Science.gov

Sample records for 2006-2007 balloon flight

  1. Initial Results from the ANITA 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /UC, Irvine

    2011-11-16

    We report initial results of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos. ANITA flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses that might be due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. In our initial high-threshold robust analysis, no neutrino candidates are seen, with no physics background. In a non-signal horizontal-polarization channel, we do detect 6 events consistent with radio impulses from extensive air showers, which helps to validate the effectiveness of our method. Upper limits derived from our analysis now begin to eliminate the highest cosmogenic neutrino models.

  2. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna ultra-high energy neutrino detector: Design, performance, and sensitivity for 2006-2007 balloon flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P. W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Learned, J. G.

    2009-05-23

    In this article, we present a comprehensive report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity.

  3. Mars Balloon Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffery L.; Pauken, Michael T.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Walsh, Gerald J.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Lachenmeier, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a set of four Earth atmosphere flight test experiments on prototype helium superpressure balloons designed for Mars. Three of the experiments explored the problem of aerial deployment and inflation, using the cold, low density environment of the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 30-32 km as a proxy for the Martian atmosphere. Auxiliary carrier balloons were used in three of these test flights to lift the Mars balloon prototype and its supporting system from the ground to the stratosphere where the experiment was conducted. In each case, deployment and helium inflation was initiated after starting a parachute descent of the payload at 5 Pa dynamic pressure, thereby mimicking the conditions expected at Mars after atmospheric entry and high speed parachute deceleration. Upward and downward looking video cameras provided real time images from the flights, with additional data provided by onboard temperature, pressure and GPS sensors. One test of a 660 cc pumpkin balloon was highly successful, achieving deployment, inflation and separation of the balloon from the flight train at the end of inflation; however, some damage was incurred on the balloon during this process. Two flight tests of 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloons were not successful, although some lessons were learned based on the failure analyses. The final flight experiment consisted of a ground-launched 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloon that ascended to the designed 30.3 km altitude and successfully floated for 9.5 hours through full noontime daylight and into darkness, after which the telemetry system ran out of electrical power and tracking was lost. The altitude excursions for this last flight were +/-75 m peak to peak, indicating that the balloon was essentially leak free and functioning correctly. This provides substantial confidence that this balloon design will fly for days or weeks at Mars if it can be deployed and inflated without damage.

  4. The In-flight Spectroscopic Performance of the Swift XRT CCD Camera During 2006-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godet, O.; Beardmore, A.P.; Abbey, A.F.; Osborne, J.P.; Page, K.L.; Evans, P.; Starling, R.; Wells, A.A.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D.N.; Kennea, J.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Mineo, T.; Giommi, P.; Perri, M.; Capalbi, M.; Tamburelli, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift X-ray Telescope focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 135 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV as measured before launch. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the calibration sources well. Comparison of observed spectra with models folded through the instrument response produces negative residuals around and below the Oxygen edge. We discuss several possible causes for such residuals. Traps created by proton damage on the CCD increase the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) over time. We describe the evolution of the CTI since the launch and its effect on the CCD spectral resolution and the gain.

  5. Absorption spectrometer balloon flight and iodine investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A high altitude balloon flight experiment to determine the technical feasibility of employing absorption spectroscopy to measure SO2 and NO2 gases in the earth's atmosphere from above the atmospheric ozone layer is discussed. In addition to the balloon experiment the contract includes a ground-based survey of natural I emissions from geological sources and studies of the feasibility of mapping I2 from spacecraft. This report is divided into three major sections as follows: (1) the planning engineering and execution of the balloon experiment, (2) data reduction and analysis of the balloon data, and (3) the results of the I2 phase of the contract.

  6. Flight Dynamics of High Altitude Research Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, Ian

    2010-10-01

    Dramatic motions have been observed by instrumentation loaded in payloads attached to high altitude weather balloons. Several HARBOR flights have been completed with six-axis attitude sensors and a high definition video camera that allowed us to analyze the balloon's motion. Turbulence in the atmosphere, especially near the jet stream, results in dramatic oscillations---sometimes swinging the payload above the balloon. Other unexpected motions include rapid spinning (as in a barrel roll) of the entire package. We are correlating these motions with observed atmospheric conditions and addressing issues related to payload safety, mission tracking, and recovery. Also of interest are the dynamics of balloon rupture at low atmospheric pressure and the response of the parachute recovery system to that environment. HARBOR (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a program in which scientific payloads are designed, constructed, and flown by students using weather balloons to reach the edge of space. These flights are similar to the hundreds of weather balloons launched twice a day by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for which very little is actually known about the flight dynamics.

  7. Test flights of the NASA ultra long duration balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H.

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon development project is attempting to extend the potential flight durations for large scientific balloon payloads. The culmination of each of the development steps has been the fabrication and test flight of progressively larger balloons. This new super-pressure balloon is a pumpkin balloon design. This paper concentrates on the super-pressure balloon development test flights that have been, and are currently being planned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Two Ultra Long Duration balloon test flights took place from Australia in early 2001. The results from these flights, as well as the challenges presented, will be discussed. With these lessons learned and incorporating both material and design improvements, a test flight of a full-scale 610,500m3 balloon with a 2,800 kg suspended load will be completed in Spring of 2002 from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. This balloon, the largest single celled super- pressure balloon ever flown, has been sized to satisfy the requirements for the planned ULDB CREAM mission in late 2003. A description of the balloon design, including the modifications made as a result of the lessons learned from the two Australia flights, will be presented. The results, highlighting balloon performance, from the Spring 2002 test flight will be presented. This will include information related to the balloon preparation, flight operations, and flight performance. A review of the radiative environmental influences on the balloon related to this flight will be presented. A second test flight of a full-scale Ultra Long Duration Balloon is scheduled for December of 2002. This flight is expected to be one orbit or approximately 15 days. The plans for this Southern Hemisphere, Australia launched, global flight will also be presented.

  8. Test flights of the NASA ultra-long duration balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ultra-Long Duration Balloon development project is attempting to extend the potential flight durations for large scientific balloon payloads. The culmination of each of the development steps has been the fabrication and test flight of progressively larger balloons. This new super-pressure balloon is a pumpkin balloon design. This paper concentrates on the super-pressure balloon development test flights that have been, and are currently being planned by the NASA Balloon Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Descriptions of two test flights from early 2001 are presented along with lessons learned. Results are also presented of a July 2002 test flight of a full-scale 610,500 m 3 balloon with a 2800 kg suspended load that incorporated the lessons learned.

  9. CREAM Balloon Flights and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2012-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload was launched from McMurdo Station in Antarctica on December 21, 2010 for its sixth flight. A cumulative exposure of ~ 161 days was achieved when this almost 6-day flight was terminated on December 26, 2010. The calorimeter module was recovered in one piece on the pallet without dis-assembly, despite the challenging recovery location at high altitude on the opposite side of the Antarctic continent from McMurdo Station. The recovered CREAM-VI instrument was calibrated at CERN in October 2011, and it is being integrated for a CREAM-VII flight in Antarctica. The CREAM-V instrument recovered previously was refurbished, and it is being re-configured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). The instrument performance, results from the ongoing data analysis, and future plans will be presented.

  10. Measurements of Load Train Motion on a Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruner, Timothy D.; Olney, David J.; Russo, Angela M.

    2005-01-01

    Attitude measurements using gyros and magnetometers placed on a stratospheric balloon during a non-pointed test flight were used to observe the natural azimuth and elevation motions of a balloon/load train/gondola at an altitude of 36 km over a total flight time of 400 minutes. Time traces of the entire flight are presented. This flight, conducted under nominal atmospheric conditions, had significant motion about the azimuth. Some discussion on balloon disturbances is also included.

  11. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Valentina; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  12. Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyma, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents the flight safety philosophy for protecting the public against the risk created by the conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The flight safety criteria used to implement this philosophy are defined and the methodologies used to calculate mission risk are described.

  13. The NASA super pressure balloon - A path to flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office has invested significant time and effort in extensive ground testing of model super pressure balloons. The testing path has been developed as an outgrowth of the results of the super pressure balloon test flight in 2006. Summary results of the June 2006 super pressure test flight from Kiruna, Sweden are presented including the balloon performance and "lessons learned". This balloons flight performance exceeded expectations, but did not fully deploy. The flight was safely terminated by command. The results of this test flight refocused the project's efforts toward additional ground testing and analysis; a path to flight. A series of small 4 m diameter models were made and tested to further explore the deployment and structural capabilities of the balloons and materials. A series of ˜27 m model balloons were successfully tested indoors. These balloons successfully replicated the cleft seen in the Sweden flight, explored the deployment trade space to help characterize better design approaches, and demonstrated an acceptable fix to the deployment issue. Photogrammetry was employed during these ˜27 m model tests to help characterize both the balloon and gore shape evolution under pressurization. A ˜8.5 m ground model was used to explore the design and materials performance. Results of these tests will be presented. A general overview of some of the other project advancements made related to demonstrating the strain arresting nature of the proposed design, materials and analysis work will also be presented. All of this work has prepared a clear path toward a renewed round of test flights. This paper will give an overview of the development approach pursued for this super pressure balloon development. A description of the balloon design, including the modifications made as a result of the lessons learned, is presented. A short deployment test flight of the National Aeronautics and Space

  14. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  15. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  16. The NASA super pressure balloon - a path to flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, Henry

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office has invested significant time and effort in extensive ground testing of model super pressure balloons. The testing path has been developed as an outgrowth of the results of an Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) test flight in 2006. Summary results of the June 2006 ULDB test flight from Kiruna, Sweden will be presented including the balloon performance and "lessons learned". This balloons flight performance exceeded expectations, but did not fully deploy. The flight was safely terminated by command. The results of this test flight refocused the projects efforts toward additional ground testing and analysis. A series of small 4 m diameter models were made and tested to further explore the deployment and structural capabilities of the balloons and materials. A series of 27 m model balloons were successfully testing indoors. These balloons successfully replicated the cleft seen in the Sweden flight, explored the deployment trade space to help characterize better design approaches, and demonstrated an acceptable fix to the deployment issue. Photogrammetry was employed during these 27 m model tests to help characterize both the balloon and gore shape evolution under pressurization. Results of these tests will be presented. A general overview of some of the other project advancements made related to demonstrating the strain arresting nature of the proposed design, materials and analysis work will also be presented. All of this work has prepared a clear path toward a renewed round of test flights. This paper will give an overview of the development approach pursued for ULDB. A description of the balloon design, including the modifications made as a result of the lessons learned, will be presented. Areas to be presented include the design approach, deployment issues that have been encountered and the proposed solutions, material testing, ground testing, photogrammetry, and an analysis overview. A

  17. Medium energy gamma ray astronomy with transpacific balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, A. D.; Jennings, M. C.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1981-01-01

    Transpacific balloon flights with the University of California, Riverside (UCR) double scatter telescope are discussed. With flight durations from 5 days up to perhaps 15 days the long observation times necessary for medium energy (1-30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy can be obtained. These flights would be made under the auspices of the Joint U.S.-Japan Balloon Flight Program at NASA. It is proposed that flights can provide at least 30 hours of observation time per flight for many discrete source candidates and 120 hours for detecting low intensity cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  18. New Design Concept and Flight Test of Superpressure Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, Naoki; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Shigeo; Honda, Hideyuki; Kurokawa, Haruhisa; Matsushima, Kiyoho

    A new ballon design method named ‘three-dimensional gore design’ was developed. It is based on a pumpkin shape balloon with bulges of small radii between adjacent load tapes without the help of film extensibility. This type of balloon can be manufactured with gores having a size larger than that of the conventional gore. The sides of each gore are fixed to the adjacent short load tapes with controlled shortening rates. The gore length is chosen so as not to create any meridional tension. Hence, the superpressure limit of these balloons is simply given as film strength divided by bulge radius. As the limit does not depend on the balloon size, a large balloon with a high superpressure limit can be easily constructed without strong films. A test flight as well as indoor inflation and burst experiment showed that this new design method can realize a larger and lighter superpressure balloon capable of suspending a heavy payload in the stratosphere.

  19. Results of the 1970 balloon flight solar cell standardization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    For the eighth consective year, high-altitude calibration of solar cells was accomplished with the aid of free-flight balloons. Flights were conducted to an altitude of 36,576 m which is above 99.5% of earth's atmosphere where all water vapor levels and significant ozone bands are absent. Solar cells calibrated in this manner are significant used as intensity references in solar simulators and in terrestrial sunlight. Discussed is the method employed for high altitude balloon flight solar cell calibration. Also presented are data collected on 52 standard solar cells on two flights conducted in 1970. Solar cells flown repeatedly on successive flights have shown correlation of better than + or - 1.0%.

  20. Vertical sounding balloons for long duration flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaterre, P.

    1994-02-01

    Vertical soundings in the lower stratosphere are possible on command with an Infrared Montgolfiere, between 16 km and 28 km. Results of simulations are presented. The first test flight of a 7800 cu m Montgolfiere with a relief valve, has been conducted in Arctic area (Spitzbergen, July 1992). The flight of an Infrared Montgolfiere, with full vertical sounding capabilities, is planned for the end of 1993, from Ecuador (South AMERICA).

  1. Vertical sounding balloons for long duration flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaterre, P.

    1994-02-01

    Vertical soundings in the lower stratosphere are possible on command with an Infrared Montgolfiere, between 16 km and 28 km. Results of simulations are presented. The first test flight of a 7800 m3 Montgolfiere with a relief valve, has been conducted in Arctic area (Spitzbergen, July 1992). The flight of an Infrared Montgolfiere, with full vertical sounding capabilities, is planned for the end of 1993, from Ecuador (South AMERICA).

  2. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Les, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that 108 ARL libraries purchased 25,006,758 electronic books. In 2006-2007, there was an ARL median of 243,725 acquisitions of electronic books (this includes one institution that purchased…

  3. Flight Performance of the Balloon Gondola Solar Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joel; Hall, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Solar Pointing System (SPS) has made two operational flights since its test flight in April of 1997. This pointing device was conceived and designed to provide ultra-low power gondola pointing primarily for directing gondola-fixed solar panels toward the sun. While typically consuming less than 5 watts, the system is capable of suspending and pointing up to 3400 kg, The SPS has logged over 25 days of mostly continuous operation. The performance data, including power consumption and pointing accuracy for these two successful flights is presented and analyzed. The data is compared to predictions and test flight data Suggestions for further developments and applications including Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) are discussed.

  4. Flight demonstration of a superpressure balloon by three-dimensional gore design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, N.; Yajima, N.; Ohta, S.; Honda, H.; Kurokawa, H.; Matsushima, K.

    On May 15, 1999, a balloon with a volume of 3,100 cubic meters was successfully launched from Sanriku Balloon Center of Japan. It became a superpressure balloon at 19.2km in altitude with 20% pressure difference to the ambient atmosphere. This is the first superpressure balloon capable of suspending a heavy payload. It was designed by the new 'three-dimensional gore design' method and was based on a pumpkin shape balloon with bulges of small radii between adjacent load tapes without the help of film extensibility. The balloon climbed up to 21.6km in altitude by dropping the ballast and held out against a 64% pressure difference over the ambient atmosphere. This flight test proved the capability of large stratospheric superpressure balloons by this new design method.

  5. Implementation of a Novel Flight Tracking and Recovery Package for High Altitude Ballooning Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Aqsa; Nekkanti, Sanjay; Mohan Suri, Ram; Shankar, Divya; Prasad Nagendra, Narayan

    High altitude ballooning is typically used for scientific missions including stratospheric observations, aerological observations, and near space environment technology demonstration. The usage of stratospheric balloons is a cost effective method to pursue several scientific and technological avenues against using satellites in the void of space. Based on the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) ballooning program for studying Comet ISON using high altitude ballooning, a cost effective flight tracking and recovery package for ballooning missions has been developed using open source hardware. The flight tracking and recovery package is based on using Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) and has a redundant Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) based Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker. The APRS based tracker uses AX.25 protocol for transmission of the GPS coordinates (latitude, longitude, altitude, time) alongside the heading and health parameters of the board (voltage, temperature). APRS uses amateur radio frequencies where data is transmitted in packet messaging format, modulated by radio signals. The receiver uses Very High Frequency (VHF) transceiver to demodulate the APRS signals. The data received will be decoded using MixW (open source software). A bridge will be established between the decoding software and the APRS software. The flight path will be predicted before the launch and the real time position co-ordinates will be used to obtain the real time flight path that will be uploaded online using the bridge connection. We also use open source APRS software to decode and Google Earth to display the real time flight path. Several ballooning campaigns do not employ payload data transmission in real time, which makes the flight tracking and package recovery vital for data collection and recovery of flight instruments. The flight tracking and recovery package implemented in our missions allow independent development of the payload package

  6. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  7. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  8. A search for solar neutrons on a long duration balloon flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, R.; Frye, G. M., Jr.; Owens, A.; Denehy, B. V.; Mace, O.; Thomas, J.

    1985-01-01

    The EOSCOR 3 detector, designed to measure the flux of solar neutrons, was flown on a long duration RACOON balloon flight from Australia during Jan. through Feb, 1983. The Circum-global flight lasted 22 days. No major solar activity occurred during the flight and thus only an upper limit to the solar flare neutrons flux is given. The atmospheric neutron response is compared with that obtained on earlier flights from Palestine, Texas.

  9. Private and Commercial Pilot: Free Balloon: Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide has been prepared to assist the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the private pilot or commercial pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air category and free balloon class rating. It contains information and guidance concerning the pilot operations, procedures, and maneuvers relevant to the flight test: layout and…

  10. Design considerations &practical results with long duration systems for manned flight: cryogenic helium and superpressure balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, J.

    The paper will describe two manned flights made in polyethylene zero pressure balloons with liquid helium carried to provide all in-flight buoyancy adjustment. These balloons were of 1,600 and 8,000 cubic meter volumes. Two flights have been made, both lasting 24 hours. The first flight cruised and flew through the sunset at 18,000 feet / 5,500 meters. The second flight using a pressurized cabin included flying through the night at about 32,000 feet / 10,000 meters. These flights highlight a wide range of theoretical and practical design concerns. For a craft carrying a crew, structural integrity and manageability &control in flight are naturally important. These flights demonstrated the complete feasibility of this system which will be described in detail. In addition the author constructed a 1,600 cubic meter pumpkin balloon used for a two day fight across Australia with a crew of two. Considerable problems were discovered during construction with distortion of the balloon. Although this work was done some time ago, the results have not been published in detail. The reason for publications at this time is that the work is very relevant to the problems recently encountered with the ULDB pumpkin design. The author, who is a physicist as well as a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, was the principal desig ner as well as pilot of these craft. Ends...

  11. Balloons for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, Vincent E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the nature and use of scientific balloons. Topics addressed include: (1) types of balloons; (2) lifting gases; (3) polyethylene balloons; (4) duration of balloon flight; and (5) use of balloons in scientific research. (JN)

  12. Results of the 1997 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The 1997 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of three flights, the first flight on June 11, 1997, the second flight on August 2, 1997, and the third flight on August 24, 1997. One flight, flown on August 14, 1997, was terminated early because of a telemetry transmitter failure, and its payload was reflown on the August 24 flight. All objectives of the flight program were met. Ninety-eight modules were carried to an altitude of approximately 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on 32 of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on 66 modules. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  13. Results of the 1992 NASA/JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on August 1, 1992. All objectives of the flight program were met. Forty-one modules were carried to an altitude of 119,000 ft (36.3 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to 39 participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  14. Results of the 1994 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The 1994 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on August 6, 1994. All objectives of the flight program were met. Thirty-seven modules were carried to an altitude of 119,000 ft (36.6 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to the 6 participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  15. Results of the 1993 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on July 29, 1993. All objectives of the flight program were met. Forty modules were carried to an altitude of 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to 8 participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  16. Results of the 1994 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, B.E.; Weiss, R.S.

    1994-10-01

    The 1994 solar cell calibration balloon flight was completed on August 6, 1994. All objectives of the flight program were met. Thirty-seven modules were carried to an altitude of 119,000 ft (36.6 km). Data telemetered from the modules was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU. The calibrated cells have been returned to the 6 participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  17. Balloon Flight Tests of a Gas-Ionization-Chamber-Based Isotope Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Milliken, B.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution studies of the isotopic composition of heavy elements in the galactic cosmic radiation have been performed using satellites. The performance of the Tracking Heavy Isotope Spectrometer Telescopes for Low Energies (THISTLE) is investigated using data from a balloon flight carried out in 1993. The instrument design is discussed; and data, and additional analysis, is shown.

  18. Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Engineering Model: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Godfrey, G.; Williams, S. M.; Grove, J. E.; Mizuno, T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Kamae, T.; Ampe, J.; Briber, Stuart; Dann, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a pair-production high-energy (greater than 20 MeV) gamma-ray telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006, designed to study a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena. As part of the development effort, the collaboration has built a Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) for flight on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The BFEM is approximately the size of one of the 16 GLAST-LAT towers and contains all the components of the full instrument: plastic scintillator anticoincidence system (ACD), high-Z foil/Si strip pair-conversion tracker (TKR), CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), triggering and data acquisition electronics (DAQ), commanding system, power distribution, telemetry, real-time data display, and ground data processing system. The principal goal of the balloon flight was to demonstrate the performance of this instrument configuration under conditions similar to those expected in orbit. Results from a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas, on August 4, 2001, show that the BFEM successfully obtained gamma-ray data in this high-background environment.

  19. Results of the 1987 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 solar cell calibration balloon flight was successfully completed on August 23, 1987, meeting all objectives of the program. Forty-eight modules were carried to an altitude of 120,000 ft (36.0 km). The cells calibrated can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  20. Results of the 1988 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 solar cell calibration balloon flight was successfully completed on August 7, 1988, meeting all objectives of the program. Forty-eight modules were carried to an altitude of 118,000 ft (36.0 km). The calibrated cells can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  1. Dilemmas of Dissent: International Students' Protest, Melbourne 2006/2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodan, Paul

    2008-01-01

    International students in Australia are not usually identified with protest. However, a cohort of such students at one university campus was prepared to undertake robust public protest over alleged academic mistreatment in 2006/2007, eschewing conventional internal mechanisms for the resolution of such problems. Subsequent developments revealed…

  2. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This document presents results of the 2006-2007 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 74 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections (2-parts), including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased,…

  3. A high resolution gamma-ray and hard X-ray spectrometer (HIREGS) for long duration balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelling, M.; Feffer, P. T.; Hurley, K.; Kane, S. R.; Lin, R. P.; Mcbride, S.; Primbsch, J. H.; Smith, D. M.; Youseffi, K.; Zimmer, G.

    1992-01-01

    The elements of a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer, developed for observations of solar flares, are described. Emphasis is given to those aspects of the system that relate to its operation on a long duration balloon platform. The performance of the system observed in its first flight, launched from McMurdo Station, Antarctica on 10 January, 1992, is discussed. Background characteristics of the antarctic balloon environment are compared with those observed in conventional mid-latitude balloon flights and the general advantages of long duration ballooning are discussed.

  4. Polaris Experiment: Data Collected During the Stratospheric Flight on the Balloon BEXUS 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganini, D.; Cacco, C.; Cipriani, F.; Cocco, F.; Cortese, T.; Vecchia, R. D.; La Grassa, M.; Lora, M.; Zorzan, M.; Branz, F.; Olivieri, L.; Sansone, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2015-09-01

    POLARIS experiment, POLymer-Actuated Radiator with Independent Surfaces, is a technology demonstrator based on a new concept of heat radiator, conceived for space and planetary applications. This innovative radiator, named “multi-plate”, is able to influence actively the heat amount dissipated towards the environment through a simple geometry change, varying its equivalent thermal resistance. In order to better understand the potentialities of this radiator concept in one of its most likely scenario of application, POLARIS flew into stratosphere on the BEXUS1 8 balloon, in the framework of the REXUS-BEXUS programme; the flight took place from the ESRANGE Space Center on October 12th, 2014. The conditions that the experiment experienced during the flight allowed to evaluate the radiator in a realistic context, giving an extraordinary opportunity to characterize its capabilities. In this paper, POLARIS architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from the stratospheric balloon flight are presented and discussed.

  5. Balloon stratospheric research flights, November 1974 to January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, N. C.

    1976-01-01

    These flights were designed to measure the vertical concentration profile of trace stratospheric species which form major links in the photochemical system of the upper atmosphere. An overview of the specific goals of the program, a statement of program management and support functions, a brief description of the instrumentation flown, pertinent engineering and payload operations data, and a summary of the scientific data obtained for each of the last five flights during this period are presented.

  6. Small balloon flights for investigating the impact of convective overshooting on the tropical lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Riviere, Emmanuel; Khaykin, Sergey; Held, Gerhard

    Thunderstorm convective overshooting over tropical land can reach an altitude of 20-21 km (Pommereau et al, Cospar 2018, Id 15676). For better understanding the process and the impact on the lower stratosphere, a small balloon flight program combining frequent flights of plastic and large rubber balloons next to thunderstorms has been carried in S-E Brazil in the frame of a French TROPICO project. Given the goal flying as close as possible from thunderstorms and ATC and safety requirements at landing, a specific control procedure was developed based on C-band radar observations and use of light-weight Iridium telemetry/remote control whose data were made available in real time to ATC by Internet for following the flight. A total of 37 flights have been carried out within two 3 weeks campaigns (20 in March 2012 and 17 in February 2013) of 3-40 kg payloads, among which FLASH Lyman alpha stratospheric hygrometers, PicoSDLA water vapor, N2O and CH4 diode laser sensors and COBALD cloud and aerosols detectors, operated and recovered in safe conditions. Altogether those balloon data, complemented by a variety of ground-based measurements of cloud altitude, atmospheric optical thickness and 4 radiosondes/day, allow confirming the stronger convective intensity over land in the southern tropics. An promising approach for further investigating the possible differences with other continents, i.e. Central Africa and Northern Australia, would be to carry similar measurements from long duration circumnavigating Infra Montgolfier, when their flights will be newly authorized. Details on technical aspects, payloads and procedures applied for carrying safe balloon flights in agreement with Brazilian authorities will be presented.

  7. Results of the 1998 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.; Weiss, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of one flight, which occurred on August 15, 1998. All objectives of the flight program were met. Thirty-one modules were carried to an altitude of = 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on 4 of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on 27 modules. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  8. Concept report: Experimental vector magnetograph (EXVM) operational configuration balloon flight assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The observational limitations of earth bound solar studies has prompted a great deal of interest in recent months in being able to gain new scientific perspectives through, what should prove to be, relatively low cost flight of the magnetograph system. The ground work done by TBE for the solar balloon missions (originally planned for SOUP and GRID) as well as the rather advanced state of assembly of the EXVM has allowed the quick formulation of a mission concept for the 30 cm system currently being assembled. The flight system operational configuration will be discussed as it is proposed for short duration flight (on the order of one day) over the continental United States. Balloon hardware design requirements used in formulation of the concept are those set by the National Science Balloon Facility (NSBF), the support agency under NASA contract for flight services. The concept assumes that the flight hardware assembly would come together from three development sources: the scientific investigator package, the integration contractor package, and the NSBF support system. The majority of these three separate packages can be independently developed; however, the computer control interfaces and telemetry links would require extensive preplanning and coordination. A special section of this study deals with definition of a dedicated telemetry link to be provided by the integration contractor for video image data for pointing system performance verification. In this study the approach has been to capitalize to the maximum extent possible on existing hardware and system design. This is the most prudent step that can be taken to reduce eventual program cost for long duration flights. By fielding the existing EXVM as quickly as possible, experience could be gained from several short duration flight tests before it became necessary to commit to major upgrades for long duration flights of this system or of the larger 60 cm version being considered for eventual development.

  9. Balloon stratospheric research flights, April 1976 to December 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, N. C.

    1977-01-01

    These flights were designed to measure the vertical concentration profile of trace stratospheric species which form major links in the chlorine photochemical system of the upper atmosphere, to measure the vertical concentration profiles of atomic oxygen, the hydroxyl radical and ozone in the stratosphere. An overview of the scientific goals of the program, a statement of program management and support functions, a brief description of the instrumentation flown, pertinent engineering and payload operations data, and a summary of the scientific data obtained for four flights are presented.

  10. Results of the 1995 JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) solar cell calibration program was conceived to produce reference standards for the purpose of accurately setting solar simulator intensities. The concept was to fly solar cells on a high-altitude balloon, to measure their output at altitudes near 120,000 ft (36.6 km), to recover the cells, and to use them as reference standards. The procedure is simple. The reference cell is placed in the simulator beam, and the beam intensity is adjusted until the reference cell reads the same as it read on the balloon. As long as the reference cell has the same spectral response as the cells or panels to be measured, this is a very accurate method of setting the intensity. But as solar cell technology changes, the spectral response of the solar cells changes also, and reference standards using the new technology must be built and calibrated. Until the summer of 1985, there had always been a question as to how much the atmosphere above the balloon modified the solar spectrum. If the modification was significant, the reference cells might not have the required accuracy. Solar cells made in recent years have increasingly higher blue responses, and if the atmosphere has any effect at all, it would be expected to modify the calibration of these newer blue cells much more so than for cells made in the past. JPL has been flying calibration standards on high-altitude balloons since 1963 and continues to organize a calibration balloon flight at least once a year. The 1995 flight was the 48th flight in this series. The 1995 flight incorporated 46 solar cell modules from 7 different participants. The payload included Si, amorphous Si, GaAs, GaAs/Ge, dual junction cells, top and bottom sections of dual junction cells, and a triple junction cell. A new data acquisition system was built for the balloon flights and flown for the first time on the 1995 flight. This system allows the measurement of current-voltage (I-V) curves for 20 modules in addition to

  11. Results of the 1996 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign was completed with the first flight on June 30, 1996 and a second flight on August 8, 1996. All objectives of the flight program were met. Sixty-four modules were carried to an altitude of 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full 1-5 curves were measured on 22 of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on 42 modules. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  12. Results of the 2000 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.; Weiss, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of two flights, which occurred on June 27, 2000, and July 5, 2000. All objectives of the flight program were met. Sixty-two modules were carried to an altitude of approximately 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on sixteen of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on thirty-seven modules (forty-six cells), with some modules repeated on the second flight. Nine modules were flown for temperature measurement only. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496x10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to their owners and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  13. Results of the 1999 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.; Weiss, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    The 1999 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of two flights, which occurred on June 14, 1999, and July 6, 1999. All objectives of the flight program were met. Fifty-seven modules were carried to an altitude of approximately equal to 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on five of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on forty-three modules (forty-five cells), with some modules repeated on the second flight. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10 (exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to their owners and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  14. Results of the 1973 NASA/JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.; Greenwood, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    High altitude balloon flights carried 37 standard solar cells for calibration above 99.5 percent of the earth's atmosphere. The cells were assembled into standard modules with appropriate resistors to load each cell at short circuit current. Each standardized module was mounted at the apex of the balloon on a sun tracker which automatically maintained normal incidence to the sun within 1.0 deg. The balloons were launched to reach a float altitude of approximately 36.6 km two hours before solar noon and remain at float altitude for two hours beyond solar noon. Telemetered calibration data on each standard solar cell was collected and recorded on magnetic tape. At the end of each float period the solar cell payload was separated from the balloon by radio command and descended via parachute to a ground recovery crew. Standard solar cells calibrated and recovered in this manner are used as primary intensity reference standards in solar simulators and in terrestrial sunlight for evaluating the performance of other solar cells and solar arrays with similar spectral response characteristics.

  15. Long-Duration Altitude-Controlled Balloons for Venus: A Feasibility Study Informed by Balloon Flights in Remote Environments on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, P. B.; Nott, J.; Cutts, J. A.; Hall, J. L.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Limaye, S. S.; Baines, K. H.; Hole, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    In situ exploration of the upper atmosphere of Venus, approximately 65-77 km altitude, could answer many important questions (Limaye 2013, Crisp 2013). This region contains a time-variable UV absorber of unknown composition that controls many aspects of the heat balance on Venus. Understanding the composition and dynamics of this unknown absorber is an important science goal; in situ optical and chemical measurements are needed. However, conventional approaches do not provide access to this altitude range, repeated traverses, and a mission lifetime of several months needed to effectively carry out the science. This paper examines concepts for altitude-controlled balloons not previously flown on planetary missions that could potentially provide the desired measurements. The concepts take advantage of the fact that at 60 km altitude, for example, the atmospheric density on Venus is about 40% of the sea-level density on earth and the temperature is a moderate 230 K. The solar flux is approximately double that on earth, creating some thermal challenges, but making photovoltaic power highly effective. Using a steady-state thermodynamic model and flight data from Earth, we evaluate the suitability of two types of altitude-controlled balloons for a potential mission on Venus. Such balloons could repeatedly measure profiles, avoid diurnal temperature extremes, and navigate using wind shear. The first balloon design uses air ballast (AB) whereby ambient air can be compressed into or released from a constant-volume balloon, causing it to descend or ascend accordingly. The second design uses lift-gas compression (LGC) to change the volume of a zero-pressure balloon, thereby changing its effective density and altitude. For an altitude range of 60-75 km on Venus, we find that the superpressure volume for a LGC balloon is about 5% of that needed for an AB balloon while the maximum pressurization is the same for both systems. The compressor work per km descent of the LGC balloon

  16. SOLAR-T: terahertz photometers to observe solar flare emission on stratospheric balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Abrantes, A.; Bortolucci, E. C.; Correia, E.; Diniz, J. A.; Fernandez, G.; Fernandes, L. O. T.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Godoy, R.; Hurford, G.; Kudaka, A. S.; Lebedev, M.; Lin, R. P.; Machado, N.; Makhmutov, V. S.; Marcon, R.; Marun, A.; Nicolaev, V. A.; Pereyra, P.; Raulin, J.-P.; da Silva, C. M.; Shih, A.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Swart, J. W.; Timofeevsky, A. V.; Valio, A.; Villela, T.; Zakia, M. B.

    2012-09-01

    A new solar flare spectral component has been found with intensities increasing for larger sub-THz frequencies, spectrally separated from the well known microwaves component, bringing challenging constraints for interpretation. Higher THz frequencies observations are needed to understand the nature of the mechanisms occurring in flares. A twofrequency THz photometer system was developed to observe outside the terrestrial atmosphere on stratospheric balloons or satellites, or at exceptionally transparent ground stations. 76 mm diameter telescopes were designed to observe the whole solar disk detecting small relative changes in input temperature caused by flares at localized positions at 3 and 7 THz. Golay cell detectors are preceded by low-pass filters to suppress visible and near IR radiation, band-pass filters, and choppers. It can detect temperature variations smaller than 1 K with time resolution of a fraction of a second, corresponding to small burst intensities. The telescopes are being assembled in a thermal controlled box to which a data conditioning and acquisition unit is coupled. While all observations are stored on board, a telemetry system will forward solar activity compact data to the ground station. The experiment is planned to fly on board of long-duration stratospheric balloon flights some time in 2013-2015. One will be coupled to the GRIPS gamma-ray experiment in cooperation with University of California, Berkeley, USA. One engineering flight will be flown in the USA, and a 2 weeks flight is planned over Antarctica in southern hemisphere summer. Another long duration stratospheric balloon flight over Russia (one week) is planned in cooperation with the Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow, in northern hemisphere summer.

  17. Mutation effect of high altitude balloon flight on rice and green pepper seeds.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Wang, P; Han, D; Chen, F; Deng, L; Guo, Y

    1997-04-01

    Dry seeds of rice and green pepper were carried in the basket of a high altitude balloon to 30-40 km for 8 h. The treated seeds were planted on the ground and characters of these seeds and their progenies, such as development, fruiting, disease resistance were observed. The results showed that the SP2 generation of the treated rice showed strong mutation. A Japonica male fertility restorer rice line was found out. It could be hybridized with sterile line of Indica rice, and their progeny had strong hybrid vigor, high setting percentage and good plumpness of grain. Disease resistance, high-yield, big-fruit and high vitamin C content strains were selected from the progenies of treated green pepper seeds. The above results indicated that the special conditions in high altitude could produce a variety of mutations and most of them are hereditable. Therefore, high altitude balloon flight can be used as a new method of mutation breeding. PMID:11539903

  18. Results of the 2001 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of two flights, which occurred on June 26, 2001, and July 4, 2001. Fifty-nine modules were carried to an altitude of approximately 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on nineteen of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on thirty-two modules (forty-six cells), with some modules repeated on the second flight. Nine modules were flown for temperature measurement only. The data from the fixed load cells on the first flight was not usable. The temperature dependence of the first-flight data was erratic and we were unable to find a way to extract accurate calibration values. The I-V data from the first flight was good, however, and all data from the second flight was also good. The data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8)km). The calibrated cells have been returned to their owners and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  19. Pre-flight integration and characterization of the SPIDER balloon-borne telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahlin, A. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, Hsin C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Doré, O.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Golwala, S.; Gudmundsson, Jon E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M. F.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, William C.; Kermish, Zigmund D.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; O'Brient, R.; Reintsema, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of integration and characterization of the Spider instrument after the 2013 pre-flight campaign. Spider is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to probe the primordial gravitational wave signal in the degree-scale B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background. With six independent telescopes housing over 2000 detectors in the 94 GHz and 150 GHz frequency bands, Spider will map 7.5% of the sky with a depth of 11 to 14 μK•arcmin at each frequency, which is a factor of ~5 improvement over Planck. We discuss the integration of the pointing, cryogenic, electronics, and power sub-systems, as well as pre-flight characterization of the detectors and optical systems. Spider is well prepared for a December 2014 flight from Antarctica, and is expected to be limited by astrophysical foreground emission, and not instrumental sensitivity, over the survey region.

  20. Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-flight test report, BLDT vehicle AV-3, Viking 1975 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D.; Hicks, F.; Schlemmer, J.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    The pertinent events concerned with the launch, float, and flight of balloon launched decelerator test vehicle AV-3 are discussed. The performance of the decelerator system is analyzed. Data on the flight trajectory and decelerator test points at the time of decelerator deployment are provided. A description of the time history of vehicle events and anaomalies encounters during the mission is included.

  1. Development and demonstration flight of a fuel cell system for high-altitude balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Shimada, Takanobu; Ariyama, Yusuke; Fukuzawa, Naoya; Noguchi, Daisuke; Ogawa, Keita; Naito, Hitoshi; Sone, Yoshitsugu; Saito, Yoshitaka

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell offers higher energy density than the existing battery technologies for high-energy applications, and it is a promising power source for various industries including aerospace vehicles. We have been developing and testing a non-external humidified fuel cell system for high-altitude balloons, which require simple, light, and easy-to-operate power systems. This system consists of three major subsystems-a fuel cell stack, a reactant supply subsystem, and an electrical control subsystem. Ground performance testing in a vacuum chamber simulating the high-altitude vacuum condition was performed before the flight. Then, a demonstration flight of the fuel cell system was launched using a large balloon for verifying its performance under practical high-altitude conditions. Cell voltage variations synchronized with oxygen pressure spikes were observed that were probably caused by condensed product water plugging the flow passages of the back pressure regulator. Flight results indicated that the fuel cell system operated better when water was expelled as vapor, rather than in the liquid form. In addition, a back pressure regulator should be installed to avoid the accumulation of water droplets for realizing a stable performance.

  2. Crew Recovery and Contingency Planning for a Manned Stratospheric Balloon Flight - the StratEx Program.

    PubMed

    Menon, Anil S; Jourdan, David; Nusbaum, Derek M; Garbino, Alejandro; Buckland, Daniel M; Norton, Sean; Clark, Johnathan B; Antonsen, Erik L

    2016-10-01

    The StratEx program used a self-contained space suit and balloon system to loft pilot Alan Eustace to a record-breaking altitude and skydive from 135,897 feet (41,422 m). After releasing from the balloon and a stabilized freefall, the pilot safely landed using a parachute system based on a modified tandem parachute rig. A custom spacesuit provided life support using a similar system to NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Washington, DC USA) Extravehicular Mobility Unit. It also provided tracking, communications, and connection to the parachute system. A recovery support team, including at least two medical personnel and two spacesuit technicians, was charged with reaching the pilot within five minutes of touchdown to extract him from the suit and provide treatment for any injuries. The team had to track the flight at all times, be prepared to respond in case of premature release, and to operate in any terrain. Crew recovery operations were planned and tailored to anticipate outcomes during this novel event in a systematic fashion, through scenario and risk analysis, in order to minimize the probability and impact of injury. This analysis, detailed here, helped the team configure recovery assets, refine navigation and tracking systems, develop procedures, and conduct training. An extensive period of testing and practice culminated in three manned flights leading to a successful mission and setting the record for exit altitude, distance of fall with stabilizing device, and vertical speed with a stabilizing device. During this mission, recovery teams reached the landing spot within one minute, extracted the pilot, and confirmed that he was not injured. This strategy is presented as an approach to prehospital planning and care for improved safety during crew recovery in novel, extreme events. Menon AS , Jourdan D , Nusbaum DM , Garbino A , Buckland DM , Norton S , Clark JB , Antonsen EL . Crew recovery and contingency planning for a manned

  3. Crew Recovery and Contingency Planning for a Manned Stratospheric Balloon Flight - the StratEx Program.

    PubMed

    Menon, Anil S; Jourdan, David; Nusbaum, Derek M; Garbino, Alejandro; Buckland, Daniel M; Norton, Sean; Clark, Johnathan B; Antonsen, Erik L

    2016-10-01

    The StratEx program used a self-contained space suit and balloon system to loft pilot Alan Eustace to a record-breaking altitude and skydive from 135,897 feet (41,422 m). After releasing from the balloon and a stabilized freefall, the pilot safely landed using a parachute system based on a modified tandem parachute rig. A custom spacesuit provided life support using a similar system to NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Washington, DC USA) Extravehicular Mobility Unit. It also provided tracking, communications, and connection to the parachute system. A recovery support team, including at least two medical personnel and two spacesuit technicians, was charged with reaching the pilot within five minutes of touchdown to extract him from the suit and provide treatment for any injuries. The team had to track the flight at all times, be prepared to respond in case of premature release, and to operate in any terrain. Crew recovery operations were planned and tailored to anticipate outcomes during this novel event in a systematic fashion, through scenario and risk analysis, in order to minimize the probability and impact of injury. This analysis, detailed here, helped the team configure recovery assets, refine navigation and tracking systems, develop procedures, and conduct training. An extensive period of testing and practice culminated in three manned flights leading to a successful mission and setting the record for exit altitude, distance of fall with stabilizing device, and vertical speed with a stabilizing device. During this mission, recovery teams reached the landing spot within one minute, extracted the pilot, and confirmed that he was not injured. This strategy is presented as an approach to prehospital planning and care for improved safety during crew recovery in novel, extreme events. Menon AS , Jourdan D , Nusbaum DM , Garbino A , Buckland DM , Norton S , Clark JB , Antonsen EL . Crew recovery and contingency planning for a manned

  4. Balloon flight test of a Compton telescope based on scintillators with silicon photomultiplier readouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloser, P. F.; Legere, J. S.; Bancroft, C. M.; Ryan, J. M.; McConnell, M. L.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of the first high-altitude balloon flight test of a concept for an advanced Compton telescope making use of modern scintillator materials with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readouts. There is a need in the fields of high-energy astronomy and solar physics for new medium-energy gamma-ray (~0.4-10 MeV) detectors capable of making sensitive observations of both line and continuum sources over a wide dynamic range. A fast scintillator-based Compton telescope with SiPM readouts is a promising solution to this instrumentation challenge, since the fast response of the scintillators permits both the rejection of background via time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination and the ability to operate at high count rates. The Solar Compton Telescope (SolCompT) prototype presented here was designed to demonstrate stable performance of this technology under balloon-flight conditions. The SolCompT instrument was a simple two-element Compton telescope, consisting of an approximately one-inch cylindrical stilbene crystal for a scattering detector and a one-inch cubic LaBr3:Ce crystal for a calorimeter detector. Both scintillator detectors were read out by 2×2 arrays of Hamamatsu S11828-3344 MPPC devices. Custom front-end electronics provided optimum signal rise time and linearity, and custom power supplies automatically adjusted the SiPM bias voltage to compensate for temperature-induced gain variations. A tagged calibration source, consisting of ~240 nCi of 60Co embedded in plastic scintillator, was placed in the field of view and provided a known source of gamma rays to measure in flight. The SolCompT balloon payload was launched on 24 August 2014 from Fort Sumner, NM, and spent ~3.75 h at a float altitude of ~123,000 ft. The instrument performed well throughout the flight. After correcting for small (~10%) residual gain variations, we measured an in-flight ToF resolution of ~760 ps (FWHM). Advanced scintillators with SiPM readouts continue to show great promise

  5. Radiation measurement platform for balloon flights based on the TriTel silicon detector telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabori, Balazs; Hirn, Attila; Pazmandi, Tamas; Apathy, Istvan; Szanto, Peter; Deme, Sandor

    Several measurements have been performed on the cosmic radiation field from the surface of the Earth up to the maximum altitudes of research airplanes. However the cosmic radiation field is not well known between 15 km and 30 km. Our experiment idea based on to study the radiation environment in the stratosphere. The main technical goals of our experiment were to test at first time the TriTel 3D silicon detector telescope system for future ISS missons and to develop a balloon technology platform for advanced cosmic radiation and dosimetric measurements. The main scientific goals were to give an assessment of the cosmic radiation field at the altitude of the BEXUS balloons, to use the TriTel system to determine dosimetric and radiation quantities during the ballon flight and to intercompare the TriTel and Pille results to provide a correction factor definition method for the Pille ISS measurements. To fulfil the scientific and technological objectives several different dosimeter systems were included in the experiment: an advanced version of the TriTel silicon detector telescope, Geiger-Müller counters, Pille passive thermoluminescent dosimeters and Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. The experiment was built by students from Hungarian universities and flew on board the BEXUS stratospheric balloon in Northern Sweden (from ESRANGE Space Center). The float altitude was approximately 28.6 km and the total flight time was about 4 hours. The active instruments measured in real time and the ground team received the collected data continuously during the mission. The main technical goals were received since the operation of the TriTel experienced no failures and the experiment worked as it expected. This paper presents the scientific goals and results. From the TriTel measurements the deposited energy spectra, the Linear Energy Transfer spectra, the average quality factor of the cosmic radiation as well as the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were determined for the

  6. Investigation of solar active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the solar optical universal polarimeter, definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Topka, Kenneth P.

    1992-01-01

    The definition phase of a scientific study of active regions on the sun by balloon flight of a former Spacelab instrument, the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) is described. SOUP is an optical telescope with image stabilization, tunable filter and various cameras. After the flight phase of the program was cancelled due to budgetary problems, scientific and engineering studies relevant to future balloon experiments of this type were completed. High resolution observations of the sun were obtained using SOUP components at the Swedish Solar Observatory in the Canary Islands. These were analyzed and published in studies of solar magnetic fields and active regions. In addition, testing of low-voltage piezoelectric transducers was performed, which showed they were appropriate for use in image stabilization on a balloon.

  7. Astrometric observations of Nereid in 2006-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, R. C.; Cheng, X.; Shen, K. X.; Dourneau, G.; Wang, S. H.; Hu, X. Y.; Tang, Z. H.; Xi, X. J.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present 112 new CCD astrometric positions of Nereid, the second and faint satellite of Neptune (mv ~= 19). We observed this small satellite in the 2006-2007 period with the 1 and 2.16-m telescopes of Xinglong Station near Beijing, both equipped with large CCD detectors of 1340 × 1300 and 2080 × 2048 pixels, respectively. The high density and highly accurate star catalogue UCAC2 was used in the reduction so that a classical astrometric calibration method was applied. We have shown that our observations of Nereid appear to be of equal or higher precision (σ ~= 0.2 arcsec) than most of the recent CCD ones. The data are available in electronic form as Supplementary Material to the online version of the paper on Blackwell Synergy, at the CDS via Anonymous FTP to http://cdsarc.u-stasbg.fr or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. E-mail: rcqiao@ntsc.ac.cn

  8. Meteorological scenario of Ethiopian floods in 2006-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2011-05-01

    The meteorological scenario of Ethiopian highlands floods is studied. Daily rainfall in the period 1997-2007 reveals two peaks: 23-28 July 2006 and 26-31 July 2007. National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) composites suggest that anomalous southerly monsoon flow over the West Indian Ocean is re-directed by an anomalous Arabian ridge westward across the Red Sea and Ethiopia. A tongue of moisture stretches from the Congo towards the highlands, but westerly equatorial wind anomalies are absent. Anomalous sinking motions and dry conditions are evident over the West Indian Ocean. Diurnal analysis reveals northwesterly flow over eastern Sudan during afternoon hours, whilst back-trajectory analysis highlights a Red Sea source and lifting over the eastern escarpment of Ethiopia. The upper level tropical easterly jet connects Indian and Ethiopian rainfall at intra-seasonal (~40 days) time scale; whilst low-level meridional flow convergence is evident during flood events. Hovmoller analysis on 10°N reveals cyclonic signals propagating westward from the Arabian Sea at 500 km day-1 that produces a 10-day cycle in Ethiopian rainfall. The floods in 2006-2007 occurred at the peak of the annual cycle, with diurnal controls inducing ¾ of rain in the late evening. Whilst cold surges from southern Africa played a role in the 2006 flood, bursts in the northern Hadley cell are a more general determinant. The convection associated with the 2007 flood went on to become a destructive Atlantic hurricane.

  9. First Balloon Flight with the Prototype Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment (TIGRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Allen; O'Neill, Terrence; Bhttacharya, Dipen; Harris, Eric; Trojanowski, Charity; Kamiya, Kaoru; Wijeratne, Sitara

    The TIGRE prototype scientific balloon instrument was flown for the first time on 2-3 June 2007 from Ft. Sumner NM. Approximately 2 million events (100 GB) were recorded on-board during a period of 20 hours. This instrument is sensitive to gamma radiation from 1-10 MeV using Compton scattering with recoil electron tracking and from 10-100 MeV for gammaray pairs. A combination of silicon semiconductor detectors and scintillation detectors are used. A description of the performance of various telescope subsystems during the flight will be presented. This will include oscillator/clock stability, orientation control and measurement, thermal design and diurnal performance and system counting rates and dead-times. Preliminary science results will also be presented.

