impact of State Laws and District Policies on Physical Education and Recess Practices in a Nationally-Representative Sample of U.S. Public Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Sandy J.; Nicholson, Lisa; Chriqui, Jamie; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of state and school district-level policies on the prevalence of physical education (PE) and recess in a nationally representative sample of U.S. public elementary schools. Design Analyses from annual, nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys of School Administrators in the US. Setting Data were collected through surveys conducted between February and June during the 2006-07, through 2008-09 school years. State laws and district policies were compiled annually by UIC researchers using established legal research techniques. Participants The sample size was 47 states, 690 districts, and 1761 schools. Main Exposures State and District-level PE and recess-related laws Outcome Measures Twenty minutes of daily recess and 150 minutes of PE weekly Results The odds of schools having 150 weekly minutes of PE increased if they were located in states (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-5.7) or school districts (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3) having a law or policy, respectively, requiring 150 minutes of PE weekly. Schools located in states with laws encouraging daily recess were significantly more likely to have 20 minutes of recess daily (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8). District policies were not significantly associated with school-level recess practices. Adequate PE time was inversely associated with recess and vice versa suggesting that schools are substituting one form of physical activity for another rather than providing the recommended amount of both recess and PE. Conclusions By mandating PE or recess, policy makers can effectively increase school-based physical activity opportunities for youth. PMID:22147763

  18. Can individual conditions during childhood mediate or moderate the long-term cognitive effects of poor economic environments at birth?

    PubMed

    Fritze, Thomas; Doblhammer, Gabriele; van den Berg, Gerard J

    2014-10-01

    Recent analyses revealed that the business cycle at the time of birth influences cognitive functioning at older ages, and that those individuals born during economic boom periods on average display better cognitive functioning later in life. The current study examines the impact of childhood conditions on late-life cognitive functioning and investigates whether they mediate or moderate the effects of the business cycle at the time of birth. The underlying purpose is to find potential starting points for societal interventions that may counterbalance the negative long-term outcomes of adverse living conditions early in life. We use data from 7935 respondents at ages 60+ in eleven European countries from the first three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The survey data was collected in 2004, 2006/07, and 2008/09. Country fixed-effects models are used to examine the impact of macro-economic deviations in the year of birth and the indicators of childhood circumstances on late-life cognitive functioning. This study shows that the effects of boom and recession periods at birth are not simply mediated or moderated by living conditions during childhood. Conditions at birth have biological long-run effects on late-life cognitive functioning. Individuals born during boom periods display signs of having better cognitive functioning later in life, whereas recessions negatively influence cognition. Furthermore, a series of childhood conditions in and of themselves influence late-life cognition. Good childhood cognition, high education as well as a high social status, favourable living arrangements, and good health have a positive impact. Policy interventions should aim at a better access to school or measures to improve the economic and social situations of disadvantaged households. PMID:25042942

  19. Mitigation of soil water repellency improves rootzone water status and yield in precision irrigated apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, S.; Gadd, N.; Bell, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water repellent soils are documented to impact a range of hydrological properties, yet studies evaluating the consequences of soil water repellency (SWR) and its mitigation on crop yield and quality are conspicuously absent. With global concerns on drought and water availability and the projected impacts of climate change, development of novel strategies to optimize efficient rootzone delivery of water are required. Co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer surfactants have been shown to improve wetting synergistically. The objectives of this study were to determine if this surfactant technology: 1) increased soil water content and wetting front depth in mini-sprinkler irrigated, water repellent, Goulburn Valley clay loam soils and 2) assess the consequence of SWR mitigation on yield of Malus domestica Borkh. Three trials were conducted in the apple varieties 'Pink Lady' (2006/07 and 2007/08) and 'Gala' (2007/08) growing on Goulburn Valley clay loam soils in Victoria, AU. The test design was a randomized complete block with treatments replicated 5-6 times. Plot size varied by location. SWR was mitigated by applying surfactant at initial rates of 0, 5, or 10 L ha-1 in the spring, then at 0, 2.5, or 5 L ha-1 monthly for up to four months and compared to an untreated control. Treatments were applied to tree lines using a hand held small plot sprayer (118 liters of spray solution ha-1) followed by irrigation within 1-3 days of treatment applications. At each location, plots were irrigated by mini sprinklers and received the same irrigation volumes and management practices. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was monitored at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm using a Theta probe (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK). At harvest, fruit number and weights were measured and used for crop yield estimations. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with mean values summarized and separated using Least Significant Test

  20. Long-Term Observations on Aerosol Elemental Carbon and Mass Concentrations in Winter-Time in New Delhi: Implications for Local Source Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, S. G.; Singh, K.; Singh, N.; Gupta, P. K.

    2009-12-01

    Fossil-fuel and bio-fuel burning are the two major sources identified for high carbonaceous aerosol loadings in several mega cities in India. In the last decade, according to a report from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB, 1999), the vehicular emission (mostly diesel-powered engines) was contributed to ~67% of the total air pollution load in New Delhi. Therefore, a policy decision was taken by the government, and most of the diesel-powered engines were converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) -powered engines by 2003. To better understand the effect of these changes on air quality, we collected high volume aerosol samples (total suspended particles, TSP) mostly for a day basis at our institute building in New Delhi almost everyday during winter season (November to January) from 2002 to 2008. We found very high mean aerosol loading, i.e., 488±47 μg m-3 in 2002 winter, which dropped significantly to 280±73 μg m-3 in 2003 winter. Thereafter, a steadily increased trend of aerosol mass loadings was observed, i.e., 339±112, 339±120, 412±107 and 444±55 μg m-3 in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 winters, respectively. Similar trend was also observed for elemental carbon (EC) concentration in TSP, which was peaked in 2002 (47±11 μg m-3) and minimized in 2003 (32±6 μg m-3), and then gradually increased to 41±8 μg m-3 in 2007 winter. These decline trends of aerosol mass and EC concentrations in 2003 can be explained well, because of the conversion of diesel engine to CNG engines of public transport facilities. However, again increase in aerosol mass and EC concentrations possibly because of a high increase in road traffic in recent years. According to the economic survey of New Delhi 2008-09, the number of vehicles (which includes all types of engines, i.e., petrol, diesel and CNG) has grown from ~3.3 millions in 1997-98 to ~5.6 millions in 2007-08. The influence of engine types and vehicle population on aerosol loading can also be explained well by SO2 and

  1. Eliminating Electricity Deficit through Energy Efficiency in India: An Evaluation of Aggregate Economic and Carbon Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Gupta, Arjun

    2010-04-30

    Electricity demand has consistently exceeded available supply in India. While the electricity deficit varies across states, nationally it was estimated to be of the order of 12percent on peak and 11percent for electricity during 2008-09. This paper explores a demand-side focused potential for energy efficiency improvement to eliminate the electricity deficit compared to a business as usual (BAU) supply-side focused scenario. The limited availability of finance and other legal and administrative barriers have constrained the construction of new power plant capacity in India. As a result, under the BAU scenario, India continues to face an electricity deficit beyond the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. The demand-side cost-effective potential achieved through replacement of new electricity-using products, however, is large enough to eliminate the deficit as early as 2013 and subsequently reduce the future construction of power plants and thus reduce air pollutant emissions. Moreover, energy efficiency improvements cost a fraction of the cost for new supply and can lead to a substantial increase in India's economic output or gross domestic product (GDP). Eliminating the deficit permits businesses that have experienced electricity cutbacks to restore production. We estimate the size of the cumulative production increase in terms of the contribution to GDP at a $505 billion between 2009 and 2017, the end of India's Twelfth Five Year Plan, which may be compared with India's 2007-08 GDP of $911 billion. The economic output is influenced by the size of the electricity savings and rate of penetration of energy efficient technologies, and that of self-generation equipment and inverters used by businesses faced with electricity cuts. Generation and inverters are estimated to service 23percent of these customers in 2009, which increase to 48percent by 2020. The reduction in the construction and operation of new power plants reduces the cumulative CO2 emissions by 65 Mt, and

  2. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road

  3. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  4. Influence of fire events on permafrost, Yubileynoe Gas Field, West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenets, V.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Shmelev, D.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    cracks of 2007/08 winter were 5 m long and 2…5 cm wide. The thermal borehole located at the site reflected in the temperature changes after the fire event. Temperature changes at 10-30 m in 2006-07 were close to those observed in 2007-08. The temperature increase below 10 m depth (at and below the depth of the zero annual amplitudes) was 0.35oC at 10 m depth, 0.15oC at 15 m, and 0.02oC at 30 m depth. The disturbance of vegetation and peat layer and associated moisture increase allowed temperature fluctuations to penetrate deeper. The activation of frost cracking combined with the penetration of summer heat in grounds was evident.

