Science.gov

Sample records for 2006-2015 plano decenal

  1. Starspots on LO Pegasi, 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Robert O.; Chalmers, Mark; Geda, Robel; Henry, Brandi; Sliupas, Viesulas

    2016-01-01

    LO Pegasi is a rapidly rotating (P = 10.154 hr) young solar analog (spectral class K5-7V) variable star of BY Dra type that exhibits dark starspots on its surface that modulate its brightness as they are carried into and out of view by the star's rotation. Surface maps of the spot distribution were produced based on BVRI photometry obtained at Perkins Observatory from 2006-2015. The maps were generated from the light curves via a non-linear inversion algorithm that uses the differences in the limb darkening through different filter passbands to improve the latitude resolution of the maps. We present an analysis of variations in the size of a polar spot suggested by changes in the average brightness and the amplitude of the rotational modulation from year to year.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  7. CALIPSO Polar Stratospheric Cloud Observations from 2006-2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.

    2015-01-01

    record from 2006- 2015.

  8. A Trio in Plano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Sandra K.

    1979-01-01

    The article briefly highlights a few of the experiences of a commerical food preparation teacher, an auto body teacher, and a special education aide, who all work together to provide a comprehensive vocational program for mainstreamed handicapped high school students at Plano High School in Plano, Texas. (DLS)

  9. A Trio in Plano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Sandra K.

    1979-01-01

    The article briefly highlights a few of the experiences of a commerical food preparation teacher, an auto body teacher, and a special education aide, who all work together to provide a comprehensive vocational program for mainstreamed handicapped high school students at Plano High School in Plano, Texas. (DLS)

  10. Growth characteristic, guest distribution, guest ordering and the stability of urea inclusion compounds with 1-decene, n-decane and mixture of 1-decene and n-decane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Ge, Xihui; Zhang, Minqing; Zhu, Huaigong; Zhang, Zijian; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Growth characteristics of urea inclusion compounds with 1-decene, n-decane and mixture of 1-decene and n-decane (relative mass ratio = 1:1) were studied by CCD high-speed Camera. The present studies show that the speed of UICs growth in tunnel direction is faster than in vertical direction and the length of UICs with 1-decene is shorter than UICs with n-decane, and the length of UICs with mixture is between them due to the influence of the vinyl in 1-decene. The value of R = I(CH2)/I(CH3) and M = I(CHCH2)/I(CH3) in FTIR spectrum of UICs increasing with growth time demonstrates that urea prefers to include n-decane than 1-decene. 13C CP/MAS NMR studies of UICs indicate that the arrangement of 1-decene in UICs is CH3⋯CH3 and CHCH2⋯CH2CH. The arrangement of 1-decene in UICs leads to short chain of UICs with 1-decene in tunnel direction. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of UICs with MIX reveal that there are three different types of arrangement: CH3⋯CH3, CHCH2⋯CH3 and CHCH2⋯CH2CH. The methods of FTIR and DSC were used to test the stability of UICs with different guests. The result shows that UICs with n-decane are stable than UICs with 1-decene. And the stability of UICs with mixture is in the middle.

  11. 78 FR 3415 - 3-Decen-2-One; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... pesticide 3-decen-2-one (CAS No. 10519-33-2) to treat up to 500,000 tons of potatoes with 3-decen-2-one to burn-off potato sprouts in storage facilities. The applicant proposes the use of a new chemical which... exemption for the use of 3-decen-2- one on potatoes in storage facilities to burn off already emerged...

  12. Fluctuations in cloud-top height measured by CALIPSO from 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Abhnil Amtesh

    2017-02-01

    The inception of space-borne lidar has added vital information on clouds vertical profile and distribution over the globe. This includes CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), which has been screening clouds with CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) consistently from mid 2006. CALIOP cloud-top height (CTH) measurement capability exists for layers with optical depth (τ > 0.01), allowing it to detect subvisual and thin cirrus with high confidence. The CTH forms an essential parameter in understanding the role of clouds on climate, especially fluctuations in the effective CTH is significant in determining the cloud-feedback. Using CALIPSO Level 2 cloud layer product with a 5 km horizontal resolution from mid 2006-2015, fluctuations in effective CTH are shown for the tropics and the whole globe.

  13. Trends in Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Chelyabinsk Region, 2006-2015

    PubMed

    Aksenova, Irina A; Moore, Malcolm A; Domozhirova, Alla S

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer among women occupies a leading position in the profile of cancer incidence in most parts of the world. The present study of the incidence and prevalence of breast cancer was carried out using data from the Chelyabinsk population cancer registry for 2006-2015. A stable growth trend in the incidence over time was noted overall, as well as major differences in the figures for women of different ethnicities (Russian, Tatar, Bashkir), by far the highest incidences being observed for Russian women. Urban rates were generally higher than in rural sites and a shift towards older age at presentation was seen between 2006 and 2015. At the same time a slight decrease in mortality was noted, from 42.4% to 33.5% relative to incidence, with a decrease in the proportion of stage IV cancers. This might have been related to increasing use of mammography screening.The data have obvious connotations for primary prevention and particularly for measures adopted for secondary prevention in detection of the disease in its early stages, facilitating reduction in associated mortality. Improvement in screening rates is thus a high priority for more effective management of breast cancer in the region. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. Volcano and Earthquake Monitoring Plan for the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, 2006-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    To provide Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and its surrounding communities with a modern, comprehensive system for volcano and earthquake monitoring, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) has developed a monitoring plan for the period 2006-2015. Such a plan is needed so that YVO can provide timely information during seismic, volcanic, and hydrothermal crises and can anticipate hazardous events before they occur. The monitoring network will also provide high-quality data for scientific study and interpretation of one of the largest active volcanic systems in the world. Among the needs of the observatory are to upgrade its seismograph network to modern standards and to add five new seismograph stations in areas of the park that currently lack adequate station density. In cooperation with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its Plate Boundary Observatory Program (PBO), YVO seeks to install five borehole strainmeters and two tiltmeters to measure crustal movements. The boreholes would be located in developed areas close to existing infrastructure and away from sensitive geothermal features. In conjunction with the park's geothermal monitoring program, installation of new stream gages, and gas-measuring instruments will allow YVO to compare geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes and ground motions, to hydrothermal events, such as anomalous water and gas discharge. In addition, YVO seeks to characterize the behavior of geyser basins, both to detect any precursors to hydrothermal explosions and to monitor earthquakes related to fluid movements that are difficult to detect with the current monitoring system. Finally, a monitoring network consists not solely of instruments, but requires also a secure system for real-time transmission of data. The current telemetry system is vulnerable to failures that could jeopardize data transmission out of Yellowstone. Future advances in monitoring technologies must be accompanied by improvements in the infrastructure for

  15. Vital Signs: Changes in Opioid Prescribing in the United States, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Guy, Gery P; Zhang, Kun; Bohm, Michele K; Losby, Jan; Lewis, Brian; Young, Randall; Murphy, Louise B; Dowell, Deborah

    2017-07-07

    Prescription opioid-related overdose deaths increased sharply during 1999-2010 in the United States in parallel with increased opioid prescribing. CDC assessed changes in national-level and county-level opioid prescribing during 2006-2015. CDC analyzed retail prescription data from QuintilesIMS to assess opioid prescribing in the United States from 2006 to 2015, including rates, amounts, dosages, and durations prescribed. CDC examined county-level prescribing patterns in 2010 and 2015. The amount of opioids prescribed in the United States peaked at 782 morphine milligram equivalents (MME) per capita in 2010 and then decreased to 640 MME per capita in 2015. Despite significant decreases, the amount of opioids prescribed in 2015 remained approximately three times as high as in 1999 and varied substantially across the country. County-level factors associated with higher amounts of prescribed opioids include a larger percentage of non-Hispanic whites; a higher prevalence of diabetes and arthritis; micropolitan status (i.e., town/city; nonmetro); and higher unemployment and Medicaid enrollment. Despite reductions in opioid prescribing in some parts of the country, the amount of opioids prescribed remains high relative to 1999 levels and varies substantially at the county-level. Given associations between opioid prescribing, opioid use disorder, and overdose rates, health care providers should carefully weigh the benefits and risks when prescribing opioids outside of end-of-life care, follow evidence-based guidelines, such as CDC's Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain, and consider nonopioid therapy for chronic pain treatment. State and local jurisdictions can use these findings combined with Prescription Drug Monitoring Program data to identify areas with prescribing patterns that place patients at risk for opioid use disorder and overdose and to target interventions with prescribers based on opioid prescribing guidelines.

  16. Working towards TB elimination the WHO Regional Strategic Plan (2006-2015).

    PubMed

    Nair, Nani; Cooreman, Erwin

    2006-03-01

    DOTS has expanded rapidly in the South-East Asia Region over the period of the Partnership's first Global Plan (2001-2005), with almost 100% geographical coverage achieved in 2005. All countries have made impressive progress in improving coverage and quality. This progress has been made possible through strong political commitment and large investments in TB control for improved infrastructure, reliable drug supply, increased staffing, improved laboratory services, and intensified training and supervision. Accomplishing the objectives outlined in this document will require sustaining the progress in all countries and particularly in the five high burden countries for achieving major regional and global impact. National TB programmes will need to be supported to maintain or surpass the 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rates. The achievement of the TB-related targets linked to the MDGs will also depend on how effectively initiatives such as DOTS-Plus, PPM DOTS and interventions for TB/ HIV among others, are implemented. National governments and development partners must fulfill their commitments to mobilizing and sustaining adequate resources to support the full range of activities envisaged. The benefits of full and effective implementation of all the planned interventions would be substantial. These will result in 20 to 25 million TB cases being treated in DOTS program mes and more than 150 000 drug-resistant cases receiving treatment through DOTS-Plus during the period 2006-2015. In addition, at least 250 000 HIV-infected TB patients may also receive anti-retroviral therapy. As a consequence, the prevalence of TB is expected to fall below 175/100 000 and the number of TB deaths is expected to fall to between 100 000 and 150 000 per year. There would also be substantial economic benefits given that TB disproportionately affects adults in their most productive years. Considering these aspects, it is expected that the TB incidence will decline

  17. Bibliometric analysis of worldwide publications on multi-, extensively, and totally drug - resistant tuberculosis (2006-2015).

    PubMed

    Sweileh, Waleed M; AbuTaha, Adham S; Sawalha, Ansam F; Al-Khalil, Suleiman; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2016-01-01

    The year 2015 marked the end of United Nations Millennium Development Goals which was aimed at halting and reversing worldwide tuberculosis (TB). The emergence of drug resistance is a major challenge for worldwide TB control. The aim of this study was to give a bibliometric overview of publications on multi-, extensively, and totally drug-resistant TB. Scopus database was used to retrieve articles on multidrug resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and totally drug-resistant (TDR) tuberculosis for the study period (2006-2015). The number of publications, top productive countries and institutions, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, active authors, and active journals were retrieved and analyzed. A total of 2260 journal articles were retrieved. The mean ± SD citations per article was 7.04 ± 16.0. The h-index of retrieved data was 76. The number of publications showed a three - fold increase over the study period compared with less than two - fold increase in tuberculosis research during the same study period. Stratified by number of publications, the United States of America ranked first while Switzerland ranked first in productivity per 100 million people, and South Africa ranked first in productivity stratified per one trillion Gross Domestic Product. Three of the High Burden Countries (HBC) MDR-TB (India, China, and South Africa) were present in top productive countries. High percentage of international collaboration was seen among most HBC MDR-TB. Except for Plos One journal, most active journals in publishing articles on MDR, XDR, TDR-TB were in infection - related fields and in general medicine. Top 20 cited articles were published in prestigious journal such as Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine. The themes in top 20 cited articles were diverse, ranging from molecular biology, diagnostic tools, co-infection with HIV, and results of new anti-TB drugs. Publications on MDR, XDR and TDR - TB are

  18. Modelling of active layer thickness evolution on James Ross Island in 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Uxa, Tomáš

    2017-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula region has been considered as one of the most rapidly warming areas on the Earth. However, the recent studies (Turner et al., 2016; Oliva et al., 2017) showed that significant air temperature cooling began around 2000 and has continued until present days. The climate cooling led to reduction of active layer thickness in several parts of Antarctic Peninsula region during decade 2006-2015, but the information about spatiotemporal variability of active layer thickness across the region remains largely incoherent due to lack of active layer temperature data from deeper profiles. Valuable insights into active layer thickness evolution in Antarctic Peninsula region can be, however, provided by thermal modelling techniques. These have been widely used to study the active layer dynamics in different regions of Arctic since 1990s. By contrast, they have been employed much less in Antarctica. In this study, we present our first results from two equilibrium models, the Stefan and Kudryavtsev equations, that were applied to calculate the annual active layer thickness based on ground temperature data from depth of 5 cm on one site on James Ross Island, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula, in period 2006/07 to 2014/15. Study site (Abernethy Flats) is located in the central part of the major ice-free area of James Ross Island called Ulu Peninsula. Monitoring of air temperature 2 m above ground surface and ground temperature in 50 cm profile began on January 2006. The profile was extended under the permafrost table down to 75 cm in February 2012, which allowed precise determination of active layer thickness, defined as a depth of 0°C isotherm, in period 2012 to 2015. The active layer thickness in the entire observation period was reconstructed using the Stefan and Kudryavtsev models, which were driven by ground temperature data from depth of 5 cm and physical parameters of the ground obtained by laboratory analyses (moisture content and bulk density) and calculations

  19. Acetic Acid, 2-Undecanone, and (E)-2-Decenal Ultrastructural Malformations on Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Ntalli, Nikoletta; Ratajczak, Marlena; Oplos, Chrisostomos; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Adamski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural compounds to control phytonematodes is significantly increasing, as most of the old synthetic pesticides have been banned due to their eco-hostile character. Plant secondary metabolites are now evaluated as biologically active molecules against Meloidogyne spp. but their target site in the nematode body is rarely specified. Herein, we report on the ultrastructure modifications of the Meloidogyne incognita J2 after treatment with nematicidal plant secondary metabolites, that is acetic acid, (E)-2-decenal, and 2-undecanone. The commercial nematicide fosthiazate acting on acetylcholinesterase was used as control. For this reason, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been employed. The acetic acid mainly harmed the cuticle, degenerated the nuclei of pseudocoel cells, and vacuolised the cytoplasm. The (E)-2-decenal and 2-undecanone did neither harm to the cuticle nor the somatic muscles but they degenerated the pseudocoel cells. (E)-2-decenal caused malformation of somatic muscles. According to the above, the nematicidal compounds seem to enter the nematode body principally via the digestive system rather than the cuticle, since the main part of the damage is internal. PMID:28154431

  20. Trends in teen driver licensure, driving patterns and crash involvement in the United States, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F

    2017-09-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey provides nationally-representative annual estimates of licensure and driving patterns among U.S. teens. A previous study using MTF data reported substantial declines in the proportion of high school seniors that were licensed to drive and increases in the proportion of nondrivers following the recent U.S. economic recession. To explore whether licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have rebounded in the post-recession years, we analyzed MTF licensure and driving data for the decade of 2006-2015. We also examined trends in teen driver involvement in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes for that decade using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, respectively. During 2006-2015, the proportion of high school seniors that reported having a driver's license declined by 9 percentage points (11%) from 81% to 72% and the proportion that did not drive during an average week increased by 8 percentage points (44%) from 18% to 26%. The annual proportion of black seniors that did not drive was consistently greater than twice the proportion of nondriving white seniors. Overall during the decade, 17- and 18-year-old drivers experienced large declines in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes, although crashes increased in both 2014 and 2015. The MTF data indicate that licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have not rebounded since the economic recession. The recession had marked negative effects on teen employment opportunities, which likely influenced teen driving patterns. Possible explanations for the apparent discrepancies between the MTF data and the 2014 and 2015 increases in crashes are explored. MTF will continue to be an important resource for clarifying teen driving trends in relation to crash trends and informing strategies to improve teen driver safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Spatial Analysis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qianqian; Guo, Wei; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Nanci; Ding, Zhengwei; Cai, Chang; Cui, Yan; Sun, Jiangping

    2017-04-01

    Studies have shown a recent upsurge in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, especially in urban areas. For intervention planning and resource allocation, spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS case-clusters were required to identify epidemic foci and trends among MSM in China. Information regarding MSM recorded as HIV/AIDS cases during 2006-2015 were extracted from the National Case Reporting System. Demographic trends were determined through Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Distribution of case-clusters was examined using spatial autocorrelation. Spatial-temporal scan was used to detect disease clustering. Spatial correlations between cases and socioenvironmental factors were determined by spatial regression. Between 2006 and 2015, in China, 120 371 HIV/AIDS cases were identified among MSM. Newly identified HIV/AIDS cases among self-reported MSM increased from 487 cases in 2006 to >30 000 cases in 2015. Among those HIV/AIDS cases recorded during 2006-2015, 47.0% were 20-29 years old and 24.9% were aged 30-39 years. Based on clusters of HIV/AIDS cases identified through spatial analysis, the epidemic was concentrated among MSM in large cities. Spatial-temporal clusters contained municipalities, provincial capitals, and main cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Chengdu, and Guangzhou. Spatial regression analysis showed that sociodemographic indicators such as population density, per capita gross domestic product, and number of county-level medical institutions had statistically significant positive correlations with HIV/AIDS among MSM. Assorted spatial analyses revealed an increasingly concentrated HIV epidemic among young MSM in Chinese cities, calling for targeted health education and intensive interventions at an early age.

  2. Invasive Cancer Incidence, 2004-2013, and Deaths, 2006-2015, in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Counties - United States.

    PubMed

    Henley, S Jane; Anderson, Robert N; Thomas, Cheryll C; Massetti, Greta M; Peaker, Brandy; Richardson, Lisa C

    2017-07-07

    Previous reports have shown that persons living in nonmetropolitan (rural or urban) areas in the United States have higher death rates from all cancers combined than persons living in metropolitan areas. Disparities might vary by cancer type and between occurrence and death from the disease. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of cancer incidence and deaths by cancer type in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties. 2004-2015. Cancer incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program were used to calculate average annual age-adjusted incidence rates for 2009-2013 and trends in annual age-adjusted incidence rates for 2004-2013. Cancer mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate average annual age-adjusted death rates for 2011-2015 and trends in annual age-adjusted death rates for 2006-2015. For 5-year average annual rates, counties were classified into four categories (nonmetropolitan rural, nonmetropolitan urban, metropolitan with population <1 million, and metropolitan with population ≥1 million). For the trend analysis, which used annual rates, these categories were combined into two categories (nonmetropolitan and metropolitan). Rates by county classification were examined by sex, age, race/ethnicity, U.S. census region, and cancer site. Trends in rates were examined by county classification and cancer site. During the most recent 5-year period for which data were available, nonmetropolitan rural areas had lower average annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for all anatomic cancer sites combined but higher death rates than metropolitan areas. During 2006-2015, the annual age-adjusted death rates for all cancer sites combined decreased at a slower pace in nonmetropolitan areas (-1.0% per year) than in metropolitan areas (-1.6% per year), increasing the differences in these rates. In contrast, annual age

  3. Effects of meteorological conditions on sulfur dioxide air pollution in the North China plain during winters of 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Chase; Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Anderson, Mark; Yang, Kai

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has seen frequent occurrences of severe air pollution episodes of high loading in SO2 during winters in the North China Plain (NCP). Using satellite data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations, and National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP) meteorological reanalysis, this study examines meteorological and synoptic conditions associated with air pollution episodes during 2006-2015 winters. OMI-based SO2 data suggest a large decrease (∼30% in area average) of SO2 emissions since 2010. Statistical analysis shows that meteorological conditions associated with the top 10% of OMI-based high SO2 days are found on average to be controlled by high pressure systems with 2 m s-1 lower wind speeds, slightly warmer, 1-2 °C, temperatures and 10-20% higher relative humidities from the surface to 850 hPa. Numerical experiments with GOES-Chem nested grid simulations at 0.5° × 0.667° resolution are conducted for winters of 2009 as a control year, and 2012 and 2013 as years for sensitivity analysis. The experiments reveal that year-to-year change of winter columnar SO2 amounts and distributions in first order are linearly proportional to the change in SO2 emissions, regardless of the differences in meteorological conditions. In contrast, the surface SO2 amounts and distributions exhibit highly non-linear relationships with respect to the emissions and stronger dependence on the meteorological conditions. Longer data records of atmospheric SO2 from space combined with meteorological reanalysis are needed to further study the meteorological variations in air pollution events and the air pollution climatology in the context of climate change.

  4. MOLECULAR SPECIATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FROM PHOTOOXIDATION OF THE HIGHER ALKENES: 1-OCTENE AND 1-DECENE. (R824970)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor smog chamber photooxidations to determine the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from 1-octene and 1-decene in sunlight-irradiated hydrocarbon-NOx mixtures are reported. The observed products are consistent with the current under...

  5. Lessons from a decade of individual-based models for infectious disease transmission: a systematic review (2006-2015).

    PubMed

    Willem, Lander; Verelst, Frederik; Bilcke, Joke; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2017-09-11

    Individual-based models (IBMs) are useful to simulate events subject to stochasticity and/or heterogeneity, and have become well established to model the potential (re)emergence of pathogens (e.g., pandemic influenza, bioterrorism). Individual heterogeneity at the host and pathogen level is increasingly documented to influence transmission of endemic diseases and it is well understood that the final stages of elimination strategies for vaccine-preventable childhood diseases (e.g., polio, measles) are subject to stochasticity. Even so it appears IBMs for both these phenomena are not well established. We review a decade of IBM publications aiming to obtain insights in their advantages, pitfalls and rationale for use and to make recommendations facilitating knowledge transfer within and across disciplines. We systematically identified publications in Web of Science and PubMed from 2006-2015 based on title/abstract/keywords screening (and full-text if necessary) to retrieve topics, modeling purposes and general specifications. We extracted detailed modeling features from papers on established vaccine-preventable childhood diseases based on full-text screening. We identified 698 papers, which applied an IBM for infectious disease transmission, and listed these in a reference database, describing their general characteristics. The diversity of disease-topics and overall publication frequency have increased over time (38 to 115 annual publications from 2006 to 2015). The inclusion of intervention strategies (8 to 52) and economic consequences (1 to 20) are increasing, to the detriment of purely theoretical explorations. Unfortunately, terminology used to describe IBMs is inconsistent and ambiguous. We retrieved 24 studies on a vaccine-preventable childhood disease (covering 7 different diseases), with publication frequency increasing from the first such study published in 2008. IBMs have been useful to explore heterogeneous between- and within-host interactions, but

  6. Climate impact of volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere and upper troposphere - CALIPSO observations from 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friberg, Johan; Martinsson, Bengt G.; Andersson, Sandra M.; Sandvik, Oscar S.; Hermann, Markus; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the climate impact of volcanic eruptions in the period 2006-2015, and found that the volcanic perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol is stronger and lasts longer than previously thought. Recent studies (Ridley et al., 2014, Andersson et al., 2015) show that a large portion of volcanic climate impact stems from aerosol in the LMS (lowermost stratosphere). Although the LMS holds >40% of the stratospheric mass (Appenzeller et al., 1996) it is generally neglected in estimations of the stratospheric AOD (aerosol optical depth). In the past decade the stratospheric aerosol load was perturbed by a number of volcanic eruptions. We cover that period by using the CALIPSO level 1b night-time data to study the volcanic influence on the global and regional climate. CALIPSO data were averaged to a resolution of 180 m vertically and 1×1° horizontally, cleaned from ice clouds by means of the depolarization ratio (Vernier et al., 2009), and a method was developed to remove polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). This approach enables identification of aerosol also at low altitudes (currently using 4 km minimum altitude) and in the Antarctic region (60 to 90°S) where PSCs are frequent during winter. In the current study, we estimate the total stratospheric AOD and radiative forcing and find that significant fractions of volcanic aerosol were located below the static tropopause after volcanic eruptions. Volcanic aerosol was generally observed down to the dynamic tropopause, and detected down to potential vorticities of 1.5-2 PVU (almost 1 km below the static tropopause). Hence, the dynamic tropopause was found to better enclose the volcanic aerosol. Furthermore, large concentrations of aerosol from the Kasatochi eruption (Aug 2008) is found to linger in the extratropical UT (upper troposphere) for several months after the eruption. Sulphate-rich volcanic aerosol transported from the LMS may influence cirrus clouds in the extratropical UT, inducing an indirect

  7. Nematicidal activity of (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-decenal from Ailanthus altissima against Meloidogyne javanica.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Aissani, Nadhem; Cavoski, Ivana; Angioni, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Methanol extracts of various plant parts of Ailanthus altissima were tested against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica . Extracts of bark (ABE), wood (AWE), roots (ARE), and leaves (ALE) from A. altissima were investigated against freshly hatched second-stage juveniles (J(2)). AWE was the most active extract, with EC(50/3d) of 58.9 mg/L, while ALE, ARE, and ABE did not show nematicidal activity. The chemical composition of the extracts of A. altissima was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, hexanal, nonanal, and furfural were the most prominent constituents. (E,E)-2,4-Decadienal, (E)-2-decenal, and furfural showed the highest nematicidal activity against M. javanica , with EC(50/1d) = 11.7, 20.43, and 21.79 mg/L, respectively, while the other compounds were inactive at the concentrations tested. The results obtained showed that AWE and its constituents (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-decenal could be considered as potent botanical nematicidal agents.

  8. Amine degradation by 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal in model systems.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Gallardo, Emerenciana; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2006-03-22

    The reactions of 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal with octylamine, benzylamine, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester were studied to investigate if amines may suffer a Strecker type degradation by epoxyalkenals analogously to amino acids. In addition to other reactions, the studied amines were converted into their corresponding Strecker aldehydes (octanal, benzaldehyde, and methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate, respectively) to an extent that depended on the pH, the temperature, the amount of epoxyalkenal, and the amine involved. Each amine exhibited an optimum pH for the reaction, but the corresponding Strecker aldehydes were produced to a significant extent within a broad pH range. In addition, the temperature mostly influenced the reaction rate, which was increased between 6.5 and 9.5 times when the reaction was carried out at 60 degrees C than when it took place at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, Strecker aldehyde formation was linearly correlated with the amount of the epoxyalkenal present in the reaction mixture. Nevertheless, the reaction yield mostly depended on the amine involved. Thus, octylamine only produced trace amounts of octanal, benzylamine was converted into benzaldehyde with a yield of 4.3%, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester was converted into methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate with a reaction yield of 49%. All of these results suggest that suitable amines can be degraded by epoxyalkenals to their corresponding Strecker aldehydes to a significant extent.

  9. Trends in Deaths Involving Heroin and Synthetic Opioids Excluding Methadone, and Law Enforcement Drug Product Reports, by Census Region - United States, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Julie K; Gladden, R Matthew; Seth, Puja

    2017-09-01

    Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U.S. Census regions during 2006-2015. Drug exhibits (i.e., drug products) obtained by law enforcement and reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA's) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) that tested positive for heroin or fentanyl (i.e., drug reports) also were examined. All U.S. Census regions experienced substantial increases in deaths involving heroin from 2006 to 2015. Since 2010, the South and West experienced increases in heroin drug reports, whereas the Northeast and Midwest experienced steady increases during 2006-2015.(†) In the Northeast, Midwest, and South, deaths involving synthetic opioids and fentanyl drug reports increased considerably after 2013. These broad changes in the U.S. illicit drug market highlight the urgent need to track illicit drugs and enhance public health interventions targeting persons using or at high risk for using heroin or IMF.

  10. Automatic stitching interferometry for large plano optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ang; Gao, Bo; Xu, Kaiyuan; He, Yuhang; Li, Qiang; Chai, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    The paper will describe an automated subaperture stitching interferometry for large plano surface based on relevant algorithm, which restruct the whole surface without recording the position of every subaperture. Both correction and data fusion algorithm are used to minimize the stitching error.

  11. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  12. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  13. Legislative activity related to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the United States (2006-2015): a need for evidence-based policy.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mitchell, Emma M; DeGuzman, Pamela B; Stoler, Mark H; Kennedy, Christine

    2017-01-01

    State-based policies to mandate HPV vaccination are politically challenging and have received broad criticisms. There is a critical need to understand the legislative activities that underpin subsequent policy implementation. The objective of this policy analysis was to analyze state legislation that focused on HPV vaccination from 2006-2015. A content analysis was conducted among primary sources of legislative data from HPV vaccine-related bills, including using the National Conference of State Legislatures as a search-source. Findings reveal that much of the legislative activity occurred early after the HPV vaccination was introduced, and focused on increased information for parents, public financing, awareness campaigns, etc. Far fewer states focused on voluntary or mandatory vaccination. Understanding the barriers to achieving mandatory vaccination policy and implementation of such policies for HPV vaccines remains a public health priority.

  14. Broadband converging plano-concave lens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Lei, Zhenya; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Zhaoxu; Xie, Yongjun

    2013-07-01

    A plano-concave lens with source-tailored geometric profile and transformational gradient index is proposed for broadband illumination. Such a design, capable of focusing and collimating the electromagnetic fields, fulfils the functionality of a converging lens and can also achieve a steerable beam and multiple beams efficiently. Nonresonant synthesis with a perforated dielectric plate and dielectric rod arrays is demonstrated for the lensing realization, promising a wide operating frequency band in the practical implementation.

  15. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  16. Influence of Winemaking Processing Steps on the Amounts of (E)-2-Decenal and Tridecane as Off-Odorants Caused by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys).

    PubMed

    Mohekar, Pallavi; Osborne, James; Wiman, Nik G; Walton, Vaughn; Tomasino, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    Brown marmorated stink bugs (BMSB) release stress compounds, tridecane and (E)-2-decenal, that affect final wine quality. This study focuses on determining the effect of wine processing on (E)-2-decenal and tridecane release in both red and white wines. Wines were produced by adding live BMSB to grape clusters at densities of 0, 0.3, 1, and 3 bugs/cluster. Compound concentrations were measured using headspace solid phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. For red wines, the highest levels of stress compounds were found using 3 BMSB/cluster [tridecane, 614 μg/L; (E)-2-decenal, 2.0 μg/L]. Pressing was found to be the critical process point for stress compound release, and additional pressing processes, press types, and press fractions were investigated. BMSB taint for white wines was not found to be problematic with respect to wine quality. An action control of 3 BMSB/cluster is recommended as this was related to the known consumption rejection threshold for (E)-2-decenal.

  17. Examples of applied public health through the work of the Epidemic Intelligence Service officers at CDC's National Center for Environmental Health: 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Yulia I; Rashid, Fauzia A; Falk, Henry; Howley, Meredith M

    2017-01-01

    The Epidemic Intelligence Service officers (EISOs) at the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) respond to public health outbreaks, assist public health surveillance, and recommend public health actions. We summarize the breadth of work done by EISOs assigned to NCEH/ATSDR during 2006-2015. We used the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases to identify articles authored by the EISOs, number and types of epidemiologic assistance field investigations (Epi-Aids), and interviewed NCEH/ATSDR programs with EISO assignees. The largest number of NCEH/ATSDR EISO publications (n = 61) and Epi-Aids (n = 110) related to toxic chemicals (23 and 37, respectively), followed by natural disasters and those caused by humans (19 and 25, respectively), extreme temperature-related illness (9), and chronic diseases (8). The investigations raised awareness, identified risk factors and public health needs, and introduced better prevention and protection measures for human health. Through field investigations and other technical assistance, NCEH/ATSDR provided leadership and staff scientists to assist in the field, as well as knowledge transfer to local, state, territorial, and international health departments.

  18. [Visualizing Research Lines in Public Health: An analysis Based on Bibliometric Maps Applied to the Revista Española de Salud Pública (2006-2015)].

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Identifying research lines is essential to understand the knowledge structure of a scientific domain. The aim of this study was to identify the main research topics of within the domain of public health, in the Revista Española de Saslud Pública during 2006-2015. Original articles included in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) database, available online through the Web of Science (WoS), were selected. The analysis units used were the keywords, KeyWords Plus (KW+), extracted automatically by SSCI. With KW+ obtained bibliometric, maps were created using a methodology based on the combination of co-word analysis, co-word analysis, clustering techniques and visualization techniques. We analyzed 512 documents, of which 176 KW+ were obtained with a frequency greater than or equal to 3. The results were bidimensional bibliometric maps with thematic groupings of KW+, representing the main research fronts: i) epidemiology, risk control programs disease and, in general, service organization and health policies; ii) infectious diseases, principally HIV; iii) a progressive increase in several lines interrelated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD); iv) a line multidimensional dedicated to different aspects associated to the quality of life related to health (HRQoL); and v) an emerging line linked to binge drinking. For the multidisciplinary and multidimensional nature of public health, the construction of bibliometric maps is an appropriate methodology to understand the knowledge structure of this scientific domain.