  10. THE BALLOON-BORNE LARGE APERTURE SUBMILLIMETER TELESCOPE (BLAST) 2006: CALIBRATION AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250 hr flight over Antarctica in 2006 December (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1sigma uncertainty on the absolute calibration is accurate to 9.5%, 8.7%, and 9.2% at the 250, 350, and 500 mum bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower errors for the derived shape of the 250-500 mum continuum. The overall pointing error is < 5'' rms for the 36'', 42'', and 60'' beams. The performance of optics and pointing systems is discussed.

  11. Modified ECC ozone sonde for long-duration flights aboard isopicnic drifting balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheusi, Francois; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clénet, Antoine; Fontaine, Alain; Jambert, Corinne; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2015-04-01

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPB) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (owing to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPB. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electrochemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, a strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Consequently, the measurement sequence is typically composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a one- to two-minute acquisition period. All time intervals can be adjusted before and during the flight. Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 are first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during summer field campaings in 2012 and 2013 (TRAQA and ChArMEx programmes). BLPB drifting

  12. First Flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, G.; Ellison, S.; Gould, R.; Granger, D.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Price, B.; Stewart, M.; Wefel, J. P.; Mock, L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATILT instrument is designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = 1 to 28 cosmic rays over the energy range -10 GeV - 100 TeV. ATIC was launched as a long duration test balloon flight on 12/28/00 local time from McMurdo, Antarctica. The operations preceding and during launch went very smoothly. During the first -20 hr while the instrument remained within line of sight (LOS), a full system check out was conducted, the experiment was operated in several test configurations, and all major tuning was completed. Preliminary analysis of the science data indicates that the overall detector system is functioning as expected. With our fully functioning analysis software we were able to monitor the data in nearly real time. Each event was reconstructed event-by-event to confirm the detector performance. The shower profiles indicate that the shower maximum location is deeper in the calorimeter for higher energy events, as expected. The energy spectra of protons, Helium nuclei, and "all particles" appear to follow power laws. Both the Si matrix and top scintillator layer of the charge module show clear charge separation for p and He. As the statistics increase, heavy nuclei charge separation will be evaluated. We will present preliminary results of the LOS data, as well as other data that will be available from the flight-data hard disk,

  13. Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Data Handling Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rochester, Leon S

    2002-09-25

    The GLAST Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) represents one of 16 towers that constitute the Large Area Telescope (LAT), a high-energy (>20 MeV) gamma-ray pair-production telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006. The prototype tower consists of a Pb/Si pair-conversion tracker (TKR), a CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), an anti-coincidence detector (ACD) and an autonomous data acquisition system (DAQ). The self-triggering capabilities and performance of the detector elements have been previously characterized using positron, photon and hadron beams. External target scintillators were placed above the instrument to act as sources of hadronic showers. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the BFEM data-reduction process, from receipt of the flight data from telemetry through event reconstruction and background rejection cuts. The goals of the ground analysis presented here are to verify the functioning of the instrument and to validate the reconstruction software and the background-rejection scheme.

  14. Solar Observations at THz Frequencies on Board of a Trans-Antartic Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Abrantes, André; Bortolucci, Emilio; Caspi, Amir; Fernandes, Luis Olavo T.; Kropotov, Grigory; Kudaka, Amauri; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Machado, Nelson; Marcon, Rogério; Marun, Adolfo; Nicolaev, Valery; Hidalgo Ramirez, Ray Fernando; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Shih, Albert; Silva, Claudemir; Timofeevsky, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Sub-THz and 30 THz solar burst observations revealed a new spectral component, with fluxes increasing towards THz frequencies, simultaneously with the well known component peaking at microwaves, bringing challenging constraints for interpretation. The THz flare spectra can be completed with measurements made from space. A new system of two photometers was built to observe the Sun at 3 and 7 THz named SOLAR-T. An innovative optical setup allows observations of the full solar disk and detect small burst with sub-second time resolution. The photometers use two Golay cell detectors at the foci of 7.6 cm Cassegrain telescopes. The incoming radiation undergoes low-pass filters made of rough surface primary mirrors and membranes, 3 and 7 THz band-pass filters, and choppers. The system has been integrated to redundant data acquisition system and Iridium short-burst data services telemetry for monitoring during the flight. SOLAR-T has been flown coupled to U.C. Berkeley solar hard X-ray and gamma-ray imaging spectro-polarimeter GRIPS experiment launched on a NASA CSBF stratospheric balloon from U.S. McMurdo base on January 19, 2016, on a trans-Antarctic flight. The mission ended on January 30. The SOLAR-T on-board computers were recovered from the payload that landed in the Argentina Mountain Range, nearly 2100 km from McMurdo. The SOLAR-T performance was successfully attained, with full space qualification instrumentation. Preliminary results provide the solar disk THz brightness temperatures and indicate a 7 THz burst enhancement time coincident to a sub-THz burst observed by SST during the 28 January GOES C9.6 class soft X-ray burst, the largest occurred during the flight.

  15. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  16. High Energy Electrons and Gamma Rays from the ATIC-2 Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbert, J. B.; ATIC Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment is primarily designed to measure the spectra of nuclear cosmic rays (protons to nickel). It is composed of a segmented BGO calorimeter (18 radiation lengths deep) following a carbon target (0.75 nuclear interaction lengths) interleaved with scintillator tracking layers. A Silicon matrix detector at the entrance identifies the incident particle charge. Utilizing simulations such as Fluka and Geant we have investigated the ability of this design to differentiate electron (gamma) initiated showers from hadronic showers. The differences in shower development between the two populations are sufficient to differentiate them for measurements of electron spectra into the TeV region, as confirmed by accelerator tests at CERN and by the ATIC-1 test flight in 2000-01. ATIC had a successful science flight in 2002-03 from McMurdo, Antarctica returning about 19 days of flight data. This exposure is sufficient to record electrons into the TeV region and measure gamma rays at 100's of GeV. The majority of gamma rays are of atmospheric origin and provide a test for this technique. The preliminary electron spectrum from the ATIC-2 flight is presented and compared to previous high energy measurements, principally from emulsion chambers. Possible astrophysical interpretations of the results are discussed. The ATIC Collaboration: J.H. Adams,2 H.S. Ahn,3 G.L. Bashindzhagyan,4 K.E. Batkov,4 J. Chang,6,7 M. Christl,2 A.R. Fazely,5, O. Ganel,3 R.M. Gunasingha,5 T.G. Guzik,1 J. Isbert,1 K.C. Kim,3 E.N. Kouznetsov,4 M.I. Panasyuk,4 A.D. Panov,4 W.K.H. Schmidt,6 E.S. Seo,3 N.V. Sokolskaya,4 J.Z. Wang,3 J.P. Wefel,1 J. Wu,3 V.I. Zatsepin,4 (1) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (2) Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA (3) University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (4) Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (5) Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (6

  17. Testing of Radio Communication Subsystems for the NUTS CubeSat on a Meteorological Balloon Flight from Andoya in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommer, M.; Birkeland, R.; Gjersvik, A.; Stein, T. A.; Vestnes, F.; Skagmo, J. P.; Kvamtro, K. M.; Eckholdt, F.; Alstad, T.; Grande, J.; Mathisen, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    In April 2014, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Test Satellite (NUTS) team carried out a balloon campaign at Andøya, Norway. The purpose was to test the on-board UHF and VHF radio prototypes. In accordance with the project mission goals, this campaign marked the test of the engineering model's communication subsystems. One of the mission requirements was that these systems should be as close to the final flight-model as possible. Parts of the system were built and assembled in advance at NTNU, and the final system integration was carried out at Andøya. A standard PTU probe with a GPS module transmitting the balloon's location in the UHF band was used to track the flight. The probe was mounted below the NUTS payload box. The payload radios was tracked using Yagi antennas based on the received GPS coordinates from the PTU probe. A two-way communication link was established and maintained between the balloon and the ground station. This paper will present the results from the mission as well as lessons learned related to the preparation and execution of balloon campaigns.

  18. Detector performances of the BESS-Polar II instrument during the second long-duration balloon flight over Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Yamamoto, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, T. Kumazawa1, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Myers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shikaze, Y.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Takasugi, Y.; Takeuchi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K.

    USA The new balloon-borne instrument was developed for the second long-duration balloon flight over Antarctica (BESS-Polar II) on the basis of the feed back from the results from the first flight in 2004 (BESS-Polar I). Most of the detector components had been redesigned and upgraded to improve their performances and to increase the data taking period and capacity. The BESS-Polar II flight was successfully carried out in December 2007-January 2008. We performed 24.5 days scientific observation just at the solar minimum and recorded about 4.7 billion cosmic-ray enents in the harddisk drives onboard. During the flight, the instrument worked well except for minor problems in some detector components. We have made careful post-flight calibration for all detectors by using cosmic-ray event and house-keeping data. Stable and better performance was obtained for the entire flight. In this presentatation, detector performances for the BESS-Polar II instrument will be presented.

  19. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  20. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  1. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  2. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  3. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  4. Preliminary results of a balloon flight of the solar disk sextant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, E.; Twigg, L.; Sofia, S.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a balloon flight on October 11, 1991, of the solar disk sextant (SDS) experiment are reported. The SDS is an instrument which measures the solar diameter at different orientations with respect to the solar polar axis. Fitting straight lines through two fixed-angle data sets with time as the independent variable yields slopes of (7.1 +/ - 1.5) x 10 exp -3 and (6.7 +/- 1.6) x 10 exp -3/mas s, consistent with the value of 6.47 x 10 exp -3/mas s expected from the earth's approach to the sun due to the orbital motion toward perihelion. Upon the instrument's rotation on its axis a sinusoidal component of the diameter measurement was observed in each rotation cycle, with a variable amplitude of about 150 mas. The present result is epsilon of (5.6 +/- 6.3) x 10 exp -6, about 30 deg offset from the polar-equator position. The absolute diameter obtained by means of the FFT definition is found to be 1919.269 +/- 0.240 arcsec or 1919.131 +/- 0.240 arcsec, depending on the orientation mode of the measurement.

  5. Preliminary results of a balloon flight of the solar disk sextant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, E.; Twigg, L.; Sofia, S.

    1992-04-01

    Preliminary results of a balloon flight on October 11, 1991, of the solar disk sextant (SDS) experiment are reported. The SDS is an instrument which measures the solar diameter at different orientations with respect to the solar polar axis. Fitting straight lines through two fixed-angle data sets with time as the independent variable yields slopes of (7.1 +/ - 1.5) x 10 exp -3 and (6.7 +/- 1.6) x 10 exp -3/mas s, consistent with the value of 6.47 x 10 exp -3/mas s expected from the earth's approach to the sun due to the orbital motion toward perihelion. Upon the instrument's rotation on its axis a sinusoidal component of the diameter measurement was observed in each rotation cycle, with a variable amplitude of about 150 mas. The present result is epsilon of (5.6 +/- 6.3) x 10 exp -6, about 30 deg offset from the polar-equator position. The absolute diameter obtained by means of the FFT definition is found to be 1919.269 +/- 0.240 arcsec or 1919.131 +/- 0.240 arcsec, depending on the orientation mode of the measurement.

  6. Stratochip, a dual balloon high-altitude platform: controlled altitude flight experiments and potential applications in geosciences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2014-05-01

    A high-altitude dual balloons system, the 'Stratochip', was designed at the Geological Survey of Belgium to serve as a development platform to carry measurement and earth observation equipments, in altitudes comprised between 1000 and 25000m. These working altitudes far exceed the range of current motor powered unmanned aerial vehicules, with a higher weight carrying capacity (up to 10-15kg). This platform is built around a two helium balloons configuration, than can be released one by one at a target altitude or location, allowing a partially controlled drift of the platform. Using a 'nowcasting' meteorological model, updated by flight telemetry, the predicted path can be refined live to follow and retrieve the equipment in a predicted landing area. All subsystems (balloon cut-off devices, flight controller, telemetry system) have been developed in-house. Three independent communication channels, designed to work at extremely low temperature (up to -60° C) ensure a continuous tracking until landing. A calibrated parachute is used to control the safe descent of the equipment. Several flight tests have been performed in Belgium to control the meteorological model accuracy for wind predictions (model based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data). Those tests demonstrated the capability of the platform to maintain its altitude in a predicted path, allowing using the platform for new types of atmospheric studies and affordable high-altitude remote-sensing applications (i.e. sub-meter resolution stereo imagery).

  7. Thin film strain transducer. [in-flight measurement of stress or strain in walls of high altitude balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop an appropriate sensor for measuring the stress or strain of high altitude balloons during flight are reviewed as well as the various conditions that must be met by such a device. The design, development and calibration of a transducer which promises to satisfy the necessary design constraints are described. The thin film strain transducer has a low effective modulus so as not to interfere with the strain that would naturally occur in the balloon. In addition, the transducer has a high sensitivity to longitudinal strain (7.216 mV/V/unit strain) which is constant for all temperature from room temperature to -80 C and all strains from 5 percent compression to 10 percent tensile strain. At the same time, the sensor is relatively insensitive (0.27 percent) to transverse forces. The device has a standard 350 ohm impedance which is compatible with available bridge balance, amplification and telemetry instrumentation now available for balloon flight. Recommendations are included for improved coatings to provide passive thermal control as well as model, tethered and full scale flight testing.

  8. Two lighter than air systems in opposing flight regimes: An unmanned short haul, heavy load transport balloon and a manned, light payload airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lighter Than Air vehicles are generally defined or categorized by the shape of the balloon, payload capacity and operational flight regime. Two balloon systems that are classed as being in opposite categories are described. One is a cable guided, helium filled, short haul, heavy load transport Lighter Than Air system with a natural shaped envelope. The other is a manned, aerodynamic shaped airship which utilizes hot air as the buoyancy medium and is in the light payload class. While the airship is in the design/fabrication phase with flight tests scheduled for the latter part of 1974, the transport balloon system has been operational for some eight years.

  9. The solar diameter and oblateness measured by the solar disk sextant on the 1992 September 30 balloon flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, S.; Heaps, W.; Twigg, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a balloon flight of the Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) on 1992 September 30. This was the first flight in which the SDS used a wedge assembly fabricated by molecular contact in order to eliminate the wedge angle variations observed in previous flights. The instrument performed as designed. The main results obtained are values of the solar diameter for a number of discrete heliocentric latitudes, and the solar oblateness. The accuracy of the diameter values is better than 0.2 sec whereas the precision is approximately 1-2 mas. The equatorial solar diameter, at 1 AU, was 1919.06 sec +/- 0.12 sec, and the oblateness epsilon = 8.63 +/- 0.88 x 10(exp -6).

  10. International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Service, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This publication presents changes and modifications for 2006-2007 to the "International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs." It is written to guide fair directors, teachers, scientists, parents, and adult volunteers as they pursue their work of encouraging students to explore and investigate their…

  11. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2006-2007, with selected comparisons to prior…

  12. Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2006/2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Now in its 2006-2007 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions…

  13. Measuring What Students Entering School Know and Can Do: PIPS Australia 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildy, Helen; Styles, Irene

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports analysis of 2006-2007 on-entry assessment data from the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools Baseline Assessment (PIPS-BLA) of random samples of students in England, Scotland, New Zealand and Australia. The analysis aimed, first, to investigate the validity and reliability of that instrument across countries and sexes, and,…

  14. "SP.ACE" 2013-2015: ASGARD Balloon and BIFROST Parabolic Flights: Latest Developments in Hands-On Space Education Projects for Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schrijver, E.; Chameleva, H.; Degroote, C.; D'Haese, Z.; Paice, C.; Plas, H.; Van den Bossche, A.; Vander Donckt, L.; Vander Vost, J.

    2015-09-01

    Flight opportunities on high-altitude ASGARD balloons offered to secondary schools worldwide since 20 1 1 have led to an ever more rapidly increasing number of project proposals. The introduction of beginners' and ‘advanced classes of experiments is hoped to draw in even larger numbers of interested school teams. Furthermore, and in cooperation with ESERO (European Space Education Resources Office), workshops and documentation are being prepared to introduce teachers and students alike to the world of microcontrollers and sensors. A student parabolic flight programme called BIFROST (Brussels' Initiative to provide Flight Research Opportunities to STudents) was initiated to meet the rising demand for hands-on space education projects and the desire to cover the widest possible range of scientific and/or technical domains, which essentially calls for a variety of flight platforms: cansats, balloons and parabolic flight.

  15. Balloon for Long-Duration, High-Altitude Flight at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffrey; Kerzhanovich, Viktor; Yavrouian, Andre; Fairbrother, Debora; Said, Magdi; Sandy, Chuck; Fredrickson, Thad

    2007-01-01

    A document describes a 5.5-m-diameter, helium-filled balloon designed for carrying a scientific payload having a mass of 44 kg for at least six days at an altitude of about 55 km in the atmosphere of Venus. The requirement for floating at nearly constant altitude dictates the choice of a mass-efficient spherical super-pressure balloon that tracks a constant atmospheric density. Therefore, the balloon is of a conventional spherical super-pressure type, except that it is made of materials chosen to minimize solar radiant heating and withstand the corrosive sulfuric acid aerosol of the Venusian atmosphere. The shell consists of 16 gores of a multilayer composite material. The outer layer, made of polytetrafluoroethylene, protects against sulfuric acid aerosol. Next is an aluminum layer that reflects sunlight to minimize heating, followed by an aluminized polyethylene terephthalate layer that resists permeation by helium, followed by an aromatic polyester fabric that imparts strength to withstand deployment forces and steady super-pressure. A polyurethane coat on the inner surface of the fabric facilitates sealing at gore-to-gore seams. End fittings and seals, and a tether connecting the end fittings to a gondola, are all made of sulfuric-acid-resistant materials.

  16. A mercuric detector system for X-ray astronomy. 2. Results from flight tests of a balloon borne instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ricker, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    To establish the expected sensitivity of a new hard X-ray telescope design, an experiment was conducted to measure the background counting rate at balloon altitudes (40 km) of mercuric iodide, a room temperature solid state X-ray detector. The prototype detector consisted of two thin mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors surrounded by a large bismuth germanate (Bi4Ge3O12) scintillator operated in anticoincidence. The bismuth germanate shield vetoed most of the background counting rate induced by atmospheric gamma-rays, neutrons and cosmic rays. A balloon-borne gondola containing a prototype detector assembly was designed, constructed and flown twice in the spring of 1982 from Palestine, Texas. The second flight of this instrument established a differential background counting rate of 4.2 O.7 x 10-5 counts/sec cm keV over the energy range of 40 to 80 keV. This measurement was within 50% of the predicted value. The measured rate is approx 5 times lower than previously achieved in shielded NaI/CsI or Ge systems operating in the same energy range. The prediction was based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the detector assembly in the radiation environment at float altitude.

  17. Effects of space balloon flights on reproductive activity in Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Planel, H; Soleilhavoup, J P; Croute, F

    1975-01-01

    Post autogamous Paramecium aurelia cultures were placed in hermetic containers, including a heating device with accuracy kept around +/- 0.1 degrees C. Kinetics of cellular growth was determined by cell count, after recovery, on in-flight cultures and ground control cultures. Dosimetry was performed by thermoluminescent detectors (CaSO4 activated with dysprosium). Flight durations of maximum altitude (ceiling) ranged between 48 min and 15 hours (repeated flights). Conclusions are as follows: short flights result in a secondary stimulating effect, shown by post-flight increase of the growth rate (total dose above 2 mrads); long flights or repeated flights are accompanied by a decrease in growth rate (total dose ranging from 2 to 6 mrads); in the stimulation experiments, cell counts performed immediately after flight permit identification of a temporary decrease of growth rate. The biphasic character of the biological response after flights may be due to an ionization phenomena induced by cosmic rays. Indeed, the temporary drop of growth rate is not observed after recovery if the cells are subcultured in fresh medium and left on the earth's surface. We observe, on the contrary, an increase in growth rate. These findings confirm the great sensitivity of Paramecium aurelia to very low doses of ionizing radiations and demonstrate the biological effect of cosmic radiation.

  18. Effects of space balloon flights on reproductive activity in Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Planel, H; Soleilhavoup, J P; Croute, F

    1975-01-01

    Post autogamous Paramecium aurelia cultures were placed in hermetic containers, including a heating device with accuracy kept around +/- 0.1 degrees C. Kinetics of cellular growth was determined by cell count, after recovery, on in-flight cultures and ground control cultures. Dosimetry was performed by thermoluminescent detectors (CaSO4 activated with dysprosium). Flight durations of maximum altitude (ceiling) ranged between 48 min and 15 hours (repeated flights). Conclusions are as follows: short flights result in a secondary stimulating effect, shown by post-flight increase of the growth rate (total dose above 2 mrads); long flights or repeated flights are accompanied by a decrease in growth rate (total dose ranging from 2 to 6 mrads); in the stimulation experiments, cell counts performed immediately after flight permit identification of a temporary decrease of growth rate. The biphasic character of the biological response after flights may be due to an ionization phenomena induced by cosmic rays. Indeed, the temporary drop of growth rate is not observed after recovery if the cells are subcultured in fresh medium and left on the earth's surface. We observe, on the contrary, an increase in growth rate. These findings confirm the great sensitivity of Paramecium aurelia to very low doses of ionizing radiations and demonstrate the biological effect of cosmic radiation. PMID:11913423

  19. The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, M.; Florén, H.-G.; Jackson, M.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Kole, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Moretti, E.; Olofsson, G.; Rydström, S.; Takahashi, H.; Lind, J.; Strömberg, J.-E.; Welin, O.; Iyudin, A.; Shifrin, D.; Pearce, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25-240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the three Crab observations conducted. The signal-to-background ratio for the observations is shown to be 0.25 ±0.03 and the Minimum Detectable Polarisation (99 % C.L.) is (28.4 ±2.2) %. A strategy for the continuation of the PoGOLite programme is outlined based on experience gained during the 2013 maiden flight.

  20. Investigation of solar active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the solar optical universal polarimeter, extended definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Technical studies of the feasibility of balloon flights of the former Spacelab instrument, the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter, with a modern charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, to study the structure and evolution of solar active regions at high resolution, are reviewed. In particular, different CCD cameras were used at ground-based solar observatories with the SOUP filter, to evaluate their performance and collect high resolution images. High resolution movies of the photosphere and chromosphere were successfully obtained using four different CCD cameras. Some of this data was collected in coordinated observations with the Yohkoh satellite during May-July, 1992, and they are being analyzed scientifically along with simultaneous X-ray observations.

  1. B-SSIPP: A Miniature Solar Observatory for Rocket or Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, Craig; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Diller, Jed; Brownsberger, Judy

    2016-05-01

    The Southwest Solar Instrument Pointing Package (SSIPP) is a miniature solar observatory for flight application. Conceived as a way to lower barriers to entry to spaceflight, SSIPP conditions a broadband solar beam for use by an IR, visible, or UV instrument on an optical table -- just as do ground-based observatories. The beam is conditioned by a closed-loop tip/tilt pointing system that can lock onto the Sun over a 20° cone of angles, and maintain arcsecond-class pointing from a dynamic flight platform. SSIPP was originally conceived as an instrument platform for the XCOR Lynx suborbital sportsrocket. It has been adapted for ballloon flight, incorporating a novel coarse pointing system that measures torsional pendulation in-flight to construct a stable pointing law on-the-fly. First flight is projected for June 2016 (shortly after SPD). We present status, major design elements, and future plans for the platform.

  2. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  3. NASA Balloon Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program s technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, balloon-craft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  4. Investigation of active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T.; Frank, Z.; Gilbreth, C.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Topka, K.; Wolfson, J.

    1989-01-01

    SOUP is a versatile, visible-light solar observatory, built for space or balloon flight. It is designed to study magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with high spatial resolution and temporal uniformity, which cannot be achieved from the surface of the earth. The SOUP investigation is carried out by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, under contract to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Co-investigators include staff members at a dozen observatories and universities in the U.S. and Europe. The primary objectives of the SOUP experiment are: to measure vector magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with much better spatial resolution than can be achieved from the ground; to study the physical processes that store magnetic energy in active regions and the conditions that trigger its release; and to understand how magnetic flux emerges, evolves, combines, and disappears on spatial scales of 400 to 100,000 km. SOUP is designed to study intensity, magnetic, and velocity fields in the photosphere and low chromosphere with 0.5 arcsec resolution, free of atmospheric disturbances. The instrument includes: a 30 cm Cassegrain telescope; an active mirror for image stabilization; broadband film and TV cameras; a birefringent filter, tunable over 5100 to 6600 A with 0.05 A bandpass; a 35 mm film camera and a digital CCD camera behind the filter; and a high-speed digital image processor.

  5. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  6. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  7. Planetary atmospheres minor species sensor balloon flight test to near space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, Robert E.; Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Muraviev, Andrei V.; Maukonen, Douglas; Quddusi, Hajrah M.; Calhoun, Seth; Colwell, Joshua E.; Lachenmeier, Timothy A.; Dewey, Russell G.; Stern, Alan; Padilla, Sebastian; Bode, Rolfe

    2015-05-01

    The Planetary Atmospheres Minor Species Sensor (PAMSS) is an intracavity laser absorption spectrometer that uses a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser in an open external cavity for sensing ultra-trace gases with parts-per-billion sensitivity. PAMSS was flown on a balloon by Near Space Corporation from Madras OR to 30 km on 17 July 2014. Based on lessons learned, it was modified and was flown a second time to 32 km by World View Enterprises from Pinal AirPark AZ on 8 March 2015. Successes included continuous operation and survival of software, electronics, optics, and optical alignment during extreme conditions and a rough landing. Operation of PAMSS in the relevant environment of near space has significantly elevated its Technical Readiness Level for trace-gas sensing with potential for planetary and atmospheric science in harsh environments.

  8. Measurements of atmospheric electrical parameters and ELF electromagnetic emissions during a meteorological balloon flight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, Robert; Dujany, Matthieu; Berthomieu, Roland; Boissier, Mathilde; Bruneel, Pierre; Fischer, Lucie; Focillon, William; Gullo, Robin; Hubert, Valentin; Lafforgue, Gaétan; Loe-Mie, Marichka; Messager, Adrien; Roy, Felix; Auvray, Gérard; Bertrand, Fabrice; Coulomb, Romain; Deprez, Gregoire; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of electric field and atmospheric conductivity were performed onboard a small payload flown under a meteorological balloon during a fair weather period. This experiment is part of a project to study thunderstorms and TLE organized in the frame of the engineering cursus at Ecole Polytechnique. The payload is equipped with 4 electrodes to measure the 3 components of the DC and AC electric fields up to 3.2 kHz. Dedicated sequences of operation, when one electrode is operated in the relaxation mode, have been used to determine the positive and negative electrical conductivities. Altitude profiles of the DC vertical electric field and conductivities in agreement with expected fair weather parameters were obtained from ~ 3.5 to ~ 13 km before the failure of a battery. At an altitude of ~ 9 km slight disturbances in the electric field suggest the traversal of thin clouds with disturbed electrical characteristics. Schumann resonances were observed up to the fifth harmonics at levels that are typical of a quiet period over Europe with most thunderstorms located over remote longitudinal sectors. EM waves due the power lines at 50Hz are detected during the whole measuring period and their altitude and horizontal variations will be presented as a function of the position of the balloon over the ground power network. A surprising and interesting observation was made of a Russian transmitter at 82 Hz located in Murmansk region and used for sub-marine communications. We shall present an initial analysis of the amplitude and polarization of the corresponding signal.

  9. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.

    2013-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  10. NASA balloon technology developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program's technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, ballooncraft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  11. Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. (Editor); Witteborn, F. C. (Editor); Shipley, A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) astronomical observations with balloon-borne telescopes, (2) orientable, stabilized balloon-borne gondola for around-the-world flights, (3) ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, (4) infrared telescope for balloon-borne infrared astronomy, and (5) stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon-borne telescopes.

  12. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in Georgia, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.; Leeth, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. Water levels were monitored continuously, in Georgia, in a network of 184 wells during 2006 and 182 wells during 2007. Because of missing data or the short period of record (less than 3 years) for several of these wells, a total of 166 wells from the network are discussed in this report. These wells include 18 in the surficial aquifer system, 21 in the Brunswick aquifer system and equivalent sediments, 67 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 15 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 11 in the Clayton aquifer, 12 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 9 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the network indicate that water levels generally declined from 2005 levels, with water levels in 99 wells below normal, 52 wells in the normal range, 12 wells above normal, and 3 wells with insufficient data for comparison of 5-year trends and period of record statistics. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic synoptic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden, Charlton, and Ware Counties, Georgia, and adjacent counties in Florida during September 2006 and 2007, in the Brunswick area during July 2006 and August 2007, and in the City of Albany-Dougherty County area during October 2006 and October 2007. In general, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces showed little change during 2006-2007 in each of the areas. Ground-water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer is monitored in the Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick areas and in Camden County; and water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer is monitored in the Savannah and Brunswick areas and in Camden County. In

  13. Accuracy of analyzed temperatures, winds and trajectories in the Southern Hemisphere tropical and midlatitude stratosphere as compared to long-duration balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, B. M.; Christensen, T.; Hertzog, A.; Deme, A.; Vial, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.

    2006-12-01

    Eight super-pressure balloons floating at constant level between 50 and 80 hPa and three Infra-Red Montgolfier balloons of variable altitude (15 hPa daytime, 40-80 hPa night time) have been launched at 22° S from Brazil in February-May 2004 in the frame of the HIBISCUS project. The flights lasted for 7 to 79 days residing mainly in the tropics, but some of them passed the tropical barrier and went to southern midlatitudes. Compared to the balloon measurements just above the tropical tropopause the ECMWF operational temperatures show a systematic cold bias of 0.9 K and the easterly zonal winds are too strong by 0.7 m/s. This bias in the zonal wind adds to the ECMWF trajectory errors, but they still are relatively small with e.g. about an error of 700 km after 5 days. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis trajectory errors are substantially larger (1300 km after 5 days). In the southern midlatitudes the cold bias is the same, but the zonal wind bias is almost zero. The trajectories are generally more accurate than in the tropics, but for one balloon a lot of the calculated trajectories end up on the wrong side of the tropical barrier and this leads to large trajectory errors.

  14. The Japanese Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.

    The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.

  15. Balloons of made of the EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) films. EVAL film has specific Infra-red absorption bands, and is expected to be useful for saving the ballast for a long duration flight.
  16. A high altitude balloon with thin polyethylene films achieving at an altitude of above 50km. Further improvement of this type of balloons is continued by inventing how to extrude thin films less than 5 microns of thickness.
  17. Recent achievement of Antarctica Flights under the collaboration of ISAS and National Polar Institute.
  18. Other new efforts to long duration flights such as satellite link boomerang balloon systems and others.
  19. New balloon borne scientific instrumentation for observations of high energy electrons and Anti-protons in cosmic-rays.
  20. Breakthrough in Mars balloon technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J. A.; Cooper, H. W.; Hall, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Pauken, M. T.; White, C. V.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Castano, A.; Cathey, H. M.; Fairbrother, D. A.; Smith, I. S.; Shreves, C. M.; Lachenmeier, T.; Rainwater, E.; Smith, M.

    2004-01-01

    Two prototypes of Mars superpressure balloons were flight tested for aerial deployment and inflation in the Earth's stratosphere in June, 2002. One was an 11.3 m diameter by 6.8 m high pumpkin balloon constructed from polyethylene film and Zylon (PBO) tendons, the second was a 10 m diameter spherical balloon constructed from 12 μm thick Mylar film. Aerial deployment and inflation occurred under parachute descent at 34 km altitude, mimicing the dynamic pressure environment expected during an actual Mars balloon mission. Two on-board video cameras were used on each flight to provide real-time upward and downward views of the flight train. Atmospheric pressure and temperature were also recorded. Both prototypes successfully deployed from their storage container during parachute descent at approximately 40 m/s. The pumpkin balloon also successfully inflated with a 440 g charge of helium gas injected over a 1.5-min period. Since the helium inflation system was deliberately retained after inflation in this test, the pumpkin balloon continued to fall to the ocean where it was recovered for post-flight analysis. The less robust spherical balloon achieved only a partial (~70%) inflation before a structural failure occurred in the balloon film resulting in the loss of the vehicle. This structural failure was diagnosed to result from the vigorous oscillatory motion of the partially inflated balloon, possibly compounded by contact between the balloon film and an instrumentation box above it on the flight train. These two flights together represent significant progress in the development of Mars superpressure balloon technology and pave the way for future flight tests that will include post-deployment flight of the prototype balloons at a stable altitude.

  21. 77 FR 42764 - Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology Royalty Funds...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology Royalty Funds for the Musical Works Funds AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION... Copyright Royalty Judges are announcing the commencement of a proceeding to determine the distribution ]...

  22. Taking the Hot Air Out of Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinks, Virgil L.; Brinks, Robyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a teacher can give their students the challenge of designing and building model balloons or blimps. The project helps students learn the basics of balloon flight and what it really means to be "lighter than air." (PR)

  23. Unintentional injuries among youth with developmental disabilities in the United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Ruth A; Taneja, Gitanjali S; Schroeder, Thomas J; Trumble, Ann C; Moyer, Patricia M; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2013-01-01

    We examined unintentional injury among youth with and without developmental disabilities. Our nationally representative sample included 6369 injured youth, aged 0-17 years, who were seen in one of the 63 US hospital emergency rooms that participated in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System - All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) in 2006-2007. Parents or guardians of injured youth were interviewed by telephone after the hospital visit to ascertain disability status. Denominator data were obtained from the National Health Interview Survey. Leading causes of injury were comparable for youth with and without disability. Injury rates (per 100 youth per year) were also comparable [10.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8, 13.0 and 10.5; 95% CI 8.2, 12.9, for youth with and without disability, respectively]. When examined by specific disability, the rate ratio for youth with learning disabilities versus youth without learning disability was 1.57 (95% CI 1.04, 2.10), which may represent a subgroup for targeted interventions. PMID:22757768

  24. Effects of new penicillin susceptibility breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae--United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    2008-12-19

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a common cause of pneumonia and meningitis in the United States. Antimicrobial resistance, which can result in pneumococcal infection treatment failure, is identified by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimicrobial that will inhibit pneumococcal growth. Breakpoints are MICs that define infections as susceptible (treatable), intermediate (possibly treatable with higher doses), and resistant (not treatable) to certain antimicrobials. In January 2008, after a reevaluation that included more recent clinical studies, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) published new S. pneumoniae breakpoints for penicillin (the preferred antimicrobial for susceptible S. pneumoniae infections). To assess the potential effects of the new breakpoints on susceptibility categorization, CDC applied them to MICs of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) system at sites in 10 states during 2006-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that the percentage of IPD nonmeningitis S. pneumoniae isolates categorized as susceptible, intermediate, and resistant to penicillin changed from 74.7%, 15.0%, and 10.3% under the former breakpoints to 93.2%, 5.6%, and 1.2%, respectively, under the new breakpoints. Microbiology laboratories should be aware of the new breakpoints to interpret pneumococcal susceptibility accurately, and clinicians should be aware of the breakpoints to prescribe antimicrobials appropriately for pneumococcal infections. State and local health departments also should be aware of the new breakpoints because they might result in a decrease in the number of reported cases of penicillin-resistant pneumococcus.

  25. Potential Triggering Mechanisms for the 2006-2007 Half Dome Rockfalls, Yosemite National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, G. M.

    2007-12-01

    Yosemite Valley is one of the most active areas of rockfall in the world, allowing for detailed examination of individual rockfall events. A rockfall database going back to 1857 reveals that more than half of all documented rockfalls were not associated with a recognizable triggering mechanism. Between July 2006 and June 2007, a series of at least eight rockfalls occurred from a single release point on the Northwest Face of Half Dome in eastern Yosemite Valley. The largest of these rockfalls occurred at 18:46 on July 27th, 2007, and had an approximate volume of 735 m3. Interestingly, all of the rockfalls occurred during the summer (June-August), with no apparent activity at the release point during the winter and spring, typically considered peak seasons for rockfall. In addition to mapping rockfall volumes and the distribution of rock debris, I investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to failure, including bedrock lithology, degree of weathering, joint density and orientation, and release point geometry. I also analyzed a number of potential rockfall triggering mechanisms, including earthquakes, precipitation, freeze-thaw, and thermal stresses. Although a number of factors contributed to weakening of the rock mass, no specific triggering mechanism(s) can be confidently linked to the rockfalls. Rather, the rockfalls likely resulted from progressive strain weakening of an overhanging arch, with initial small rockfalls destabilizing the rock mass to the point that a large failure occurred. The supposition that summertime rockfalls with unrecognized triggers are unusual has been used to support claims that rockfalls below Glacier Point were caused by wastewater discharges, but the 2006-2007 Half Dome rockfalls, which occurred in a wilderness setting, demonstrate that subtle, even unrecognizable, natural processes trigger summertime rockfalls in Yosemite Valley.

  1. Pioneering Space Research with Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. V.

    NASA s Scientific Ballooning Planning Team has concluded that ballooning enables significant scientific discoveries while providing test beds for space instruments and training for young scientists Circumpolar flights around Antarctica have been spectacularly successful with fight durations up to 42 days Demand for participation in this Long-Duration Balloon LDB program a partnership with the U S National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs is greater than the current capacity of two flights per campaign Given appropriate international agreements LDB flights in the Northern Hemisphere would be competitive with Antarctic flights and super-pressure balloons would allow comparable flights at any latitude The Balloon Planning Team made several recommendations for LDB flights provide a reliable funding source for sophisticated payloads extend the Antarctic capability to three flights per year and develop a comparable capability in the Arctic provide aircraft for intact-payload recovery develop a modest trajectory modification capability to enable longer flights and enhance super-pressure balloons to carry 1-ton payloads to 38 km Implementation of these recommendations would facilitate frequent access to near-space for cutting-edge research and technology development for a wide range of investigations

  2. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence.

  3. A 2006-2007 Update on Oceanographic Conditions in the Central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J. H.; Steele, M.; Wahr, J.; Alkire, M.; Peralta-Ferriz, C.; Kwok, R.; Kikuchi, T.

    2007-12-01

    Trends in central Arctic Ocean conditions are updated with recently gathered data. In the late 1980s and through the 1990s we saw major shifts in the Arctic Ocean. The influence of Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean became more widespread and intense and the pattern of water circulation and ice drift shifted, resulting in a more cyclonic circulation. These changes became manifest in the central Arctic near the North Pole as increases in upper ocean salinity and Atlantic Water temperature. They occurred in concert with a decrease in surface atmospheric pressure. With the aim of helping to track such changes, the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) has been maintained since 2000. Along with an automated drifting station and a deep ocean mooring near the Pole; NPEO conducts airborne hydrographic surveys that track changes along key sections radiating from the Pole. In a related project, several of us have undertaken in situ ocean bottom pressure measurements and the analysis of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to track changes in the distribution of ocean mass. Hydrographic measurements made by the NPEO show that between 2000 and 2005, oceanographic condition relaxed toward the pre-1990 state. Morison et al [2006] describe these changes and relate them to a decline in the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. On the basis of in situ and GRACE bottom pressure trends, Morison et al. [2007] argue that shift back to pre-1990s circulation extended over the whole Arctic Ocean. The Spring 2007 NPEO hydrographic surveys and the 2006-2007 bottom pressure data suggest the trend towards pre-1990s conditions has now, once again, reversed. The new observations show greater salinities and bottom pressure near the Pole, indicative of increased Atlantic water presence. Temperatures have increased in the Atlantic Water core along the Eurasian flank of the Lomonosov Ridge. We will explore these most recent changes and their relation to changes in the ice cover and

  4. Development overview of the revised NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H. M.

    2008-11-01

    The desire for longer duration stratospheric flights at constant float altitudes for heavy payloads has been the focus of the development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) effort. Recent efforts have focused on ground testing and analysis to understand the previously observed issue of balloon deployment. A revised approach to the pumpkin balloon design has been tested through ground testing of model balloons and through two test flights. The design approach does not require foreshortening, and will significantly reduce the balloon handling during manufacture reducing the chances of inducing damage to the envelope. Successful ground testing of model balloons lead to the fabrication and test flight of a ˜176,000 m3 (˜6.2 MCF Million Cubic Foot) balloon. Pre-flight analytical predictions predicted that the proposed flight balloon design to be stable and should fully deploy. This paper provides an overview of this first test flight of the revised Ultra Long Duration Balloon design which was a short domestic test flight from Ft. Sumner, NM, USA. This balloon fully deployed, but developed a leak under pressurization. After an extensive investigation to the cause of the leak, a second test flight balloon was fabricated. This ˜176,000 m3 (˜6.2 MCF) balloon was flown from Kiruna, Sweden in June of 2006. Flight results for both test flights, including flight performance are presented.

  5. Universal stratospheric balloon gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Yury; Filippov, Sergey; Brekhov, Oleg; Nikolaev, Nikolay

    The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth’s crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). For investigation of Earth's magnetic field one of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN and MAI during already about 25 years. This system consists of three instrumental containers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. Up today this set has been used only for geomagnetic purposes. So we describe this system on example of the measuring of the geomagnetic field gradient. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field along the whole flight trajectory and so one’s name is - stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Process of SBMG deployment, feature of the exit of rope from the magazine at the moment of balloon launching has been studied. Used magazine is cellular type. The hodograph of the measuring base of SBMG and the technique of correction of the deviations of the measuring base from the vertical line (introduction of the amendments for the deviation) during the flight have been investigated. It is shown that estimation of the normal level of values of the vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field is determined by the accuracy of determining the length of the measuring base SBMG

  6. Scientific ballooning: Past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    2013-02-01

    Balloons have been used for scientific research since they were invented in France more than 200 years ago. Cosmic rays were discovered 100 years ago with an experiment flown on a manned balloon. A major change in balloon design occurred in 1950 with the introduction of the socalled natural shape balloon with integral load tapes. This basic design has been used with more or less continuously improved materials for scientific balloon flights for the past half century, including long-duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for the past two decades. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing a super-pressure balloon that would enable extended duration missions above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere at any latitude. Ultra-long-duration balloon (ULDB) flights enabled by constant-volume balloons should result in an even greater sea change in scientific ballooning than the inauguration of long-duration balloon (LDB) flights in Antarctica during the 1990-91 austral summer.

  7. Cleft formation in pumpkin balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, Frank E.; Brakke, Kenneth A.; Schur, Willi W.

    NASA’s development of a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, centers on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. Under certain circumstances, it has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired state instead. Success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and developing of means for the quantitative assessment of design measures that prevent the occurrence of undesired equilibrium. In this paper, we will use the concept of stability to classify cyclically symmetric equilibrium states at full inflation and pressurization. Our mathematical model for a strained equilibrium balloon, when applied to a shape that mimics the Phase IV-A balloon of Flight 517, predicts instability at float. Launched in Spring 2003, this pumpkin balloon failed to deploy properly. Observations on pumpkin shape type super-pressure balloons that date back to the 1980s suggest that within a narrowly defined design class of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons where individual designs are fully described by the number of gores ng and by a single measure of the bulging gore shape, the designs tend to become more vulnerable with the growing number of gores and with the diminishing size of the bulge radius rB Weight efficiency considerations favor a small bulge radius, while robust deployment into the desired cyclically symmetrical configuration becomes more likely with an increased bulge radius. In an effort to quantify this dependency, we will explore the stability of a family of balloon shapes parametrized by (ng, rB) which includes a design that is very similar, but not identical, to the balloon of Flight 517. In addition, we carry out a number of simulations that demonstrate other aspects related to multiple equilibria of pumpkin balloons.

  8. Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X): High-Altitude Balloon Flight Mission for Improving the NAIRAS Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Alston, Erica J.; Straume, Tore; Gersey, Brad; Lusby, Terry C.; Norman, Ryan B.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Tobiska, W. Kent; Wilkins, Rick

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. One of the main goals of the RaD-X mission is to improve aviation radiation model characterization of cosmic ray primaries by taking dosimetric measurements above the Pfotzer maximum before the production of secondary particles occurs. The second goal of the RaD-X mission is to facilitate the pathway toward real-time, data assimilative predictions of atmospheric cosmic radiation exposure by identifying and characterizing low-cost radiation measurement solutions.

  9. Scientific ballooning in India: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M. N.; Damle, S. V.

    The National Scientific Balloon Facility (NBF) of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) has been conducting regular balloon flights for various experiments in the areas of Space Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences. A continuous improvement in all aspects of Scientific Ballooning through a sustained R and D programme ensures uptodate services and a better handle on the design specifications for the balloon. Recent developments in balloon grade films, continuous improvements in design specifications, balloon manufacturing methods, flight operational procedures and improved balloon flight capabilities have resulted in a greatly improved flight performance in the last five years. A launch capability upgradation programme in terms of new launch spool and new launch vehicle has been initiated to be able to safely launch balloons with gross lifts upto 3500 kg, balloon volumes upto 450,000 m^3 and payloads upto 1400 kg. A series of steps have been initiated to improve long duration flight capabilities. In this paper, we present details on some of these aspects of Scientific Ballooning in India.

  10. Genetic analysis of West Nile virus isolates from an outbreak in Idaho, United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Grinev, Andriyan; Chancey, Caren; Añez, Germán; Ball, Christopher; Winkelman, Valerie; Williamson, Phillip; Foster, Gregory A; Stramer, Susan L; Rios, Maria

    2013-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) appeared in the U.S. in 1999 and has since become endemic, with yearly summer epidemics causing tens of thousands of cases of serious disease over the past 14 years. Analysis of WNV strains isolated during the 2006-2007 epidemic seasons demonstrates that a new genetic variant had emerged coincidentally with an intense outbreak in Idaho during 2006. The isolates belonging to the new variant carry a 13 nt deletion, termed ID-Δ13, located at the variable region of the 3'UTR, and are genetically related. The analysis of deletions and insertions in the 3'UTR of two major lineages of WNV revealed the presence of conserved repeats and two indel motifs in the variable region of the 3'UTR. One human and two bird isolates from the Idaho 2006-2007 outbreaks were sequenced using Illumina technology and within-host variability was analyzed. Continued monitoring of new genetic variants is important for public health as WNV continues to evolve.

  11. Flight performance of an advanced CZT imaging detector in a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope—ProtoEXIST1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J.; Barthelemy, S.; Baker, R.; Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Apple, J.; Cleveland, W. H.

    2011-10-01

    We successfully carried out the first high-altitude balloon flight of a wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescope ProtoEXIST1, which was launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on October 9, 2009. ProtoEXIST1 is the first implementation of an advanced CdZnTe (CZT) imaging detector in our ongoing program to establish the technology required for next generation wide-field hard X-ray telescopes such as the High Energy Telescope (HET) in the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The CZT detector plane in ProtoEXIST1 consists of an 8×8 array of closely tiled 2 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm thick pixellated CZT crystals, each with 8×8 pixels, mounted on a set of readout electronics boards and covering a 256 cm2 active area with 2.5 mm pixels. A tungsten mask, mounted at 90 cm above the detector provides shadowgrams of X-ray sources in the 30-600 keV band for imaging, allowing a fully coded field of view of 9°×9° (and 19°×19° for 50% coding fraction) with an angular resolution of 20‧. In order to reduce the background radiation, the detector is surrounded by semi-graded (Pb/Sn/Cu) passive shields on the four sides all the way to the mask. On the back side, a 26 cm×26 cm×2 cm CsI(Na) active shield provides signals to tag charged particle induced events as well as ≳100keV background photons from below. The flight duration was only about 7.5 h due to strong winds (60 knots) at float altitude (38-39 km). Throughout the flight, the CZT detector performed excellently. The telescope observed Cyg X-1, a bright black hole binary system, for ˜1h at the end of the flight. Despite a few problems with the pointing and aspect systems that caused the telescope to track about 6.4° off the target, the analysis of the Cyg X-1 data revealed an X-ray source at 7.2σ in the 30-100 keV energy band at the expected location from the optical images taken by the onboard daytime star camera. The success of this first flight is very

  12. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  13. Balloon Launch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a science learning experience in which intermediate grade students launched balloons with attached postcards to study wind currents. More than 200 (of over 900 balloons) were returned, and their analysis supported the students' hypothesis about the direction of wind currents. (DB)

  14. Balloons Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeskova, Z.; Featonby, D.; Fekova, V.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst everyone is familiar with the process of blowing up a balloon, few of us have gone further to quantify the actual pressures involved at different stages in the inflation process. This paper seeks to describe experiments to fill some of those gaps and examine some of the apparently anomalous behaviour of connected balloons. (Contains 12…

  15. Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p-bar's) from 0.17 to 3.5 GeV has been measured using 7886 p-bar's detected by BESS-Polar II during a long-duration flight over Antarctica near solar minimum in December 2007 and January 2008. This shows good consistency with secondary p-bar calculations. Cosmologically primary p-bar's have been investigated by comparing measured and calculated p-bar spectra. BESS-Polar II data.show no evidence of primary p-bar's from the evaporation of primordial black holes.

  16. Measurement of Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p(raised bar)'s) collected by the BESS-Polar II instrument during a long-duration flight over Antarctica in the solar minimum period of December 2007 through January 2008. The p(raised bar) spectrum measured by BESS-Polar II shows good consistency with secondary p(raised bar) calculations. Cosmologically primary p(raised bar)'s have been searched for by comparing the observed and calculated p(raised bar) spectra. The BESSPolar II result shows no evidence of primary p(raised bar)'s originating from the evaporation of PBH.

  17. John F. Kennedy Space Center's Technology Development and Application 2006-2007 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Topics covered include: Reversible Chemochromic Hydrogen Detectors; Determining Trajectory of Triboelectrically Charged Particles, Using Discrete Element Modeling; Using Indium Tin Oxide To Mitigate Dust on Viewing Ports; High-Performance Polyimide Powder Coatings; Controlled-Release Microcapsules for Smart Coatings for Corrosion Applications; Aerocoat 7 Replacement Coatings; Photocatalytic Coatings for Exploration and Spaceport Design; New Materials for the Repair of Polyimide Electrical Wire Insulation; Commodity-Free Calibration; Novel Ice Mitigation Methods; Crack Offset Measurement With the Projected Laser Target Device; New Materials for Structural Composites and Protective Coatings; Fire Chemistry Testing of Spray-On Foam Insulation (SOFI); Using Aerogel-Based Insulation Material To Prevent Foam Loss on the Liquid-Hydrogen Intertank; Particle Ejection and Levitation Technology (PELT); Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust; Numerical Analysis of Rocket Exhaust Cratering; RESOLVE Projects: Lunar Water Resource Demonstration and Regolith Volatile Characterization; Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation; Numerically Modeling the Erosion of Lunar Soil by Rocket Exhaust Plumes; Trajectory Model of Lunar Dust Particles; Using Lunar Module Shadows To Scale the Effects of Rocket Exhaust Plumes; Predicting the Acoustic Environment Induced by the Launch of the Ares I Vehicle; Measuring Ultrasonic Acoustic Velocity in a Thin Sheet of Graphite Epoxy Composite; Hail Size Distribution Mapping; Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor Array System; Autonomous Flight Safety System - Phase III; The Photogrammetry Cube; Bird Vision System; Automating Range Surveillance Through Radio Interferometry and Field Strength Mapping Techniques; Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation; GPS Metric Tracking Unit; and Space-Based Range.