  5. Mass balance model parameter transferability on a tropical glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Mölg, Thomas; Nicholson, Lindsey; Kaser, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The mass balance and melt water production of glaciers is of particular interest in the Peruvian Andes where glacier melt water has markedly increased water supply during the pronounced dry seasons in recent decades. However, the melt water contribution from glaciers is projected to decrease with appreciable negative impacts on the local society within the coming decades. Understanding mass balance processes on tropical glaciers is a prerequisite for modeling present and future glacier runoff. As a first step towards this aim we applied a process-based surface mass balance model in order to calculate observed ablation at two stakes in the ablation zone of Shallap Glacier (4800 m a.s.l., 9°S) in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Under the tropical climate, the snow line migrates very frequently across most of the ablation zone all year round causing large temporal and spatial variations of glacier surface conditions and related ablation. Consequently, pronounced differences between the two chosen stakes and the two years were observed. Hourly records of temperature, humidity, wind speed, short wave incoming radiation, and precipitation are available from an automatic weather station (AWS) on the moraine near the glacier for the hydrological years 2006/07 and 2007/08 while stake readings are available at intervals of between 14 to 64 days. To optimize model parameters, we used 1000 model simulations in which the most sensitive model parameters were varied randomly within their physically meaningful ranges. The modeled surface height change was evaluated against the two stake locations in the lower ablation zone (SH11, 4760m) and in the upper ablation zone (SH22, 4816m), respectively. The optimal parameter set for each point achieved good model skill but if we transfer the best parameter combination from one stake site to the other stake site model errors increases significantly. The same happens if we optimize the model parameters for each year individually and transfer

  6. Hospital stays for hepatitis B or C virus infection or primary liver cancer among immigrants: a census-linked population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Edward; Myers, Robert P.; Manuel, Doug; Sanmartin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recent increase in the incidence of primary liver cancer in Canada has been attributed to a higher proportion of immigrants from countries endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined hospital discharges for liver disease in Canada, focusing on those for all liver-related diseases, HBV infection, HCV infection and primary liver cancer, by 3 immigration-related variables: immigration status, duration of residence in Canada and risk level of the source country. Methods: We calculated annualized crude and age-standardized rates of a hospital stay in Canada for HBV infection, HCV infection, primary liver cancer and all liver-related diseases using data from the 2006 Canadian census (long form) linked to the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database for fiscal years 2006/07 to 2008/09. We estimated the odds of a hospital stay using logistic regression for the 3 immigration-related variables, adjusting for sociodemographic indicators. Results: Immigrants were less likely than Canadian-born residents to be discharged with a diagnosis of any liver-related condition (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.89); however, they were more likely to be discharged with a diagnosis of HBV infection (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.57-2.60) and primary liver cancer (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.68). There was a clear association between a hospital stay for HBV infection and immigration from HBV-endemic countries (OR 5.15, 95% CI 3.87-6.84) and between a stay for HCV infection and immigration from HCV-endemic countries (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.74-5.11). Adjustment for low income status and urban residence did not change the results. Interpretation: Although the odds of a liver-related hospital stay were lower among immigrants than among those born in Canada, immigrants from countries at high risk for HBV infection, HCV infection and primary liver cancer were more likely than Canadian-born residents to have a

  7. Improving Approaches for Determining Ice Volume Change on the Greenland Ice Sheet Margin using ASTER and SPOT Digital Elevation Models and Spectral Masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. N.; Rhodes, T.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Finfrock, A.; Lajoie, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is the largest ice sheet in the Northern Hemisphere and understanding trends in its mass balance has important implications for predicting global sea level rise. High relief topography along the margin of the GIS makes it difficult to use low-resolution remote sensing to resolve ice elevations. These marginal regions however, tend to be more dynamic than the interior of the ice sheet and may show signs of ice volume loss earlier than the interior. In this study we difference georeferenced ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) from 2000-01 (30 meter resolution) with SPOT DEMs from 2008-09 (40 meter resolution) made available through the SPIRIT IPY program. ASTER DEMs from 2006-07 are used where SPOT data is not available. The change in these DEMs is divided by the time elapsed between scenes giving change in km3 per year. The method used for DEM production is not accurate over low contrast surfaces such as water, and snow. High relief bedrock can also have more error than areas of glacial ice due to slope. Masking snow, water, and rock from scenes minimizes total error. Most methods of spectral masking available in the literature rely on establishing thresholds for a scene which separate snow from ice from water. In order to apply these methods to multiple scenes taken at different latitudes, seasons, and sun altitudes, a new set of thresholds need to be developed for each scene which proves to be a very time intensive process. When covering large areas with a mosaic of scenes, these methods have not proven applicable. We have developed a method of nesting masks which allows for faster and less subjective trial-and-error threshold setting. This method can be applied to a range of scenes with little to no individual manipulation giving a repeatable result. The first mask eliminates most bedrock with a negative NDSI and fjord water and sea ice with an elevation of about 0. A principal components analysis (PCA) is done under this mask for

  8. Degrees of Debt. Student Borrowing and Loan Repayment of Bachelor's Degree Recipients 1 Year after Graduating: 1994, 2001, and 2009. Stats in Brief. NCES 2014-011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.

    2013-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines three cohorts of recent college graduates 1 year after they attained their bachelor's degree. The graduation years for the three cohorts span a 15-year period: 1992-93, 1999-2000, and 2007-08. The latest cohort (2007-08) graduated in the midst of the 2008 recession. This Statistics in Brief first examines how…

  9. Federal Education Tax Benefits: Who Receives Them and to What Extent Do They Shape the Price of College Attendance? Stats in Brief. NCES 2012-212

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Alexandria Walton; Berkner, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief applies IRS rules and data to a nationally representative sample of 2007-08 undergraduates to estimate who received education tax benefits and looks at the extent to which these benefits shaped their price of college attendance. Key findings include: (1) Nearly one-half of all 2007-08 undergraduates were estimated to have…

  10. The Characteristics and Experiences of Beginning Teachers in Seven Northeast and Islands Region States and Nationally. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 133

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Bocala, Candice; Fronius, Trevor; Phillips, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics and experiences of beginning public school teachers in the Northeast and Islands Region states and compares them with the characteristics and experiences of beginning teachers nationally using data from the 2007/08 Schools and Staffing Survey. This study uses data from the 2007/08 Schools and Staffing…

  11. The Characteristics and Experiences of Beginning Teachers in Seven Northeast and Islands Region States and Nationally. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 133

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Bocala, Candice; Fronius, Trevor; Phillips, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This summary describes a study that examines characteristics and experiences of beginning public school teachers in the Northeast and Islands Region states and compares them with the characteristics and experiences of beginning teachers nationally using data from the 2007/08 Schools and Staffing Survey. This study uses data from the 2007/08

  12. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  13. A Comparison of Supply and Demand for PETE Professionals in Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the supply and demand issues of D-PETE professionals in higher education. The three concerns addressed were: (a) doctoral graduates and their respective job placements in the academic years of 1996-97 through 2008-09, (b) an examination of two targeted academic years (2005-06 and 2008-09) to determine the supply of entry level…

  14. Characteristics of PETE Doctoral Level Institutions: Descriptions of Programs, Faculty and Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    The present study of Doctoral PETE programs provided an extensive description of demographic data which included: (a) doctoral program characteristics, (b) faculty, and (c) doctoral graduates. Several data sets from the academic years of 2005-06 and 2008-09 as well as selected summary data from 1996-97 through 2008-09 were used to make comparisons…

  15. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

  17. Limited English Proficient Students: Progress of Kindergarten Cohorts. Research Watch. D&A Report No. 14.05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebeler, Amy; Baenen, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    We examined the progress of kindergarteners who entered the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in 2008-09 and in 2010-11 who were identified as limited in English proficiency (LEP). For the 2008-09 cohort, English proficiency increased steadily over time. Few were able to exit LEP status in their first three years in WCPSS (10.5%); this…

  18. 29 CFR 18.1103 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Applicability § 18.1103 Title. These rules may be known as the United States Department of Labor Rules of Evidence and cited as 29 CFR 18.__ (1989). ... 29 Labor 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Title. 18.1103 Section 18.1103 Labor Office of...

  19. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  20. 7 CFR 989.154 - Marketing policy computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... announcing a crop year's marketing policy for Natural (sun-dried) Seedless raisins shall be 85,000 natural... 2007-08 crop Natural (sun-dried) Seedless (NS) raisins if the crop estimate is equal to, less than,...