  19. DDT and pyrethroid resistance status and laboratory evaluation of bio-efficacy of long lasting insecticide treated nets against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex decens in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A; Froeschl, Guenter; Rinder, Heinz; Boakye, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Nuisance from Culex mosquitoes in Ghana has a serious negative impact on the standard of living in many urban communities. In addition, a perceived lack of efficacy of long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) against nuisance mosquitoes contributes to their discontinued use. This again compromises malaria control, even if Anopheles species themselves would still be susceptible to the insecticides used. Control strategies involve pyrethroid insecticides but information on Culex mosquito susceptibility to these insecticides is limited. A nationwide survey was conducted to address this problem. In adults, susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin and DDT as well as enzyme activity and kdr mutation were determined. Cone and tunnel bioassay were also carried out to determine the efficacy of LLINs against the mosquitoes. Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex decens were identified in the study area. Higher deltamethrin and DDT resistance and relatively low permethrin resistance were observed in both species. High enzyme activities and kdr mutations were observed in C. quinquefasciatus but not in C. decens. However, reduced efficacy of LLINs was observed in both mosquito species. This adds up to the evidence of the spread of pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes and its negative impact on control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reinterpretation of the Robein and Plano Silts, northeastern Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, B.B.; Kempton, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Reinterpretation of till stratigraphy in northern Illinois and recently obtained radiocarbon dates suggest the Plano Silt is lithologically and stratigraphically indistinguishable from the Robein Silt. These recent data suggest colluvial silt and organic-rich sediment were deposited in most of the northern Illinois between >50,000 and 23,000 RCBP. This age range agrees with radiocarbon dates from the Mid-Wisconsinan Sidney Interstadial Soil of the Huron-Erie Lobe. Altonian (Early to Mid-Wisconsinan)-age till associated with the Lake Michigan Lobe has not yet been identified. Horberg and others recognize in northeastern Illinois a single basal Wisconsinan organic-rich zone; peat, silt and loess of the Farmdalian Substage were interpreted to overlie Sangamon Soil developed in Illinoian drift. They also interpreted a reddish-brown diamicton overlying the Plano Silt at its type section as the Capron Till Member of late Altonian age. The new data support the earlier interpretation of a single organic-rich deposit between Wisconsinan and Illinoian drifts. The Plano Silt should be abandoned as a rock-stratigraphic unit. The Robein Silt includes colluvium and organic-rich sediment not only of Farmdalian age, but also Altonian age in most of northern Illinois, similar to the rest of the upper Mississippi River Valley. The evidence of nearly continuous Robein deposition restricts possible Altonian-age glacial deposits to a narrow band on Capron Ridge in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin.

  1. Moussa virus: a new member of the Rhabdoviridae family isolated from Culex decens mosquitoes in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Phenix-Lan; Junglen, Sandra; Tashmukhamedova, Alla; Conlan, Sean; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Kurth, Andreas; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Egholm, Michael; Briese, Thomas; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ian Lipkin, W

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of arboviruses at the interface of pristine habitats and anthropogenic landscapes is crucial to comprehensive emergent disease surveillance and forecasting efforts. In context of surveillance campaign in and around a West African rainforest, particles morphologically consistent with rhabdoviruses were identified in cell cultures infected with homogenates of trapped mosquitoes. RNA recovered from these cultures was used to derive the first complete genome sequence of a rhabdovirus isolated from Culex decens mosquitoes in Côte d’Ivoire, tentatively named Moussa virus (MOUV). MOUV shows the classical genome organization of rhabdoviruses, with five open reading frames (ORF) in a linear order. However, sequences show only limited conservation (12–33% identity at amino acid level), and ORF2 and ORF3 have no significant similarity to sequences deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a potential new species with distant relationship to Tupaia and Tibrogargan virus. PMID:19804801

  2. 75 FR 27119 - ViewPoint Financial Group, Inc., Plano, Texas; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision ViewPoint Financial Group, Inc., Plano, Texas; Approval of Conversion... application of ViewPoint MHC and ViewPoint Bank, Plano, Texas, to convert to the stock form of organization...

  3. Experimental research of dynamic stitching interferometry for large plano optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xin; Qi, Te; Yu, Yingjie

    2017-02-01

    Stitching interferometry is an effective method to extend the measurement range of commercial interferometer. It has been applied in the laboratorial environment, but rarely in workshop. In order to improve the testing efficiency in workshop, stitching interferometry could be combined with machine tool and implement in-situ testing. A dynamic stitching interferometer system is established in this paper, which contains dynamic interferometry, precision motion control and advanced stitching algorithm. This system has been prepared for the in-situ testing of large plano optics. One example optical flat with size 200mm×300mm was used to verify the feasibility and accuracy of this system. Many repetitive experiments have been proved the well reliability of the system and method.

  4. Curvatures of the refracted wavefronts and Ronchigrams for a plano arbitrary lens.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Rosas, Omar de J; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Juárez-Reyes, Salvador Alejandro; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    In this work we obtain the equations for curvatures of refracted wavefronts for a plano arbitrary lens. The functions H0, H1, and H2 that determine the caustic also determine the curvature of these wavefronts. The analysis performed in these calculations allows us to study the behavior of the Ronchigrams for the case of plane incident wavefronts. We apply this procedure for a plano-spherical lens, and we discover that it is possible to describe the behavior of the Ronchigrams based on the τ function, which labels the refracted wavefronts of the optical system.

  5. Caustics in a meridional plane produced by plano-convex aspheric lenses.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino

    2013-03-01

    We study the formation of caustic surfaces formed in both convex-plano and plano-convex aspheric lenses by considering a plane wave incident on the lens along the optical axis. Using the caustic formulas and a paraxial approximation we derive expressions to evaluate the spherical aberration at third-order and also provide a formula to reduce it, where the first-order aspheric term is given in a simply analytic equation. Furthermore, we redefine the method to evaluate the circle of least confusion for a positive lens as a function of all parameters involved in the process of refraction through the aspheric lenses.

  6. Caustics in a meridional plane produced by plano-convex conic lenses.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; González-Utrera, Dulce; Castañeda, Luis

    2011-12-01

    We study the formation of caustic surfaces formed in both convex-plano and plano-convex conic lenses by considering a plane wave incident on the lens along the optical axis. By using the caustic formulas and a paraxial approximation, we derive analytic expressions to evaluate the spherical aberration to the third order, and a formula to reduce this aberration is provided. Furthermore, we apply the formulas to evaluate the circle of least confusion for a positive lens as a function of all parameters involved in the process of refraction through the conic lenses.

  7. 75 FR 52065 - SharePlus Federal Bank, Plano, TX; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision SharePlus Federal Bank, Plano, TX; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on August 12, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of...

  8. A randomized trial of adding a plano lens to atropine for amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, David K; Lazar, Elizabeth L; Repka, Michael X; Holmes, Jonathan M; Kraker, Raymond T; Hoover, Darren L; Weise, Katherine K; Waters, Amy L; Rice, Melissa L; Peters, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Some children have residual amblyopia after treatment with atropine eyedrops for amblyopia due to strabismus and/or anisometropia. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of augmenting the effect of atropine by changing the lens over the fellow eye to plano in children with residual amblyopia. A total of 73 children 3 to <8 years of age (mean, 5.8 years) with stable residual amblyopia (range, 20/32 to 20/160, mean 20/63(+1)) were enrolled after at least 12 weeks of atropine treatment of the fellow eye. Participants were randomly assigned to continuing weekend atropine alone or wearing a plano lens over the fellow eye (while continuing atropine). The primary outcome was assessed at 10 weeks, and participants were followed until improvement ceased. At the 10-week primary outcome visit, amblyopic-eye visual acuity had improved an average of 1.1 lines with the plano lens and 0.6 lines with atropine only (difference adjusted for baseline visual acuity = + 0.5 line; 95% CI, -0.1 to +1.2). At the primary outcome or later visit when the best-measured visual acuity was observed, the mean amblyopic-eye improvement from baseline was 1.9 lines with the plano lens and 0.8 lines with atropine only. When amblyopic-eye visual acuity stops improving with atropine treatment, there may be a small benefit to augmenting atropine therapy with a plano lens over the fellow eye. However, the effect was not statistically significant, and the large confidence interval raises the possibility of no benefit or a benefit larger than we observed. A larger study would be necessary to get a more precise estimate of the treatment effect. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of the optical imaging technique for intact rat brain using a plano-concave lens.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Minako; Hama, Noriyuki; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Hirota, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    Use of a plano-concave lens improved the quality of optical signals from the rat cerebral cortex by improving the focus. When detecting neural activity from a curved surface of an in vivo brain by optical techniques, it is not possible to adjust the focus equally over the entire detecting area in the two-dimensional plane, since the active window of the optical detector is usually flat, while the intact brain surface is spherical. It has been known that the size of the optical signal is reduced as the distance of the real image to the active window of the detector increases; therefore, the level of the signal-to-noise ratio obtained from the unfocused area often becomes insufficient for quantitative physiological analyses. By placing a plano-concave lens on the cerebral cortex, we succeeded in obtaining a two-dimensional image that has no unfocused area over an entire image recorded by the detector.

  10. Formulation of light focusing through a plano-convex spherical lens in wave optics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Focusing of an incident light wave through a plano-convex spherical lens is discussed by calculating the light intensity distribution on the lens's optical axis after the incident wave is multiply scattered inside the lens. It is found that the size and location of the region into which the incident wave is focused are determined by two conditions. It is also found that it is possible for the wave to be focused into two such regions. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. Residential grid-connected photovoltaics adoption in north central Texas: Lessons from the Solarize Plano project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Katherine G.

    Residential Grid-Connected Photovoltaics (GPV) systems hold remarkable promise in their potential to reduce energy use, air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy costs to consumers, while also providing grid efficiency and demand-side management benefits to utilities. Broader adoption of customer-sited GPV also has the potential to transform the traditional model of electricity generation and delivery. Interest and activity has grown in recent years to promote GPV in north central Texas. This study employs a mixed methods design to better understand the status of residential GPV adoption in the DFW area, and those factors influencing a homeowner's decision of whether or not to install a system. Basic metrics are summarized, including installation numbers, distribution and socio-demographic information for the case study city of Plano, the DFW region, Texas, and the United States. Qualitative interview methods are used to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing adoption for the Solarize Plano case study participants; to evaluate the effectiveness of the Solarize Plano program; and to identify concepts that may be regionally relevant. Recommendations are presented for additional research that may advance GPV adoption in north central Texas.

  12. Protecting Plano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines how one school district used a comprehensive plan, that included cooperation between parents, students, and local law enforcement, to effectively respond to the current furor over school security. The components and costs of the plan are highlighted. (GR)

  13. Protecting Plano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines how one school district used a comprehensive plan, that included cooperation between parents, students, and local law enforcement, to effectively respond to the current furor over school security. The components and costs of the plan are highlighted. (GR)

  14. Waves and rays in plano-concave laser cavities: II. A semiclassical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, A.; Bittner, S.; Dietz, B.; Trabattoni, A.; Ulysse, C.; Romanelli, M.; Brunel, M.; Zyss, J.; Lebental, M.

    2017-05-01

    This second paper on the Fabry-Perot cavity presents a semi-classical approach, which means that we consider the transition from wave optics to geometrical optics. The basic concepts are the periodic orbits and their stability. For the plano-concave Fabry-Perot cavity in the paraxial approximation, the derivation of the trace formula demonstrates that the spectrum is based only on the axial periodic orbit and its repetitions. Experiments with microlasers illustrate the relation to periodic orbits. The methods presented in this paper are not limited to laser cavities and can be applied to a large range of wave systems.

  15. Metacoatings for wavelength-scale, high-numerical-aperture plano-concave focusing lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata-Rodríguez, Carlos J.; Díaz-Aviñó, Carlos; Hashemi, Mahdieh

    2016-10-01

    We design plano-concave silicon lenses with coupled gradient-index plasmonic metacoatings for ultrawide apertured focusing utilizing a reduced region of $\\sim 20 \\lambda^2$. The anomalous refraction induced in the planar input side of the lens and in the boundary of the wavelength-scale focal region boosts the curvature of the emerging wavefront, thus significantly enhancing the resolution of the tightly-focused optical wave. The formation of a light tongue with dimensions approaching those of the concave opening is here evidenced. This scheme is expected to have potential applications in optical trapping and detection.

  16. Figuring of plano-elliptical neutron focusing mirror by local wet etching.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Kazuya; Nagano, Mikinori; Takai, Hiroyuki; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Yamazaki, Dai; Maruyama, Ryuji; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Shoichi

    2009-04-13

    Local wet etching technique was proposed to fabricate high-performance aspherical mirrors. In this process, only the limited area facing to the small nozzle is removed by etching on objective surface. The desired objective shape is deterministically fabricated by performing the numerically controlled scanning of the nozzle head. Using the technique, a plano-elliptical mirror to focus the neutron beam was successfully fabricated with the figure accuracy of less than 0.5 microm and the focusing gain of 6. The strong and thin focused neutron beam is expected to be a useful tool for the analyses of various material properties.

  17. Focal-length-tunable elastomer-based liquid-filled plano-convex mini lens.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chaolong; Dai, Bo; Zhuo, Ran; Yuan, Xupeng; Gao, Xiumin; Wen, Jing; Sheng, Bin; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-01-15

    A liquid plano-convex lens with focal length tuning is proposed, which is formed by sinking an oil droplet onto the bottom of an elastomer. A simple and low-cost fabrication method is presented. The lens aperture and initial focal length can be controlled during the fabrication. Furthermore, focal length tuning is demonstrated. The lens made of a 40 mg oil droplet can achieve the tuning range from 12 to 17 mm. The effective aperture of the lens is about 2.8 mm. In the demonstration of an imaging system, the lens assists in focusing and a clear image can be observed.

  18. New particle formation in the Svalbard region 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintzenberg, Jost; Tunved, Peter; Galí, Martí; Leck, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Events of new particle formation (NPF) were analyzed in a 10-year data set of hourly particle size distributions recorded on Mt. Zeppelin, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Three different types of NPF events were identified through objective search algorithms. The first and simplest algorithm utilizes short-term increases in particle concentrations below 25 nm (PCT (percentiles) events). The second one builds on the growth of the sub-50 nm diameter median (DGR (diameter growth) events) and is most closely related to the classical banana type of event. The third and most complex, multiple-size approach to identifying NPF events builds on a hypothesis suggesting the concurrent production of polymer gel particles at several sizes below ca. 60 nm (MEV (multi-size growth) events). As a first and general conclusion, we can state that NPF events are a summer phenomenon and not related to Arctic haze, which is a late winter to early spring feature. The occurrence of NPF events appears to be somewhat sensitive to the available data on precipitation. The seasonal distribution of solar flux suggests some photochemical control that may affect marine biological processes generating particle precursors and/or atmospheric photochemical processes that generate condensable vapors from precursor gases. Notably, the seasonal distribution of the biogenic methanesulfonate (MSA) follows that of the solar flux although it peaks before the maxima in NPF occurrence. A host of ancillary data and findings point to varying and rather complex marine biological source processes. The potential source regions for all types of new particle formation appear to be restricted to the marginal-ice and open-water areas between northeastern Greenland and eastern Svalbard. Depending on conditions, yet to be clarified new particle formation may become visible as short bursts of particles around 20 nm (PCT events), longer events involving condensation growth (DGR events), or extended events with elevated concentrations of particles at several sizes below 100 nm (MEV events). The seasonal distribution of NPF events peaks later than that of MSA and DGR, and in particular than that of MEV events, which reach into late summer and early fall with open, warm, and biologically active waters around Svalbard. Consequently, a simple model to describe the seasonal distribution of the total number of NPF events can be based on solar flux and sea surface temperature, representing environmental conditions for marine biological activity and condensation sink, controlling the balance between new particle nucleation and their condensational growth. Based on the sparse knowledge about the seasonal cycle of gel-forming marine microorganisms and their controlling factors, we hypothesize that the seasonal distribution of DGR and, more so, MEV events reflect the seasonal cycle of the gel-forming phytoplankton.

  19. Designing null phase screens to test a fast plano-convex aspheric lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelOlmo-Márquez, Jesús; Castán-Ricaño, Diana; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2015-08-01

    We have obtained a formula to represent the wavefront produced by a plano-convex aspheric lens with symmetry of revolution considering a plane wavefront propagating parallel to the optical axis and impinging on the refracting surface, it is called a zero-distance phase front, being it the first wavefront to be out of the optical system. Using a concept of differential geometry called parallel curves it is possible to obtain an analytic formula to represent the wavefront propagated at arbitrary distances through the optical axis. In order to evaluate qualitatively a plano-convex aspheric lens, we have modified slightly an interferometer Tywman-Green as follow: In the reference beam we use a plane mirror and the beam of test we have used a spatial light modulator (SLM) to compensate the phase produced by the lens under test. It will be called a null phase interferometer. The main idea is to recombine both wavefronts in order to get a null interferogram, otherwise we will associate the patterns of the interferogram to deformations of the lens under test. The null phase screens are formed with concentric circumferences assuming different gray levels printed on SLM.

  20. Properties of Plano-Concave Ultrasonic Resonator and Application to Velocity Dispersion Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jong-Rim; Choi, Pak-Kon; Takagi, Kenshiro

    1986-09-01

    The resonance characteristics of a plano-concave ultrasonic resonator, newly designed for precise measurements of ultrasonic velocity and absorption, were experimentally investigated over a frequency range between 100 kHz and 2MHz using five liquids with various absorption coefficients and acoustic impedances. The instrumental loss of the resonator was determined as a function of the frequency, which is subtracted from the observed resonance width in order to determine absorption in liquids. It was also found that water is the most suitable reference liquid for obtaining the instrumental loss curve of piano-concave resonator. To measure the velocity from the resonance interval, the frequency dependence of the apparent acoustic path length was observed and the results were theoretically described with a composite-resonator model consisting of an ultrasonic transducer, a sample liquid and a metal reflector. To demonstrate the usefulness of the new resonator, the velocity dispersion due to a relaxation effect was observed in methyl cyclohexane.

  1. Plasmonic plano-semi-cylindrical nanocavities with high-efficiency local-field confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanocavity arrays were achieved by producing isolated silver semi-cylindrical nanoshells periodically on a continuous planar gold film. Hybridization between localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the Ag semi-cylindrical nanoshells (SCNS) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in the gold film was observed as split bonding and anti-bonding resonance modes located at different spectral positions. This led to strong local field enhancement and confinement in the plano-concave nanocavites. Narrow-band optical extinction with an amplitude as high as 1.5 OD, corresponding to 97% reduction in the transmission, was achieved in the visible spectrum. The resonance spectra of this hybrid device can be extended from the visible to the near infrared by adjusting the structural parameters.

  2. Optical intensity distribution of a plano-convex solid immersion mirror.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaoju

    2007-01-01

    Ignoring the effect of the small aperture, we deduce the optical field distribution of the so-called plano-convex solid immersion mirror with a small aperture on the apex (PC-SIM) by using the vector diffraction theory. The simulation results show that a PC-SIM, like a solid immersion lens (SIL), can achieve high resolution. Unlike the SIL, the PC-SIM can effectively reduce the spreading of the spot size with increasing distance from the interface. The size and intensity of the spot are related not only to the refractive index of the solid immersion medium but also to the structure parameter of the PC-SIM. The size of a spot smaller than a quarter wavelength can be obtained simply by optimizing the structure parameter of a PC-SIM but not by decreasing the size of the small aperture.

  3. Myelinated nerve bundles developed on the plano-concave fibers containing nerve conduit.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Chin; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2012-12-01

    Morphologically and chemically modified plano-concave fibers (PCFs) are designed as a unit of guided channels for supporting Schwann cells to facilitate mass transport and promote nerve regeneration. The surface-modified PCFs are imprinted with linearly patterned grooves (LPGs) to guide adherent Schwann cell elongation and axon extension. After being cocultured with PC12 neuron-like cells, Schwann cells differentiate into the myelinated type and interact with PC12 axons. The myelinated axons aggregate as a linear bundle and extend along the direction of LPGs on a PCF. The cross section of a myelin structure is examined using a transmission electron microscope. The PCFs can potentially bridge gaps in injured nerves, improving the therapeutic efficacy of nerve regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Plasmonic plano-semi-cylindrical nanocavities with high-efficiency local-field confinement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-11

    Plasmonic nanocavity arrays were achieved by producing isolated silver semi-cylindrical nanoshells periodically on a continuous planar gold film. Hybridization between localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the Ag semi-cylindrical nanoshells (SCNS) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in the gold film was observed as split bonding and anti-bonding resonance modes located at different spectral positions. This led to strong local field enhancement and confinement in the plano-concave nanocavites. Narrow-band optical extinction with an amplitude as high as 1.5 OD, corresponding to 97% reduction in the transmission, was achieved in the visible spectrum. The resonance spectra of this hybrid device can be extended from the visible to the near infrared by adjusting the structural parameters.

  5. Development of a large plano-elliptical neutron-focusing supermirror with metallic substrates.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shin; Yamagata, Yutaka; Yamada, Norifumi L; Hino, Masahiro; Hosobata, Takuya; Guo, Jiang; Morita, Shin-Ya; Oda, Tatsuro; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2016-06-13

    Results of this study demonstrated that electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) plated metal substrate is an excellent material for producing large aspherical neutron-focusing supermirrors. A large plano-elliptical neutron-focusing supermirror comprising two metallic segments was fabricated using single-point diamond cutting, precision polishing and supermirror coating. The average surface roughness of the metallic substrates was approximately 0.3 nm rms. For evaluation, the focusing supermirror was installed at the SOFIA neutron reflectometer, showing high neutron reflectivity and giving minimal beam width of 0.34 mm in FWHM. Because of the large beam divergence accepted by the mirror, the count rate with the focusing mirror was 3.3 times higher than that obtained using conventional two-slit collimation.

  6. Plasmonic plano-semi-cylindrical nanocavities with high-efficiency local-field confinement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanocavity arrays were achieved by producing isolated silver semi-cylindrical nanoshells periodically on a continuous planar gold film. Hybridization between localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the Ag semi-cylindrical nanoshells (SCNS) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in the gold film was observed as split bonding and anti-bonding resonance modes located at different spectral positions. This led to strong local field enhancement and confinement in the plano-concave nanocavites. Narrow-band optical extinction with an amplitude as high as 1.5 OD, corresponding to 97% reduction in the transmission, was achieved in the visible spectrum. The resonance spectra of this hybrid device can be extended from the visible to the near infrared by adjusting the structural parameters. PMID:28074853

  7. Internal structure of an optical null Ronchi grating test for a plano-parabolic lens.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Juárez-Reyes, Salvador Alejandro; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Cabrera-Rosas, Omar de J

    2016-01-01

    In this work we use geometrical optics and the caustic touching theorem, introduced by Berry, to describe the internal structure of the null Ronchi grating for a plano-parabolic lens illuminated by a point light source placed on the optical axis. The aim of this work is to explain the role of the caustic region in the process of morphology change between image and object in computing the null Ronchi grating. To this end, we obtain the analytic expression of the null Ronchi grating, and after that we deeply study the change in morphology between a single straight fringe image at the Ronchigram and the multiple curve rulings that can generate it (one open and one closed). We analyze exactly how multiple rulings generate the same straight image fringe, or how an entire ruling collapses into a single point image. For this analysis, we take different observation planes at different positions with respect to the caustic region. Finally, we characterize this topological change as one of two possible kinds depending on the relative position between the observation plane and the caustic region.

  8. Surgical correction of hallux valgus complicated with adult-type pes plano-valgus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Yoon, Hyeong Hwa; Suh, Yu Min; Suh, Jin Soo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the efficiency of simultaneous correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity and adult-type pes planus. Twenty cases of moderate to severe hallux valgus complicated with adult-type pes planus in 19 consecutive patients (15 (79%) women, 4 (11%) men; mean age: 44.50 ± 17.13 years, mean follow-up duration: 31.30 ± 17.02 months) were included. Medial calcaneal sliding osteotomy was performed to correct hindfoot valgus, whereas treatments of hallux valgus were case dependent. The mean postoperative hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, hindfoot alignment angle, and hindfoot alignment ratio were 8.40 ± 5.29°, 4.20 ± 2.54°, 3.09 ± 2.92º and 0.41 ± 0.17, respectively. Although a hallux varus deformity occurred as a postoperative complication in one case (5%), there were no cases of postoperative recurrence. Simultaneous correction of hallux valgus and pes plano-valgus using medial calcaneal sliding osteotomy is an effective technique that reduces recurrence of hallux valgus and increases satisfaction in patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity complicated with adult-type pes planus accompanying hindfoot valgus.

  9. Thoracic robotics at the Heart Hospital Baylor Plano: the first 20 cases.

    PubMed

    Jett, G Kimble

    2012-10-01

    A da Vinci Robotic Surgical System was purchased for The Heart Hospital Baylor Plano in fall 2011 and a program for robotic-assisted thoracic surgery commenced at the facility. Successive thoracic patients were offered and accepted a robotic-assisted operation. No patient was excluded because of age, height, weight, or comorbidities. The first 20 patients are summarized herein. Of the first 10 operations, only one was a lobectomy. As the program staff gained experience, seven of the latter 10 procedures were lobectomies. The average length of stay was 2.6 days (longest, 4 days). The average operating room time was 147 minutes overall and 200 minutes for lobectomies. The longest operating room time was 337 minutes in a patient who underwent a right middle lobectomy that was converted to a video-assisted thoracic surgery. Two patients developed atrial fibrillation, one of whom had a pacemaker and a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. One patient developed a bronchopleural fistula on the first postoperative day, following a coughing episode. One patient was readmitted 6 days after hospital discharge with a pneumothorax, which was successfully treated with a small-bore catheter. In conclusion, robotic-assisted thoracic surgery has many advantages. Decreased complications can lead to improved outcomes, and hospitals can achieve cost savings as a result of reduced length of stay.

  10. Thoracic robotics at the Heart Hospital Baylor Plano: the first 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A da Vinci Robotic Surgical System was purchased for The Heart Hospital Baylor Plano in fall 2011 and a program for robotic-assisted thoracic surgery commenced at the facility. Successive thoracic patients were offered and accepted a robotic-assisted operation. No patient was excluded because of age, height, weight, or comorbidities. The first 20 patients are summarized herein. Of the first 10 operations, only one was a lobectomy. As the program staff gained experience, seven of the latter 10 procedures were lobectomies. The average length of stay was 2.6 days (longest, 4 days). The average operating room time was 147 minutes overall and 200 minutes for lobectomies. The longest operating room time was 337 minutes in a patient who underwent a right middle lobectomy that was converted to a video-assisted thoracic surgery. Two patients developed atrial fibrillation, one of whom had a pacemaker and a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. One patient developed a bronchopleural fistula on the first postoperative day, following a coughing episode. One patient was readmitted 6 days after hospital discharge with a pneumothorax, which was successfully treated with a small-bore catheter. In conclusion, robotic-assisted thoracic surgery has many advantages. Decreased complications can lead to improved outcomes, and hospitals can achieve cost savings as a result of reduced length of stay. PMID:23077378

  11. Waves and rays in plano-concave laser cavities: I. Geometric modes in the paraxial approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, N.; Romanelli, M.; Lebental, M.; Brunel, M.

    2017-05-01

    Eigenmodes of laser cavities are studied theoretically and experimentally in two companion papers, with the aim of making connections between undulatory and geometric properties of light. In this first paper, we focus on macroscopic open-cavity lasers with localized gain. The model is based on the wave equation in the paraxial approximation; experiments are conducted with a simple diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a variable cavity length. After recalling fundamentals of laser beam optics, we consider plano-concave cavities with on-axis or off-axis pumping, with emphasis put on degenerate cavity lengths, where modes of different order resonate at the same frequency, and combine to form surprising transverse beam profiles. Degeneracy leads to the oscillation of so-called geometric modes whose properties can be understood, to a certain extent, also within a ray optics picture. We first provide a heuristic description of these modes, based on geometric reasoning, and then show more rigorously how to derive them analytically by building wave superpositions, within the framework of paraxial wave optics. The numerical methods, based on the Fox-Li approach, are described in detail. The experimental setup, including the imaging system, is also detailed and relatively simple to reproduce. The aim is to facilitate implementation of both the numerics and of the experiments, and to show that one can have access not only to the common higher-order modes but also to more exotic patterns.

  12. A simple miniature optical spectrometer with a planar waveguide grating coupler in combination with a plano-convex lens.

    PubMed

    Chaganti, Kalyani; Salakhutdinov, Ildar; Avrutsky, Ivan; Auner, Gregory W

    2006-05-01

    A miniature optical spectrometer with a thin-film planar waveguide grating coupler in combination with a miniature plano-convex focusing lens has been investigated. With optical part of the spectrometer as small as 0.2 cubic cm, the spectral resolution varies from 0.3 nm to 4.6 nm within the wavelength range 488.0 nm - 632.8 nm.

  13. Single-mode fiber with a plano-convex silicon microlens for an integrated butt-coupling scheme.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kazuo; Kagaya, Makoto; Muro, Koichi; Yoda, Hidehiko; Kogami, Yoshinori; Tsai, Chen S

    2008-12-01

    A single-mode fiber with plano-convex silicon microlens is proposed for butt-coupling between single-mode fibers and high-index-contrast waveguides with fine mode-field diameter. The lensed fiber has two specific features, high focusing power, and null working distance. The theoretical focus-spot diameter at the endface of the lensed fiber is calculated to be as small as 0.56 microm at a wavelength 1.55 microm. A simple fabrication method for the lensed fiber employing chemical etching and rf-sputtering is presented. Experiments showed that the mode-field-diameter of a single-mode fiber was successfully contracted from 10.5 to 1.3 microm with the lensed fiber.

  14. Risk factors for posterior capsular pearling after uncomplicated extracapsular cataract extraction and plano-convex posterior chamber lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Jamal, S A; Solomon, L D

    1993-05-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 542 consecutive cases of extracapsular cataract extraction with implantation of a plano-convex laser ridge posterior chamber intraocular lens. We were interested in the incidence and probability of the development of postcapsular epithelial pearling that required laser capsulotomy and the risk factors associated with it. After four years of follow-up, 21% of all cases had developed pearling. Over the same period, the probability of pearling, as determined by the Kaplan-Meier curves, was 29% with a 95% confidence interval between 22% and 36%. After one year of follow-up, the probability of pearling was 5%; after two years, 15%; after three years, 24%. Younger age (50 years or less), larger optic, and smaller IOL were identified as significant risk factors when each of these factors was analyzed separately. When all risk factors were studied together, and after applying confounding statistics, only younger age was identified as a significant risk factor (P = .003).

  15. A plano-concave, 1-3 piezocomposite transducer for swept-frequency calibration of ultrasound hydrophones below 2 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Gerald R.; Gammell, Paul M.

    2002-11-01

    Rapid calibration of hydrophones used in biomedical ultrasound is possible with swept-frequency techniques such as time-delay spectrometry. However, the range below 2 MHz has largely been neglected because of insufficient source transducer bandwidth [P. M. Gammell and G. R. Harris, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, L41-L46 (1999)]. Calibration in this range is important when recording pressure waveforms distorted by nonlinear propagation, especially for accurate measurement of the peak rarefactional pressure. Therefore, a 1-3 piezocomposite transducer designed for this range has been developed and tested (poled piezocomposite element, Smart Material Corp., Sarasota, FL; transducer assembly, UTX, Inc., Holmes, NY). The element has plane front and spherically concave back faces. The nonuniform thickness disperses the thickness resonance, and the composite structure suppresses radial-mode resonances. Also, the composite's lower acoustic impedance provides a more efficient match to water. A 4-cm-diameter transducer having maximum and minimum thicknesses of 1.5 cm and 1 mm produced a smooth pressure spectrum at an axial distance of 35 cm that varied <15 dB from 0.1-2 MHz. Compared to plano-concave, single-element designs having similar dimensions, the new transducer had equivalent transmit sensitivity, and its response was significantly more uniform, possibly due in part to decreased contributions from radial modes.

  16. Tibialis posterior tenosynovitis and associated pes plano valgus in rheumatoid arthritis: electromyography, multisegment foot kinematics, and ultrasound features.