  18. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  19. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, J.-B.; Dulac, F.; Berthet, G.; Lurton, T.; Vignelles, D.; Jégou, F.; Tonnelier, T.; Thaury, C.; Jeannot, M.; Couté, B.; Akiki, R.; Verdier, N.; Mallet, M.; Gensdarmes, F.; Charpentier, P.; Mesmin, S.; Duverger, V.; Dupont, J. C.; Elias, T.; Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Giacomoni, J.; Gobbi, M.; Hamonou, E.; Olafsson, H.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Mazel, C.; Décamps, T.; Piringer, M.; Surcin, J.; Daugeron, D.

    2015-09-01

    In the companion paper (Renard et al., 2015), we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60° that allows some topology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 μm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  20. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, J.-B.; Dulac, F.; Berthet, G.; Lurton, T.; Vignelle, D.; Jégou, F.; Tonnelier, T.; Thaury, C.; Jeannot, M.; Couté, B.; Akiki, R.; Mineau, J.-L.; Verdier, N.; Mallet, M.; Gensdarmes, F.; Charpentier, P.; Mesmin, S.; Duverger, V.; Dupont, J.-C.; Elias, T.; Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Giacomoni, J.; Gobbi, M.; Hamonou, E.; Olafsson, H.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Mazel, C.; Décamps, T.; Piringer, M.; Surcin, J.; Daugeron, D.

    2015-01-01

    In a companion (Part 1) paper (Renard et al., 2015), we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosols Counter) based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. that allows some speciation of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overwhelm those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 μm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Wien (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  1. Scientific Balloons for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Yavrouian, Andre; Nott, Julian; Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Wilson, Colin; Kerzhanovich, Viktor; Voss, Paul; Hall, Jeffery

    Almost 30 years ago, two balloons were successfully deployed into the atmosphere of Venus as an element of the VeGa - Venus Halley mission conducted by the Soviet Union. As interest in further Venus exploration grows among the established planetary exploration agencies - in Europe, Japan, Russia and the United States, use of balloons is emerging as an essential part of that investigative program. Venus balloons have been proposed in NASA’s Discovery program and ESA’s cosmic vision program and are a key element in NASA’s strategic plan for Venus exploration. At JPL, the focus for the last decade has been on the development of a 7m diameter superpressure pressure(twice that of VeGa) capable of carrying a 100 kg payload (14 times that of VeGA balloons), operating for more than 30 days (15 times the 2 day flight duration of the VeGa balloons) and transmitting up to 20 Mbit of data (300 times that of VeGa balloons). This new generation of balloons must tolerate day night transitions on Venus as well as extended exposure to the sulfuric acid environment. These constant altitude balloons operating at an altitude of about 55 km on Venus where temperatures are benign can also deploy sondes to sound the atmosphere beneath the probe and deliver deep sondes equipped to survive and operate down to the surface. The technology for these balloons is now maturing rapidly and we are now looking forward to the prospects for altitude control balloons that can cycle repeatedly through the Venus cloud region. One concept, which has been used for tropospheric profiling in Antarctica, is the pumped-helium balloon, with heritage to the anchor balloon, and would be best adapted for flight above the 55 km level. Phase change balloons, which use the atmosphere as a heat engine, can be used to investigate the lower cloud region down to 30 km. Progress in components for high temperature operation may also enable investigation of the deep atmosphere of Venus with metal-based balloons.

  2. Ballooning Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mebane, Robert C.; Rector, Bronwyn

    1991-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize balloons to encourage students to explore questions related to scientific concepts. Concepts explored include light, heat, charged ions, polarization, and the sense of smell. (MDH)

  3. Scientific Ballooning Activities and Recent Developments in Technology and Instrumentation of the TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR-BF) is a unique center of expertise working throughout the year to design, fabricate and launch scientific balloons mainly for space astronomy, atmospheric science and engineering experiments. Recently TIFR-BF extended its support to new user scientists for conducting balloon launches for biological and middle atmospheric sciences. For the first time two balloon launches conducted for sending live lab rats to upper stratosphere and provided launch support for different balloon campaigns such as Tropical Tropopause Dynamics (TTD) to study water vapour content in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric regions over Hyderabad and the other balloon campaign to study the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (BATAL) during the Indian summer monsoon season. BATAL is the first campaign to conduct balloon launches during active (South-West) monsoon season using zero pressure balloons of different volumes. TIFR-BF also provided zero pressure and sounding balloon support to various research institutes and organizations in India and for several international space projects. In this paper, we present details on our increased capability of balloon fabrication for carrying heavier payloads, development of high strength balloon load tapes and recent developments of flight control and safety systems. A summary of the various flights conducted in two years will be presented along with the future ballooning plans.

  4. High Altitude Ozone Research Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Timothy A.; Daniel, Leslie A.; Herrick, Sally C.; Rock, Stacey G.; Varias, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to create a mission model of the high altitude ozone research balloon (HAORB) several options for flight preparation, altitude control, flight termination, and payload recovery were considered. After the optimal launch date and location for two separate HAORB flights were calculated, a method for reducing the heat transfer from solar and infrared radiation was designed and analytically tested. This provided the most important advantage of the HAORB over conventional balloons, i.e., its improved flight duration. Comparisons of different parachute configurations were made, and a design best suited for the HAORB's needs was determined to provide for payload recovery after flight termination. In an effort to avoid possible payload damage, a landing system was also developed.

  5. Recent Developments in Balloon Support Instrumentation at TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Rajagopalan

    2012-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research has been conducting stratospheric balloon flights regularly for various experiments in Space Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences. A continuous improvement in Balloon flight Support instrumentation by the Control Instrumentation Group to keep in space with the growing complexities of the scientific payloads have contributed to the total success of balloon flights conducted recently. Recent improvements in display of Balloon position during balloon flight by showing on real time the balloon GPS position against Google TM maps is of immense help in selecting the right spot for payload landing and safe recovery . For further speeding up the payload recovery process, a new GPS-GSM payload system has been developed which gives SMS of the payload position information to the recovery team on their cell phones. On parallel footing, a new GPS- VHF system has been developed using GPS and Radio Modems for Balloon Tracking and also for obtaining the payload impact point. On the Telecommand side, a single board Telecommand/ Timer weighing less than 2 Kg has been specially developed for use in the mesosphere balloon test flight. The interference on the existing Short Range Telemetry System has been eliminated by introducing a Band Pass Filter and LNA in the Receiving system of the modules, thereby enhancing its reliability. In this paper , we present the details of the above mentioned developments.

  6. Technologies developed by CNES balloon team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc; Deramecourt, Arnaud

    CNES balloon team develops and operates all the components of this kind of vehicle: it means envelope and gondola. This abstract will point out only developments done for envelope. Nowadays CNES offers to scientists four types of envelops that cover a large range of mission demands. These envelops are: 1. Zero pressure balloons: Size going from 3,000m3 to 600,000m3, this kind of envelop is ideal for short duration flights (a few hours) but if we use an intelligent management of ballast consumption and if we chose the best launch site, it is possible to perform medium duration flights (10/20 days depending on the ballast on board). Flight train mass starts at 50kg for small balloons and reach 1000kg for larger ones. Zero pressure balloons are inflated with helium gas. 2. Super pressure balloons: Diameter going from 2.5m to 12m, this kind of envelop is ideal for long duration flights (1 to 6 months). Flight train is inside the envelop for small balloons, it means 2.5 diameter meters which is usually called BPCL (Super pressure balloon for Earth boundary layer) and it is about 3kg of mass. Larger ones could lift external flight trains about 50kg of mass. Super pressure balloons are inflated with helium gas. 3. MIR balloons: Size going from 36,000m3 to 46,000m3. Ceiling is reach with helium gas but after three days helium is no longer present inside and lift force is produced by difference of temperature between air inside and air of atmosphere. Flight trains must not be over 50kg. 4. Aero Clipper balloons: A concept to correlate measurements done in oceans and in nearest layers of atmosphere simultaneously. Flight train is made by a "fish" that drags inside water and an atmospheric gondola few meters above "fish", both pushed by a balloon which profits of the wind force. Materials used for construction and assembling depend on balloon type; they are usually made of polyester or polyethylene. Thickness varies from 12 micrometers to 120 micrometers. Balloon assembling

  7. Physics & Astronomy Master's Initial Employment: Data from the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Survey for the Classes of 2006, 2007 and 2008. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick; Shindel, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the characteristics and initial outcomes of exiting master's degree recipients in physics and astronomy. The report covers the degree classes of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The status of exiting physics master's varied greatly by the citizenship of the degree recipient. The majority of US citizens entered or remained in the workforce…

  8. Florida's Enhancing Education through Technology (Florida EETT). Leveraging Laptops: Effective Models for Enhancing Student Achievement. 2006-2007 Evaluation Report: Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowther, Deborah L.; Strahl, J. Daniel; Ross, Steven M.; Huang, Ying

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2006-2007 evaluation that was focused toward investigating one primary question: What changes in tool-based, student-centered teaching happen as a result of the infusion of technology and professional development? The research methodology involved the use of trained external researchers from Florida EETT schools…

  9. Scientific balloons: historical remarks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, P.

    The paper is an overview of the Human attempt to fly, from the myth of Daedalus and his son Icarus to the first "aerostatic" experiment by Joseph-Michel and Jaques-Etienne Montgolfier. Then, via a jump of about 200 years, we arrive to the era of the modern stratospheric ballooning that, from the beginning of the last century, have provided a unique flight opportunity for aerospace experiments. In particular, the Italian scientific community has employed stratospheric balloons since the '50s for cosmic rays and high energy astrophysical experiments with initial launches performed from Cagliari Helmas Airport (Sardinia). More recently an almost ideal location was found in the area of Trapani-Milo (Sicily, Italy), were an old abandoned airport was refurbished to be used as a new launch site that became operative at the beginning of the '70s. Finally, we suggest a short reminiscence of the first transatlantic experiment carried out on August 1975 in collaboration between SAS-CNR (Italy) and NSBF-NASA (USA). The reason why the Long Duration Balloon has been recently re-oriented in a different direction is analysed and future perspectives discussed. Finally, the spirit of the balloon launch performed by the Groups lead by Edoardo Amaldi, Livio Scarsi and other Italian pioneers, with payloads looking like "refrigerators" weighting a few tens of kg is intact and the wide participation to the present Workshop is the clear demonstration.

  10. Marital and job satisfaction among non-resident physicians at a Hispanic academic medical center, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Acevedo, Luis F; Céspedes-Gómez, Wayca R

    2009-01-01

    Marital satisfaction has been previously associated with job satisfaction although few studies have addressed this issue among Hispanic physicians. Marital and job satisfaction were assessed in a sample of 92 legally married non-residents physicians working at a Hispanic Academic Medical Center during the 2006-2007 academic year. Marital satisfaction was assessed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and job satisfaction was measured using a 18-item scale. Response rate was 34.8%. Most (70.7%) of the subjects were males. Forty- five percent (45.0%) belonged to the surgical specialties group. The mean scale value for marital satisfaction was found to be in the average range. Almost all (88.7%) the participants reported being "satisfied "to "very satisfied" with their job. Ninety percent (90.0%) of the surgical specialists and 86.9% of the non-surgical specialists reported being satisfied with their job. The percentage of participants that reported to be "very satisfied" with their job, was higher among the group of surgical specialists (23.3%) than among the non-surgical specialists (13.0%) There was no significant relationship between marital satisfaction and job satisfaction. Also, no statistically significant difference was observed in the level of marital satisfaction and job satisfaction when surgical and non-surgical physicians were compared. The findings on marital satisfaction obtained in this sample were similar to those observed in a previous study of resident physicians at the same academic medical center.

  11. Marital and job satisfaction among non-resident physicians at a Hispanic academic medical center, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Acevedo, Luis F; Céspedes-Gómez, Wayca R

    2009-01-01

    Marital satisfaction has been previously associated with job satisfaction although few studies have addressed this issue among Hispanic physicians. Marital and job satisfaction were assessed in a sample of 92 legally married non-residents physicians working at a Hispanic Academic Medical Center during the 2006-2007 academic year. Marital satisfaction was assessed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and job satisfaction was measured using a 18-item scale. Response rate was 34.8%. Most (70.7%) of the subjects were males. Forty- five percent (45.0%) belonged to the surgical specialties group. The mean scale value for marital satisfaction was found to be in the average range. Almost all (88.7%) the participants reported being "satisfied "to "very satisfied" with their job. Ninety percent (90.0%) of the surgical specialists and 86.9% of the non-surgical specialists reported being satisfied with their job. The percentage of participants that reported to be "very satisfied" with their job, was higher among the group of surgical specialists (23.3%) than among the non-surgical specialists (13.0%) There was no significant relationship between marital satisfaction and job satisfaction. Also, no statistically significant difference was observed in the level of marital satisfaction and job satisfaction when surgical and non-surgical physicians were compared. The findings on marital satisfaction obtained in this sample were similar to those observed in a previous study of resident physicians at the same academic medical center. PMID:19954085

  12. Cosmic Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  13. Balloon flight and atmospheric electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Emilio

    1924-01-01

    The air is known to be charged with electricity (chiefly positive) with reference to the earth, so that its potential increases with the altitude and the difference in potential between two points in the same vertical line, divided by the distance between them, gives a value called the "potential gradient," which may vary greatly with the altitude, the nature of the ground and the atmospheric conditions.

  14. Influenza antiviral susceptibility monitoring activities in relation to national antiviral stockpiles in Europe during the winter 2006/2007 season.

    PubMed

    Meijer, A; Lackenby, A; Hay, A; Zambon, M

    2007-04-01

    Due to the influenza pandemic threat, many countries are stockpiling antivirals in the hope of limiting the impact of a future pandemic virus. Since resistance to antiviral drugs would probably significantly alter the effectiveness of antivirals, surveillance programmes to monitor the emergence of resistance are of considerable importance. During the 2006/2007 influenza season, an inventory was conducted by the European Surveillance Network for Vigilance against Viral Resistance (VIRGIL) in collaboration with the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) to evaluate antiviral susceptibility testing by the National Influenza Reference Laboratories (NIRL) in relation to the national antiviral stockpile in 30 European countries that are members of EISS. All countries except Ukraine had a stockpile of the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) oseltamivir. Additionally, four countries had a stockpile of the NAI zanamivir and three of the M2 ion channel inhibitor rimantadine. Of 29 countries with a NAI stockpile, six countries' NIRLs could determine virus susceptibility by 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and in 13 countries it could be done by sequencing. Only in one of the three countries with a rimantadine stockpile could the NIRL determine virus susceptibility, by sequencing only. However, including the 18 countries that had plans to introduce or extend antiviral susceptibility testing, the NIRLs of 21 of the 29 countries with a stockpile would be capable of susceptibility testing appropriate to the stockpiled drug by the end of the 2007/2008 influenza season. Although most European countries in this study have stockpiles of influenza antivirals, susceptibility surveillance capability by the NIRLs appropriate to the stockpiled antivirals is limited. PMID:17991386

  15. Analysis of erythemally effective UV radiation at the Mendel Station, James Ross Island in the period of 2006-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, K.; Prosek, P.; Budik, L.; Budikova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The results of global solar and erythemally effective ultraviolet (EUV) radiation measurements are presented. The radiation data were collected within the period of 2006-2007 at the Czech Antarctic station J. G. Mendel, James Ross Island (63°48'S, 57°53'W). Global solar radiation was measured by a Kipp&Zonen CM11 pyranometer. EUV radiation was measured according to the McKinley and Diffey Erythemal Action Spectrum with a Solar Light broadband UV-Biometer Model 501A. The effects of stratospheric ozone concentration and cloudiness (estimated as cloud impact factor from global solar radiation) on the intensity of incident EUV radiation were calculated by a non-linear regression model. The total ozone content (TOC) and cloud/surface reflectivity derived from satellite-based measurements were applied into the model for elimination of the uncertainties in measured ozone values. There were two input data of TOC used in the model. The first were taken from the Dobson spectrophotometer measurements (Argentinean Antarctic station Marambio), the second was acquired for geographical coordinates of the Mendel Station from the EOS Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument and V8.5 algorithm. Analysis of measured EUV data showed that variable cloudiness affected rather short-term fluctuations of the radiation fluxes, while ozone declines caused long-term UV radiation increase in the second half of the year. The model predicted about 98 % variability of the measured EUV radiation. The residuals between measured and modeled EUV radiation intensities were evaluated separately for the above-specified two TOC datasets, parts of seasons and cloud impact factor (cloudiness). The mean average prediction error was used for model validation according to the cloud impact factor and satellite-based reflectivity data.

  16. ISBA system for CNES operations of stratospheric balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André; Cocquerez, Philippe; Escarnot, Jean-Pierre; Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Ragazzo, Patrick; Spel, Martin

    For long duration flights of stratospheric balloons, the CNES has developed the ISBA Tracking, Telemetry Command system (TT and C), which comprises a house-keeping gondola (on board aerostat) and associated ground segments. The ISBA TT and C system permits to control and to monitor stratospheric balloons for long duration flights lasting a few days (zero-pressure balloon) to several months (superpressure balloon), flying anywhere in the world. This system has been implemented for scientific balloon campaigns : African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyzes (AMMA 2006) and Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (PARC 2008). The next balloon campaign with this system will be Concordiasi (2010 ), during which 20 superpressure balloons will be launched from the U.S. MacMurdo station (placeAntarctica) where the duration of the balloon flights are expected to reach 6 months. To enable monitoring and controlling of the flights in real time, regardless of the location of the balloons, the Iridium system is used as the communication link between the ground stations and the on-board house-keeping gondola. A mobile Control Station is activated on the balloon operation site for the launch, from where the ascent to flight level and the beginning of the flight is controlled by the team in charge of launching operations. Subsequently after checking the good health of the aerostat (balloon itself and house keeping gondola), the flight control of the balloon is transferred to the Control Center installed in the CNES at Toulouse from where the flight is further controlled : checking housekeeping and scientific telemetries, operations of ballast dropping and helium gas exhausting (superpressure balloons), monitoring the health of the balloon and the house keeping gondola, forecasts extensions of balloon trajectories for the 10 days to come, and management of the end of the flight to ensure a descent of the envelope of the balloon and flight train with its parachute in maximum safety conditions

  17. Gondola development for CNES stratospheric balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, A.; Audoubert, J.; Cau, M.; Evrard, J.; Verdier, N.

    The CNES has been supporting scientific ballooning since its establishment in 1962. The two main parts of the balloon system or aerostat are the balloon itself and the flight train, comprising the house-keeping gondola, for the control of balloon flight (localization and operational telemetry & telecommand - TM/TC), and the scientific gondola with its dedicated telecommunication system. For zero pressure balloon, the development of new TM/TC system for the housekeeping and science data transmission are going on from 1999. The main concepts are : - for balloon house-keeping and low rate scientific telemetry, the ELITE system, which is based on single I2C bus standardizing communication between the different components of the system : trajectography, balloon control, power supply, scientific TM/TC, .... In this concept, Radio Frequency links are developed between the house keeping gondola and the components of the aerostat (balloon valve, ballast machine, balloon gas temperature measurements, ...). The main objectives are to simplify the flight train preparation in term of gondola testing before flight, and also by reducing the number of long electrical cables integrated in the balloon and the flight train; - for high rate scientific telemetry, the use of functional interconnection Internet Protocol (IP) in interface with the Radio Frequency link. The main idea is to use off-the-shelf IP hardware products (routers, industrial PC, ...) and IP software (Telnet, FTP, Web-HTTP, ...) to reduce the development costs; - for safety increase, the adding, in the flight train, of a totally independent house keeping gondola based on the satellite Inmarsat M and Iridium telecommunication systems, which permits to get real time communications between the on-board data mobile and the ground station, reduced to a PC computer with modem connected to the phone network. These GEO and LEO telecommunication systems give also the capability to operate balloon flights over longer distance

  18. Balloon system and balloon-borne experiments in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yi-Dong

    The Chinese scientific balloon project was started in 1979 by the Academia Sinica which has now established a permanent balloon facility. It consists of 1500 m2 launching site complete with telecontrol and PCM and FM telemetry, and meteorological and communications equipment. A series of 5×102 to 5×104 m3 zero-pressure natural shape balloons produced in China have served for scientific observations with a maximum payload weight of 250 kg and with flight durations up to 18 hrs. The balloon envelope is made of LDPE (MI = 0.3) with 18.6 thickness and 1.4 m width. For astronomical observations an attitude system is available. The ``binding-off'' technique using a parachute has increased the landing accuracy of the gondola. In almost any case the gondola can be recovered within 12 hrs. Successful scientific observations using this balloon facility included: - Observations of the primary cosmic ray nuclei and cross-section measurements of high energy heavy nuclei interactions. - Measurement of the vertical distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere. - Hard X-ray astronomy observations. - Remote sensing in the infra-red band at balloon altitudes. - Observations of solar far infra-red radiation.

  19. Microbial and Nutrient Concentration and Load Data During Stormwater Runoff at a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes water-quality and hydrologic data collected during 2006-2007 to characterize bacteria and nutrient loads associated with overland runoff and subsurface tile drainage in spray fields at a swine concentrated animal feeding operation. Four monitoring locations were established at the Lizzie Research Site in the North Carolina Coastal Plain Physiographic Province for collecting discharge and water-quality data during stormwater-runoff events. Water stage was measured continuously at each monitoring location. A stage-discharge relation was developed for each site and was used to compute instantaneous discharge values for collected samples. Water-quality samples were collected for five storm events during 2006-2007 for analysis of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. Instantaneous loads of nitrite plus nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci were computed for selected times during the five storm events.

  20. Simulating clefts in pumpkin balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The geometry of a large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, such as a sphere, leads to very high film stresses. These stresses can be significantly reduced by using a tendon re-enforced lobed pumpkin-like shape. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin shape, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design, the constant bulge radius (CBR) design, CBA/CBR hybrids, and NASA’s recent constant stress (CS) design. Utilizing a hybrid CBA/CBR pumpkin design, Flight 555-NT in June 2006 formed an S-cleft and was unable to fully deploy. In order to better understand the S-cleft phenomenon, a series of inflation tests involving four 27-m diameter 200-gore pumpkin balloons were conducted in 2007. One of the test vehicles was a 1/3-scale mockup of the Flight 555-NT balloon. Using an inflation procedure intended to mimic ascent, the 1/3-scale mockup developed an S-cleft feature strikingly similar to the one observed in Flight 555-NT. Our analysis of the 1/3-scale mockup found it to be unstable. We compute asymmetric equilibrium configurations of this balloon, including shapes with an S-cleft feature.

  1. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (<24 months between births); unwanted pregnancy (any ever); pregnancy termination (any stillbirth, miscarriage or abortion ever)] by early (<18) versus adult (≥18) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with low social equity indicators (poverty, rural residence, and no formal education). Adjusted logistic regression models showed that girl child marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of

  2. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (<24 months between births); unwanted pregnancy (any ever); pregnancy termination (any stillbirth, miscarriage or abortion ever)] by early (<18) versus adult (≥18) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with low social equity indicators (poverty, rural residence, and no formal education). Adjusted logistic regression models showed that girl child marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of

  3. Balloons and Science Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balloon Council, Washington, DC.

    This document provides background information on balloons including: (1) the history of balloons; (2) balloon manufacturing; (3) biodegradability; (4) the fate of latex balloons; and (5) the effect of balloons on the rainforest and sea mammals. Also included as part of this instructional kit are four fun experiments that allow students to…

  4. NASA super-pressure balloons - designing to meet the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, Henry M., Jr.

    2001-08-01

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon project presents a new challenge in balloon design by extending flight duration for large heavy payloads. The pumpkin balloon design is innovative and presents many new challenges. This paper encapsulates the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon Vehicle developments, presents them to the Science Community, and shows points of interaction with the users. The capabilities and limitations are presented to allow potential users to make informed choices in the development of balloon class payloads. Brief summaries of test flights and the cause and effect relationship between suspended load and float altitude are presented. A focus on innovation and the future using the Ultra Long Duration Balloon super-pressure balloon technology is also presented.

  5. Recent and Future Stratospheric Balloon Activities at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig

    Esrange Space Center located in northern Sweden has during 45 years been a leading launch site for both sounding rockets and stratospheric balloons. We have a unique combination of maintaining both stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets launch operations. Most balloon flights are normally handled inside Scandinavia but since 2005 PersonNamesemi-circular flights are performed with recovery in northern Canada. The Swedish Government and Swedish National Space Board are now finaliz-ing an agreement with Russia for peaceful uPersonNamese of space, which will permit circumpolar balloon flights. Within this agreement we will soon be able to of-fer the science community long duration balloon flights with durations for PersonNameseveral weeks. The balloon operations at Esrange Space Center are yearly expanding. Both NASA and CNES have long term plans for balloon flights from northern Sweden. We have also received a request from JAXA for future balloon missions. To handle balloon campaigns with large numbers of payloads or build up for two different campaigns a new big assembly hall will be ready for use at the beginning of 2011. January 24 we made an historical balloon flight in a very cold stratosphere with a Zodiac metricconverterProductID402?000 m3402ü ınbsp;000 m3402 000 m3 balloon carrying a 750kg gondola with the German Mipas-B/Telis instrument. The balloon reached 34kms alti-tude after a carefully piloted ascent in temperature levels down to -89 degrees Centigrade. The scientists received unique data during the 13 hours and 30 minutes long sailing at different altitudes during slow descent. The payload was recovered in very good condition 80 kms from the border between country-regionFinland and Russia.

  6. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337. Comments also may be submitted... Program Manager, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility; telephone 757-824-2319; or... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY:...

  7. Attitude determination for balloon-borne experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandilo, N. N.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Angilè, F. E.; Benton, S. J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Doré, O. P.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gambrel, A. E.; Golwala, S.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Holmes, W. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A. L.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Matthews, T. G.; Megerian, K. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Mroczkowski, T. K.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Nutter, D.; O'Brient, R.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Thomas, N. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Truch, M. D.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2014-07-01

    An attitude determination system for balloon-borne experiments is presented. The system provides pointing information in azimuth and elevation for instruments flying on stratospheric balloons over Antarctica. In-flight attitude is given by the real-time combination of readings from star cameras, a magnetometer, sun sensors, GPS, gyroscopes, tilt sensors and an elevation encoder. Post-flight attitude reconstruction is determined from star camera solutions, interpolated by the gyroscopes using an extended Kalman Filter. The multi-sensor system was employed by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol), an experiment that measures polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust clouds. A similar system was designed for the upcoming flight of Spider, a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. The pointing requirements for these experiments are discussed, as well as the challenges in designing attitude reconstruction systems for high altitude balloon flights. In the 2010 and 2012 BLASTPol flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, the system demonstrated an accuracy of < 5' rms in-flight, and < 5" rms post-flight.

  8. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  9. Final report : results of the 2006-2007 investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA facility in Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-08-28

    The 2006-2007 investigation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination at Barnes, Kansas, was conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory implemented the investigation on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The overall goal of the investigation was to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The investigation objectives were to (1) determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, (2) delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and (3) design and implement an expanded monitoring network at Barnes (Argonne 2006a).

  10. Evolution of scientific ballooning and its impact on astrophysics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William Vernon

    2014-05-01

    As we celebrate the centennial year of the discovery of cosmic rays on a manned balloon, it seems appropriate to reflect on the evolution of ballooning and its scientific impact. Balloons have been used for scientific research since they were invented in France more than 200 years ago. Ballooning was revolutionized in 1950 with the introduction of the so-called natural shape balloon with integral load tapes. This basic design has been used with more or less continuously improved materials for scientific balloon flights for more than a half century, including long-duration balloon (LDB) flights around Antarctica for the past two decades. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing the next generation super-pressure balloon that would enable extended duration missions above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere at any latitude. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey report supports super-pressure balloon development and the giant step forward it offers with ultra-long-duration balloon (ULDB) flights at constant altitudes for about 100 days.

  11. Stability of the pumpkin balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, Frank

    A large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, e.g., a sphere, leads to high film stresses. These can be significantly reduced by using a lobed pumpkin-like shape re-enforced with tendons. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin-shape at full inflation, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design and the constant bulge radius (CBR) design. The authors and others have carried out stability studies of CBA and CBR designs and found instabilities under various conditions. While stability seems to be a good indicator of deployment problems for large balloons under normal ascent conditions, one cannot conclude that a stable design will deploy reliably. Nevertheless, stability analysis allows one to quantify certain deployment characteristics. Ongoing research by NASA's Balloon Program Office utilizes a new design approach developed by Rodger Farley, NASA/GSFC, that takes into account film and tendon strain. We refer to such a balloon as a constant stress (CS) pumpkin design. In June 2006, the Flight 555-NT balloon (based on a hybrid CBR/CBA design) developed an S-cleft and did not deploy. In order to understand the S-cleft phenomena and study a number of aspects related to the CS-design, a series of inflation tests were conducted at TCOM, Elizabeth City, NC in 2007. The test vehicles were 27 meter diameter pumpkins distinguished by their respective equatorial bulge angles (BA). For example, BA98 indicates an equatorial bulge angle of 98° . BA90, BA55, and BA00 are similarly defined. BA98 was essentially a one-third scale version of of the Flight 555 balloon (i.e., 12 micron film instead of 38.1 micron, mini-tendons, etc.). BA90 and BA55 were Farley CS-designs. BA00 was derived from the BA55 design so that a flat chord spanned adjacent tendons. In this paper, we will carry out stability studies of BA98, BA90, BA55, and BA00. We discuss the deployment problem of pumpkin balloons in light of 2007 inflation

  12. Evolution of Scientific Balloon Investigations in the Space Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    Scientific ballooning has complemented and enabled spaces science missions and technology investigations throughout the space era. The instruments have grown tremendously in complexity over the past 50 years from simple, passive instruments in the early days to complex observatory class instruments in many current investigations. On the surface, the zero-pressure balloons used today appear very similar to those used 50 years ago, but today's films are actually much higher quality. A sea change in scientific ballooning occurred with inauguration of long-duration flights around Antarctica in the 1990's using highly reliable zero-pressure balloons and flight support systems. Until now, NASA has conducted 32 long-duration flights in the Polar Regions using zero-pressure balloons floating in nearly constant sunlight. The decades-old concept of super pressure balloons is now on the verge of being realized, thanks to high quality films and new balloon designs. The nearly constant volume of super-pressure balloons will allow stable altitude long-duration flights at non-polar latitudes, thereby supporting a much broader range of scientific investigations. Long-duration flights in both polar and non-polar regions will undoubtedly confirm the important contributions that ballooning can make to the strategic science goals established by the National Academy of Sciences. In parallel, conventional balloon flights will continue the indispensable training of young scientists and future principal investigators of space missions. The evolution of balloon investigations from the past to the present and on to the future will be discussed using specific examples.

  13. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  14. Energy from solar balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Grena, Roberto

    2010-04-15

    Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum height. A preliminary study is presented, along with an efficiency estimation and some considerations on possible realistic configurations. (author)

  15. The EUSO-Balloon pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder for JEM-EUSO, the Extreme Universe Space Observatory which is to be hosted on-board the International Space Station. As JEM-EUSO is designed to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR)-induced Extensive Air Showers (EAS) by detecting their ultraviolet light tracks "from above", EUSO-Balloon is a nadir-pointing UV telescope too. With its Fresnel Optics and Photo-Detector Module, the instrument monitors a 50 km2 ground surface area in a wavelength band of 290-430 nm, collecting series of images at a rate of 400,000 frames/sec. The objectives of the balloon demonstrator are threefold: a) perform a full end-to-end test of a JEM-EUSO prototype consisting of all the main subsystems of the space experiment, b) measure the effective terrestrial UV background, with a spatial and temporal resolution relevant for JEM-EUSO. c) detect tracks of ultraviolet light from near space for the first time. The latter is a milestone in the development of UHECR science, paving the way for any future space-based UHECR observatory. On August 25, 2014, EUSO-Balloon was launched from Timmins Stratospheric Balloon Base (Ontario, Canada) by the balloon division of the French Space Agency CNES. From a float altitude of 38 km, the instrument operated during the entire astronomical night, observing UV-light from a variety of ground-covers and from hundreds of simulated EASs, produced by flashers and a laser during a two-hour helicopter under-flight.

  16. Performance of the EUSO-Balloon electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrillon, P.; Bacholle, S.; Bayer, J.; Blaksley, C.; Blin, S.; Cafagna, F.; Dagoret, S.; Fornaro, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Jung, A.; Karczmarczyk, J.; De La Taille, C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Miyamoto, H.; Moretto, C.; Osteria, G.; Park, I.; Perfetto, F.; Prévôt, G.; Prat, P.; Rabanal Reina, J.; Rojas, J.; Santiago, L.; Scotti, V.; Silva, H.; Szabelski, J.

    2016-01-01

    The 24th of August 2014, the EUSO-Balloon instrument went for a night flight for several hours, 40 km above Timmins (Canada) balloon launching site, concretizing the hard work of an important part of the JEM-EUSO collaboration started 3 years before. This instrument consists of a telescope made of two lenses and a complex electronic chain divided in two main sub-systems: the PDM (Photo Detector Module) and the DP (Data Processor). Each of them is made of several innovative elements developed and tested in a short time. This paper presents their performances before and during the flight.

  17. The French Balloon Program 2013 - 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, Vincent; Vargas, André; Raizonville, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    With over 50 years' experience in the field, the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) goes on supporting - as designer and operator - a significant scientific ballooning program. In particular so because balloons still give a unique and valuable access to near space science. From 2008 to 2013, an important renovation effort was achieved, beginning by Zero Pressure Balloons (ZPB) systems, to comply with more stringent Safety constraints and to the growing reliability and performance requirements from scientific missions. The paper will give an overview of the CNES new capabilities and services for operational balloon activities, and their availability status. The scientific launch campaigns of the past two years will be presented. A focus will be made on the results of the Stratoscience 2015 flight campaign from Timmins, Ontario, using the NOSYCA command and control system for ZPB, qualified in flight in 2013. In particular, the PILOT telescope successfully flew during the 2015 campaign, key figures about the flight and mission will be given. An outlook of the new stratospheric long duration flight systems currently in process of developement at CNES will be given, as well as the presentation of the Stratéole 2 project, dedicated to the survey of the low stratosphere and upper troposphere in equatorial regions, with a fleet of small suprer pressure balloons (SPB). As far as tropospheric balloons are concerned, the Aeroclipper initiative will be presented, aiming at qualifying a quasi-tethered balloon, pushed by the winds close to the sea surface, for the study of cyclones. The scientific launch campaigns and the main payloads in the study for the near future will also be presented.

  18. A High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for 0.3-10 MeV Gamma Ray Astrophysics: Construction and Initial Balloon Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1993-01-01

    The results achieved with a 3.5 liter liquid xenon time projection chamber (LXe-TPC) prototype during the first year include: the efficiency of detecting the primary scintillation light for event triggering has been measured to be higher than 85%; the charge response has been measured to be stable to within 0.1% for a period of time of about 30 hours; the electron lifetime has been measured to be in excess of 1.3 ms; the energy resolution has been measured to be consistent with previous results obtained with small volume chambers; X-Y gamma ray imaging has been demonstrated with a nondestructive orthogonal wires readout; Monte Carlo simulation results on detection efficiency, expected background count rate at balloon altitude, background reduction algorithms, telescope response to point-like and diffuse sources, and polarization sensitivity calculations; and work on a 10 liter LXe-TPC prototype and gas purification/recovery system.

  19. Balloon Ascent: 3-D Simulation Tool for the Ascent and Float of High-Altitude Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.

    2005-01-01

    The BalloonAscent balloon flight simulation code represents a from-scratch development using Visual Basic 5 as the software platform. The simulation code is a transient analysis of balloon flight, predicting the skin and gas temperatures along with the 3-D position and velocity in a time and spatially varying environment. There are manual and automated controls for gas valving and the dropping of ballast. Also, there are many handy calculators, such as appropriate free lift, and steady-state thermal solutions with temperature gradients. The strength of this simulation model over others in the past is that the infrared environment is deterministic rather than guessed at. The ground temperature is specified along with the emissivity, which creates a ground level IR environment that is then partially absorbed as it travels upward through the atmosphere to the altitude of the balloon.

  20. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip J.; Smith, Ira S.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 50 to 60 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions support investigations sponsored by NASA's Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program provides the science community with payload development support, environmental testing, launch vehicles, and launch operations from fixed and mobile launch ranges. Sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface. New technology efforts include GPS payload event triggering, tailored trajectories, new vehicle configuration development to expand current capabilities, and the feasibility assessment of an ultra high altitude sounding rocket vehicle. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. The Long Duration Balloon (LDB) is capable of providing flight durations in excess of two weeks and has had many successful flights since its development. The NASA Balloon Program is currently engaged in the development of the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which will be capable of providing flight times up to 100-days. Additional development efforts are focusing on ultra high altitude balloons, station keeping techniques and planetary balloon technologies.

  1. 14 CFR 61.115 - Balloon rating: Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... takes a practical test in a balloon with an airborne heater: (1) The pilot certificate will contain a... takes a practical test in a gas balloon: (1) The pilot certificate will contain a limitation restricting...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.115...

  2. Recent developments in the scientific ballooning in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.; Sreenivasan, S.; Subbarao, J.; Kumar, P.

    RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING IN INDIA R. K. Manchanda1, S. Sreenivasan2, J. V. Subbarao2, P. R. Kumar2 1. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Colaba, Mumbai-400 005, India. 2. TIFR Balloon Facility, PO Box 5, ECIL Post Office, Hyderabad-500 762, India ravi@tifr.res.in/FAX: +91-22-2152110 National Balloon facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India is the only one of its kind in the world, which combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. In the past few years we executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to 780,000 m3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years and the results of the test flight conducted to qualify new sub systems will be presented.

  3. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  4. Sinuplasty (Balloon Catheter Dilation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... development of the balloon dilating catheter and its adaptation to sinus surgery. In the 1980s, the field ... used in endoscopic sinus surgery. It is the adaptation or application of minimally-invasive balloon technology to ...

  5. Relationship of climate, geography, and geology to the incidence of Rift Valley fever in Kenya during the 2006-2007 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hightower, Allen; Kinkade, Carl; Nguku, Patrick M; Anyangu, Amwayi; Mutonga, David; Omolo, Jared; Njenga, M Kariuki; Feikin, Daniel R; Schnabel, David; Ombok, Maurice; Breiman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    We estimated Rift Valley fever (RVF) incidence as a function of geological, geographical, and climatological factors during the 2006-2007 RVF epidemic in Kenya. Location information was obtained for 214 of 340 (63%) confirmed and probable RVF cases that occurred during an outbreak from November 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007. Locations with subtypes of solonetz, calcisols, solonchaks, and planosols soil types were highly associated with RVF occurrence during the outbreak period. Increased rainfall and higher greenness measures before the outbreak were associated with increased risk. RVF was more likely to occur on plains, in densely bushed areas, at lower elevations, and in the Somalia acacia ecological zone. Cases occurred in three spatial temporal clusters that differed by the date of associated rainfall, soil type, and land usage. PMID:22302875

  6. Relationship of climate, geography, and geology to the incidence of Rift Valley fever in Kenya during the 2006-2007 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hightower, Allen; Kinkade, Carl; Nguku, Patrick M; Anyangu, Amwayi; Mutonga, David; Omolo, Jared; Njenga, M Kariuki; Feikin, Daniel R; Schnabel, David; Ombok, Maurice; Breiman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    We estimated Rift Valley fever (RVF) incidence as a function of geological, geographical, and climatological factors during the 2006-2007 RVF epidemic in Kenya. Location information was obtained for 214 of 340 (63%) confirmed and probable RVF cases that occurred during an outbreak from November 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007. Locations with subtypes of solonetz, calcisols, solonchaks, and planosols soil types were highly associated with RVF occurrence during the outbreak period. Increased rainfall and higher greenness measures before the outbreak were associated with increased risk. RVF was more likely to occur on plains, in densely bushed areas, at lower elevations, and in the Somalia acacia ecological zone. Cases occurred in three spatial temporal clusters that differed by the date of associated rainfall, soil type, and land usage.

  7. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Kemi, Stig; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from ESC since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. In 2013 two such payloads were flown, the first called SUNRISE was a German/US solar telescope, and the other called PoGOLite with a Swedish gamma-ray telescope. In 14 days PoGOLite, which had permission to fly over Russia, made an almost complete circumpolar flight. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. University students from all over Europe are involved in flights from Esrange under a Swedish/German programme called BEXUS. Two stratospheric balloons are flown with student

  8. Scientific ballooning payload termination loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, E.

    1993-02-01

    NASA's high altitude balloon borne scientific payloads are typically suspended from a deployed flat circular parachute. At flight termination, the recovery train is pyrotechnically separated at the parachute apex and balloon nadir interface. The release of elastic energy stored in the parachute at zero initial virtical velocity in the rarefied atmosphere produces high canopy opening forces that subject the gondola to potentially damaging shock loads. Data from terminations occuring at altitudes to 40 km with payloads up to 2500 kg on parachutes up to 40 m in diameter are presented. Measured loads are markedly larger than encountered via packed parachute deployment for similar canopy loadings. Canopy inflation is significantly surpressed in the early stages and then accelerated during final blossoming. Data interpretation and behavioral phenomena are discussed along with proposed shock attenuation techniques.

  9. Multidrug-resistant North American pulsotype 2 Clostridium difficile was the predominant toxigenic hospital-acquired strain in the province of Manitoba, Canada, in 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, James A; Zhanel, George G; Hammond, Greg W; Rubinstein, Ethan; Wylie, John; Du, Tim; Mulvey, Michael R; Alfa, Michelle J

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether the antimicrobial susceptibility profile or genotype of hospital-acquired isolates of Clostridium difficile differed from isolates causing community-acquired disease. Five hundred diarrhoeal stool samples (one >2 ml sample per patient) from patients across Manitoba, Canada, in 2006-2007 that were reported as C. difficile toxin positive were cultured, resulting in 432 isolates of toxin-positive C. difficile for analysis. Of these 432 isolates, acquisition status could be determined for 235 (54.4%); 182 (77.4%) isolates were hospital acquired and 53 (22.6%) were community acquired. North American pulsotype (NAP) designations based on SmaI PFGE could be defined for 52.3% of the 432 isolates, with NAP2 (n=122) being the most common. Ninety-one per cent (71/78) of NAP2 isolates were recovered from patients with hospital-acquired C. difficile disease. Other NAP types and isolates with non-NAP-type PFGE patterns were less frequently associated with hospital-acquired disease. Community-acquired disease (35.3% of isolates) was associated with a wide variety of NAP types. NAP2 isolates were homogeneous (85.5% had SmaI PFGE pattern 0003) and demonstrated low susceptibility to moxifloxacin (6.6%) and clindamycin (1.6%) compared with non-NAP2 isolates (64.1-93.2% moxifloxacin susceptible; 14.1-28.2% clindamycin susceptible). All isolates of C. difficile in Manitoba were susceptible to metronidazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and meropenem. NAP2 isolates of toxigenic C. difficile were approximately three times more common than NAP1 isolates (28.2 vs 9.1%) in Manitoba in 2006-2007, and these isolates demonstrated high levels of clonality and multidrug resistance, and were associated with hospital acquisition. PMID:22301615

  10. Multiple virus lineages sharing recent common ancestry were associated with a Large Rift Valley fever outbreak among livestock in Kenya during 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Bird, Brian H; Githinji, Jane W K; Macharia, Joseph M; Kasiiti, Jacqueline L; Muriithi, Rees M; Gacheru, Stephen G; Musaa, Joseph O; Towner, Jonathan S; Reeder, Serena A; Oliver, Jennifer B; Stevens, Thomas L; Erickson, Bobbie R; Morgan, Laura T; Khristova, Marina L; Hartman, Amy L; Comer, James A; Rollin, Pierre E; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T

    2008-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus historically has caused widespread and extensive outbreaks of severe human and livestock disease throughout Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Following unusually heavy rainfall during the late autumn of 2006, reports of human and animal illness consistent with RVF virus infection emerged across semiarid regions of the Garissa District of northeastern Kenya and southern Somalia. Following initial RVF virus laboratory confirmation, a high-throughput RVF diagnostic facility was established at the Kenyan Central Veterinary Laboratories in Kabete, Kenya, to support the real-time identification of infected livestock and to facilitate outbreak response and control activities. A total of 3,250 specimens from a variety of animal species, including domesticated livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, and camels) and wildlife collected from a total of 55 of 71 Kenyan administrative districts, were tested by molecular and serologic assays. Evidence of RVF infection was found in 9.2% of animals tested and across 23 districts of Kenya, reflecting the large number of affected livestock and the geographic extent of the outbreak. The complete S, M, and/or L genome segment sequence was obtained from a total of 31 RVF virus specimens spanning the entire known outbreak period (December-May) and geographic areas affected by RVF virus activity. Extensive genomic analyses demonstrated the concurrent circulation of multiple virus lineages, gene segment reassortment, and the common ancestry of the 2006/2007 outbreak viruses with those from the 1997-1998 east African RVF outbreak. Evidence of recent increases in genomic diversity and effective population size 2 to 4 years prior to the 2006-2007 outbreak also was found, indicating ongoing RVF virus activity and evolution during the interepizootic/epidemic period. These findings have implications for further studies of basic RVF virus ecology and the design of future surveillance/diagnostic activities, and

  11. Evolution of Information Management at the GSFC Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC): 2006-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce; Alcott, Gary; Berrick, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth science missions have driven their associated data and data management systems from providing simple point-to-point archiving and retrieval to performing user-responsive distributed multisensor information extraction. To fully maximize the use of remote-sensor-generated Earth science data, NASA recognized the need for data systems that provide data access and manipulation capabilities responsive to research brought forth by advancing scientific analysis and the need to maximize the use and usability of the data. The decision by NASA to purposely evolve the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) and other information management facilities was timely and appropriate. The GES DISC evolution was focused on replacing the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) by reusing the In-house developed disk-based Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Product Archive (S4PA) data management system and migrating data to the disk archives. Transition was completed in December 2007

  12. Strategic Plans for NASA Research Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. V.

    Strategic planning is underway to maximize the return from the increased capabilities anticipated in scientific research ballooning. Circumpolar flights around Antarctica were initiated in the early 1990's to help offset the impact of losing Shuttle/Spacelab missions for the observational sciences following the Challenger accident. The Antarctic Long-Duration Balloon (LDB) program, conducted in partnership with the U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, has been even more successful than originally envisioned. In essence, there have been two LDB missions per year, with an average duration of about 14 days, using conventional zero-pressure balloons. Two LDB flights of similar duration in the Northern Hemisphere have shown the value of developing a routine capability that would complement the Antarctic flights. The development of super-pressure balloons should allow LDB flights at any latitude, and it is reasonable to expect that mission durations can be extended to 60 - 100 days. Assuming that the technical issues will be resolved and international agreements can be secured, scientists will be able to reap the benefits of frequent access to near-space for cutting-edge research and technology development, thereby reducing the impact of restrictions on the use of the International Space Station and the Shuttle retirement in the next decade.

  13. An overview of instrumentation capabilities for Scientific ballooning in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarajan, Anand; Reddy Vizapur, Anmi; Rao Tanneeru, Venkateswara; Bangaru, Kapardhi; Trivedi, Dharmesh; Rodi, Ashish; Ojha, Devendra; Koli, Santosh

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR-BF) in India, launches scientific balloons for research in the field of astronomy, astrobiology and atmospheric sciences. TIFR-BF not only has the capability to design, fabricate and launch zero-pressure balloons, but also provide operational and engineering support for launching them. The Control Instrumentation Group (CIG) at the balloon facility handles all electronics related to telemetry, telecommand, tracking, real-time data display, data storage, air-safety and payload recovery. In the recent past, it has designed and developed customized electronics and payload orientation mechanism to meet specific experimental objectives. Small, inexpensive and rugged industrial grade radio data modems were successfully deployed in balloon flights for low bit rate data and image telemetry. This paper will provide an overview and in-flight performance of some of the recent developments in instrumentation and electronics systems. Our plans for future upgradations will also be discussed.

  14. Development of Ultra-Thin Polyethylene Balloons for High Altitude Research upto Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Suneel; Nagendra, N.; Ojha, D. K.; Peter, G. Stalin; Vasudevan, R.; Anand, D.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Reddy, V. Anmi; Rao, T. V.; Sreenivasan, S.

    Ever since its inception four decades back, Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Hyderabad has been functioning with the needs of its user scientists at its focus. During the early nineties, when the X-ray astronomy group at TIFR expressed the need for balloons capable of carrying the X-ray telescopes to altitudes up to 42 km, the balloon group initiated research and development work on indigenous balloon grade films in various thickness not only for the main experiment but also in parallel, took up the development of thin films in thickness range 5 to 6 μm for fabrication of sounding balloons required for probing the stratosphere up to 42 km as the regular 2000-gram rubber balloon ascents could not reach altitudes higher than 38 km. By the year 1999, total indigenization of sounding balloon manufacture was accomplished. The work on balloon grade ultra-thin polyethylene film in thickness range 2.8 to 3.8 μm for fabrication of balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere to meet the needs of user scientists working in the area of atmospheric dynamics commenced in 2011. Pursuant to the successful trials with 61,000-m3 balloon made of 3.8-μm Antrix film reaching stratopause (48 km) for the first time in the history of balloon facility in the year 2012, fine tuning of launch parameters like percentage free lift was carried out to take the same volume balloons to higher mesospheric altitudes. Three successful flights with a total suspended load of 10 kg using 61,000-m3 balloons were carried out in the month of January 2014 and all the three balloons crossed into the mesosphere reaching altitudes of over 51 km. All the balloons flown so far are closed system with no escape ducts. Balloon fabrication, development of launch hardware, flight control instruments and launch technique for these mesospheric balloon flights are discussed in this paper.