  1. U.S. Kids Don't Make the Grade on Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... health, a new American Heart Association scientific statement says. An analysis of 2007-08 federal government survey results found that about 91 percent of youngsters did not have healthy diets. Those between the ages of 2 and 19 ...

  2. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beetz, S.; Liebersbach, H.; Glatzel, S.; Jurasinski, G.; Buczko, U.; Höper, H.

    2013-02-01

    Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources but methane (CH4) sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted) peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP) by reducing GHG emissions. We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007-30 June 2009) in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4-5 cuts per year); extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year); near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence). Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measurements were carried out every 3-4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled. Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 ± 255 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 850 ± 238 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in the first (2007/2008) and the second (2008/2009) measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to -129 ± 231 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 94 ± 200 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, while it added up to 45 ± 117 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and -101 ± 93 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in 2007/08 and 2008/09 for the near-natural site. In contrast, in calendar year 2008 GWP aggregated to 441 ± 201 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, 14 ± 162 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1

  3. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy. PMID:24958010

  4. Menthol Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2006/07. 2008, National Cancer Institute and Centers ... 07): http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/tus-cps/ . U.S. Department of Commerce Census Bureau, Menthol Cigarette ...

  5. 75 FR 24934 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... states reporting SY 2006-07 data. The information collected from these records included base salary, total salary, benefits, highest level of education, years of teaching experience, gender, and...

  6. Gender Differences in Motor Skill Proficiency from Childhood to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lisa M.; van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J.; Brooks, Lyndon O.; Beard, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Students' proficiency in three object control and three locomotor skills were assessed in 2000 (M age = 10.06 years, SD = 0.63) in New South Wales, Australia and in 2006-07 (M age = 16.44 years, SD = 0.64). In 2006-07, 266 students, 138 girls (51.9%) and 128 boys (48.1%), had at least one skill reassessed. Boys were more object control proficient…

  7. The Early Childhood Educator in a Critical Learning Community: Towards Sustainable Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Keulen, Anke

    2010-01-01

    The action research project Sustainable Change in a Critical Learning Community was conducted in the Netherlands (2007-08) to improve quality in early childhood by enhancement of critical reflection at all levels in early childhood organisations: educators individually and collectively, pedagogical leaders and coaches, and (middle) management. The…

  8. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  9. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  10. Two Decades of Trends in Undergraduate Economics Degrees, 1991-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    After three years of treading water (2005, 2006, and 2007), in 2008 (academic year 2007-08), undergraduate degrees in economics awarded by U.S. colleges and universities resumed the strong upward trajectory they exhibited from 1997 through 2004, when they rose almost 60 percent over seven years. This trend has continued unabated since 2007, with…

  11. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Second Year Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses the progress of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) evaluation and presents a brief summary of the main findings of the seven distinct topical reports that have been completed for 2007-08--the second year of the evaluation. Those seven specialized reports build on the five reports that were released in 2008 and are:…

  12. North Dakota University System Summary of 2007-2008 Annual Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007-08 operating budget for the North Dakota University System is over $960 million. Approximately 28 percent of operations are supported by the state general fund. The remainder of the operations of the University System are self-supporting through tuition and fees, room and board charges paid by students, and private and federal research…

  13. Sense of Community Belonging and Health in Canada: A Regional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the association between sense of community belonging and health among settlements of different size and across the urban to rural continuum in Canada. Using data from the recent 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), the objective is to identify the major health, social and geographic determinants of sense of…

  14. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  15. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  16. Early Identification of High School Graduation Outcomes in Oregon Leadership Network Schools. REL 2015-079

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student characteristics related to completing high school within four years, with particular emphasis on graduation outcomes for male and English language learner students. The authors looked at a cohort of students who began grade 9 in the 2007/08 school year in four Oregon districts. Factors related to…

  17. Music and Academic Success Go Together at Whitworth; University's Survey Results Also Suggest High School Music May Boost Chances of College Admittance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research by Whitworth University music professor Richard Strauch which assesses the freshman class for Whitworth's 2007-08 academic year. Strauch found that Whitworth students who stuck with their high school music program had higher GPAs and standardized test scores upon entering the university than…

  18. IDRA Newsletter. Volume 35, No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Christie L., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Each edition of the IDRA Newsletter strives to provide many different perspectives on the issues in education topics discussed and to define its significance in the state and national dialogue. This issue focuses on Student Engagement and includes: (1) Texas Public School Attrition Study, 2007-08: At Current Pace, Schools Will Lose Many More…

  19. Experiencing ERASMUS: Reflections on Integrating Polish Psychology Students onto a Year of a Degree in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS) supports students to pursue temporary periods of study in other European universities. During the academic year 2007/08 the UK received 15, 975 ERASMUS students. Although much research exists about the experiences of international students less attention has…

  20. American Faculty and Their Institutions: The Global View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin; Cummings, William

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on aspects of the Changing Academic Profession survey of 2007-08 that describe the place of faculty in their institutions. The authors examine the following aspects of institutional life: (1) the faculty role in institutional governance; (2) who evaluates their teaching and research; (3) the locus of their loyalties as between…

  1. Using ACT Data as Part of a State Accountability System. Issues in College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    Accountability in the nation's public schools has become a matter of considerable urgency since the 2001 amendment of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. Under this most recent version of the ESEA, as of the 2007-08 academic year states and districts must assess the mathematics and reading proficiency of students…

  2. Higher Education Budget Cuts: How Are They Affecting Students? Report 09-27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Mallory

    2009-01-01

    The public higher education systems have received significant budget cuts in the 2009-10 fiscal year, with the University of California (UC) receiving $813 million less than in 2007-08, California State University (CSU) receiving $625 million less, and the community college system receiving $812 million less. It is important to understand the…

  3. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  4. A Participative Approach to Evaluation of Graduates' Professional Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerici, Renata; Castiglioni, Maria; Grion, Valentina; Zago, Giuseppe; Da Re, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the professional outcomes of University of Padova graduates in academic year 2007/08. Its aim was to carry out an overall assessment of higher education professional outcomes, involving all the main actors of the learning process, students, teachers and tutors, in a perspective of participatory evaluation, to improve teaching…

  5. Arizona State Museum "Culture Craft Saturdays--Serving At-Risk Populations" Institute of Museums and Library Services Grant Museums for America Program, 2007-2008 School Year. Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Lisa; Powers, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Arizona State Museum, Tucson, received a grant for the school year 2007-08 from the Institute of Museums and Library Services, Museum for America Programs. The goals of this grant were (1) to continue a vibrant, monthly offering of family programs at the Arizona State Museum (ASM) around the topic of museum exhibitions, (2) to…

  6. A Closer Look at Charter Schools and Segregation: Flawed Comparisons Lead to Overstated Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Gary; Jensen, Nathan; Kisida, Brian; McGee, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In January 2010, the UCLA-based Civil Rights Project (CRP) released "Choice without Equity: Charter School Segregation and the Need for Civil Rights Standards." The study intended to report on, among other things, levels of racial segregation in charter schools across the United States. The authors use 2007-08 data from the U.S. Department of…

  7. The Relation between Time Management Skills and Academic Achievement of Potential Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cemaloglu, Necati; Filiz, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted in the 2007-08 academic term among 849 graduate students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The "Time Management…

  8. What Do Learners Expect to Find in Their First Year at University? Reading Their Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plana, Mar Gutierrez-Colon

    2011-01-01

    Using students' diaries as a frame of reference, this research project set out to learn more about how they experience foreign language classes in their first university year, over two semester periods (from September to June of the academic year 2007/08). The diaries were produced by 35 students of English Studies at the Universitat Rovira i…

  9. Making an Economic Impact: Higher Education and the English Regions. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McLellan, Donald; McNicoll, Iain

    2010-01-01

    This is the first published study of the impact of the higher education sector on the English regions. This study presents key economic features of UK higher education in the academic year 2007/08 and those aspects of its contribution to the nine English regions that can be readily measured. The sector is analysed as a conventional industry,…

  10. Danish Universities in the Financial Crisis: Change and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milthers, Pernille Meyn

    2011-01-01

    Universities have always been important to national economies, but since the financial crisis of 2007-08 they have become key economic actors. Because they supply highly skilled labour and undertake basic research that enable nations to engage in global competition, they are capable of boosting production and innovation. This article explores the…

  11. Changes in the Cost of Energy in One State's School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 088

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cymrot, Donald J.; Martinez, Miguel; Jones, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    To support the work of Tennessee's Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Council, this report describes data on energy expenditures in school districts for 2002/03-2007/08. Energy expenditures rose from about 2.6 percent to about 3.0 percent of total expenditures over the period, with some differences in the mix of energy types and…

  12. Pressures of the Season: Classroom Quality in Baltimore Elementary Classes and Implications for Improving Instruction. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore Education Research Consortium, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This brief presents findings from 347 observations conducted in 23 second and third grade classrooms over two years to paint a picture of the in-school experiences of students who had been first graders in eighth Baltimore City Public Schools in 2007-08. Using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), an observation instrument and protocol…

  13. 77 FR 67047 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... processes under Rules G-32 and G-34.\\13\\ \\11\\ See Release No. 34-57577 (March 28, 2008), 73 FR 18022 (April...), 73 FR 25815 (May 7, 2008) (File No. SR-MSRB-2007-08) (November 27, 2007). \\13\\ See MSRB Notice 2009... Release No. 34-67908 (September 21, 2012), 77 FR 59427 (September 27, 2012) (File No....