    PubMed

    Barn, Ruth; Turner, Deborah E; Rafferty, Daniel; Sturrock, Roger D; Woodburn, James

    2013-04-01

    To compare electromyographic (EMG), kinematic, kinetic, and ultrasound (US) features of pes plano valgus associated with US-confirmed tibialis posterior (TP) tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy control subjects. In this cross-sectional study, patients with RA and US-confirmed tenosynovitis of TP underwent gait analysis, including 3-dimensional kinematics, kinetics, and intramuscular EMG of TP, and findings were compared with a group of healthy individuals. The RA group also underwent B mode and power Doppler US scanning of the TP tendon to assess and score levels of pathology. Ten patients with RA, median (range) disease duration of 3 years (1-18 years), and 5 control subjects were recruited. Compared to control subjects, the RA patients walked slower and presented with moderate levels of foot-related disability. The mean ± SD Disease Activity Score in 28 joints was 4.6 ± 1.6. Increased magnitude of TP activity was recorded in the RA group compared to controls in the contact period of stance (P = 0.007), in conjunction with reduced ankle joint power (P = 0.005), reduced navicular height in the medial arch (P = 0.023), and increased forefoot dorsiflexion (P = 0.027). TP tendon thickening, fluid, and power Doppler signal were observed in the majority of patients. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, increased TP EMG activity in the presence of US-confirmed TP tenosynovitis in RA. Altered muscle function occurred in conjunction with suboptimal mechanics, moderate levels of tendon pathology, and active disease. Targeted therapy may be warranted to reduce inflammation and mechanically off-load diseased tendon states. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Design of Hartmann type null screens for testing a plano-convex aspheric lens with a CCD sensor inside the caustic.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Santiago, Gabriel; Castán-Ricaño, Diana; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2016-08-22

    A new method to design Hartmann type null screens to test either qualitatively or quantitatively fast plano-convex aspherical lenses is presented. We design both radial and square null screens that produce arrays of circular spots uniformly distributed at predefined planes, considering that the CCD sensor is solely placed inside the caustic region. The designs of these null screens are based on knowledge of the caustic by refraction and on exact ray tracing. The null screens also serve to improve the alignment in optical systems.

  18. Change in First Leaf Date Between 1951-1960 and 2006-2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This figure shows modeled trends in lilac and honeysuckle first leaf dates at weather stations across the contiguous 48 states. This map compares the average first leaf date during two 10-year periods, developed using data from the USA National Phenology Network. Blue circles represent later leaf dates, and red circles represent earlier. For more information: www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/indicators

  19. [Trend of mortality of congenital malformation in children aged <5 years in Beijing, 2006-2015].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, D Y; Zhang, W X; Li, Y C; Wang, J

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To investigate the change in mortality of congenital malformation in children aged <5 years in Beijing from 2006 to 2015. Methods: Using the death surveillance data in children aged <5 years in Beijing from 2006 to 2015, which was collected from the real-time surveillance network, we calculated the area and age distributions of the mortality of congenital malformation in children aged <5 years in Beijing. Meanwhile, the variations of age, time and space in the causes of deaths were discussed. Results: The mortality rate of congenital malformation in the children s decreased from 1.909‰ in 2006 to 0.703‰ in 2015, the decrease rate was 63.17%. The decrease rate was highest in neonates (71.50%) (χ(2)=57.993, P<0.01). Expect urban area (χ(2)=3.384, P>0.05), the mortality rates of congenital malformation in the children showed a downward trend in outer suburban area and suburban area (χ(2) =40.637 and 50.646, P<0.01). The proportion of the children died of congenital malformation decreased from 32.97% in 2006 to 23.24% in 2015, which mainly occurred in infancy and neonatal period (χ(2)=9.395 and 4.354, P<0.05). The constituent ratios of the children died of neural tube defects, respiratory system abnormalities and other abnormalities decreased significantly (χ(2)=13.478, 7.358, 7.912 and 10.074, P<0.01). The constituent ratios of children died of chromosomal abnormality, multiple malformations and digestive tract abnormality didn' t decreased significantly (P>0.05). In the leading causes of deaths from congenital malformation, the mortality of congenital heart disease, neural tube defects and digestive tract atresia decreased obviously (χ(2)=70.868, 18.431 and 9.225, P<0.01), except biliary atresia (χ(2)= 1.407, P>0.05). There was an obvious area specific difference between the deaths of congenital heart disease and the deaths of neural tube defects, the mortality was higher in outer suburbs than in suburban and urban area (χ(2)=45.783 and 6.649, P<0.05). Conclusion: Although the mortality rate of children with congenital malformation in Beijing has declined year by year, it is still the main cause of deaths in children under 5 years old, and the prevention and control of related diseases should be strengthened.

  20. Streptococcus pyogenes Pneumonia in Adults: Clinical Presentation and Molecular Characterization of Isolates 2006-2015

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Esther; Montes, Milagrosa; Vicente, Diego; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the preantibiotic era Streptococcus pyogenes was a common cause of severe pneumonia but currently, except for postinfluenza complications, it is not considered a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Aim and Material and Methods This study aimed to identify current clinical episodes of S. pyogenes pneumonia, its relationship with influenza virus circulation and the genotypes of the involved isolates during a decade in a Southern European region (Gipuzkoa, northern Spain). Molecular analysis of isolates included emm, multilocus-sequence typing, and superantigen profile determination. Results Forty episodes were detected (annual incidence 1.1 x 100,000 inhabitants, range 0.29–2.29). Thirty-seven episodes were community-acquired, 21 involved an invasive infection and 10 developed STSS. The associated mortality rate was 20%, with half of the patients dying within 24 hours after admission. Influenza coinfection was confirmed in four patients and suspected in another. The 52.5% of episodes occurred outside the influenza seasonal epidemic. The 67.5% of affected persons were elderly individuals and adults with severe comorbidities, although 13 patients had no comorbidities, 2 of them had a fatal outcome. Eleven clones were identified, the most prevalent being emm1/ST28 (43.6%) causing the most severe cases. Conclusions S. pyogenes pneumonia had a continuous presence frequently unrelated to influenza infection, being rapidly fatal even in previously healthy individuals. PMID:27027618

  1. Whooping cough surveillance in France in pediatric private practice in 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Guiso, Nicole; Levy, Corinne; Romain, Olivier; Guillot, Sophie; Werner, Andreas; Rondeau, Marie Charlotte; Béchet, Stéphane; Cohen, Robert

    2017-09-30

    Increasing incidence of whooping cough (pertussis) has been reported in many countries, attributed to a switch from whole-cell pertussis-containing vaccine (wPV) to acellular PV (aPV) and circulation of the pertactin non-producing Bordetella pertussis. The present study aimed to estimate the duration of immunity conferred by PVs in children in France with data from an ongoing pediatric ambulatory surveillance of pertussis. A total of 64 pediatricians throughout France enrolled children with suspected pertussis. A standardized data form was used to collect data on age sex, vaccination status, brand of wPV or aPV and source of infection. Confirmed cases were positive on culture and/or real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (for B.-non-classified or B. pertussis or B. parapertussis) and/or pertussis serology. Between October 2006 and December 2015, 149 cases of confirmed Bordetella infections were reported, 86 infected with B. pertussis and 55 B. non-classified. Fifteen children (10.1%) were not vaccinated, and 26 (17.4%) were partially vaccinated. The mean age was greater for children who received 4 doses of wPV (11.3±2.2, p<0.001) or a combination of wPV and aPV (10.5±3.3, p<0.001) than only aPV (7.2±2.4years). The mean duration of cough before a visit to a pediatrician was longer for children with wPV or a combination of wPV and aPV than only aPV (23.8±10.1 and 25.0±25.6vs 13.6±10.0days). Despite the use of a more sensitive diagnostic method and emergence of pertactin non producing B. pertussis, in France context, aPV-induced immunity still protects against pertussis; however, the mean duration of immunity is about 6 to 7years, compared to 9years for wPV vaccine, after the primary vaccination and one booster (3+1 doses). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Changing Landscape of Neuroscience Research, 2006-2015: A Bibliometric Study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Goto, Tazuko K; Leung, W Keung

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is beneficial to evaluate changes in neuroscience research field regarding research directions and topics over a defined period. Such information enables stakeholders to quickly identify the most influential research and incorporate latest evidence into research-informed education. To our knowledge, no study reported changes in neuroscience literature over the last decade. Therefore, the current study determined research terms with highest citation scores, compared publication shares of research areas and contributing countries in this field from 2006 to 2015 and identified the most productive journals. Methods: Data were extracted from Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Only articles and reviews published in journals classified under the JCR "Neurosciences" category over the period of interest were included. Title and abstract fields of each included publication were extracted and analyzed via VOSviewer to identify recurring terms with high relative citation scores. Two term maps were produced for publications over the study period to illustrate the extent of co-occurrence, and the impact of terms was evaluated based on their relative citation scores. To further describe the recent research priority or "hot spots," 10 terms with the highest relative citation scores were identified annually. In addition, by applying Bradford's law, we identified 10 journals being the most productive journals per annum over the survey period and evaluated their bilbiometric performances. Results: From 2006 to 2015, there were 47 terms involved in the annual lists of top 10 terms with highest relative citation scores. The most frequently recurring terms were autism (8), meta-analysis (7), functional connectivity (6), default mode network (4) and neuroimaging (4). Neuroscience research related to psychology and behavioral sciences showed an increase in publication share over the survey period, and China has become one of the major contributors to neuroscience research. Ten journals were frequently identified (≥8 years) as core journals within the survey period. Discussion: The landscape of neuroscience research has changed recently, and this paper provides contemporary overview for researchers and health care workers interested in this field's research and developments. Brain imaging and brain connectivity terms had high relative citation scores.

  3. Acetaminophen overdoses, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie L; Taubman, Stephen B

    2016-11-01

    Acetaminophen, a drug commonly used to relieve pain and fever, is generally safe and effective when used as directed. However, acetaminophen overdose can cause serious adverse events, including liver damage and death. From 2006 through 2015, a total of 2,588 cases of acetaminophen overdose were identified in active component military members. Rates of acetaminophen overdose declined during this 10-year surveillance period, from 2.2 cases per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs) in 2006 to 1.2 cases per 10,000 p-yrs in 2015. Rates of overdose were higher among females, members of the Army, and service members younger than 25 years of age. Despite the apparent decline in acetaminophen overdose in the active component, continued surveillance is warranted to monitor this trend.

  4. MRSA infections in Norway: A study of the temporal evolution, 2006-2015

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnholt, Jørgen Vildershøj; Leegaard, Truls Michael; Moen, Aina E. Fossum; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2017-01-01

    Background Norway has one of the lowest prevalences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the world. This study exploits the extensive data on MRSA infections in the Norwegian surveillance system to investigate the important factors defining the MRSA epidemiology. Methods We performed a quasi-Poisson regression of the monthly notification rate (NR) of MRSA infections reported from January 2006 to December 2015, comparing the time trend among people with an immigrant vs. Norwegian background and domestic vs. imported infections, stratified by age groups. Findings A total of 5289 MRSA infections were reported during the study period, of which 2255 (42·6%) were acquired in Norway, 1370 (25·9%) abroad, and 1664 (31·5%) with an unknown place of acquisition. Overall, the monthly NR increased significantly from 2006 to 2015 (+0·8% each month). The monthly increase in immigrants (+1·3%) was steeper than that in people with a Norwegian background (+0·6%). There was a significant growth (+0·4%) in the rate of domestically acquired infections, however, the NR of infections acquired abroad increased faster (+0·8%). For both imported and domestic infections, the increase occurred in persons aged < 70 years. Interpretation Our analysis suggests that immigration and importation, especially among persons aged < 40 years, represent important factors for the increasing notification rate of MRSA infections in Norway. PMID:28640901

  5. Obesity and Overweight in American Indian and Alaska Native Children, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Ann; Sheff, Karen; Moore, Kelly; Manson, Spero

    2017-09-01

    To estimate obesity and overweight prevalence in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children across genders, ages, and geographic regions in the Indian Health Service active clinical population. We obtained data from the Indian Health Service National Data Warehouse. At least 184 000 AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years had body mass index data for each year studied, 2006 to 2015. We calculated body mass index percentiles with the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. In 2015, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years was 18.5% and 29.7%, respectively. Boys had higher obesity prevalence than girls (31.5% vs 27.9%). Children aged 12 to 19 years had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than younger children. The AI/AN children in our study had a higher prevalence of obesity than US children overall in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results for 2006 through 2014 were similar. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among AI/AN children in this population may have stabilized, while remaining higher than prevalence for US children overall.

  6. Measurement method of particle concentration and acoustic properties in suspension using a focused ultrasonic impulse radiated from a plano-concave transducer.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Tai, Hidekazu; Kato, Suguru

    2006-12-22

    As a method to measure the concentration and property of a particle suspension, we proposed an ultrasonic measurement method using a plano-concave ultrasonic transducer. To carry out the experiment, we used a focused ultrasonic impulse with a broad frequency bandwidth radiated from the transducer, instead of utilizing continuous waves as in the conventional method. By analyzing the frequency components of the echo returned from the reflector put at the focal region of the transducer in suspension, we measured the concentration, etc., from variations of attenuation in the frequency spectrum. As specimens, we used some substances containing fine particles for which the acoustic properties or sizes are heterogeneous to each other. Specifically, the milk fat included in milk was examined in detail to characterize the best-tasting milk. In conclusion, we determined that the particle concentration and acoustic properties were easily and instantaneously measurable using the frequency spectrum obtained from pulse echoes passed through the specimen liquid, and the plano-concave transducer was advantageous in these measurements.

  7. Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic response to customized foot orthoses in patients with tibialis posterior tenosynovitis, pes plano valgus and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barn, Ruth; Brandon, Mhairi; Rafferty, Daniel; Sturrock, Roger D; Steultjens, Martijn; Turner, Deborah E; Woodburn, James

    2014-01-01

    To describe the effect of customized foot orthoses (FOs) on the kinematic, kinetic and EMG features in patients with RA, tibialis posterior (TP) tenosynovitis and associated pes plano valgus. Patients with RA and US-confirmed tenosynovitis of TP underwent gait analysis, including three-dimensional (3D) kinematics, kinetics, intramuscular EMG of TP and surface EMG of tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, soleus and medial gastrocnemius. Findings were compared between barefoot and shod with customized FO conditions. Ten patients with RA with a median (range) disease duration of 3 (1-18) years were recruited. Moderate levels of foot pain and foot-related impairment and disability were present with moderately active disease states. Altered timing of the soleus (P = 0.05) and medial gastrocnemius (P = 0.02) and increased magnitude of tibialis anterior (P = 0.03) were noted when barefoot was compared with shod with FO. Trends were noted for reduced TP activity in the contact period (P = 0.09), but this did not achieve statistical significance. Differences in foot motion characteristics were recorded for peak rearfoot eversion (P = 0.01), peak rearfoot plantarflexion (P < 0.001) and peak forefoot abduction (P = 0.02) in the shod with FOs compared with barefoot conditions. No differences in kinetic variables were recorded. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, alterations in muscle activation profiles and foot motion characteristics in patients with RA, pes plano valgus and US-confirmed TP tenosynovitis in response to customized FOs. Complex adaptations were evident in this cohort and further work is required to determine whether these functional alterations lead to improvements in patient symptoms.

  8. Wavefronts, light rays and caustic associated with the refraction of a spherical wave by two interfaces: the axicon and the plano-convex parabolic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto

    2015-06-01

    In this work we assume that we have three optical media with constant refraction indexes n0, n1 and n2 separated by arbitrary refracting surfaces. In the optical medium with refraction index n0 we place a point light source at an arbitrary position. The aim of the present work is to obtain exact expressions for the wavefront train and the caustic associated with the evolution of the spherical wave emitted by the point light source. To this end, we construct a complete integral of the eikonal equation and we show that the evolution of the refracted wavefronts and light rays are described by a map between two subsets of {{R}3}. The caustic is computed as the image of the critical set associated with this map. The general results are applied to an axicon and a plano-convex parabolic lenses (glass made) when the point light source is placed on the optical axis. We find that, due to the change in the index of refraction, the spherical wavefront emitted by the point light source during its evolution experiences a metamorphosis in such a way that at the caustic region the wavefronts develop singularities and self-intersections.

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of variable focus and large deformation plano-convex microlens based on non-ionic poly(vinyl chloride)/dibutyl adipate gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Youn; Yeo, Myoung; Shin, Eun-Jae; Park, Won-Hyeong; Jang, Jong-Seok; Nam, Byeong-Uk; Bae, Jin Woo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a variable focus microlens module based on a transparent, electroactive, and non-ionic PVC/DBA gel. A non-ionic PVC/DBA (nPVC) gel on an ITO glass was confined beneath a rigid annular electrode, and applied pressure squeezed a bulge of the nPVC gel into the annular electrode, resulting in a hemispherical plano-convex nPVC gel microlens. The proposed nPVC gel microlens was analyzed and optimized. When voltage is applied to the circular perimeter (the annular electrode) of this fabricated microlens, electrically induced creep deformation of the nPVC gel occurs, changing its optical focal length. The focal length remarkably increases from 3.8 mm up to 14.3 mm with increasing applied voltages from 300 V to 800 V. Due to its compact, transparent, and electroactive characteristics, the proposed nPVC gel microlens can be easily inserted into small consumer electronic devices, such as digital cameras, camcorders, cell phones, and other portable optical devices.

  10. Fabrication of long-focal-length plano-convex microlens array by combining the micro-milling and injection molding processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kirchberg, Stefan; Jiang, Bing-Yan; Xie, Lei; Jia, Yun-Long; Sun, Lei-Lei

    2014-11-01

    A uniform plano-convex spherical microlens array with a long focal length was fabricated by combining the micromilling and injection molding processes in this work. This paper presents a quantitative study of the injection molding process parameters on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The variation of the injection process parameters, i.e., barrel temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure, was found to have a significant effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses, especially the barrel temperature. The filling-to-packing switchover point is also critical to the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The optimal uniformity was achieved when the polymer melts completely filled the mold cavity, or even a little excessively filled the cavity, during the filling stage. In addition, due to the filling resistance, the practical filling-to-packing switchover point can vary with the change of the filling processing conditions and lead to a non-negligible effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. Furthermore, the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses is mainly attributed to the two functions of injection speed: transferring the filling-to-packing switchover point and affecting the distribution of residual flow stress in the polymer melt.

  11. Formation of a plano-convex micro-lens array in fused silica glass by using a CO2 laser-assisted reshaping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Ik-Bu; Yoo, Dongyoon; Noh, Young-Chul; Sung, Jae-Hee; Lee, Seong-Ku; Choi, Hun-Kook; Ahsan, Md. Shamim

    2016-08-01

    We report on fabricating high-fill-factor plano-convex spherical and square micro-lens arrays on fused silica glass surface by using a CO2 laser-assisted reshaping technique. Initially, periodic micro-pillars are encoded on glass surfaces by means of a femtosecond laser beam, afterwards, the micro-pillars are polished several times by irradiating a CO2 laser beam on top of the micro-pillars. Consequently, a spherical micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 50 μm × 50 μm and a square micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 100 μm × 100 μm are formed on the surface of the fused silica glass. We also study the intensity distribution of light passing through the glass sample engraved with a spherical micro-lens array. The simulation result shows that the focal length of the spherical micro-lens array is 35 μm. Furthermore, we investigate the optical properties of glass samples with engraved micro-lens arrays. The proposed CO2-laser-based reshaping technique is simple and fast and shows promises for fabricating arrays of smooth micro-lenses in various transparent materials.

  12. Outcomes From U.S. Military-Supported Overseas Training Rotations in Tropical Medicine and Global Health, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, James D; Garges, Eric C; Hickey, Patrick W; Coldren, Rodney L; Korman, Amy K; Keep, Lisa W; DeFraites, Robert F; Sanchez, Jose L

    2017-09-01

    Since 2006, the Division of Tropical Public Health at the Uniformed Services University (USU) has sponsored the Tropical Medicine Training Program (TMTP). Despite practice guidelines stating that global health education should include the collection and evaluation of data on the impact of the training experiences, no quantitative evaluation of program outcomes had previously occurred. The objective of this report was to evaluate TMTP outcomes to guide program improvement. We developed an anonymous, web-based survey to assess program outcomes as part of routine program evaluation. The survey addressed four main areas of potential TMTP impact: (1) career engagement, (2) military service contributions, (3) scholarly activity, and (4) acquisition of knowledge and skills. In February 2016, we sent the survey electronically to 222 program participants between Fiscal Years 2006 and 2015 who had e-mails available in DoD administrative systems. Ninety-eight (44%) of these responded to the survey. TMTP demonstrated impact in several areas. Increased knowledge and skills were reported by 81% of trainees, and 70% reported increased interest in serving at military overseas medical research laboratories. Subsequent career engagement by trainees included seven assignments to overseas research laboratories, 71 military deployments, and 193 short-term military missions. The ability to achieve many of the desired outcomes was associated with time elapsed since completion of formal medical education, including 24% who were still enrolled in graduate medical education. The TMTP has improved the U.S. military's ability to perform surveillance for emerging tropical and infectious diseases and has contributed to force health protection and readiness. Although many of the outcomes, such as service in the overseas research laboratories and military deployments, are dependent on military service requirements, these results remain perhaps the most relevant ways that the TMTP meets global health requirements of the US military and the nation. Additional outcomes from this training are expected to accrue as these participants complete their medical postgraduate training programs. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Increased suicides during new year, but not during Christmas in Sweden: analysis of cause of death data 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hökby, Sebastian

    2017-09-22

    Previous studies have investigated the impact of the Christmas and New Year holiday on suicide rates. However, no such data has yet been published on Swedish suicides. To examine the occurrence of suicides on these dates in Sweden between 2006 and 2015. The suicide count for each date between December 15th and January 15th was obtained from the Swedish cause of death registry. The observations were transformed to Z-scores to enable calculation of p-values. A small but non-significant decrease in suicides was observed on Christmas and New Year's Eve. A significant spike was found on New Year's Day (NYD) (Z = 3.40; p < .001), and these excess suicide occurred mainly among men aged 15-24 and 45-64. However, the number of suicides were somewhat lower than expected on the 31st of December (Z = -1.58; p = .115). The noted increase in suicide on NYD is in line with previous research from other countries. However, the decrease in suicides on the day before NYD suggests a delay rather than a spontaneous increase of suicides. Possible mechanisms to explain this phenomenon are discussed, such as the "broken promise effect", increased alcohol consumption, or lower help-seeking and accessibility to care.

  14. Analysis of occupational exposures to blood registered in the General Hospital in Zabrze in the years 2006-2015

    PubMed

    Kocur, Ewelina; Śliwa-Rak, Bożena; Grosicki, Sebastian

    Viral hepatitis B and C are the most common occupational diseases among health care workers. Infection occurs during performance of medical procedures which carries a risk of contact with biological material derived from a patient. The aim of the study was to analyse cases of occupational exposure to biological material as recorded by the employees of the City Hospital in Zabrze, to attempt to determine which medical procedures are of greatest risk of occupational exposure, and to identify the most important actions aimed at reduction of their number. The analysis included all cases of exposure to biological material derived from a patient, which were reported by employees of the City Hospital in Zabrze in 2006–2015. The analysis included the percentage of exposure for individual occupational groups and wards of the hospital, the type of the procedure at performance of which the exposure occurred, the type of tools affecting the skin continuity and proper conduct of the proceedings of the employee after exposure. The occupational group most frequently affected by exposures were nurses/midwives. This occupational group accounted for 41.2% of all exposed people. The next highest percentage exposure of 5.9% concerned the occupational group of doctors, further paramedics with 3.8%, orderlies – 2.6%, nurses – 2.4%. The ward of internal diseases had most frequent occurrences of exposure, but the percentage of exposure was the highest for the operating room – 7.5%. Most often the injury occurred during sampling venous blood – 20.6%. People assisting at procedures performed with a use of sharp equipment made 13.4% of employees exposed to blood. Orderlies were the third occupational group in terms of most common cuts. The employees were injured by cutting themselves while disposing of waste as often as when performing/assisting with a surgery. In 24.7% of cases immediately after exposure to biological material the employees behaved contrary to the procedure. List of exposures should not be limited only to cases of injuries caused by sharp instruments. Analysis of the circumstances and type of procedures during performance of which occur exposures allows for modification of procedures and reduction of the amount of exposures. Trainings in prevention of exposure should include all occupational groups, which are in contact with patients and medical waste.

  15. Characteristics of Initial Prescription Episodes and Likelihood of Long-Term Opioid Use - United States, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj; Hayes, Corey J; Martin, Bradley C

    2017-03-17

    Because long-term opioid use often begins with treatment of acute pain (1), in March 2016, the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain included recommendations for the duration of opioid therapy for acute pain and the type of opioid to select when therapy is initiated (2). However, data quantifying the transition from acute to chronic opioid use are lacking. Patient records from the IMS Lifelink+ database were analyzed to characterize the first episode of opioid use among commercially insured, opioid-naïve, cancer-free adults and quantify the increase in probability of long-term use of opioids with each additional day supplied, day of therapy, or incremental increase in cumulative dose. The largest increments in probability of continued use were observed after the fifth and thirty-first days on therapy; the second prescription; 700 morphine milligram equivalents cumulative dose; and first prescriptions with 10- and 30-day supplies. By providing quantitative evidence on risk for long-term use based on initial prescribing characteristics, these findings might inform opioid prescribing practices.

  16. Antigenic characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in India, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sudipta; Nagarajan, Shanmugasundaram; Kumar, Manoj; Murugkar, Harshad V; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Venkatesh, Govindarajulu; Tosh, Chakradhar

    2017-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major health concern worldwide. In this study, we focused on antigenic analysis of HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in India between 2006 and 2015 comprising 25 isolates from four phylogenetic clades 2.2 (1 isolate), 2.2.2.1 (1 isolate), 2.3.2.1a (17 isolates) and 2.3.2.1c (6 isolates). Seven H5N1 isolates from all four clades were selected for production of chicken antiserum, and antigenic analysis was carried out by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. HI data indicated antigenic divergence (6-21 fold reduction in cross-reactivity) between the two recently emerged clades 2.3.2.1a and 2.3.2.1c. These two clades are highly divergent (21-128 fold reduction in HI titre) from the earlier clades 2.2 /2.2.2.1 isolated in India. However, a maximum of 2-fold and 4-fold reduction in cross-reactivity was observed within the isolates of homologous clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.2.1a, respectively. The molecular basis of inter-clade antigenic divergence was examined in the haemagglutinin (HA) antigenic sites of the H5N1 virus. Amino acid changes at 8 HA antigenic sites were observed between clades 2.3.2.1a and 2.3.2.1c, whereas 20-23 substitutions were observed between clades 2.3.2.1a/2.3.2.1c and 2.2/2.2.2.1. Therefore, a systematic analysis of antigenic drift of the contemporary field isolates is a pre-requisite for determining the suitable strain(s) for vaccine candidature.

  17. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-02-22

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids.

  18. Shisha (waterpipe) smoking initiation among youth in Malaysia and global perspective: a scoping review (2006-2015).

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Enzhong, L; Reidpath, D D; Allotey, P

    2017-03-01

    To explore the initiating factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) among youth. The analytic framework for this scoping review was performed using the methodology outlined by Arksey and O'Malley, which includes identification of the research question, study selection, charting the data, collating, summarizing and reporting the results that were primarily guided by the research question; 'what is known about the initiation of shisha smoking among youth?' Electronic databases such as Cochrane, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were used to search for relevant articles. Articles included were all in English and published within the year of 2006 to 2015. Inclusion criteria; i) age range of 10 to 29 years; ii) examined the reasons why youth started or tried WTS; iii) in full text. Therefore, 26 articles were included in this scoping review. This review has identified and classified the initiating factors of WTS among youth in four subtopics: individual factors, interpersonal influences, cigarettes and alcohol use, and media influences. Individual factors and interpersonal influences played an important role in initiation factors of WTS among youth. This study concludes that public health professionals within the Southeast Asia region need to promote innovative preventive measures through peer-to-peer led interventions that are also easily assessable on social media platforms. The public health messages need to address the misconceptions of risk associated to WTS use. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Complications of cochlear implant surgery: A ten-year experience in a referral hospital in Peru, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Alcas, Olenka; Salazar, Miguel A

    2016-09-01

    To describe the frequency and characteristics of complications of cochlear implant (CI) surgery at Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Hospital of social security in Lima-Peru between 2006 and 2015. A retrospective descriptive study of patients that underwent CI surgery between August 2006 and December 2015. Among the 107 patients with CIs, the overall proportion of complications was 18.7% (20/107): 14.9% (16/107) of minor complications, and 3.7% (4/107) of major complications. Regarding the time of onset of complications, 2.8% (3/107) were intraoperative and 14% (15/107) postoperative. CI surgery in Peru is a safe procedure with a low frequency of major complications, representing an effective therapy for patients with sensorineural hearing loss who do not respond to hearing aids.

  20. Spatiotemporal evolutionary epidemiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in West Africa and Nigeria, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Ekong, P S; Fountain-Jones, N M; Alkhamis, M A

    2017-07-14

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was first observed in Nigeria in early 2006 and has now spread to more than 17 African countries having severe economic and public health implications. Here, we explore the spatiotemporal patterns of viral dispersal both among West African countries and within Nigeria using sequence data from hemagglutinin (HA) gene region of the virus. Analyses were performed within a statistical Bayesian framework using phylodynamic models on data sets comprising of all publically available HA sequence data collected from seven West African countries and Egypt between 2006 and 2015. Our regional-level analyses indicated that H5N1 in West Africa originated in Nigeria in three geopolitical regions, specifically north central and north-east, where backyard poultry and wild birds are in frequent contact, as well as south-west, a major commercial poultry area, then dispersed to West African countries. We inferred significant virus dispersal routes between Niger and Nigeria on one side and Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Egypt on the other. Furthermore, south-west Nigeria identified as a primary source for virus dispersal within Nigeria as well as to Niger in 2006 and 2008. Niger was an important epicentre for the virus spread into other West African countries in 2015. Egyptian introductions from West Africa were sporadic and resulted most likely from poultry trade with Nigeria rather than contact with infected wild birds. Our inferred viral dispersal routes reflected the large-scale unrestricted movements of infected poultry in the region. Our study illustrates the ability of phylodynamic models to trace important HPAIV dispersal routes at a regional and national level. Our results have clear implications for the control and prevention of this pathogen across scales and will help improve molecular surveillance of transboundary HPAIVs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Early termination of cardiovascular trials as a consequence of poor accrual: analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Ileana; Lanera, Corrado; Berchialla, Paola; Gregori, Dario

    2017-06-15

    To present a snapshot of experimental cardiovascular research with a focus on geographical and temporal patterns of early termination due to poor accrual. The Aggregate Analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov (AACT) database, reflecting ClinicalTrials.gov as of 27 March 2016. The AACT database was searched for all cardiovascular clinical trials that started from January 2006 up to December 2015. Thirteen thousand and seven hundred twenty-nine cardiovascular trials were identified. Of these, 8900 (65%) were classified as closed studies. Globally, 11% of closed trials were terminated. This proportion varied from 9.6% to 14% for trials recruiting from Europe and Americas, respectively, with a slightly decreasing trend (p=0.02) over the study period. The most common reason for trials failing to complete was poor accrual (41%). Intercontinental trials exhibited lower figures of poor accrual as the reason for their early stopping, as compared with trials recruiting in a single continent (28% vs 44%, p=0.002). Poor accrual significantly challenges the successful completion of cardiovascular clinical trials. Findings are suggestive of a positive effect of globalisation of cardiovascular clinical research on the achievement of enrolment goals within a reasonable time frame. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of bovine Salmonella enterica isolates submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, J R; Sethi, A K; Aulik, N A; Poulsen, K P

    2017-02-01

    Salmonellosis on the dairy continues to have a significant effect on animal health and productivity and in the United States. Additionally, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica causes an estimated 1.2 million cases of human illness annually. Contributing to the morbidity and mortality in both human and domestic animal species is emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Salmonella species and increased incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates. This study describes serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns for various Salmonella serotypes isolated from bovine samples submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) over the past 10 yr. Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data were obtained from the laboratory information management system at WVDL. Data from accessions were limited to bovine samples submitted to the WVDL between January 2006 and June 2015 and those that had both a definitive serotype and complete results for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 4,976 isolates were identified. Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin was the most prevalent serotype identified among bovine samples submitted to the WVDL, accounting for a total of 1,153 isolates (23% of total isolates) over the study period. Along with Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Cerro (795, 16%), Newport (720, 14%), Montevideo (421, 8%), Kentucky (419, 8%), and Typhimurium (202, 4%) comprised the top 6 most commonly isolated serotypes during that time. Overall, resistance of bovine Salmonella isolates in the study population remained stable, although decreases in resistance were noted for gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole during the study period. All isolates remained susceptible to enrofloxacin. These data show that antimicrobial susceptibility for bovine Salmonella has changed in the population served by WVDL in the past 10 yr. This information is important for understanding Salmonella disease ecology in Wisconsin. Our findings are also relevant for animal and public health by improving informed antimicrobial use, new drug development, and regulation of their use in food animals.

  3. 78 FR 11760 - 3-decen-2-one; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection... chemical that is applied (via thermal fog generator) in the same manner as the proposed product. Mr. Keim... thermal fogging application method on the proposed product label used for stored potatoes is an...