  15. Meeting the Challenge to Balloon Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    The promise of superpressure ballooning is helping the balloon program evolve toward a cost-effective means for frequent access to near-space. Superpressure balloons fabricated from strong, light-weight composite materials have the potential for increasing flight times of ton-class payloads to 100 days or more at altitudes above 5 mbars at essentially any geographic latitude. Although this new capability is still in an embryonic stage, its potential has already had an impact. Specifically, a new NASA Office of Space Science policy for University-class Explorer missions allows balloon investigations to compete on an equal basis with other low-cost missions requiring expendable launch vehicles. The new challenge for the science community is to design winning payloads that can be built within the cost cap of $13 M, including launch costs, and be developed within two to three years from selection to launch. Defining the international trajectories and getting the overflight agreements for balloon flights that make several circumnavigations of Earth will also be a challenge

  16. Sensitivity of mountain permafrost to extreme climatic events; a case study from the 2006-2007 air temperature anomaly in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksen, K.; Ødegård, R. S.; Eiken, T.; Sollid, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    An unusual synoptic situation with long periods of warm and humid southerlies produced record breaking temperatures in southern Norway during the period from July 2006 to June 2007, particularly late summer, autumn and early winter 2006-2007. For the one-year period, the temperature anomaly was 2.5-3.0 °C above the 1961-1990 average, with highest anomalies in the eastern and northern parts of southern Norway. The homogenised mean air temperature for the station Kjøremsgrende (62°06'N, 9°03'E, 626 m a.s.l.) was 2.9 °C above the 1961-1990 average. This is the warmest since records began in 1867. The most striking month was December 2006, when mean air temperature was 7.5 °C above the 1961-1990 average. At the official mountain station Fokstugu (62°11'N, 9°29'E, 972 m a.s.l.), on Dovrefjell, there were no days with temperatures below freezing in August and September. The late summer heat had a particularly strong impact on snow, ice and frozen ground in the mountains of southern Norway. Official mass balance investigations performed on three glaciers showed that they had their most negative net balances ever measured. Analysis of a leather shoe that melted out from a perennial snowfield at 2000 meters altitude was dated back 3,400 years old. Several complete arrows and a spade made from wood were also found in front of perennial snowfields. This study seeks to analyse the impact of the 2006-2007 air temperature anomaly on the ground thermal regime, including permafrost and seasonal frost, in the high mountains of Jotunheimen and Dovrefjell in southern Norway. In Jotunheimen, ground temperature data are monitored in a 129 m deep permafrost borehole, located at Juvvasshøe (61°40'N, 8°22'E, 1894 m a.s.l.), established within the PACE-project (Permafrost and Climate in Europe). On Dovrefjell ground temperatures are measured in a transect from deep seasonal frost at 1039 m a.s.l. to discontinuous mountain permafrost at 1505 m a.s.l. in 11 boreholes, 9 m deep

  17. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-04-29

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  18. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  19. Advances in scientific balloon thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohaboj, T.; Cathey, H.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office has long acknowledged that the accurate modeling of balloon performance and flight prediction is dependant on how well the balloon is thermally modeled. This ongoing effort is focused on developing accurate balloon thermal models that can be used to quickly predict balloon temperatures and balloon performance. The ability to model parametric changes is also a driver for this effort. This paper will present the most recent advances made in this area. This research effort continues to utilize the ``Thermal Desktop'' addition to AUTO CAD for the modeling. Recent advances have been made by using this analytical tool. A number of analyses have been completed to test the applicability of this tool to the problem with very positive results. Progressively detailed models have been developed to explore the capabilities of the tool as well as to provide guidance in model formulation. A number of parametric studies have been completed. These studies have varied the shape of the structure, material properties, environmental inputs, and model geometry. These studies have concentrated on spherical ``proxy models'' for the initial development stages and then to transition to the natural shaped zero pressure and super pressure balloons. An assessment of required model resolution has also been determined. Model solutions have been cross checked with known solutions via hand calculations. The comparison of these cases will also be presented. One goal is to develop analysis guidelines and an approach for modeling balloons for both simple first order estimates and detailed full models. This paper presents the step by step advances made as part of this effort, capabilities, limitations, and the lessons learned. Also presented are the plans for further thermal modeling work.

  20. Small Research Balloons in a Physics Course for Education Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Verner, E.; Long, T.; Montanaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    At The Catholic Univ. of America, we teach an experimental physics course entitled Physics 240: The Sun-Earth Connection, which is designed for the undergraduate education major. The emphasis is on providing hands-on experience and giving the students an exciting experience in physics. As part of this course, in the Spring 2013 semester, we instituted a project to plan, build, launch, and retrieve a small (~1.3 kg) research balloon payload. The payload flown was a small GPS unit that sent its position to an Internet site, a small wide-angle high-resolution video camera, and an analog refrigerator thermometer placed in the field of view of the camera. All data were stored on the camera sim-card. Students faced the problems of flying a small research balloon in the congested, densely populated Northeast Corridor of the US. They used computer simulators available on the Web to predict the balloon path and flight duration given velocities for the Jet Stream and ground winds, as well as payload mass and amount of helium in the balloon. The first flight was extremely successful. The balloon was launched 140 km NW of Washington DC near Hagerstown, MD and touched down 10 miles (16 km) NW of York, PA, within 1.6 km of what was predicted. The balloon reached 73,000 ft (22,000 m) and the thermometer indicated temperatures as low as -70 degrees Fahrenheit (-57 C) during the flight. Further balloon flights are planned in conjunction with this course. Additional exercises and experiments will be developed centered around these flights. Besides learning that science can be exciting, students also learn that science is not always easily predictable, and that these balloon flights give an understanding of many of problems that go into real scientific space missions. This project is supported in part by an educational supplement to NASA grant NNX10AC56G

  1. Pumpkins and onions and balloon design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winker, J. A.

    The reach for a capability to make long flights (months) with heavy payloads (tonnes) has long been pursued. The closest we have come is with polar flights devoid of a significant diurnal cycle. Superpressure technology, with its ability to survive diurnal cycles, is an obvious choice, but materials limitations have been an obstacle to realizing these ambitious goals. Now comes an assortment of new synthetic materials, coupled with a special variety of superpressure balloon which, in combination, is poised to yield a solution for our enhanced duration/payload quest. In this paper we are looking not at materials, but only at a balloon concept. This concept is a "natural shape" oblate spheroid balloon whose shape is chosen to exploit properties of component materials, particularly newly available ones. The current variation of this concept is called a "pumpkin" balloon. The most visible work on this shape is that done by France's CNES, Japan's ISAS, and in the USA by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. But the basic design idea is not new; it extends back at least a half century. This paper traces the origins of the shape, its evolution through various iterations, and it speculates on some of the recent thinking regarding construction details.

  2. Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

  3. High altitude balloon experiments at IIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Akshata; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    Recent advances in balloon experiments as well as in electronics have made it possible to fly scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but we will also try scientific exploration of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts. We present the results of the initial experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote, and describe our plans for the future.

  4. Review and prospect of Chinese Scientific Balloon activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidong, G.; Luhua, J.; Bin, L.

    1993-02-01

    Chinese scientific ballooning activities commenced at the end of the 1970's. During the past 13 years, a well integrated balloon technology capability has been developed. This includes balloon fabric research and production, balloon manufacture, flight electronics development and a launching facility. Recently, we have started to develop balloons having a larger volume and capable of lifting heavier payloads. We have also developed the ability to support long duration balloon flights. We are currently preparing a LDBF program in collaboration with the USSR. In this programme the balloons will be launched from the Northeast region of China and recovered in the Southern part of the Soviet Union. These areas of development will continue to be important features of our program during the next few years. This paper presents a short review of Chinese Scientific Balloon developments and indicates the progress that we have made in recent years. We also present our development plans for the future. Some of the Chinese scientific experiments and important instruments are also described in this paper.

  5. Controlled weather balloon ascents and descents for atmospheric research and climate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Romanens, Gonzague; Hurst, Dale F.; Hall, Emrys G.; Jordan, Allen F.

    2016-03-01

    In situ upper-air measurements are often made with instruments attached to weather balloons launched at the surface and lifted into the stratosphere. Present-day balloon-borne sensors allow near-continuous measurements from the Earth's surface to about 35 km (3-5 hPa), where the balloons burst and their instrument payloads descend with parachutes. It has been demonstrated that ascending weather balloons can perturb the air measured by very sensitive humidity and temperature sensors trailing behind them, particularly in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The use of controlled balloon descent for such measurements has therefore been investigated and is described here. We distinguish between the single balloon technique that uses a simple automatic valve system to release helium from the balloon at a preset ambient pressure, and the double balloon technique that uses a carrier balloon to lift the payload and a parachute balloon to control the descent of instruments after the carrier balloon is released at preset altitude. The automatic valve technique has been used for several decades for water vapor soundings with frost point hygrometers, whereas the double balloon technique has recently been re-established and deployed to measure radiation and temperature profiles through the atmosphere. Double balloon soundings also strongly reduce pendulum motion of the payload, stabilizing radiation instruments during ascent. We present the flight characteristics of these two ballooning techniques and compare the quality of temperature and humidity measurements made during ascent and descent.

  6. Controlled weather balloon ascents and descents for atmospheric research and climate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, A.; Philipona, R.; Romanens, G.; Hurst, D. F.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    In situ upper-air measurements are often made with instruments attached to weather balloons launched at the surface and lifted into the stratosphere. Present day balloon-borne sensors allow near-continuous measurements from the Earth's surface to about 35 km (3-5 hPa), where the balloons burst and their instrument payloads descend with parachutes. It has been demonstrated that ascending weather balloons can perturb the air measured by very sensitive humidity and temperature sensors trailing behind them, particularly in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The use of controlled balloon descent for such measurements has therefore been investigated and is described here. We distinguish between the one balloon technique that uses a simple automatic valve system to release helium from the balloon at a pre-set ambient pressure, and the double balloon technique that uses a carrier balloon to lift the payload and a parachute balloon to control the descent of instruments after the carrier balloon is released at pre-set altitude. The automatic valve technique has been used for several decades for water vapor soundings with frost point hygrometers, whereas the double balloon technique has recently been re-established and deployed to measure radiation and temperature profiles through the atmosphere. Double balloon soundings also strongly reduce pendulum motion of the payload, stabilizing radiation instruments during ascent. We present the flight characteristics of these two ballooning techniques and compare the quality of temperature and humidity measurements made during ascent and descent.

  7. National Report France: The French Balloon Programme 2013-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, V.; Vassaux, D.; Vargas, A.; Cocquerez, P.; Louvel, S.; Douchin, F.; Saccocio, M.; Mirc, F.

    2015-09-01

    With over 50 years' experience in the field, the French Centre National dEtudes Spatiales (CNES) goes on supporting a significant scientific ballooning program. In particular so because balloons still give a unique access to near space science. Over the past 6 years, most of the systems, beginning by the Zero Pressure Balloons, had to be renewed to comply with more stringent Safety constraints and to growing performance and reliability requirements from the scientific missions. This paper will give an overview of the CNES new capabilities and services for operational balloon activities, and their availability status. The scientific launch campaigns of the past two years will be presented. A focus will be made on the results of the Stratoscience 2014 flight campaign from Timmins, Ontario, using the NOSYCA command and control system for zero pressure balloons, qualified in 2013. The ChArMEx campaign (Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean Experiment) performed in 2013 from the Baleares islands and from the south of France, with Boundary Layer Pressurized Balloons will also be presented as well as the LOAC-VOLTAIRE experiment, carried out from Aire-sur-l'Adour (France), through the flights of 20 instrumented light expandable balloons. An outlook of the new stratospheric long duration flight systems currently studied at CNES will be given. The scientific launch campaigns and the main payloads in the study for the near future will also be presented.

  8. Characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from animal and human clinical samples in Hungary in 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Akos; Juhász-Kaszanyitzky, Éva; Mag, Tünde; Hajbel-Vékony, Gabriella; Pászti, Judit; Damjanova, Ivelina

    2013-06-01

    The proportion of Escherichia coli non-susceptible to 3(rd) generation cephalosprins from invasive clinical samples has risen in Hungary from 5.1 per cent in 2006 to 15.5 per cent in 2011. The prevalence of ESBL-production in E. coli of animal origin remains unknown. During the first stage of a probe forty-five human and 18 animal ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated in 2006-2007 were investigated. The human strains were representatively selected from a collection of 113 ESBL-producing isolates sent to the national reference center from local laboratories across the country. A variety of ESBLs were detected (SHV-2, -5, -12, CTX-M-32) with CTX-M-15 being the most common in human and CTX-M-1 the dominant in animal isolates. Genetic characterization revealed that thirty-six human isolates (80 per cent) belonged to either the phylogenetic group (PG) B2 or D. Conversely, 15 animal isolates (83 per cent) proved to be members of the A and B1 commensal PGs. Furthermore 46 per cent of human isolates (21/45) from 12 centres belonged to the international O25-ST131/B2 clone while nine isolates from seven centers showed the O15 serotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) detected 22 and 11 diverse pulsotypes among 45 human and 18 animal isolates, respectively. The human and animal strains did not share any pulsotypes.

  9. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  10. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  11. GHOST balloons around Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    The GHOST balloon position as a function of time data shows that the atmospheric circulation around the Antarctic Continent at the 100 mb and 200 mb levels is complex. The GHOST balloons supposedly follow the horizontal trajectory of the air at the balloon level. The position of GHOST balloon 98Q for a three month period in 1968 is shown. The balloon moved to within 2 deg of the South Pole on 1 October 1968 and then by 9 December 1968 was 35 deg from the South Pole and close to its position on 1 September 1968. The balloon generally moved from west to east but on two occasions moved in the opposite direction for a few days. The latitude of GHOST balloons 98Q and 149Z which was at 200 mb is given. Both balloons tended to get closer to the South Pole in September and October. Other GHOST balloons at the same pressure and time period may not indicate similar behavior.

  12. Kestrel balloon launch system

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    Kestrel is a high-altitude, Helium-gas-filled-balloon system used to launch scientific payloads in winds up to 20 knots, from small platforms or ships, anywhere over land or water, with a minimal crew and be able to hold in standby conditions. Its major components consist of two balloons (a tow balloon and a main balloon), the main deployment system, helium measurement system, a parachute recovery unit, and the scientific payload package. The main scope of the launch system was to eliminate the problems of being dependent of launching on long airfield runways, low wind conditions, and long launch preparation time. These objectives were clearly met with Kestrel 3.

  13. Stratospheric Balloon Platforms for Near Space Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    For over five decades, high altitude aerospace balloon platforms have provided a unique vantage point for space and geophysical research by exposing scientific instrument packages and experiments to space-like conditions above 99% of Earth's atmosphere. Reaching altitudes in excess of 30 km for durations ranging from hours to weeks, high altitude balloons offer longer flight durations than both traditional sounding rockets and emerging suborbital reusable launch vehicles. For instruments and experiments requiring access to high altitudes, engineered balloon systems provide a timely, responsive, flexible, and cost-effective vehicle for reaching near space conditions. Moreover, high altitude balloon platforms serve as an early means of testing and validating hardware bound for suborbital or orbital space without imposing space vehicle qualifications and certification requirements on hardware in development. From float altitudes above 30 km visible obscuration of the sky is greatly reduced and telescopes and other sensors function in an orbit-like environment, but in 1g. Down-facing sensors can take long-exposure atmospheric measurements and images of Earth's surface from oblique and nadir perspectives. Payload support subsystems such as telemetry equipment and command, control, and communication (C3) interfaces can also be tested and operationally verified in this space-analog environment. For scientific payloads requiring over-flight of specific areas of interests, such as an active volcano or forest region, advanced mission planning software allows flight trajectories to be accurately modeled. Using both line-of-sight and satellite-based communication systems, payloads can be tracked and controlled throughout the entire mission duration. Under NASA's Flight Opportunities Program, NSC can provide a range of high altitude flight options to support space and geophysical research: High Altitude Shuttle System (HASS) - A balloon-borne semi-autonomous glider carries

  14. Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of polymeric film damage, constituting the stratospheric super pressurized balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Makram; Chaabane, Makram; Dalverny, Olivier; Deramecourt, Arnaud; Mistou, Sébastien

    The super-pressure balloons developed by CNES are a great challenge in scientific ballooning. Whatever the balloon type considered (spherical, pumpkin...), it is necessary to have good knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the envelope regarding to the flight level and the lifespan of the balloon. It appears during the working stages of the super pressure balloons that these last can exploded prematurely in the course of the first hours of flight. For this reason CNES and LGP are carrying out research programs about experimentations and modelling in order to predict a good stability of the balloons flight and guarantee a life time in adequacy with the technical requirement. This study deals with multilayered polymeric film damage which induce balloons failure. These experimental and numerical study aims, are a better understanding and predicting of the damage mechanisms bringing the premature explosion of balloons. The following damages phenomena have different origins. The firsts are simple and triple wrinkles owed during the process and the stocking stages of the balloons. The second damage phenomenon is associated to the creep of the polymeric film during the flight of the balloon. The first experimental results we present in this paper, concern the mechanical characterization of three different damage phenomena. The severe damage induced by the wrinkles of the film involves a significant loss of mechanical properties. In a second part the theoretical study, concerns the choice and the development of a non linear viscoelastic coupled damage behavior model in a finite element code.

  15. Recruiting Trends, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    College students who plan on entering the labor market can expect to see more job opportunities in the spring of 2007, according to information supplied by 864 companies and organizations to this year's Recruiting Trends Report. After two years of double digit growth, the expansion will slow to a modest 4% to 6%. Two opposing factors appear to be…

  16. Principals' Salaries, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2007-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? And how have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? This article…

  17. NEA Handbook 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association Research Department, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The National Education Association (NEA) Handbook is published annually for use by Association officers, national and state staff, members, and other interested leaders in the field of education. The Association's key governance documents--including the Constitution, Bylaws, and Rules, and the Legislative Program, resolutions, policy statements,…

  18. Development of a super-pressure balloon with a diamond-shaped net --- result of a ground inflation test of a 2,000 cubic-meter balloon ---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Nakashino, Kyoichi; Akita, Daisuke; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Shimadu, Shigeyuki; Goto, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Takuma

    2016-07-01

    A light super-pressure balloon has been developed using a method to cover a balloon with a diamond-shaped net of high-tensile fibers. The goal is to fly a payload of 900 kg to the altitude of 37 km with a 300,000 m^{3} balloon. Beginning from a demonstration test of the net-balloon with a 10 m^{3} balloon in 2010, we have been polished the net-balloon through ground inflation tests and flight tests, including a flight test of a 3,000 m ^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 15,000 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon in 2012, and a flight test of a 10 m^{3} balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 2 kg rubber balloon in 2013, as reported in the last COSPAR. In 2014, we developed a 5,000 m^{3} balloon and performed a ground inflation test to find that the balloon burst from a lip panel for termination with a differential pressure of 425 Pa. It was due to a stress concentration at the edge of a thick tape attached along the termination mechanism. In 2015, we modified the balloon by adding tapes on the lip panel to avoid the stress concentration, and also shorten the net length to leave some margin of the film and performed a ground inflation test again to find the balloon showed asymmetrical deployment and burst from the edge of the net with a differential pressure of 348 Pa. We consider it is due to the margin of the film along the circumferential direction, and proposed a gore shape which circumference length is kept as determined by the pumpkin shape of the balloon but setting meridian length longer than that. We developed a 10 m^{3} balloon with the gore design to find that the balloon deployed symmetrically and showed the burst pressure of 10,000 Pa. In 2016, we are going to develop a 2,000 m^{3} balloon with the gore design and perform its ground inflation test. In this paper, we are going to report its result with the sequence of the development.

  19. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  20. To sail the skies of Mars - Scientific ballooning on the red planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaidos, Eric J.; Burke, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Balloons represent a novel approach to exploring the surface of Mars. One promising aerostat system incorporates a solar-powered balloon as a means of generating diurnally varying lift and so can 'hop' across the surface, obtaining detailed information at a large number of sites. Two important areas of research and testing are underway on solar balloon technology and balloon payload design. The solar balloon concept has been demonstrated on earth, but more work is needed on a 'flyable' version for Mars. Particular attention must be paid to radiation heat transfer and aerodynamic effects. A special 'snake' payload concept has been demonstrated that allows for balloon system traverses of the surface and provides a usable instrument platform. A balloon system of this type could obtain unique surface imaging and physical and chemical data. The flight of the balloon also provides in situ atmospheric boundary-layer and circulation measurements.

  1. Clefting in pumpkin balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, F.; Schur, W.

    NASA's effort to develop a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, focuses on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. It has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired stable state instead. Hoop stress considerations in the pumpkin design leads to choosing the lowest possible bulge radius, while robust deployment is favored by a large bulge radius. Some qualitative understanding of design aspects on undesired equilibria in pumpkin balloons has been obtained via small-scale balloon testing. Poorly deploying balloons have clefts, but most gores away from the cleft deploy uniformly. In this paper, we present models for pumpkin balloons with clefts. Long term success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and means for quantitative assessment of measures that prevent their occurrence. This paper attempts to determine numerical thresholds of design parameters that distinguish between properly deploying designs and improperly deploying designs by analytically investigating designs in the vicinity of criticality. Design elements which may trigger the onset undesired equilibria and remedial measures that ensure deployment are discussed.

  2. The Great Balloon Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of balloon launches and the dumping of plastic debris into oceans. Cites several examples of plastic materials being discovered inside the bodies of sick and/or dead marine animals. Offers alternative activities to releasing balloons into the atmosphere. (RT)

  3. Thermal performance modeling of NASA s scientific balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, H.; Cathey, H.

    The flight performance of a scientific balloon is highly dependant on the interaction between the balloon and its environment. The balloon is a thermal vehicle. Modeling a scientific balloon's thermal performance has proven to be a difficult analytical task. Most previous thermal models have attempted these analyses by using either a bulk thermal model approach, or by simplified representations of the balloon. These approaches to date have provided reasonable, but not very accurate results. Improvements have been made in recent years using thermal analysis tools developed for the thermal modeling of spacecraft and other sophisticated heat transfer problems. These tools, which now allow for accurate modeling of highly transmissive materials, have been applied to the thermal analysis of NASA's scientific balloons. A research effort has been started that utilizes the "Thermal Desktop" addition to AUTO CAD. This paper will discuss the development of thermal models for both conventional and Ultra Long Duration super-pressure balloons. This research effort has focused on incremental analysis stages of development to assess the accuracy of the tool and the required model resolution to produce usable data. The first stage balloon thermal analyses started with simple spherical balloon models with a limited number of nodes, and expanded the number of nodes to determine required model resolution. These models were then modified to include additional details such as load tapes. The second stage analyses looked at natural shaped Zero Pressure balloons. Load tapes were then added to these shapes, again with the goal of determining the required modeling accuracy by varying the number of gores. The third stage, following the same steps as the Zero Pressure balloon efforts, was directed at modeling super-pressure pumpkin shaped balloons. The results were then used to develop analysis guidelines and an approach for modeling balloons for both simple first order estimates and detailed

  4. NASA'S Balloon Program Overview and New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, Debora

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA)’s Balloon Program continues to support the scientific community providing enhanced capabilities across a spectrum of balloon related disciplines. Operationally, the Program has experienced 100 percent success rate over the past two years. The Long Duration Balloon (LDB) component continues to be a prominent element of the Program with a new LDB endurance record achieved in Antarctica with the Super-Tiger mission during the 2012-2013 campaign. Several key technologies have been demonstrated recently. The Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP) system, a precision pointing system for science instruments, has completed three very successful test flights over the past three years. The stair step development of the Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) continued with the development of a mid-range SPB to support one ton of science instrumentation to an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods. An Overview of the various aspects of the NASA Balloon Program will be presented as well as the outlook for the future.

  5. Balloon-based interferometric techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, David

    1985-01-01

    A balloon-borne triple-etalon Fabry-Perot Interferometer, observing the Doppler shifts of absorption lines caused by molecular oxygen and water vapor in the far red/near infrared spectrum of backscattered sunlight, has been used to evaluate a passive spaceborne remote sensing technique for measuring winds in the troposphere and stratosphere. There have been two successful high altitude balloon flights of the prototype UCL instrument from the National Scientific Balloon Facility at Palestine, TE (May 80, Oct. 83). The results from these flights have demonstrated that an interferometer with adequate resolution, stability and sensitivity can be built. The wind data are of comparable quality to those obtained from operational techniques (balloon and rocket sonde, cloud-top drift analysis, and from the gradient wind analysis of satellite radiance measurements). However, the interferometric data can provide a regular global grid, over a height range from 5 to 50 km in regions of clear air. Between the middle troposphere (5 km) and the upper stratosphere (40 to 50 km), an optimized instrument can make wind measurements over the daylit hemisphere with an accuracy of about 3 to 5 m/sec (2 sigma). It is possible to obtain full height profiles between altitudes of 5 and 50 km, with 4 km height resolution, and a spatial resolution of about 200 km, along the orbit track. Below an altitude of about 10 km, Fraunhofer lines of solar origin are possible targets of the Doppler wind analysis. Above an altitude of 50 km, the weakness of the backscattered solar spectrum (decreasing air density) is coupled with the low absorption crosssection of all atmospheric species in the spectral region up to 800 nm (where imaging photon detectors can be used), causing the along-the-track resolution (or error) to increase beyond values useful for operational purposes. Within the region of optimum performance (5 to 50 km), however, the technique is a valuable potential complement to existing wind

  6. Genetic Analysis of Norovirus GII.4 Variant Strains Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis in Yokohama, Japan, from the 2006-2007 to the 2013-2014 Seasons.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Makoto; Usuku, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, both in sporadic cases and outbreaks. Since the 1990s, the emergence of several GII.4 variants has been reported worldwide. To investigate the epidemic status of NoV, 6,724 stool samples collected from outbreaks in Yokohama, Japan, from the 2006-2007 to 2013-2014 seasons were assessed for NoVs. We genotyped one specimen from each GII outbreak and conducted a sequence analysis of the VP1 gene for several GII.4 strains. Of the 947 NoV outbreaks during our study, GII was detected in 835, and GII.4 was the predominant genotype of GII. Five different GII.4 variants, Yerseke 2006a, Den Haag 2006b (2006b), Apeldoorn 2007, New Orleans 2009, and Sydney 2012, were detected. During this study period, the most prevalent variant of GII.4 was 2006b, and in each individual season, either 2006b or Sydney 2012 was the predominant variant. Out of the 16 detected 2006b strains, 12 had some amino acid substitutions in their blockade epitope, and these substitutions were concentrated in three residues. Two of the 2006b strains detected in the 2012-2013 season had a S368E substitution, which is consistent with the amino acid residues at same site of NSW0514 (Sydney 2012 prototype). Among the 16 detected strains of Sydney 2012, a phylogenetic analysis showed that all five strains detected in Yokohama during the 2011-2012 season clustered away from the other Sydney 2012 strains that were detected in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons. These five strains and other Sydney 2012 strains in Yokohama had a few amino acid differences in the blockade epitopes compared with NSW0514. The amino acid substitutions observed in this study provide informative data about the evolution of a novel GII.4 variant.

  7. Changes in Mean Intake of Fatty Acids and Intake of Saturated and trans Fats from Potatoes: NHANES 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–201012

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6–11 y, adolescents aged 12–18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009–2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial. PMID:25979511

  8. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial.

  9. Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence and Clearance Among U.S. Blood Donors, 2006-2007: Associations with Birth Cohort, Multiple Pregnancies and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Edward L.; Fang, Junyong; YonglingTu; Cable, Ritchard; Hillyer, Christopher D.; Sacher, Ronald; Triulzi, Darrell; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Michael, P

    2010-01-01

    Background In 1992-1993, the prevalence of anti-HCV among U.S. blood donors was 0.36 percent, but contemporary data on antibody and RNA prevalence are lacking. Methods We performed a large, cross-sectional study of blood donors at six U.S. blood centers in 2006-2007. Anti-HCV was measured by EIA followed by immunoblot, and HCV RNA by nucleic acid testing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were derived using multivariable logistic regression. Results Among 959,281 donors, 695 had anti-HCV (prevalence 0.072%), of whom 516 (74%) were RNA+ and 179 (26%) RNA-. Compared to 1992-1993, prevalence was lower and peaked in older age groups. Anti-HCV was associated with body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 (aOR=0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8) and among women, higher gravidity (aOR for >= 5 vs. 0 pregnancies = 3.2, 95% CI 1.9-5.4). HCV RNA negative status was associated with Black race (aOR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7), more than high-school education (aOR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) and BMI >30 (aOR=2.4, 95% CI 1.4-3.9). Conclusions Declining HCV prevalence is most likely due to culling of seropositive donors and a birth cohort effect. We found new associations between Anti-HCV prevalence and gravidity and obesity. Recently discovered genetic factors may underlie differences in HCV RNA clearance among Black donors. PMID:20617929

  10. Groundwater Quality, Age, and Probability of Contamination, Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    The Eagle River watershed is located near the destination resort town of Vail, Colorado. The area has a fastgrowing permanent population, and the resort industry is rapidly expanding. A large percentage of the land undergoing development to support that growth overlies the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA), which likely has a high predisposition to groundwater contamination. As development continues, local organizations need tools to evaluate potential land-development effects on ground- and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. To help develop these tools, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, conducted a study in 2006-2007 of the groundwater quality, age, and probability of contamination in the ERWVFA, north-central Colorado. Ground- and surface-water quality samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, tritium, dissolved gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined with very low-level laboratory methods. The major-ion data indicate that groundwaters in the ERWVFA can be classified into two major groups: groundwater that was recharged by infiltration of surface water, and groundwater that had less immediate recharge from surface water and had elevated sulfate concentrations. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the USEPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (250 milligrams per liter) in many wells near Eagle, Gypsum, and Dotsero. The predominant source of sulfate to groundwater in the Eagle River watershed is the Eagle Valley Evaporite, which is a gypsum deposit of Pennsylvanian age located predominantly in the western one-half of Eagle County.

  11. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet.

  12. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet. PMID:27189191

  13. New concepts for interplanetary balloons and blimps, particularly for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, J.

    This paper proposes novel approaches for balloons for planets Titan BALLUTE A balloon or blimp arriving at a planet or moon with an atmosphere might inflate falling under a parachute or after landing Neither is ideal In both cases the envelope must include qualities needed for inflation as well as those for flight A ballute BALLoon parachUTE could be used thus a ballute is like a hot air balloon with a large mouth Initially it fills by ram pressure descending through an atmosphere As proposed it would then be heated by solid propellant It would stop descending and float level with hot air lift It is now a perfect location for inflation without wind or movement through the atmosphere and away from the uncertainties of the surface A ballute could be used over several bodies in the solar system BALLOONS FOR LOW TEMPERATURES Flight in very low temperatures is also discussed Conditions are so different that it is useful to examine basic factors These apply for any planet with low temperature and weather calm enough for balloons or blimps First for terrestrial hot air balloons thermal radiation is usually the dominant way heat is lost But radiation rises with the 4th power of absolute temperature At Titan radiation will be one or two orders of magnitude smaller Also the dense atmosphere allows small balloons small temperature differences So convection is small It appears a hot air balloon can easily be heated by a radioactive source likely carried to make electricity Pinholes are not important in such a balloon

  14. Evolution of the NASA long-duration balloon program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    1994-01-01

    The development of long-duration ballooning techniques to support flights of 1-2 ton payloads for periods up to 2 weeks, possibly even longer, offers a near-space scientific mission capability with an order of magnitude improvement over traditional balloon flights. This revolution in scientific research ballooning began with the solution of the manufacturing difficulties that plagued the program in the first half of the 1980's, and it has culminated in the early 1990's with three successive circumnavigations of the Antarctic continent in 9 to 14 day flights. A complementary capablity in the Northern hemisphere, which would approximately double the number of flights that could be supported each year, is needed to accommodate the trend for conventional payloads to be modified, or developed, for long-duration flights. Plans are already underway to employ the order-of-magnitude increased flight time for support of multi-flight research programs that will produce results comparable to some space missions. An overview of the current status and near-term plans for ballooning will be presented, along with a discussion of some major science initiatives that have been enabled.

  15. A Survey of Titan Balloon Concepts and Technology Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffery L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the options for, and technology status of, balloon vehicles to explore Saturn's moon Titan. A significant amount of Titan balloon concept thinking and technology development has been performed in recent years, particularly following the spectacular results from the descent and landing of the Huygens probe and remote sensing observations by the Cassini spacecraft. There is widespread recognition that a balloon vehicle on the next Titan mission could provide an outstanding and unmatched capability for in situ exploration on a global scale. The rich variety of revealed science targets has combined with a highly favorable Titan flight environment to yield a wide diversity of proposed balloon concepts. The paper presents a conceptual framework for thinking about balloon vehicle design choices and uses it to analyze various Titan options. The result is a list of recommended Titan balloon vehicle concepts that could perform a variety of science missions, along with their projected performance metrics. Recent technology developments for these balloon concepts are discussed to provide context for an assessment of outstanding risk areas and technological maturity. The paper concludes with suggestions for technology investments needed to achieve flight readiness.

  16. Balloon Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger

    2007-01-01

    PlanetaryBalloon Version 5.0 is a software package for the design of meridionally lobed planetary balloons. It operates in a Windows environment, and programming was done in Visual Basic 6. By including the effects of circular lobes with load tapes, skin mass, hoop and meridional stress, and elasticity in the structural elements, a more accurate balloon shape of practical construction can be determined as well as the room-temperature cut pattern for the gore shapes. The computer algorithm is formulated for sizing meridionally lobed balloons for any generalized atmosphere or planet. This also covers zero-pressure, over-pressure, and super-pressure balloons. Low circumferential loads with meridionally reinforced load tapes will produce shapes close to what are known as the "natural shape." The software allows for the design of constant angle, constant radius, or constant hoop stress balloons. It uses the desired payload capacity for given atmospheric conditions and determines the required volume, allowing users to design exactly to their requirements. The formulations are generalized to use any lift gas (or mixture of gases), any atmosphere, or any planet as described by the local acceleration of gravity. PlanetaryBalloon software has a comprehensive user manual that covers features ranging from, but not limited to, buoyancy and super-pressure, convenient design equations, shape formulation, and orthotropic stress/strain.

  17. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Bobby J.; Needleman, Harvey C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a combined total of approximately fifty to sixty missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions are provided in support of investigations sponsored by NASA'S Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program has continued to su,pport the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payload and providing the rocket vehicle and launch operations necessary to provide the altitude/time required obtain the science objectives. The sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface, which is physically inaccessible to either balloons or satellites. A new architecture for providing this support has been introduced this year with the establishment of the NASA Sounding Rockets Contract. The Program has continued to introduce improvements into their operations and ground and flight systems. An overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets Program with special emphasis on the new support contract will be presented. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. Long duration balloon (LDB) is a prominent aspect of the program with two campaigns scheduled for this calendar year. Two flights are scheduled in the Northern Hemisphere from Fairbanks, Alaska, in June and two flights are scheduled from McMurdo, Antarctica, in the Southern Hemisphere in December. The comprehensive balloon research and development (R&D) effort has continued with advances being made across the

  18. Overview of the development of the pathfinder ultra long duration balloon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, M.; Stuchlik, D.; Corbin, B.

    The Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Pathfinder Project is developing a small pumpkin balloon system and new payload support systems to demonstrate a global 100 day duration capability that is scalable to a full scale flight. The proposed 56,600 m3 pumpkin balloon will be capable of supporting a small tracking payload on the order of 20-40 kg, to an altitude of 24 to 33 km. The Pathfinder Test Balloons will provide valuable data in the development of performance models for future ULDB flights. Attempts will be made to design and fabricate the balloons as close as possible to the full scale ULDB in order to maintain conformity and accuracy of the two balloons' performance models. The balloon system will be designed to handle a small global command and telemetry payload also under development. The payload will include a photo-voltaic power system, command and data handling unit, GPS receiver, and IRIDIUM transceiver for global communications. The flight data will include, at a minimum, position (latitude, longitude, and altitude), and time as well as other balloon performance parameters. Although the system will be designed for global launch capability, initial flights will be launched from the proposed full-scale ULDB mission launch locations. The overall project objectives as well as the trade studies for determining the balloon design parameters, performance, system power requirements, data transmission rates, termination options and overall system configuration will be discussed.

  19. Balloon Catheter Prevents Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginson, Gregory A.; Bouffard, Marc R.; Hoehicke, Beth S.; King, Bradley D.; Peterson, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    Balloon catheter similar to that used in such medical procedures as angioplasty and heart surgery protects small orifices against contamination and blockage by chips generated in machining operations. Includes small, inflatable balloon at end of thin, flexible tube. Contains additional features adapting it to anticontamination service: balloon larger to fit wider channel it must block; made of polyurethane (rather than latex), which does not fragment if bursts; material made thicker to resist abrasion better; and kink-resistant axial wire helps catheter negotiate tight bends.

  20. Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serotype Tennessee Strain CDC07-0191, Implicated in the 2006-2007 Multistate Food-Borne Outbreak Linked to Peanut Butter in the United States.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiangyu; Salazar, Joelle K; Frezet, Stephanie; Maccannell, Duncan; Ribot, Efrain M; Fields, Patricia I; Fricke, W Florian; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee strain CDC07-0191 was isolated from the 2006-2007 multistate food-borne outbreak linked to peanut butter in the United States. Here we report a high-quality draft assembly of the genome sequence of this strain, derived from a patient. This is the first reported high-quality draft genome sequence for S. enterica serotype Tennessee, which will enable in-depth studies of its transmission and virulence. PMID:23704182

  1. NASA Now: Balloon Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now program, Debbie Fairbrother discusses two types of high-altitude balloons that NASA is using to test scientific instruments and spacecraft. She also talks about the Ideal Gas Law a...

  2. Ballooning Interest in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students construct model hot air balloons to introduce the concepts of convection current, the principles of Charles' gas law, and three-dimensional geometric shapes. Provides construction and launching instructions. (MDH)

  3. The Descending Helium Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  4. Temporal Evolution of Effective Upper Mantle Viscosity from Postseismic Response to the 2006-2007 Great Kuril Earthquakes: Four Years of GPS Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M. G.; Vasilenko, N. F.; Frolov, D. I.; Freymueller, J. T.; Prytkov, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Transient surface deformation was still observed by GPS 40 years after two giant (M ~9) megathrust earthquakes in the 20th century: the 1960 Chile and the 1964 Alaska events [Hu et al., 2004; Suito and Freymueller, 2009]. The postseismic signal was attributed to viscoelastic relaxation in the Maxwell mantle wedge with constant viscosity on the order of 10^19 Pa s. In contrast, postseismic deformation for 3-4 years after the 2002 M 7.9 Denali and the 1997 M 7.6 Manyi, Tibet earthquakes requires much lower Maxwell viscosity on the order of 10^17 - 10^18 Pa s [Freed et al, 2006; Ryder et al., 2007; Biggs et al., 2009]. Also these early postseismic GPS and InSAR time series suggest an increase in viscosity with time, which would be inconsistent with a uniform Maxwell viscosity. Here we analyze surface deformation following the doublet of the 2006-2007 M > 8 Kuril megathrust earthquakes using 4 years of postseismic continuous GPS time series on the Kuril GPS Array. We split time series into four annual intervals starting at epoch 2007.5, i.e., about 7 months after the 2006 earthquake, and search for the best-fitting Maxwell viscosity year by year, after accounting for afterslip and the background interseismic strain signal. Earlier we showed that the contribution of afterslip to the Kuril postseismic displacement is small since about epoch 2007.5 [Kogan et al, 2011]. The background interseismic strain signal was not measured on the central Kurils at the stations showing the largest postseismic motion because observations started several months after the earthquakes. From analysis of trench-parallel gravity anomalies, Song and Simons [2003] proposed weak interseismic locking at the subduction interface in the central Kurils. If this hypothesis holds, we can expect small interseismic velocities at the sites affected by postseismic deformation. We tested three simple variants of corrections for interseismic motion of these sites, ranging from 0 to the mean velocity at the

  5. Radio-to-UV monitoring of AO 0235+164 by the WEBT and Swift during the 2006-2007 outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Larionov, V. M.; Aller, M. F.; Bach, U.; Gurwell, M.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Volvach, A.; Aller, H. D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bachev, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Böttcher, M.; Buemi, C. S.; Calcidese, P.; Cozzi, E.; di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Fan, J. H.; Forné, E.; Foschini, L.; Gupta, A. C.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Hooks, L.; Hovatta, T.; Joshi, M.; Kadler, M.; Kimeridze, G. N.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kostov, A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Lanteri, L.; Larionova, L. V.; Lee, C.-U.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Montagni, F.; Nesci, R.; Nieppola, E.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Ohlert, J.; Oksanen, A.; Ovcharov, E.; Pääkkönen, P.; Pasanen, M.; Pursimo, T.; Ros, J. A.; Semkov, E.; Sigua, L. A.; Smart, R. L.; Strigachev, A.; Takalo, L. O.; Torii, K.; Torniainen, I.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Tsunemi, H.; Umana, G.; Valcheva, A.

    2008-03-01

    Context: The blazar AO 0235+164 was claimed to show a quasi-periodic behaviour in the radio and optical bands in the past, with the main outbursts repeating every 5-6 years. However, the predicted 2004 outburst did not occur, and further analysis suggested a longer time scale, according to which the next event would have occurred in the 2006-2007 observing season. Moreover, an extra emission component contributing to the UV and soft X-ray flux was detected, whose nature is not yet clear. An optical outburst was observed in late 2006-early 2007, which triggered a Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) campaign as well as target of opportunity (ToO) observations by the Swift satellite. Aims: In this paper, we present the radio-to-optical data taken by the WEBT together with the UV data acquired by the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) instrument onboard Swift to investigate both the outburst behaviour at different wavelengths and the nature of the extra emission component. Methods: Multifrequency light curves have been assembled with data from 27 observatories; optical and UV fluxes have been cleaned from the contamination of the southern active galactic nucleus (AGN). We have analysed spectral energy distributions at different epochs, corresponding to different brightness states; extra absorption by the foreground galaxy has been taken into account. Results: We found the optical outburst to be as strong as the big outbursts of the past: starting from late September 2006, a brightness increase of ~5 mag led to the outburst peak in February 19-21, 2007. We also observed an outburst at mm and then at cm wavelengths, with an increasing time delay going toward lower frequencies during the rising phase. Cross-correlation analysis indicates that the 1 mm and 37 GHz flux variations lagged behind the R-band ones by about 3 weeks and 2 months, respectively. These short time delays suggest that the corresponding jet emitting regions are only slightly separated and

  6. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Harrison, J K; Bashore, T M

    1997-01-01

    Balloon aortic valvuloplasty is a percutaneous, therapeutic option for patients with severe aortic stenosis, yet the effectiveness of this procedure is dependent on the morphology of the stenotic aortic valve and the respective mechanism of dilation. In younger patients with congenital aortic stenosis, acute and intermediate-term results are good. However, in adult patients, in whom degenerative aortic stenosis is the most common cause, the acute clinical and hemodynamic benefits of balloon aortic valvuloplasty are not lasting, as restenosis occurs in most patients within 6 months. Sympatomatic relief for adults undergoing balloon aortic valvuloplasty is only apparent in patients with normal left ventricular function, who generally are also candidates for aortic valve replacement. Furthermore, the long-term survival for adults after balloon aortic valvuloplasty is similar to the natural history of untreated severe aortic stenosis. In this article, the mechanism of balloon aortic valvuloplasty, as well as its clinical and hemodynamic effects, are reviewed in the context of the different morphological types of aortic stenosis. In addition, two large registries of adult patients treated with balloon aortic valvuloplasty provide important information regarding the acute and long-term results of this procedure and are reviewed.

  7. High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant supported our work on the High Energy Antimatter Telescope(HEAT) balloon experiment. The HEAT payload is designed to perform a series of experiments focusing on the cosmic ray positron, electron, and antiprotons. Thus far two flights of the HEAT -e+/- configuration have taken place. During the period of this grant major accomplishments included the following: (1) Publication of the first results of the 1994 HEAT-e+/- flight in Physical Review Letters; (2) Successful reflight of the HEAT-e+/- payload from Lynn Lake in August 1995; (3) Repair and refurbishment of the elements of the HEAT payload damaged during the landing following the 1995 flight; and (4) Upgrade of the ground support equipment for future flights of the HEAT payload.

  8. Balloon-borne video cassette recorders for digital data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althouse, W. E.; Cook, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A high-speed, high-capacity digital data storage system has been developed for a new balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope. The system incorporates sophisticated, yet easy to use and economical consumer products: the portable video cassette recorder (VCR) and a relatively newer item - the digital audio processor. The in-flight recording system employs eight VCRs and will provide a continuous data storage rate of 1.4 megabits/sec throughout a 40 hour balloon flight. Data storage capacity is 25 gigabytes and power consumption is only 10 watts.

  9. Balloon-borne video cassette recorders for digital data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althouse, W. E.; Cook, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A high speed, high capacity digital data storage system was developed for a new balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope. The system incorporates economical consumer products: the portable video cassette recorder (VCR) and a relatively newer item - the digital audio processor. The in-flight recording system employs eight VCRs and will provide a continuous data storage rate of 1.4 megabits/sec throughout a 40 hour balloon flight. Data storage capacity is 25 gigabytes and power consumption is only 10 watts.

  10. Balloon measurements of the far-infrared background radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlner, D.; Weiss, R.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a balloon-borne radiometer designed to make direct measurements of the background radiation in the spectral range from 1 to 20 cm, and evaluation of the results of two balloon flights performed with the aid of this radiometer. Measurements in five different passbands in the spectral region below 20 per cm were made with a liquid-helium-cooled radiometer in two flights at approximately 40-km altitude. The results obtained are found to be consistent with a 2.7 K thermal radiation background. In addition, an atmospheric radiation of certain magnitude is found to dominate the region above 11 per cm.

  11. New Deflation Systems for Zero Pressure Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huens, Thomas

    Balloon flights in populated countries like France are seriously constrained in terms of safety. Flight window opportunities have been reduced in order to comply a minimal damage probability (material and human damages). Although we could use different launch sites, the enormous and useful data base collected by Scientists during 40 years in France encourages to keep the sites of Aire sur l'Adour and Gap operational. Developments were initiated in order to cope with these problems and improve the landing precision. More precisely for the last four years, the CNES balloon engineers have focused on developing a new deflation system and a new parachute system for zero pressure balloons (ZPB), in order to reduce the size of the impact uncertainty zone. We have observed that the envelope deflation phase has an important impact on the envelope drag coefficient. Residual helium inside the envelope can maintain a residual lift reducing the expected descent rate and generating a dispersion in the descent trajectory from flight to flight that increase the size of the potential landing zone. As for consequence, the deflation system installed on the new envelope shall allow a quick and efficient evacuation of the helium. The final shape of the envelope in descent with a drag coefficient is about constant, is quickly reached and the portion of residual helium is negligible. The way to improve the deflation system's efficiency -with a negligible impact on the envelope relia-bility -is a true challenge. It requires a significant amount of ground validation before the first flight test. Due to the difficulty of simulating the stratospheric environment in a volume large enough to test a ZPB, the ground validation is based on a group of tests, defined to be as close as possible to the real conditions. To reach this goal, we use (a)low speed little size tear tests in universal testing machine, at cold and ambient temperature; (b)high speed medium size tear tests, at ambient

  12. The issue of development and validation of a planetary balloon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André

    When we talk of planetary balloon system, everyone think about the free flight of the balloon in the atmosphere of the planet, following the winds and currently being achieving its scientific mission. But before the scientific mission flight, a subsystem, in the descent module, is manda-tory for the set up of the balloon in flight conditions from a folded configuration used during the interplanetary transfer. To develop such a system, the first step is to find or produce material that will enable the manufacture of a balloon capable of withstanding the environment of the planet, and which fulfills the requirements of the scientific mission in terms of flight profile, payload mass and flight duration. The second step consists in the development and validation of the subsystem, in the descent module, which permits the deployment of the aerostat and the inflation of the balloon, during the entry in the atmosphere of the planet, after main parachute stabilization and, of course, before landing on the surface of the planet. An important issue is relative to the strategy for the validations of deployment inflation phase, testing on the Earth, whose characteristics, as atmosphere (pressure temperature profile, composition, heat-ing fluxes) and gravity, are usually quite unlike that the planet. For the system validation, it is necessary to develop models (thermodynamic for flight phase and mechanics kinematic for deployment inflation phase). After the definition of similarity criteria between the planet and the Earth, these models will permit to transpose the test results on Earth to predict and to validate the behavior of the balloon system on the planet. The purpose of this paper is to pro-vide a brief overview of the issues relative to the development and the validation of a planetary balloon system. We have to deal with a lot of technical challenges as long duration folding of the balloon in its container, aerostat deployment and balloon inflation, and separations

  13. Development of a super-pressure balloon with a diamond-shaped net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Iijima, Issei; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Tanaka, Shigeki; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Kajiwara, Koji; Shimadu, Shigeyuki

    2012-07-01

    The essential mechanism for the lobed-pumpkin shaped super-pressure balloon to withstand against the high pressure is that the local curvature of the balloon film is kept small. Recently, it was found that the small local curvature can also be obtained, if the balloon is covered by a diamond-shaped net with vertically elongated shape. In addition, this method has following merits; 1. the weight of the balloon can be reduced by using a weak but light film and a fine mesh net, 2. the deployment problem known for the lobed-pumpkin shaped balloon can be solved due to its lack of additional films, 3. the capacity of resist pressure is not spoiled severely due to the manufacturing error of the net, since the local distortion of the mesh size does not affect the global balloon shape. First, a 3-m balloon using a polyethylene film and a net using Kevlar ropes was made for the confirmation of this method. The inflation test showed the expected high burst pressure. Then, a 6-m and a 12-m balloons using a polyethylene film and a net using the Vectran were developed and checked their stable deployment through the ground inflation tests. The flight test of a 3,000 m^3 balloon will be performed in this spring. In this paper, the method to cover a balloon with a diamond-shaped net will be explained and the results of ground and the flight tests will be reported.