  14. Effect of heifer calving date on longevity and lifetime productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longevity and lifetime productivity are important factors in profitability of the beef cow herd. Therefore, a concern for many producers is the productivity and longevity of the individual cow in their herd. The 2007-08 survey from National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) reported that the l...

  15. Colorado Children's Budget 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…

  16. Web-Based Evaluation System for a Problem-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azli, Naziha Ahmadi; Othman, Mohd Shahizan

    2008-01-01

    The Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University Technology Malaysia is currently moving towards a Problem-Based Laboratory implementation rather than the conventional instructional-based laboratory for final year students. The laboratory has commenced session with about 500 students' registration in the 2007/08/1. The Problem-Based Laboratory…

  17. Public School in St. Louis: Place, Performance, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Charter School Authorizers (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report compares the demand for public education in St. Louis during the 2007-08 school year with both the supply and location of public schools operated by St. Louis Public Schools and charter schools. The geographic areas of analysis are the city of St. Louis and its zip codes. The first four sections of this report contain background…

  18. Development of a Contextualized ESL Bridge Curriculum. Promising Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Community College Research and Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Black Hawk College (BHC) is a comprehensive community college serving all or part of nine counties and a population of approximately 224,510 residents in a mostly rural area of north-west Illinois. This practice was fully developed and implemented for the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative during the 2007-08 academic years. Heeding BHC's strategic…

  19. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  20. Out of Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2008-01-01

    "For most children and learners, things are getting better." This is an important and encouraging message from Ofsted Chief Inspector Christine Gilbert's Annual Report for 2007/08, and one to hang on to. However, it is not the whole story. From a social justice perspective it is also important to note for whom this is not the case. The Chief…

  1. Teacher Job Satisfaction. Data Point. NCES 2016-131

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2016-01-01

    This report uses teacher responses to the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) public and private school teacher questionnaires from the 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 school years. SASS is a system of related questionnaires that provide descriptive data on the context of elementary and secondary education in the United States. The SASS system covers…

  2. 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12). Data File Documentation. NCES 2015-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cominole, Melissa; Shepherd, Bryan; Siegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This publication describes the methods and procedures used in the 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12). These graduates, who completed the requirements for a bachelor's degree during the 2007-08 academic year, were first interviewed as part of the 2008 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08), and then…

  3. After the FAFSA: How Red Tape Can Prevent Eligible Students from Receiving Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Debbie Frankle

    2010-01-01

    This report sheds light on what happens to federal financial aid applicants after they submit the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Using 2007-08 financial aid data from 13 California community colleges, the Institute found that one in three likely Pell-eligible applicants did not receive a Pell Grant. Also, while few students'…

  4. Factors in Science Journal Cancellation Projects: The Roles of Faculty Consultations and Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jeanine; Fernandez, Peter; Dixon, Lana

    2014-01-01

    The economic downturn of 2007-08 forced many academic libraries in the United States to cancel journals. We surveyed life sciences librarians from ARL libraries to find out about their experiences with journal cancellations during 2008-12. Overall, we discovered that two factors were essential in decision-making: faculty consultations and data.…

  5. Traditional vs. Virtual Learning: Does It Make a Difference? ADELEX--Assessing and Developing Lexical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaen, Maria Moreno

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents survey data from English Philology students (University of Granada) on a virtual course entitled ADELEX--Assessing and Developing Lexis--which was carried out in 2007-08 to enhance vocabulary acquisition. In the first part of this paper, we briefly offer a description of this second generation virtual course to enhance lexical…

  6. Sense of Belonging and Mental Health in Hamilton, Ontario: An Intra-Urban Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines geographic variations in sense of community belonging in Hamilton, Ontario. It also identifies the most significant health and social factors associated with belonging in the city. The research employs data from the 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey for respondents aged 18 or over living in the Hamilton Census…

  7. WITHDRAWN: Erratum to "Which are the best nations and institutions for revolutionary science 1987-2006? Analysis using a combined metric of Nobel prizes, Fields medals, Lasker awards and Turing awards (NFLT metric)" [Medical Hypotheses 68 (2007) 1191-1194].

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-09-27

    The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published in Medical Hypotheses, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2007.08.005. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. PMID:18482802

  8. Empowering Managers, Assuring Governors: The Introduction of Dual Assurance at the University of Exeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weale, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Since the start of the academic session 2007-08, the University of Exeter has been operating a unique system of governance known as dual assurance, which has replaced a more traditional system of committees sitting under Council, the governing body. This paper describes the background to the development of dual assurance at Exeter, and the reasons…

  9. Public Education: Fingertip Facts 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Patti

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for 2008. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2007; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2007; (3) 2007 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2007-08 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools…

  10. Gender Gaps in North American Research Productivity: Examining Faculty Publication Rates in Mexico, Canada, and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Gonzalez, Laura; Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Galaz-Fontes, Jesus F.; Fisher, Donald; Snee, Iain

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses gender gaps in North American research productivity, which may be influenced by personal and family variables, as well as professional and work-related variables. The study was conducted as part of the "Changing Academic Profession (CAP) International Survey", conducted in 2007-08. Using articles as indicator of…

  11. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  12. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  13. Choice without Equity: Charter School Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Wang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    The political popularity of charter schools is unmistakable. This article explores the relationship between charter schools and segregation across the country, in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and several dozen metropolitan areas with large enrollments of charter school students in 2007-08. The descriptive analysis of the charter school…

  14. Physics Graduate Degrees: Results from the Enrollments and Degrees & the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Surveys. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2011-01-01

    Each fall the Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the US and Puerto Rico to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In the academic year 2007-08 there were 252…

  15. Collaborative Learning Processes in an Asynchronous Environment: An Analysis through Discourse and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirado, Ramon; Aguaded, Ignacio; Hernando, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses an experience in collaborative learning in an asynchronous writing environment through discussion forums on a WebCt platform of the University of Huelva's virtual campus, and was part of an innovative teaching project in 2007-08. The main objectives are to describe the processes of collaborative knowledge construction and the…

  16. School Finance Highlights 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian

    2011-01-01

    California entered 2010-11 with a longstanding imbalance between ongoing spending and income. To help close that gap, state policymakers suspended Proposition 98, the minimum funding guarantee for K-12 schools and community colleges. In total, revenues for K-12 schools are down nearly 10% this year compared with 2007-08. Yet more cuts loom as the…

  17. Student Mobility Research: Next Steps. Engage. Fall/Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This "Engage" newsletter features articles on student mobility research, supporting the BC Transfer System and inter-provincial initiatives. It announces the publication of five reports profiling students who transferred to British Columbia universities in the period 2003-04 to 2007-08. These reports provide detailed demographic and performance…

  18. Graduate Fees at California's Public Universities. FS 08-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Fees for graduate students at California's public colleges and universities have risen over the last several years, but are still lower than fees at comparable universities in other states. Fees for full-time graduate students at the California State University were $4,163 in 2007-08. This amount consists of $3,414 in systemwide fees plus…

  19. Wake County Public School System K-5 Assessment Results: 2009-10. Measuring Up. E&R Report No. 10.19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Anisa

    2010-01-01

    Moderate to high percentages of Wake County Public School (WCPSS) students demonstrated grade-level performance on K-5 assessments in 2009-10. Results indicate very slight changes from prior years. The percentage of students proficient in reading book level and mathematics strands increased very slightly since 2007-08. Modest declines in…