  4. An evolutionarily stable strategy and the critical point of hog futures trading entities based on replicator dynamic theory: 2006-2015 data for China's 22 provinces.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jinbo; Deng, Lingfei; Wang, Gangyi

    2017-01-01

    Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the steady state between the two trading entities. The results show that the steady state is one in which hedgers adopt a "buy" strategy and speculators adopt a "do not speculate" strategy, but this type of extreme steady state is not easily realized. Thus, to explore the rational proportion of hedgers and speculators in the evolutionary stabilization strategy, bidding processes were simulated using weekly average hog prices from 2006 to 2015, such that the conditions under which hedgers and speculators achieve a steady state could be analyzed. This task was performed to achieve the stability critical point, and we show that only when the value of λ is satisfied and the conditions of hog futures price changes and futures price are satisfied can hedgers and speculators achieve a rational proportion and a stable hog futures market. This market can thus provide a valuable reference for the development of the Chinese hog futures market and the formulation and guidance of relevant departmental policies.

  5. Prevalence and time trends of spina bifida in fourteen cities located in the Liaoning province of northeast China, 2006-2015

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Gen; Wu, Qi-Jun; Chen, Yan-Ling; Huang, Yan-Hong; Gong, Ting-Ting

    2017-01-01

    The present study sought to assess the time trends of spina bifida on the basis of cases identified by the Liaoning Birth Defects Registry in 14 cities from 2006 to 2015. We calculated the prevalence of spina bifida, percent and average change of time trends, and contribution rates of each city. Poisson regression model was used to find the line of best fit for spina bifida prevalence by year, with year as a continuous independent variable. From 2006 to 2015, a total of 2,029 spina bifida cases were identified from 3,248,954 live births (6.25/10,000 live births). We observed statistically significant decreasing trend of overall time trend (11.57% each year). Chaoyang, Fuxin, and Huludao were the top three leading cities, with 14.30/10,000 live births, 9.70/10,000 live births, and 9.20/10,000 live births, respectively. Inversely, the bottom three cities with lowest prevalence were Anshan (2.64/10,000 live births), Dandong (3.43/10,000 live births), and Dalian (3.45/10,000 live births). Of note, we observed significant decreasing trends in over half of these cities (n = 8). In addition, the decreasing trend of overall time trend could be mainly attributed to cities of Shenyang, Fushun, and Jinzhou which accounted for nearly one third. In summary, our study suggested a decreasing time trend of spina bifida during the past decade in the Liaoning province. The findings of this study provide evidence that the nationwide folic acid supplement program has been an effective strategy to prevent spina bifida. PMID:28148902

  6. Prevalence and time trends of spina bifida in fourteen cities located in the Liaoning province of northeast China, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Ba, Gen; Wu, Qi-Jun; Chen, Yan-Ling; Huang, Yan-Hong; Gong, Ting-Ting

    2017-03-21

    The present study sought to assess the time trends of spina bifida on the basis of cases identified by the Liaoning Birth Defects Registry in 14 cities from 2006 to 2015. We calculated the prevalence of spina bifida, percent and average change of time trends, and contribution rates of each city. Poisson regression model was used to find the line of best fit for spina bifida prevalence by year, with year as a continuous independent variable. From 2006 to 2015, a total of 2,029 spina bifida cases were identified from 3,248,954 live births (6.25/10,000 live births). We observed statistically significant decreasing trend of overall time trend (11.57% each year). Chaoyang, Fuxin, and Huludao were the top three leading cities, with 14.30/10,000 live births, 9.70/10,000 live births, and 9.20/10,000 live births, respectively. Inversely, the bottom three cities with lowest prevalence were Anshan (2.64/10,000 live births), Dandong (3.43/10,000 live births), and Dalian (3.45/10,000 live births). Of note, we observed significant decreasing trends in over half of these cities (n = 8). In addition, the decreasing trend of overall time trend could be mainly attributed to cities of Shenyang, Fushun, and Jinzhou which accounted for nearly one third. In summary, our study suggested a decreasing time trend of spina bifida during the past decade in the Liaoning province. The findings of this study provide evidence that the nationwide folic acid supplement program has been an effective strategy to prevent spina bifida.

  7. Time trends in the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of neural tube defects in Liaoning Province, China, 2006-2015: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tie-Ning; Gong, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yan-Ling; Wu, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Li, Jing; Li, Li-Li; Zhou, Chen; Huang, Yan-Hong

    2017-02-03

    To evaluate the time trends in the prevalence of neural tube defects and all their subtypes as well as to identify the epidemiological characteristics of these malformations documented in the Liaoning Province of northeast China from 2006 to 2015. This was a population-based observational study using data from 3,248,954 live births as well as from 6217 cases of neural tube defects, 1,600 cases of anencephaly, 2,029 cases of spina bifida, 404 cases of encephalocele, and 3,008 cases of congenital hydrocephalus from 14 cities in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. All analyses were conducted using SPSS software. During the observational period, the prevalence of neural tube defects, anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, and congenital hydrocephalus was 19.1, 4.9, 6.2, 1.2, and 9.3 per 10,000 live births, respectively. Significantly decreasing trends were observed in the prevalence of all these malformations except for encephalocele. Notably, relatively higher prevalence rates were found in isolated compared with non-isolated malformations, with significant differences in selected characteristics (e.g., prognosis status, gestational age, and birth weight) between isolated and non-isolated cases of these malformations. The prevalence of neural tube defects showed a downward trend in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. However, more attention should be focused on non-isolated cases in the future because of the severe clinical manifestations. Future prevention efforts should be strengthened to reduce the risk of these malformations, especially the non-isolated subtype, in areas with high prevalence.

  8. From prescription-only (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC) status in Germany 2006-2015: pharmacological perspectives on regulatory decisions.

    PubMed

    Barrenberg, Eva; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the extent of switches from prescription-only (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC) status in Europe and about the pharmacological properties of the switched substances. The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of the substances that were switched from Rx to OTC status in Germany between 2006 and 2015 and to assess their pharmacological properties. Session minutes of the German Expert Advisory Committee for Prescription-Only Issues, changes to the German Ordinance on Prescription-Only Medicines and the Summary of Product Characteristics of the switched substances were analysed. Pharmacological properties were studied in relation to the EU Guideline on Changing the Classification for the Supply of a Medicinal Product for Human Use (the 'EU switch guide'). Between 2006 and 2015, seven substances (almotriptan, omeprazole, benzydamine, ibuprofen/pseudoephedrine, racecadotril, ketotifen and levonorgestrel) were switched from Rx to OTC status in Germany. In all cases, the OTC status was restricted to certain indications, doses, pack sizes, or other limitations. Notwithstanding recommendations of the EU switch guide, some of the switched substances might interact with commonly used drugs potentially resulting in serious adverse drug reactions or have contraindications or warnings regarding substantial parts of the population. The stipulations of the EU switch guide were fully met for only some switches, while this was not completely the case for others. Further development of guidance on balancing risks and benefits of OTC availability is recommended.

  9. Prevalence of Non-Cytochrome P450-Mediated Metabolism in Food and Drug Administration-Approved Oral and Intravenous Drugs: 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Matthew A

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, claims of increased involvement of non-cytochrome P450 (non-P450) enzymes in the metabolism of drugs have appeared in the literature. However, no temporal summaries of the contribution of non-P450 enzymes to the metabolism of drugs have been published. Using data from human radiolabeled absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies available for a set of 125 orally or intravenously administered small-molecule drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration from 2006 to 2015, the contributions of P450 and non-P450 enzymes to the formation of major metabolites (≥10% of dose) were assessed and tabulated. Over this time frame, the involvement of P450 versus non-P450 enzymes in the formation of major metabolites is compared, and the individual non-P450 enzymes responsible are described. This analysis indicates that non-P450 enzymes contribute significantly to the metabolism of the 125 drugs analyzed. Approximately 30% of the metabolism of these drugs is carried out by non-P450 enzymes, with the predominant non-P450 enzymes identified being glucuronosyltransferases (11.7%), hydrolases (10.8%), carbonyl reductases (2.4%), and aldehyde oxidase (1.1%). Although significant, the relative contribution of non-P450 enzymes to drug metabolism does not appear to have increased dramatically over the last 10 years. As the current evaluation involves drugs which emerged from the discovery phase >10 years ago, this evaluation may not reflect the current or evolving situation in some research organizations; therefore, additional monitoring and assessment of the involvement of non-P450 enzymes in the metabolism of drugs will be conducted in the future. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Governance and oversight of researcher access to electronic health data: the role of the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee for MHRA database research, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Waller, P; Cassell, J A; Saunders, M H; Stevens, R

    2017-03-01

    In order to promote understanding of UK governance and assurance relating to electronic health records research, we present and discuss the role of the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) for MHRA database research in evaluating protocols proposing the use of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We describe the development of the Committee's activities between 2006 and 2015, alongside growth in data linkage and wider national electronic health records programmes, including the application and assessment processes, and our approach to undertaking this work. Our model can provide independence, challenge and support to data providers such as the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database which has been used for well over 1,000 medical research projects. ISAC's role in scientific oversight ensures feasible and scientifically acceptable plans are in place, while having both lay and professional membership addresses governance issues in order to protect the integrity of the database and ensure that public confidence is maintained.

  11. Quantification of selected antidepressants and antipsychotics in clinical samples using chromatographic methods combined with mass spectrometry: A review (2006-2015).

    PubMed

    Sistik, Pavel; Turjap, Miroslav; Iordache, Andreea Maria; Saldanha, Helena M E B; Lemr, Karel; Bednar, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders contribute significantly to worldwide morbidity and mortality. In the case of depression and schizophrenia, effective drug therapy is available but 30-50% of patients do not respond sufficiently to the initial treatment regimen. Apart from the development of new molecules, it is desirable to optimize treatment outcomes with agents that are currently available. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a suitable and widely accepted approach for improving the efficacy and safety of these drugs. A review of the relevant literature published between 2006 and January 2015. This review describes major advances and drawbacks in the field of chromatography coupled with single or tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS) of selected antidepressants (agomelatine, vilazodone) and antipsychotics (iloperidone, asenapine, amisulpride, aripiprazole, melperone, zotepine, ziprasidone). The high specificity in combination with high sensitivity makes these techniques an attractive complementary method to traditional procedures used in routine practice for TDM.

  12. Plano Entrópico de galaxias tempranas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. G.; Alonso, M. V.; García Lambas, D.

    Early-type galaxies are systems in quasi-equilibrium and we can assume that their specific entropy is constant. This property is reflected in the ob- served correlations among photometric parameters describing the galaxy profiles. We discuss preliminary results of computing the specific entropy in several clusters and groups of galaxies. The galaxy sample is a subsam- ple of the spectro-photometric ENEAR survey (da Costa et al. 2000) of early-type galaxies in the local Universe. The Entropic Plane would allow us to understand the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies in dynamical terms and the processes involved in such relationships. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. Studies on the Aroma of Five Fresh Tomato Cultivars and the Precursors of the cis- and trans-4,5-Epoxy-(E)-2-Decenals and Methional

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three tasty (BR-139, FA-624 and FA-612) and two less tasty (R 144 and R 175) fresh greenhouse tomato cultivars, which significantly differ in their flavor profiles, were screened for potent odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Based on AEDA results, 19 volatiles were selected for ...

  14. Superposición de los planos de la imagen y de la transformada de Fourier de un objeto plano transparente.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guel-Sandoval, S.

    Any Fresnel hologram, under suitable illumination, can give virtual images of the object and its Fourier spectrum. It is shown how to obtain a real superposition of both images, over the same plane, simply by changing the way of illuminating the hologram.

  15. An analytical and experimental evaluation of the plano-cylindrical Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Allums, S. L.; Cosby, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Plastic Fresnel lenses for solar concentration are attractive because of potential for low-cost mass production. An analytical and experimental evaluation of line-focusing Fresnel lenses with application potential in the 200 to 370 C range is reported. Analytical techniques were formulated to assess the solar transmission and imaging properties of a grooves-down lens. Experimentation was based primarily on a 56 cm-wide lens with f-number 1.0. A sun-tracking heliostat provided a non-moving solar source. Measured data indicated more spreading at the profile base than analytically predicted. The measured and computed transmittances were 85 and 87% respectively. Preliminary testing with a second lens (1.85 m) indicated that modified manufacturing techniques corrected the profile spreading problem.

  16. Thin glass shells for AO: from plano to off-axis aspherics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Emmanuelle; Anretar, Alain; Antelme, Jean-Pierre; Caillon, Stéphane; Dussourd, Adrien; Foucaud, Guillaume; Jaury, Hervé; Roure, Océane; William, Jean-Philippe; Wuillaume, Philippe; Ruch, Eric; Geyl, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Reosc has been working on thin glass shells for many years and was recently selected by ESO for the production of the E-ELT M4 mirror thin glass shells. Previously Reosc also produced the aspheric thin shell for the VLT-M2 AO Facility. Based on this experience we will discuss how off axis thin glass shells can be made for the next generation AO systems like the GMT one.

  17. Distribución de planos orbitales de sistemas binarios en la Galaxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Díaz, R. J.

    In this work we study the orientations of the orbital planes of visual binary stellar systems. This analysis was carried out on a certain region of the sky, where we found a peculiar distribution of the position angles of elongated planetary nebulae. The distribution of the orientations of binary systems towards the galactic center shows some non-random characteristics, although the number of objects studied is not enough to conclude about the relationship between orientations of the planetary nebulae and the population of visual binary stellar systems studied.

  18. An analytical and experimental evaluation of the plano-cylindrical Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Allums, S. L.; Cosby, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Plastic Fresnel lenses for solar concentration are attractive because of potential for low-cost mass production. An analytical and experimental evaluation of line-focusing Fresnel lenses with application potential in the 200 to 370 C range is reported. Analytical techniques were formulated to assess the solar transmission and imaging properties of a grooves-down lens. Experimentation was based primarily on a 56 cm-wide lens with f-number 1.0. A sun-tracking heliostat provided a non-moving solar source. Measured data indicated more spreading at the profile base than analytically predicted. The measured and computed transmittances were 85 and 87% respectively. Preliminary testing with a second lens (1.85 m) indicated that modified manufacturing techniques corrected the profile spreading problem.

  19. Automatización de la adquisición de campos planos de cielo durante el atardecer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areal, M. B.; Acosta, J. A.; Buccino, A. P.; Perna, P.; Areso, O.; Mauas, P.

    2016-08-01

    Since 2009, the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio keeps in development an optical observatory mainly aimed to the detection of extrasolar planets and the monitoring of stellar activity. In this framework, the telescopes Meade LX200 16 Horacio Ghielmetti in the Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, and MATE (Magnetic Activity and Transiting Exoplanets) in the Estación de Altura at the Observatorio Astronomico Felix Aguilar were assembled. Both telescopes can operate automatically through all night, which generates a massive volume of data. Because of this, it becomes essential the automatization of the acquisition and analysis of the regular observations as well as the calibration images; in particular the flat fields. In this work a method to simplify and automatize the acquisition of these images was developed. This method uses the luminosity values of the sky, registered by a weather station located next to the observation site.

  20. Accuracy of intraocular pressure measurements in dogs using two different tonometers and plano therapeutic soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong-Taek; Jeong, Man-Bok; Park, Young-Woo; Kim, Se-Eun; Ahn, Jae-Sang; Lee, Yes-Ran; Lee, Eui-Ri; Seo, Kangmoon

    2012-03-01

    To compare and evaluate the accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measured through a therapeutic contact lens, using applanation (TonoPen XL(®)) and rebound (TonoVet(®)) tonometers in enucleated dog eyes. A total of 30 enucleated eyes from 15 beagle dogs. To measure accurate IOP, the anterior chamber of each enucleated eye was cannulated with two 26-gauge needles and two polyethylene tubes were connected vertically to an adjustable reservoir bag of normal saline and a pressure transducer. IOP was measured by the TonoPen XL(®) followed by the TonoVet(®) without a contact lens. After a contact lens was applied to the cornea, IOP was re-measured in the same order. Three consecutive IOP measurements were performed using both tonometers. Without the contact lens, the IOP values obtained by both tonometers correlated well according to the regression analysis (TonoVet(®): γ(2) = 0.98, TonoPen XL(®): γ(2) = 0.97, P < 0.001). The TonoPen XL(®) consistently underestimated values as transducer IOP increased; however, IOP values measured with the TonoPen XL(®) were in close agreement and were less variable than those determined with the TonoVet(®) when a contact lens was applied to the cornea. Bland-Altman analysis was used to determine the lower and upper limits of agreement (TonoVet(®): -29.7 and +21.1 mmHg, TonoPen XL(®): -3.9 and +3.6 mmHg) between the two devices. This study suggests that the TonoPen XL(®) is a useful tonometer for dogs wearing therapeutic contact lenses, and importantly, contact lenses would not need to be removed prior to IOP measurement. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Recent developments in finishing of deep concave, aspheric, and plano surfaces utilizing the UltraForm 5-axes computer controlled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambrick, Scott; Bechtold, Mike; DeFisher, Scott; Mohring, David; Meisenzahl, Joe

    2009-05-01

    OptiPro Systems has developed a robust 5-axes computer controlled platform, for implementation of the sub-aperture UltraForm Finishing (UFF) process specifically focused on finishing AlON, spinel and transparent polycrystalline alumina (PCA) steep concave, convex and ogive shaped infrared domes and aspheres. Traditional manufacturing of optical components typically involves a three-stage process: grinding, lapping and polishing. The lapping and polishing stages are focused at reducing the surface roughness while preserving the integrity of the form acquired during grinding. Polishing of non spherical and irregular shapes is nearly impossible using traditional full aperture techniques. However, finishing these non-spherical and irregular shapes is possible using UltraForm Finishing. A brief description of the evolution of the UltraForm hardware and processes will be presented, with the current hardware developments. A review of the results with regard to form/figure and roughness improvements on glass, AlON and transparent PCA will be presented using a variety of grinding and finishing abrasives. Differences in the abrasive materials, some bound, and others loose in a slurry have a large impact on the process cycle time and resultant surface roughness.

  2. Structural Effects of Biodiesel on Soot Volume Fraction in a Laminar Co-Flow Diffusion Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, Jason

    An experimental study was performed to determine the structural effects of biodiesel on soot volume fraction in a laminar co-flow diffusion flame. These include the effects of the ester function group, the inclusion of a double bond, and its positional effect. The soot volume fraction and temperature profiles of a biodiesel surrogate, n-Decane, 1-Decene, and 5-Decene fuels were measured. Improvements were made to existing laser extinction and rapid thermocouple insertion apparatus and were used to measure soot volume fraction and temperature profiles respectively. Flow rates of each fuel were determined in order to keep the temperature effects on soot negligible. Using n-Decane as a baseline, the double bond increased soot production and was further increased with a more centrally located double bond. The ester function group containing oxygen decreased soot production. The order of most to least sooting fuels were as follows 5-Decene > 1-Decene > n-Decane > Biodiesel Surrogate.

  3. 77 FR 20992 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ..., below the eight row, the table should appear as follows: Texas: Collin City of Plano (10-06- June 23, 2011; June The Honorable Phil August 31, 2010 480140 0997P). 30, 2011; The Plano Dyer, Mayor, City of Star Courier. Plano, 1520 Avenue K, Plano, TX 75074. BILLING CODE 1505-01-D ...

  4. Mi Quinto Libro de Maquinas Simples: El Plano Inclinado. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Fifth Book of Simple Machines: The Inclined Plane. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the fifth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains the principles and some of the uses of inclined planes, as they appear in simple machines, by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book…

  5. Búsqueda de un posible blazar débil brillando a través del Plano %Galáctico en la región de HESSJ1356-645

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichel, A. C.; Cillis, A. N.

    H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) observatory detected the extended gamma-ray source HESSJ1356-645; localized at 5 pc from the pulsar PSR J1357-6429. The most plausible scenario on the origin of the very high emission is a Pulsar Wind Nebula powered by the mentioned pulsar. PSRJ1357-6429 is a young and energetic pulsar. X-ray emission from the pulsar was detected for the first time using data from XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites; but without seeing pulsed emission from the source due to low statistic. Afterwards Fermi and XMM-Newton were able to detect pulsations. Recently; 2012A&A...540A..28D 2012A&A...540A..28D reported a possible optical counterpart of the pulsar; but the authors could not discard that this source could be associated to a faint Active Galactic Nuclei. In order to unravel if the possible optical counterpart is or not a blazar; we applied the association method known as the WISE blazar Strip; based on the properties of Infrared colors using the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). According to this method we could not associate the possible optical counterpart to a blazar. Applying the same methodology; we also investigated if the sources seen in the field of HESSJ1356-645 by Chandra and XMM satellites could be blazars seen through the Galactic disk without a positive result either. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. Knowledge of participants of the 5th Polish Foot and Ankle Society (PFAS) Congress about the diagnosis and treatment of plano-valgus feet secondary to posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD).

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Łukasz; Napiontek, Marek; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) ranks among the most common causes of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. The deformity develops gradually through characteristic stages and its early manifestations are often ignored or mis-diagnosed. The aim of the study was to gain an insight into what the participants of the 5th Polish Foot and Ankle Society Congress knew about the diagnosis and treatment of flatfoot. An anonymous survey described the clinical presentation of a hypothetical patient with fixed stage III (according to the Johnson and Strom classification) acquired flatfoot deformity in PTTD. A total of 65 questionnaires were distributed and 51 (78%) were completed and returned. The respondents included 40 orthopaedics consultants and 11 orthopaedics and traumatology resident doctors. The mean time of work experience of the specialists was 17.5 years and that of resident doctors, 3.5 years. The deformity was properly diagnosed by 36 respondents (71%), including 29 specialists (73%) and 7 resident doctors (63%). Proper operative treatment was selected by 28 respondents (52%): 24 specialists (60%) and 4 residents (36%). Overall, appropriate comprehensive diagnostic work-up and treatment was planned only by 19 respondents (35%), including 17 specialists (32%) and 2 residents (4%). Appropriate diagnostic work-up and treatment of acquired flatfoot deformity in PTTD was planned by less than half of the respondents and their work experience did not have any relation with the management they suggested. 1. There is a significant lack of knowledge about PTTD among residents. 2. The majority of PFAS members surveyed selected the correct method of diagnostic work-up and treatment, but the differences with respect to non-PFAS respondents were not statistically significant.

  7. Surface properties of pillared acid-activated bentonite as catalyst for selective production of linear alkylbenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihian, Hossein; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Acid-activated and pillared montmorillonite were prepared as novel catalysts for alkylation of benzene with 1-decene for production of linear alkylbenzene. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption isotherms, temperature programmed desorption of NH3, scanning electron microscopy and elemental and thermal analysis techniques. It was found that acid-activation of clays prior to pillaring increased the porosity, total specific surface area, total pore volume and surface acidity of the catalysts. Optimization of the reaction conditions was performed by varying catalyst concentration (0.25-1.75 wt%), reactants ratio (benzene to 1-decene of 8.75, 12 and 15) and temperature (115-145 °C) in a batch slurry reactor. Under optimized conditions more than 98% conversion of 1-decene, and complete selectivity for monoalkylbenzenes were achieved.

  8. Food volatile compounds facilitating HII mesophase formation: solubilization and stability.

    PubMed

    Amar-Zrihen, Natali; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-05-25

    Four lipophilic food volatile molecules of different chemical characteristics, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, linalool, and trans-4-decenal, were solubilized into binary mixtures of monoolein/water, facilitating the formation of reverse hexagonal (H(II)) mesophases at room temperature without the need of solvents or triglycerides. Some of the flavor compounds are important building blocks of the hexagonal mesostructure, preventing phase transition with aging. The solubilization loads were relatively high: 12.6, 10.0, 12.6, and 10.0 wt % for phenylacetaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, linalool, and trans-4-decenal, respectively. Phenylacetaldehyde formed mixtures of lamellar and cubic phases. Linalool, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, and trans-4-decenal induced structural shift from lamellar directly to H(II) mesophase, remaining stable at room temperature. Lattice parameters were found to increase with water content and to decrease with temperature and/or food volatile content. trans-4-Decenal produces more stable H(II) mesophase compared to linalool-loaded mesophase. At 40-60 °C, depending on the chemical structure and on the solubilization location of the food volatile compounds, the H(II) mesophase transforms to isotropic micellar phase, facilitating the release of the food volatile compounds. Molecular interactions suggest the existence of two consecutive stages in the solubilization process.

  9. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Butyraldehyde/Acetic Acid 19/4 Yes. Allyl Alcohol/Toluene Diisocyanate 15/12 No. Decene/Ethyl Benzene 30/32 Yes..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories: 1...

  10. Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125μg/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to

  11. Changes induced by UV radiation during virgin olive oil storage.

    PubMed

    Luna, G; Morales, M T; Aparicio, R

    2006-06-28

    The effects of UV radiation on the chemical and sensory characteristics of virgin olive oils (cv. Arbequina and Picual) were assessed. Even small doses of UV radiation induced oxidation of the virgin olive oil samples. Total phenols and fatty acids contents decreased during the process as well as the intensity of the bitter and fruity sensory attributes, while the intensity of the rancid sensory attribute notably increased. Acetaldehyde, 2-butenal, 2-pentenal, octane, octanal, hexanal, nonanal, and 2-decenal were the volatile compounds most affected, showing an important increase during the irradiation process. Nonanal, hexanal, and pentanal showed high correlation with the rancid sensory attribute (90%, 86%, and 86%, respectively). 2-Decenal and nonanal concentrations allowed us to predict the alteration level of the samples by mean of multiple Ridge regression.

  12. Amine attack on coordinated alkenes: an interconversion from anti-Markovnikoff to Markovnikoff products.

    PubMed

    Pryadun, Ruslan; Sukumaran, Dinesh; Bogadi, Robert; Atwood, Jim D

    2004-10-06

    A sequence of alkene complexes of platinum, PtCl(2)(PPh(3))(alkene) (alkene = ethylene, propene, 1-butene, cis-2-butene, 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-decene), has been prepared. These complexes are characterized by NMR spectroscopy, including assignment of each proton, and X-ray crystal structures of the 1-propene and 1-hexene complexes. Each complex was reacted with diethylamine. For the 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-decene complexes, the amine displaces the alkene. For the smaller alkenes, the diethylamine nucleophilically attacks the coordinated alkene. For propene and 1-butene, the low-temperature addition leads to the anti-Markovnikoff nucleophilic attack, which slowly converts at room temperature to the Markovnikoff product. The transformation from anti-Markovnikoff to Markovnikoff addition occurs without diethylamine dissociation.

  13. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  14. N-Alkane oxidation enzymes of a pseudomonad.

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, V R; Traxler, R W; Sobek, J M

    1977-01-01

    A nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent n-alkane dehydrogenase and an NAD phosphate (reduced form)-dependent alkane hydroxylase have been purified from cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain 196Aa grown anaerobically on n-alkane. The n-alkane dehydrogenase (fraction R-3), obtained as a single peak from Bio-Gel P-60, showed an overall 135-fold purification and was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography to convert n-decane to 1-decene. The alkene hydroxylase activity in the S-3 fraction, purified 167 times from diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, was shown by the same methodology to convert decene to decanol. Commercial ferredoxin has been shown to increase the alkane dehydrogenase activity. An NAD-, flavine adenine dinucleotide-, and iron-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was demonstrated in the R-3 fraction. A mechanism for the anaerobic conversion of n-alkane to fatty acid has been proposed. PMID:869535

  15. Role of Sulfur Oxides in Wear and Deposit Formation in Army Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Undoubtedly, SO 2 is equally prominent in the blowby gases that enter the crankcase of the engine. In the cylinder of the engine, the partial pressure of...S0 2 can be more than an order of magnitude greater than in the exhaust or blowby ; it might be imagined that corrosion on ring and cylinder wall...is highly probable that the polyalphaolefin oil contained some residual molecules vith double bonds because it was a polymer of -decene. 47 In the long

  16. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hou-Jin; Chen, Ting; Xie, Ying-Lu; Chen, Wen-Dan; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2013-01-01

    The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5), together with three known compounds, incarnal (2), arthrosporone (3), and (2E)-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:23434797

  17. Safe Replacement Materials for DOP in ’Hot Smoke’ Aerosol Penetrometer Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    at flow rates up to 5 standard 1pm. Each diluter employed a closed system using filtered air from the original sample to mix with and reduce the...direct oligomerization of decene-1. Linear alpha olefins are polymerized and hydrogenated to manufacture PADs. Three PAOs were investigated in our...studies; these are designated Emery 3002, 3004 and 3006. Data are summarized in Table 2. 16 Table 2. Properties of Poly- Alpha Olefins (PAOs) Pour Flash

  18. Possible dual roles of an allelopathic compound, cis-dehydromatricaria ester.

    PubMed

    Saiki, H; Yoneda, K

    1982-01-01

    The aqueous extract of the root ofSolidago altissima was lethal to nematodes. The major compound isolated from the toxic fraction wascis-dehydromatricaria ester (methyl 2-decene-4,6,8-triynoate), which is already known as an allelopathic compound of a composite showing growth-inhibition to a rice seedling. This compound showed high toxicity to plant-parasite nematodes. A composite exudes one defending substance against both competitive plants and plant-parasite nematodes.

  19. Electrochemistry of Metal Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-30

    1-butene (BTE), 1-pentene (PTE), l-hexene (HXE), 1-- octene (OCE) and l--decene (DCE). Vibrational spectra of the adsorbed layers were obtained by use...Surface Sci., 92, 617 (1980). 39. Electrochemical Hydrogenation of Ethylene at Well-Defined Pt(100) and Pt(111) Surfaces. Arthur T. Hubbard, Mark A...Surf Sci., 147, 241 (1984). 75. A Comparison of Gas Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogenation of Ethylene at ** Platinum Surfaces. Andrzej Wieckowski

  20. Flame Spreading Across Liquid Fuels at Sub-Flash Point Temperatures: Measurements and Techniques (The Fuel Surface Tension, Vapor Pressure, Flash Point, Viscosity and Flame Spread Rate)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-07-01

    Properties of n-Decene Sources: 1. API Technical Data Book-Petroleum Re f:Lning, American Petroleum Institute , 1966 2. Other sources (as noted) Formula: Ci1... American Petroleum Institute (1966). Absolute Viscosity of the Liquid: See Figure 5 Surface Tension (with air): See Figure 4 Specific Beat of the...using a procedure outlined on page 7-155 of the AP1 Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining, American Petroleum Institute (1966). Thermal Conductivity

  1. Application of solid-phase microextraction to the analysis of volatile compounds in virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, A; Beltrán, G; Aguilera, M P

    2004-03-05

    Solid-phase microextraction was used as a technique for headspace sampling of extra virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil samples with different off-flavours. A 100 microm coated polydimethylsiloxane fiber was used to extract volatile aldehydes, the sampling temperature was 45 degrees C and the fiber has been exposed to the headspace for 15 min. Nonanal and 2-decenal were present in all the olive oils with extraction off-flavours but were not in extra virgin olive oil sample.

  2. New Physical Optics Method for Curvilinear Refractive Surfaces and its Verification in the Design and Testing of W-band Dual-Aspheric Lenses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    aspheric ( plano -convex) and (b) optimized dual- aspheric W-band PTFE lenses as needed for a non-paraxial system of Fig. 1 . . 10 3 Profiles of (a) full...is comparable with the given lens diameter Dc = 140mm. Following conventional solutions, non-paraxial lenses of plano -convex type are usually em...optimized by applying more advanced methods, e.g., full-wave approaches, etc. When considering plano -convex lenses by ray-tracing methods, we arrive at

  3. 78 FR 72865 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Siemens PLM Software, Plano, TX Sierra Nevada Corporation, Space Systems, Littleton, CO SIFCO Industries, Inc., Cleveland, OH Sila Solutions Group, Tukwila, WA SITA, Atlanta, GA ] Space Exploration...

  4. Governance Challenges in the Initiatives for Out-of-School Children in Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Maclean, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the initiatives for out-of-school children in Tajikistan. The Tajik government has published two blueprint documents, namely, the "National Strategy for Education Development 2006-2015" and the "National Strategy for Education Development until 2020," which outlines a national vision for universal access…

  5. Advancing Literacy: A Review of LIFE 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    When it became clear that existing literacy efforts would not be enough to enable some countries to reach Education for All (EFA) Goal 4 (a 50 percent improvement in levels of adult literacy), UNESCO launched the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE, 2006-2015). 35 countries with literacy rates below 50 percent and/or a population of more…

  6. Looking Forward with LIFE: Literacy Initiative for Empowerment. Global LIFE Mid-Term Evaluation Report 2006-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) launched the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (2006-2015)--LIFE--to tackle the literacy challenge. This is a collaborative effort to accelerate literacy efforts in thirty five of the world's most challenged countries and thereby to unlock progress to reach all of the…

  7. Governance Challenges in the Initiatives for Out-of-School Children in Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Maclean, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the initiatives for out-of-school children in Tajikistan. The Tajik government has published two blueprint documents, namely, the "National Strategy for Education Development 2006-2015" and the "National Strategy for Education Development until 2020," which outlines a national vision for universal access…

  8. 78 FR 42107 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Plano, Texas; Huawei Device USA, Inc. of Plano, Texas (``Huawei Device''); Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland; Nokia Inc. of White Plains, New York (``Nokia Inc.''); ZTE Corporation of Shenzhen, China; and ZTE (USA) Inc. of Richardson, Texas, and cease and desist orders against Huawei Device and Nokia...