  14. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  15. Report on the Brazilian Scientific Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Joao

    2016-07-01

    We report on the recent scientific ballooning activities in Brazil, and present the plans for the next few years. Recent technological developments, especially on telecommunications and gondola attitude control systems will be reported. We also present the recent progress achieved in the development of the protoMIRAX balloon experiment. protoMIRAX is a balloon-borne hard X-ray imaging telescope under development at INPE as a pathfinder for the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de Raios X) satellite mission. The experiment consists essentially in a hard X-ray coded-aperture imager to operate in the 20-200 keV energy range. The detector plane is a square array of 196 10mm x 10mm x 2mm CdZnTe (CZT) planar detectors. A collimator defines a fully-coded field-of-view of 20 x 20 degrees, with 7 x 7 degrees of full sensitivity and an angular resolution of 1.7 degrees. We describe the final stages of development and testing of the front-end electronics, with charge preamplifiers, LNAs, shapers and Wilkinson-type ADCs customized for these detectors. We also show detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the flight background and the expected flight images of bright sources performed with the use of GEANT4.

  16. LISA: a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conessa, Huguette

    2016-07-01

    LISA (LIbrarie de Simulation pour les Aerostats) is a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons (Zero Pressure Balloons, Pressurized Balloons, Infrared Montgolfier), and for all phases of flight (ascent, ceiling, descent). This library has for goals to establish a reliable repository of Balloons flight physics models, to capitalize developments and control models used in different tools. It is already used for flight physics study software in CNES, to understand and reproduce the behavior of balloons, observed during real flights. It will be used operationally for the ground segment of the STRATEOLE2 mission. It was developed with quality rules of "critical software." It is based on fundamental generic concepts, linking the simulation state variables to interchangeable calculation models. Each LISA model defines how to calculate a consistent set of state variables combining validity checks. To perform a simulation for a type of balloon and a phase of flight, it is necessary to select or create a macro-model that is to say, a consistent set of models to choose from among those offered by LISA, defining the behavior of the environment and the balloon. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the main concepts of LISA, and the new perspectives offered by this library.

  17. Stability of lobed balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagitz, M.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    This paper presents a computational study of the stability of simple lobed balloon structures. The particular structure that is investigated is a stack of pumpkin-shaped envelopes with a common axis of symmetry, and hence forming a kind of lobed cylinder. The number of the pumpkin envelopes is one of the variables that is investigated; a number of shape imperfections are also considered. This lobed cylinder is an axi-symmetric, idealised version of the lobed pumpkin balloons that have occasionally deployed into anomalous, clefted configurations. By studying in detail the behaviour of lobed cylinder we are able to draw some preliminary conclusions about general features of the behaviour of lobed pumpkin balloons.

  18. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  19. BARREL Team Launching 20 Balloons

    NASA Video Gallery

    A movie made by the NASA-Funded Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, or BARREL, team on their work launching 20 balloons in Antarctica during the Dec. 2013/Jan. 2014 campa...

  20. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  1. Daytime Aspect Camera for Balloon Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Kurt L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swift, Wesley R.

    2002-01-01

    We have designed, built, and flight-tested a new star camera for daytime guiding of pointed balloon-borne experiments at altitudes around 40 km. The camera and lens are commercially available, off-the-shelf components, but require a custom-built baffle to reduce stray light, especially near the sunlit limb of the balloon. This new camera, which operates in the 600- to 1000-nm region of the spectrum, successfully provides daytime aspect information of approx. 10 arcsec resolution for two distinct star fields near the galactic plane. The detected scattered-light backgrounds show good agreement with the Air Force MODTRAN models used to design the camera, but the daytime stellar magnitude limit was lower than expected due to longitudinal chromatic aberration in the lens. Replacing the commercial lens with a custom-built lens should allow the system to track stars in any arbitrary area of the sky during the daytime.

  2. A Daytime Aspect Camera for Balloon Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Kurt L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swift, Wesley R.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have designed, built, and flight-tested a new star camera for daytime guiding of pointed balloon-borne experiments at altitudes around 40km. The camera and lens are commercially available, off-the-shelf components, but require a custom-built baffle to reduce stray light, especially near the sunlit limb of the balloon. This new camera, which operates in the 600-1000 nm region of the spectrum, successfully provided daytime aspect information of approximately 10 arcsecond resolution for two distinct star fields near the galactic plane. The detected scattered-light backgrounds show good agreement with the Air Force MODTRAN models, but the daytime stellar magnitude limit was lower than expected due to dispersion of red light by the lens. Replacing the commercial lens with a custom-built lens should allow the system to track stars in any arbitrary area of the sky during the daytime.

  3. Microgravity experiment system utilizing a balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, M.; Ohta, S.; Yamagami, T.; Koma, Y.; Akiyama, H.; Hirosawa, H.; Nishimura, J.

    A system for microgravity experiments by using a stratospheric balloon has been planned and developed in ISAS since 1978. A rocket-shaped chamber mounting the experiment apparatus is released from the balloon around 30 km altitude. The microgravity duration is from the release to opening of parachute, controlled by an on-board sequential timer. Test flights were performed in 1980 and in 1981. In September 1983 the first scientific experiment, observing behaviors and brain activities of fishes in the microgravity circumstance, have been successfully carried out. The chamber is specially equipped with movie cameras and subtransmitters, and its release altitude is about 32 km. The microgravity observed inside the chamber is less than 2.9 × 10-3 G during 10 sec. Engineering aspects of the system used in the 1983 experiment are presented.

  4. Sonic Thermometer for High-Altitude Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bognar, John

    2012-01-01

    The sonic thermometer is a specialized application of well-known sonic anemometer technology. Adaptations have been made to the circuit, including the addition of supporting sensors, which enable its use in the high-altitude environment and in non-air gas mixtures. There is a need to measure gas temperatures inside and outside of superpressure balloons that are flown at high altitudes. These measurements will allow the performance of the balloon to be modeled more accurately, leading to better flight performance. Small thermistors (solid-state temperature sensors) have been used for this general purpose, and for temperature measurements on radiosondes. A disadvantage to thermistors and other physical (as distinct from sonic) temperature sensors is that they are subject to solar heating errors when they are exposed to the Sun, and this leads to issues with their use in a very high-altitude environment

  5. Balloon borne Infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on modeling of a balloon borne mission to survey the 1-5 micron region with sensitivity close to the zodiacal light limits in portions of this band. Such a survey is compelling for numerous science programs and is complimentary to the upcoming Euclid, WFIRST and other orbital missions. Balloons borne missions offer much lower cost access and rapid technological implementation but with much less exposure time and increased backgrounds. For some science missions the complimentary nature of these is extremely useful. .

  6. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Mann, I. R.; Mazzino, L.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Team

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon (UA-HAB) program is a one and half year program sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) that offers hands on experience for undergraduate and graduate students in the design, build, test and flight of an experimental payload on a high altitude balloon platform. Utilising low cost weather balloon platforms, and through utilisation of the CSA David Florida Laboratory for thermal-vacuum tests , in advance of the final flight of the payload on a NASA high altitude balloon platform. Collectively the program provided unique opportunities for students to experience mission phases which parallel those of a space satellite mission. The program has facilitated several weather balloon missions, which additionally provide educational opportunities for university students and staff, as well as outreach opportunities among junior and senior high school students. Weather balloon missions provide a cheap and quick alternative to suborbital missions; they can be used to test components for more expensive missions, as well as to host student based projects from different disciplines such as Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS), Physics, and Engineering. In addition to extensive skills development, the program aims to promote recruitment of graduate and undergraduate students into careers in space science and engineering. Results from the UA-HAB program and the flight of the UA-HAB shielded Gieger counter payload for cosmic ray and space radiation studies will be presented. Lessons learned from developing and maintaining a weather balloon program will also be discussed. This project is undertaken in partnership with the High Altitude Student Platform, organized by Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA, with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  7. Near Space Lab-Rat Experimentation using Stratospheric Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar; Reddy Vizapur, Anmi; Rao Tanneeru, Venkateswara; Trivedi, Dharmesh; Devarajan, Anand; Pandit Manikrao Kulkarni, MR..; Ojha, Devendra; Korra, Sakram; Neerudu, Nagendra; Seng, Lim; Godi, Stalin Peter

    2016-07-01

    First ever balloon borne lab-rat experiment up to near space stratospheric altitude levels carried out at TIFR Balloon Facility, Hydeabad using zero pressure balloons for the purpose of validating the life support system. A series of two balloon experiments conducted under joint collaboration with IN.Genius, Singapore in the year 2015. In these experiments, three lab-rats sent to stratosphere in a pressurized capsule designed to reach an altitude of 30 km by keeping constant pressure, temperature and maintained at a precise rate of oxygen supply inside the capsule. The first experiment conducted on 1 ^{st} February, 2015 with a total suspended weight of 225 kg. During the balloon ascent stage at 18 km altitude, sensors inside the capsule reported drastic drop in internal pressure while oxygen and temperatures maintained at correct levels resulted in premature fligt termination at 20.1 km. All the three lab-rats recovered without life due to the collapse of their lungs caused by the depressurization inside the capsule. The second experiment conducted on 14th March, 2015 using a newly developed capsule with rectification of depressurization fault by using improved sealing gaskets and hermitically sealed connectors for sending lab-rats again to stratosphere comprising a total suspended load of 122.3 kg. The balloon flight was terminated after reaching 29.5 km in 110 minutes and succesfully recovered all the three lab-rats alive. This paper focuses on lessons learnt of the development of the life support system as an integral pressurized vessel, flight control instrumentation, flight simulation tests using thermo-vaccum chamber with pre-flight operations.

  8. Virginia Space Grant Consortium Upper Atmospheric Payload Balloon System (Vps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marz, Bryan E.; Ash, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the launch and post-launch activities of Virginia Space Grant Consortium Upper Atmospheric Payload Balloon System, V(ps). It is a comprehensive overview covering launch activities, post-launch activities, experimental results, and future flight recommendations.

  9. Balloon test project: Cosmic Ray Antimatter Calorimeter (CRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, J. C.; Dhenain, G.; Goret, P.; Jorand, J.; Masse, P.; Mestreau, P.; Petrou, N.; Robin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cosmic ray observations from balloon flights are discussed. The cosmic ray antimatter calorimeter (CRAC) experiment attempts to measure the flux of antimatter in the 200-600 Mev/m energy range and the isotopes of light elements between 600 and 1,000 Mev/m.

  10. Balloon occlusion aortography.

    PubMed

    Ino, T; Shimazaki, S; Nishimoto, K; Akimoto, K; Iwahara, M; Yabuta, K; Watanabe, M; Tanaka, A; Hosoda, Y

    1991-02-01

    We review the validity of balloon occlusion aortography (BOA) on the basis of our personal experience with 18 patients with congenital heart disease (mean weight 4.55 g, including 8 neonates). Four of the 18 patients underwent aortic arch angiography using balloon occlusion of the descending aorta. Pulmonary angiography was also performed in 9 patients via a patent ductus arteriosus and in 3 patients via a Blalock-Taussig shunt. The remaining 2 patients underwent coronary arteriography by balloon occlusion of the ascending aorta. The information obtained was satisfactory in 17 of the 18 patients. However, in one patient with a double-outlet right ventricle and pulmonary stenosis, the pulmonary arteries were not clearly visualized because of dominant antegrade flow from the right ventricle. BOA is a safe and useful procedure which can be used to image the aortic arch, pulmonary artery, and coronary arteries in infants with congenital heart diseases. In children over 3 years of age, however, the balloon may not be able to occlude the appropriate site of the aorta, so selective angiography is required to obtain precise information.

  11. Comments on ideal ballooning

    SciTech Connect

    Dagazian, R.Y.; Paris, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Ideal ballooning modes are investigated for the case of plane magnetized slab geometry. Toroidal effects are simulated by a gravitational acceleration periodically varying along magnetic field lines. High shear is shown to be very effective in stabilizing these modes even when field line curvature is most unfavorable to their stability.

  12. Retroperitoneoscopy: the balloon technique.

    PubMed

    Gaur, D D

    1994-07-01

    Retroperitoneoscopy was performed in 101 patients using the author's recently described balloon technique. Various urological procedures, were undertaken including renoscopy and renal biopsy, para-aortic lymph node biopsy, varicocelectomy, ureterolithotomy, pyelolithotomy, pyeloplasty, nephrolithotomy, nephrectomy, decortication of renal cyst, adrenalectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy and ligation of deep penile veins.

  13. Status report on the activities of National Balloon Facility at Hyderabad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankarnarayan, Sreenivasan; S, Sreenivasan; Shankarnarayan, Sreenivasan; Manchanda, R. K.; Subba Rao Jonnalagadda, Venkata; Buduru, Suneelkumar

    National balloon facility at Hyderabad has been mandated to provide launch support for Indian and International scientific balloon experiments and also perform the necessary research and development in the design and fabrication of plastic balloons. In the last 4 years, since our last report, NBF has launched many successful balloon flights for the astronomy payloads and a large number of high altitude GPS Sonde flights at different places in the country. We have also continued our efforts on qualification of raw materials for zero-failure performance of our balloons and major focus on upgrading of various facilities and load-line instrumentation for launching from remote sites. We foresee a surge of balloon based experimental activity for in-situ measurements in atmospheric sciences and concept validation payloads for future space based instruments. A new centre for research in Environmental Sciences and Payload Engineering (ESPE) has also been set up at the National Balloon Facility campus to develop and conduct research in various aspects of Environmental sciences in collaboration with other groups, with a specific goal to identify, development of advanced technologies leading to an improved understanding of the earth system. The Payload Engineering facility is geared to the Design and Fabrication of Micro and Nano Satellites and will act as Inter -University Centre for payload fabrication. In this paper we present an overview of the present and planned activities in scientific ballooning at National Balloon Facility Hyderabad.

  14. Development of a super-pressure balloon with a diamond-shaped net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Iijima, I.; Matsuzaka, Y.; Matsushima, K.; Tanaka, S.; Kajiwara, K.; Shimadu, S.

    2014-10-01

    The essential reason of the lobed-pumpkin shaped super-pressure balloon to withstand against the high pressure is that the local curvature of the balloon film is kept small. Recently, it has been found that the small local curvature can also be obtained if the balloon is covered by a diamond-shaped net with a vertically elongated shape. The development of the super-pressure balloon using this method was started from a 3-m balloon with a polyethylene film covered by a net using Kevlar ropes. The ground inflation test showed the expected high burst pressure. Then, a 6-m and a 12-m balloon using a polyethylene film and a net using the Vectran were developed and stable deployment was checked through the ground inflation tests. The flight test of a 3000 m3 balloon was performed in 2013 and shown to resist a pressure of at least 400 Pa. In the future, after testing a new design to relax a possible stress concentration around the polar area, test flights of scaled balloons will be performed gradually enlarging their size. The goal is to launch a 300,000 m3 super-pressure balloon.

  15. Recent Controlled Meteorological Balloon experiments in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, L. R.; Voss, P. B.; Vihma, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons are unique in that their altitude can be changed at any time during flight. They are remotely controlled via the Iridium network and use GPS for positioning. Over the past seven years, they have been operated at altitudes from sea-level to six kilometers and have flown for periods as long as five days. Campaigns have been carried out from the Amazon via Mexico City to polar regions. CMET balloons can perform repeated soundings in order to probe evolving thermal and chemical structure, measure wind shear, and track atmospheric layers. Typical ascent/descent rate is 1 m/s and the data sampling rate is 10 sec. The standard CMET balloon consists of zero-pressure balloon (~300-500 liters at sea level) which itself contains a much smaller (~100 liter) super-pressure balloon. Transferring helium between the super-pressure balloon and the zero-pressure balloon regulates the volume (and density) of the system, leading to controlled ascent and descent. Due to the rarity of meteorological observations from the Antarctic, especially from inland and over the sea, CMET balloons have potential to provide strongly needed data for evaluation of numerical weather prediction and climate models. Here, we present data from a CMET campaign carried out at the Finnish Aboa station in Antarctica (73° 03' S, 13° 25' W) in January 2013. The campaign was unique in that three CMET balloons were shipped to the station and launched by the local team. After the launch, they were controlled by scientists located in MA, USA and Norway. One balloon, Bravo, cruised for more than 100 hours over the coastal slopes of Queen Maud Land and nearby sea ice with a total trajectory length of over 3000 km (Fig. 1). It also passed nearby the UK Halley station. The altitude was generally kept at about 3000-3500 masl, but 8 controlled soundings down to 400-500 masl were carried out. The balloon data were compared with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF

  16. THERMTRAJ: A FORTRAN program to compute the trajectory and gas film temperatures of zero pressure balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, W. J.; Carlson, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program called THERMTRAJ is presented which can be used to compute the trajectory of high altitude scientific zero pressure balloons from launch through all subsequent phases of the balloon flight. In addition, balloon gas and film temperatures can be computed at every point of the flight. The program has the ability to account for ballasting, changes in cloud cover, variable atmospheric temperature profiles, and both unconditional valving and scheduled valving of the balloon gas. The program was verified for an extensive range of balloon sizes (from 0.5 to 41.47 million cubic feet). Instructions on program usage, listing of the program source deck, input data and printed and plotted output for a verification case are included.

  17. Flow Past a Descending Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baginski, Frank

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we present our findings related to aerodynamic loading of partially inflated balloon shapes. This report will consider aerodynamic loading of partially inflated inextensible natural shape balloons and some relevant problems in potential flow. For the axisymmetric modeling, we modified our Balloon Design Shape Program (BDSP) to handle axisymmetric inextensible ascent shapes with aerodynamic loading. For a few simple examples of two dimensional potential flows, we used the Matlab PDE Toolbox. In addition, we propose a model for aerodynamic loading of strained energy minimizing balloon shapes with lobes. Numerical solutions are presented for partially inflated strained balloon shapes with lobes and no aerodynamic loading.

  18. Recent Progress in Materials Selection and Characterizations for Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Said, Magdi A.

    2000-01-01

    The development and characterization of materials suitable for ultra long duration balloon flights has recently been the focus of the materials R&D efforts for the NASA balloon program. Although basic materials selection criteria is similar to those used for conventional balloon missions, additional considerations related to balloon design, fabrication, durability, environmental effects, and cost must also be considered. Among these, the highest impact on material selection is, related to the design shape of the balloon. Work done by independent researchers indicate that for pumpkin type balloons, the load-carrying member is the tendon rather than the structural envelope. This in turn lowers the strength requirements on the envelope material to a large extent. Several materials and material combinations were explored for both design systems. This paper will present the progress made to date in the selection and characterization of these materials and the technical challenges remaining to be overcome,

  19. Recent Results and Near Term Outlook for the NASA Balloon Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William Vernon

    Long-duration and conventional balloon flights in the traditional Astrophysics, Solar and Heliophysics, and Earth Science disciplines have continued in both polar and non-polar regions since the 39th COSPAR Assembly in Mysore, India. One of these established a new flight record of 55 days over Antarctica during the 2012-2013 austral season. That Super-TIGER science flight broke both the 42-day record of the CREAM science flight during the 2004-2005 season and the 54-day super pressure balloon test flight in 2008-2009. With two comets approaching the sun in 2013-2014, the Planetary Science community has shown increased interest in remote observations of comets, planets, and other objects in the Solar System. All of the above science disciplines are interested in super pressure balloon (SPB) flights, which have been under development by NASA, and which were strongly supported by the Astro2010 Decadal Study. A 532,152 m3 (18.8 MCF) SPB with a major gamma ray astrophysics payload is planned for an ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) test flight around and from Antarctica during the upcoming 2014-2015 season. Flights for SPB qualification to support 1000 kg science instruments to 33 km altitude have proceeded in parallel with planning for options to increase the altitude for less massive instruments that require less atmospheric overburden. The nearly constant SPB volume will provide stable altitude long-duration flights at non-polar latitudes, thereby supporting a much broader range of scientific investigations. Scientific ballooning continues to complement and enable space missions, while training young scientists and systems engineers for the workforce needed to conduct future missions. Highlights of results from past balloon-borne measurements and expected results from ongoing and planned balloon-borne experiments will be presented.

  20. Venus Balloons using Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, N.; Yajima, N.; Honda, H.; Imamura, T.

    We propose an inflatable balloon using water vapor for the lifting gas, which is liquid in the transportation stage before entry into the high temperature atmosphere. The envelope of the balloon has an outer layer for gas barrier (a high-temperature resistant film) and an inner layer for liquid water keeping. In the descent stage using a parachute, water widely held just inside the balloon envelope can be quickly vaporized by a lot of heat flux from the surrounding high-temperature atmosphere owing to the large surface area of the balloon. As neither gas containers nor heat exchangers are necessary, we can construct a simple, lightweight and small size Venus balloon probe system. Tentative floating altitude is 35 km below the thick clouds in the Venusian atmosphere. Selection of balloon shape and material for balloon envelope are discussed in consideration of the Venusian environment such as high-temperature, high-pressure, and sulfuric acid. Balloon deployment and inflation sequence is numerically simulated. In case of the total floating mass of 10 kg at the altitude of 35 km, the volume and mass of the balloon is 1.5 cubic meters, and 3.5 kg, respectively. The shape of the balloon is chosen to be cylindrical with a small diameter. The mass of li fting gas can be determined as 4.3 kg and the remaining 2.2 kg becomes the payload mass. The mass of the total balloon system is also just 10 kg excluding the entry capsule.

  1. 14 CFR 21.35 - Flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) That the aircraft conforms with the type design; and (4) That the Administrator received a flight test... emergency egress and the use of parachutes. (e) Except in gliders and manned free balloons, an...

  2. Overview Of The Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden 2014-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    2016-07-01

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from Esrange since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times of 4-5 days are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. Circumpolar flights of more than two weeks are possible if Russian overflight permission exists. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. Since last COSPAR a number of interesting balloon flights have been performed from Esrange. In late 2014 parachute tests for the ExoMars programme was performed by drop-test from balloons. This was followed up on in the summer of 2015 with full end-to-end dynamic stability tests of Earth re-entry capsule shapes. Several balloon

  3. Gasless balloon laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lienert, Mark; Horstmann, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Background The concept of balloon laparoscopy (B-LSC) pursues the simplification of conventional diagnostic laparoscopy (LSC). The pneumoperitoneum is replaced by a transparent balloon, which is positioned in front of the optical system. It shall be shown that with this arrangement diagnostic LSC can be performed outside of the operating room without requiring general anesthesia. Methods An inflatable balloon was developed for a 30°/3.5-mm rod lens. Intra-abdominally the balloon was expanded to a diameter of 30 mm by air insufflation, and B-LSC was performed. Twelve patients were examined in general anesthesia before laparoscopic surgery. Twelve patients were subjected to B-LSC fully awake or with sedation (midazolam or propofol/S-ketamine) as a “second-look” procedure by way of a flexible trocar (port) left in the abdominal wall at the end of previous operation. Eight patients have been first provided with a trocar under sedation (midazolam or propofol/S-ketamine) combined with local anesthesia, and B-LSC was performed before laparoscopic surgery. Results On a scale of 1–5, the general impression was rated 1.9, the navigability to the different abdominal organs 2.5, the resolution 1.5, the stability of the system optic/trocar 2.1, the suitability of the balloon format 1.9, and the stability of the balloon against lateral shear forces 2.4. The degree of painfulness of the examination was rated 2.8, the tolerance of the port 1.4, and the degree of painfulness of trocar placement at 2.5. On a scale of 1 to 3, the strain of the abdominal musculature was rated 1.4 and the obstruction by adhesions 1.7. Discussion B-LSC is technically practicable with good imaging qualities and without requiring pneumoperitoneum. It is tolerated in great extent under slight sedation and particularly well under deep sedation. The procedure is suitable for diagnostics of unclear abdominal conditions, as a second-look LSC and also as a staging LSC. PMID:20039067

  4. Development of a tiny tandem balloon system for atmospheric observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Masatomo

    2016-07-01

    A tandem balloon system with a combination of a zero-pressure balloon on top and a super-pressure balloon on the bottom has a unique trajectory characteristic, with different flight altitudes between day and night and thus with ascending and descending motions at dawn and dusk, respectively. This characteristic provides a unique opportunity to explore the atmosphere, e.g., the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric region with cross-tropopause measurements twice a day. We started development of a tiny tandem balloon system using a 10 m^{3} super-pressure balloon and a 100 m^{3} zero-pressure balloon, with a capability of carrying 3 kg of payload. One of the scientific targets is to measure water vapor, cloud particles, and temperature around the tropical tropopause which is the entry point of the stratospheric and mesospheric meridional circulation. For the data transfer, the iridium satellite communication module, SBD9603 is used. In this paper, the current status of the development will be reported.

  5. Lightweight Reusable Solar Array For Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, K.; Tensor, P.; Nock, K.; Wyszkowski, C.

    We will discuss a new lightweight reusable solar array system, dubbed HighPower, which is being developed for the Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program using NASA/SBIR funding, but which is also applicable to other balloon systems. The system uses a vertically deployed stack of panels suspended from their corners by cables. The stack act likes a two-dimensional Venetian blind. By raising and lowering opposite corners, the array of parallel panels can be pointed over most of the upper hemisphere. This allows the panels to remain normal to the sun despite the slow rotation of the gondola and without requiring rotation of the system (no slip rings) or heavy cantilevered rotation joints. The system is sized to generate 2000 W using six 2m x 2m panels. The modularity of the system allows panels to be added or removed to tailored the power to the needs of the mission. Prior to cut -down of the balloon, the panels can be retracted and stowed compactly in the lower part of the gondola. This will protect the array during landing, allowing the array to be reused on subsequent flights.

  6. CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Ann M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Bartlett, Lyle M.; Birsa, F. B.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Naya, Juan E.; Odom, James L.; Singh, S.; Stahle, Carl M.; Tueller, Jack; Teegarden, Bonnard J.

    1996-10-01

    Because of its high atomic number and convenient room temperature operation, CdZnTe has great potential for use in both balloon and space borne hard x-ray (5 - 200 keV) astrophysics experiments. Here we present preliminary results from the first CdZnTe background measurements made by a balloon instrument. Measurements of the CdZnTe internal background are essential to determine which physical processes make the most important background contributions and are critical in the design of future scientific instruments. The PoRTIA CdZnTe balloon instrument was flown three times in three different shielding configurations. PoRTIA was passively shielded during its first flight from Palestine, Texas and actively shielded as a piggyback instrument on the GRIS balloon experiment during flights 2 and 3 from Alice Springs, Australia. PoRTIA flew twice during the Fall 1995 Alice Springs, Australia campaign using the thick GRIS NaI anticoincidence shield. A significant CdZnTe background reduction was achieved during the third flight with PoRTIA placed completely inside the GRIS shield and blocking crystal, and thus completely surrounded by 15 cm of NaI. These background results are presented and contributions from different background processes are discussed.

  7. Cosmic ray abundance measurements with the CAKE balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L.; Togo, V.

    We present the results from the CAKE (Cosmic Abundance below Knee Energy) balloon experiment which uses nuclear track detectors. The final experiment goal is the determination of the charge spectrum of CR nuclei with Z > 30 in the primary cosmic radiation. The detector, which has a geometric acceptance of \\~ 1.7 m2 sr, was exposed in a trans-mediterranean stratospheric balloon flight. Calibrations of the detectors used (CR39 and Lexan), scanning strategies and algorithms for tracking particles in an automatic mode are presented. The present status of the results is discussed

  8. Tethered balloon-based measurements of meteorological variables and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentell, R. J.; Storey, R. W.; Chang, J. J. C.; Jacobsen, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tethered balloon based measurements of the vertical distributions of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and aerosol concentrations were taken over a 4-hour period beginning at sunrise on June 29, 1976, at Wallops Island, Virginia. Twelve consecutive profiles of each variable were obtained from ground to about 500 meters. These measurements were in conjuction with a noise propagation study on remotely arrayed acoustic range (ROMAAR) at Wallops Flight Center. An organized listing of these vertical soundings is presented. The tethered balloon system configuration utilized for these measurements is described.

  9. SoRa first flight. Summer 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrotta, S.; Flamini, E.

    The SoRa (Sounding Radar) experiment was successfully launched from Longyearbyen (Svalbard, Norway) during the summer 2009 campaign managed by the Italian/Norwegian "Nobile Amundsen / Stratospheric Balloon Centre" (NA/SBC). SoRa is part of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) programs for Long Duration Balloon Flights. Carried by the biggest balloon (800.000 m3) ever launched in polar regions, SoRa main experiment and its three piggyback payloads (DUSTER, ISA and SIDERALE) performed a nominal flight of almost 4 days over the North Sea and Greenland, until the separation, landing and recovery in Baffin Island (Canada). Despite the final destructive event that compromise the scientific main goal of SoRa, the 2009 ASI balloon campaign can be considered an important milestone, because of the obtained scientific and technical results but also for the lesson learned by the science, engineering and managerial teams looking at the future ASI scientific balloon-born activities.

  10. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, W.

    The scientific community's desire for large capacity, constant altitude, long duration stratospheric platforms is not likely going to be met by un-reinforced spherical super-pressure balloons. More likely, the pneumatic envelope for the large-scale super-pressure balloon of the future will be a tendon reinforced structure in which the tendons perform the primary pressure load confining function and the skin serves as a gas barrier and transfers the local pressure load to the tendons. NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which is currently under development, is of that type. By separating the load carrying function of the tendons and the skin a number of advantages are gained. Perhaps most important is the fact that the required skin strength remains to first order independent of the balloon size. Only the size and number of tendons are dictated by the balloon size. By designing the balloon to be at least quasi statically determinate, the stress distributions are more certain, and stress raisers due to fabrication imperfections are more easily controlled and it becomes unnecessary to account for load path uncertainties by providing everywhere excessive strength and structural weight. Furthermore, it becomes possible to use for the envelope skin a visco-elastic film (polyethylene) that has proven performance in the stratospheric environment. The silhouette shape of this balloon type has prompted early researchers to name this design a "pumpkin" shape balloon. Later investigators accepted this terminology. The pumpkin shape balloon concept was adopted by NASA for its ULDB design at the end of 1998 when advantages of that design over a spherical shape design were convincingly demonstrated. Two stratospheric test flights of large-scale super-pressure balloons demonstrated the functioning of this balloon type. In the second successful flight the switch was made from an excessively strong and heavy skin, a holdover from the earlier concept of a spherical design, to

  11. Optimum designs for superpressure balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. S.; Rainwater, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    The elastica shape is now well known to be the best basic shape for superpressure balloon design. This shape, also known as the pumpkin, or natural shape for balloons, has been well understood since the early 1900s when it was applied to the determination of the shape of descending parachutes. The elastica shape was also investigated in the 1950s when high strength films were used to produce superpressure cylinder balloons. The need for uniform stress distribution in shells of early superpressure balloons led to a long period of the development of spherical superpressure balloons. Not until the late 1970s was the elastica shape revisited for the purpose of the producing superpressure balloons. This paper will review various development efforts in the field of superpressure design and will elaborate on the current state-of-the-art with suggestions for future developments.

  12. Recent results of the GAINS test flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girz, C.

    A demonstration flight of the Global Atmosphere-ocean IN-situ System (GAINS) Prototype III balloon is scheduled to occur in early summer 2002. The 18-m diameter PIII superpressure balloon, built by GSSL, Inc., will float a 135-kg payload at 16 km. Performance of the SpectraTM envelope will be assessed over two day-night cycles. The payload consists of line-of-sight communications for transmitting GPS position, and monitored parameters on balloon and payload state and the internal and external thermal environments. Primary termination is by radio command with several independent backup termination systems. Safe operation of the balloon is ensured by an onboard transponder that keeps the balloon under active air traffic control. The balloon is tracked by an aircraft that will record communications from the balloon and instigate termination of the flight. Mobile ground stations positioned at the launch and recovery locations will also be capable of recording and terminating the flight. A suite of trajectory forecast tools has been developed based on radiosondes and winds from numerical weather models. A GPS surface reflection experiment for determining ocean surface winds will be tested on this platform. Physical and electronic integration of the radio and mechanical systems was completed over the last two years. Data and videos from the June flight will be presented.

  13. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required

  14. VEGA Balloon System and Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Kremnev, R S; Linkin, V M; Lipatov, A N; Pichkadze, K M; Shurupov, A A; Terterashvili, A V; Bakitko, R V; Blamont, J E; Malique, C; Ragent, B; Preston, R A; Elson, L S; Crisp, D

    1986-03-21

    The VEGA Venus balloon radio transmissions received on Earth were used to measure the motion of the balloons and to obtain the data recorded by onboard sensors measuring atmospheric characteristics. Thus the balloons themselves, the gondolas, the onboard sensors, and the radio transmission system were all components of the experiment. A description of these elements is given, and a few details of data sampling and formatting are discussed.

  15. A Constitutive Equation for Stratospheric Balloon Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.; Sterling, W. J.

    2004-01-01

    The selection of a suitable material for use as a reliable stratospheric balloon gas barrier and structural component is based on a variety of properties. Due to a more desirable combination of properties, the low density polyethylene that has been used for the last half century has been replaced during the last decade by linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). This paper describes the effort to characterize the time dependent properties of a 38 micron coextrusion of LLDPE. The nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation presented may be used to accurately describe the creep and/or relaxation of this film when subjected to a biaxial state of stress, such as might be required for an extended balloon flight. Recent laboratory data have been used to mod@ an existing model of LLDPE to account for differences caused by the coextrusion process. The new model will facilitate structural design optimization and reliability assessment, and may be further utilized as a predictive tool to benefit in-flight operations. Current structural analysis tech&ques based on linear elastic properties have predicted stresses in excess of those which would actually exist.

  16. Tricuspid balloon valvuloplasty: a more simplified approach using inoue balloon.

    PubMed

    Patel, T M; Dani, S I; Shah, S C; Patel, T K

    1996-01-01

    We report a more simplified technique of the balloon tricuspid valvuloplasty using inoue balloon set in a patient suffering from severe rheumatic tricuspid stenosis. We believe that this technique may be useful in a difficult case of tricuspid valvuloplasty. PMID:8770490

  17. Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denney, A.

    While the scientific community is no stranger to embracing commercially available technologies, the growth and availability of truly affordable cutting edge technologies is opening the door to an entirely new means of global communications. For many years high altitude ballooning has provided science an alternative to costly satellite based experimental platforms. As with any project, evolution becomes an integral part of development. Specifically in the NSBF ballooning program, where flight durations have evolved from the earlier days of hours to several weeks and plans are underway to provide missions up to 100 days. Addressing increased flight durations, the harsh operational environment, along with cumbersome and outdated systems used on existing systems, such as the balloon vehicles Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) and ground-based systems, a new Over-The-Horizon (OTH) communications medium is sought. Current OTH equipment planning to be phased-out include: HF commanding systems, ARGOS PTT telemetry downlinks and INMARSAT data terminals. Other aspects up for review in addition to the SIP to utilize this communications medium include pathfinder balloon platforms - thereby, adding commanding abilities and increased data rates, plus providing a package for ultra-small experiments to ride aloft. Existing communication systems employed by the National Scientific Balloon Facility ballooning program have been limited not only by increased cost, slow data rates and "special government use only" services such as TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), but have had to make special provisions to geographical flight location. Development of the Support Instrumentation Packages whether LDB (Long Duration Balloon), ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) or conventional ballooning have been plagued by non-standard systems configurations requiring additional support equipment for different regions and missions along with a myriad of backup for redundancy. Several

  18. Analysis of Data from the Balloon Borne Gamma RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasti, Sambid K.; Bloser, Peter F.; Legere, Jason S.; McConnell, Mark L.; Ryan, James M.

    2016-04-01

    The Gamma Ray Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE), a balloon borne polarimeter for 50~300 keV gamma rays, successfully flew in 2011 and 2014. The main goal of these balloon flights was to measure the gamma ray polarization of the Crab Nebula. Analysis of data from the first two balloon flights of GRAPE has been challenging due to significant changes in the background level during each flight. We have developed a technique based on the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to estimate the background for the Crab observation. We found that the background depended mostly on the atmospheric depth, pointing zenith angle and instrument temperatures. Incorporating Anti-coincidence shield data (which served as a surrogate for the background) was also found to improve the analysis. Here, we present the calibration data and describe the analysis done on the GRAPE 2014 flight data.

  19. Buddy balloon for TAVI.

    PubMed

    Balkin, Jonathan; Silberman, Shuli; Almagor, Yaron

    2013-11-15

    Percutaneous transfemoral aortic valve replacement is a new rapidly evolving technique that has made significant progress in recent years. The technology is however limitted and in some cases has resulted in failure to deliver the prosthetic valve. We describe a new technique using a buddy balloon, from the contralateral femoral artery, to assist in crossing the native aortic valve in those cases where extreme calcification and or tortuosity have caused the delivery system to hang up on the aortic wall. The technique is easily applied and facilitates the success of the procedure in cases which may otherwise have to be converted to open surgical aortic valve replacement.

  20. Superpressure Balloon Design Using Nonlinear Viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, James; Rand, James; Wakefield, David

    Stratospheric balloon platforms are used extensively by scientists for a variety of purposes. The typical balloon used today is the zero pressure natural shape fabricated from a thin film of linear low density polyethylene. This material has been found to possess a variety of desirable characteristics suitable to this environment. This film will remain ductile at very low temperatures which will permit it to develop large strains if necessary to satisfy equilibrium considerations. However, in order to achieve long duration flight without significant changes in altitude, the balloon should be pressurized to the extent necessary to maintain constant volume during typical variations in temperature. In the past, pressurized balloons were fabricated from other materials in order to achieve significant increases in strength. Thin films of polyester or polyimide have been used to make relatively small spheres capable of long duration flight. Unfortunately, these materials do not have the ductility of polyethylene at low temperature and are somewhat more fragile and subject to damage. In recent years various organizations have attempted to use the characteristic shape of a pumpkin to limit the stresses in a balloon envelope to that which can be accommodated by laminated fabric materials. While developing the design, analysis and construction techniques for this type of system, the use of polyethylene has been successfully demonstrated to provide a reliable envelope. This shape is achieved by using high strength members in the meridional direction to carry the very high loads generated by the pressure. These so called "tendons" have very low elongation and serve to limit the deformation of the film in that direction. However, earlier designs attempted to limit the stresses in the circumferential direction by using a lobe angle to control the stress. Unfortunately this has led to a number of stability problems with this type of balloon. In order to control the stability of

  1. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  2. Managing Balloon Projects - A Changing Paradigm: A Retrospective Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, R. K.; Smith, I. S.

    With the advent of the Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) capability and balloons being offered as a carrier for NASA Explorer class missions, a fundamental shift in the way balloon mission projects are managed will be required. This shift will ensure the performance and reliability of the science instrument, balloon vehicle, flight system, and ground control center to support a science mission of up to 100 days in duration. The current ``design to capability'' paradigm, with minimal management oversight, has traditionally worked well for many years in flying scientific instruments on balloons at low cost with medium to high risk. Newer, more complex science instruments and missions, such as those developed under NASA's Explorers Program, will require a radical shift to a much more formal ``design to requirements'' management paradigm. This paper will attempt to take a retrospective look at the formality imposed by the Explorers Program and determine what management elements are needed to assure the success of the current ``design to capability'' missions without increasing significant cost. This paradigm shift is intended to support the successful accomplishment of balloon missions on schedule, within budget, and lower risk, while enhancing and satisfying the success criteria and requirements of the primary customer, the Principal Investigator. This shift to a ``Explorer-like'' formality paradigm will require development of a cohesive mission management organization, organizing an effective system engineering process that links science requirements to instrument and flight system performance, implementing a cost effective performance assurance program, and exerting cost control over all aspects of the mission. All of these elements need to be addressed within a context of a strong commitment to meeting schedule within the constrained budgets.

  3. A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J.; Franek, Joe

    2005-01-01

    The various equipments, procedure and hazards in constructing the device for inflating a methane balloon using a standard methane outlet in a laboratory are described. This device is fast, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use as compared to a hydrogen gas cylinder for inflating balloons.

  4. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

  5. The French Balloon Program : overview of the 200 -2010 period and strategy for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clair, Marie-Anne; Vassaux, Didier

    Since its establishment in 1962, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) has been supporting scientific ballooning, which remains the most cost effective means to support near space science. This paper will give an overview of the CNES capabilities and services for operational balloon activities, and on the on going development to improve them. Since these last two years, the most important balloon campaigns will be presented : atmospheric research and satellite validation with zero pressure balloons launched from Esrange facility (Kiruna); Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) from Hawaii for studies of typhoon genesis above the Asian Coasts in collaboration with NCAR; validation of super pressure balloon system for the Concordiasi campaign which is planned in Antarctica from MacMurdo US station at the end of 2010 (Metop/IASI satellite validation and ozone depletion studies) and flights of the Fireball stabilized gondola for UV astronomy in collaboration with Caltech and CNRS/LAM.

  6. On the use of manned hydrogen-gas ballooning in boundary layer studies.

    PubMed

    Rappenglück, B; Reitmayer, H; Fabian, P

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of nitrogen dioxide, ozone and, for the first time, on-line, nonmethane hydrocarbons with a quasicontinuous gaschromatographic/flame ionization technique were performed on a manned hydrogen-gas balloon platform. A cycle time of 10 min allowed the determination of nonmethane hydrocarbons in the carbon number range of C(4)-C(10) with a detection limit of 10 pptv. In addition, meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity) along with GPS-data (global positioning system) was accomplished during the balloon flights. Balloon measurements of trace compounds provide valuable information about photochemical processes in the boundary layer since gas ballooning offers the only technique that stays in the same air parcel along Langrangian trajectories. In addition, gas ballooning represents a unique tool to elucidate micrometeorological observations such as atmospheric stability oscillations and local wind fields.

  7. Progress of the super-pressure balloon developments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuke, Hideyuki; Izutsu, Naoki; Akita, Daisuke; Iijima, Issei; Kato, Yoichi; Kawada, Jiro; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Mizuta, Eiichi; Namiki, Michiyoshi; Nonaka, Naoki; Ohta, Shigeo; Saito, Yoshitaka; Sato, Takatoshi; Seo, Motoharu; Takada, Atsushi; Tamura, Keisuke; Toriumi, Michi-Hiko; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Yamagami, Takamasa; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    Zero-pressure balloon (ZPB) used for the scientific observation in the stratosphere has an un-avoidable limitation of flight duration. The ZPB cannot fly for a long day and nights, because it cannot keep its floating altitude during nighttime without dropping ballasts. On the other hand, super-pressure balloon (SPB) can keep its volume, and thus it can keep its altitude for a long duration. Therefore, the SPB is expected to provide a very useful way of a long flight to the science communities. The basic principle of the SPB had been well known for several tens of years. However, it was not easy to develop a large, light-weight, and pressure-tight SPB, which can lift a heavy (heavier than a few hundred kg) payload to an altitude of around 35 km. In these ten years, we have developed the SPB based on a unique lobed-pumpkin design. We have carried out a number of ground tests and flight tests to improve the every component of the SPB developments. Recently, we have begun an additional development of an advanced shape of SPB, named `tawara', which is a lobed-pumpkin with a lobed-cylinder. We have performed tests of the tawara-SPB to verify its advantages over the conventional pumpkin SPB. The tawara-SPB can make it easier to enlarge the SPB volume with keeping a single basic design and saving the balloon weight. The tawara-SPB may improve the balloon deployment stability, and can be utilized as a powered balloon. At the conference, we will report a summary of our tests over the past few years as well as of the prospects in the near future.

  8. Aerial Deployment and Inflation System for Mars Helium Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachenmeler, Tim; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Hall, Jeffery, L.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Pauken, Michael T.; Walsh, Gerald J.; White, Christopher V.

    2009-01-01

    A method is examined for safely deploying and inflating helium balloons for missions at Mars. The key for making it possible to deploy balloons that are light enough to be buoyant in the thin, Martian atmosphere is to mitigate the transient forces on the balloon that might tear it. A fully inflated Mars balloon has a diameter of 10 m, so it must be folded up for the trip to Mars, unfolded upon arrival, and then inflated with helium gas in the atmosphere. Safe entry into the Martian atmosphere requires the use of an aeroshell vehicle, which protects against severe heating and pressure loads associated with the hypersonic entry flight. Drag decelerates the aeroshell to supersonic speeds, then two parachutes deploy to slow the vehicle down to the needed safe speed of 25 to 35 m/s for balloon deployment. The parachute system descent dynamic pressure must be approximately 5 Pa or lower at an altitude of 4 km or more above the surface.

  9. An automatic parachute release for high altitude scientific balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Chris

    NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility launches high altitude scientific research balloons at many locations around the world. Locations like Antarctica are flat for hundreds of miles and have nothing to snag a parachute consequently causing it to be more important to separate the parachute from the payload than in an area with vegetation and fences. Scientists are now building one of a kind payloads costing millions of dollars, taking five years or more to build, and are requesting multiple flights. In addition to that, the data gathering rate of many science payloads far exceeds the data downlink rate on over-the-horizon flights therefore making a recovery of at least the data hard drives a "minimum success requirement". The older mentality in ballooning; separating the parachute and payload from the balloon and getting it on the ground is more important than separating the parachute after the payload is on the ground has changed. It is now equally as important to separate the parachute from the gondola to prevent damage from dragging. Until now, commands had to be sent to separate the parachute from the gondola at approximately 60K ft, 30K ft, and 10K ft to use the Semi Automatic Parachute Release (SAPR), which is after the sometimes violent parachute opening shock. By using the Gondola controlled Automatic Parachute Release (GAPR) all commanding is done prior to termination, making the parachute release fully autonomous.

  10. Balloon-Borne, High-Energy Astrophysics: Experiences from the 1960s to the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2008-01-01

    Observational high-energy astrophysics in the hard-x-ray and gamma-ray regions owes its development and initial successes to the balloon-borne development of detector systems, as well as pioneering observations, primarily in the timeframe from the 1960s to the 1990s. I will describe some of the first observations made by the Rice University balloon group in the 1960s, including the impetus for these observations. The appearance of SN 1987a led to several balloon-flight campaigns, sponsored by NASA, from Alice Springs, Australia in 1987 and 1988. During the 1980s, prototypes of instruments for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory were flown on many balloon flights, which greatly enhanced the success of that mission.

  11. [Extrascleral ballooning. 2. New approaches: double and sector ballooning].

    PubMed

    Movshovich, A I; Saksonova, E O; Il'nitskiĭ, V V

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of retinal detachment with the use of distended balloons (extrascleral ballooning) holds good promise due to ease of operation and low traumatism. Unfortunately it may be used only in cases with fresh not high detachments of the retina with solitary or multiple ruptures up to 1-2 optic disk diameters in length. That is why the authors suggest two new modifications of the method: double and sector ballooning, widening the indications for the employment of the method. Double ballooning is recommended for cases with retinal detachments with 2 ruptures up to 2 disc diameters in length, located at a distance of 2-3 disc diameters from each other within one quadrant or in different quadrants of the fundus oculi. Sector ballooning is recommended for cases with retinal detachments with ruptures or breaks off 3-6 disc diameters in length. The results of 24 surgeries are analyzed. Double ballooning is effective in 77 percent of cases, sector ballooning in 82 percent. The presence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, stages C3-D, is a contraindication against the use of this technique.

  12. Test of Re-Entry Systems at Estrange Using Sounding Rockets and Stratospheric Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockowandt, C.; Abrahamsson, M.; Florin, G.

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets can provide an ideal in-flight platform for performing re-entry and other high speed tests off different types of vehicles and techniques. They are also ideal platforms for testing different types of recovery systems such as airbrakes and parachutes. This paper expands on some examples of platforms and missions for drop tests from balloons as well as sounding rockets launched from Esrange Space Center, a facility run by Swedish Space Corporation SSC in northern Sweden.

  13. Flight. Science Series Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frensch, Helen

    The activities in this book are designed to reinforce the elementary concepts of flight. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are provided. Twenty-eight reproducible worksheets are contained in this guide. Topics include: hot air balloons, the physics of flight, air resistance, airplane…

  14. Stability of Lobed Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Danny (Technical Monitor); Pagitz, M.; Pellegrino, Xu S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a computational study of the stability of simple lobed balloon structures. Two approaches are presented, one based on a wrinkled material model and one based on a variable Poisson s ratio model that eliminates compressive stresses iteratively. The first approach is used to investigate the stability of both a single isotensoid and a stack of four isotensoids, for perturbations of in.nitesimally small amplitude. It is found that both structures are stable for global deformation modes, but unstable for local modes at su.ciently large pressure. Both structures are stable if an isotropic model is assumed. The second approach is used to investigate the stability of the isotensoid stack for large shape perturbations, taking into account contact between di.erent surfaces. For this structure a distorted, stable configuration is found. It is also found that the volume enclosed by this con.guration is smaller than that enclosed by the undistorted structure.

  15. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P.

    1987-01-01

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

  16. Overview of the development of the pathfinder ultra-long duration balloon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Magdi A.; Stuchlik, David; Corbin, Brian; Smolinski, Michael; Abresch, Brian; Shreves, Christopher; Stancil, Robert; Cathey, Henry M.; Cannon, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) Pathfinder Project is developing a small pumpkin balloon system and a new communication package based on the iridium satellites technology to demonstrate a global, 100-day duration capability that is scalable to the full-scale ULDB. A set of trade studies has been conducted to determine the volume, mass and cost of the balloon system to support up to 90 kg payload mass to an altitude of 35 km. The Pathfinder test balloons will provide valuable data in the development of performance models for future ULDB flights. The iridium based communication package will include a power subsystem, a command and data-handling unit, a GPS receiver, and an iridium L-Band Transceiver (LBT) for global communications. The flight data will include, at a minimum: latitude, longitude, altitude, horizontal and vertical speeds, heading, time, and other balloon performance parameters (i.e., system voltages, temperatures, etc.). Although the system will be designed for global launch capability, initial flights will be launched from the proposed full-scale ULDB mission launch locations. This paper will present and discuss the initial series of trade studies conducted for the development of the pathfinder balloon and the design concept of the iridium based communication package.