  20. Formative Assessment Strategies and their Effect on Student Performance and on Student and Tutor Workload: The Results of Research Projects Undertaken in Preparation for Greater Convergence of Universities in Spain within the European Higher Education Area (EHEA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Pastor, Victor M.; Pintor, Patricia; Muros, Beatriz; Webb, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses two aspects of developing formative assessment processes within universities in Spain: the academic performance of the students and the workload that formative assessment creates for both academic staff and students. It presents the results of 10 research projects covering the first semester of the 2007-08 academic year, mainly…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Mississippi, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Mississippi for 2010. Mississippi made changes to its state testing program in the 2007-08 school year. Therefore, subgroup and achievement gap trends could not be calculated because fewer than three consecutive years of data were available, too short a period to constitute a…

  2. School Mobility, Dropout, and Graduation Rates across Student Disability Categories in Utah. REL 2015-055

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrat, Vanessa X.; Berliner, BethAnn; Voight, Adam; Tran, Loan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Yu, Airong; Chen-Gaddini, Min

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of students with disabilities in Utah public schools, and presents the single-year mobility and dropout rates for students in grades 6-12, as well as the four-year cohort dropout and graduation rates, for students who started grade 9 for the first time in 2007/08 and constituted the 2011 cohort. Results…

  3. Baccalaureate and Beyond: A First Look at the Employment Experiences and Lives of College Graduates, 4 Years On (B&B:08/12). NCES 2014-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Siegel, Peter; Shepherd, Bryan; Cooney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This report presents initial findings about the employment outcomes of bachelor's degree recipients approximately 4 years after they completed their 2007-08 degrees. These findings are based on data from the second follow-up of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12), a nationally representative longitudinal sample…

  4. Supporting Professional Learning through Teacher Educator Enquiries: An Ethnographic Insight into Developing Understandings and Changing Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Deb; Hooker, Barbara; Wise, David; Devlin, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The Educational Doctorate (EdD) at the University of Wolverhampton offers educational practitioners the opportunity to design a research enquiry based in, on or around their professional work. The cohort, reported on here, embarked upon their EdD studies during the 2007/08 academic year. This study reports on seven participants' learning…

  5. The 2010 AS&U 100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Big isn't as big as it used to be for many of the largest school districts. The most recent enrollment numbers for the nation's biggest school districts seem to reflect the country's ailing economy. Forty-eight of the 100 largest public school systems in the United States in 2008-09 reported enrollment declines compared with the previous year's…

  6. Leaner Class Sizes Add Fiscal Stress to Florida Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    With a total price tag pushing $10 billion, Florida's "class-size-reduction mandate"--the nation's toughest--is under fire, as school districts call on lawmakers to weaken the 2002 constitutional requirement before it is fully phased in later this year. Starting with the 2008-09 school year, individual districts must meet new size caps in each…

  7. Physics Teachers' Future Teaching Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    There are two sides of the physics teacher turnover equation: teachers leaving and teachers entering. This month we will focus on teachers' future teaching plans. As seen in the figure, about 5% of the 27,000 teachers who taught physics in U.S. high schools in 2008-09 were in their first year of teaching physics (but not necessarily their first…

  8. Managing the Teacher Workforce in Austere Times: The Determinants and Implications of Teacher Layoffs. CEDR Working Paper No. 2011-1.3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Theobald, Roddy

    2011-01-01

    Over 2,000 teachers in the state of Washington received reduction-in-force (RIF) notices across the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years. We link data on these RIF notices to an administrative dataset that includes student, teacher, school, and district variables to determine the factors that predict the likelihood of a teacher receiving a RIF notice.…

  9. Managing the Teacher Workforce in Austere Times: The Determinants and Implications of Teacher Layoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Theobald, Roddy

    2013-01-01

    Over 2,000 teachers in the state of Washington received reduction in force (RIF) notices across the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years. We link data on these RIF notices to an administrative data set that includes student, teacher, school, and district variables to determine the factors that predict the likelihood of a teacher receiving a RIF…

  10. The English Language Growth Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Mulligan, Denise; Davies, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The English Language Growth (ELG) Project was conducted in five Australian universities in 2008-09 to address the on-going English language development of international students from non-English speaking backgrounds. Using an online survey inviting both qualitative and quantitative responses, 798 international students provided a rich source of…

  11. National Educational Technology Trends: 2010. Innovation Through State Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report provides a national perspective on Title II-D for federal fiscal year (FY) 2008 (2008-09 school year), as well as emergent trends based on data from the past seven years. Title II-D is the only federal education program with funds explicitly targeted to support state and local effective uses of educational technology in the …

  12. Deregulating School Aid in California: How Districts Responded to Flexibility in Tier 3 Categorical Funds in 2010-2011. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Brian M.; Fuller, Bruce; Timar, Tom; Marsh, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    California's system of school finance is highly regulated and prescriptive. A large share of state funding is allocated through categorical programs, that is, programs whose funding is contingent upon districts using the money in a particular way or for a particular purpose. In 2008-09, the strings were taken off 40 of those programs, collectively…

  13. The Fiscal Effects of School Choice Programs on Public School Districts. National Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafidi, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the author constructs the first ever estimates for each state and the District of Columbia of the short-run fixed costs of educating children in public schools. He endeavors to make cautious overestimates of these short-run fixed costs. The United States' average spending per student was $12,450 in 2008-09. The author estimates…

  14. 75 FR 16463 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is announcing the Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) members it has selected for the 2008-09 eighth round review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation. This notice also prescribes the deadline by which Bank members selected for review must submit Community Support Statements to...

  15. The Top 100 Associate Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 250,000 students of color received associate degrees in academic year 2008-09. This represents 30 percent of all associate degree recipients, which is just slightly below the 33 percent representation of these racial/ethnic groups in the general U.S. population. In this edition of the Top 100 series, researchers highlight the institutions…

  16. E-Portfolios@Teacher Training: An Evaluation of Technological and Motivational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klampfer, Alfred; Köhler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years e-portfolios have received a great deal of attention in the educational discourse and it is associated with individualization of the learning process, competence-oriented assessment and institutional personnel development. Since the beginning of the academic year 2008/09 students of the Catholic College of Education Linz had the…

  17. Renewal and Optimism: Five Years as an Ohio Charter Authorizer. Fordham Sponsorship Accountability Report, 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation chronicled in its last year's Fordham Sponsorship Accountability Report, "Seeking Quality in the Face of Adversity", the 2008-09 school year was a brutal one during which schools, and their peers, faced many existential threats. The 2009-10 school year was Fordham's fifth year as a charter school authorizer…

  18. The Use of Agents in Recruiting Chinese Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    International student mobility is a rapidly growing and evolving phenomenon. During the 2008/09 academic year, the number of international students at colleges and universities in the U.S. increased by 8% to a record high of 671,616 students with about 15% from mainland China. The model of college choice for Chinese students who are considering…

  19. Impact and Implementation Analyses of the ELM Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian; Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Clarke, Ben; Cary, Mari Strand; Chard, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this 4-year efficacy trial, funded by IES under the Mathematics and Science Education topic, is to study the efficacy of a (Tier 1) core kindergarten math curriculum, "Early Learning in Mathematics" (ELM), when implemented under rigorous experimental conditions. In the first year of this study (2008-09), kindergarten classrooms…

  20. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09

  1. Riding out a Financial Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Randy C.

    2012-01-01

    After two decades of steady growth and financial stability in the Rio Rancho Public Schools, New Mexico's fastest-growing school district found itself face to face with a $3.8 million budget deficit going into the 2008-09 school year. Because people in the district hesitated to change anything that would cut into student programming, and nobody…

  2. Deepening College Students' Engagement with Religion and Theology through Community Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Serve Program at Ignatius University combines academic study of theology with a year-long community service project focused on combating poverty. An analysis of the Serve Program during the 2008-09 academic year revealed that participating students demonstrated a significant increase in their interest in theology; a greater desire to enroll in…

  3. 76 FR 77371 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 2008-09-07, Amendment 39-15488 (73 FR 21811, April... on April 20, 2011 (76 FR 22059). That NPRM proposed to require installing new EICAS OPS (Version 7..., International, support the intent and contents of the NPRM (76 FR 22059, April 20, 2011). Request To...