  9. 76 FR 7204 - Privacy Act of 1974; Establishment of a New System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ..., McLean, VA 22102-5090. You may review copies of comments we receive at our office in McLean, Virginia... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Pienta, Office of General Counsel, Farm Credit Administration, McLean, Virginia... (Production Center). HP Enterprise Services Plano SMC, 6901 Windcrest Drive, Plano, TX 75024 (Duel Use Test...

  10. 76 FR 29797 - Westpoint Home, Inc., New York Corporate Sales Office, New York, NY, Including Employees Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ...-Salem, NC Sales Office, Winston-Salem, NC; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for... the subject firm: Plano, Texas; Daleville, Indiana; Rogers, Arkansas; and Winston-Salem, North... Plano, Texas, Daleville, Indiana, Rogers, Arkansas, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The intent of...

  11. 77 FR 55498 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Technologies (USA) (collectively ``the Huawei Respondents'') to amend the Notice of Investigation (``NOI'') and... Device USA Inc. of Plano, Texas. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amanda S. Pitcher, Office of the... Technologies (USA) of Plano, Texas; ZTE Corporation of Shenzhen, China; and ZTE (USA) Inc. of Richardson,...

  12. Investigation of molecular metabolites in expired air of healthy man in condition of long-term isolation in hermetical confined environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Mardanov, Robert; Markin, Andrey; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    Investigation of intermediary metabolites, produced in cells, in expired air of healthy man is directed on determination of molecular markers which are reflecting normal physiological pro-cesses in an organism, as well as on determination and validation of biomarkers for objective screening and non-invasive prenosological diagnostics of disorders in metabolic processes caused by negative effect of live environment. Investigation of influence of long-term isolation in her-metical confined environment on composition of healthy human expired air was made during experiment with 105 days isolation in condition of controlled environment and standard food ra-tion. Expired air samples were analyzed on gas chromatograph associated with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The investigation results show that at rest hydroxy ketones, mostly 1-hydroxy-prorapanone-2 (acetol), aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde), acetophenone, phenol and fatty acids were determined. After physical performance (oxidative stress) the content of ke-tones (heptanone-2, heptanone-3), phenol, determined aldehydes (decenal, octadecenal) and acetol in expired air of volunteers decreased. It can be concerned with prevailing of alternative -methylglyoxalic metabolic pathway and caused by oxidative stress. Analysis of expired air samples taken on 30, 60 and 90 day of isolation showed that in conditions of long-term iso-lation concentration of heptanone-2, heptanone-3, 2,3-butadione, acetol, furanones, aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde) and acetophenone is increasing while concentration of phenol and fatty acids is decreasing as compared to samples taken before isolation. It was shown that dynamics of concentration of saturated hydrocarbons in expired air can be informative marker for estima-tion of organism response to oxidative stress, while the level of acetol can be used as indicator of man's training status, validity of exercise load and as a marker of hypoxic state.

  13. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages.

  14. Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a "character impact compound" of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental enrichment

  15. Behavioral Responses to Mammalian Blood Odor and a Blood Odor Component in Four Species of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical “metallic, blood-like” odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a “character impact compound” of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental

  16. [Oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus vs. lichenoid lesions. Case report].

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Fernández-Cuevas, Laura; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana Lilia; Guerrero-Ramos, Brenda; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Milke-García, María Pilar; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el desarrollo de carcinoma escamocelular a partir del liquen plano bucal es controversial. Describimos un caso con carcinoma escamocelular intrabucal, que cursa con lesiones de liquen plano bucal y se analizan las dificultades para distinguir los cambios incipientes del carcinoma escamocelular de las lesiones por liquen plano intrabucales que lleven a establecer un diagnóstico certero de ambas entidades. Caso clínico: hombre de 57 años, con antecedente de tabaquismo y hábito alcohólico crónico, que presenta lesión tumoral ulcerada en borde lateral izquierdo de lengua y placas blancas reticulares bilaterales en mucosa yugal, bordes laterales y vientre de lengua. El reporte histopatológico fue de carcinoma escamocelular invasor moderadamente diferenciado y liquen plano respectivamente. Conclusiones: la naturaleza premaligna del liquen plano bucal es controvertida, esto por inconsistencia en los criterios diagnóstico clínicos e histológicos que permitan diferenciar los casos de liquen plano bucal de otras lesiones como las reacciones liquenoides o displasias intraepiteliales con alto potencial de malignización. Posiblemente las reacciones liquenoides bucales tienen un mayor riesgo de transformación maligna al compararse con el clásico liquen plano bucal.

  17. Optofluidic laser array based on stable high-Q Fabry-Pérot microcavities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Chunhua; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Jingdong; Liu, Shaoding; Fan, Xudong

    2015-10-07

    We report the development of an optofluidic laser array fabricated on a chip using stable plano-concave Fabry-Pérot (FP) microcavities, which are far less susceptible to optical misalignment during device assembly than the commonly used plano-plano FP microcavities. The concave mirrors in our FP microcavities were created by first generating an array of microwells of a few micrometers in depth and a few tens of micrometers in diameter on a fused silica chip using a CO2 laser, followed by coating of distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) layers. The plano-concave FP microcavity had a Q-factor of 5.6 × 10(5) and finesse of 4 × 10(3), over 100 times higher than those for the FP microcavities in existing optofluidic lasers. 1 mM R6G dye in ethanol was used to test the plano-concave FP microcavities, showing an ultralow lasing threshold of only 90 nJ mm(-2), over 10 times lower than that in the corresponding unstable plano-plano FP microcavities formed by the same DBR coatings on the same chip. Simultaneous laser emission from the optofluidic laser array on the chip and single-mode lasing operation were also demonstrated. Our work will lead to the development of optofluidic laser-based biochemical sensors and novel on-chip photonic devices with extremely low lasing thresholds (nJ mm(-2)) and mode volumes (fL).

  18. Switchable reflective lens based on cholesteric liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Beak, Ji-Ho; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Yu, Chang-Jae

    2014-04-21

    We demonstrated a switchable reflective lens based on choleteric liquid crystal (CLC) with a plano-convex shape. The plano-convex CLC lens was fabricated by assembling a planar substrate and a concave substrate. The reflective CLC lens exhibits wavelength selectivity and handedness sensitivity like the conventional CLC cell. The plano-convex CLC lens acts as a biconvex lens with the same curvature due to the Bragg reflection of the CLC layer. In addition, the reflective CLC lens was defocused by applying external voltage.

  19. Satellite measurements of glacier recession on Punak Jaya, Papua Province, Indonesia, from 2006 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, A. G.; Dong, X.; Kincaid, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Punak Jaya contains the last remaining tropical glaciers in East Asia. Here we report updated areas of the glaciers of Punak Jaya focusing on the 2006-2015 period which builds upon our previously reported glaciers areas through 2005. Glacier extents within the 2006-2015 period have been mapped using Google's Earth Engine (GEE) API from five suitable Landsat 5 and 8 cloud-free images. All images were orthorectified and image classification utilized calibrated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances. As of 13 October 2015, the total area of glaciers on Punak Jaya was reduced to a measured areal extent of 0.586 km2 from a historical neoglacial extent of 3.6 km2 (circa 1850). Over the 2006-2015 period, the total glacier area on Puncak Jaya decreased from 1.509 to 0.586 km2. The average annual rate of ice loss over the period was 0.103 km2/ann. This nine-year study period saw two of the Punak Jaya's four major glacier, the Southwall Hanging Glacier and W. Northwall Firn, disappear leaving on only Carstensz Glacier and the E. Northwall Firn extant in 2015. The Southwall Hanging Glacier disappeared in the first half of 2007 while the W. Northwall Firn completely melted between 2014 and 2015. Of the two remaining glaciers, the Carstensz exhibited the slowest ice loss rate (0.03 km2/ann) while the once contiguous E. Northwall Firn disintegrated into three large ice masses and several small ones by 2015. If the current recession continues at the average 2006-2015 rate, it is estimated that all Puncak Jaya glaciers will disappear by 2025.

  20. Resurgence of Pertussis and Emergence of the Ptxp3 Toxin Promoter Allele in South Italy.

    PubMed

    Loconsole, Daniela; De Robertis, Anna Lisa; Morea, Anna; Metallo, Angela; Lopalco, Pier Luigi; Chironna, Maria

    2017-09-21

    Despite universal immunization programs, pertussis remains a major public health concern. This study aimed to describe the pertussis epidemiology in the Puglia region in 2006-2015 and to identify recent polymorphisms in Bordetella pertussis (BP) virulence-associated genes. The pertussis cases in 2006-2015 were identified from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the Information System of Infectious Diseases. Samples of pertussis cases in 2014-2016 that were confirmed by the Regional Reference Laboratory were subjected to ptxA, ptxP, and prn gene sequencing and, in 10 cases, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). In Puglia in 2006-2015, the pertussis incidence rose from an average of 1.39/100,000 inhabitants in 2006-2013 to 2.56-2.54/100,000 in 2014-2015. In infants <1 year of age, the incidence rose from an average of 60.4/100,000 infants in 2006-2013 to 149.9/100,000 in 2015. Of the 661 cases recorded in 2006-2015, 80.3% required hospitalization; of these, 45.4% were aged <1 year. Of the 80 sequenced samples, the allelic profile ptxA1-ptxP3-prn2 was detected in 74. This variant was detected in both vaccinated and unvaccinated people. Six BP samples were prn-deficient. The MLVA cases exhibited MLVA-type 27. The pertussis incidence in Puglia has risen. The hypervirulent strain was also found in vaccinated people. This suggests bacterial adaptation to the vaccine and raises questions about acellular vaccine effectiveness. Prevention of infant pertussis cases is best achieved by immunizing the pregnant mother. Enhanced surveillance and systematic laboratory confirmation of pertussis should be improved in Italy.

  1. Terahertz Microscope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    bases and bacterial spores , etc. Recently, biomolecular nanoparticles have been successfully imaged using a THz microscope by the group of Prof. Han...compounds, pharmaceutical materials, illegal drugs, amino acids, nuclei-bases and 30 bacterial spores , etc. THz waves can also penetrate through many...Am. B, vol. 7, pp. 2006-2015, 1990. 25. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton U

  2. 77 FR 26788 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof Determination Not To Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ..., China; FutureWei Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Huawei, Technologies (USA) of Plano, Texas; Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland; Nokia Inc. of White Plains, New York; ZTE Corporation of Guangdong Province,...

  3. 78 FR 55294 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof Commission Determination To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Shenzhen, China; FutureWei Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Huawei, Technologies (USA) of Plano, Texas; Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland; Nokia Inc. of White Plains, New York; ZTE Corporation of Shenzhen, China;...

  4. 76 FR 54252 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Huawei, Technologies (USA), 5700 Tennyson Parkway, Suite 500, Plano, TX 75024. Nokia Corporation, Keilalahdentie 2-4, FIN-00045 Nokia Group, Espoo, Finland. Nokia Inc., 102 Corporate Park Drive, White Plains,...

  5. Calibrating a point diffraction interferometer using aspherical wavefront reference.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castán-Ricaño, D.; Granados-Agustín, Fermín S.; Percino-Zacarías, E.; Tecuatl-Tecuatl, P.; Cornejo-Rodríguez, A.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a method to calibrate the reference wavefront generated by an IDP. This wavefront is considered for quantitative evaluation of a plano-convex aspheric surface. Preliminary experimental results are presented.

  6. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  7. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  8. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  9. Risk Assessment for Foodservice Establishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Outlines a method designed to protect the public's health by simply and systematically prioritizing food service operations for inspection and evaluation. Discusses the method, implementation, and results of a program for the city of Plano, Texas. (LZ)

  10. Risk Assessment for Foodservice Establishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Outlines a method designed to protect the public's health by simply and systematically prioritizing food service operations for inspection and evaluation. Discusses the method, implementation, and results of a program for the city of Plano, Texas. (LZ)

  11. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Plan of 1784 From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Plan of 1784 From Mapas y Planos-Luisiana y Archivo General de Indias, Seville Florida 99 - Bateria de San Antonio, San Carlos & Hovey Roads, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  12. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    PubMed

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

  13. Characterization of the Potent Odorants Contributing to the Characteristic Aroma of Matcha by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Techniques.

    PubMed

    Baba, Ryoko; Amano, Yohei; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2017-03-31

    The odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of matcha were investigated by analysis of the headspace samples and the volatile fractions prepared by a combination of solvent extraction and the SAFE techniques using three matcha powders of different grades (high, medium, and low). Gas chromatography-olfactometry of the headspace samples (GCO-H) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 16 (FD factor ≥1) and 39 (FD factor ≥4(3)) odor-active peaks, respectively. Among them, 14 and 37 of the odorants, most of which were newly detected in matcha, were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O, respectively. By comparing the perceived odorants of three matcha powders, it was revealed that eight compounds with sweet, green, metallic, and floral notes showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors irrespective of the grades. In addition, some odorants were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each grade. Furthermore, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, one of the potent odorants of matcha, was revealed to exist as a racemic mixture in matcha. This result suggested that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal is formed by a nonenzymatic reaction in matcha, different from that in black tea, and that the unique manufacturing process of matcha has a close connection with its formation.

  14. Inter- and intraspecific variation in defensive compounds produced by five neotropical stink bug species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Pareja, Martín; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raúl A; Moraes, Maria C B

    2007-07-01

    The differences in composition of defensive secretions between nymphs, adult males and adult females of Chinavia impicticornis (=Acrosternum impicticorne), Chinavia ubica (=Acrosternum ubicum), Euschistus heros, Dichelops melacanthus and Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were analysed within and between species using compositional log-ratio statistics and canonical variates analysis. Differences in composition between nymphs, males and females were found for all species, as well as when all species were pooled. In particular, tetradecanal appears to be a predominantly nymphal compound in D. melacanthus, E. heros and P. guildinii. In the two Chinavia species 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and an unknown compound were more dominant in nymphs. The interspecific analysis revealed a good separation of defensive compounds according to their taxonomic relationship. Thus, the two Chinavia species grouped together, with (E)-2-decenal and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, contributing to this separation. The other three species also differed from each other, with (E)-2-octenal associated to D. melacanthus, (E)-2-hexenal to P. guildinii and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and tetradecanal to E. heros. The pooled analysis of stage ignoring species revealed tetradecanal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-decenal (tentative identification) strongly associated to nymphs. Thus, there are predictable differences between stages, and many of the differences are conserved between species. Consideration of these differences could prove to be important in understanding stink bug-natural enemy interactions, and in optimising biocontrol efforts.

  15. Changes in volatile compounds of gamma-irradiated fresh cilantro leaves during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

    2002-12-18

    Consumption of salsas and dishes containing cilantro has been linked to several recent outbreaks of food-borne illness due to contamination with human pathogens. Ionizing irradiation can effectively eliminate food-borne pathogens from various vegetables including cilantro. However, the effect of irradiation on aroma of fresh cilantro is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of irradiation on volatile compounds of fresh cilantro leaves. Fresh cilantro leaves (Coriandrum sativum L) were irradiated with 0, 1, 2, or 3 kGy gamma radiation and then stored at 3 degrees C up to 14 days. Volatile compounds were extracted using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), followed by gas chromatographic separation and mass spectra detection at 0, 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. Most of the volatile compounds identified were aldehydes. Decanal and (E)-2-decenal were the most abundant compounds, accounting for more than 80% of the total amount of identified compounds. The amounts of linalool, dodecanal, and (E)-2-dodecenal in irradiated samples were significantly lower than those in nonirradiated samples at day 14. However, the most abundant compounds [decanal and (E)-2-decenal] were not consistently affected by irradiation. During storage at 3 degrees C, the amount of most aldehydes peaked at 3 days and then decreased afterward. Our results suggest irradiation of fresh cilantro for safety enhancement at doses up to 3 kGy had minimal effect on volatile compounds compared with the losses that occurred during storage.

  16. Metathesis process for preparing an alpha, omega-functionalized olefin

    DOEpatents

    Burdett, Kenneth A.; Mokhtarzadeh, Morteza; Timmers, Francis J.

    2010-10-12

    A cross-metathesis process for preparing an .alpha.,.omega.-functionalized olefin, such as methyl 9-decenoate, and an .alpha.-olefin having three or more carbon atoms, such as 1-decene. The process involves contacting in a first reaction zone an .alpha.-functionalized internal olefin, such as methyl oleate, and an .alpha.-olefinic monomer having three or more carbon atoms, such as 1-decene, with a first metathesis catalyst to prepare an effluent stream containing the .alpha.,.omega.-functionalized olefin, such as methyl 9-decenoate, an unfunctionalized internal olefin, such as 9-octadecene, unconverted reactant olefins, and optionally, an .alpha.,.omega.-difunctionalized internal olefinic dimer, such as dimethyl 9-octadecen-1,18-dioate; separating said effluent streams; then contacting in a second reaction zone the unfunctionalized internal olefin with ethylene in the presence of a second metathesis catalyst to obtain a second product effluent containing the .alpha.-olefinic monomer having three or more carbon atoms; and cycling a portion of the .alpha.-olefinic monomer stream(s) to the first zone.

  17. Hydroconversion of liquid hydrocarbons in a staged autothermal reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blass, SD; Bhan, A; Schmidt, LD

    2013-01-31

    An autothermal staged reactor was assembled containing a top stage of Rh-Ce/alpha-Al2O3 which generated heat and H-2 by reacting CH4 and air that passed through a downstream stage containing 0.5 wt% Pt/gamma-Al2O3 mixed with either HBEA, HZSM-5, or USY in a heat-integrated non-isothermal reactor. The H-2 produced subsequently reacts in a 20:1 ratio with a co-feed of hexane or decane or 2-decanone fed to the reactor between the stages. The large-sized pores of HBEA and USY allowed deoxygenation of 2-decanone to form decene isomers which can crack or cyclize to form up to a 36% yield of methylated and ethylated monoaromatics. The medium-sized pores of HZSM-5 restricted decene formation from 2-decanone by catalyzing cracking reactions to C2-6 compounds which can cyclize to form aromatics. By contrast, the reactor effluent from non-oxygenated reactants decane and hexane contained less than 5% aromatics. Thus, we extend the scope of staged autothermal reactor functionality to hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of higher saturated and oxygenated hydrocarbons. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of epoxydecenal isomers as potent odorants in black tea (Dimbula) infusion.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2006-06-28

    In a black tea (Dimbula) infusion, the potent "sweet and/or juicy" odorants were identified as the cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenals by comparison of their gas chromatography retention indices, mass spectra, and odor quality to those of the actual synthetic compounds. Of the two odorants, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal has been identified for the first time in the black tea. On the basis of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the flavor distillate obtained using the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique from the black tea infusion, these isomers showed higher flavor dilution (FD) factors. The FD factors and concentrations of these odorants in the black tea infusion were observed to be much higher than those from Japanese green tea. In addition, the model studies showed that these odorants were generated from linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides by heating, but the generated amounts of these odorants from linoleic acid were much less than those of its hydroperoxides. It can be assumed from these results that the withering and fermentation, which are characteristic processes during the manufacturing of the black tea, which includes the enzymatic reaction such as lipoxygenase, is one of the most important factors for the formation of the epoxydecenal isomers.

  19. Investigation on Key Molecules of Huanglongbing (HLB)-Induced Orange Juice Off-flavor.

    PubMed

    Kiefl, Johannes; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Hartmann, Anja; Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Krammer, Gerhard; Trautzsch, Stephan

    2017-03-27

    Orange fruits from huanglongbing (HLB)-infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic, and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB-infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters, such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals, such as octanal and decanal, in the COJ, whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes such as hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool such as α-terpineol. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on terpeneless peel oil led to the identification of long-chained aldehydes such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-8-tetradecenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (Z)-4-decenal, and octanal with the highest flavor dilution factors among 25 odor-active volatiles in the peel oil of healthy oranges. Taste-guided fractionation and identification of the HLBOJ secondary metabolites followed by sensory validation revealed that flavanoids such as hesperidin may modulate the flavor to evoke the unacceptable harsh/metallic taste impression. Quantitation of the bitter components showed good correlation between the limonoid and flavanoid concentrations with the off-flavor and quality of the oranges obtained throughout the season.

  20. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part I: Case of aquaculture water from earthen-ponds farming.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive analyses were accomplished to explore the odorous molecules responsible for off-odour development in earthen-ponds rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture farming in Germany. In this part of the study, water odorants were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE); then, extracts were analysed by one- and two- dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry using two columns with different polarity (DB-FFAP and DB-5). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extract samples revealed 54 odorants, and 47 of them were identified. In this study, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture water including, amongst others, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), 5α-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone), and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Moreover, the sensory experiment indicated that (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, and 1-octen-3-one are the main contributors to the metallic, cucumber, and mushroom notes of the samples.

  1. Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaoming; Song, Shiqing; Tan, Chen; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin

    2013-01-15

    The "enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation" method was employed to obtain oxidized tallow. Nine beeflike flavours (BFs) were prepared through Maillard reaction with oxidized tallow and other ingredients. Volatile compounds of oxidized tallow and beeflike flavours were analysed by SPME/GC-MS. Six sensory attributes (meaty, beefy, tallowy, simulate, burnt and off-flavour) were selected to assess BFs. Thirty four odour-active compounds were identified to represent beef odour through GC-O analysis based on detection frequency method. GC-MS profiles of oxidized tallow were correlated with GC-O responses and sensory attributes of BFs using partial least squares regression modelling (PLSR). Twenty nine compounds were considered as the potential precursors of oxidized tallow. Among them, tetradecanoic acid, d-limonene, 1,7-heptandiol, 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, (Z)-4-undecenal, (Z)-4-decenal, (E)-4-nonenal and 5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone were unique products generated from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation of tallow, while hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, pentanal, acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-pentylfuran, γ-nonalactone, 2-undecenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal and (Z)-2-heptenal were common products generated from thermal oxidation of tallow.

  2. Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-06-11

    The volatiles present in fresh, pink-fleshed Colombian guavas ( Psidium guajava, L.), variety regional rojo, were carefully isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, and the aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, and 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, ( Z)-3-hexenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, and cinnamyl acetate as important aroma contributors. Enantioselective gas chromatography revealed an enantiomeric distribution close to the racemate in 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate as well as in 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol. In addition, two fruity smelling diastereomeric methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoates were identified as the ( R,S)- and the ( S,S)-isomers, whereas the ( S,R)- and ( R,R)-isomers were absent. Seven odorants were identified for the first time in guavas, among them 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, and methional were the most odor-active.

  3. Essential oil constituents of the aerial parts and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides (Apiaceae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, N; Shamkhani, H; Ghelichpour, Z; Mohammadi, M A; Sonboli, A

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts at different growing stages and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides DC., from Iran were investigated. The oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Forty-five, 52, 40 and 36 components were identified in the essential oils of aerial parts (vegetative, flowering and fruit) and root representing of the 99.2, 99.0, 99.8 and 99.6% of the total oils, respectively. The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant in vegetative stage was dominated by n-decanal (36.5%) and n-dodecanal (25.3%). n-Decanal (35.8%) and 2E-decenal (25.1%) were the main constituents of the plant oil in flowering stage whereas 2E-decenal (32.1%) and 2E-dodecenal (21.5%) were characterised as the main components of the plant oil in fruit stage. In the essential oil of root, the major identified components were 2-dodecenoic acid (29.8%) and 2E-Dodecenol (12.7%).

  4. Fabrication Techniques for Fiber Optic Fire Control Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    using trichloroethylene. The blanks were then cleaned with naptha solvent and cheesecloth. ■ HHPP Figure 6. Configuration of Plano-Plano Fiber... Beeswax was used to cement the blanks to the blocking plate instead of stickum wax. The 11 same prcedure for rough grinding the first side of blanks...on a hot plate to melt the bees- wax. The blanks were then placed in a vapor degreaser and cleaned with a naptha solvent and cheesecloth. 3

  5. Development and experimental validation of a versatile prototype Swing Arm Profilometer for measuring optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, H.; Lin, Z.; Ma, L.; Wu, S.; Wu, F.

    2011-11-01

    A versatile prototype Swing Arm Profilometer (SAP) is developed and experimentally validated in the Institute of Optics and Electronics (IOE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The configurations for the SAP are introduced. The measurement principles for measuring plano, spherical and aspherical mirrors are given. Four validation experiments are performed on the prototype SAP using plano, spherical and aspherical mirror samples. The measurement uncertainty for the current prototype SAP is 0.5micro

  6. Pharmacologic Plus Optical Penalization Treatment for Amblyopia: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare weekend atropine augmented by a plano lens for the sound eye with weekend atropine alone for moderate amblyopia in children 3 to <7 years old. Methods In a multi-center clinical trial, 180 children with moderate amblyopia (20/40 to 20/100) were randomized to weekend atropine augmented by a plano lens or weekend atropine alone. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV testing protocol at 18 weeks. Results At 18 weeks, amblyopic eye improvement averaged 2.8 lines in the atropine plus plano lens group and 2.4 lines in the atropine alone group (mean difference between groups adjusted for baseline acuity 0.3 lines; 95% confidence interval, −0.2 to 0.8). Amblyopic eye acuity was 20/25 or better in 24 (29%) patients in the atropine-only group and 35 (40%) patients in the atropine plus plano lens group (P=0.03). More patients in the atropine plus plano lens group had reduced sound eye acuity at 18 weeks; however, there were no cases of persistent reverse amblyopia. Conclusions As an initial treatment for moderate amblyopia, the augmentation of weekend atropine with a plano lens does not substantially improve amblyopic eye acuity when compared with atropine alone. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of children with unilateral amblyopia Trial Registry Name Trial Comparing Atropine to Atropine Plus a Plano Lens for the Sound Eye for Amblyopia in Children 3 to <7 Years Old PMID:19139333

  7. Focusing by a single lens based on an optically thinner medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuo; Hu, Qi; Gao, Xiumin; Zhuang, Songlin

    2008-12-01

    This paper investigates the focusing properties by a single lens, based on the optically thinner medium (OTM). The lens model is of a plano-concave shape, made from the OTM with a refractive index of 0.5 at the wavelength λ=6.328e-4mm, named the plano-concave OTM thick lens. Any geometrical approximation is not included in the deducing process, which ensures that the full geometrical aberrations are included. The intensity distribution, in its focal region, can be calculated by the Huygens-Fresnel integral formula, using the phase and intensity distributions on the reference plane. The on-axis intensity distribution in the focal region of the plano-convex optically denser medium (ODM) thick lens is given correctly. The intensity distribution in the focal region of the plano-concave OTM thick lens is plotted in two dimensions, no symmetry about the focal plane. The plano-concave OTM thick lens has smaller on-axis spherical aberration than the plano-convex ODM thick lens has, when they have the same aperture radius, equal curvature radius (not including the sign), and equal medium index difference quantity (not including the sign also) from the environmental medium air. The radial resolution, around the near end peak in the focal region of the plano-concave OTM thick lens with its total spherical aberration, breaks down the traditional diffraction limit. Therefore the planoconcave OTM thick lens will exhibit its practical super resolution abilities, if the diffraction focused spot can be filtered off, or further more if the energy outside the near end peak can be moved into it.

  8. Effect of intraocular lens design on posterior capsule opacification after continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Nagamoto, T; Yozawa, H; Kato, K; Kurosaka, D; Miyajima, H B; Kimura, C

    1995-11-01

    We compared the effect of biconvex and convex-plano (posterior plano) intraocular lenses on posterior capsule opacification (PCO) following continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) in 212 eyes. During the three years following surgery, the cumulative frequency of neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy, calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, was significantly higher in patients in the biconvex group (32.5% by the third year) than in those in the convex-plano group (5.9% by the third year) (P < .05, Wilcoxon's test; P < .01, Cox-Mantel's test). Measured with the tracing method, the area within a 5 mm diameter central circle that developed Elschnig pearls was 2.93 +/- 4.91 mm2 in the biconvex group and 1.66 +/- 2.37 mm2 in the convex-plano group. In the study, PCO was less severe in the convex-plano group than in the biconvex group following CCC. These results are contrary to those reported previously in patients with can-opener capsulotomy.

  9. Heterogeneous glacier thinning patterns over the last 40 years in Langtang Himal, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Bolch, Tobias; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    This study presents volume and mass changes of seven (five partially debris-covered, two debris-free) glaciers in the upper Langtang catchment in Nepal. We use a digital elevation model (DEM) from 1974 stereo Hexagon satellite data and seven DEMs derived from 2006-2015 stereo or tri-stereo satellite imagery (e.g., SPOT6/7). The availability of multiple independent DEM differences allows the identification of a robust signal and narrowing down of the uncertainty about recent volume changes. The volume changes calculated over several multiyear periods between 2006 and 2015 consistently indicate that glacier thinning has accelerated with respect to the period 1974-2006. We calculate an ensemble-mean elevation change rate of -0.45 ± 0.18 m a-1 for 2006-2015, while for the period 1974-2006 we compute a rate of -0.24 ± 0.08 m a-1. However, the behavior of glaciers in the study area is heterogeneous, and the presence or absence of debris does not seem to be a good predictor for mass balance trends. Debris-covered tongues have nonlinear thinning profiles, and we show that recent accelerations in thinning correlate with the presence of supraglacial cliffs and lakes. At stagnating glacier areas near the glacier front, however, thinning rates decreased with time or remained constant. The April 2015 Nepal earthquake triggered large avalanches in the study catchment. Analysis of two post-earthquake DEMs revealed that the avalanche deposit volumes remaining 6 months after the earthquake are negligible in comparison to 2006-2015 elevation changes. However, the deposits compensate about 40 % the mass loss of debris-covered tongues of 1 average year.

  10. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: An Example of Cocoa Butter Triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Schotten, Christiane; Plaza, Dorota; Manzini, Simone; Nolan, Steven P; Ley, Steven V; Browne, Duncan L; Lapkin, Alexei

    2015-07-06

    The direct chemical conversion of cocoa butter triglycerides, a material available as a postmanufacture waste stream from the food industry, to 1-decene by way of ethenolysis is reported. The conversion of the raw waste material was made possible by use of 1 mol % of the [RuCl2(iBu-phoban)2(3-phenylindenyl)] catalyst. The process has been investigated in both batch and flow conditions, where the latter approach employs a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube gas-liquid membrane contactor to deliver ethylene to the reaction system. These preliminary studies culminate in a continuous processing system, which maintained a constant output over a 150 min period tested.

  11. Titanium compounds as catalysts of higher alpha-olefin-based super-high-molecular polymers synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, K. B.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Manzhay, V. N.; Vetrova, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of polymers of 10 million or more molecular weight is a difficult task even in a chemical lab. Higher α-olefin-based polymer agents of such kind have found a narrow but quite important niche, the reduction of drag in the turbulent flow of hydrocarbon fluids such as oil and oil-products. In its turn, searching for a catalytic system capable to produce molecules of such a high length and to synthesize polymers of a low molecular-mass distribution is part of a global task of obtaining a high-quality product. In this paper we had observed a number of industrial catalysts with respect to their suitability for higher poly-α- olefins synthesis. A number samples representing copolymers of 1-hexene with 1-decene obtained on a previous generation catalyst, a microsphere titanium chloride catalytic agent had been compared to samples synthesized using a titanium-magnesium catalyst both in solution and in a polymer medium.

  12. Process for the synthesis of unsaturated alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Maughon, Bob R.; Burdett, Kenneth A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2007-02-13

    A process of preparing an unsaturated alcohol (olefin alcohol), such as, a homo-allylic mono-alcohol or homo-allylic polyol, involving protecting a hydroxy-substituted unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester, such as methyl ricinoleate, derived from a seed oil, to form a hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester; homo-metathesizing or cross-metathesizing the hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester to produce a product mixture containing a hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product; and deprotecting the hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product under conditions sufficient to prepare the unsaturated alcohol. Preferably, methyl ricinoleate is converted by cross-metathesis or homo-metathesis into the homo-allylic mono-alcohol 1-decene-4-ol or the homo-allylic polyol 9-octadecene-7,12-diol, respectively.