  17. Lightweight Liquid Helium Dewar for High-Altitude Balloon Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan; James, Bryan; Fixsen, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysical observations at millimeter wavelengths require large (2-to-5- meter diameter) telescopes carried to altitudes above 35 km by scientific research balloons. The scientific performance is greatly enhanced if the telescope is cooled to temperatures below 10 K with no emissive windows between the telescope and the sky. Standard liquid helium bucket dewars can contain a suitable telescope for telescope diameter less than two meters. However, the mass of a dewar large enough to hold a 3-to-5-meter diameter telescope would exceed the balloon lift capacity. The solution is to separate the functions of cryogen storage and in-flight thermal isolation, utilizing the unique physical conditions at balloon altitudes. Conventional dewars are launched cold: the vacuum walls necessary for thermal isolation must also withstand the pressure gradient at sea level and are correspondingly thick and heavy. The pressure at 40 km is less than 0.3% of sea level: a dewar designed for use only at 40 km can use ultra thin walls to achieve significant reductions in mass. This innovation concerns new construction and operational techniques to produce a lightweight liquid helium bucket dewar. The dewar is intended for use on high-altitude balloon payloads. The mass is low enough to allow a large (3-to-5-meter) diameter dewar to fly at altitudes above 35 km on conventional scientific research balloons without exceeding the lift capability of the balloon. The lightweight dewar has thin (250- micron) stainless steel walls. The walls are too thin to support the pressure gradient at sea level: the dewar launches warm with the vacuum space vented continuously during ascent to eliminate any pressure gradient across the walls. A commercial 500-liter storage dewar maintains a reservoir of liquid helium within a minimal (hence low mass) volume. Once a 40-km altitude is reached, the valve venting the vacuum space of the bucket dewar is closed to seal the vacuum space. A vacuum pump then

  18. Structure variations of pumpkin balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, N.; Izutsu, N.; Honda, H.

    A robed pumpkin balloon by 3-D gore design concept is recognized as a basic form for a super -pressure balloon. This paper deals with an extension of this design concept for other large pressurized membrane structures, such as a stratospheric airship and a balloon of which volume is controllable. The structural modifications are performed by means of additional ropes or poles. When the original pumpkin shape is modified for those systems, superior characteristics of 3-D gore design, those are large bulges with a small local radius and unidirectional film tension, should be maintained. Improved design methods which are adequate for the above subjects will be discussed in detail.

  19. The Rocket Balloon (Rocketball): Applications to Science, Technology, and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Originally envisioned to study upper atmospheric phenomena, the Rocket Balloon system (or Rocketball for short) has utility in a range of applications, including sprite detection and in-situ measurements, near-space measurements and calibration correlation with orbital assets, hurricane observation and characterization, technology testing and validation, ground observation, and education. A salient feature includes the need to reach space and near-space within a critical time-frame and in adverse local meteorological conditions. It can also provide for the execution of technology validation and operational demonstrations at a fraction of the cost of a space flight. In particular, planetary entry probe proof-of-concepts can be examined. A typical Rocketball operational scenario consists of a sounding rocket launch and subsequent deployment of a balloon above a desired location. An obvious advantage of this combination is the additional mission 'hang-time' rendered by the balloon once the sounding rocket flight is completed. The system leverages current and emergent technologies at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and other organizations.

  20. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a study evaluating the potential for a balloon-based optical telescope as a planetary science asset to achieve decadal class science. The study considered potential science achievable and science traceability relative to the most recent planetary science decadal survey, potential platform features, and demonstration flights in the evaluation process. Science Potential and Benefits: This study confirms the cost the-benefit value for planetary science purposes. Forty-four (44) important questions of the decadal survey are at least partially addressable through balloon based capabilities. Planetary science through balloon observations can provide significant science through observations in the 300 nm to 5 m range and at longer wavelengths as well. Additionally, balloon missions have demonstrated the ability to progress from concept to observation to publication much faster than a space mission increasing the speed of science return. Planetary science from a balloon-borne platform is a relatively low-cost approach to new science measurements. This is particularly relevant within a cost-constrained planetary science budget. Repeated flights further reduce the cost of the per unit science data. Such flights offer observing time at a very competitive cost. Another advantage for planetary scientists is that a dedicated asset could provide significant new viewing opportunities not possible from the ground and allow unprecedented access to observations that cannot be realized with the time allocation pressures faced by current observing assets. In addition, flight systems that have a relatively short life cycle and where hardware is generally recovered, are excellent opportunities to train early career scientists, engineers, and project managers. The fact that balloon-borne payloads, unlike space missions, are generally recovered offers an excellent tool to test and mature instruments and other space craft systems. Desired Gondola Features: Potential

  1. The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center program in gamma-ray burst astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    The research program in gamma-ray burst astronomy at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center is described. Large-area scintillation detector arrays have been flown on high-altitude balloons, and an array is being developed for the Gamma-Ray Observatory. The design of these detectors is described along with results obtained from previous balloon flights.

  2. Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude hydrofluoric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, B.; Toon, G. C.; Blavier, J.-F.; Szeto, J. T.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of stratospheric hydrofluoric acid (HF) have been made by the JPL MkIV interferometer during high-altitude balloon flights. Infrared solar absorption spectra were acquired near 35 deg N at altitudes between local tropopause and 38 km. Volume mixing ratio profiles of HF derived from 4 flights (1990-93), in conjunction with simultaneously observed N2O profiles, indicate an average rate of HF increase of (5.5 +/- 0.3)% per year, in agreement with time-dependent, two-dimensional model simulations (6% per year) and ATMOS measurements.

  3. Status of the Balloon-Borne X-ray Polarimetry Mission X-Calibur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczynski, Henric; Kislat, Fabian; Stuchlik, David; Okajima, Takashi; de Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2016-04-01

    We report on the status of the balloon borne hard X-ray polairmetry mission X-Calibur. The missions combines a focussing hard X-ray mirror from the InFOCuS collaboration with a scattering polarimeter and the WASP (Wallops Arc Second Pointer) pointing system. The mission is scheduled for a conventonal ~1 day balloon flight in Fall 2016 and a long duration (~30 day) balloon flight from McMurdo (Ross Island) in 2018/2019. X-Calibur will allow us to measure ~5% polarization fractions for strong sources with a Crab-like enegry spectra and fluxes. The science targets of the first balloon flights will include the stellar mass black holes GRS 1915+105 and Cyg X-1, Her X-1, Sco X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. The long duration balloon flight will target several X-ray binaries and the extragalactic mass accreting supermassive black hole Cen A. In this contribution we give an update on the status of the mission, and the expected science return.

  4. The balloon-borne exoplanet spectroscopy experiment (BETSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, E.

    2015-10-01

    The balloon-borne exoplanet spectroscopy experiment (BETSE) is a proposed balloon spectrometer operating in the 1-5 μm band with spectral resolution of R = 100. Using a 50 cm diameter telescope, BETSE is desgnied to have sufficient sensitivity and control of systematics to measure the atmospheric spectra of representative sample of known hot Jupiters, few warm Neptunes, and some of the exoplanets TESS will soon begin to discover. This would for the first time allow us to place strict observational constraints on the nature of exo-atmospheres and on models of planetary formation. In a LDB flight from Antarctica, BETSE would be able to characterize the atmospheres of 20 planets. If a ULDB flight is available, the combination of a longer flight and night time operations would enable BETSE to ground-breakingly characterize the atmospheres of more than 40 planets. Prior to an LDB or ULDB flight, BETSE would be tested in a 24 hr flight from Fort Sumner, NM, in order to test all subsystems, also observing more than 4 planets with SNR greater than 5.

  5. AIROscope: Ames infrared balloon-borne telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, O. L.; Scott, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    A balloon-borne telescope system designed for astronomical observations at infrared wavelengths is discussed. The telescope is gyro-stabilized with updated pointing information derived from television, star tracker, or ground commands. The television system furnishes both course and fine acquisition after initial orientation using a pair of fluxgate servo compasses. Command and control is by a UHF link with 256 commands available. Scientific and engineering data are telemetered to the ground station via narrow band F.M. in the L band. The ground station displays all scientific, engineering and status information during the flights and records the command and telemetry digital bit stream for detailed analysis. The AIROscope telescope has a 28-inch diameter primary mirror and Dall-Kirkham optics. The beam is modulated by oscillating a secondary mirror at 11 or 25 Hz with provision for left or right beam fixed positions by command.

  6. Balloon-Borne Infrasound Detection of Energetic Bolide Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Ballard, Courtney; Klein, Viliam; Bowman, Daniel; Boslough, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Infrasound is usually defined as sound waves below 20 Hz, the nominal limit of human hearing. Infrasound waves propagate over vast distances through the Earth's atmosphere: the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) has 48 installed infrasound-sensing stations around the world to detect nuclear detonations and other disturbances. In February 2013, several CTBTO infrasound stations detected infrasound signals from a large bolide that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia. Some stations recorded signals that had circumnavigated the Earth, over a day after the original event. The goal of this project is to improve upon the sensitivity of the CTBTO network by putting microphones on small, long-duration super-pressure balloons, with the overarching goal of studying the small end of the NEO population by using the Earth's atmosphere as a witness plate.A balloon-borne infrasound sensor is expected to have two advantages over ground-based stations: a lack of wind noise and a concentration of infrasound energy in the "stratospheric duct" between roughly 5 - 50 km altitude. To test these advantages, we have built a small balloon payload with five calibrated microphones. We plan to fly this payload on a NASA high-altitude balloon from Ft Sumner, NM in August 2016. We have arranged for three large explosions to take place in Socorro, NM while the balloon is aloft to assess the sensitivity of balloon-borne vs. ground-based infrasound sensors. We will report on the results from this test flight and the prospects for detecting/characterizing small bolides in the stratosphere.

  7. 14 CFR 31.23 - Flight load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight load factor. 31.23 Section 31.23... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.23 Flight load factor. In determining limit load, the limit flight load factor must be at least 1.4....

  8. 14 CFR 31.23 - Flight load factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight load factor. 31.23 Section 31.23... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.23 Flight load factor. In determining limit load, the limit flight load factor must be at least 1.4....

  9. The MIPAS balloon borne trace constitutent experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelhaf, H.; Vonclarmann, TH.; Fischer, H.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Fritzsche, CHR.; Piesch, CHR.; Rabus, D.; Seefeldner, M.; Voelker, W.

    1994-01-01

    A novel cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) has been developed for limb emission measurements in the mid IR-region from balloon-borne platforms. The FTS is a rapid scanning interferometer using a modified Michelson arrangement which allows a spectral resolution of 0.04 cm(exp -1) to be achieved. Solid carbon-dioxide cooling of the spectrometer and liquid-helium cooling of the detectors provide adequate sensitivity. The line of sight can be stabilized in terms of azimuth and elevation. A three-mirror off-axis telescope provides good vertical resolution and straylight rejection. Calibration is performed by high elevation and internal blackbody measurements. Four balloon flights were performed, two of them during spring turn-around 1989 and 1990 over mid-latitudes (Aire sur L'Adour, France, 44 deg N) and two near the northern polar circle in winter 1992 (Esrange, Sweden, 68 deg N). Limb emission spectra were collected from 32 km to 39 km floating altitudes covering tangent heights between the lower troposphere and the floating altitude. The trace gases CO2, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, CF2Cl2, CFCl3, CHF2Cl, CCl4, and C2H6 have been identified in the measured spectra. The 1989 data have been analyzed to retrieve profiles of O3, HNO3, CFCl3 and CF2Cl2. The flights over Kiruna have provided the first ever reported profile measurements of the key reservoir species ClONO2 and N2O5 inside the polar vortex.

  10. Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  11. Dengue Virus 2 American-Asian Genotype Identified during the 2006/2007 Outbreak in Piauí, Brazil Reveals a Caribbean Route of Introduction and Dissemination of Dengue Virus in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Sakamoto, Tetsu; Leomil Coelho, Luiz Felipe; de Oliveira Rocha, Eliseu Soares; Gomes Cota, Marcela Menezes; Ferreira, Gustavo Portela; de Oliveira, Jaquelline Germano; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most widespread arthropod-borne virus, and the number and severity of outbreaks has increased worldwide in recent decades. Dengue is caused by DENV-1, DENV- 2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 which are genetically distant. The species has been subdivided into genotypes based on phylogenetic studies. DENV-2, which was isolated from dengue fever patients during an outbreak in Piaui, Brazil in 2006/2007 was analyzed by sequencing the envelope (E) gene. The results indicated a high similarity among the isolated viruses, as well as to other DENV-2 from Brazil, Central America and South America. A phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis based on DENV-2E gene sequences revealed that these viruses are grouped together with viruses of the American-Asian genotype in two distinct lineages. Our results demonstrate the co-circulation of two American-Asian genotype lineages in northeast Brazil. Moreover, we reveal that DENV-2 lineage 2 was detected in Piauí before it disseminated to other Brazilian states and South American countries, indicating the existence of a new dissemination route that has not been previously described. PMID:25127366

  12. Dengue virus 2 American-Asian genotype identified during the 2006/2007 outbreak in Piauí, Brazil reveals a Caribbean route of introduction and dissemination of dengue virus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Sakamoto, Tetsu; Leomil Coelho, Luiz Felipe; de Oliveira Rocha, Eliseu Soares; Gomes Cota, Marcela Menezes; Ferreira, Gustavo Portela; de Oliveira, Jaquelline Germano; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most widespread arthropod-borne virus, and the number and severity of outbreaks has increased worldwide in recent decades. Dengue is caused by DENV-1, DENV- 2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 which are genetically distant. The species has been subdivided into genotypes based on phylogenetic studies. DENV-2, which was isolated from dengue fever patients during an outbreak in Piaui, Brazil in 2006/2007 was analyzed by sequencing the envelope (E) gene. The results indicated a high similarity among the isolated viruses, as well as to other DENV-2 from Brazil, Central America and South America. A phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis based on DENV-2E gene sequences revealed that these viruses are grouped together with viruses of the American-Asian genotype in two distinct lineages. Our results demonstrate the co-circulation of two American-Asian genotype lineages in northeast Brazil. Moreover, we reveal that DENV-2 lineage 2 was detected in Piauí before it disseminated to other Brazilian states and South American countries, indicating the existence of a new dissemination route that has not been previously described.

  13. Hot Air Balloon: An Unusual Cause of Multicasualty Trauma Incident.

    PubMed

    Persoz, Marc-Olivier; Dami, Fabrice; Ciavatta, Ettore; Vallotton, Laurent; Albrecht, Roland; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Hot air balloon incidents are few and far between compared with the total number of flights. Nevertheless, hot air balloon incidents may produce severe trauma involving several patients and are linked to significant mortality. The prehospital management of injured patients starts after having secured potential surrounding dangers, such as fire or explosion. In the context of a rescue by helicopter, close attention must be paid to potential obstacles, like trees or electrical wires, and the risk of aspiration of the balloon envelope into the rotor. Patients involved in such incidents are often split up in a closed perimeter around the crash point. The severity of the trauma depends essentially on the height of the fall. The most frequent traumatic lesions involve fractures of the lower limbs, the spine, and the pelvis as well as severe burns caused by the balloon fire. Because of the number of patients present, an initial triage is usually required at the site. The use of rescue helicopters can be helpful. They can perform aerial reconnaissance, provide on-site high-level resources, enable access to the patients even in hostile environments, and quickly transport them to trauma center hospitals. PMID:27255882

  14. Home Education in Pennsylvania, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John S., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    The 2006-07 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 22,136. The total was comprised of 11,422 males and 10,714 females. There was a decrease of 276 students, or 1.2%, from the 2005-06 total of 22,412. It was the fourth year in a row that home education enrollments decreased and only the fifth year overall since the passage of Act 169…

  15. Annual Change Report 2006/2007

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-11-16

    As part of continuing compliance, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide information on any change in conditions or activities pertaining to the disposal system since the most recent compliance application. This requirement is identified in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Section 194.4(b)(4), which states: "No later than six months after the administrator issues a certification, and at least annually thereafter, the Department shall report to the Administrator, in writing, any changes in conditions or activities pertaining to the disposal system that were not required to be reported by paragraph (b)(3) of this section and that differ from information contained in the most recent compliance application." In meeting the requirement, the DOE provides an annual report each November of all applicable changes under the above requirement. This annual report informs the EPA of changes to information in the most recent compliance recertification (the 2004 Compliance Recertification). Significant planned changes must be reported to the EPA prior to implementation by the DOE. In addition, Title 40 CFR, Section 194.4(b)(3) requires that significant unplanned changes be reported to the EPA within 24 hours or ten days, depending on the severity of the activity or condition. To date, there have been no significant unplanned changes to the certification basis. Planned changes have been submitted on an individual basis. All other changes are reported annually. Changes in activities or conditions are reviewed to determine if 40 CFR Section 194.4(b)(3) reporting is necessary. As indicated above, no significant unplanned changes were identified for the time period covered by this report. The enclosed tables list those items identified for reporting under 40 CFR Section 194.4(b)(4). The majority of the items described in this report are inspections, reports, and modifications to written plans and procedures for WIPP operations.

  16. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  17. Low Cost Balloon programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has launched 89 Missions to near space using single or multiple weather balloons or very light plastic balloons. Basic goal was to capitalize miniaturization of equipments in modern ages. Our typical payload of less than 4kg weight consists of GPS, video camera, cosmic ray detectors, Attitude measurement unit, sunsensor and most importantly a 50-100sqcm X-ray/Gamma-ray detector (usually a scintillator type). The main purpose of the latter is to study spectra of secondary cosmic ray spectra (till our ceiling altitude of 36-42km) over the years and their seasonal variation or variation with solar cycle. We also study solar X-ray spectra, especially of solar flares. We have detected a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) and pulsars. Our observation of black hole candidates did not yield satisfactory result yet mainly because of poor collimation (~ 10 deg x 10 deg) by lead collimator which introduces strong background also. Our effort with multiple balloon flights enabled us to have long duration flights. We believe that our procedure is very futuristic and yet at an affordable cost.

  18. High Altitude Balloons as a Platform for Space Radiation Belt Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzino, L.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Johnson, W.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB)

    2011-12-01

    The goals of the University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons Program (UA-HAB) are to i) use low cost balloons to address space radiation science, and ii) to utilise the excitement of "space mission" involvement to promote and facilitate the recruitment of undergraduate and graduate students in physics, engineering, and atmospheric sciences to pursue careers in space science and engineering. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB) is a unique opportunity for University of Alberta students (undergraduate and graduate) to engage in the hands-on design, development, build, test and flight of a payload to operate on a high altitude balloon at around 30km altitude. The program development, including formal design and acceptance tests, reports and reviews, mirror those required in the development of an orbital satellite mission. This enables the students to gain a unique insight into how space missions are flown. UA-HAB is a one and half year program that offers a gateway into a high-altitude balloon mission through hands on experience, and builds skills for students who may be attracted to participate in future space missions in their careers. This early education will provide students with the experience necessary to better assess opportunities for pursuing a career in space science. Balloons offer a low-cost alternative to other suborbital platforms which can be used to address radiation belt science goals. In particular, the participants of this program have written grant proposal to secure funds for this project, have launched several 'weather balloon missions', and have designed, built, tested, and launched their particle detector called "Maple Leaf Particle Detector". This detector was focussed on monitoring cosmic rays and space radiation using shielded Geiger tubes, and was flown as one of the payloads from the institutions participating in the High Altitude Student Platform (HASP), organized by the Louisiana State University and the Louisiana

  19. A balloon-borne high-resolution spectrometer for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Starr, R.; Stottlemyre, A. R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, and balloon-flight verification of a payload for observations of gamma-ray emission from solar flares are reported. The payload incorporates a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector, standard NIM and CAMAC electronics modules, a thermally stabilized pressure housing, and regulated battery power supplies. The flight system is supported on the ground with interactive data-handling equipment comprised of similar electronics hardware. The modularity and flexibility of the payload, together with the resolution and stability obtained throughout a 30-hour flight, make it readily adaptable for high-sensitivity, long-duration balloon fight applications.

  20. Integrating BalloonSAT and Atmospheric Dynamic Concepts into the Secondary Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, B. N.; Kennon, J. T.; Roberts, E.

    2016-05-01

    Arkansas BalloonSAT is an educational outreach and scientific research program that is part of Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, AR. The following is a unit of instruction to incorporate BalloonSAT measurements into secondary science classes. Students interpret graphs and identify several atmospheric trends and properties of a typical balloon flight. Students engage critical thinking skills in developing and answering their own questions relevant to the BalloonSAT program. Prerequisite concepts students should know are how to interpret graphs and unit conversions. Students should have a basic understanding of gravity, units of temperature and distance, and error in measurements. The unit is designed for one week after end-of-course exams and before the end of school. The unit may take two to five 50-minute periods, depending on how many activities are completed.

  1. Structure variations of pumpkin balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, N.; Izutsu, N.; Honda, H.

    2004-01-01

    A lobed pumpkin balloon by 3-D gore design concept is recognized as a basic form for a super-pressure balloon. This paper deals with extensions of this design concept for other large pressurized membrane structures, such as a stratospheric airship and a balloon of which volume is controllable. The structural modifications are performed by means of additional ropes, belts or a strut. When the original pumpkin shape is modified by these systems, the superior characteristics of the 3-D gore design, incorporating large bulges with a small local radius and unidirectional film tension, should be maintained. Improved design methods which are adequate for the above subjects will be discussed in detail. Application for ground structures are also mentioned.

  2. Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BENI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Ford, Holland; Petro, Larry; Herman, Jay; Rinehart, Stephen; Carpenter, Kenneth; Marzouk, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of using a balloon-borne nulling interferometer to detect and characterize exosolar planets and debris disks. The existing instrument consists of a 3-telescope Fizeau imaging interferometer with 3 fast steering mirrors and 3 delay lines operating at 800 Hz for closed-loop control of wavefront errors and fine pointing. A compact visible nulling interferometer is under development which when coupled to the imaging interferometer would in-principle allow deep suppression of starlight. We have conducted atmospheric simulations of the environment above 100,000 feet and believe balloons are a feasible path forward towards detection and characterization of a limited set of exoplanets and their debris disks. Herein we will discuss the BENI instrument, the balloon environment and the feasibility of such as mission.

  3. Recent activities for long duration flight systems in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.

    For the feasibility studies of the long duration balloon systems in recent times in Japan, the forces was on following items. • An analysis to utilize the Pumpkin Balloons for the over pressurized balloons, and to develop the simple automatic gas pressure control systems for the long duration flights. • Test flights by the balloon group of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) to see the performance of the balloons of new films of EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) having strong absorption bands of the infra-red between 7-14 microns. We expect that this absorption prevents the cooling of the lifting gas after the sun-sets, and thus save the ballast consumption. • A sea recovery system beyond 100-200 km from the Pacific coast by using helicopters with ARGOS/GPS. The situation would be applicable to the sea recovery of payloads after the long duration flights at the turn-around period launched from Sanriku Balloon Center. The flight performances have already been proved in the 1975 and 77 achieving the duration of 55, 65, 80 hrs keeping the locations of payloads within 200 km from the sea coast. • Studies on the high altitude balloons with thin polyethylene films are also reported in this paper.

  4. NASA Aeronautics Showcased at Balloon Fiesta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Visitors at the 2010 International Balloon Fiesta in Albuquerque, N.M., got visual stimulation from hundreds of colorful hot-air balloons soaring skyward, but also learned about NASA's aeronautics ...

  5. Tensile set behavior of Foley catheter balloons.

    PubMed

    Joseph, R; Ramesh, P; Sivakumar, R

    1999-01-01

    The removal of indwelling urinary balloon catheters from patients is usually associated with many problems. The problems such as balloon deflation failure; encrustations on balloons, eyes, and lumen; and catheter associated infections are widely discussed in the literature. The tensile set exhibited by the catheter balloon material could also play a role and further complicate the removal process. This article addresses this issue by comparing the tensile set behavior of the balloon material from three commercially available Foley catheters. The balloon materials were subjected to aging in synthetic urine at 37 degrees C for 28 days to simulate clinical conditions. The deflation time of catheter balloons aged in similar conditions were also measured. It was found that different brands of catheters exhibited statistically significant differences in their properties. The tensile set data of the aged samples could be correlated with the deflation time of the balloons. The clinical significance of the tensile set is also highlighted.

  6. Yellow Balloon in a Briar Patch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Frank; Fitzmaurice, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a meteorology unit, sixth grade science students launched helium balloons with attached return postcards. This article describes Weather Service monitoring of the balloons and postcard return results. (MA)

  7. Astrophysical Observations with the HEROES Balloon-borne Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Colleen; Gaskin, J.; Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.; Swartz, D. A.; Tennant, A. F.; Ramsey, B.

    2014-01-01

    The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) payload flew on a balloon from Ft. Sumner, NM, September 21-22, 2013. HEROES is sensitive from about 20-75 keV and comprises 8 optics modules, each consisting of 13-14 nickel replicated optics shells and 8 Xenon-filled position-sensitive proportional counter detectors. HEROES is unique in that it is the first hard X-ray telescope that will observe the Sun and astrophysical targets in the same balloon flight. Our astrophysics targets include the Crab nebula and pulsar and the black hole binary GRS 1915+105. In this presentation, I will describe the HEROES mission, the data analysis pipeline and calibrations, and preliminary astrophysics results.

  8. Balloon borne measurements of Stratospheric ozone over Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Sreenivasan, S.; Sinha, P. R.

    We conducted a one year campaign for the study of stratospheric ozone concentration and its variability along with other metrological parameters over Hyderabad. The flights were made every 15 days using 5000 cu m plastic balloons except during the rainy days when rubber balloon were employed. Ozone plays important role in the chemistry and dynamics of the atmosphere. In troposphere, ozone represents one of the most active gases involved in photochemical reactions as many factors influence tropospheric ozone concentration. Tropospheric ozone also plays a central role in the oxidative chemistry of the troposphere and has an important impact on the radiative balance of the atmosphere and therefore continuous observation program is necessary to assess the ozone budget. The measurement of other meteorological parameters is also essential since an atmospheric composition is intimately linked to the meteorological conditions, under which chemical and transport processes occur. The measurements were made using ozonesonde (Electro Chemical Cell) coupled with GPS RS80-15N radiosonde.

  9. Miracle Flights

    MedlinePlus

    ... the perfect solution for your needs. Book A Flight Request a flight now Click on the link ... Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights ...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a) Identification. An epistaxis balloon is a device consisting of an inflatable balloon intended to control...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a) Identification. An epistaxis balloon is a device consisting of an inflatable balloon intended to control...

  12. Balloon-borne measurements of the ultraviolet flux in the Arctic stratosphere during winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Cornelius; Mueller, Martin; Klein, Erich; Schmidt, Ulrich; Roeth, Ernst-Peter

    1994-01-01

    Filter radiometers sensitive from 280 to 320 nm and from 280 to 400 nm, respectively, were used for measurements of the actinic flux in the stratosphere. Since the instruments are calibrated for absolute spectral sensitivity the data can be compared with model calculations of the actinic flux. Data were obtained during seven balloon flights during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE).

  13. CdZnTe Background Measurements at Balloon Altitudes with PoRTIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, L.; Gehrels, N.; Naya, J.; Stahle, C. M.; Tueller, J.; Teegarden, B.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the CdZnTe internal background at balloon altitudes are essential to determine which physical processes make the most important background contributions. We present results from CdZnTe background measurements made by PoRTIA, a small CdZnTe balloon instrument that was flown three times in three different shielding configurations. PoRTIA was passively shielded during its first flight from Palestine, Texas and actively shielded as a piggyback instrument on the GRIS balloon experiment during its second and third flights from Alice Springs, Australia, using the thick GRIS Nal anticoincidence shield. A significant CdZnTe background reduction was achieved during the third flight with PoRTIA placed completely inside the GRIS shield and blocking crystal, and thus completely surrounded by 15 cm of Nal. A unique balloon altitude background data set is provided by CdZnTe and Ge detectors simultaneously surrounded by the same thick anticoincidence shield; the presence of a single coxial Ge detector inside the shield next to PoRTIA allowed a measurement of the ambient neutron flux inside the shield throughout the flight. These neutrons interact with the detector material to produce isomeric states of the Cd, Zn and Te nuclei that radiatively decay; calculations are presented that indicate that these decays may explain most of the fully shielded CdZnTe background.

  14. Qualitative comparison of concurrent vertical optical turbulence profiles from an aircraft and balloons over White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlin, Scott R.; Hahn, Ila L.; Hugo, Ronald J.; Bishop, Kenneth P.

    1999-08-01

    We report simultaneous balloon-borne thermosonde/airborne constant-current anemometer measurements made over a portion of White Sands Missile Range, NM. For the first time, vertical profiles of the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) data generated from shallow slant aircraft flight paths are compared to the balloons vertical Cn2 distributions. We discuss possible adverse effects of meteorology and atmospheric velocity fluctuations. We present conclusions and make recommendations for future similar experimental efforts.

  15. Balloon atmospheric propagation experiment measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1973-01-01

    High altitude balloon measurements on laser beam fading during propagation through turbulent atmosphere show that a correlation between fading strength and stellar scintillation magnitudes exists. Graphs for stellar scintillation as a function of receiver aperture are used to predict fading bit error rates for neodymium-yag laser communication system.

  16. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  17. Integrating Balloon and Satellite Operation Data Centers for Technology Readiness Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello-Francisco, Fátima; Fernandes, Jose Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Stratospheric balloon-borne experiments have been one of the most effective ways to validate innovative space technology, taking the advantage of reduced development cycles and low cost in launching and operation. In Brazil, the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has balloon and satellite ground infrastructures since the 1970´s and the 1990´s, respectively. In the recent past, a strategic approach was adopted on the modernization of balloon ground operation facilities for supporting the protoMIRAX experiment, an X-ray imaging telescope under development at INPE as a pathfinder for the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de Raios X) satellite mission. The strategic target was to reuse the SATellite Control System (SATCS), a software framework developed to control and monitor INPÉs satellites, for balloon operation. This paper presents the results of that effort and the new ongoing project, a computer-based framework named I2Bso, which strategic target is to Integrate INPÉs Balloon and Satellite Operation data centers. The I2Bso major purpose is to support the continuous assessment of an innovative technology after different qualification flights either on board balloons or satellites in order to acquire growing evidence for the technology maturity.

  18. Numerical and experimental simulation of the mechanical behavior of super-pressure balloon subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siguier, J.; Guigue, P.; Karama, M.; Mistou, S.; Dalverny, O.; Granier, S.

    Long duration super-pressure balloons are a great challenge in scientific ballooning. Whatever the balloon type considered (spherical, pumpkin,...), it is necessary to have good knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the envelope regarding the flight level and the life-span of the balloon. For this reason CNES, ONERA and ENIT are carrying out a research program of modelization and experimentation in order to predict the envelope shape of a balloon in different conditions of temperature and differential pressure. On the one hand, we define the mechanical laws of envelope materials, that is the elasticity, plasticity and viscosity properties of polymers, and find the parameters of the law with unidirectional tests. These laws are introduced in a finite element code which predict the stress and strain state of a complex envelope structure. On the other hand, we are developing an experimental set-up to measure the 3D strain of a balloon sub-system, that is including the envelope, assemblies and apex parts, with realistic flight conditions. This facility, called NIRVANA, is a 1m3 vacuum chamber with cooled screens equipped with a stereoscopic CCD measurement system. We can submit a 1,5m diameter sample to differential pressure, regulate the temperature from +20°C to -120°C and apply a load to tendons of up to 6 tons if required. This paper presents the first results of the modelizations and m asurements of ane envelope sample submitted to axisymetrical stress due to the differential pressure. This sample consists of a 50μm multi-layer polymer film with an assembly, used in 10m diameter STRATEOLE super-pressure balloons. The modelization gives results which largely agree with the experiment and enable us to continue with cold conditions and more complex structures.

  19. Long Duration Balloon Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) solar power system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Juan

    High altitude scientific balloons have been used for many years to provide scientists with access to near space at a fraction of the cost of satellite based or sounding rocket experiments. In recent years, these balloons have been successfully used for long duration missions of up to 40 days. Longer missions, with durations of up to 100 days (Ultra Long), are in the planning stages. Due to the flight durations, solar power systems have been utilized throughout the Long Duration Balloon (LDB) flight program to power the necessary electronic systems. Recently, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) charge controllers have become available off-the-shelf. These controllers along with high efficiency mono-crystalline solar cells have become reliable, low cost solutions even in the harsh environments they operate in. The LDB program at the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) began supporting solar power systems with custom units fabricated by the Physical Science Laboratory (PSL) of New Mexico State University (NMSU). These charge controllers proved to be very reliable systems; however, they required intensive labor to build and were relatively expensive. As off-the-shelf MPPT charge controllers have become available, they have been integrated into the LDB flight support systems. Coupled with PSL developed interface electronics for monitoring and power switching, they have proven to be as reliable, less expensive, and more efficient. The addition of MPPT allows for the controller to operate the solar panel at it highest power production point. Newer, off-the-shelf controllers with smarter MPPT, are currently being tested. This paper describes the long and ultra-long balloon missions and the role that solar power plays in mission success. More importantly, it discusses the recent developments in off-the-shelf MPPT charge controllers configured for use in the harsh high altitude balloon environment.

  20. A Challenge to the Highest Balloon Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Akita, Daisuke; Fuke, Hideyuki; Iijima, Issei; Izutsu, Naoki; Kato, Yoichi; Kawada, Jiro; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Mizuta, Eiichi; Namiki, Michiyoshi; Nonaka, Naoki; Ohta, Shigeo; Sato, Takatoshi; Seo, Motoharu; Takada, Atsushi; Tamura, Keisuke; Toriumi, Michihiko; Yamagami, Takamasa; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Tanaka, Shigeki

    Development of a balloon to fly at higher altitudes is one of the most attractive challenges in scientific balloon technologies. After reaching the highest record setting balloon altitude of 53.0 km using the 3.4 µm film in 2002, a thinner balloon film with a thickness of 2.8 µm using a higher density resin was developed. In 2004, a 5,000 m3 balloon with the film was successfully launched, however, 60,000 m3 balloons launched in 2005, 2006, and 2007, were broken during the ascending phase. The problem was suspected to be due to the properties of the film including the uniformity and the strength, neither of which can be estimated by the conventional tensile test. Thus, we checked the strength of the film with large sample, the bi-axial tensile test properties, the creep properties, and the viscoelasticity, comparing with these to the other thick balloon films. In this conference, we are going to report our new test procedure of the balloon film, results of our current and a new 2.8 µm balloon film, and our future plan to launch the highest altitude balloon.

  1. A method for balloon trajectory control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, K. M.; Heun, M. K.; Nock, K. T.

    A balloon trajectory control system is discussed that is under development for use on NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon Project. The trajectory control system exploits the natural wind field variation with altitude to generate passive lateral control forces on a balloon using a tether-deployed aerodynamic surface below the balloon. A lifting device, such as a wing on end, is suspended on a tether well beneath the balloon to take advantage of this variation in wind velocity with altitude. The wing generates a horizontal lift force that can be directed over a wide range of angles. This force, transmitted to the balloon by a tether, alters the balloon's path providing a bias velocity of a few meters per second to the balloon drift rate. The trajectory control system enables the balloon to avoid hazards, reach targets, steer around avoidance countries and select convenient landing zones. No longer will balloons be totally at the mercy of the winds. Tests in April 1999 of a dynamically-scaled model of the trajectory control system were carried out by Global Aerospace Corporation in ground level winds up to 15 m/s. The size of the scale model was designed to simulate the behavior of the full scale trajectory control system operating at 20 km altitude. The model confirmed many aspects of trajectory control system performance and the results will be incorporated into future development.

  2. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallice, A.; Wienhold, F. G.; Hoyle, C. R.; Immler, F.; Peter, T.

    2011-06-01

    A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ~30-35 km altitude) is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI) campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s-1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s-1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study) in the orographically unperturbed mid-latitude middle troposphere.

  3. a Pinhole Sun Sensor for Balloon-Borne Experiment Attitude Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkov, A. L.; English, M.-P.; Tucker, G. S.; Pascale, E.; Gandilo, N.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the design, calibration and in-flight performance of a sun sensor, which is used to determine the attitude of a balloon-borne telescope. The device uses a position-sensitive detector (PSD) in a pinhole camera. By determining the position of the image of the Sun on the PSD, the orientation of the sun sensor and the boresight of the telescope relative to the Sun can be determined. The pinhole sun sensor (PSS) was first flown in the December 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope with Polarization (BLAST-Pol). In flight the PSS achieved an accuracy (combined azimuth and elevation) of about 0.18°. The accuracy could be improved by increasing the distance between the pinhole and the PSD, but the field-of-view of the PSS would be reduced.

  4. Infrared balloon experiment: improved instrumental configuration and assessment of instrument performance.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, G; Boscaleri, A; Carli, B; Mencaraglia, F; Palchetti, L; Pascale, E

    2006-02-10

    During the 2002 environmental satellite Envisat mid-latitude validation campaign, a new upgraded configuration of the Infrared Balloon Experiment (IBEX) Fourier transform spectrometer, which had its first flight in 1978, performed a stratospheric balloon flight across the Mediterranean Sea. Among the substantial upgrades made to the instrument, the use of photon-noise-limited detectors permitted us to reach the theoretical limits in terms of signal-to-noise ratio. Also, important modifications were made to the interferometric system and electronics, such as the installation of a solid-state laser reference source and an onboard data recording system. During the flight, measurement of volume-mixing-ratio vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, N2O, and ClO from an altitude of approximately 38 km were performed with a vertical resolution of approximately 1.5 km.

  5. Balloon tracer for atmospheric pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lichfield, E.W.; Ivey, M.D.; Zak, B.D.; Church, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    An operational prototype of the Balloon Tracer was developed and described. This prototype was designed to be capable of meeting all of the desired specifications for the Balloon Tracer. Its buoyancy adjustment subsystem is shown. Three Gilian instrument pumps operating in parallel provide a flow of about 12 litres per minute, depending upon backpressure. The miniature Klippard mechanical valves are actuated by a servo mechanism which only requires power when the state of the valves is being changed. The balloon itself for the operational prototype is just under 3 meters in diameter. A block diagram of the operational prototype payload measures ambient pressure, temperature, and humidity obtained from AIR which outputs its data in ASCII format. The vertical anemometer, which has a measured starting speed of under 2 cm/s, makes use of a Gill styrofoam propeller and a Spaulding Instruments rotation sendor. The command decoder is built around a chip developed originally for remote control television tuners. The command receiver operating on 13.8035 MHz was developed and built by Hock Engineering. The Argos transmitter is a Telonics platform transmitter terminal. The heart of the control system is an Intel 8052AH BASIC microcomputer with both random access and read only memory.

  6. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2008-11-01

    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  7. High Energy Cosmic Ray Electron Spectra measured from the ATIC Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K. E.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment (ATIC) is specifically designed for high energy cosmic ray ion detection. From simulation and a CERN beam test exposure we find that the design consisting of a graphite target and an energy detection device, a totally active calorimeter of BGO scintillator, gives us sufficient information to distinguish electrons from protons up to the TeV energy range. Balloon observations were successfully carried out over Antarctica in both 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 for a total of more than 35 days. This paper presents preliminary results on the spectrum of high energy electrons observed in the first ATIC flight.

  8. Coronagraphic Imaging of Exoplanets from a High Altitude Balloon Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Direct imaging of exoplanets orbiting nearby stars is a major observational challenge, demanding high angular resolution and extremely high dynamic range close to the parent star. Such a system could image and characterize the atmospheres of exoplanets, and also observe exozodiacal dust within the exoplanetary system. The ultimate experiment requires a space-based platform, but demonstrating much of the needed technology as well as performing valuable measurements of circumstellar debris disks, can be done from a high-altitude balloon platform. In this paper, we show how progress in key technologies leads to a balloon experiment as a logical future step toward a space mission. The HCIT testbed has shown ultra-high contrast using small optics in a vacuum testbed. A recent ground-based experiment has demonstrated the ability to control three active optics in series - a lightweight controllable primary mirror, and two deformable mirrors - to achieve close to the best wavefront correction possible with large optics in an in-air testbed. We briefly describe the Wallops Arcsecond Pointer (WASP), which as had a very successful first flight, showing the capability of a balloon platform to stably point to the accuracy required for a coronagraph payload experiment. A balloon-borne coronagraph mission would incorporate all of these advances in an instrument that verifies each one in a space-like environment, and enabling forefront science. Such an experiment would be a step toward mitigating the technical risks of a major space-based exoplanet coronagraph. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2012. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  9. Biodegradable inflatable balloons for tissue separation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arijit; Haim-Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2016-10-01

    Confining radiation to a specific region (during radiation therapy) minimizes damage to surrounding tissues. Biodegradable inflatable balloons (bio-balloons) were developed. The device protects the normal tissues by increasing the gap between radiation source and critical structures. The radiation fades away while passing through the inflated balloon preventing the surrounding tissues from harmful radiation. These bio-balloons have also found clinical use to treat massive rotator cuff tear. This review summarizes the chemistry, engineering, and clinical development of these biomedical devices. These balloons are made of biodegradable polymers folded into the edge of a trocar and inserted between the tissues to be separated, and inflated by normal saline in the site of the application. The inserted balloon protects the tissues from radiation or mechanical stress. They remain inflated on site for two months and are finally eliminated within 12 months. PMID:27521613

  10. Comparison of ozone measurement techniques using aircraft, balloon, and ground-based measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.; Reck, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    In order to verify the ultraviolet absorption technique used in the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program, two flight experiments were conducted employing several techniques, both in situ and remote, for measuring atmospheric ozone. The first experiment used the NASA CV-990 equipped with an ultraviolet absorption ozone monitor and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer, a balloon ozonesonde, and a Dobson station for determining and comparing the ozone concentration data. A second experiment compared ozone data from an automated sampling system aboard a B-747 with data from a manned system installed on the NASA CV-990 during a cross-country flight with both aircraft following the same flight path separated by 32 kilometers.

  11. DLR HABLEG- High Altitude Balloon Launched Experimental Glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlach, S.; Schwarzbauch, M.; Laiacker, M.

    2015-09-01

    The group Flying Robots at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics in Oberpfaffenhofen conducts research on solar powered high altitude aircrafts. Due to the high altitude and the almost infinite mission duration, these platforms are also denoted as High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS). This paper highlights some aspects of the design, building, integration and testing of a flying experimental platform for high altitudes. This unmanned aircraft, with a wingspan of 3 m and a mass of less than 10 kg, is meant to be launched as a glider from a high altitude balloon in 20 km altitude and shall investigate technologies for future large HAPS platforms. The aerodynamic requirements for high altitude flight included the development of a launch method allowing for a safe transition to horizontal flight from free-fall with low control authority. Due to the harsh environmental conditions in the stratosphere, the integration of electronic components in the airframe is a major effort. For regulatory reasons a reliable and situation dependent flight termination system had to be implemented. In May 2015 a flight campaign was conducted. The mission was a full success demonstrating that stratospheric research flights are feasible with rather small aircrafts.

  12. The Electron Calorimeter (ECAL) Long Duration Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Adams, J. H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Binns, W. R.; Chang, J.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M.; Dowkontt, P.; Ellison, B.; Isbert, J. B.; Israel, M. H.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Panov, A.; Sokolskaya, N.; Stewart, M.; Watts, J.; Wefel, P.; Zatsepin, V.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the cosmic ray electron energy spectrum in the energy region 50 GeV to greater than 1 TeV may reveal structure caused by the annihilation of exotic dark matter particles and/or individual cosmic ray sources. Here we describe a new long duration balloon (LDB) experiment, ECAL, optimized to directly measure cosmic ray electrons up to several TeV. ECAL includes a double layer silicon matrix, a scintillating optical fiber track imager, a neutron detector and a fully active calorimeter to identify more than 90% of the incident electrons with an energy resolution of about 1.7% while misidentifying only 1 in 200,000 protons and 0.8% of secondary gamma rays as electrons. Two ECAL flights in Antarctica are planned for a total exposure of 50 days with the first flight anticipate for December 2009.

  13. Unique High Energy Experiment Initiative by ICSP with Weather Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, S. K.; Bhowmick, D.; Sarkar, R.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Midya, S.

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of miniaturization of instruments, Indian Centre for Space Physics began exploring high energy Universe using weather balloons about six years ago. Several Payloads of mass within 4 kg have been flown to near space. Along with the main measurement unit which is usually a scintillator detector, attitude measurement unit, GPS tracking unit, video camera and parachute(s) are also flown. Using large duration flights unique to ICSP without using any valve or ballast and any extra cost, this inexpensive initiative brings back very rich scientific data on soft X-ray spectra of Cosmic Rays, Solar flares, Gamma Ray Bursts and Crab Pulsar. Some results are presented. The payloads are reusable, reducing the recurring cost per flight to be less that $500.00.

  14. Design considerations for a Martian Balloon Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, F.; Levesque, R. J.; Williams, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    The present NASA-sponsored design feasibility study for a balloon-borne sensor platform that is to be used over environmentally dissimilar sites on Mars gives attention to specific environmental and configurational parameters of a baseline balloon design, with a view to day/night altitude variations in response to temperature extremes. It is concluded that a Martian Balloon Rover can be developed using current technology; projected reductions in high-strength fabric density and radiation-resistant coatings will further enhance mission effectiveness, permitting either balloon size reductions or payload capacity increases.

  15. Production of glass balloons for laser targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, C.D.; Dressler, J.L.

    1982-09-28

    An apparatus for producing small quantities of glass balloons for use as laser fusion targets is described. To produce precise quantities of the ingredients of one glass balloon, a jet of an aqueous solution of the glass constituents and a blowing agent is metered into uniformly sized drops by Rayleigh breakup. A small fraction of these uniform drops is then passed through an oven where the water is evaporated, the remaining solid material is fused into glass, and a blowing agent decomposes or water of hydration evolves as a vapor to blow the drop into a balloon. Photographs of the resulting glass balloons are presented.

  16. Innovative Balloon Buoyancy Techniques for Atmospheric Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J.

    2000-01-01

    Until quite recently, the only practical means to control balloon buoyancy, and thus altitude, required consuming large amounts of fuel or the limited venting of helium balloons and/or dropping of ballast. With recent discoveries at JPL, novel long-life, balloon buoyancy techniques have been discovered that for the first time allow balloons to float in the primarily hydrogen atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (using ambient fill-gas), and by using renewable energy sources, allow multiple controlled landings on Venus (using atmospheric temperature differences), Mars (solar heat), Titan (RTG heat), and Earth (planet radiant heat).

  17. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Krist, John; Lillie, Charles; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Moody, Dwight; Rey, Justin; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stuchlik, David; Trauger, John; Vasisht, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC (Silicone carbide) telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible-wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights in the US followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  18. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Krist, John; Lillie, Charles; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Moody, Dwight; Rahman, Zahidul; Rey, Justin; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stuchlik, David; Trauger, John; Vasisht, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make sa they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights within the United States followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  19. Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere: Superpressure Balloon Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    This project called Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere (EMA): Superpressure Balloon Program was begun by the PI at the Aerospace Corporation in Los Angeles under joint NSF and NASA funding originally combined in one grant ATM80-17071 and has continued at the University of Washington under grants ATM8212283, ATM84-11326 and ATM86-15628 and NASA grants NAGW-724 and NAGS-635. In the EMA experiment a comprehensive set of electrical parameters was measured during eight long-duration balloon flights in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere. These flights resulted in the largest vector electric field data set ever collected from the stratosphere which has been a treasure-trove of new phenomena. Since the stratosphere has never been electrodynamically sampled in this systematic manner before, it is perhaps not surprising that several new discoveries have been made and reported. Another way to measure the success of this first EMA project is to note that all together the total data rate was about 1 bit/sec/payload amounting to 12 MBytes (1/3 of 1 standard 1600 BPI magnetic tape) which nevertheless has resulted in 14 papers and 2 masters theses (so far! . Ten of these papers and one masters thesis specifically acknowledge the support by NASA grant NAGS-635 are discussed herein.

  20. Polar Balloon Experiment for Astrophysics Research (Polar BEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Bashindzhagyan, P.; Chilingarian, A.; Donnelly, J.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Grebenyuk, V.; Kalinin, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new balloon experiment is proposed for a long duration flight around the North Pole. The primary objective of the experiment is to measure the elemental energy spectra of high-energy cosmic rays in the region up to 10(exp 15) eV. The proposed instrument involves the combination of a large collecting area (approximately 1 x 1 square m) KLEM (Kinematic Lightweight Energy Meter) device with an ionization calorimeter having a smaller collecting area (approximately 0.5 x 0.5 square m) and integrated beneath the KLEM apparatus. This combination has several important advantages. Due to the large aperture (greater than 2 square m sr) of the KLEM device a large exposure factor can be achieved with a long duration balloon flight (2-4 weeks). The calorimeter will collect about 10% of the events already registered by KLEM and provide effective cross-calibration for both energy measurement methods. Details of the experiment and its astrophysical significance will be presented.

  1. Electrodynamics of the middle atmosphere: Superpressure balloon program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, Robert H.

    1990-08-01

    This project called Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere (EMA): Superpressure Balloon Program was begun by the PI at the Aerospace Corporation in Los Angeles under joint NSF and NASA funding originally combined in one grant ATM80-17071 and has continued at the University of Washington under grants ATM8212283, ATM84-11326 and ATM86-15628 and NASA grants NAGW-724 and NAGS-635. In the EMA experiment a comprehensive set of electrical parameters was measured during eight long-duration balloon flights in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere. These flights resulted in the largest vector electric field data set ever collected from the stratosphere which has been a treasure-trove of new phenomena. Since the stratosphere has never been electrodynamically sampled in this systematic manner before, it is perhaps not surprising that several new discoveries have been made and reported. Another way to measure the success of this first EMA project is to note that all together the total data rate was about 1 bit/sec/payload amounting to 12 MBytes (1/3 of 1 standard 1600 BPI magnetic tape) which nevertheless has resulted in 14 papers and 2 masters theses (so far] . Ten of these papers and one masters thesis specifically acknowledge the support by NASA grant NAGS-635 are discussed herein.

  2. Balloon-borne CALET prototype payload (bCALET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, Yoshitaka; Torii, Shoji; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Akaike, Yosui; Nakai, Mikio; Aiba, Toshihide; Kai, Yuuichirou; Tamura, Tadahisa; Yoshida, Kenji; Katayose, Yusaku; Saito, Yoshitaka; Fuke, Hideyuki; Kawada, Jiro; Mizuta, Eiichi; Marrocchesi, Pier Simone; Kim, Meyoung; Bigongiari, Gabriele

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) payload will be installed in the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). We have been developing a balloon borne payload to evaluate the performance of CALET by carring out precursor flights for the electron observation in 1-1000 GeV. The first flight of bCALET was done in 2006, and the enhanced version, bCALET-2, was successfully flown in 2009. In this paper, we describe the bCALET-3 payload which is composed of Imaging Calorimeter (IMC), Total Absorption Calorimeter (TASC) and Silicon pixel Array (SIA). IMC has an area of 320mm × 320mm, and is consisted 8 x-y layers of scintillating fiber belts inserted below tungsten plates for a fine imaging of shower particles. TASC is constructed by 6 layers of BGO scintillator blocks with an area of 300mm × 300mm, for measuring the total energy deposit of incoming shower particles. SIA owns to measure the charge number of incoming particle. Each component has very similar function with CALET with about half the area of CALET. We are planning to carry out the balloon experiment by bCALET-3 in November, 2010 for the test of the CALET capability of observing the electrons.