  4. Determinants of Parents' Decision to Vaccinate Their Children against Rotavirus: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, E.; Bettinger, J. A.; Halperin, B.; Bradet, R.; Lavoie, F.; Sauvageau, C.; Gilca, V.; Boulianne, N.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus disease is a common cause of health care utilization and almost all children are affected by the age of 5 years. In Canada, at the time of this survey (2008-09), immunization rates for rotavirus were less than 20%. We assessed the determinants of a parent's acceptance to have their child immunized against rotavirus. The survey…

  5. "The Best School for My Child?" Positions, Dispositions and Inequalities in School Choice in the City of Barcelona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Angel; Benito, Ricard

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the discourses and practices employed by families involved in school choice processes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). It draws upon a study conducted by the authors in 2008/09, and it is based on surveys completed by a representative sample made up of 3245 families, as well as 60 in-depth interviews with families with…

  6. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    This summary describes a larger report that discusses how Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This larger REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports…

  7. LJ Best of 2009 Business Books: 32 Titles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cords, Sarah Statz

    2010-01-01

    It should come as no surprise that a large share of this year's business books focus squarely on the 2008-09 financial crisis and security-backed mortgage implosion. Investing books followed the trend as either alarmist titles advocating selling stocks, or books urging readers to take advantage of this time to buy undervalued investments. An…

  8. A Lens on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Claire; Barton, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    The Kent School District in Kent, Washington, adopted the use of video study groups (VSGs) during the 2008-09 school year to help teachers apply research-based strategies to support struggling math students. This form of embedded professional development has been around since the 1960s but is getting renewed attention because video equipment is…

  9. Does Teacher Evaluation Improve School Performance? Experimental Evidence from Chicago's Excellence in Teaching Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Sartain, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Chicago Public Schools initiated the Excellence in Teaching Project, a teacher evaluation program designed to increase student learning by improving classroom instruction through structured principal-teacher dialogue. The pilot began in forty-four elementary schools in 2008-09 (cohort 1) and scaled up to include an additional forty-eight…

  10. Foreign Science and Engineering Students in the United States. InfoBrief. NSF 10-324

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrelli, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, about 568,000 foreign students (those holding temporary visas) studied at U.S. universities and colleges, 248,000 of them in science and engineering (S&E). There was an expectation that fall 2009 foreign enrollments might be negatively affected by the 2008-09 world financial crisis because of schools' restrictions on enrollment, declines…

  11. 75 FR 6637 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for New Collection-3038-NEW, Registration Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... 2008-09 financial crisis? 5. Security futures products have both an equity component and a futures... exchanges are not included in the definition of ``small entities'' per 47 FR 18618 and 66 FR 42256... on small entities--New Collection--3038.XXXX. \\3\\ 47 FR 18618-18621 (April 30, 1982). B....

  12. Fees at California's Public Colleges and Universities. Report 09-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fees at California's public colleges and universities have increased in the past two decades, but are still lower than fees at comparable institutions in other states. Fees for full-time undergraduate students at the University of California (UC) were $8,027 in 2008-09 and fees at California State University (CSU) were $3,849. Fees are likely to…

  13. 75 FR 68185 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on June 29, 2010 (75 FR 37339), and proposed to supersede AD 2008-09-22, Amendment 39-15503 (73 FR 23939, May 1, 2008). That NPRM proposed to... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and...

  14. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports the reading and math proficiency rates of grade 8 Native Hawaiian…

  15. The Year We Learned to Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Janice; Contreras, Kathia

    2011-01-01

    In 2008-09, Colegio Ingles had a watershed year in terms of teachers learning to enhance one another's skills. Beneath a deceptively congenial surface, teachers at this Mexican preK-9th grade school were avoiding professional confrontations and rarely observed one another's classes or shared teaching solutions and innovations. That same year, the…

  16. Update on the Governor's Proposed 2009-10 Budget. Report 09-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On December 31, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the summary of his proposed budget for fiscal year 2009-10, including proposed changes to the current year (2008-09) budget. The complete budget was released on January 9, 2009. The budget plans assume current-year General Fund revenues of $91 billion--down from September's $102 billion…

  17. Update on the 2009-10 State Budget. Report 09-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On February 20, 2009, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law the 2009 Budget Package. This set of bills revised the current year (2008-09) budget and adopted a budget for the upcoming 2009-10 fiscal year. This 17-month spending plan was designed to address a two-year budgetary shortfall of more than $40 billion. The plan contains the…

  18. Budget Update--June 5, 2009. Report 09-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    With the failure of most of the May 19 ballot measures, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has released additional proposed revisions to the current year (2008-09) and budget year (2009-10) state spending plans. The Governor and Legislature adopted an 18-month spending plan in late February, but that budget now has a $24 billion deficit. The…

  19. 40th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2008-2009 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 40th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2008-09. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2008-2009 academic year, the states…

  20. Endowment Spending: Building a Stronger Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, Verne O.; Jarvis, William F.

    2010-01-01

    A large and growing body of work exists on the subject of endowment investing, but the equally important topic of endowment spending is treated less often. While the degree to which endowed institutions depend on their endowment for budgetary support varies widely, the market crisis of 2008-09 demonstrated that failure by the endowment to provide…

  1. Continuous Improvement: Building for the Future. Superintendent's 20th Annual Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Superintendent's 20th Annual Report, a comprehensive overview of Hawaii's public schools for school year 2008-09. This report contains essential progress indicators and measures, as well as highlights and comparisons of core educational data presented in a concise and user-friendly format. Appended are: (1) Glossary; (2)…

  2. LMS Transitioning to "Moodle": A Surprising Case of Successful, Emergent Change Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Alan

    2011-01-01

    During 2009-10 the University of Ballarat implemented the open-source learning management system (LMS) "Moodle" alongside its existing legacy LMS, "Blackboard". While previous IT implementations have been troublesome at the university, notably the student information and finance management systems in 2008-09, the "Moodle" implementation appears to…

  3. 75 FR 61989 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ..., 2010. On May 27, 2008 (73 FR 21523, April 22, 2008), the Director of the Federal Register approved the... 39 to include an AD that supersedes AD 2008-09-04, Amendment 39-15484 (73 FR 21523, April 22, 2008... airplanes. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on June 25, 2010 (75 FR 36298). That...

  4. Fiscal Profiles, 2008: The Sixteenth in a Periodic Series of Factbooks about the Financing of California Higher Education. Commission Report 08-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report contains and analyzes statistical information about the financing of California postsecondary education from the 1965-66 fiscal year through 2008-09. In addition, there is information on California public elementary and secondary education financing as well as State government in general. The Commission compiles, analyzes, and…

  5. Effects of a Program for Developing Creative Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabanos, Natalia Larraz; Torres, Pedro Allueva

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to present an intervention program for creative skills development applied to a group of students of lower Secondary Education. Method: This program was applied in a school in Zaragoza (Spain) during the 2008-09 academic year. The study used a repeated-measures, quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent…

  6. Book Vouchers: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Use and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Book vouchers serve as one component of need-based financial aid packages at the College of Southern Nevada (CSN), one of the nation's largest community colleges. This study compared the academic performance of Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) applicants in attendance at CSN during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 academic years. A basic…

  7. Deregulating School Aid in California: Revenues and Expenditures in the Second Year of Categorical Flexibility. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imazeki, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    California's system of school finance is highly regulated and prescriptive. A large share of state funding is allocated through categorical programs; that is, programs whose funding is contingent on districts using the money in a particular way or for a particular purpose. In 2008-09, the strings were taken off 40 of those programs, collectively…

  8. 75 FR 22170 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... rules as follows: \\5\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58327 (August 7, 2008), 73 FR 47988 (August 15, 2008) (SR-CBOE-2008-09). \\6\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61198 (December 17, 2009), 74 FR 68880... 17, 2008), 73 FR 15546 (March 24, 2008) (SR-CBOE-2008-19). While only a public customer order that...