  13. Photophysical properties of luminescent silicon nanoparticles surface-modified with organic molecules via hydrosilylation.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Mari; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Wada, Satoshi; Kawashima, Akira; Nakajima, Ayako; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Ishioka, Junya; Shibayama, Tamaki; Watanabe, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent silicon nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention for their potential uses in various applications. Many approaches have been reported to protect the surface of silicon nanoparticles and prevent their easy oxidation. Various air-stable luminescent silicon nanoparticles have been successfully prepared. However, the effect of interactions of the π-electron system with the silicon surface on the excited state properties of silicon nanoparticles is unclear. In this study, we have successfully prepared silicon nanoparticles protected with three organic compounds (styrene, 1-decene, and 1-vinyl naphthalene) and have examined their photophysical properties. The ligand π-electron systems on the silicon surface promoted the light harvesting ability for the luminescence through a charge transfer transition between the protective molecules and silicon nanoparticles and also enhanced the radiative rate of the silicon nanoparticles.

  14. Deposit control additives and fuel compositions containing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abramo, G.P.; Avery, N.L.; Trewella, J.C.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a fuel composition comprising a major amount of a fuel and an additive which imparts intake valve deposit inhibiting properties to the fuel. It comprises a polyisobutenyl succinimide which is the reaction product of a polyisobutenyl succinic anhydride and a polyalkylene polyamine; a polymer of isobutylene; an ester which is an adipate, phthalate, isophthalate, terephthalate and trimellitate of iso-octanol, iso-nonanol, iso-decanol, or iso-tridecanol or mixture thereof, polyol ester of neopentyl glycol, pentaerythritol or trimethylol-propane with corresponding monocarboxylic acid, oligomer and polymer ester of dicarboxylic acid, polyol and monoalcohol; and a polyether which is a polymer or copolymer of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide, pentene oxide, hexene oxide, octene oxide, decene oxide or isomer thereof.

  15. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: An Example of Cocoa Butter Triglyceride

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct chemical conversion of cocoa butter triglycerides, a material available as a postmanufacture waste stream from the food industry, to 1-decene by way of ethenolysis is reported. The conversion of the raw waste material was made possible by use of 1 mol % of the [RuCl2(iBu-phoban)2(3-phenylindenyl)] catalyst. The process has been investigated in both batch and flow conditions, where the latter approach employs a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube gas–liquid membrane contactor to deliver ethylene to the reaction system. These preliminary studies culminate in a continuous processing system, which maintained a constant output over a 150 min period tested. PMID:26322250

  16. Nanofiltration properties of PTMSP in binary organic solvents mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkin, A. A.; Kossov, A. A.; Volkov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the stability and nanofiltration performance of poly[1-(trimethylsilyl)- 1-propyne] (PTMSP) in ethanol solutions of butylaldehyde, 1-decanal, 1-hexene, 1-decene was evaluated. It was found that PTMSP was insoluble in all aldehyde solutions, but it was soluble at olefin concentration of 80% or higher. Nanofiltration experiments demonstrate that binary mixtures of 1-decanal and ethanol viscosity are not the parameter affecting on membrane permeability and rejection of solute as well as swelling degree. In the case of decanol/ethanol solutions both solution viscosity and molar volume demonstrate the best fit of experimental data. It was shown that with the decrease of ethanol content in the feed, the rejection of anionic solute Remazol Brilliant Blue R (MW 626) increases from 94 up to 97%.

  17. Evolved gas analysis of secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Williams, E.L. II; Grosjean, E. ); Novakov, T. )

    1994-11-01

    Secondary organic aerosols have been characterized by evolved gas analysis (EGA). Hydrocarbons selected as aerosol precursors were representative of anthropogenic emissions (cyclohexene, cyclopentene, 1-decene and 1-dodecene, n-dodecane, o-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) and of biogenic emissions (the terpenes [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-pinene and d-limonene and the sesquiterpene trans-caryophyllene). Also analyzed by EGA were samples of secondary, primary (highway tunnel), and ambient (urban) aerosols before and after exposure to ozone and other photochemical oxidants. The major features of the EGA thermograms (amount of CO[sub 2] evolved as a function of temperature) are described. The usefulness and limitations of EGA data for source apportionment of atmospheric particulate carbon are briefly discussed. 28 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration: Analysis of an Energy Department Task Force Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    baseline case for the period 2006- 2015 , but would save $25 billion for 2016-2030, saving $15 billion over the 25-year period. About half the extra...teamwork by designating many of its facilities as User Facilities. Examples of such facilities are the high-energy density devices (e.g., the NIF [LLNL’s...facilities have been operated in this manner for many years. The labs treat major facilities such as NIF , Sandia’s Z Machine, and the Los Alamos

  19. Toxicity and metabolism of exogenous α,β-unsaturated carbonyls in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Lisa O; Knowles, N Richard

    2012-11-07

    A group of aliphatic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds was evaluated for their utility as inhibitors of sprout growth in stored potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). Nondormant tubers were treated with vapors of six 8-10-carbon compounds of this chemistry. Subsequent sprout growth at 16 °C (95% relative humidity) over ca. 3 months in storage was suppressed by all compounds in a concentration-dependent manner. The volatile metabolites produced by sprout and associated tuber tissues following treatment with 3-octen-2-one, 3-nonen-2-one, and 3-decen-2-one were the corresponding alkyl ketones and alkyl secondary alcohols. In contrast, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, and (E)-2-decenal were metabolized by two pathways: (1) parent compound to the corresponding alkyl aldehyde and then to the alkyl primary alcohol and (2) parent compound to the alkenyl primary alcohol. Residues of 3-nonen-2-one and (E)-2-nonenal and their metabolites were analyzed in whole tubers over a 28 day post-treatment period. The concentrations of the parent ketone and aldehyde declined rapidly following application, and the most persistent metabolites were 2-nonanol and (E)-2-nonen-1-ol, respectively. The sequence of reactions leading from the α,β-unsaturated carbonyls to the alcohols was determined by application of each of the 9-carbon compounds individually to tubers. In long-term efficacy studies, a single application of (E)-2-nonenal and 3-nonen-2-one to nondormant tubers terminated sprout growth and prevented regrowth for 2-3 months. A second application suppressed sprouting for at least 4-5 additional months. This efficacy, combined with rapid metabolism and low residue levels, makes the 8-10-carbon α,β-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes worth consideration for use as sprout inhibitors.

  20. Semi-field evaluation of several novel alkenol analogs of 1-octen-3-ol as attractants to adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E; Ikediobi, C O; Hallmon, C F; Johnson, R; Onyeozili, E N; Farah, S M; Mazu, T; Latinwo, L M; Ayuk-Takem, L; Berniers, U R

    2011-09-01

    The compound 1-octen-3-ol is a known attractant of some mosquito species, which has led to the hypothesis that olfactory stimulation by this alkenol may be associated with the following structural elements: a terminal site of unsaturation or high electron density; a structural capability for hydrogen bonding, e.g., -OH, -NH2, NHR, NR2, etc.; a saturated hydrocarbon chain of a certain minimum length; and a certain relative distance between the region of high electron density and the alcohol (or other hydrogen-bonding) functional group. Using this logic, we synthesized 20 alkenol analogs based on the octenol double-bonded carbon skeleton. The attraction of female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus to these analogs was compared with 1-octen-3-ol as a standard in semi-field trials. For both species, collections from Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) suction traps baited with the alkenol analogs in the absence of carbon dioxide were not significantly different from octenol-only baited traps, with the exception of (Z)-3-hepten-1-ol which collected significantly more Ae. albopictus. In the presence of CO2, most of the collections from traps baited with an alkenol were considerably increased for both species but not different from octenol plus CO2, with the exception of Ae. albopictus where (Z)-3-decen-1-ol, (Z)-4-hexen-1-ol, 7-octen-2-ol, and 8-nonen-3-ol significantly depressed trap catches. Although no clearly identifiable structure-activity relationship could be determined from our collected data, we did find that MMX traps baited with carbon dioxide and 4-penten-2-ol or (E)-2-decen-4-ol significantly enhanced Cx. quinquefasciatus collections up to nearly 3-fold compared with octenol plus carbon dioxide.

  1. Simultaneous determination of ten taste and odor compounds in drinking water by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Yuan, Shengguang; Wei, Zi; Song, Hanwen; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2013-11-01

    Taste and odor (T&O) problems in drinking water frequently occur because of many compounds present in the water, of which trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are well-known. In this study, a fast and effective method was established for simultaneous determination of 10 T&O compounds, including geosmin, MIB, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 2-methylbenzofuran, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), cis-3-hexenyl acetate, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal, trans, cis-2,6-nonadienal, and trans-2-decenal in water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An orthogonal array experimental design was used to optimize the effects of SPME fiber, extraction temperature, stirring rate, NaCI content, extraction time, and desorption time. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 73 ng/L were lower than or close to the odor threshold concentrations (OTCs). All the 10 T&O compounds were detected in the 14 water samples including surface water, treatment process water and tap water, taken from a waterworks in Lianyungang City, China. MB and geosmin were detected in most samples at low concentration. Six T&O compounds (IPMP, IBMP, trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, 2-methylbenzofuran, trans-2-decenal, and TCA) were effectively decreased in water treatment process (sedimentation and filtration) that is different from cis-3-hexenyl acetate, MIB and geosmin. It is noted that the TCA concentrations at 15.9-122.3 ng/L and the trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal concentrations at 79.9-190.1 ng/L were over 10 times higher than their OTCs in tap water. The variation of the analytes in the all water samples, especially distribution system indicated that distribution system cannot be ignored as a T&O compounds source.

  2. Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashish

    The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

  3. Pressure dependence of stabilized Criegee intermediate formation from a sequence of alkenes.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Greg T; Donahue, Neil M

    2011-05-05

    Ozonolysis is a key reaction in atmospheric chemistry, although important details of the behavior of the ozonolysis intermediates are not known. The key intermediate in ozonolysis, the Criegee intermeiate (CI), is known to quickly isomerize, with the favored unimolecular pathway depending on the relative barriers to isomerization. Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI), those with energy below any barriers to isomerization, may result from initial formation with low energy or collisional stabilization of high energy CI. Bimolecular reactions of SCI have been proposed to play a role in OH formation and nucleation of new particles, but unimolecular reactions of SCI may well be too fast for these to be significant. We present measurements of the pressure dependence of SCI formation for a set of alkenes utilizing a hexafluoroacetone scavenger. We studied four alkenes (2,3-dimethyl-2-butene (TME), trans-5-decene, cyclohexene, α-pinene) to characterize how size and cyclization (endo vs exo) affect the stability of Criegee intermediates formed in ozonolysis. SCI yields in ozonolysis were measured in a high pressure flow reactor within a range of 30-750 Torr. The linear alkenes show considerable stabilization with trans-5-decene showing 100% stabilization at ∼400 Torr and TME having 65% stabilization at 710 Torr. Extrapolation of the yields for linear alkenes to 0 Torr shows yields significantly above zero, indicating that a fraction of their CI are formed below the barrier to isomerization. CI from endocyclic alkenes show little to no stabilization and appear to have neglible stabilization at 0 Torr. Cyclohexene derived CI showed no stabilization even at 650 Torr, while α-pinene CI had ∼15% stabilization at 740 Torr. Our results show a strong dependence of SCI formation on carbon number; adding just 2 to 3 CI carbons in linear alkenes increases stabilization by a factor of 10. Stabilization for endocyclic alkenes, at atmospheric pressure, begins to occur at a carbon

  4. Study of Fischer-Tropsch model compounds reacting over ZSM-5. [MS Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.G.

    1984-08-01

    The decomposition of three Fischer-Tropsch model compounds (1-decanol, decanal, and n-heptane) over ZSM-5 catalysts ion exchanged with nickel, zinc, and hydrogen was studied. The mechanisms of decomposition and the reaction kinetics of the model compounds were investigated as well as how exchanging the ZSM-5 with different cations affected the mechanisms, kinetics, and product distribution. The mechanism for 1-decanol decomposition was found to be formation of di-n-decyl ether, which then dehydrated to form 1-decene. Decanal was seen to decompose by three different mecanisms: Aldol condensation, cleavage of CO to form n-nonane, and reduction to 1-decanol. Heptane was seen to follow classical carbonium ion chemistry. First order rate constants and activation energies were calculated for n-heptane/Ni-ZSM-5, 1-decanol/Ni-ZSM-5, 1-decanol/H-ZSM-5, decanal/Ni-ZSM-5, and decanal/H-ZSM-5. The activation energies for decomposition were found to be 21 +- 4 Kcal/gmole for 1-decanol to 1-decene; 32 +- 3 Kcal/gmole for n-heptane; and 15 +- 3 Kcal/gmole on Ni-ZSM-5 and 21 +- 1 Kcal/gmole on H-ZSM-5 for decanal decomposing to n-nonane and CO. H-ZSM-5 was determined to be the most active catalyst of the three tested for decomposition of oxygenates. N-ZSM-5 was the most effective catalyst in the cracking of n-heptane. Due to its superior ability to decompose oxygenates, H-ZSM-5 appears to be the best choice for a Fischer-Tropsch liquid up-grading catalyst. For Fischer-Tropsch liquids with high linear alkane contents a small amount of nickel or other dehydrogenation catalyst added to the H-ZSM-5 would probably prove beneficial. 26 references, 12 figures, 8 tables.

  5. Carbonyl products of the gas phase reaction of ozone with symmetrical alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, E.; Grosjean, D.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, carbonyl products have been identified and their yields measured in experiments involving the gas phase reaction of ozone with the eight symmetrical alkenes ethylene, cis-3-hexene, cis-4-octene, trans-4-octene, cis-5-decene, trans-5-decene, trans-2, 5-dimethyl-3-hexene, and (cis+trans)-3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene in purified air. Sufficient cyclohexane was added to scavenge the hydroxyl radical (OH) in order to minimize the reaction of OH with the alkenes and with their carbonyl products. Formation yields (carbonyl formed/ozone reacted) of primary carbonyls were close to the value of 1.0 that is consistent with simple reaction mechanism. Carbonyls other than the primary carbonyls R{sub 1}COR{sub 2} were identified as products. Their formation is discussed in terms of subsequent reactions of the R{sub 1}R{sub 2}COO biradicals CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CHOO, CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CHOO, CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}CHOO, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHCHOO, and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}C(CH{sub 3})OO. Similarities and differences are discussed for cis and trans isomers and for biradical reactions as a function of the nature and number of the substituents. The results are compared to those for the biradicals H{sub 2}COO, CH{sub 3}CHOO, and (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}COO from simpler symmetrical alkenes and contribute to a better understanding of the ozone-alkene reaction under atmospheric conditions. 51 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during pan frying of beefsteak.

    PubMed

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Svendsen, Kristin

    2010-04-01

    Cooking with gas or electric stoves produces fumes, especially during frying, that contain a range of harmful and potentially mutagenic compounds as well as high levels of fine and ultrafine particles. The aim of this study was to see if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and higher mutagenic aldehydes which were collected in the breathing zone of the cook, could be detected in fumes from the frying of beefsteak. The frying was performed in a model kitchen in conditions similar to those in a Western European restaurant kitchen. The levels of PAHs (16 EPA standard) and higher aldehydes (trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, 2,4-decadienal, trans-trans-2,4-nonadienal, trans-2-decenal, cis-2-decenal, trans-2-undecenal, 2-undecenal) were measured during frying on an electric or gas stove with margarine or soya bean oil as the frying fat. The number concentration of particles <100 nm in size (ultrafine) was also measured, as well as the mass concentration of total particulate matter. Levels of naphthalene were in the range of 0.15-0.27 microg/m(3) air. Measured levels of mutagenic aldehydes were between non-detectable and 61.80 microg/m(3) air. The exposure level of total aerosol was between 1.6 and 7.2 mg/m(3) air. Peak number concentrations of ultrafine particles were in the range of 6.0x10(4)-89.6x10(4) particles/cm(3) air. Naphthalene and mutagenic aldehydes were detected in most of the samples. The levels were variable, and seemed to be dependent on many factors involved in the frying process. However, according to the present results, frying on a gas stove instead of an electric stove causes increased occupational exposure to some of the components in cooking fumes which may cause adverse health effects.

  7. Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal: a new candidate host material for the ytterbium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yeqing; You, Zhenyu; Zhu, Zhaojie; Xu, Jinlong; Li, Jianfu; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hongyan; Tu, Chaoyang

    2013-10-01

    A disordered laser crystal Yb3+-doped Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal was grown by the Czochralski technique. The characterized room temperature polarized spectra, re-absorption possibility and laser performance showed that this crystal should be a promising gain material, not only suitable for diode pumping, but also a good candidate for the generation of tunable and short pulse lasers. End pumped by a diode laser at 976 nm in plano-concave and plano-plano cavity, a 3.65 W output power with a slope efficiency of 65% was achieved by using a c-cut Yb3+:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal. The output laser wavelength shifted from 1042 to 1062 nm.

  8. Target thickness measurements with quartz crystal sensors of the third generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier-Komor, Peter

    1985-06-01

    The new generation of quartz crystal thickness monitors uses 6 MHz AT-cut plano convex quartz crystals vibrating in the thickness shear mode. Contrary to industrial applications, which require only thickness monitors measuring film thicknesses with relative accuracy to their substrate, the isotope target preparation needs absolute thicknesses. Carefully selected quartz crystals can fulfill this demand. A smaller aperture area in front of the crystal is sufficient for the new plano convex crystals compared to the crystals with both faces in a plano shape. The accuracy and the calibration of the following thickness monitors was controlled: Model FDC-8000 Airco Temescal; Model FTM 4 Edwards; Model XTM Inficon; Models IL 001 and IL 002 Intellemetrics; Model QM 321 Kronos; Model TM 100 Mathis and Model Omni III Sloan.

  9. Estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnéticos en Cuerpos Masivos Rotantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velandia Heredia, N.; Tejeiro, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    A partir del estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnéticos en cuerpos masivos rotantes, planteamos la expresión para medir el desfase en el tiempo, para diferentes observadores, que se dan cuando viajan dos rayos de luz por una guía de onda o de manera libre (geodésicas), en el plano azimutal y en el plano polar. Con lo anterior queremos abordar el experimento tipo Michelson y Morley, de forma que podamos involucrar el valor de la densidad del momento angular (a) en el retraso temporal para los dos haces de luz que viajan por los brazos del interferómetro, cuando este último es ubicado en el plano ecuatorial.

  10. Focusing metasurface quantum-cascade laser with a near diffraction-limited beam

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Luyao; Chen, Daguan; Itoh, Tatsuo; ...

    2016-10-17

    A terahertz vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VECSEL) is demonstrated using an active focusing reflectarray metasurface based on quantum-cascade gain material. The focusing effect enables a hemispherical cavity with flat optics, which exhibits higher geometric stability than a plano-plano cavity and a directive and circular near-diffraction limited Gaussian beam with M2 beam parameter as low as 1.3 and brightness of 1.86 × 106 Wsr–1m–2. As a result, this work initiates the potential of leveraging inhomogeneous metasurface and reflectarray designs to achieve high-power and high-brightness terahertz quantum-cascade VECSELs.

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of far and large objects using synthetic aperture integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Yongri; Xing, Luyan; Zhang, Miao; Lee, Byung-Gook

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a three-dimensional reconstruction of far and large objects in a synthetic aperture integral imaging system. In the proposed method, the far and large size objects are recorded as a set of elemental images by using an additional Plano-concave lens in the synthetic aperture integral imaging system. Due to the use of the Plano-concave lens, the reconstruction distance can be significantly reduced. This enables us to computationally reconstruct the objects in the far-field region. Experimental results are carried out, and the feasibility of the proposed method is verified.

  12. Passively Q-switched Nd:GdTaO4 laser by graphene oxide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bingyuan; Song, Qi; Wang, Guoju; Gao, Yajing; Zhang, Qingli; Wang, Minghong; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a laser diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:GdTaO4 crystal laser at 1066 nm using a multilayer graphene oxide as the saturable absorber (GOSA). The GOSA is fabricated by transferring the liquid-phase-exfoliated GO nanosheets onto a K9 glass substrate. When the GOSA was inserted into the plano-plano laser cavity, a stable Q-switched laser operation is achieved with a maximum average output power of 0.382 W and repetition rate of 362 kHz. The shortest pulse duration is 194 ns and the single pulse energy is about 1.05 μJ.

  13. Double lens device for tunable harmonic generation of laser beams in KBBF/RBBF crystals or other non-linear optic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaminski, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus to generate harmonically related laser wavelengths includes a pair of lenses at opposing faces of a non-linear optical material. The lenses are configured to promote incoming and outgoing beams to be normal to each outer lens surface over a range of acceptance angles of the incoming laser beam. This reduces reflection loss for higher efficiency operation. Additionally, the lenses allow a wider range of wavelengths for lasers for more universal application. Examples of the lenses include plano-cylindrical and plano-spherical form factors.

  14. Design optical antenna and fiber coupling system based on the vector theory of reflection and refraction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Yang, Huajun; Mao, Shengqian

    2015-10-05

    A Cassegrain antenna system and an optical fiber coupling system which consists of a plano-concave lens and a plano-convex lens are designed based on the vector theory of reflection and refraction, so as to improve the transmission performance of the optical antenna and fiber coupling system. Three-dimensional ray tracing simulation are performed and results of the optical aberrations calculation and the experimental test show that the aberrations caused by on-axial defocusing, off-axial defocusing and deflection of receiving antenna can be well corrected by the optical fiber coupling system.

  15. Fabrication of concave and convex potassium bromide lens arrays by compression molding.

    PubMed

    de la Barrière, Florence; Druart, Guillaume; Guèrineau, Nicolas; Taboury, Jean; Gueugnot, Alain; Huc, Vincent

    2012-07-20

    A new simple and cost-effective method has been developed for the fabrication of both plano-convex and plano-concave lens arrays with potentially important sag heights. The process is based on the use of potassium bromide (KBr) powder. At ambient temperature and under pressure, KBr powder is compressed on a molding die with the desired shape to form a solid lens array. The quality of the lens arrays has been assessed, and we present the first image produced by a converging KBr lens array.

  16. Analytic aspheric coefficients to reduce the spherical aberration of lens elements used in collimated light.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Santiago, Gabriel; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino; Castañeda, Luis

    2014-08-01

    We provide closed-form formulas for aspheric terms for either plano-convex or convex-plano aspheric lenses as functions of the paraxial parameters involved in the process of refraction. These formulas are obtained through an expansion in Taylor's series from the exact caustic equation produced by aspheric lenses considering a plane wavefront propagating parallel to the optical axis and impinging on the refracting surface. A comparison of the aspheric coefficients obtained through our analytic formulas and commercial optical design software is presented, showing good agreement. This is useful in reducing spherical aberration.

  17. Airport and Airway Costs Allocated to the Public Sector 1985-1997.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    of the nature of public goods, see: i r i . Solberq, Intermediate Microeconomics, ( Plano , TX, h .e,; Publications, Inc., 1982), pp. 546-47, and...technical treatment can be found in Richard W. Ii,- b, Public Finance: A Normative Theory, ( Plano , TX, Business 1’,kbl icat ions, Inc., 1981), Chapter...FL 6.32 OPF, FL MIA, FL 14.62 TMB, FL MIAFI, FL 10.30 ORL, FL MCO, FL 9.36 PNS, FL NPA, FL 12.15 SPG, FL PIE , FL 12.30 PIE , FL TPA, FL 9.68 FTY, GA

  18. Educational Multimedia Implementation in Schools: Producer-Teacher-Student Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lyn; Eshet, Yoram; Klemes, Joel

    This paper presents findings demonstrating benefits of cooperation between Edunetics, a commercial multimedia production company, and the Plano Independent School District (Texas) that resulted in a unique curriculum integration project. The "Message in a Fossil" (MIF) simulation software was used with three pairs of second grade…

  19. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay differentiates between Bolbphorus damnificus and Bolbophorus type II sp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A duplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed to differentiate between Bolbophorus damnificus and Bolbophorus type II species cercariae. Both trematode species are prevalent throughout the commercial catfish industry,.as both infect the ram’s horn snail, Plano...

  20. Understanding Picture-Text Instructions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-31

    Quantie , VA 22134 Navy Personnel R&D Center San Diego, CA 92152 1 DR. A.L. SLAFKOSKY I Technical Director NO, U.S. MARINE CORPS I Tecnica ...Dr. James R. Miller 333 Ravensvood Avenue Computer*Thought Corporation Menlo Park. CA 94025 1721 West Piano Highway Plano, TX 75075 1 Dr. Daniel

  1. Continuous Progress and Nongraded Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, June

    1983-01-01

    Four schools offering a continuous progress or nongraded approach to pacing for gifted students are reviewed: the Plano (TX) Independent School District, The University of Pittsburgh Laboratory School, the Chesapeake (VA) Demonstration School, and the University of California at Los Angeles Elementary School. (CL)

  2. Building the Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    In this column, the author shares some of the processes involved with the restructuring of the elementary curriculum and the role of technology in the classroom. When Plano ISD committed time, talent, and technology to a new educational vision, the Elementary Integrated Curriculum project was born. The goal: to integrate subject matter and…

  3. Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper compares and contrasts "inductive" and "deductive" research approaches as described by Trochim (2006) and Plano Clark and Creswell (2007). It also examines the "exploratory" and "confirmatory" approaches by Onwueghuzie and Leech (2005) with respect to the assumption each holds about the nature of knowledge. The paper starts…

  4. Sharing the Light of Faith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Hazel

    1999-01-01

    Presents the parish programs at the Prince of Peace Catholic Community in Plano, Texas and at the Holy Family Parish Community in Inverness, Illinois as examples of what can be accomplished when imaginative, inspired, and knowledgeable teachers take on family catechesis as their mission. (VWC)

  5. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this kindergarten teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. Divided according to visual, auditory, and verbal…

  6. Data-Driven Decision-Making: Mission Accomplished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    When the author and his colleagues last left Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Texas' Plano Independent School District in April 2008, both school districts were immersed in the long and labored advance toward becoming a fully matured data-driven operation, one that uses sophisticated technologies to gather data, sort and interpret it, and…

  7. On a Different "Plane": Cross-Language Effects on the Conceptual Representations of Within-Language Homonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areas Da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Schwartz, Ana I.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether bilinguals' conceptual representation of homonyms in one language are influenced by meanings in the other. One hundred and seventeen Spanish-English bilinguals generated sentences for 62 English homonyms that were also cognates with Spanish and which shared at least one meaning with Spanish (e.g., plane/"plano"). Production…

  8. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level two teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  9. On the Road to DDDM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Two school districts--Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Plano Independent School District in Texas--have undertaken ambitious initiatives in recent years to introduce data-driven decision-making into their operations. Although each has struggled with different obstacles, both have progressed beyond the initial two stages on the DDDM continuum,…

  10. The "A" Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Larry D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Academic Team (A Team) program at Plano (Texas) Senior High School provides academic enrichment for talented students in grades 9-12. Outstanding A Team students are recognized with trophies and scholarships. The school district and the high school have found the program an excellent means of encouraging academic achievement. (MCG)

  11. Physics Just for Fun--An Individualized Course Using Harvard Project Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, John G.

    The development of an individualized course at Plano High School, Texas, is described. The first attempt, using only suggested guidelines, was considered unsuccessful. The second structure adopted included: (1) specific, measurable behavioral objectives, (2) both basic and advanced required assignments, (3) tests to measure achievement of the…

  12. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level one teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  13. "In Honor of Excellence."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anna May

    1983-01-01

    Spotlights seven outstanding secondary school theatre programs and their directors: Frank Bluestein, Germantown, TN; John Steele, Plano, TX; Joe Juliano, Hamden, CT; Jack Parkhurst, Ralston, NE; Robert Geuder (Thomas Jefferson High School) Cedar Rapids, IA; Judith Rethwisch (Affton High School) St. Louis, MO; and Henry Wicke (Packer Collegiate…

  14. Implementation of an Education Technology Policy in Namibia's High Schools: Through the Eyes of the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Perien Joniell

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Namibian high school teachers experienced the ICT policy for education in their schools. This mixed methods sequential explanatory design consists of two distinct phases: quantitative followed by qualitative (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). Quantitative data collection involved the distribution and…

  15. RFID Student Educational Experiences at the UNT College of Engineering: A Sequential Approach to Creating a Project-Based RFID Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, V. V.; Varanasi, M. R.; Kougianos, E.; Wang, Shuping; Raman, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes radio frequency identification (RFID) projects, designed and implemented by students in the College of Engineering at the University of North Texas, as part of their senior-design project requirement. The paper also describes an RFID-based project implemented at Rice Middle School in Plano, TX, which went on to win multiple…

  16. Experimental Demonstration of the Microscopic Origin of Circular Dichroism in Two dimensional Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-22

    using ZnSe lens with the convergence half-angle of 4o. The QCL peak intensity on the sample surface was estimated to be B1 kW cm 2. The AFM system was...length plano-convex ZnSe lens and refocused by another identical lens on a liquid nitrogen-cooled mercury–cadmium–telluride photodetector. The

  17. RFID Student Educational Experiences at the UNT College of Engineering: A Sequential Approach to Creating a Project-Based RFID Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, V. V.; Varanasi, M. R.; Kougianos, E.; Wang, Shuping; Raman, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes radio frequency identification (RFID) projects, designed and implemented by students in the College of Engineering at the University of North Texas, as part of their senior-design project requirement. The paper also describes an RFID-based project implemented at Rice Middle School in Plano, TX, which went on to win multiple…

  18. "In Honor of Excellence."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anna May

    1983-01-01

    Spotlights seven outstanding secondary school theatre programs and their directors: Frank Bluestein, Germantown, TN; John Steele, Plano, TX; Joe Juliano, Hamden, CT; Jack Parkhurst, Ralston, NE; Robert Geuder (Thomas Jefferson High School) Cedar Rapids, IA; Judith Rethwisch (Affton High School) St. Louis, MO; and Henry Wicke (Packer Collegiate…

  19. From the Pinhole Camera to the Shape of a Lens: The Camera-Obscura Reloaded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Max; Priemer, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how the form of a plano-convex lens and a derivation of the thin lens equation can be understood through simple physical considerations. The basic principle is the extension of the pinhole camera using additional holes. The resulting images are brought into coincidence through the deflection of light with an arrangement of prisms.…

  20. Mainstreaming Revisited: 20 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Daryl J.; Wigle, Stanley E.

    This study investigated the changes in the mainstreaming practices of five school districts, which were originally described in a 1974 study by Birch. The districts involved were: Tacoma (Washington), Richardson (Texas), Plano (Texas), Tucson (Arizona), and Louisville (Kentucky). Survey forms were sent to superintendents of the original six…

  1. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  2. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  3. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this kindergarten teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. Divided according to visual, auditory, and verbal…

  4. On a Different "Plane": Cross-Language Effects on the Conceptual Representations of Within-Language Homonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areas Da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Schwartz, Ana I.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether bilinguals' conceptual representation of homonyms in one language are influenced by meanings in the other. One hundred and seventeen Spanish-English bilinguals generated sentences for 62 English homonyms that were also cognates with Spanish and which shared at least one meaning with Spanish (e.g., plane/"plano"). Production…

  5. The "A" Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Larry D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Academic Team (A Team) program at Plano (Texas) Senior High School provides academic enrichment for talented students in grades 9-12. Outstanding A Team students are recognized with trophies and scholarships. The school district and the high school have found the program an excellent means of encouraging academic achievement. (MCG)

  6. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level two teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  7. Data-Driven Decision-Making: Mission Accomplished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    When the author and his colleagues last left Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Texas' Plano Independent School District in April 2008, both school districts were immersed in the long and labored advance toward becoming a fully matured data-driven operation, one that uses sophisticated technologies to gather data, sort and interpret it, and…

  8. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level one teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  9. Continuous Progress and Nongraded Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, June

    1983-01-01

    Four schools offering a continuous progress or nongraded approach to pacing for gifted students are reviewed: the Plano (TX) Independent School District, The University of Pittsburgh Laboratory School, the Chesapeake (VA) Demonstration School, and the University of California at Los Angeles Elementary School. (CL)

  10. On the Road to DDDM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Two school districts--Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Plano Independent School District in Texas--have undertaken ambitious initiatives in recent years to introduce data-driven decision-making into their operations. Although each has struggled with different obstacles, both have progressed beyond the initial two stages on the DDDM continuum,…

  11. Sharing the Light of Faith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Hazel

    1999-01-01

    Presents the parish programs at the Prince of Peace Catholic Community in Plano, Texas and at the Holy Family Parish Community in Inverness, Illinois as examples of what can be accomplished when imaginative, inspired, and knowledgeable teachers take on family catechesis as their mission. (VWC)

  12. From the Pinhole Camera to the Shape of a Lens: The Camera-Obscura Reloaded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Max; Priemer, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how the form of a plano-convex lens and a derivation of the thin lens equation can be understood through simple physical considerations. The basic principle is the extension of the pinhole camera using additional holes. The resulting images are brought into coincidence through the deflection of light with an arrangement of prisms.…

  13. Posterior capsule opacification and neodymium: YAG capsulotomy with heparin-surface-modified intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Winther-Nielson, A; Johansen, J; Pedersen, G K; Corydon, L

    1998-07-01

    To compare the effect of heparin-surface-modified (HSM) and conventional unmodified poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) intraocular lenses (IOLs) on the formation of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Department of Ophthalmology, Vejle Hospital, Denmark. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study comprised 250 eyes of 246 patients who had uneventful extracapsular cataract extraction in otherwise healthy eyes with implantation of a biconvex IOL or a convex-plano lens with a continuous laser ridge. Patients were examined once a year for 3 years, at which time the degree of PCO was recorded. A neodymium:YAG laser capsulotomy was performed if certain criteria were met. The incidence of PCO was statistically significantly higher in eyes with an HSM convex-plano laser-ridge IOL than in those with an unmodified convex-plano lens (P < .005). There were no significant differences between any other groups. The incidence of PCO was higher in eyes with an HSM convex-plano IOL with a laser ridge.