  3. Low-cost TDRSS communications for NASA's long duration balloon project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    A new transponder and RF ground support equipment for the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) intended to support long duration scientific balloon flights in Antarctica are described. The new balloon class transponder features a highly integrated spread spectrum receiver design based on programmable charge coupled device (CCD) correlators and digital signal processing chips. The correlator chip is a Lincoln Labs 4ABC with four CCD channels. The balloon transponder is capable of reporting an estimate of its input bit error rate using digital signal processing. The TDRSS user RF test set is based on a set of RF ground support equipment capable of providing both the RF communications and direct control and monitoring necessary for transponder testing and a two-way RF link for preflight testing.

  4. Balloon observations of Galactic cosmic ray helium before and during a Forbush decrease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, J. M.; Guzik, T. G.; Lijowski, M.; Wefel, J. P.; Beatty, J. J.; Ficenec, D. J.; Tobias, S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Mckee, S.; Nutter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The energy spectrum of Galactic cosmic ray helium was measured in two different balloon experiments launched four days apart from Canada: SMILI-I on Sept 1, 1989 and MASS on Sept 5, 1989. A slow Forbush decrease began on Sept 4, 1989 and had not reached its maximum at the time of the MASS flight. Comparison of the balloon measurements shows a fractional decrease of 0.37 to 0.15 in the Helium flux between 200 and 450 MeV/nucleon (1.2-2.0 GV). The rigidity dependence is analyzed in two models and found to be steeper than previous observations. Interplanetary particle data and ground-based Neutron Monitor results are consistent with the balloon observations. Probable sources for this Forbush decrease are discussed.

  5. Second Generation Prototype Design and Testing for a High Altitude Venus Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. L.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Plett, G. A.; Said, M.; Fairbrother, D.; Sandy, C.; Frederickson, T.; Sharpe, G.; Day, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a second generation prototype balloon intended for flight in the upper atmosphere of Venus. The design of this new prototype incorporates lessons learned from the construction and testing of the first generation prototype, including finite element analyses of the balloon stresses and deformations, measured leak performance after handling and packaging, permeability and optical property measurements on material samples, and sulfuric acid testing. An improved design for the second generation prototype was formulated based on these results, although the spherical shape and 5.5 m diameter size were retained. The resulting balloon has a volume of 87 cubic meters and is capable of carrying a 45 kg payload at a 55 km altitude at Venus. The design and fabrication of the new prototype is described, along with test data for inflation and leakage performance.

  6. Observations from a constant-altitude stratospheric balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollo-Christensen, Erik; Vermillion, Charles H.; Chan, Paul H.; Mcbrien, Gary E.; Ward, William; Coronado, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a constant-altitude stratospheric balloon system, called Earthwinds, designed for high-altitude atmospheric observations. Special attention is given to the balloon's variable ballast system for altitude control; reactions of the balloon system to air motions in a stratified atmosphere; instruments for locating the balloon position, controlling the altitude, and making observations of atmospheric movements; balloon dynamics; and the atmospheric phenomena that will be observed by the balloon instruments.

  7. Numerical and experimental simulation of the mechanical behavior of super-pressure balloon subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siguier, J.-M.; Guigue, P.; Karama, M.; Mistou, S.; Dalverny, O.; Granier, S.

    2004-01-01

    Long duration super-pressure balloons constitute a great challenge in scientific ballooning. For any type of balloons (spherical, pumpkin, …), it is necessary to have a good knowledge of the mechanical behavior of envelopes regarding the level and the lifetime of the flight. For this reason CNES, ONERA and ENIT are carrying out a research program of modelization and experimentation in order to predict the envelope shape of a balloon in different conditions of temperature and differential pressure. This study was conducted in two parts. During the first one, we defined, with parameters obtained from unidirectional tests, the mechanical laws (elasticity, plasticity and viscosity properties of polymers) of materials involved in the envelope. These laws are introduced in a finite element code, which predicts the stress and strain status of a complex envelope structure. During the second one, we developed an experimental set-up to measure the 3D strain on a balloon subsystem, which includes envelope, assemblies and apex parts, in real flight conditions. This facility, called NIRVANA, is a 1 m 3 vacuum chamber with cooled screens equipped with a stereoscopic CCD measurement system. A 1.5 m diameter sample can be tested under differential pressure, regulated temperature (from +20 to -120 °C) and a load (up to 6 tonnes) applied on tendons. This paper presents the first results obtained from the modelizations and measurements done on an envelope sample submitted to axisymmetrical stress due to the differential pressure. This sample consists of a 50 μm multilayer polymer film with an assembly, used in 10 m diameter STRATEOLE super-pressure balloons. The modelization gives results in good accordance with the experiments and will enable us to follow this work with cold conditions, time dependence (creeping) and more complex structures.

  8. Coriolis Mass-Flowmeter for aerostatic gas amount determination in zero pressure stratosperic balloons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The CNES ballooning community regularly operates zero pressure balloons in many countries around the world (recently in France, Sweden, Canada and soon, Australia in 2017). An important operational flight parameter is the aerostatic gas mass injected into the balloon (currently helium and hydrogen in the study). Besides the lifting force, it determines mainly the ascent rate from which the adiabatic expansion depends directly. A too high ascent velocity in very cold air temperature profiles could result in a gas temperature drop which if too great, might induce brittleness of the envelope. A precise gas mass determination is therefore critical for performance as well as for mission safety. The various gas supply tanks in various countries all have different characteristics with possible uncertainties with regard to their volumes. This makes the currently used gas mass determination method based on supply tank pressure measurements unreliable. This method also relies on tank temperature, another source of inaccuracy in the gas amount determination. CNES has therefore prospected for alternative methods to reduce inaccuracies and perhaps also ease the operational procedures during balloon inflation. Coriolis mass-flowmeters which have reached industrial maturity, offer the great advantage over other flowmeters to be able to directly measure the mass of the transferred fluid, and not deducing it from other parameters as other types of flowmeters would do. An industrial contractor has been therefore assigned to integrate this solution into the CNES operational setup. This new system is to be tested in February 2016. The presentation will briefly explain the Coriolis flowmeter's principle and display the February 2016 performance tests' results. The expected incidence on zero pressure balloons' trajectories will also be discussed based on simulations ran on a balloon flight simulator software.

  9. The balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew David Patey

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is designed to produce large (1-100 deg 2 ) maps of the sky at 250, 350, and 500 pm. The balloon platform lifts BLAST above most of the atmosphere, which is nearly opaque in the submillimeter, making BLAST significantly more sensitive than existing ground-based submillimeter telescopes. BLAST has had three successful flights on a high-altitude balloon. This thesis is in three parts. In the first part, the design, construction, and operation of BLAST is described in detail. Specifically, the submillimeter telescope and receiver, the cryogenic system, the various pointing sensors, and the command and control systems are covered. The processes of launching and landing the gondola are also discussed. In the second part, the analysis of BLAST data is discussed, and specifically data from the BLAST05 flight. The process of cleaning and preparing bolometer time-streams for map-making is discussed. The process of calibrating the data, flat-fielding the bolometer responsivity, removing time-varying changes in bolometer responsivity, and absolute flux calibration based on the fluxes of a known astronomical submillimeter source is detailed. Reconstructing the pointing solution from the data from the in-flight pointing sensors is discussed. Finally, combining the calibrated bolometer data with the reconstructed pointing solution to generate maps is described. In the third part, BLAST05 flight data and results are presented. Several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets. These included Pallas and Saturn in the solar system, K3-50, W 75N, IRAS 20126+4104, CRL 2688, IRAS 21078+5211, LDN 1014, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, and IRAS 23011+6126 in the Galaxy, and the galaxies NGC 4565, Mrk 231, and Arp 220. Fluxes and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of each of these sources at the BLAST wavelengths are presented, and these are compared with previous

  10. The United Kingdom rocket and balloon program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delury, J. T.

    1980-06-01

    The United Kingdom civilian scientific balloon and rocket program for 1979, 1980, 1981 are summarized and the areas of scientific interest for the period 1981 to 1985 are mentioned. Ten balloons up to 40 cu m to be launched from the USA or Australia and launches of up to ten 7.5 in. diameter Petrel rockets are planned.

  11. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Epistaxis balloon. 874.4100 Section 874.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Epistaxis balloon. 874.4100 Section 874.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Epistaxis balloon. 874.4100 Section 874.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a)...

  14. Validation and retrieval of IASI measurements with IASI-balloon correlative measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payan, Sébastien; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Pondrom, Marc; Té, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Bureau, Jérôme; Pépin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Because of the increase of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and pollutants in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times and their impact on the environment (ozone hole, air quality, acid rains, greenhouse effect), in situ and remote-sensing measurements of atmospheric composition are carried out by a wide variety of instruments, using different measurement principles and different platforms (ground, aircrafts, balloons, satellites). The IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) instrument, consisting of a nadir-looking thermal infrared Fourier transform spectrometer, which was launched onboard the MetOp-A platform on 19th October 2006, is dedicated to operational meteorology. However, IASI spectra have demonstrated a huge potential for retrieving trace gases such as ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and many others. In this framework the LPMAA (Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique) developed a balloon-borne Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer called IASI-balloon to record high resolution (0.1 cm-1 apodised) spectra of the atmosphere / surface system in the nadir looking geometry. Several flight of this balloon experiments have been performed allowing to provided a large number of thermal emission nadir looking FTIR spectra in the 650 - 3000 cm-1 region, recorded from float at about 35 km altitude. We retrieved profiles and/or columns of H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO and CH4. For a flight performed from Teresina, Brazil, the spectra recorded during the balloon flight are in good coincidence with IASI-MetOp measurements. We used this set of data to test the impact on the retrieval of a new cloud simulation module in our retrieval algorithm LARA (LPMA retrieval Atmospheric Algorithm). The results will be presented here.

  15. Balloon-borne air traffic management (ATM) as a precursor to space-based ATM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Yuval; Rieber, Richard; Nordheim, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The International Space University—Balloon Air traffic control Technology Experiment (I-BATE ) has flown on board two stratospheric balloons and has tracked nearby aircraft by receiving their Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) transmissions. Air traffic worldwide is facing increasing congestion. It is predicted that daily European flight volumes will more than double by 2030 compared to 2009 volumes. ADS-B is an air traffic management system being used to mitigate air traffic congestion. Each aircraft is equipped with both a GPS receiver and an ADS-B transponder. The transponder transmits an equipped aircraft's unique identifier, position, heading, and velocity once per second. The ADS-B transmissions can then be received by ground stations for use in traditional air traffic management. Airspace not monitored by these ground stations or other traditional means remains uncontrolled and poorly monitored. A constellation of space-based ADS-B receivers could close these gaps and provide global air traffic monitoring. By flying an ADS-B receiver on a stratospheric balloon, I-BATE has served as a precursor to a constellation of ADS-B-equipped Earth-orbiting satellites. From the ˜30 km balloon altitude, I-BATE tracked aircraft ranging up to 850 km. The experiment has served as a proof of concept for space-based air traffic management and supports a technology readiness level 6 of space-based ADS-B reception. I-BATE: International Space University—Balloon Air traffic control Technology Experiment.

  16. A review of recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from high-altitude balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from experiments flown on high-altitude balloons. New generation balloon-borne imaging experiments have produced the first gamma-ray maps of the Galactic center (GC) region. Balloon flights of new gamma-ray spectrometers with improved sensitivity have provided important new information on the GC annihilation line. For the first time, the narrow 511 keV line as been resolved (FWHM approx. = 3 keV). A very interesting spectral feature at approximately 170 keV has been attributed to backscattered annihilation, probably from the vicinity of a compact object. New results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO)/OSSE and Granat/SIGMA experiments on the annihilation line, when considered together with the recent balloon results, have added greatly to our knowledge and understanding of the origin and distribution of this emission. Balloon-borne instruments have made important measurements of gamma-ray continuum and line emission from SN 1987A. The GRIS spectrometer unambiguously resolved the 847 and 1238 keV line emission from radioactive Co-56 synthesized during the explosion. This data indicated that simple spherically symmetric and homogeneous models did not provide an adequate description of the expanding SN shell.

  17. LeRoy Meisinger, Part II: Analysis of the Scientific Ballooning Accident of 2 June 1924.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, John M.; Moore, Charles B.

    1995-02-01

    During the spring of 1924, U.S. Weather Bureau meteorologist LeRoy Meisinger conducted a series of experiments with a free balloon to determine the trajectories of air around extratropical cyclones. The 10th flight in the series ended with a crash of the balloon over central Illinois. Both Meisinger and the pilot, Army Air Services Lt. James Neely, were killed.An effort has been made to reconstruct this accident using information from a review article by early twentieth-century meteorologist Vincent Jakl and newspaper accounts of the accident. The principal results of the study follow.1) Meisinger's balloon was caught in the downdraft of a newly developed thunderstorm over the Bement, Illinois, area on the evening of 2 June;2) a hard landing took place in a cornfield just north of Bement, and loss of ballast at the hard-landing site was sufficient to cause the balloon to rise again; and3) after rebounding from the ground, the balloon with the two aeronauts aboard was struck by lightning. A fire resulted that burned through the netting and led to a crash four miles northeast of the hard-landing site.

  18. Relative Abundances and Energy Spectra of C, N, and 0 as Measured by the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazely, A. R.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, E. J.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Case, G.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Ellison, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present results on the spectra and the relative abundances of C, N, and 0 nuclei in the cosmic radiation as measured from the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment (ATIC) . The ATIC detector has completed two successful balloon flights from McMurdo, Antarctica lasting a total of more than 35 days. ATIC is designed as a multiple, long duration balloon flight, investigation of the cosmic ray spectra from below 50 GeV to near 100 TeV total energy, using a fully active Bismuth Germanate calorimeter. It is equipped with a large area mosaic of silicon detector pixels capable of charge identification from H to Fe. As a redundancy check for the charge identification and a particle tracking system, three projective layers of x-y scintillator hodoscopes were employed, above, in the middle and below a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target.

  19. Proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia in balloon-borne experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Rousseille, R.; Planel, H.

    1982-06-01

    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effect of cosmic radiation, at a balloon-flight ceiling of about 36,500 m (120,000 ft) on single-cell organism proliferation. Paramecium tetraurelia were placed in air-tight containers and maintained at 25 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees C. Cellular growth was determined by cell count, either after recovery or during the flight, by means of an automatic fixation device. Dosimetry was performed by a tissue equivalent proportional counter and was of about 0.5 mrad/h. Flight ceiling duration ranged from 48 min - 22 h. A secondary stimulating effect of growth rate, preceded by a temporary decrease, was observed after recovery. Because of the high bacterial concentration in the trans-Mediterranean flight culture medium, the temporary drop of the growth rate, due to the radiolysis products, disappears. Researchers consider that the stimulating effect can be the result of enzymatic intracellular scavenging of radiolysis products generated in the cell.

  20. Design and Implementation of an experiment-specific Payload Orientation Platform for balloon-borne Experiment .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarajan, Anand; Rodi, Ashish; Ojha, Devendra

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the mesospheric dynamics and its coupling to the upper atmospheric regions above, a Balloon-borne optical Investigation of Regional-atmospheric Dynamics (BIRD) experiment was jointly conducted by Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad and Boston University, on 08 March 2010 from TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad. Along with the BIRD payload, a nano payload of University of York, Canada was also flown for aerosol studies during sunset. The balloon carrying a 335kg BIRD payload was launched at 1052 hrs, reached a float altitude of 34.8km amsl at 1245 hrs and was allowed to float till 1825 hrs before it was parachuted down. To achieve the experimental objectives, it was essential that the payload Gandola, comprising of two optical spectrographs, is programmed to rotate azimuthally in 3 steps of 30 degrees each from East-West (E-W) to North-South (N-S) direction, stop at each step for 5 minutes for data acquisition, return to the original E-W position and keep repeating the sequence continuously with a provision to start or stop the orientation from Ground station through telecommand. To meet these unique requirements, we designed developed and implemented a Payload Orientation Platform (POP), using flux-gate magnetometer for direction-finding, which worked satisfactorily in the BIRD flight. This paper presents an overview of the POP implemented, focuses on the design considerations of the associated electronics and finally presents the results of the performance during the entire balloon flight.

  1. Coordinated in-situ observation of developing hurricanes using atmospheric balloons - a Model Predictive Control approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghello, Gianluca; Bewley, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Current operational methods used to monitor the development of hurricanes and typhoons include radar and satellite imagery as well as dropsondes parachuted from repeated aircraft flights above the hurricane itself. The accurate in-situ measurements provided by dropsondes are especially valuable for generating an accurate forecast of a hurricane's evolution and landfall. Unfortunately, the data from dropsondes is expensive to obtain (requiring many hazardous high-altitude flights) and limited both spatially (to the vertical profile of its path) and temporally (to the ten or twenty minutes it takes to fall). We show in the present work how receding-horizon MPC can be used to coordinate a formation of sensor-laden atmospheric balloons, distributing them quasi-uniformly across a realistic developing hurricane flowfield for days at a time. Several atmospheric balloons can be released from a high-altitude aircraft, or launched from a ship at sea level, and distributed over the hurricane thereafter. Certain target orbits of interest in the hurricane can be continuously sampled by some balloons, while other balloons make continuous sweeps between the eye and the spiral rain bands. Various solution methods for the optimal control problem arising within the MPC framework are considered.

  2. Development of EXITE3, Imaging Detectors and a Long Duration Balloon Gondola

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In this Report we summarize the work conducted for the EXITE program under grant NAG5-5103. This grant supported the ongoing EXITE program at Harvard for the development of imaging hard x-ray detectors and telescopes over the 3 year period 1997-2000 with a one year extension to 2001 to transition to the next SR&T grant in this program. Work was conducted in three major parts: analysis of the EXITE2 balloon flight data (from our May 1997 flight); development of pixellated imaging Cd-Zn-Te detector arrays and readout systems for the proposed EXITE3 detector and telescope; and development of systems for a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) gondola. Progress on all three major aspects of this research is summarized for each of the years of this grant.

  3. Balloon measurements of cosmic ray protons and helium over half a solar cycle 1965-1969.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rygg, T. A.; Earl, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluation of differential energy spectra for protons and helium covering the energy range from 100 to 260 MeV/nucleon obtained from balloon flights made each summer (1965 to 1969) at Churchill, Manitoba, with the aid of a Geiger-tube hodoscope operated in conjunction with two scintillation elements used to measure dE/dx and E. Supplementary data from balloon flights at Minneapolis, Minn., and Sioux Falls, S. Dak. and from calibration exposures to protons and electrons were used to define backgrounds and to verify the predicted detector response. The observed proton spectra are characterized over a wide range of energy (30 to 300 MeV) by a simple relationship between cosmic-ray intensity J and kinetic energy T: J = AT. The helium spectra also follow this law at solar maximum but rise less steeply near solar minimum. This characteristic behavior can be interpreted in terms of a simple model in which convection is balanced by adiabatic deceleration.-

  4. Data Retrieved by ARCADE-R2 Experiment On Board the BEXUS-17 Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, M.; Branz, F.; Carron, A.; Olivieri, L.; Prendin, J.; Sansone, F.; Savioli, L.; Spinello, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Autonomous Rendezvous, Control And Docking Experiment — Reflight 2 (ARCADE-R2) is a technology demonstrator aiming to prove automatic attitude determination and control, rendezvous and docking capabilities for small scale spacecraft and aircraft. The development of such capabilities could be fundamental to create, in the near future, fleets of cooperative, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles for mapping, surveillance, inspection and remote observation of hazardous environments; small-class satellites could also benefit from the employment of docking systems to extend and reconfigure their mission profiles. ARCADE-R2 is designed to test these technologies on a stratospheric flight on board the BEXUS-17 balloon, allowing to demonstrate them in a harsh environment subjected to gusty winds and high pressure and temperature variations. In this paper, ARCADE-R2 architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from a stratospheric balloon flight are presented.

  5. Reevaluation of the balloon in gastrointestinal manometry.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, P R; Hoskin, R W; Semlacher, E A; MacCannell, K L; Tyberg, J V

    1994-09-01

    Although the flow-through catheter (FTC) system has been useful and satisfactorily accurate for gastrointestinal manometry, we hypothesized that a cylindrical, liquid-filled balloon would also accurately reflect stress imposed by a sphincter. Latex balloons were fitted over the side ports of a closed-end catheter. The responses of the balloon and FTC system were compared in a cylindrical chamber commonly identified as a Starling resistor. Independent, constant-pressure sources were used to control both the inwardly directed "contact pressure" of the Starling resistor (Ps) and the intraluminal fluid pressure (P(lum)). The balloon transducers responded linearly and accurately (slope = 1) to changes in both Ps and P(lum) within the test range (0-200 mmHg, 0-26.7 kPa). When either P(lum) or Ps was held constant and the other changed, the balloon transducers always accurately measured the higher of the two pressures. Although the performance of the FTC system was improved after the Starling resistor was lubricated, the FTC system sometimes responded inaccurately to changes in Ps. The ability of the balloon transducers to measure the contractions of the lower esophageal sphincter and of the esophagus was demonstrated. We conclude that the balloon transducer can measure sphincter pressure accurately and suggest that, in certain circumstances, it might be advantageous relative to the FTC system. PMID:7842396

  6. Trajectory Control For High Altitude Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, K.; Nock, K.; Heun, M.; Wyszkowski, C.

    We will discuss the continuing development of the StratoSailTM Balloon Trajectory Control System presented at the 33rd COSPAR in 2000. A vertical wing suspended on a 15-km tether from a high altitude balloon uses the difference in wind velocity between the altitude of the balloon and the altitude of the wing to create an aerodynamic sideforce. This sideforce, transmitted to the balloon gondola via the tether, causes the balloon to move laterally. Although the balloon's resultant drift velocity is quite small (a few meters per second), the effect becomes significant over long periods of time (hours to days). Recently, a full-scale wing, rudder and boom assembly has been fabricated, a winch system testbed has been completed, and a lightweight tether with reduced susceptibility to ultraviolet damage has been developed. The development effort for this invention, with pending international patents, has been funded by the NASA/SBIR program in support of the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program.

  7. Fracture characteristics of balloon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, Marc A.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the failure modes of high altitude scientific balloons through an investigation of the fracture characteristics of the thin polyethylene films. Two films were the subject of the evaluation, Winzen Int.'s Stratafilm SF-85 and Raven Industries' Astro-E. Research began with an investigation of the film's cold brittleness point and it's effect on the ultimate strength and elasticity of the polyethylene film. A series of preliminary investigations were conducted to develop an understanding of the material characteristics. The primary focus of this investigation was on the notch sensitivity of the films. Simple stress strain tests were also conducted to enable analysis employing fracture toughness parameters. Studies were conducted on both film types at 23 C (room temperature), -60 C, -90 C, and -120 C.

  8. The testing of balloon fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Junius David; Moore, Irwin L

    1920-01-01

    Report describes methods and materials used in waterproofing and fireproofing airplane fabrics using dopes. The determination of the probable life of a balloon fabric in service by experimental means is of great value in choosing the most suitable fabrics for a given purpose and in pointing the way to improvements in compounding and construction. The usefulness of exposure to the weather for this purpose has been amply demonstrated. Various attempts have been made to reproduce by artificial means the conditions promoting deterioration in service, but without marked success. Exposure to the weather remains the most satisfactory method for this purpose, and a consideration of the characteristics of such tests is therefore important. This report presents the results of a typical series of exposure tests made in 1917.

  9. Measurement of stratospheric turbulence by balloon-borne 'glow-discharge' anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, M. D.; Hirosawa, H.; Matsuzaka, Y.; Yamagami, T.; Tanaka, H.

    1985-06-01

    Attention is given to the specifications of a novel balloon-borne ionic anemometer which uses the type of glow discharge studied by Sekiguchi et al. (1963) and Hirosawa et al. (1964) as an ion source for long duration observations. The data obtained by the anemometer during its first flight, in September 1983, shows inhomogeneous fine structures within a stratospheric turbulence layer. A cursory analysis of the data obtained implies systematic stratospheric turbulence structures.

  10. Scientific ballooning on a shoestring budget: The Montana Space Grant Consortium's BOREALIS program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpar, D.; Kirn, S.; Hiscock, W.

    High altitude ballooning using Latex weather balloons provides frequent and low cost opportunities to carry small meaningful scientific payloads to well in excess of 100,000 feet. Maximizing payload scientific capability requires utilization of the newest available miniature, low-power, light-weight technologies to minimize system mass and size. The Balloon Outreach, Research, Exploration And Land Imaging System (BOREALIS) program of the Montana Space Grant Consortium has provided for undergraduate student teams to build payload systems up to 5.4 kg to conduct high altitude flight experiments. In the university setting such a program provides direct experience to students in the fabrication and operation of (near)space flight systems and payloads, and subsequent analysis of the scientific data. Over the course of the past three years 19 successful balloon flights have been conducted, with full payload recovery, reaching altitudes in excess of 110,000 feet, providing rewarding and exciting developmental test flights for satellite subsystems and mini-science missions to the edge of space. Missions have included measurement of Ozone altitude profiles, UV and Cosmic Ray fluxes, and atmospheric temperature and pressure soundings. In addition to providing hands on training at our colleges and universities for future scientists and engineers; by involving the public, a much larger audience is exposed to the scientific research process. In this paper we describe our methodologies and program accomplishments, including the design of a payload support system utilizing commercially available subsystems. More information may be found at http://spacegrant.montana.edu/borealis/index.asp

  11. Atmospheric ozone profiles from high resolution UV spectra obtained with a balloon-borne spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gillis, J R; Goldman, A; Williams, W J; Murcray, D G

    1982-02-01

    High resolution solar spectra at high and low sun angles in the 3200-3400-A region were obtained during balloon flights on 9 Feb. 1977 (altitude 41 km) and 17 Feb. 1977 (altitude 29 km). These data were analyzed using a layer-by-layer three-wavelength differential absorption method. Ozone volume-mixing ratio profiles, which agree with standard profiles, were derived. Suggestions are made for improving the accuracy of the results in future measurements.

  12. A balloon-borne aerosol spectrometer for high altitude low aerosol concentration measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.S. ); Weiss, R.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Funded by Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, a new balloon-borne high altitude aerosol spectrometer, for the measurement of cirrus cloud ice crystals, has been developed and successfully flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report (1) details the aerosol spectrometer design and construction, (2) discusses data transmission and decoding, (3) presents data collected on three Florida flights in tables and plots. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  14. Multiorder etalon sounder (MOES) development and test for balloon experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.; Wnag, Jinxue; Wu, Jian

    1993-01-01

    concept and laboratory experiments were worked on for the past several years. Both theoretical studies and laboratory prototype experiments showed that MOES is very competitive compared with other high resolution sounders in terms of complexity and performance and has great potential as a compact and rugged high resolution atmospheric temperature and trace species sounder from the polar platform or the geostationary platform. The logical next step is to convert our laboratory prototype to a balloon instrument, so that field test of MOES can be carried out to prove the feasibility and capability of this new technology. Some of the activities related to the development of MOES for a possible balloon flight demonstration are described. Those research activities include the imaging quality study on the CLIO, the design and construction of a MOES laboratory prototype, the test and calibration of the MOES prototype, and the design of the balloon flight gondola.

  15. Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than…

  16. Accurate Determination of the Volume of an Irregular Helium Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Jack; Bradvica, Rafaela; Karl, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Zable described an experiment with a near-spherical balloon filled with impure helium. Measuring the temperature and the pressure inside and outside the balloon, the lift of the balloon, and the mass of the balloon materials, he described how to use the ideal gas laws and Archimedes' principal to compute the average molecular…

  17. Modular and Reusable Power System Design for the BRRISON Balloon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truesdale, Nicholas A.

    High altitude balloons are emerging as low-cost alternatives to orbital satellites in the field of telescopic observation. The near-space environment of balloons allows optics to perform near their diffraction limit. In practice, this implies that a telescope similar to the Hubble Space Telescope could be flown for a cost of tens of millions as opposed to billions. While highly feasible, the design of a balloon telescope to rival Hubble is limited by funding. Until a prototype is proven and more support for balloon science is gained, projects remain limited in both hardware costs and man hours. Thus, to effectively create and support balloon payloads, engineering designs must be efficient, modular, and if possible reusable. This thesis focuses specifically on a modular power system design for the BRRISON comet-observing balloon telescope. Time- and cost-saving techniques are developed that can be used for future missions. A modular design process is achieved through the development of individual circuit elements that span a wide range of capabilities. Circuits for power conversion, switching and sensing are designed to be combined in any configuration. These include DC-DC regulators, MOSFET drivers for switching, isolated switches, current sensors and voltage sensing ADCs. Emphasis is also given to commercially available hardware. Pre-fabricated DC-DC converters and an Arduino microcontroller simplify the design process and offer proven, cost-effective performance. The design of the BRRISON power system is developed from these low-level circuits elements. A board for main power distribution supports the majority of flight electronics, and is extensible to additional hardware in future applications. An ATX computer power supply is developed, allowing the use of a commercial ATX motherboard as the flight computer. The addition of new capabilities is explored in the form of a heater control board. Finally, the power system as a whole is described, and its overall

  18. Stratospheric electric field measurements with transmediterranean balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Morena, B. A.; Alberca, L. F.; Curto, J. J.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The horizontal component of the stratospheric electric field was measured using a balloon in the ODISEA Campaign of Transmediterranean Balloon Program. The balloon flew between Trapani (Sicily) and El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain) along the 39 deg N parallel at a height between 34 and 24 km. The high values found for the field on fair-weather and its quasi-turbulent variation, both in amplitude and direction, are difficult to explain with the classical electric field source. A new source, first described by Holzworth (1989), is considered as possibly causing them.

  19. Flight Project Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) is responsible for the overall planning, directing, executing, and evaluating that part of the overall NASA program that has the goal of using the unique characteristics of the space environment to conduct a scientific study of the universe, to understand how the Earth works as an integrated system, to solve practical problems on Earth, and to provide the scientific and technological research foundation for expanding human presence beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. OSSA guides its program toward leadership through its pursuit of excellence across the full spectrum of disciplines. OSSA pursues these goals through an integrated program of ground-based laboratory research and experimentation, suborbital flight of instruments on airplanes, balloons, and sounding rockets; flight of instruments and the conduct of research on the Shuttle/Spacelab system and on Space Station Freedom; and development and flight of automated Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft. The OSSA program is conducted with the participation and support of other Government agencies and facilities, universities throughout the United States, the aerospace contractor community, and all of NASA's nine Centers. In addition, OSSA operates with substantial international participation in many aspects of our Space Science and Applications Program. OSSA's programs currently in operation, those approved for development, and those planned for future missions are described.

  20. A new stratospheric sounding platform based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) droppable from meteorological balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Denis; Khaykin, Sergey; Lykov, Alexey; Berezhko, Yaroslav; Lunin, Aleksey

    High-resolution measurements of climate-relevant trace gases and aerosols in the upper troposphere and stratosphere (UTS) have been and remain technically challenging. The high cost of measurements onboard airborne platforms or heavy stratospheric balloons results in a lack of accurate information on vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents. Whereas light-weight instruments carried by meteorological balloons are becoming progressively available, their usage is constrained by the cost of the equipment or the recovery operations. The evolving need in cost-efficient observations for UTS process studies has led to development of small airborne platforms - unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), capable of carrying small sensors for in-situ measurements. We present a new UAV-based stratospheric sounding platform capable of carrying scientific payload of up to 2 kg. The airborne platform comprises of a latex meteorological balloon and detachable flying wing type UAV with internal measurement controller. The UAV is launched on a balloon to stratospheric altitudes up to 20 km, where it can be automatically released by autopilot or by a remote command sent from the ground control. Having been released from the balloon the UAV glides down and returns to the launch position. Autopilot using 3-axis gyro, accelerometer, barometer, compas and GPS navigation provides flight stabilization and optimal way back trajectory. Backup manual control is provided for emergencies. During the flight the onboard measurement controller stores the data into internal memory and transmits current flight parameters to the ground station via telemetry. Precise operation of the flight control systems ensures safe landing at the launch point. A series of field tests of the detachable stratospheric UAV has been conducted. The scientific payload included the following instruments involved in different flights: a) stratospheric Lyman-alpha hygrometer (FLASH); b) backscatter sonde; c) electrochemical

  1. Measurements of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion and development of a balloon borne ultraviolet photometer

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The research described herein consists of two parts. The first part is a description of the design of a balloon borne ultraviolet photometer to measure ozone and the results of a flight using this instrument. The second part describes modifications made on the standard commercially available electrochemical ozonesonde and the results of some experiments performed both in the laboratory and during stratospheric balloon flights. Using this modified ECC system, 33 successful balloon flights were made at McMurdo Station, Antarctica during the austral spring of 1986 to study the temporal and vertical development of the so-called Antarctic Ozone Hole. Photometric measurements of ozone in the atmosphere can be accomplished by exploiting 253.65 nanometer absorption feature of ozone. Using a single light source and beam splitting optics, matched optical paths can be generated through two absorption cells. The ozonesonde data gave a very clear picture of the development of the Ozone Hole. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) Depletion occurs between about 12 and 20 km. (2) The most efficient region of ozone depletion decreases in altitude with time. Height profiles show subregions where ozone removal is highly efficient. (3) At 18 km, the ozone mixing ratio decays with a half-life of 25 days.

  2. A High Sensitivity Balloon-Borne Soft Gamma-ray Polarimeter PoGOLite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Craig, W.; Madejski, G.; Ng, J.; Tajima, H.; Varner, G.; Carlson, P.; Klamra, W.; Pearce, M.; Bjornsson, C.; Larsson, S.; Ryde, F.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Mizuno, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2006-09-01

    Development status of a new balloon-borne polarimeter, PoGOLite, will be presented. PoGOLite is designed to detect 10% polarization of a 100 mCrab source in one 6 hour balloon observation in the 25 keV - 100 keV energy range. Its design is based on the well-type phoswich counter technology. Polarization is measured by recording Compton scattering and photo-absorption in an array of 217 phoswich detector cells made of plastic and BGO scintillators, surrounded by active BGO shields. The design has been optimized through 4 rounds of tests at synchrotron beams and a proton beam, and flight model production has began: it can reduce the large background produced by cosmic-ray particles to about 10 mCrab level in most of its energy coverage. Potential systematic instrumental bias to the polarization measurement will be removed by rotating the polarimeter telescope around its axis. We plan to observe northern sky sources including the Crab pulsar/nebula, Cygnus X-1, and Hercules X-1 in the first flight scheduled in 2009. Our future plans include long duration balloon flights from Sweden to North America, and launching within a few weeks of gamma-ray flare detection from jet sources such as Mkn 501 by GLAST.

  3. The 37-day flight of CREAM during the 2009-2010 austral summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was launched from McMurdo Station Antarctica on December 1, 2009, an early-launch record for Antarctic Long Duration Balloon (LDB) flights. A cumulative exposure of ˜ 156 days was achieved when this 37-day fifth flight of CREAM was terminated over the Ross Ice Shelf on January 8, 2010. Combining a sampling calorimeter for energy measurement with multiple charge detectors for particle identification, CREAM-V provided a large data sample to measure elemental spectra for 1 ≤ Z ≤ 26 in energies above 1014 eV. This was the first time that CREAM was supported with the standard Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) for LDB payloads. The first four flights were supported by the Command and Data Module (CDM) developed by the NASA Wallops Flight Facility for Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights. The instrument performance, results from the ongoing data analysis, and future plans will be presented.

  4. Hugging balloons: coronary angioplasty of oversized vessels with side-by-side balloons.

    PubMed

    Teirstein, P S; Johnson, W L; Rutherford, B D; Hartzler, G O

    1988-01-01

    Angioplasty of large (greater than 4.0-mm) saphenous vein grafts using the largest available (4.0-mm) balloon catheters may result in inadequate graft dilatation. To avoid leaving a significant residual stenosis, two balloon catheters can be inflated side by side across the stenosis. Herein, we report two cases where this "hugging balloon" technique was used to achieve wide graft patency. PMID:2970301

  5. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallice, A.; Wienhold, F. G.; Hoyle, C. R.; Immler, F.; Peter, T.

    2011-10-01

    A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ∼30-35 km altitude) is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI) campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. In its present state, the model does not account for solar radiation, i.e. it is only able to describe the ascent of balloons during the night. It could however be adapted to also represent daytime soundings, with solar radiation modeled as a diffusive process. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s-1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s-1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study) in the orographically

  6. Thermal analysis and simulation of a floating super-pressure balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rongchen, Zhu; Sheng, Wang; Luhua, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Variation of temperature during day-night alternation needs to be analysed to estimate accurately the value of super-pressure a super-pressure balloon needs to maintain a level flight, and this paper aims to solve this problem. Radiation environment is analysed in this paper, calculation methods of different kinds of radiation sources are sorted, and differential equation of envelope and inner gas temperature variation are derived. Caulation program with user interface is compiled, the result is compared with flight data and proved to be usable. Factors which affect the temperature are also simluated and analysed.

  7. Beam Tests of the Balloon-Borne ATIC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganel, O.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, E. J.; Ampe, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Case, G.; Chang, J.; Ellison, S.; Fazely, A.; Gould, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurement from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide crucial hints about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATTIC'S design centers on an 18 radiation length (X(sub Omnicron)) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75 lambda(sub int) graphite target. In September 1999 the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator, within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000 - January 2001, ATIC flew on the first of a series of long duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam-tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 GeV to 375 GeV, as well as signal linearity and collection efficiency estimates. We show how these results compare with expectations based on simulations, and their expected impacts on mission performance.

  8. Nimbus 4/IRLS Balloon Interrogation Package (BIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The balloon interrogation package (BIP), an integral part of the overall interrogation, recording, and location subsystems (IRLS) for the Nimbus 4 program, is described. The BIP is a self-contained, integrated transponder designed to be carried aloft by a constant altitude, superpressure balloon to an altitude of 67,000 or 78,000 feet. After launch the BIP senses high-altitude balloon overpressure and temperature, and upon receipt of an interrogated command from the IRLS aboard the Nimbus 4 satellite, the BIP enodes the data on a real-time basis into a pulse-code modulation (PCM) format and transmits this data to the satellite. A summary of the program activity to produce 30 BIP systems and to support balloon launches from Ascension Island is presented.

  9. Ballooning Ideas for the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John C.; Carter, Glenda S.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces three demonstrations using rubber balloons: rate of reaction, air pressure, and solubility of gases in liquids. Provides the materials, procedure, questions, further investigation, and discussion in each demonstration. (YP)

  10. Investigations of Balloon and Aeroplane Fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Willis A; Smith, Omar H

    1917-01-01

    Report presents the experimental results of fabrics used for balloons and aeroplanes. Tensile properties, surface roughness, skin friction, flammability, permeability, and water absorption were tested for different combinations of materials.

  11. The Helium Balloon Project: Expanding Student Horizons...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1973-01-01

    An activity involving future elementary school teachers designed around inexpensive balloons which when launched contained postcards to determine the geographic location of the landing. The investigation is student-centered, involving unknown questions, and was conducted for enjoyment. (DF)

  12. Thermal Control of the Balloon-Borne HEROES Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) telescope is scheduled to fly on a high altitude balloon from Fort Sumner, New Mexico in the Fall of 2013. Once it reaches an altitude of 40km it will observe the Sun, Crab Nebula, and other astrophysical objects in the hard X-Ray spectrum (20-75keV) for around 28 hours. The HEROES project is a joint effort between Marshall and Goddard Space Flight Centers (MSFC and GSFC), and will utilize the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope, which last flew in 2011 in Australia. The addition of new systems will allow the telescope to view the Sun, and monitor the mechanical alignment of the structure during flight. This paper will give an overview of the telescope, and then provide a description of the thermal control method used on HEROES. The thermal control is done through a passive cold-bias design. Detailed thermal analyses were performed in order to prove the design. This will be discussed along with the results of the analyses. HEROES is funded by the NASA Hands-On Project Experience (HOPE) Training Opportunity. The HOPE opportunity provides early career employees within NASA hands on experience with a yearlong flight project. HOPE was awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer, and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  13. Analysis of tethered balloon data from San Nicolas Island on 8 July 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Stephen K.; Duda, David P.; Guinn, Thomas A.; Johnson-Pasqua, Christopher M.; Schubert, Wayne H.; Snider, Jack B.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the 8 July 1987 (Julian Day 189) tethered balloon flight from San Nicolas Island is summarized. The flight commenced at about 14:30 UTC (7:30 Pacific Daylight Time) and lasted six and one-half hours. The position of the Colorado State University (CSU) instrument package as a function of time is shown. For the purpose of presentation of results, researchers divided the flight into 13 legs. These legs consist of 20 minute constant level runs, with the exception of leg 1, which is a sounding from the surface to just above 930 mb. The laser ceilometer record of cloud base is also shown. The cloud base averaged around 970 mb during much of the flight but was more variable near the end. Before the tethered balloon flight commenced, a Communications Link Analysis and Simulation System (CLASS) sounding was released at 12:11 UTC (5:11 PDT). Temperature and moisture data below 927 mb for this sounding is shown. The sounding indicates a cloud top around 955 mb at this time.

  14. HERO: High Energy Replicated Optics for a Hard-X-Ray Balloon Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B.; Engelhaupt, D.; Speegle, C. O.; ODell, S. L.; Austin, R. A.; Elsner, R. F.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    We are developing high-energy grazing-incidence replicated optics for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope. When completed, the instrument will have 170 cm2 of effective collecting area at 40 keV and 130 square cm at 60 keV with <= 30 arc seconds half power diameter. This payload will offer unprecedented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region, with around 250 microCrab sensitivity on long-duration flights and 50-100 microCrab on ultra- long-duration balloon missions The payload consists of 16 mirror modules, each with 14 nested mirrors made from a high-strength nickel alloy, and a corresponding array of 16 focal plane detectors. An engineering demonstration flight is scheduled for the Spring of 2000, using just two mirror modules each with 3 shells, above a pair of gas-scintillation-proportional counters. This flight is intended to test a newly designed gondola pointing and aspect system and the stability of the optical bench design. The first scientific flight of the full payload is scheduled for the Fall of 2002. Full details of the payload and its capabilities will be presented together with data from various mirror-module tests. If available data from the first flight will also be presented.

  15. SPIDER: a balloon-borne large-scale CMB polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, B. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battistelli, E. S.; Benton, S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Brevik, J.; Bryan, S.; Contaldi, C. R.; Doré, O.; Farhang, M.; Fissel, L.; Golwala, S. R.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Lange, A. E.; Lawrie, C.; MacTavish, C. J.; Martin, T. G.; Mason, P.; Montroy, T. E.; Netterfield, C. B.; Pascale, E.; Riley, D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Turner, A.; Viero, M.; Wiebe, D.

    2008-07-01

    Spider is a balloon-borne experiment that will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background over a large fraction of a sky at ~ 1° resolution. Six monochromatic refracting millimeter-wave telescopes with large arrays of antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometers will provide system sensitivities of 4.2 and 3.1 μKcmb√s at 100 and 150 GHz, respectively. A rotating half-wave plate will modulate the polarization sensitivity of each telescope, controlling systematics. Bolometer arrays operating at 225 GHz and 275 GHz will allow removal of polarized galactic foregrounds. In a 2-6 day first flight from Alice Springs, Australia in 2010, Spider will map 50% of the sky to a depth necessary to improve our knowledge of the reionization optical depth by a large factor.

  16. NASA balloon: Aircraft ranging, data and voice experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wishna, S.; Hamby, C.; Reed, D.

    1972-01-01

    A series of tests to evaluate, at L-band, the ranging, voice, and data communications concepts proposed for the air traffic control experiment of the Applications Technology Satellite-F are described. The ground station facilities, balloon platforms and the aircraft were supplied by the European Space Research Organization. One ground simulation and two aircraft flights at low elevation angles were conducted. Even under high interference conditions good performance was obtained for both voice communications and side tone ranging. High bit errors occurred in the data channels resulting in false commands. As a result of the experience gained in operating the equipment in an aircraft environment several recommendations were made for improving the equipment performance.

  17. Balloon-borne spectroscopic observation of the infrared hydroxyl airglow.

    PubMed

    Lowe, R P; Lytle, E A

    1973-03-01

    A balloon-borne grating spectrometer has been used to study the spectrum of the airglow between 1.8 microm and 3.6 microm and its diurnal variation. The principal features identified are the bands of the Deltaupsilon = 2 and Deltaupsilon = 1 sequences of the vibration-rotation spectrum of OH. The brightness of the 1-0 band at night was measured to be in the range 270-400 kR on two flights. A sudden decrease in the intensity of the hydroxyl bands occurred in morning twilight at a solar depression of 4 degrees and is ascribed to the photodissociation of ozone. The temperature, as indicated by the Q/R branch ratio, rose from 170 K at night to 255 K at noon indicating a reduction in the height of the emitting layer during the day.

  18. STRATO 02/2015 - The Perseids 2015 stratospheric balloon mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Lenža, L.; Kapuš, J.; Erdziak, J.; Slošiar, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present the first results of the MeteorCam03 experiment that allowed the observation of meteors from the stratosphere. The experiment provides a new perspective of meteor observations, mainly due to the lower extinction in these layers of the Earth's atmosphere. For the implementation of the experiment the Perseid meteor shower maximum was chosen, since the Perseids (together with the Geminid meteor shower) are one of the most active streams observable from the northern hemisphere. The MeteorCam03 experiment was part of a stratospheric balloon flight with platform JULO-X codenamed STRATO 02/2015, whose launch was carried out by the Slovak Organization for Space Activities (SOSA).

  19. The protoMIRAX hard X-ray imaging balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, João; D'Amico, Flavio; Avila, Manuel A. C.; Penacchioni, Ana V.; Rodrigo Sacahui, J.; de Santiago, Valdivino A.; Mattiello-Francisco, Fátima; Strauss, Cesar; Fialho, Márcio A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The protoMIRAX hard X-ray imaging telescope is a balloon-borne experiment developed as a pathfinder for the MIRAX satellite mission. The experiment consists essentially in a coded-aperture hard X-ray (30-200 keV) imager with a square array (13 × 13) of 2 mm-thick planar CZT detectors with a total area of 169 cm2. The total, fully-coded field-of-view is 21° × 21° and the angular resolution is 1°43'. Aims: The main objective of protoMIRAX is to carry out imaging spectroscopy of selected bright sources to demonstrate the performance of a prototype of the MIRAX hard X-ray imager. In this paper we describe the protoMIRAX instrument and all the subsystems of its balloon gondola, and we show simulated results of the instrument performance. Methods: Detailed background and imaging simulations were performed for protoMIRAX balloon flights. The 3σ sensitivity for the 30-200 keV range is ~1.9 × 10-5 photons cm-2 s-1 for an integration time of 8 h at an atmospheric depth of 2.7 g cm-2 and an average zenith angle of 30°. We developed an attitude-control system for the balloon gondola and new data handling and ground systems that also include prototypes for the MIRAX satellite. Results: We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the camera response at balloon altitudes, showing the expected background level and the detailed sensitivity of protoMIRAX. We also present the results of imaging simulations of the Crab region. Conclusions: The results show that protoMIRAX is capable of making spectral and imaging observations of bright hard X-ray source fields. Furthermore, the balloon observations will carry out very important tests and demonstrations of MIRAX hardware and software in a near space environment.

  20. CNES super pressure balloons assessment and new developments to prepare Strateole-2 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venel, Stephanie; Spel, Martin; Cocquerez, Philippe; Meyer, Jean-Renaud; Nicot, Jean-Marc.; Parot, Gael; Perraud, Sophie

    The French Space Agency, CNES, has developed, since about twelve years ago, super pressure balloons (SPB) that float on constant density (isopycnic) surfaces in the lowermost stratosphere, carrying 40 to 50 kg payloads, during typically three months. These SPB have been successfully deployed in flotilla of about 20 balloons for different scientific campaigns all over the world in different configuration sizes from 8,5 to 12 m diameter, mainly to document the chemistry and dynamics of the atmosphere, to study gravity waves, and to provide in-situ atmospheric profiles thanks to the NCAR driftsonde payloada. This paper will describe the main results and lessons achieved during the last CONCORDIASI campaign in 2010 over the Antarctic region. Thus, anomalies on the on-board system were investigated and explained by the effect of atmospheric particles fluxes. Also related to these flights, an accurate thermal model was built to evaluate the temperature distribution in the balloon, and several ageing tests have been made to better understand the effect of solar exposure on the different balloon materials. This paper will also present the new developments in progress for the future STRATEOLE-2 campaign dedicated to advance the knowledge of coupling processes between the troposphere and the stratosphere in the deep tropics, and foreseen in 2018-2019. In particular, a new command-control system will be developed to be in conformity with the CNES safety rules, and in continuation with the new zero pressure balloons system named NOSYCA. New solar panels are under investigation. Finally, two new balloon sizes will grow the SPB family to respond to the scientist demand of two special altitude densities.

  1. Hybrid designs for super-pressure balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, W.; Baginski, F.

    The desire of the scientific community to fly large payloads at mid latitudes over durations of months while keeping altitude has propelled NASA on the path of developing an Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) design. The first design considered for ULDB was a spherical balloon, but the strength of its fabric composite fell far short of the capacity goal set by NASA. Therefore, an alternative design, the pumpkin-shape balloon, was chosen. For large balloons with a large number of gores, the pumpkin design is found to be susceptible to flawed deployment. While research on pumpkin balloon deployment is on-going, the spherical balloon design has stirred new interest for certain applications. Current spherical super-pressure designs have a load skirt that consists of straps that are attached tangentially to the fully inflated sphere. The attachment points constitute stress raisers, and the straps provide an opportunity for entanglement. The pneumatic envelope is a compliant structure that accommodates concentrated loads by large out-of-plane deformation. By embedding sufficient unidirectional strength elements in the skin that radiate from the nadir upward, we will demonstrate that the load skirt is unnecessary and the entanglement problem is avoided. We will use analytical investigations to establish the advantages of this hybrid design.