  9. Changes in Student Choices and Graduate Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an comprehensive analysis of the way recession is impacting upon graduate outcomes. Data used in this report reflects the current level of applications to higher education (HE) for 2010 entry, but, due to data collection timing differences, the employment and training destinations of the graduating cohorts of 2005/06-2008/09.…

  10. Using Assessment Data to Guide Math Course Placement of California Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Snipes, Jason; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Middle school math placement and progression are topics that are part of an active policy and practice discussion in California and elsewhere. Beginning in the 2008/09 school year, California's State Board of Education recommended that students complete algebra I by the end of grade 8. Between 2003 and 2009 the proportion of grade 8 students…

  11. Let the Games Begin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Carla V.

    2009-01-01

    The first faculty meeting of the year is an opportunity for administrators to model strategies that engage their teachers and promote a sense of teamwork. This article describes the first faculty meeting of the 2008-09 school year at Matoaca Middle School in Chesterfield County, Virginia, where the administrators tried to model strategies that…

  12. Public Education: Fingertip Facts 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Patti

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for 2009. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2008; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2008; (3) 2008 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2008-09 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools…

  13. Lead Teachers in Collaborative Action Research: Perceptions of Role and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Catherine D.; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Flynn, Tara; Brock, Erin

    2011-01-01

    In 2008-09, the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO) sponsored a professional learning initiative entitled, Teachers Learning Together: The Math Journey. The context for teachers was one of team-based, collaborative action research (CAR) dealing with a mathematics topic of their own choosing. University researcher teams in provincial…

  14. Intervention for College Attendance Program: 2007-2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the outcomes of the Intervention for College Attendance Program, a program of competitive grants awarded to postsecondary institutions, professional organizations, and community-based organizations. Prior to the 2008-09 biennium, the program focused on provision of college awareness and the…

  15. Economic Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziczek, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. automotive industry has always been a cyclical business, but its near-collapse in 2008-09 and the subsequent bankruptcy of two of the three largest domestic automakers was more than a cyclical downturn. As light vehicle sales and production slowly recover, the industry has started to hire again, though with caution. In an industry known…

  16. ES Review: Selections from 2008 & 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This third edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, some of the best work from 2008-09. It features: (1) K-12 Accountability (Measuring Skills for the 21st Century (Elena Silva); Beyond the Bubble: Technology and the Future of Student Assessment (Bill Tucker); Testing the Limits (Bill Tucker); Changing the Game: The Federal Role…

  17. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  18. District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) Program: Year One Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Ghoshdastidar, Bonnie; Peng, Art

    2010-01-01

    The District Awards for Teacher Excellence's (D.A.T.E.'s) first year of implementation in 2008-09 occurred at a time when Texas was operating several state-funded performance pay programs. The three-year Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (G.E.E.G.) program was coming to its expected completion, while the Texas Educator Excellence Grant…

  19. Differences in Spending in School Districts across Geographic Locales in Minnesota. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Yinmei; Norbury, Heather; Molefe, Ayrin C.; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Meyers, Coby V.; Burke, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This study examines differences in spending in school districts across geographic locales in Minnesota and factors that might contribute to these differences. The study finds that district spending per student in 2008/09 varied across locale types in Minnesota. These differences are largely accounted for by differences in regional characteristics…

  20. Comparing Achievement Trends in Reading and Math across Arizona Public School Student Subgroups. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 019

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Huang, Min; Barrat, Vanessa X.

    2011-01-01

    This technical brief examines the 2008/09 reading and math proficiency levels among subgroups of Arizona public school students defined by students' race/ethnicity (American Indian, Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White), English language learner status (English language learner students and non-English language learner students), disability status…

  1. Programs Offered and Programs Completed at North Dakota Institutions of Postsecondary Education, July 1, 2008-June 30, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepp, Julie; Domagala, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This report provides information on degree and certificate programs offered and student program completions for fiscal year 2008-09 in North Dakota's public and private postsecondary educational institutions. Institutional programs are coded in accordance with the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP Code) system provided by the National…

  2. Earning a High School Diploma through Alternative Routes. Synthesis Report 76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Vang, Miong; Cormier, Damien

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the alternative routes to passing the high school exit exam that were available during the school year 2008-09 to students to earn a standard high school diploma. The authors examined alternative routes in the 26 states with active or soon to be active exit exams. They documented the alternative routes…

  3. Fees at California's Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fees at California's public colleges and universities have increased in the past two decades, but are still lower than fees at comparable institutions in other states. Fees for full-time undergraduate students at the University of California were $8,027 in 2008-09 and fees at California State University were $3,849. Fees are likely to rise for the…

  4. Reporting of NSC Additional (A2) Data Elements. Updated July 29, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Since the 2008-09 academic year, the National Student Clearinghouse has provided its participating institutions with the option to include 13 additional data elements in their enrollment submissions. These additional data elements help make Clearinghouse data more comprehensive and enable StudentTracker? participants to utilize a more robust data…

  5. Projecting the Need for California School Administrators over 2010/11-2017/18: The Effects of Projected Retirement and Projected Changes in Student Enrollment over Two-Year Increments. REL Technical Brief. REL 2011-No. 016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Makkonen, Reino

    2011-01-01

    This technical brief projects the need for new school-site administrators (principals and vice-principals) in California by region in two-year increments over 2010/11-2017/18. It builds on an earlier Regional Educational Laboratory West report that projected the aggregate need for school administrators over 2008/09-2017/18 based on projected…

  6. Alabama Education Quick Facts, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics; Alabama public schools 2009-10; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data; public school size and enrollment, 2009-10 school year; transportation; school meals; school personnel, 2009-2010; graduation requirements; student assessment; additional enrollment; and dropouts in school year 2008-09.

  7. Using the Freshman On-Track Indicator to Predict Graduation in Two Urban Districts in the Midwest Region. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 134

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Heather; Wong, Manyee; Wan, Yinmei; Reese, Kelly; Dhillon, Sonica; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2012-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that of U.S. public high school freshmen in the fall of 2005 24.5 percent did not graduate on time in 2008/09 (Stillwell, Sable, and Plotts 2011). As states and school districts attempt to boost graduation rates, they face the challenge of identifying which students are at risk of not graduating on time. Early warning…

  8. Using the Freshman On-Track Indicator to Predict Graduation in Two Urban Districts in the Midwest Region. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 134

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Heather; Wong, Manyee; Wan, Yinmei; Reese, Kelly; Dhillon, Sonica; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2012-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that of U.S. public high school freshmen in the fall of 2005 24.5 percent did not graduate on time in 2008/09 (Stillwell, Sable, and Plotts 2011). As states and school districts attempt to boost graduation rates, they face the challenge of identifying which students are at risk of not graduating on time. Early warning…

  9. The "Clubs against Drugs" program in Stockholm, Sweden: two cross-sectional surveys examining drug use among staff at licensed premises

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to examine self-reported drug use among staff at licensed premises, types of drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among guests. Results are presented from two measurement points (in 2001 and 2007/08). This study was carried out within the framework of the "Clubs against Drugs" program, which is a community-based multi-component intervention targeting licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted, the first in 2001 and the second in 2007/08. Staff at licensed premises attending server training were asked to participate in the anonymous survey. A survey was administered in a classroom setting and consisted of four sections: 1) demographics, 2) respondents' own drug use experience, 3) respondents' attitudes towards drug use, and 4) observed drug use among guests at licensed premises. Results Data were collected from 446 staff in 2001 and 677 staff in 2007/08. The four most commonly used drugs among staff were cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, and ecstasy. The highest rates of drug use were reported by staff in the two youngest age groups, i.e., those younger than 25 and those between the ages of 25 and 29. In 2007/08 staff reported significantly lower rates of drug use than staff in 2001. Last year drug use for the sample in 2007/08 was 19% compared to 27% for the 2001 sample. While drug-using staff compared to non drug-using staff reported more observations of drug use among guests, they were less inclined to intervene. Overall, staff reported restrictive attitudes towards drugs. Conclusions The prevalence of life-time and last year drug use among staff at licensed premises is high compared to the general population in Sweden. Lower rates of self-reported drug use among staff were reported in 2007/08. The results of this study highlight that staff at licensed premises represent an important target population in club drug prevention programs. PMID:21299852

  10. Situated Responses and Professional Development for Changing Student Demographics in the New Latino South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Paul H.; Portes, Pedro R.; Mellom, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the outcomes and key elements of collaborative professional development on K-12 educators working to improve education of Latino and English learning students in a state with rapidly changing demographics. Across four years (2003-04 through 2006-07), 37 teams from 16 urban, suburban, and rural school districts in the state of…

  11. A Description of Foundation Skills Interventions for Struggling Middle-Grade Readers in Four Urban Northeast and Islands Region School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 042

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorfass, Judith; Urbano, Carole

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted during the 2006/07 academic year, describes how four midsize urban school districts in the Northeast and Islands Region--Worcester, Massachusetts; Nashua, New Hampshire; Yonkers, New York; and Providence, Rhode Island--were providing foundation skills assessments and programs to struggling middle-grade readers. Researchers…

  12. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Baseline Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program and the author's plan for evaluating it over a five year period. It also presents a brief summary of the main findings of the four distinct topical reports that the author and his colleagues have completed for 2006-07--the baseline year of the evaluation. Those four…

  13. School Policies and Practices to Improve Health and Prevent Obesity: National Secondary School Survey Results. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides updated results from one of the most comprehensive studies of health-related policies and practices in U.S. public middle and high schools to date, which was released in August 2011. The major findings and trends presented in this report describe issues relevant to childhood obesity for four school years, from 2006-07 to…