  14. LASIK for spherical refractive myopia: effect of topographic astigmatism (ocular residual astigmatism, ORA) on refractive outcome.

    PubMed

    Frings, Andreas; Richard, Gisbert; Steinberg, Johannes; Skevas, Christos; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Katz, Toam; Linke, Stephan J

    2015-01-01

    In eyes with a preoperative plano refractive cylinder, it would appear that there is no rationale for astigmatic treatment. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional data analysis was to determine the amount of topographic astigmatism in refractive plano eyes that results in reduced efficacy after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). This study included 267 eyes from 267 consecutive myopic patients with a refractive plano cylinder. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to find the cut-off values of preoperative ocular residual astigmatism (= topographic astigmatism) that can best discriminate between groups of efficacy and safety indices in preoperative plano refractive cylinder eyes. Preoperative ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) (or topographic astigmatism) of ≤0.9 diopters (D) resulted in an efficacy index of at least 0.8 statistically significantly more frequently than eyes with a preoperative ORA of >0.9 D. Eyes with a high ORA preoperatively also had a high ORA postoperatively. Regression analysis showed that each diopter of preoperative ORA reduced efficacy by 0.07. A preoperative corneal astigmatism of ≥0.9 D could (partially) be taken into account in the LASIK design, even if the subjective refractive astigmatism is neutral.

  15. Preliminary Laboratory Measurements of the Boss Modulation Transfer Function.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-05

    NOVS IOSOE190.rTE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATIO~N OF THIS P& PIE fmhnw D.. ut e UNCLASSIFIED $CgUftv CL&Aqmaymm OF TWOI Pawav...these reasons, a focal length between 100 and 20b cm seemed appropriate. A single element, plano -convex lens with a focal length of 105 cm was finally

  16. A Unified Two-Dimensional Approach to the Calculation of Three- Dimensional Hypersonic Flows, with Application to Bodies of Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-01-01

    8217rinRE-DifMENSONAL HtYPERtSONIC 15.W indicated-flow-separation oin the leewardl side of (lie body for excellent agreemelnt in tlie plano of symmlletry...REIMARKS b~ound~ary layers may, inl like imanner, prove useful il- pie - A mnethod of characteristics employing p)ressure and-flow deigdrednesoa

  17. The Use of Tactical Airlift as a Tool of Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    policy pie and did not get the more visible equipment and supply support we have provided other earthquake victims. On the other hand, when floods...H.W. Wilson Company, 1986); and Jack C. Plano and Roy Olton, The International Relations Dictionary (Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1988), pp. 7-8. 16

  18. Joint Data Management for MOVINT Data-to-Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Joint Data Management for MOVINT Data-to-Decision Making Erik P. Blasch Defence R&D Canada-Valcartier 2459 Pie -XI Blvd...Geographical Hard-Soft Information Fusion Systems,” Fusion10, 2010. [73] E. Blasch and S. Plano , “DFIG Level 5 (User Refinement) issues supporting

  19. Implementation of an Education Technology Policy in Namibia's High Schools: Through the Eyes of the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Perien Joniell

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Namibian high school teachers experienced the ICT policy for education in their schools. This mixed methods sequential explanatory design consists of two distinct phases: quantitative followed by qualitative (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). Quantitative data collection involved the distribution and…

  20. Response of glacier mass on recent temperature cooling in northeastern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Láska, Kamil; Engel, Zbyněk; Nývlt, Daniel; Stachoň, Zdeněk; Lippl, Stefan; Braun, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) region has been often recognized as one of the most rapidly warming parts of our planet during the second half of the 20th century (Turner and others, 2014). However, recent study of Oliva and others (2016) has documented that significant warming trend was shifted to a prominent cooling trend during 2006-2015. The recent cooling is particularly pronounced in the northeastern part of the AP, with the largest temperature drops of 0.7-0.9 ˚ C between 1996-2005 and 2006-2015. Therefore, we aim to study response of small glaciers on James Ross Island, north-eastern part of the AP, that are considered to be sensitive to recent temperature fluctuations. We have studied annual changes of mass balance and equilibrium line altitude of Whisky Glacier, a cold-bases land-terminating valley glacier (˜2.4 km2), in the northern part of James Ross Island. The surface mass balance changes were estimated based on ablation stake measurements, carried out in late summer over the five years period (2009/10-2013/14). In addition, glacier surface velocity and area changes were determined for this period from aerial and satellite imageries based digital elevation models. Automatic weather stations in the northern part of James Ross Island reflect the recent cold period and indicate a prominent cooling by 1.2 ˚ C over the period 2006-2015. A response of glaciers on colder conditions can be observed throughout the area where negative mass changes turned to predominantly positive values after 2009. The total mass of Whisky Glacier has increased by 0.8 m w.e. in 2009/10-2013/14 and the annual mass changes were positive except for 2011 (-0.1 m w.e.). A comparison of annual mass balance changes with the data reported from glaciers on nearby Vega Island (Marinsek and Ermolin, 2015) indicates similar values of glacier mass changes in northeastern AP. Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (project GC 16-14122J) and Czech

  1. Microbiological water examination during laboratory courses generates new knowledge for students, scientists and the government.

    PubMed

    Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

    2015-10-01

    Contaminated water is globally the main vehicle for microbial pathogens in most regions. Teaching future microbiologist and employees in the food industry on the importance of hygienically satisfactory water, microbiological analyses and how to ensure good water quality and safety is highly relevant. This paper presents a complete experimental design for water analyses as a tool to teach students the methods and other key elements in microbiology, including food safety, environmental dissemination and survival of microorganisms, laboratory practices, water legislation and critical evaluation of results. All results from the last 10 classes (2006-2015) in a university course on seafood microbiology have been compiled and are presented here. Questionnaires used with former students reveal that the laboratory course is highly appreciated, and that many students remember important aspects of the water analyses, even after several years. The questionnaire results were consistent with our perception that some students find calculation of dilutions difficult to comprehend.

  2. The dynamic interdependence of international financial markets: An empirical study on twenty-seven stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingwei; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the dynamic interdependence of international financial markets. Based on the data regarding daily returns of each market during the period 2006-2015 from Yahoo finance, we mainly focus on examining 27 markets from three continents, including Asia, America and Europe. By checking the dynamic interdependence between those markets, we find that markets from different continents have strong correlation at specific time shift. We also obtain that markets from different continents not only have a strong linkage with others at same day, but at a delay of one day, especially between Asia, Europe and Asia, America. In addition, we further analyze the time-varying influence strength between each two continents and observe that this value has abnormal changes during the financial crisis. These findings can provide us significant insights to understand the underlying dynamic interdependency of international financial markets and further help us make corresponding reasonable decisions.

  3. Evolutionary features of influenza A/H5N1 virus populations in Egypt: poultry and human health implications.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Abdelwhab, E M; Harder, Timm C

    2016-07-01

    Since 2006, in Egypt, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has established endemic status in poultry. Bayesian evolutionary analysis sampling trees suggested an introduction date in the third quarter of 2005. Evolutionary dynamics using Bayesian analysis showed that H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1.1 evolved at higher rates than those of clade 2.2.1.2. Bayesian skyline plot analysis of the HA gene of 840 and NA gene of 401 Egyptian H5N1 viruses from 2006-2015 identified two waves of viral population expansion correlating with the stepwise emergence of the 2.2.1.1 variant lineage in 2008 and with the newly emerging 2.2.1.2 cluster in late 2014. H5N1 infections in human hosts in 2014-2015 were statistically linked to a contemporary poultry outbreak.

  4. Pulmonary tuberculosis in Romania at the dawn of the millennium--a major public health issue.

    PubMed

    Marica, C

    2009-01-01

    TB incidence in our country is still quite high compared to the average of the European Union countries (1st place among EU countries and 3rd place among WHO European Region countries), which means that a national coordinated response against this disease needs to become the priority of the current health care policy. The multi-factorial conditioning, which includes the social and economic dimensions of TB spreading, requires a multi-disciplinary and inter-sectorial approach to this pathology, going beyond healthcare services. The National Tuberculosis Control Strategy is a part of Romania's Country Strategy based on the guidelines set out in WHO's 2006-2015 Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis (MDGs 2015) and it provides the necessary framework for refining and harmonizing the national legislation and regulations with the European laws after Romania's integration in the EU.

  5. Multidimensional Analysis and Location Intelligence Application for Spatial Data Warehouse Hotspot in Indonesia using SpagoBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uswatun Hasanah, Gamma; Trisminingsih, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Spatial data warehouse refers to data warehouse which has a spatial component that represents the geographic location of the position or an object on the Earth's surface. Spatial data warehouse can be visualized in the form of a crosstab tables, graphs, and maps. Spatial data warehouse of hotspot in Indonesia has been constructed by researchers from FIRM NASA 2006-2015. This research develops multidimensional analysis module and location intelligence module using SpagoBI. The multidimensional analysis module is able to visualize online analytical processing (OLAP). The location intelligence module creates dynamic map visualization in map zone and map point. Map zone can display the different colors based on the number of hotspot in each region and map point can display different sizes of the point to represent the number of hotspots in each region. This research is expected to facilitate users in the presentation of hotspot data as needed.

  6. Involvement of IMA in tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Satish

    2007-04-01

    Tuberculosis has been declared to be a global emergency and the HIV/AIDS is fuelling the epidemic. To contain the disease for its re-emergence a massive funding was earmarked. Widespread implementation of the DOTS strategy specially in countries of high TB burden is a major progress in global TB control. As a sizeable section of TB patients contact a private health provider, so the policy makers of health envisaged the idea for Public-Private Partnership mix model to contain the disease and hence the role of IMA with its two lacs members has definite role to play to stop the menace. The Stop TB strategy is designed to achieve the targets set for the period 2006-2015. Members of IMA have got a life time chance to prove to the people and to the power that they are not lagging behind in providing a service to the nation and there lies the strength of the IMA.

  7. Water Level Changes of Nam-Co Lake Based on Satellite Altimetry Data Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. J.; Qiao, G.; Li, H. W.

    2017-09-01

    Nam-Co Lake is the largest saltwater lake in Tibet and less influenced by human activity. In order to study the change of water level of Nam-Co Lake over the past decades and the impacts of climate change on the region, this paper combined height measurements of ERS-1, ERS-2, ENVISAT, ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2. We found that the water level of Nam Co Lake experienced three periods of change, namely, slightly decreasing period (1992-1993), significantly increasing period (1995-2005), and stable period (2006-2015). The change is consistent with the change of meteorological factors in the Nam-Co Basin. The increase of glacier melt water and precipitation in the basin is considered to be the cause of the overall trend of water level.

  8. Regeneration, relocation and health behaviours in deprived communities.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Ade; Mason, Phil

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, recent regeneration programmes have aimed to improve the health of those who remain in their neighbourhood (Remainers) and those who are relocated (Outmovers); thus, as part of the 10-year GoWell study (2006-2015) of the effects of demolition, rebuilding and housing improvements on residents and communities, we examined associations of health behaviours with residential conditions and location status in deprived neighbourhoods of Glasgow. Better internal dwelling conditions were associated with several better health behaviours; in relation to neighbourhood conditions, the results were more mixed. Outmovers often exhibited worse health behaviours than Remainers, perhaps because environmental and social conditions were little altered by relocation, and because personal support mechanisms were missing. Health behaviours were relatively good among Remainers, indicating that in situ changes might stimulate life-changing improvements, but relocation less so.

  9. French Geological Repository Project for High Level and Long-Lived Waste: Scientific Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Landais, P.; Lebon, P.; Ouzounian, G.

    2008-07-01

    The feasibility study presented in the Dossier 2005 Argile set out to evaluate the conditions for building, operating and managing a reversible disposal facility. The research was directed at demonstrating a potential for confining long-lived radioactive waste in a deep clay formation by establishing the feasibility of the disposal principle. Results have been enough convincing and a Planning Act was passed on 28 June, 2006. Decision in principle has been taken to dispose of intermediate and high level long-lived radioactive waste in a geological repository. An application file for a license to construct a disposal facility is requested by end of 2014 and its commissioning is planned for 2025. Based on previous results as well as on recommendations made by various Dossier 2005 evaluators, a new scientific programme for 2006-2015 has been defined. It gives details of what will be covered over the 2006-2015 period. Particular emphasis is placed on consolidating scientific data, increasing understanding of certain mechanisms and using a scientific and technical integration approach. It aims at integrating scientific developments and engineering advances. The scientific work envisaged beyond 2006 has the benefit of a unique context, which is direct access to the geological medium over long timescales. It naturally extends the research carried out to date, and incorporates additional investigations of the geological medium, and the preparation of demonstration work especially through full-scale tests. Results will aim at improving the representation of repository evolutions over time, extract the relevant parameters for monitoring during the reversibility phases, reduce the parametric uncertainties and enhance the robustness of models for performance calculations and safety analyses. Structure and main orientation of the ongoing scientific programme are presented. (author)

  10. PREVALENCE OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Chincharadze, S; Vadachkoria, Z; Mchedlishvili, I

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate take significant place in congenital malformations. We aimed to study epidemiological peculiarities of these pathologies in Georgia for 2006-2015. We compared magnitude of its distribution with the data from 1981-1990. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Georgia in 2006-2015 was 0.95±0.04 per 1000 live births, while in 1981-1990- it was 1.05, i.e. in contrast to 1980's frequency of these pathological conditions decreased to some extent. Distribution of cleft lip and palate varies across the country regions. The most intensive spread has been observed in Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, where prevalence composed 2.28/1000. In the rest of the regions frequency of these pathologies is significantly lower. For instance, in Kakheti the rate is equal to 1,87/1000, in Kvemo Kartli - 1.56/1000, in Shida Kartli - 1.55/1000. In the rest of the regions prevalence rate is lower than the country average. It should be noted that in Tbilisi the rate is as low as 0.80/1000. The lowest level has been reported in Guria - 0.56/1000. Currently cleft lip with palate is the most frequently occurring anomaly in Georgia accounting for 39.8% of all congenital malformations. Cleft lip alone ranks the second - 36.1%, followed by cleft palate (24.1%). These pathologies are more frequent in boys than in girls. 60.3% of the cases are reported in males, in contrast to girls - 39.7% (p<0.01). Usually, cleft palate is the most common among girls, but in our case, it had higher prevalence among boys, 53.6% vs. 46,4%. Thus cleft lip and palate distribution in Georgia is characterized by epidemiological peculiarities, which should be considered in implementation of preventive measures.

  11. Financial resources required for tuberculosis control to achieve global targets set for 2015.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Katherine; Pantoja, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the financial resources required to achieve the 2015 targets for global tuberculosis (TB) control, which have been set within the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Global Plan to Stop TB, 2006-2015 was developed by the Stop TB Partnership. It sets out what needs to be done to achieve the 2015 targets for global TB control, based on WHO's Stop TB Strategy. Plan costs were estimated using spreadsheet models that included epidemiological, demographic, planning and unit cost data. A total of US$ 56 billion is required during the period 2006-2015 (93% for TB-endemic countries, 7% for international technical agencies), increasing from US$ 3.5 billion in 2006 to US$ 6.7 billion in 2015. The single biggest cost (US$ 3 billion per year) is for the treatment of drug-susceptible cases in DOTS programmes. Other major costs are treatment of patients with multi- and extensively drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB and XDR-TB), collaborative TB/HIV activities, and advocacy, communication and social mobilization. Low-income countries account for 41% of total funding needs and 65% of funding needs for TB/HIV. Middle-income countries account for 72% of the funding needed for treatment of MDR-TB and XDR-TB. African countries require the largest increases in funding. Achieving the 2015 global targets set for TB control requires a major increase in funding. To support resource mobilization, comprehensive and costed national plans that are in line with the Global Plan to Stop TB are needed, backed up by robust assessments of the funding that can be raised in each country from domestic sources and the balance that is needed from donors.

  12. Focusing metasurface quantum-cascade laser with a near diffraction-limited beam.

    PubMed

    Xu, Luyao; Chen, Daguan; Itoh, Tatsuo; Reno, John L; Williams, Benjamin S

    2016-10-17

    A terahertz vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VECSEL) is demonstrated using an active focusing reflectarray metasurface based on quantum-cascade gain material. The focusing effect enables a hemispherical cavity with flat optics, which exhibits higher geometric stability than a plano-plano cavity and a directive and circular near-diffraction limited Gaussian beam with M2 beam parameter as low as 1.3 and brightness of 1.86 × 106 Wsr-1m-2. This work initiates the potential of leveraging inhomogeneous metasurface and reflectarray designs to achieve high-power and high-brightness terahertz quantum-cascade VECSELs.

  13. Focusing metasurface quantum-cascade laser with a near diffraction-limited beam

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao; Chen, Daguan; Itoh, Tatsuo; Reno, John L.; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2016-10-17

    A terahertz vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VECSEL) is demonstrated using an active focusing reflectarray metasurface based on quantum-cascade gain material. The focusing effect enables a hemispherical cavity with flat optics, which exhibits higher geometric stability than a plano-plano cavity and a directive and circular near-diffraction limited Gaussian beam with M2 beam parameter as low as 1.3 and brightness of 1.86 × 106 Wsr–1m–2. As a result, this work initiates the potential of leveraging inhomogeneous metasurface and reflectarray designs to achieve high-power and high-brightness terahertz quantum-cascade VECSELs.

  14. Passive Q-switching of Yb bulk lasers by a graphene saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, P. A.; Serres, J. M.; Mateos, X.; Liu, J.; Zhang, H.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Yumashev, K. V.; Petrov, V.; Griebner, U.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2016-04-01

    Compact Yb:KLu(WO4)2 and Yb:LuVO4 lasers diode-pumped at 978 nm are passively Q-switched by a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser generated 165 ns/0.49 μJ pulses at 1030 nm with 170 mW average output power and 12 % slope efficiency. With the Yb:LuVO4 laser, 152 ns/0.83 μJ pulses were achieved. The output power reached 300 mW at 1024 nm, and the slope efficiency was 10 %. Laser operation in a plano-plano cavity is achieved with both crystals with thermal lensing playing a key role in their performance. A model describing graphene Q-switched Yb lasers is developed. Our results indicate the potential of graphene for passive Q-switching of ~1 μm bulk lasers.

  15. Focus modulation of cylindrical vector beams through negative-index grating lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengming; Xu, Ji; Zhong, Yi; Ren, Rong; Lu, Yunqing; Wan, Hongdan; Wang, Jin; Ding, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    A cylindrically symmetric negative-index grating lens composed of unitary material is proposed as an effective method to modulate the focusing of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs). The grating parameters are designed to obtain an appropriate negative index, and the lens profile is tailored to realize the constructive interference. The plano-concave lens is parameterized to achieve desired focal length and the plano-cone lens is proposed to obtain large depth of focus. An optical needle is generated with radially polarized incidence, and an optical tube is achieved with incidence of azimuthal polarization. Moreover, the presented modulation methods can be applied for any arbitrary polarized CVBs. This work offers a more flexible and effective approach to design negative-index lenses for subwavelength focusing of CVBs, which has potential application value in related areas, such as optical trapping, and other nano-optics fields.

  16. Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er(3+):Yb(3+):LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal at 1.5-1.6 microm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujin; Lin, Yanfu; Huang, Jianhua; Gong, Xinghong; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

    2010-06-21

    An Er(3+):Yb(3+):LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal doped with 24.1 at.% Yb(3+) and 1.1 at.% Er(3+) ions was grown by the flux method. The polarized spectroscopic properties related to the operation of 1.5-1.6 microm laser of the crystal were evaluated at room temperature. The laser properties of a 0.7-mm-thick, c-cut crystal were investigated in diode-end-pumped hemispherical and plano-plano cavities, respectively. Compared with those of Er(3+):Yb(3+):YAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal obtained under similar experimental conditions, higher maximum output peak power, higher slope efficiency, and lower threshold were achieved in the Er(3+):Yb(3+):LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal.

  17. Sistema Planeta-Satélite. Simulación orbital y potenciales gravitatorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, C.; Carrillo, M.

    Se presenta un programa (desarrollado en Quick Basic 4.5) que simula, en tres dimensiones, el movimiento orbital de un satélite (o luna) alrededor de un planeta, al tiempo que calcula y grafica, en un plano, el potencial gravitatorio del sistema en función de la distancia al planeta. Para la simulación orbital, se emplea la matriz de transformación entre el sistema del planeta y el plano orbital. Para el cálculo y graficación del potencial se aplica un desarrollo en serie hasta el segundo orden, que da cuenta del efecto de achatamiento de los polos, en caso de que éste exista. Las longitudes de los ejes del planeta, la masa de éste y del satélite, sus tamaños aparentes, y los parámetros orbitales son introducidos por el usuario.

  18. Highly efficient TEM00 mode LD-pumping 1063nm Nd:GdVO4 laser with short cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Fu, Shenggui; Ge, Xiaolu; Yuan, Changkun

    2011-11-01

    A highly efficient TEM00 mode 1063 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser is accomplished with a simple plano-plano resonator. The laser threshold pump power is 856 mW. The maximum laser power of 2.05W is achieved when the pump power is 3.76 W, corresponding to a slope-efficiency of 70% to absorbed pump power. The quality of the output beam is analyzed with a laser beam quality analyzer. The perfect laser beam quality is partially attributed to the short cavity length of 11 mm and the precise temperature control to the Nd:GdVO4 crystal. The output laser central wavelength is 1063.1 nm with a laser linewidth of 0.06 nm.

  19. Development of a 160X crossed lens photovoltaic concentrator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McDanal, A.J.

    1986-03-01

    A new concentrator concept, the crossed lens solar photovoltaic concentrator, is described. The innovative concentrator cross-couples simple plano-cylindrical lenses with a linear Fresnel lens to achieve a geometric concentration ratio of 160X. The linear Fresnel lens provides lateral focussing of the incident sunlight while the plano-cylindrical lenses provide longitudinal focussing. The combined lateral/longitudinal focussing results in a series of focal spots on the photovoltaic receiver rather than a continuous focal line. An initial prototype module was fabricated and performance tested. The demonstrated peak electrical efficiency is 15.1% at 28/sup 0/C cell temperature. Incorporation of recently developed design improvements (a proprietary prismaic cell cover and a lens anti-reflection coating) indicates that a 20% module efficiency is achievable.

  20. Spherical aberration standards and measurement system stability over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compertore, David; Ignatovich, Filipp; Marcus, Michael

    2015-10-01

    A Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor system has been used to measure a set of plano-convex lenses at two different times, separated by almost 2 years. The plano-convex lenses were selected to cover a range of powers and apertures relevant to intraocular lenses, and were measured at two different orientations. The results demonstrate the high temporal stability of the measurement system, as well as of the glass standard. In addition, both times the effective focal lengths of the standards were measured using a NIST traceable nodal slide bench, and the center thicknesses were measured using low-coherence interferometer. The spherical aberration and the effective focal length results are analyzed for statistically significant changes. The results are also compared to the Zemax models of the standards.

  1. Multibeam antenna study, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    An antenna system concept for point to point communication between any two points in the Continental United States was developed using a synchronous orbit satellite. The design and fabrication of a two dimensional artificial dielectric lens contained in a parallel plate waveguide system is presented. The experimental pattern and voltage standing wave ratio results are listed from tests with four different lenses: a plano-convex natural dielectric (Teflon) lens, a plano-convex artificial dielectric lens, a two-point corrected Teflon lens, and a two-point corrected artificial dielectric lens. A computer simulated design of an operational two lens, 24 beam configuration is also presented. The computer design presents overlays of each beam onto the Continental United States from a fixed synchronous orbit satellite with a definition of these areas where beam-to-beam isolation is not sufficient to permit the reuse of frequency.

  2. Free-forms optics into astronomical use: the case of an all-mirror anamorphic collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Paolo

    2008-07-01

    Up to now, optical design of astronomical instrumentation has been based onto "classical" surfaces, i.e. plano surfaces, spherical surfaces, and some classes of aspheric surfaces. More complex surfaces (like cylinders), are used from time to time to correct for aberrations. A new class of more general surfaces, i.e. non-rotationally symmetrical and completely "free-form" surfaces have been recently introduced. Their use in astronomy, however, has not widely used so far. We propose a new layout for an anamorphic collimator based onto two "free-form" cylinder surfaces, giving diffraction limited images. This collimator can be used to create an elliptical pupil, and allows reducing size of optical systems, too. Two interesting cases of application in astronomy are shown: a very-high resolution spectrograph for large telescopes, and an interferometer cavity to test large plano optics.

  3. Investigation of the neutral-solution etch process for refractive SOE antireflective surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Antireflection of optically clear glass used in photovoltaic concentrator refractive secondary optical elements (SOE's) was investigated using the neutral-solution etch process developed by Schott Glass. Test coupons and SOE's made from barium zinc glass, which does not solarize under ultraviolet exposure, were successfully etched at the center point process variable conditions of 87{degrees}C and 24 hours. Reflectance of the plano-plano dropped from 7.7% to 0.8%, with a corresponding increase in transmission from 91.7% to 98.5%. The etching process uses non-hydrofluoric, relatively non-toxic chemicals in a low-cost process well suited for use by photovoltaic system manufacturers during production. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Modeling the Behavior of the Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Dirac delta function P(x-Xl) oX1 x2 L0 x4 x5 (b) Pulse function ()Step approximnation 41 01 0xl x2 03 x4 x5 (e) pie c al sins function. 7 N Z a.*<Wm, L(f...PATTERNS L 3X. ~H 0.9x L 0 0 25H-PLone E- PLano -1e0 -150 -120 -90 -60 -3 0 33 so 90 120 150 150 AngLe Off Bor’esLgh. (Degrees) FLgure A.1 PredLcted...Wr’[’HI Cr of Substrate 10.5 _ -Cof Substrote - 2 .3 4 - L 0 0.- J - a H-PLone E- PLano -110 -150 -120 -90 -G 3 0 6 so 10 IO mfingLo Of’f BoreeLght

  5. Re-evaluation of peroxide value as an indicator of the quality of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masaharu; Ohno, Katsutoshi; Nagao, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Toshihiro

    2007-06-01

    The oxidation of oils has important effects on the quality of oily foods, such as instant noodles. In particular, the generation of aldehydes, which accompanies the oxidation of oils, is one of the first factors to reduce food quality. We examined various indicators of oil quality during temperature-accelerated storage and found that peroxide value (POV) was highly correlated with the total concentration of major odorants. Moreover, the correlation of POV with the total concentration of five unsaturated aldehydes (t-2-heptenal, t-2-octenal, t-2-decenal, t-2-undecenal and t,t-2,4-decadienal) that show strong cytotoxicity was greater than the correlation of POV with the total concentration of major odorants. The maximum allowable concentration of the five aldehydes was calculated based on the 'no observed adverse-effect level' of the aldehyde that showed the highest cytotoxicity, t,t-2,4-decadienal, along with the human daily oil intake. We showed that it is useful to utilize POV as an indicator to control food quality and safety.

  6. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  7. Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Kerstin; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-05-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract/distillate prepared from a Hungarian-type salami and subsequent identification experiments led to the identification of 51 of 55 odor-active compounds detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-4096. Nineteen of these compounds are reported for the first time as aroma components of dry-fermented sausages, among them 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide. The highest FD factors were found for 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, sweet), 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(1-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), and acetic acid (pungent, sour). Forty-five aroma compounds were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of odor thresholds in oil. The highest OAVs were calculated for acetic acid, acetaldehyde, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. A model mixture containing 33 odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the sausage was prepared in a matrix consisting of 44% sunflower oil and 56% aqueous phosphate buffer. A comparison of the overall aroma of this model mixture with the original showed a very high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds were successfully identified.

  8. In depth study of acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting: role of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-09-01

    Coffee, as a source of acrylamide, needs to be investigated in depth to understand the contribution of different precursors. This study aimed to investigate the contributions of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation on acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting. Coffee beans and model systems were used to monitor the accumulation of neo-formed carbonyls during heating through sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 3,4-dideoxyosone, which were identified as the major sugar decomposition products in both roasted coffee and model systems. Among others, 2-octenal, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal were identified in relatively high quantities in roasted coffee. Formation and elimination of HMF in coffee during roasting had a kinetic pattern similar to those of acrylamide. Its concentration rapidly increased within 10 min followed by an exponential decrease afterward. The amount of lipid oxidation products tended to increase linearly during roasting. It was concluded from the results that roasting formed a pool of neo-formed carbonyls from sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation, and they play certain role on acrylamide formation in coffee.

  9. Identification of aroma volatiles and understanding 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthetic mechanism in aromatic mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek).

    PubMed

    Attar, Usmangani; Hinge, Vidya; Zanan, Rahul; Adhav, Rahul; Nadaf, Altafhusain

    2017-04-01

    Mung bean having high food value and easily digestible proteins, is one of the socioeconomically important crop of India. Among the varied cultivars, Sona mung is having aroma and hence popularly cultivated in the pockets of Ganga river basin at Bhutnir char village of Malda District in the West Bengal state. In the present study, aroma volatiles with special reference to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) were analyzed using HS-SPME-GCMS from Sona mung bean and compared with non-scented mung bean (PHULE M-9339). 26 volatiles in seeds of Sona mung and 20 in non-scented mung bean were identified, in which 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal, (2E)-2-decen-1-ol, 2-ethyl-1-dodecanol and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one are first time reported. 0.19 ± 0.001 ppm 2AP was recorded in Sona mung seeds whereas it was not detected in non-scented mung bean. PCA analysis indicated that 2AP, octanal, 1 pentanol, decanal, phenylmethanol and 2-nonen-1-ol were the major contributors in the aroma of Sona mung bean. The significantly higher level proline, methylglyoxal and lower level of BADH2 transcript were detected in Sona mung than non-scented mung, suggesting similar 2AP biosynthesis mechanism in Sona mung bean as reported in scented rice, sorghum and soybean.

  10. Semiochemical Production and Laboratory Behavior Response of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha Halys.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christina; Abubeker, Sitra; Yu, Mengmeng; Leskey, Tracy; Zhang, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is an exotic insect pest that was first recognized in the United States in 2001. As of today, it has been found in more than 42 states. BMSB has a very broad host plant range and damage to crops in mid-Atlantic States has reached a critical level. A reliable and accurate tool for infestation detection and population monitoring is urgently needed to provide better and more timely interventions. Pheromones produced by male BMSB have been previously identified and are currently used in BMSB infestation detection. However, the conditions affecting BMSB production of these pheromones were unknown. In this study, we collected headspace volatiles from male BMSB under laboratory conditions, measured the temporal patterns of release of these pheromones, and assayed the attractiveness to conspecifics. In addition to the pheromone components, tridecane (C13) and E-2-decenal (an alarm compound) were observed in headspace collections of males, as well as in females and nymphs. Exposure of pheromone-emitting adult males to synthetic C13 greatly reduced pheromone emission. This information should lead to a better understanding of the biology, physiology, and chemical ecology of BMSB, which will help scientists and growers develop more efficient strategies based on natural products to manage BMSB population, therefore, reducing pesticide usage and protecting the crops from BMSB damage.