  2. New stent delivery balloon: a technical note.

    PubMed

    di Mario, C; Reimers, B; Reinhardt, R; Ferraro, M; Moussa, I; Colombo, A

    1997-12-01

    This study reports the first clinical application of a new noncompliant balloon composed of a middle polyurethane layer sandwiched between an inner layer of polyethylene terephtalate and an outer membrane that provides for consistent even expansion. With this balloon design, the very low compliance and high pressure resistance of polyethylene terephthalate are associated with the high elasticity of polyurethane, preventing balloon damage from stent crimping and expansion and allowing a firm embedding of the stent struts. Palmaz-Schatz stent implantation was successful in 33/35 stents (94%), and the two stents that could not be advanced up to the lesion were successfully withdrawn. High pressure expansion of the stent was obtained during deployment with no balloon ruptures at inflation pressures equal or lower than 16 atmospheres (atm). Accurate positioning of the stent was facilitated by the two markers at the balloon ends and by the optimal visualization after contrast injection, even with 6 Fr guiding catheters. This new delivery system maintains the advantages of hand-crimped stents on noncompliant balloons, reducing the risk of stent loss. PMID:9408637

  3. Progress of super-pressure balloon development: A new "tawara" concept with improved stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuke, H.; Izutsu, N.; Akita, D.; Iijima, I.; Kato, Y.; Kawada, J.; Matsushima, K.; Matsuzaka, Y.; Mizuta, E.; Namiki, M.; Nonaka, N.; Ohta, S.; Saito, Y.; Sato, T.; Seo, M.; Shoji, Y.; Takada, A.; Tamura, K.; Toriumi, M.; Yamada, K.; Yamagami, T.; Yoshida, T.

    2011-09-01

    The super-pressure balloon (SPB) has been expected to be a flight vehicle that can provide a long flight duration to science. Since 1997, we have developed the SPB. Now we are at the phase of developing an SPB of a practical size. In 2009, we carried out a test flight of a pumpkin-shaped SPB with a 60,000 m 3 volume. The undesirable result of this flight aroused us to resolve the deployment instability of the pumpkin-shaped SPB, which has been known as one of the most challenging issues confronting SPB development. To explore this deployment issue, in 2010, we carried out a series of ground tests. From results of these tests, we found that an SPB design modified from pumpkin, named "tawara", can be a good candidate to greatly improve the deployment stability of the lobed SPB.

  4. CNES super pressure balloons upgrade for Strateole-2 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venel, Stephanie; Cocquerez, Philippe; Hertzog, Albert

    2016-07-01

    The French Space Agency, CNES, has developed, since about twelve years ago, super pressure balloons (SPB) that float on constant density (isopycnic) surfaces in the lowermost stratosphere, carrying 40 to 50 kg payloads, during typically three months. These SPB have been successfully deployed in flotilla of about 20 balloons for different scientific campaigns all over the world in different configuration sizes from 8,5 to 12 m diameter, mainly to document the chemistry and dynamics of the atmosphere, to study gravity waves, and to provide in-situ atmospheric profiles thanks to the NCAR driftsonde payload. The SPB housekeeping gondola used from 2005 to 2011 now needs to be upgraded in order to increase the flights' safety and to improve its performance with up to date equipment's. The control center will also be redesigned. These modifications take into account the experience acquired during the last SPB campaigns, mainly during CONCORDIASI, with 19 flights over Antarctica from September 2010 to January 2011. After a successful preliminary design review, the project is now conducting the detailed conception phase. This new system is developed for STRATEOLE-2, a project dedicated to the coupling processes between the troposphere and the stratosphere in the deep tropics, using several types of instruments, both for in situ and remote measurements in the atmosphere. STRATEOLE -2 includes two measurement campaigns, three years spaced to study the quasi biennial oscillation. Since the scientific payloads are fully self-standing, some technical solutions will be common with the CNES housekeeping gondola, such as the renewable power system. This paper will describe the STRATEOLE-2 project and the developments in progress for the SPB system upgrade.

  5. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Balloon-Borne Telescope: Astrophysical Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeff; Kurt, Dietz; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Douglas; Christe, Steven D.; Shih, Albert

    2014-01-01

    On September 21, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun, or HEROES, balloon-borne x-ray telescope launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility's site in Ft. Summer, NM. The flight lasted for approximately 27 hours and the observational targets included the Sun and astrophysical sources GRS 1915+105 and the Crab Nebula. Over the past year, the HEROES team upgraded the existing High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES Project is a multi-NASA Center effort with team members at both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and is led by Co-PIs (one at each Center). The HEROES payload consists of the hard X-ray telescope HERO, developed at MSFC, combined with several new systems. To allow the HEROES telescope to make observations of the Sun, a new solar aspect system was added to supplement the existing star camera for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter was added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations and two alignment monitoring systems were added for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. This mission was funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands-On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  6. Development of a new large balloon launch technique for the low density supersonic decelerator project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Danny

    D. Ball1 and 2 E. Klein 1,2 Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility Danny.Ball@csbf.nasa.gov/Fax 903-723-8068 Erich.Klein@csbf.nasa.gov/Fax 903-723-8068 Scientific balloon flights have served for decades as a unique and cost effective platform for conducting world class space science and for developing and testing new technologies for exploration. These technologies have ranged from detector development to in situ testing of unique cutting edge space systems. The Earth’s stratosphere is an analog to Mars’s atmosphere and provides as close to an in situ environment to test a reentry system. Previous in situ tests for a Mars reentry system were a series of drop tests that were conducted from stratospheric balloon flights in 2004 to test a NASA Mars subsonic parachute entry design. In 2014 and 2015 a series of balloon flights to test a Mars prototype reentry system are planned. The JPL Mars Science Laboratory’s Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) effort is intended to test the system by flying different new drag devices on three tests, at full scale and at supersonic speeds, high in Earth’s stratosphere, simulating entry into the atmosphere of Mars. To start the tests, the system must be first lofted to the stratosphere via a large high altitude balloon. NASA has been launching high altitude balloons to support science for many years, but with LDSD there are unique challenges with performing the test and lofting the test system to the stratosphere. The test involves launching a Star 48 Motor on a balloon to a set float altitude, orienting the payload, and then releasing the system from the balloon to start the test where the rocket motor is ignited to accelerate the test system to supersonic speeds. Safety is a significant driver in the development process for all phases of any balloon launch operation. Because a rocket motor is part of the payload to be launched, the balloon launching operations for the LDSD project have required a completely fresh look to

  7. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation: revival of the old technique.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Uk; Moon, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Radiologists first described the removal of bile duct stones using balloon dilation in the early 1980s. Recently, there has been renewed interest in endoscopic balloon dilation with a small balloon to avoid the complications of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in young patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, there is a disparity in using endoscopic balloon papillary dilation (EPBD) between the East and the West, depending on the origin of the studies. In the early 2000s, EST followed by endoscopic balloon dilation with a large balloon was introduced to treat large or difficult biliary stones. Endoscopic balloon dilation with a large balloon has generally been recognized as an effective and safe method, unlike EPBD. However, fatal complications have occurred in patients with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD). The safety of endoscopic balloon dilation is still a debatable issue. Moreover, guidelines of indications and techniques have not been established in performing endoscopic balloon dilation with a small balloon or a large balloon. In this article, we discuss the issue of conventional and large balloon endoscopic dilation. We also suggest the indications and optimal techniques of EPBD and EPLBD.

  8. [Intragastric balloon: a review concerning alternative balloons compared to the classical ones (Bioenterics)].

    PubMed

    Martínez Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Cancer, Emilia; Bretón, Irene; Álvarez, Visitación; Abilés, Verónica; Abilés, Jimena; Peláez, Noelia; Mellado, Carmen; Mazure, Rose-Anne; Culebras, Jesús Manuel

    2014-10-06

    Since de Tarpon Springs Consensus Conference in 1987, the Bioenterics Intragastric Balloon represents the standard model for obesity treatment with this technique. Nevertheless, over the last 30 years, especially for the last ten years, novel concept of balloons has appeared, as well as new alternative models, which are reviewed in this paper.

  9. An implementation of Software Defined Radios for federated aerospace networks: Informing satellite implementations using an inter-balloon communications experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtyamov, Rustam; Cruz, Ignasi Lluch i.; Matevosyan, Hripsime; Knoll, Dominik; Pica, Udrivolf; Lisi, Marco; Golkar, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Novel space mission concepts such as Federated Satellite Systems promise to enhance sustainability, robustness, and reliability of current missions by means of in-orbit sharing of space assets. This new paradigm requires the utilization of several technologies in order to confer flexibility and re-configurability to communications systems among heterogeneous spacecrafts. This paper illustrates the results of the experimental demonstration of the value proposition of federated satellites through two stratospheric balloons interoperating with a tracking ground station through Commercial Off-The-Shelf Software Defined Radios (SDRs). The paper reports telemetry analysis and characterizes the communications network that was realized in-flight. Furthermore, it provides details on an in-flight anomaly experienced by one of the balloons, which was recovered through the use of the federated technology that has been developed. The anomaly experienced led to the early loss of the directional link from the ground station to the affected stratospheric balloon node after 15 min in flight. Nevertheless, thanks to the federated approach among the systems, the ground station was still able to retrieve the balloon's data in real time through the network system, for which the other balloon operated as a federated relay for 45 min in flight, uninterrupted. In other words, the federated approach to the system allowed triplicating the useful lifetime of the defective system, which would have not been possible to realize otherwise. Such anomaly coincidentally demonstrated the value of the federated approach to space systems design. The paper paves the way for future tests on space assets.

  10. Balloon Angioplasty Optimization: Should We Measure Balloon Volume As Well As Pressure?

    SciTech Connect

    Shehab, M.; Michalis, L. K.; Rees, M. R.

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To investigate the influence that measurement of balloon volume as a controlled variable in addition to balloon pressure has on the outcome of balloon angioplasty in an experimental model. Methods. One hundred and three segments of explanted normal porcine carotid arteries were obtained. Five were used as controls, and the remaining 98 were subjected to balloon angioplasty with simultaneous measurement of balloon volume and pressure. These arteries were randomized into two groups. In one group the endpoint of the angioplasty was determined by balloon pressure (pressure-limited group, PLG) and in the other group by balloon volume (volume-limited group, VLG). Pressure/volume curves for each procedure were constructed by continuous measurement of both parameters by a purpose-designed computer-controlled inflation device. The diameter of each arterial segment was measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and the ratio of the inflated balloon to arterial diameter calculated. Arterial appearances after angioplasty were recorded using IVUS. Results. The balloon volumes measured at the endpoint of angioplasty were significantly smaller in the PLG compared with the VLG (p < 0.001). Three types of pressure/volume curves were identified: A, B, and C. In the type A curves, IVUS identified fissures in 28% (17/60) and the examination was normal in 72% (43/60). In the type B curves, IVUS identified fissures in 44% (4/9), dissections in 22% (2/9), and the examination was normal in 33% (3/9). In the type C curves, IVUS identified fissures in 44% (4/9) and dissection in 56% (5/9) with no normal examinations. In undamaged arterial segments a very high correlation was achieved between balloon volume and the balloon/artery ratio (Pearson correlation = -0.979, R{sup 2} = 0.957, p < 0.0001, n = 27). Conclusion. The measurement of pressure and volume during angioplasty enabled the construction of pressure/volume curves that showed deviations from the curves obtained in air. The

  11. Atmospheric Balloon Swarms for Persistent In-Situ Measurements in Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghello, G.; Bewley, T.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time measurements within hurricanes are essential to improve forecasts, protect property and save lives. Current methods for obtaining in-situ data, including radar and satellite imagery as well as drop-sondes deployed from repeated aircraft flights above or even within the hurricane itself, are costly, dangerous and limited in duration or resolution. We demonstrate how a swarm of inexpensive, buoyancy-controlled, sensor-laden balloons can be deployed from altitude or from sea-level within a hurricane flow field, and coordinated autonomously in an energetically-efficient fashion to persistently and continuously monitor relevant properties (pressure, humidity, temperature, windspeed) of a hurricane for days at a time. Rather than fighting the gale-force winds in the storm, the strong, predictable stratification of these winds is leveraged to disperse the balloons into a favorable, time-evolving distribution and to follow the hurricane track as it moves. Certain target orbits of interest in the hurricane can be continuously sampled by some balloons, while other balloons make continuous sweeps between the eye and the spiral rain bands. We expect the acquired data to complement current measurement methods and to be instrumental in improving the numerical models' forecast skills.

  12. The Electrical Measurement by Sounding Balloons and a Flexibility Study on the Artificially Triggered TLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, S.; Chuang, C.; Chiu, C.; Chen, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    The atmospheric electric field plays an important role in driving the global electric circuit, as well as the theoretical models of the transient luminous events (TLEs). The measurement of the electric field in the upper atmosphere, especially above cloud top to the bottom of the ionosphere is very challenging but essential. A lightweight, double-Langmuir type probe of the electric field meter is greatly improved for the balloon-borne measurement. Instead of scientific balloons, the meteorological balloons are used to send this electric field meter to up to 30km height and measure the vertical profile of the atmospheric electric field, and the vertical charge density can also be derived simultaneously. In this presentation, the result of a flight is demonstrated. In addition to the measurement of the electric filed, the artificial TLEs triggered from meteorological balloon is also considered. A simple electrodynamic model similar to Krehbiel et al. [2008] is adapted to explore the possibility and conditions to induce the electric field breakdown and produce artificial TLEs by cooper wires in the upper atmosphere. The preliminary results are also reported.

  13. BALLOON-BASED HIGH-TIME RESOLUTION MEASUREMENTS OF X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM LIGHTNING

    SciTech Connect

    K. EACK; D. SUSZCYNSKY; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project consisted of a series of balloon flights to collect high-time-resolution x-ray and electric-field-change measurements in thunderstorms in order to validate the existence of the runaway air-breakdown mechanism during lightning and/or sprite production. The runaway air-breakdown mechanism is currently the leading theory to account for unexplained balloon and aircraft-based measurements of x-ray enhancements associated with sprites. Balloon-borne gamma-ray and electric-field-change instruments were launched into a daytime summer thunderstorm. A greater than three-fold increase in the gamma-ray flux was observed as the balloon descended through a thunderstorm anvil where a strong electric field was present. These observations suggest that gamma-ray production in thunderstorms may not be as uncommon as previously believed.

  14. Balloon measurements of stratospheric HCl and HF by far infrared emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibasaki, Kazuo; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.; Traub, Wesley A.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed atmospheric thermal emission spectra obtained with the balloon-borne FIRS-2 far infrared Fourier transform spectrometer during balloon flights from Palestine, Texas on May 12-13, 1988 and from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on September 26-27, 1989 and on July 4-5, 1990. Seven and two pure rotational transition lines in 100-205 cm(exp -1) range are analyzed for deriving vertical profiles of stratospheric HCl and HF, respectively. We obtain both the daytime and nighttime average vertical profiles from 15 to 50 km. We compare these profiles with the ones obtained in June, 1983 with the first version of FIRS spectrometer during the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC-2). BIC-2 results were revised to be consistent with the present analysis which uses the latest spectral parameters. According to our comparison results no increase is recognized for HCl but about 3 percent per year increase for HF from 1983 to 1990, assuming a linear trend. These annual increase rates are smaller than those reported by other groups. Recently Rinsland et al. (1991) and Wallace and Livingston (1991) reported long term behavior of total HCl and HF observed on Kit Peak between 1977 and 1990. As Kit Peak is located near both balloon launching sites, Palestine and Fort Sumner, we think our results are favorably comparable with theirs. Comparison results with ours and ground-based measurements will be presented and discussed.

  15. Cutaneous balloon cell dermatofibroma (fibrous histiocytoma).

    PubMed

    Tran, Tien Anh; Hayner-Buchan, Alida; Jones, David M; McRorie, Duane; Carlson, J Andrew

    2007-04-01

    Dermatofibroma (DF) or cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma is a common benign skin tumor that exhibits multiple, distinct histologic variants. Although clear cell DF has been described in the literature, balloon cell degeneration causing a clear cell DF phenotype has been not been reported to date. Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic findings of balloon cell DF arising on the heel of a 43-year-old man. Clinically, it presented as enlarging tan-white, ulcerated, firm 1.5 cm nodule, clinically suspected to be pyogenic granuloma. Excisional biopsy revealed a circumscribed fibrous tumor populated by mostly clear and spindle cells. A zonal arrangement separated the varied tumor cells where the most superficial, polypoid area showed large, clear polygonal balloon cells; the mid-dermal zone demonstrated a transition between balloon cells, epithelioid cells, and spindle cells; and the deep dermal zone had storiform arrangement of spindle cells, with the fascicles separated by coarse collagen bundles. A CD10+ > CD68+ > Factor XIIIa+ immunophenotype was identified with negative immunolabeling for S-100 protein, HMB-45, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, desmin, smooth muscle actin, lysozyme, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA). Ultrastructurally, the clear tumor cells were filled with multiple, empty, nonmembrane bound vacuoles of varying size. No recurrence has been described after complete excision and 7 months of follow up. DF with balloon cell change, likely secondary to persistent irritation, should be added to the differential diagnosis of cutaneous primary and metastatic neoplasms showing balloon cell degeneration such as balloon cell melanocytic nevi and renal cell carcinoma, respectively.

  16. Accurate Determination of the Volume of an Irregular Helium Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Bradvica, Rafaela; Karl, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    In a recent paper, Zable described an experiment with a near-spherical balloon filled with impure helium. Measuring the temperature and the pressure inside and outside the balloon, the lift of the balloon, and the mass of the balloon materials, he described how to use the ideal gas laws and Archimedes' principal to compute the average molecular mass and density of the impure helium. This experiment required that the volume of the near-spherical balloon be determined by some approach, such as measuring the girth. The accuracy of the experiment was largely determined by the balloon volume, which had a reported uncertainty of about 4%.

  17. The time-of-flight system on the Goddard medium energy gamma-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. W.; Chesney, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A scintillation counter time of flight system, incorporated into the Goddard 50 cm by 50 cm spark chamber gamma ray telescope is described. The system, which utilizes constant fractions timing and particle position compensation and digitizes up to 10 ns time differences to six bit accuracy in less than 500 ns is analyzed. The performance of this system during balloon flight is discussed.

  18. Development of a new large balloon launch technique for the low density supersonic decelerator project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Danny

    D. Ball1 and 2 E. Klein 1,2 Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility Danny.Ball@csbf.nasa.gov/Fax 903-723-8068 Erich.Klein@csbf.nasa.gov/Fax 903-723-8068 Scientific balloon flights have served for decades as a unique and cost effective platform for conducting world class space science and for developing and testing new technologies for exploration. These technologies have ranged from detector development to in situ testing of unique cutting edge space systems. The Earth’s stratosphere is an analog to Mars’s atmosphere and provides as close to an in situ environment to test a reentry system. Previous in situ tests for a Mars reentry system were a series of drop tests that were conducted from stratospheric balloon flights in 2004 to test a NASA Mars subsonic parachute entry design. In 2014 and 2015 a series of balloon flights to test a Mars prototype reentry system are planned. The JPL Mars Science Laboratory’s Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) effort is intended to test the system by flying different new drag devices on three tests, at full scale and at supersonic speeds, high in Earth’s stratosphere, simulating entry into the atmosphere of Mars. To start the tests, the system must be first lofted to the stratosphere via a large high altitude balloon. NASA has been launching high altitude balloons to support science for many years, but with LDSD there are unique challenges with performing the test and lofting the test system to the stratosphere. The test involves launching a Star 48 Motor on a balloon to a set float altitude, orienting the payload, and then releasing the system from the balloon to start the test where the rocket motor is ignited to accelerate the test system to supersonic speeds. Safety is a significant driver in the development process for all phases of any balloon launch operation. Because a rocket motor is part of the payload to be launched, the balloon launching operations for the LDSD project have required a completely fresh look to

  19. Flight project data book, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) is responsible for planning, directing, executing, and evaluating that part of the overall NASA program that has as its goal the use of the unique characteristics of the space environment to conduct a scientific study of the universe, to solve practical problems on Earth, and to provide the scientific research foundation for expanding human presence beyond Earth into the solar system. OSSA manages the development of NASA's flight instrumentation for space science and applications including free flying spacecraft, Shuttle and Space Station payloads, and the suborbital sounding rockets, balloons, and aircraft programs. A summary is provided of future flight missions, including those approved and currently under development and those which appear in the OSSA strategic plan.

  20. SAOZ balloon profiles for the validation of OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS at various latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutail, F.

    2005-08-01

    SAOZ is a small remote sensing instrument looking at solar occultation during the ascent of the balloon and during sunset (or sunrise) from floating altitude. It is a UV-visible spectrometer measuring O3 and NO2 and in its enhanced UV version, BrO. The vertical profiles, retrieved by onion peeling, have a typical vertical resolution of 1.5 km. Since the launch of ODIN in 2001 seventeen SAOZ balloon flights have been performed at various latitudes and seasons: a - nine flights at mid-latitudes in summer and autumn from southern France (43°N) within the BALODIN/CNES and ESABC programs and from Vanscoy (52°N) in Saskatchevan within the MANTRA 2002 and MANTRA 2004 Canadian campaigns; b - four flights in the Arctic from Kiruna in Sweden (67°N) in winter, inside and outside the polar vortex as well as in summer; c - and finally four flights in the tropics from Bauru in Brasil (22°S) in summer within the pre-HIBISCUS and HIBISCUS/VINTERSOL EU project. Comparison with coincident OSIRIS/ODIN, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and GOMOS/ENVISAT ozone, NO2 and BrO profiles are presented.

  1. Long-Duration, Balloon-Borne Observations of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Funds from this grant were used to support the continuing development of BOOMERANG, a 1.3 m, balloon-borne, attitude-stabilized telescope designed to measure the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on angular scales of 12 min to 10 degrees. By the end of the funding period covered by this grant, the fabrication of most of the BOOMERANG sub-systems was completed, and integration and test of the payload at Caltech had begun. The project was continued under a new grant from NASA and continuing funding from the NSF. Payload integration and test was completed in April, 1997. A campaign to Palestine, Texas, resulted in two test flights during 1997. A flight on August 12, 1997 was terminated on ascent due to a leaky balloon. The payload was successfully recovered, refurbished, and flown again on August 29, 1997. The second flight was completely successful, and qualified the payload for an LDB flight from McMurdo Stn., Antarctica, in December 1998.

  2. SIDERALE plus BIT: a small stratospheric balloon CZT based experiment at Polar Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, Ezio; Alderighi, Monica; Quadrini, Egidio M.; Cortiglioni, Stefano; Ronchi, Enrico; Miatto, Paolo; Del Sordo, Stefano; Natalucci, Lorenzo

    SIDERALE was a small experiment hosted as a piggy back payload on the SoRa LDB (Sounding Radar Long Distance Balloon) stratospheric balloon mission by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The balloon was launched on July 1st from Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway), and flew for 4 days at a float altitude of about 39 km along the 78 North parallel and landed on the Baffin Island (Canada) on July 4th at 10:30 UTC. SIDERALE was aimed to test in a pseudo spatial environment a detector for high energy astrophysics applications based on a 44 pixel CZT solid state sensor. An onboard data handling computer, a mass memory and a power supply units were integrated in the SIDERALE payload. Furthermore an innovative modular and low cost telemetry system BIT (Bidirectional Iridium Telemetry), developed in a collaboration between INAF/IASF-Bologna and LEN srl, was used in order to make SIDERALE autonomous and independent from the hosting payload. The detector was measuring X and ray radiation for the whole flight according to dynamically set operating modes. Four to six events per second were measured by the sensitive detector volume in an energy range of between 40 keV and 400 keV. Acquired data were 100The overall payload (SIDERALE+BIT) was successfully recovered together with the onboard stored data and arrived back to Italy in autumn 2009. The paper presents the experiment and its main characteristics together with a preliminary analysis of flight and scientific data.

  3. Telescopes in Near Space: Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BigBENI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Mallik, Udayan; Mauk, Robin

    2012-01-01

    A significant and often overlooked path to advancing both science and technology for direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of exosolar planets is to fly "near space" missions, i.e. balloon borne exosolar missions. A near space balloon mission with two or more telescopes, coherently combined, is capable of achieving a subset of the mission science goals of a single large space telescope at a small fraction of the cost. Additionally such an approach advances technologies toward flight readiness for space flight. Herein we discuss the feasibility of flying two 1.2 meter telescopes, with a baseline separation of 3.6 meters, operating in visible light, on a composite boom structure coupled to a modified visible nulling coronagraph operating to achieve an inner working angle of 60 milli-arcseconds. We discuss the potential science return, atmospheric residuals at 135,000 feet, pointing control and visible nulling and evaluate the state-or-art of these technologies with regards to balloon missions.

  4. JBFA - buoyant flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohari, T.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed whereby a balloon was used to carry lumber out of a forest in order to continue lumber production without destroying the natural environment and view of the forest. Emphasis was on the best shape for a logging balloon, development of a balloon logging system suitable for cutting lumber and safety plans, tests on balloon construction and development of netting, and weather of mountainous areas, especially solutions to problems caused by winds.

  5. Near ultraviolet spectrograph for balloon platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2015-06-01

    Small and compact scientific payloads may be easily designed constructed and own on high altitude balloons. Despite the fact that large orbital observatories provide accurate observations and statistical studies of remote and/or faint space sources, small telescopes on board balloons or rockets are still attractive because of their low cost and rapid response time. We describe here a near ultraviolet (NUV) spectrograph designed to be own on a high{altitude balloon platform. Our basic optical design is a modified Czerny-Turner system using off the shelf optics. We compare different methods of aberration corrections in such a system. We intend the system to be portable and scalable to different telescopes. The use of reflecting optics reduces the transmission loss in UV. We plan on using an image intensified CMOS sensor operating in photon counting mode as the detector of choice.

  6. NAU's High Altitude Balloon Satellite Program for Middle and High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Barry L.

    2007-10-01

    Northern Arizona University is entering its fourth year of offering a high altitude balloon satellite program designed for middle and high school students. The program, called Changes in Altitudes, was originally piloted by the NAU Space Grant, a member of the Arizona Space Grant Consortium, and is currently being supported by the University of Arizona's Phoenix Mars Mission as a robotics strand of its Education and Public Outreach program. Each year, ten schools from across Arizona, selected on a competitive basis, are invited to form teams of fours student each to design and build payloads that they will fly on a high altitude weather balloon up to 100, 000 ft above sea level. The baseline payload consists of 6-inch cube containing a pressure data logger, a temperature/relative humidity data logger, and a small film camera that is modified to take photographs approximately every three minutes during the flight. The students track the balloon from launch through burst to touch down. They recover their payloads in the field to retrieve the pressure and temperature profiles of the atmosphere and the images of the Earth recorded during the flight. A post-flight debriefing allows students to see and share their data with students from the other schools. Each school is participates in four flights over a period of two years allowing up to 16 students from each school to experience the project. In addition, the teachers are provided a training workshop and launch to prepare them for leading their student teams. In this poster, examples of student data are presented and the failures and successes are discussed, along with the challenges associated with offering such a program at the pre-college level. The handbook used for teacher training will be available, along with words of encouragement to build a similar program in your state.

  7. Vertical Electric Field Measurements with Copper Plates by Sounding Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Shao-Chun; Chiu, Cheng-Hsiu; Bing-Chih Chen, Alfred; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong

    2015-04-01

    The vertical electric field plays an important role in driving the circulation of the global electric circuit, and crucial to the formation of the transient luminous events (TLEs). The in-situ measurement of the electric field in the upper atmosphere, especially from cloud top to the bottom of the ionosphere is very challenging but essential. Limited by the flight vehicle, the measurements of the electric field in and above cloud, especiall thundercloud, is rare up to now. A light-weight electric field meter was developed independently and sent to 30 km height by small meteorological balloons successfully. Other than the existing long-spaced, spherical probe design, an improved electric field meter has been built and tested carefully. A new circuit with ultra high input impedance and a high voltage amplifier is implemented to reduce the AC noise induced by the voltage divider. Two copper plates are used to replace the double spherical probes which is spaced by a long fiberglass boom. The in-lab calibration and tests show that this new model is superior to the existing design and very sensitive to the variation of the DC electric field. In this poster, the design and the in-lab tests will be presented, and preliminary results of the flight experiments are also discussed.

  8. Crash in Australian outback ends NASA ballooning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-06-01

    NASA has temporarily suspended all its scientific balloon launches after the balloon-borne Nuclear Compton Tele scope (NCT) crashed during take-off, scattering a trail of debris across the remote launch site and overturning a nearby parked car.

  9. Performance of latex balloons for optical computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, K.; Walsh, A.; Peng, M.; Battista, J.

    2013-06-01

    Latex balloons filled with radiation sensitive hydrogels were evaluated as 3D dosimeters with optical computed tomography (CT) readout. Custom balloons, with less than 10 cm diameters, were made from latex sheets. Commercial, 13 cm diameter, clear balloons were investigated for larger volumes. Ferrous-xylenol orange and genipin gelatin gels selected for 1 and 30 Gy experiments, respectively. The thin stretched latex membrane allowed optical imaging to within 1 mm of the interior balloon edge. Reconstructed dose distributions demonstrated valid measurements to within 2 mm of the balloon surface. The rubber membrane provides a hybrid approach to deforming hydrogels. Uniform irradiation of a deformed gel resulted in a uniform dose being measured when scanned in the relaxed, initial balloon shape. The 13 cm diameter balloons were also effective and inexpensive vessels for hydrogels due to their high clarity, thinness and mechanical strength. Latex balloons represent an inexpensive method to obtain useful information from nearly the entire dosimeter volume.

  10. Note: A balloon-borne accelerometer technique for measuring atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlton, Graeme J.; Giles Harrison, R.; Nicoll, Keri A.; Williams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    A weather balloon and its suspended instrument package behave like a pendulum with a moving pivot. This dynamical system is exploited here for the detection of atmospheric turbulence. By adding an accelerometer to the instrument package, the size of the swings induced by atmospheric turbulence can be measured. In test flights, strong turbulence has induced accelerations greater than 5g, where g = 9.81 m s-2. Calibration of the accelerometer data with a vertically orientated lidar has allowed eddy dissipation rate values of between 10-3 and 10-2 m2 s-3 to be derived from the accelerometer data. The novel use of a whole weather balloon and its adapted instrument package can be used as a new instrument to make standardized in situ measurements of turbulence.

  11. Note: A balloon-borne accelerometer technique for measuring atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Marlton, Graeme J; Harrison, R Giles; Nicoll, Keri A; Williams, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    A weather balloon and its suspended instrument package behave like a pendulum with a moving pivot. This dynamical system is exploited here for the detection of atmospheric turbulence. By adding an accelerometer to the instrument package, the size of the swings induced by atmospheric turbulence can be measured. In test flights, strong turbulence has induced accelerations greater than 5g, where g = 9.81 m s(-2). Calibration of the accelerometer data with a vertically orientated lidar has allowed eddy dissipation rate values of between 10(-3) and 10(-2) m(2) s(-3) to be derived from the accelerometer data. The novel use of a whole weather balloon and its adapted instrument package can be used as a new instrument to make standardized in situ measurements of turbulence.

  12. HX-POL - A Balloon-Borne Hard X-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilicke, M.; Baring, M. G.; de Geronimo, G.; Dowkontt, P.; Garson, A., III; Grindlay, J.; Harding, A.; Hong, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Kurfess, J.; Li, Q.; Martin, J.; Novikova, E. I.; Wulf, E. A.

    2010-10-01

    The design and estimated performance of a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter called HX-POL is reported. The experiment uses a combination of Si and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors to measure the polarization of 50-500 keV X-rays through the dependence of the angular distribution of Compton scattered photons on the polarization direction. On a 15 to 30-day balloon flight, HX-POL would allow one to measure the polarization of bright Crab-like sources for polarization degrees down to a few %. Hard X-ray polarization measurements provide unique venues for the study of particle acceleration processes by compact objects and relativistic outflows.

  13. Note: A self-calibrating electrometer for atmospheric charge measurements from a balloon platform.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K A

    2013-09-01

    Charged aerosol particles and water droplets are abundant throughout the lower atmosphere, and may influence interactions between small cloud droplets. This note describes a small, disposable sensor for the measurement of charge in non-thunderstorm cloud, which is an improvement of an earlier sensor [K. A. Nicoll and R. G. Harrison, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 014501 (2009)]. The sensor utilizes a self-calibrating current measurement method. It is designed for use on a free balloon platform alongside a standard meteorological radiosonde, measuring currents from 2 fA to 15 pA and is stable to within 5 fA over a temperature range of 5 °C to -60 °C. During a balloon flight with the charge sensor through a stratocumulus cloud, charge layers up to 40 pC m(-3) were detected on the cloud edges. PMID:24089882

  14. The HERO Program: High-Energy Replicated Optics for a Hard-X-Ray Balloon Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Speegle, C. O.; Austin, R. A.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; ODell, S. L.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    We are developing high-energy replicated optics for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope. When completed, the telescope will have around 150 square cm of effective collecting area up to 65 keV, and an angular resolution of around 30 arc seconds, half power diameter. When used in conjunction with an array of focal plane imaging detectors, for which Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters are under development, the payload will provide unprecedented sensitivity for pointed observations in the hard-x-ray band. We will present an overview of the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) program together with test data from the first mirror units. The overall sensitivity of the full payload, when flown on long- and ultra-long-duration balloon flights, will be compared with past and planned satellite-borne hard-x-ray missions.

  15. Note: A self-calibrating electrometer for atmospheric charge measurements from a balloon platform.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K A

    2013-09-01

    Charged aerosol particles and water droplets are abundant throughout the lower atmosphere, and may influence interactions between small cloud droplets. This note describes a small, disposable sensor for the measurement of charge in non-thunderstorm cloud, which is an improvement of an earlier sensor [K. A. Nicoll and R. G. Harrison, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 014501 (2009)]. The sensor utilizes a self-calibrating current measurement method. It is designed for use on a free balloon platform alongside a standard meteorological radiosonde, measuring currents from 2 fA to 15 pA and is stable to within 5 fA over a temperature range of 5 °C to -60 °C. During a balloon flight with the charge sensor through a stratocumulus cloud, charge layers up to 40 pC m(-3) were detected on the cloud edges.

  16. Ballooning dispersal in arthropod taxa with convergent behaviours: dynamic properties of ballooning silk in turbulent flows

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, A.M; Bohan, D.A; Bell, J.R

    2006-01-01

    We present a new model of ballooning behaviour in arthropods in which draglines are regarded as being extendible and completely flexible. Our numerical simulations reveal that silk draglines within turbulent flows can become twisted and stretched into highly contorted shapes. Ballooners are therefore predicted to have little control over their aerodynamic drag and their dispersal within the atmospheric boundary layer. Dragline length is crucial only at lift-off. This prediction runs counter to that of Humphrey who suggested that the length of rigid draglines can be used to control dispersal. In contrast with Humphrey's model, the new model accounts naturally for the large distances travelled by some ballooners. PMID:17148406

  17. The Ultimate Mountaintop: Astronomy Aboard Stratospheric Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As funding, for astronomy dwindles and the competition for observation time heats up, more astronomers may turn to balloons. Far above the Keck telescope on Hawaii's Mauna Kea, higher still than the hostile snowcapped peaks of Mt. Everest, there exists a 40-kilometer summit that will place their telescopes above 99% of the atmosphere. With the prospect of 100-day and even 1,000-day balloons, the climb to the summit is more and more tempting. Surely, given enough cash, most astronomers would opt for a lunar base or a platform beyond the Earth. Until then, many seem happy to settle for a stratospheric mountaintop.

  18. Exploring Mars with Balloons and Inflatable Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Cutts, James A.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Yavrouian, Andre; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Raque, Steven; Fairbrother, Debbie A.

    2000-07-01

    Until now, the exploration of Mars has taken place with global coverage of the planet by satellites in orbit or with landers providing very detailed coverage of extremely limited local areas. New developments in inflatable technology, however, now offer the possibility of in situ surface and atmospheric global studies of Mars using very lightweight rovers and balloons that can travel hundreds or even thousands of kilometers relatively quickly and safely. Both systems are currently being tested at JPL; preliminary results show great promise. One of the balloon technologies offers the additional bonus of being able to land payloads on Mars much more gently than parachutes, yet with considerably less mass.

  19. Delayed bone cement displacement following balloon kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hee Sun; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Seok Won

    2008-04-01

    We report a rare case of delayed cement displacement after balloon kyphoplasty in patient with Kümmell's desease. A 78-year-old woman with Kümmell's desease at T12 level received percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty. Two months after surgery, the patient complained of progressive severe back pain. Computed tomographic scans revealed a breakdown of the anterior cortex and anterior displacement of bone cement. Although this complication is very rare, it is likely to occur in treatment of Kümmell's desease accompanying anterior cortical defect. PMID:19096648

  20. Substances To Fill Lighter-Than-Air Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1995-01-01

    Various combinations of solid and liquid chemicals proposed as sources of hydrogen and other gases for inflating lighter-than-air balloons. In all cases energy used to propel balloon upward or downward comes from temperature differences in planet's atmosphere itself. Phase changes and/or reversible chemical reactions used to vary quantities of gases in balloons as functions of pressure and temperature and, as functions of altitude: provides means to control altitude of balloon.

  1. Improving UV Resistance of High Strength Fibers Used In Large Scientific Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Said, M.; Gupta, A.; Seyam, A.; Mock, G.; Theyson, T.

    2004-01-01

    For the last three decades, NASA has been involved in the development of giant balloons that are capable of lifting heavy payloads of equipment (such as large telescopes and scientific instruments) to the upper atmosphere. While the use of such balloons has led to scientific discoveries, the demand for competitive science payloads and observational programs continues to rise. The NASA Balloon Program Office has entered a new phase of research to develop an Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) that will lift payloads of up to 3,600 kg to altitudes of up to 40 km. The flight duration is targeted to ranges between 30 to 100 days. Attaining these target durations requires the development of a super-pressure balloon design. The use of textile structures have already been established in these missions in the form of high strength tendons essential for the super pressure pumpkin design. Unfortunately, high strength fibers lose significant strength upon exposure to Ultra Violet (UV) radiation. Such UV degradation poses a serious challenge for the development of the ULDB. To improve the mission performance of the ULDB, new methods for protecting the tendons from the environmental effects need to be developed. NASA and NC State University College of Textiles are undertaking a research program to address these issues. Four tracks have been identified to prepare finishes that are believed to enhance the resistance of high strength fibers to UV. These tracks are: (a) self-polymerizing, (b) diffusion application, (c) polymer-filled with 30-40% UV absorber, and (d) combination of dyeing plus surface application. Four high performance fibers have been selected for this research investigation. These are Vectran (trademark), Spectra (trademark), Kevlar (trademark) and, PBO (Zylon (trademark)). This work will address the current progress of evaluating the performance of the UV finishes. This will be accomplished by comparing the tensile properties (strength, breaking elongation

  2. Improving uv resistance of high strength fibers used in large scientific balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, M.; Gupta, A.; Seyam, A.; Mock, G.; Theyson, T.

    For the last three decades, NASA has been involved in the development of giant balloons that are capable of lifting heavy payloads of equipment (such as large telescopes and scientific instruments) to the upper atmosphere. While the use of such balloons has led to scientific discoveries, the demand for competitive science payloads and observational programs continues to rise. The NASA Balloon Program Office has entered a new phase of research to develop an Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) that will lift payloads of up to 3,600 kg to altitudes of up to 40 km. The flight duration is targeted to ranges between 30 to 100 days. Attaining these target durations requires the development of a super-pressure balloon design. The use of textile structures have already been established in these missions in the form of high strength tendons essential for the super pressure pumpkin design. Unfortunately, high strength fibers lose significant strength upon exposure to Ultra Violet (UV) radiation. Such UV degradation poses a serious challenge for the development of the ULDB. To improve the mission performance of the ULDB, new methods for protecting the tendons from the environmental effects need to be developed. NASA and NC State University College of Textiles are undertaking a research program to address these issues. Four tracks have been identified to prepare finishes that are believed to enhance the resistance of high strength fibers to UV. These tracks are: (a) self-polymerizing, (b) diffusion application, (c) polymer-filled with 30-40% UV absorber, and (d) combination of dyeing plus surface application. Four high performance fibers have been selected for this research investigation. These are Vectran, Spectra, Kevlar and, PBO (Zylon). This work will address the current progress of evaluating the performance of the UV finishes. This will be accomplished by comparing the tensile properties (strenthg, breaking elongation, modulus, etc) of untreated, unexposed to UV fibers

  3. Improving INPE'S balloon ground facilities for operation of the protoMIRAX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello-Francisco, F.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Cardoso, L.; Cardoso, P.; Braga, J.

    2014-10-01

    The system requirements for reusing the scientific balloon ground facilities available at INPE were a challenge to the ground system engineers involved in the protoMIRAX X-ray astronomy experiment. A significant effort on software updating was required for the balloon ground station. Considering that protoMIRAX is a pathfinder for the MIRAX satellite mission, a ground infrastructure compatible with INPE's satellite operation approach would be useful and highly recommended to control and monitor the experiment during the balloon flights. This approach will make use of the SATellite Control System (SATCS), a software-based architecture developed at INPE for satellite commanding and monitoring. SATCS complies with particular operational requirements of different satellites by using several customized object-oriented software elements and frameworks. We present the ground solution designed for protoMIRAX operation, the Control and Reception System (CRS). A new server computer, properly configured with Ethernet, has extended the existing ground station facilities with switch, converters and new software (OPS/SERVER) in order to support the available uplink and downlink channels being mapped to TCP/IP gateways required by SATCS. Currently, the CRS development is customizing the SATCS for the kernel functions of protoMIRAX command and telemetry processing. Design-patterns, component-based libraries and metadata are widely used in the SATCS in order to extend the frameworks to address the Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) for ground-balloon communication, in compliance with the services provided by the data handling computer onboard the protoMIRAX balloon.

  4. Two hundred years of flight in America: A bicentennial survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emme, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    The first recorded balloon ascension in America took place on June 19, 1784, when an unmanned balloon was raised in a public demonstration at Bladensburg, Maryland. On June 24, 1784, a thirteen-year-old boy ascended in the same balloon. The history of actual flight during the nineteenth century was entirely concerned with balloons except for several gliders and models leading to the coming of the airship and the aircraft. The history of practical flight in America begins in the twentieth century. The described developments related to aerostatics are concerned with balloons, rigid airships, and blimps. In a review of the evolution of aeronautics, attention is given to general aviation and its search for a market, trends in military aeronautics, and commercial aviation. It is pointed out that American air transport had its birth on New Year's Day, 1914, at Tampa Bay, Florida. The evolution of astronautics during the period from 1957 to 1976 is also examined, taking into account scientific satellites, the Apollo project, the exploration of the planets with the aid of unmanned spacecraft, strategic reconnaissance satellites, missile alarm satellites, instrumental satellites for detecting nuclear and thermonuclear explosions, weather satellites, communications satellites, and earth resource survey and geodetic satellites.

  5. Atmospheric Stability & Turbulence from Temperature Profiles over Sicily During Summer 2002 & 2003 HASI Balloon Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Angrilli, F.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results and interpretation of the temperature measurements data retrieved during the balloon campaigns (in 2002 and in 2003) for testing HASI (Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument), launched from the Italian Space Agency Base in Trapani (Sicily), are presented. Both ascending and descending phases are analysed; data reveal interesting features near the tropopause (present in the region between 11km-14km), where temperature cooling can be related to layers with strong winds (2002 flight); in the troposphere a multistratified structure of the temperature field is observed and discussed (particularly in the 2003 flight) Finally, stability and turbulence of the atmosphere are analysed; the buoyancy N2 parameters for both the flights show lowers value respect to standard tropospheric values corresponding to a lower stability of the atmosphere; still there is a higher stability above the tropopause. The energy spectrum of temperature data is consistent with the Kolmogorov theory: the characteristic k(sup -5/3) behaviour is reproduced.

  6. Large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne studies of neutrons and gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, A. D.; Herzo, D.; Koga, R.; Millard, W. A.; Moon, S.; Ryan, J.; Wilson, R.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1975-01-01

    A large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne research is described. It measures the flux, energy and direction of 2-100 MeV neutrons and 0.5-30 MeV gamma rays. These measurements are made using time-of-flight and pulse height analysis techniques with two large tanks of mineral oil liquid scintillator. Results from Monte Carlo calculations of the efficiency, energy resolution and angular resolution are presented and the electronics implementation for the processing of 80 photomultiplier tubes signals will be discussed. The detector weighs 800 kg with a large part of this weight being the liquid scintillator (320 kg). It will be flown at 3 mbars for flight durations up to 40 hours. The first flight is planned for Spring, 1975.

  7. Usefulness of repeat balloon aortic valvuloplasty in children.

    PubMed

    Shim, D; Lloyd, T R; Beekman, R H

    1997-04-15

    This retrospective study examines all 15 patients who underwent a second balloon dilation procedure for congenital aortic stenosis to determine its safety and efficacy. The recurrent gradient was significantly reduced, but 4 patients had unsatisfactory gradient relief, 3 of whom had previous surgical valvotomies; therefore, we conclude that repeat balloon aortic valvuloplasty is worthwhile, although third balloon dilations may not be beneficial.

  8. Auditory Risk of Exploding Hydrogen-Oxygen Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.; Macedone, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Although hydrogen-oxygen balloon explosions are popular demonstrations, the acoustic impulse created poses a hearing damage risk if the peak level exceeds 140 dB at the listener's ear. The results of acoustical measurements of hydrogen-oxygen balloons of varying volume and oxygen content are described. It is shown that hydrogen balloons may be…

  9. Rough surface improves stability of air- sounding balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.

    1965-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability of balloons used for measuring the intensity and direction of atmospheric winds at various elevations is improved by incorporating a rough surface on the balloons. The rough-surfaced balloon is useful for collecting wind profiles and other meteorological data.

  10. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  14. Non-linear visco-elastic analysis and the design of super-pressure balloons : stress, strain and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, David

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures. Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite, these activities have broadened to encompass ‘lighter than air' structures such as aerostats, hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons. Since 2004 Tensys have acted as consultants to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. Early implementations of the super-pressure balloon design chosen for ULDB have shown problems of geometric instability, characterised by improper deployment and the potential for overall geometric instability once deployed. The latter has been reproduced numerically using inTENS, and the former are better understood following a series of large-scale hangar tests simulating launch and ascent. In both cases the solution lies in minimising the film lobing between the tendons. These tendons, which span between base and apex end fittings, cause the characteristic pumpkin shape of the balloons and also provide valuable constraint against excessive film deformation. There is also the requirement to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness. A consequence of reduced lobing between tendons is the development of higher stresses in the balloon film under pressure. The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film lead to further significant meridional stress under low temperature flight conditions. The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate excessive stress and local concentrations. However, creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations sufficient to compromise the geometric stability of the balloon. The design of a balloon requires an analysis approach that addresses the questions of stress and stability over the duration of a flight by time stepping analyses using an appropriate material model. This paper summarises the Dynamic Relaxation

  15. Analysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozonesonde balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Allaart, M.; Knap, W. H.; Stammes, P.

    2015-04-01

    A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles using an ozonesonde balloon. In total, 63 launches with ascending and descending profiles were performed between 2006 and 2010. The measured uncalibrated actinic flux profiles are analysed using the Doubling-Adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model. Values of the cloud optical thickness (COT) along the flight track were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) product. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux profile is evaluated on the basis of the cloud modification factor (CMF) at the cloud top and cloud base, which is the ratio between the actinic fluxes for cloudy and clear-sky scenes. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected: the largest enhancement occurs at the cloud top due to multiple scattering. The actinic flux decreases almost linearly from cloud top to cloud base. Above the cloud top the actinic flux also increases compared to clear-sky scenes. We find that clouds can increase the actinic flux to 2.3 times the clear-sky value at cloud top and decrease it to about 0.05 at cloud base. The relationship between CMF and COT agrees well with DAK simulations, except for a few outliers. Good agreement is found between the DAK-simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single-layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost. It is worth further developing the instrument and launching it together with atmospheric chemistry composition sensors.

  16. LOAC: A light aerosol counter/sizer for atmospheric balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Berthet, Gwenael; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Coute, Benoit

    nature of the aerosols in the different size classes. The first tests already conducted with a laboratory prototype have shown that the concept works well, in particular for the identification of the aerosol natures using the 2-angles method. The first test flight of LOAC is expected to be performed at the end of 2010. LOAC is planned to be flown in future projects, in particular for the study of aerosols transport over Mediterranean Sea using low altitude drifting balloons (ChArMEx project, see presentation by Dulac et al.), and using high altitude (35-40 km) stratospheric balloons for the determination of the nature of stratospheric aerosol layer in the middle stratosphere.

  17. Survey of balloon design problems and prospects for large super-pressure balloons in the next century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Nobuyuki

    About a half century has passed since modern scientific ballooning started in the 1950's. All this while, size and payload capabilities of zero-pressure balloons have improved rapidly. On the other hand, a super-pressure balloon which can take the place of a conventional large zero-pressure balloon has not yet become operational. To investigate this problem, previous research on balloon design is surveyed. It is concluded that quite important design problems have been left unsolved. Problems occur when a load tape assembly is introduced to the natural shape balloon system. The author proposed a new balloon design concept, named 3-D gore design, at the last COSPAR held in Nagoya in 1998. This theory improves the conventional natural shape design concept for the balloon reinforced by load tapes. This new design concept enables enhancing the strength of a balloon dramatically. In addition, the strength does not depend on balloon size. This theory will accelerate the development of large super-pressure balloons which will play a leading role in scientific ballooning in the 21st century.

  18. Restenosis After Balloon Angioplasty for Cerebral Vasospasm

    SciTech Connect

    Sedat, J. Chau, Y.; Popolo, M.; Gindre, S.; Rami, L.; Orban, J. C.

    2009-03-15

    Transluminal balloon dilatation for symptomatic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage is effective, and clinical studies have shown that it achieves long-lasting dilatation of spastic cerebral arteries. Delayed arterial renarrowing has not been reported. Here we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented asymptomatic and permanent restenosis after angioplasty for cerebral vasospasm.

  19. Teaching Earth Science Using Hot Air Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, James; Shaffer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Constructing model hot air balloons is an activity that captures the imaginations of students, enabling teachers to present required content to minds that are open to receive it. Additionally, there are few activities that lend themselves to integrating so much content across subject areas. In this article, the authors describe how they have…

  20. Balloon fabrics made of Goldbeater's skins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chollet, L

    1922-01-01

    Goldbeater's skin, which is the prepared outside membrane of the large intestine of an ox, is examined as a balloon fabric and details of how goldbeater's skin is prepared for use are provided. The construction techniques employed by Germany, France, and England are all discussed.