  14. Forward Thinking: Out-of-the-Box Ideas for Surviving the Budget Crunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Back in 2006, the stock market was rising, unemployment was still relatively low, and most of the country was not yet worried about a recession. But officials at San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) were closely monitoring the economy, and they saw clouds on the horizon. By the end of the 2006-07 academic year, the district, which serves…

  15. Updating a Searchable Database of Dropout Prevention Programs and Policies in Nine Low-Income Urban School Districts in the Northeast and Islands Region. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myint-U, Athi; O'Donnell, Lydia; Phillips, Dawna

    2012-01-01

    This technical brief describes updates to a database of dropout prevention programs and policies in 2006/07 created by the Regional Education Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands and described in the Issues & Answers report, "Piloting a searchable database of dropout prevention programs in nine low-income urban school districts in the Northeast…

  16. Student Attainment and the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    In this report the authors examine high school completion and postsecondary enrollment (a.k.a. "educational attainment") of the cohort of 9th grade students who were in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) at the beginning of their state-mandated evaluation of the MPCP in 2006. After tracking the MPCP 9th graders following the 2006-07 year…

  17. Quality Assurance in Higher Education Institutions: Exit Survey among Universiti Putra Malaysia Graduating Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konting, Mohd Majid; Kamaruddin, Norfaryanti; Man, Nor Azirawani

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the exit survey of graduating students at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). The results gathered from 1,823 final year students of the 2006/07 session indicate that overall, the students' satisfaction level is moderately high (3.55 ± 0.79). The students' perception on the attributes of graduates resulting from learning outcomes…

  18. Applying the ECTS System to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rosario Merida; Romero, Julia Angulo; Del Pino, Carmen Gil

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the research conducted as part of a Pilot Experiment regarding the application of the ECTS to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree taught at the University of Cordoba (Spain). It analyses the Experiment, which was carried out in the Education Faculty over the course of three academic years (2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07).…

  19. Review of a Proposal for Los Rios Community College District to Establish an Educational Center in Davis. Commission Report 08-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Los Rios Community College District has proposed to convert its Davis outreach operations to a single, state-approved educational center. The proposal responds to the district's need to expand educational services in the Davis area. The area is marked by high student demand and limited instructional facilities. In the 2006-07 academic year,…

  20. Aboriginal Report--Charting Our Path: Public Post-Secondary System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an update on initiatives, activities and performance information regarding public post-secondary Aboriginal students in British Columbia between 2003-04 and 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations…

  1. Get a Vocation: Keeping on Top of Studies--Reducing the Drop-Out Rate in Vocational Upper Secondary Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jappinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2009-01-01

    The Finnish Ministry of education commissioned a study in 2006-07 on reducing the number of drop-outs, "Get a vocation--keeping on top of studies". The aim of the study was to establish the good practices and operating models underpinning reduction in drop-outs. The study indicates that an educational institution that fosters commitment of…

  2. WWC Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in New Jersey." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effect of 60 New Jersey charter schools on annual student achievement growth in reading and math. The study was based on data from a large sample of students in grades 3-8 during 5 school years (2006-07 through 2010-11). The study authors matched charter school students to students attending traditional public schools based…

  3. Characteristics of Career Academies in 12 Florida School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacion, Angela; D'Souza, Stephanie; Bozick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes career academies in 12 Florida school districts in the 2006/07 school year. It examines their structure and career clusters, the high schools offering them, and the students enrolled. This study is driven by three research questions: (1) How many career academies were there, and of what types? (2) What were the…

  4. The Achievement Progress of English Learner Students in Arizona. REL 2015-098

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min; Yu, Airong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the learning trajectories of the growing numbers of English learner students in the West, especially those who struggle to pass state English language arts and math content tests, this study followed three cohorts of English learner students in Arizona over six school years, 2006/07 through 2011/12, to assess their progress in…

  5. School District Wellness Policies: Evaluating Progress and Potential for Improving Children's Health Five Years after the Federal Mandate. Brief Report. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie; Resnick, Elissa; Schneider, Linda; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Adcock, Tessa; Carrion, Violeta; Chaloupka, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This brief report updates data published in August 2010 from the most comprehensive, ongoing nationwide analysis of written wellness policies. It includes data from the 2006-07 through the 2010-11 school years, which were the first five years following the required implementation date for wellness policies. The major findings and trends presented…

  6. High School Attrition Rates across Texas Education Service Center Regions: 2009-10. IDRA Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roy L.

    2011-01-01

    Attrition rates are an indicator of a school's holding power, or ability to keep students enrolled in school and learning until they graduate. This study examines regional trends in Texas for the number and percent of students lost from public high school enrollment prior to graduation. A comparative analysis of 1985-86, 2005-06, 2006-07,…

  7. A Fifty-State Survey of School Finance Policies and Programs: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.; Jordan, Teresa S.

    2009-01-01

    This overview provides a synthesis of a comprehensive survey of school finance programs in the 50 states conducted in 2006-07. Information was provided by chief state school finance officers or persons with expertise in a state's public school funding-allocation system. Brief descriptions of the major Pre-K-12 funding formulae, district-based…

  8. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  9. Alabama Education Quick Facts, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is a quick look at general information about Alabama schools. The document contains 11 sections: (1) state statistics; (2) Alabama public schools, 2006-07; (3) Alabama state board of education members; (4) financial data; (5) school size and enrollment; (6) transportation and school meals; (7) graduation requirements; (8) additional…

  10. "Don't You Pick and Refuse Me"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clunis, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In 2006-07, the author had the task of teaching the first substantially separate class at her school. Before this year, all of Mission Hill's students had been included in the classrooms. They have always had children with special needs, but before last year, they never had a classroom in which the students were told they had to be separate. Added…

  11. BELTWIDE COTTON QUALITY STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season with the ultimate goal of identifying areas where improvements can be ma...

  12. Bridging Worlds: Ethnic Minority Pupils in Catholic Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    Aggregated attainment data for each of the four Key Stages of the National Curriculum during 2006-07 are used to compare the performance of schools having differing proportions of ethnic minority pupils on roll. The data are for all maintained primary and secondary schools that completed the 2007 Annual Schools' Census. There are noticeable…

  13. Teacher Attitudes about Performance Incentives in Texas: Early Reactions to the GEEG Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. Findings are based on surveys administered to GEEG teachers during the 2006-07 school year, the…

  14. Factors Affecting the Adoption of an E-Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Ann L.

    2010-01-01

    A case study was conducted in 2006-07 to explore how one US campus implemented a centralised e-assessment system. The study specifically measured the extent of adoption by faculty members, identified their reasons for adoption and evaluated the impact on teaching and learning. The purposes of the system, entitled researching learning (REAL, a…

  15. Creating a University System for the 21st Century. Student Affordability Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Historically, tuition and mandatory fee rates of all North Dakota University System (NDUS) institutions (except the 2-year campuses) have been less than their regional counterparts. Average tuition and fee increases at NDUS institutions were significantly higher than their regional counterparts in 2004-05, 2005-06 and 2006-07, as a result, the gap…

  16. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in Los Angeles Unified School District: A District and Neighborhood Matched Comparison Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The study examined whether charter schools have higher growth in student achievement than traditional public schools. The study analyzed data on 79 charter schools and 593 traditional public elementary, middle, and high schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District from 2005-06 to 2006-07. School-level academic achievement was measured using…

  17. 38th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2006-2007 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 38th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2006-07. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2006-2007 academic year, the states…

  18. 75 FR 3127 - Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft, Inc. Model 600 S2D and S2R Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... (68 FR 15653), the Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of Quality... FR 36055), the Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of Ayres... rulemaking (NPRM) on May 4, 2009 (74 FR 20431). The NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2006-07-15, Amendment...

  19. 75 FR 10658 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... 2006-07-12, Amendment 39-14539 (71 FR 16211, March 31, 2006). The existing AD applies to all Model 737... Register on May 20, 2009 (74 FR 23664). That NPRM proposed to expand the area to be inspected and, for..., Revision 2, dated October 25, 2006, mandated by AD 2003-14-06, Amendment 39-13225 (68 FR 42956, July...

  20. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Final Report. NCEE 2012-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis; Finney, Pamela B.; Bell, Steve; Turner, Herb; Jaciw, Andrew P.; Zacamy, Jenna L.; Gould, Laura Feagans

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experiment conducted in Alabama beginning in the 2006/07 school year, to determine the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI), which aims to improve mathematics and science achievement in the state's K-12 schools. This study is the first randomized controlled trial…