  11. Semiochemical Production and Laboratory Behavior Response of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha Halys

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christina; Abubeker, Sitra; Yu, Mengmeng; Leskey, Tracy; Zhang, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Background The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is an exotic insect pest that was first recognized in the United States in 2001. As of today, it has been found in more than 42 states. BMSB has a very broad host plant range and damage to crops in mid-Atlantic States has reached a critical level. A reliable and accurate tool for infestation detection and population monitoring is urgently needed to provide better and more timely interventions. Pheromones produced by male BMSB have been previously identified and are currently used in BMSB infestation detection. However, the conditions affecting BMSB production of these pheromones were unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we collected headspace volatiles from male BMSB under laboratory conditions, measured the temporal patterns of release of these pheromones, and assayed the attractiveness to conspecifics. In addition to the pheromone components, tridecane (C13) and E-2-decenal (an alarm compound) were observed in headspace collections of males, as well as in females and nymphs. Exposure of pheromone-emitting adult males to synthetic C13 greatly reduced pheromone emission. Conclusions/Significance This information should lead to a better understanding of the biology, physiology, and chemical ecology of BMSB, which will help scientists and growers develop more efficient strategies based on natural products to manage BMSB population, therefore, reducing pesticide usage and protecting the crops from BMSB damage. PMID:26528717

  12. Application of melanin-free ink as a new antioxidative gel enhancer in sardine surimi gel.

    PubMed

    Vate, Naveen Kumar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Agustini, Tri Winarni

    2015-08-30

    The squid ink that is discarded as waste during processing can be effectively utilised as a gel enhancer in surimi gels, especially those prepared from dark-fleshed fish which have poor gel properties. It also acts as an antioxidant, inhibiting lipid oxidation. This investigation aimed to study the effect of melanin-free ink (MFI) from splendid squid (Loligo formosana) on properties and oxidative stability of surimi gel from sardine (Sardinella albella). MFI (0-0.1 g kg(-1) surimi) increased the breaking force and deformation of sardine surimi gel in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The addition of MFI had no effect on whiteness of surimi gels (P > 0.05). The expressible moisture content of gels decreased as the levels of MFI increased (P < 0.05). Based on a microstructure study, gel added with MFI at a level of 0.08 g kg(-1) surimi was denser and finer than that of the control (without MFI). Surimi gels with MFI had lower peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nonanal and 2-decenal. MFI could improve the properties of sardine surimi gel. Additionally, it was able to prevent lipid oxidation in surimi gels during refrigerated storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  14. Identification and characterization of volatile components causing the characteristic flavor in miso (Japanese fermented soybean paste) and heat-processed miso products.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Kaneko, Shu; Nishimura, Osamu

    2013-12-11

    The aroma concentrates of two types of raw miso (traditional Japanese fermented soybean paste) were prepared by combining solid phase extraction (SPE) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fraction revealed 39 odor-active peaks with FD factors between 4(1) and 4(8). Among the perceived odorants, 32 odorants were identified or tentatively identified from the 39 odor-active peaks, and the newly identified odorants for the miso were half of them. Furthermore, by comparison of the FD factors between the raw miso and heat-processed miso, it was found that one increasing odorant (methional) and three decreasing odorants (1-octen-3-one, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal) contributed to the flavor change during the heat processing. This finding suggested that the flavor change in the raw miso during heat processing is attributed to relatively few odorant changes. In addition, it was assumed that the amino acids included in the miso have a significant influence on the remarkable disappearance of the three decreasing odorants.

  15. Differentiation of aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of different grades using gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, In Hee; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Kim, Young-Suk

    2007-03-21

    Two independent approaches, gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis, were used to evaluate and compare the aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of four different grades. The aroma-active compounds responsible for the sensory attributes of pine- mushrooms were investigated based on the correlation between instrumental and sensory analyses through partial least-square regression. Piny, meaty, and floral attributes were strongly correlated with each other and were the most important descriptors for defining the pine-mushrooms of the highest grade, and they decreased as the grade decreased. Among 23 aroma-active compounds, (E)-2-decenal, alpha-terpineol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid ethyl ester contributed most to these attributes. On the other hand, the major aroma characteristics of the pine-mushrooms of the lowest grade were wet soil-like, alcohol, metallic, moldy, and fermented, and they decreased as the grade increased. These aroma characteristics were strongly associated with 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, and methional.

  16. Volatile profile of cashew apple juice fibers from different production steps.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; de Almeida, Áfia Suely Santos da Silva; Lemos, Ana Paula Dajtenko; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues; Garruti, Deborah dos Santos

    2015-05-27

    This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, γ-dodecalactone, (E)-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability.

  17. Preparation of ansa-metallocenes for production of poly(α-olefin) lubricants.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hae; Jang, Young Eun; Jeon, Jong Yeob; Go, Min Jeong; Lee, Junseong; Kim, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang-Ick; Lee, Bun Yeoul

    2014-07-14

    An ansa-zirconocene bearing methyl substituents at all positions adjacent to the bridgehead [(-C(Ph)HC(Ph)H-)(η(5)-2,5-Me2C5H2)2ZrCl2] (4) was prepared in high yields (78%) through the reductive dimerization of 1,4-dimethyl-6-phenylfulvene utilizing ZrCl2·DME generated in situ. The structure of 4 was subsequently confirmed using X-ray crystallography. 4 exhibited excellent catalytic performance with regard to 1-decene oligomerization, which was carried out with the intention of preparing lubricant base stocks. High activities (21 × 10(6) g mol(-1) Zr h(-1) activity; TON = 150 000; TOF = 42 s(-1)) were observed at temperatures as high as 120 °C and the oligomer distribution was appropriate for lubricant application. The simulated distillation (SIMDIS) data confirmed that a wide range of oligomers were formed, ranging from the dimer (2-mer) to 20-mer. A minimal amount of the dimer and oligomers larger than the 10-mer was formed (13 and 25 wt%, respectively). Alternatively, a typical unbridged complex such as (η(5)-nBuC5H4)2ZrCl2 primarily produced dimers (54 wt%), whereas the ansa-zirconocene (EBI)ZrCl2 primarily produced oligomers larger than 10-mer (62 wt%). The methyl substituents at the positions adjacent to the bridgehead in 4 played a significant role in the catalytic performance.

  18. Predicted 3D structures of olfactory receptors with details of odorant binding to OR1G1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Goddard, William A.

    2014-12-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are responsible for mediating the sense of smell; they allow humans to recognize an enormous number of odors but the connection between binding and perception is not known. We predict the ensemble of low energy structures for the human OR1G1 (hOR1G1) and also for six other diverse ORs, using the G protein-coupled receptor Ensemble of Structures in Membrane BiLayer Environment complete sampling method that samples 13 trillion different rotations and tilts using four different templates to predict the 24 structures likely to be important in binding and activation. Our predicted most stable structures of hOR1G1 have a salt-bridge between the conserved D3.49 and K6.30 in the D(E)RY region, that we expect to be associated with an inactive form. The hOR1G1 structure also has specific interaction in transmembrane domains (TMD) 3-6 (E3.39 and H6.40), which is likely an important conformational feature for all hORs because of the 94 to 98 % conservation among all hOR sequences. Of the five ligands studied (nonanal, 9-decen-1-ol, 1-nonanol, camphor, and n-butanal), we find that the 4 expected to bind lead to similar binding energies with nonanol the strongest.

  19. Silica cross-linked micelles loading with silicon nanoparticles: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guo-Hui; Barras, Alexandre; Boussekey, Luc; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-08-14

    A new family of luminescent and stable silicon-based nanoparticles (NPs), silica cross-linked pluronic F127 (PF127) micelles loaded with decyl capped silicon nanoparticles (decyl-SiNPs), were synthesized in aqueous media. The decyl-SiNPs were prepared by first liberating hydride terminated SiNPs (H-SiNPs) from a porous silicon matrix followed by their functionalization via hydrosilylation with 1-decene under photochemical activation. The silicon-based NPs exhibit bright photoluminescence (PL) with a quantum yield of ∼3.8% and peaking at ∼2.0 eV, which lies within the transmission window that is useful for biological imaging. They display a hydrodynamic size of ∼25 nm with exterior polyethylene oxide (PEO) blocks stretching out in aqueous media. Chloroform was found to quench the excitation at energy above 4.9 eV by shielding the incident light or relaxing the charge carriers, which highlights that caution against solvent interference should be taken when performing the studies on PL origin and luminescence efficiency of SiNPs. For PF127, the blocks of hydrophilic PEO participate in the PL quenching, while poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) does not. The colloidal solution displays excellent PL stability against salt (NaCl) and temperature but is susceptible to basic solution at pH above 9.

  20. Identification the Key Odorants in Different Parts of Hyla Rabbit Meat via Solid Phase Microextraction Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jingzhi; Zhang, En

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the volatile compounds of hind leg, foreleg, abdomen and Longissimus dorsi in both male and female Hyla rabbit meat by solid phase microextraction tandem with gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and to seek out the key odorants via calculating the odor activity value and principal component analysis. Cluster analysis is used to study the flavor pattern differences in four edible parts. Sixty three volatile compounds were detected, including 23 aldehydes, 4 alcohols, 5 ketones, 11 esters, 5 aromatics, 8 acids and 7 hydrocarbons. Among them, 6 aldehydes and 3 acids were identified as the potential key odorants according to the ratio of concentration and threshold. The contents of volatile compounds in male Hyla rabbit meat were significantly higher than those in female one (p<0.05). The results of principal component analysis showed that the first two principal component cumulative variance contributions reach 87.69%; Hexanal, octanal, 2-nonenal, 2-decenal and decanal were regard as the key odorants of Hyla rabbit meat by combining odor activity value and principal component analysis. Therefore volatile compounds of rabbit meat can be effectively characterized. Cluster analysis indicated that volatile chemical compounds of Longissimus dorsi were significantly different from other three parts, which provide reliable information for rabbit processing industry and for possible future sale. PMID:28115882

  1. Epoxyalkenal-trapping ability of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Aguilar, Isabel; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2017-12-15

    Lipid oxidation products have been shown to produce changes in food quality and safety as a consequence of carbonyl-amine reactions. Some of these reactions can be prevented by the use of phenolics, although the lipid-derived carbonyl trapping ability of phenolics is still poorly understood. In an attempt to fill this gap, the reactions of 4,5-epoxy-2-hexenal, 4,5-epoxy-2-heptenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal, with 2-methylresorcinol and 2,5-dimethylresorcinol were studied. These reactions produced diverse 1,3a,4,9b-tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-c]chromene-2,7-diols and 3,4,4a,9a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-b]benzofuran-3,7-diols, which were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The produced epoxyalkenal-phenol reaction was characterized and carbonyl-phenol adducts were produced firstly by epoxide-ring opening initiated by the attack of one phenolic hydroxyl group and, then, by addition of one aromatic phenol carbon to the carbon-carbon double bond of the epoxyalkenal. This reaction rapidly deactivated the most important reactive groups of epoxyalkenals, decreasing in this way their ability to modify amino compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  3. Effects of natural and synthetic alarm pheromone and individual pheromone components on foraging behavior of the giant Asian honey bee, Apis dorsata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Qu, Yufeng; Nieh, James C

    2014-10-01

    Social pollinators such as honey bees face attacks from predators not only at the nest, but also during foraging. Pollinating honey bees can therefore release alarm pheromones that deter conspecifics from visiting dangerous inflorescences. However, the effect of alarm pheromone and its chemical components upon bee avoidance of dangerous food sources remains unclear. We tested the responses of giant honey bee foragers, Apis dorsata, presented with alarm pheromone at a floral array. Foragers investigated the inflorescence with natural alarm pheromone, but 3.3-fold more foragers preferred to land on the 'safe' inflorescence without alarm pheromone. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, we identified eight chemical components in the alarm pheromone, of which three components (1-octanol, decanal and gamma-octanoic lactone) have not previously been reported in this species. We bioassayed six major compounds and found that a synthetic mixture of these compounds elicited behaviors statistically indistinguishable from responses to natural alarm pheromone. By testing each compound separately, we show that gamma-octanoic lactone, isopentyl acetate and (E)-2-decen-1-yl acetate are active compounds that elicit significant alarm responses. Gamma-octanoic lactone elicited the strongest response to a single compound and has not been previously reported in honey bee alarm pheromone. Isopentyl acetate is widely found in the alarm pheromones of sympatric Asian honey bee species, and thus alarmed A. dorsata foragers may produce information useful for conspecifics and heterospecifics, thereby broadening the effects of alarm information on plant pollination.

  4. Intramolecular hydroalkoxylation of non-activated C=C bonds catalysed by zeolites: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mayoral, Elena; Matos, Ines; Nachtigall, Petr; Položij, Miroslav; Fonseca, Isabel; Vitvarová-Procházková, Dana; Čejka, Jiří

    2013-06-01

    The high activity and selectivity of zeolites in the cyclisation of unsaturated alcohols is reported for the first time; the details of a reaction mechanism based on quantum chemical calculations are also provided. The high efficiency of zeolites MFI, BEA and FAU in the cyclisation of unsaturated alcohols (cis-decen-1-ol, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-ol and 2-allylphenol) to afford oxygen-containing heterocyclic rings is demonstrated. The best catalytic performance is found for zeolites with the optimum concentration of Brønsted acid sites (ca. 0.2 mmol g(-1)) and the minimum number of Lewis acid sites. It is proposed that the efficiency of the catalysts is reduced by the existence of the so-called dual site, at which a molecule of unsaturated alcohol can simultaneously interact with two acid sites (an OH group with one and the double bond with the other Brønsted site), which increases the interaction strength. The formation of such adsorption complexes leads to a decrease in the catalyst activity because of (i) an increase in the reaction barrier, (ii) an unfavourable conformation and (iii) diffusion limitations. A new procedure for the preparation of tetrahydrofurans and pyrans over zeolite catalysts provides important oxygen-containing heterocycles with numerous applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Alarm Odor Compounds of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Exhibit Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Sagun, Steven; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Nolan, E Joseph; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Some insects release scented compounds as a defense against predators that also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Trans-2-octenal and trans-2-decenal are the major alarm aldehydes responsible for the scent of Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. Previous research has shown these aldehydes are antifungal and produce an antipredatory effect, but have never been tested for antibacterial activity. We hypothesized that these compounds functioned similarly to the analogous multifunctional action of earwig compounds, so we tested whether these aldehydes could inhibit the growth of bacteria. Disk diffusion assays indicated that these aldehydes significantly inhibited the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in vitro. Moreover, mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) coated in stink bug aldehydes showed a substantial reduction in bacterial colonization compared to vehicle-treated insects. These results suggest that brown marmorated stinkbug aldehydes are indeed antibacterial agents and serve a multifunctional role for this insect. Therefore, stinkbug aldehydes may have potential for use as chemical antimicrobials.

  6. Binary and Ternary Catalytic Systems for Olefin Metathesis Based on MoCl5/SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Victor I.; Belyaev, Boris A.; Butenko, Tamara A.; Finkelshtein, Eugene Sh.

    Kinetics of α-olefin metathesis in the presence of binary (MoCl5/ SiO2-Me4Sn) and ternary catalytic systems (MoCl5/SiO2-Me4Sn-ECl4, E = Si or Ge) was studied. Specifically, kinetics and reactivity of 1-decene, 1-octene, and 1-hexene in the metathesis reaction at 27°C and 50°C in the presence of MoCl5/ SiO2-SnMe4 were examined and evaluated in detail. It was shown that experimental data comply well with the simple kinetic equation for the rate of formation of symmetrical olefins with allowance for the reverse reaction and catalyst deactivation: r = left( {k_1 \\cdot c_α - k_{ - 1} \\cdot c_s } right) \\cdot e^{ - k_d \\cdot tilde n_{tot} } . The coefficients for this equation were determined, and it was shown that these α-olefins had practically the same reactivity. It was found that reactivation in the course of metathesis took place due to the addition of a third component (silicon tetrachloride or germanium tetrachloride in combination with tetramethyltin) to a partially deactivated catalyst. The number of active centers was determined (5-6% of the amount of Mo) and the mechanisms of formation, deactivation, and reactivation were proposed for the binary and ternary catalytic systems. The role of individual components of the catalytic systems was revealed.

  7. Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Ikram Bou; Tlili, Nizar; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Rubio, Ana Gracia Pérez; Perez-Camino, Maria Carmen; Albouchi, Ali; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the content of tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, carotenoids, and volatile compounds in the kernel oils from six walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties. The levels of β-carotene ranged between 0.22 and 0.62 mg/kg, followed by lutein (0.01-0.06 mg/kg). The total content of tocopherol ranged from 186.5 to 436.2 mg/kg of the extracted oil and the major isoform in all samples was γ-tocopherol. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (974-1494 mg/kg) followed by campesterol then Δ-5-avenasterol. The major triterpenic alcohol was cycloartenol (226.4-532.1 mg/kg). Hexacosanol (9.71-28.15 mg/kg) was the major aliphatic alcohol. The detected volatile compounds were pentanal, hexanal, nonanal, 2-decenal and hexanol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties, which are probably due to genetic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and biotransformation of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge-Date Palm waste using Pyrolysis-GC/MS technique.

    PubMed

    El Fels, Loubna; Lemee, Laurent; Ambles, André; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    The behavior of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge activated with palm tree waste was studied for 6 months using Py-GC/MS. The main aliphatic compounds represented as doublet alkenes/alkanes can be classified into three groups. The first group consists of 11 alkenes (undecene, tridecene, pentadecene, hexadecene, heptadecene, octadecene, nonadecene, eicosene, uncosene, docosene, tricosene) and 15 alkanes (heptane, octane, nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, heptadecane, octadecane, nonadecane, eicosane, uncosane, docosane, and tricosane), which remain stable during the co-composting process. The stability of these compounds is related to their recalcitrance behavior. The second group consists of five alkenes (heptene, octene, nonene, decene, dodecene) and tridecane as a single alkane that decreases during co-composting. The decrease in these compounds is the combined result of their metabolism and their conversion into other compounds. The third group is constituted with tetradecene and hexadecane that increase during composting, which could be explained by accumulation of these compounds, which are released by the partial breakdown of the substrate. As a result, these molecules are incorporated or adsorbed in the structure of humic substances.

  9. Common gas phase molecules from fungi affect seed germination and plant health in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecophysiological roles in mediating inter-kingdom signaling with arthropods but less is known about their interactions with plants. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a model in order to test the physiological effects of 23 common vapor-phase fungal VOCs that included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and other chemical classes. After exposure to a shared atmosphere with the 23 individual VOCs for 72 hrs, seeds were assayed for rate of germination and seedling formation; vegetative plants were assayed for fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration. All but five of the VOCs tested (1-decene, 2-n-heptylfuran, nonanal, geosmin and -limonene) had a significant effect in inhibiting either germination, seedling formation or both. Seedling formation was entirely inhibited by exposure to 1-octen-3-one, 2-ethylhexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and butanal. As assayed by a combination of fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration, 2-ethylhexanal had a negative impact on two-week-old vegetative plants. Three other compounds (1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanal, and 2-heptylfuran) decreased fresh weight alone. Most of the VOCs tested did not change the fresh weight or chlorophyll concentration of vegetative plants. In summary, when tested as single compounds, fungal VOCs affected A. thaliana in positive, negative or neutral ways. PMID:25045602

  10. Lubricant shear thinning behavior correlated with variation of radius of gyration via molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pinzhi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Hualong; Ren, Ning; Lockwood, Frances E.; Wang, Q. Jane

    2017-08-01

    The shear thinning of a lubricant significantly affects lubrication film generation at high shear rates. The critical shear rate, defined at the onset of shear thinning, marks the transition of lubricant behaviors. It is challenging to capture the entire shear-thinning curve by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio or long calculation time at comparatively low shear rates (104-106 s-1), which is likely coincident with the shear rates of interest for lubrication applications. This paper proposes an approach that correlates the shear-thinning phenomenon with the change in the molecular conformation characterized by the radius of gyration of the molecule. Such a correlation should be feasible to capture the major mechanism of shear thinning for small- to moderate-sized non-spherical molecules, which is shear-induced molecular alignment. The idea is demonstrated by analyzing the critical shear rate for squalane (C30H62) and 1-decene trimer (C30H62); it is then implemented to study the behaviors of different molecular weight poly-α-olefin (PAO) structures. Time-temperature-pressure superpositioning (TTPS) is demonstrated and it helps further extend the ranges of the temperature and pressure for shear-thinning behavior analyses. The research leads to a relationship between molecular weight and critical shear rate for PAO structures, and the results are compared with those from the Einstein-Debye equation.

  11. Structurally Diverse Nitric Oxide-Releasing Poly(propylene Imine) Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan; Sun, Bin; Li, Chenghong

    2011-01-01

    Structurally diverse secondary amine-functionalized poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers capable of tunable nitric oxide (NO) release were synthesized in a straightforward, one-step manner using ring-opening or conjugate-addition reactions with propylene oxide (PO), styrene oxide (SO), acrylonitrile (ACN), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (average Mn = 480) (PEG) or 1,2-epoxy-9-decene (ED). N-Diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide donors were formed on the resulting secondary amine-functionalized G2–G5 PPI dendrimers by reaction with NO gas in basic solution. The NO storage and release kinetics for the resulting dendritic scaffolds were diverse (0.9–3.8 μmol NO/mg totals and 0.3 to 4.9 h half lives), illustrating the importance of the exterior chemical modification (e.g., steric environments, hydrophobicity, etc.) on diazeniumdiolate stability/decomposition. Tunable NO release was demonstrated by combining two donor systems on the exterior of one macromolecular scaffold. Additionally, a mathematical model was developed that allows for the simulation of dual NO release kinetics using the NO release data from the two single NO donor systems. The approaches described herein extend the range and scope of NO-releasing macromolecular scaffolds by unlocking a series of materials for use as dopants in biomedical polymers or stand-alone therapeutics depending on the exterior modification. PMID:22053127

  12. Exocrine secretions of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp.): clarification and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Zhang, Aijun; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2013-01-01

    Wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Arilus) are general predators, the females of which have reddish-orange subrectal glands (SGs) that are eversible like the osmeteria in some caterpillars. The rancid odor of Arilus and other reduviids actually comes from Brindley's glands, which in the North (A. cristatus) and South (A. carinatus) American wheel bugs studied emit similar blends of 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, and 2-methylbutanoic acids. The Arilus SG secretions studied here are absolutely species-specific. The volatile SG components of A. carinatus include (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, 4-oxo-nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4- or (Z,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-nonenal; whereas in A. cristatus the SG secretion contains beta-pinene, limonene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, thymol methyl ether, alpha-terpineol, bornyl acetate, methyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and farnesol. Arilus spp. SG secretions may be sex pheromones, but verification of this hypothesis requires further testing.

  13. Assessment of the oxidative stability of conventional and high-oleic sunflower oil by means of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Katharina Domitila; Kleeberg, Kim Karen; Jahreis, Gerhard; Fritsche, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) was used to identify in total 74 volatile lipid oxidation compounds altogether in thermally stressed conventional and high-oleic sunflower (HOSF) oil samples (in accelerated storage conditions for 14 days at 80°C). Out of the volatile compounds identified, six volatile compounds were selected as marker compounds for the assessment of lipid oxidation of sunflower (SF) and HOSF oils due to their low odour threshold values and fatty-rancid odour impression. Additionally, other oxidation parameters such as fatty acid composition, peroxide value (PV), anisidine value and tocopherol and tocotrienol composition were determined. Multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis) were applied to identify sensitive oxidation marker compounds. Preliminary results revealed that hexanal, E-2-heptenal, E-2-decenal and E,E-2,4-nonadienal were the most suitable in differentiating HOSF and SF oil varieties from each other and SF samples with differing oxidative properties. Differentiation of SF samples according to their volatile compound composition was done in accordance with the results from the well-known oil quality parameters (e.g. PV or fatty acid composition). In conclusion, the combination of volatile compound analysis with HS-SPME-GC and multivariate statistical methods provides a sensitive tool in differentiating conventional SF and HOSF oils by means of volatile lipid oxidation marker compounds.

  14. Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.

    PubMed

    Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

    2010-10-01

    Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Volatile Components Causing the Characteristic Flavor of Wagyu Beef (Japanese Black Cattle).

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Satsuki; Amano, Yohei; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2017-09-21

    To clarify the characteristic sweet aroma of Wagyu (Japanese Black Cattle), aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) was applied to the volatile fractions of Wagyu and Australia beefs. Some 20 odor-active peaks were detected, and 17 odorants were identified or tentatively identified. Among the perceived odorants, most of them were newly identified from the Wagyu beef. The main constituents of the potent odorants were aldehydes and ketones, which are known as the degradation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. In addition, the most potent odorant was trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, which is known to be the oxidation product of polyunsaturated acids, such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. Accordingly, these findings strongly suggested that the kind of fatty acid constituting lipids of the Wagyu plays an important role in the formation of the characteristic aroma of the Wagyu beef.

  16. Role of beta-oxidation enzymes in gamma-decalactone production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Waché, Y; Aguedo, M; Choquet, A; Gatfield, I L; Nicaud, J M; Belin, J M

    2001-12-01

    Some microorganisms can transform methyl ricinoleate into gamma-decalactone, a valuable aroma compound, but yields of the bioconversion are low due to (i) incomplete conversion of ricinoleate (C(18)) to the C(10) precursor of gamma-decalactone, (ii) accumulation of other lactones (3-hydroxy-gamma-decalactone and 2- and 3-decen-4-olide), and (iii) gamma-decalactone reconsumption. We evaluated acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase activity (encoded by the POX1 through POX5 genes) in Yarrowia lipolytica in lactone accumulation and gamma-decalactone reconsumption in POX mutants. Mutants with no acyl-CoA oxidase activity could not reconsume gamma-decalactone, and mutants with a disruption of pox3, which encodes the short-chain acyl-CoA oxidase, reconsumed it more slowly. 3-Hydroxy-gamma-decalactone accumulation during transformation of methyl ricinoleate suggests that, in wild-type strains, beta-oxidation is controlled by 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. In mutants with low acyl-CoA oxidase activity, however, the acyl-CoA oxidase controls the beta-oxidation flux. We also identified mutant strains that produced 26 times more gamma-decalactone than the wild-type parents.

  17. Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

    2007-01-01

    The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled.

  18. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guanshen; Ren, Jie; Ouyang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Liying; Wang, Mengze; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bolin; Zhu, Baoqing

    2016-10-02

    This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E)-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  19. Characterization of Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug) biogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their role in secondary organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Danielle; Dutcher, Dabrina; Raymond, Timothy

    2013-11-01

    The formation of aerosols is a key component in understanding cloud formation in the context of radiative forcings and global climate modeling. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are a significant source of aerosols, yet there is still much to be learned about their structures, sources, and interactions. The aims of this project were to identify the BVOCs found in the defense chemicals of the brown marmorated stink bug Halymorpha halys and quantify them using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and test whether oxidation of these compounds by ozone-promoted aerosol and cloud seed formation. The bugs were tested under two conditions: agitation by asphyxiation and direct glandular exposure. Tridecane, 2(5H)-furanone 5-ethyl, and (E)-2-decenal were identified as the three most abundant compounds. H. halys were also tested in the agitated condition in a smog chamber. It was found that in the presence of 100-180 ppm ozone, secondary aerosols do form. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) were used to characterize the secondary aerosols that formed. This reaction resulted in 0.23 microg/ bug of particulate mass. It was also found that these secondary organic aerosol particles could act as cloud condensation nuclei. At a supersaturation of 1%, we found a kappa value of 0.09. Once regional populations of these stink bugs stablilize and the populations estimates can be made, the additional impacts of their contribution to regional air quality can be calculated.

  20. Identification of potent odorants in Japanese green tea (Sen-cha).

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, K; Masuda, H

    1999-12-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of a Japanese green tea (Sen-cha) sample resulted in the detection of 36 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 10 and 5000. Thirty-six potent odorants were identified from 36 odor-active peaks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and/or the multidimensional GC/MS (MDGC/MS) system. Among these components, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-2-butanethiol (meaty), (Z)-1, 5-octadien-3-one (metallic), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (meaty), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (fatty), beta-damascone (honey-like), beta-damascenone (honey-like), (Z)-methyl jasmonate (floral), and indole (animal-like) showed the highest FD factors. Therefore, these odorants were the most important components of the Japanese green tea odor. In addition, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-2-butanethiol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, methional, 2-ethyl-3, 5-dimethylpyrazine, (Z)-4-decenal, beta-damascone, maltol, 5-octanolide, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, and 2-aminoacetophenone were newly identified compounds in the green tea.

  1. Role of β-Oxidation Enzymes in γ-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Waché, Yves; Aguedo, Mario; Choquet, Armelle; Gatfield, Ian L.; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Belin, Jean-Marc

    2001-01-01

    Some microorganisms can transform methyl ricinoleate into γ-decalactone, a valuable aroma compound, but yields of the bioconversion are low due to (i) incomplete conversion of ricinoleate (C18) to the C10 precursor of γ-decalactone, (ii) accumulation of other lactones (3-hydroxy-γ-decalactone and 2- and 3-decen-4-olide), and (iii) γ-decalactone reconsumption. We evaluated acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase activity (encoded by the POX1 through POX5 genes) in Yarrowia lipolytica in lactone accumulation and γ-decalactone reconsumption in POX mutants. Mutants with no acyl-CoA oxidase activity could not reconsume γ-decalactone, and mutants with a disruption of pox3, which encodes the short-chain acyl-CoA oxidase, reconsumed it more slowly. 3-Hydroxy-γ-decalactone accumulation during transformation of methyl ricinoleate suggests that, in wild-type strains, β-oxidation is controlled by 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. In mutants with low acyl-CoA oxidase activity, however, the acyl-CoA oxidase controls the β-oxidation flux. We also identified mutant strains that produced 26 times more γ-decalactone than the wild-type parents. PMID:11722925

  2. Fate in digestion in vitro of several food components, including some toxic compounds coming from omega-3 and omega-6 lipids.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Encarnación; Brandon, Esther F A; Blokland, Marco H; Guillén, María D

    2011-01-01

    In this study it was proved the formation of oxygenated alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes (OαβUAs) of 6, 7, 9 and 10 carbon atoms during the thermal treatment (190°C with aeration) of a commercial vegetable oil rich in omega-3 and omega-6 acyl groups, which also contained small amounts of added proteins and carbohydrates to produce barbecue aroma when heated. The OαβUAs detected by Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) were: 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-2-hexenal and 4,5-epoxy-2-heptenals, coming from omega-3 acyl groups; and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 4-oxo-2-nonenal and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenals, coming from omega-6 acyl groups. Mixtures of this oil, either thermodegraded or not, with standard food were submitted to an in vitro digestion model. The study of the digestion products obtained revealed that OαβUAs remained unaltered, being bioaccessible in the gastrointestinal tract and so able to reach the systemic circulation. Besides, it was evidenced that during digestion Maillard, esterification and oxidation reactions take place. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Essential oils of Retama raetam from Libya: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Awen, Bahlul Zayed Sh; Unnithan, C Ramachandra; Ravi, Subban; Kermagy, Adel; Sasikumar, J M; Khrbash, Amal S; Ekreem, Wafa Lutfi

    2011-05-01

    Retama raetam (Forssk) Webb & Berthel is well known in the folk medicine of North and East Mediterranean regions for the treatment of microbial infections. The powdered leaves are used to heal circumcision wounds and used as an antiseptic for wounds, skin rash and pruritus. In this study, to validate this antiseptic property, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the flowers of R. raetam was evaluated. The oil was obtained using hydrodistillation and was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity was achieved using disc diffusion and broth dilution assay against six bacteria species. Analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of β-linalool (51%), 2-decen-1-ol (6.6%) and limonene (7.4%) as the major components. The results showed significant activity against microorganisms, especially Staphylococcus aureus, with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 5.0 mm and 3.0 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The results on the antibacterial activity provide scientific support for the use of these plants in traditional herbal preparations.

  4. Substrate range and enantioselectivity of epoxidation reactions mediated by the ethene-oxidising Mycobacterium strain NBB4.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Samantha; McCarl, Victoria; Holmes, Andrew J; Coleman, Nicholas V; Rutledge, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    Mycobacterium strain NBB4 is an ethene-oxidising micro-organism isolated from estuarine sediments. In pursuit of new systems for biocatalytic epoxidation, we report the capacity of strain NBB4 to convert a diverse range of alkene substrates to epoxides. A colorimetric assay based on 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine) has been developed to allow the rapid characterisation and quantification of biocatalytic epoxide synthesis. Using this assay, we have demonstrated that ethene-grown NBB4 cells epoxidise a wide range of alkenes, including terminal (propene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 1-octene and 1-decene), cyclic (cyclopentene, cyclohexene), aromatic (styrene, indene) and functionalised substrates (allyl alcohol, dihydropyran and isoprene). Apparent specific activities have been determined and range from 2.5 to 12.0 nmol min(-1) per milligram of cell protein. The enantioselectivity of epoxidation by Mycobacterium strain NBB4 has been established using styrene as a test substrate; (R)-styrene oxide is produced in enantiomeric excesses greater than 95%. Thus, the ethene monooxygenase of Mycobacterium NBB4 has a broad substrate range and promising enantioselectivity, confirming its potential as a biocatalyst for alkene epoxidation.

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Primary and Secondary Deuterium Kinetic Isotope Effects for Epoxidation of Alkenes and Ethylene with m-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Terry; Slebocka-Tilk, H.; Brown, R. S.

    1999-01-08

    The secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effect (DKIE) for the epoxidation of ethylene and d(4)-ethylene by m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (MCPBA) is determined to be 0.83, or 0.95/alpha-H. The second-order rate constants for MCPBA and MCPBA-O-D epoxidation of a variety of alkenes that differ in the steric access to the double bond (anti-sesquinorbornene (2), tetramethylethylene (3), adamantylideneadamantane (4), 7-norbornylidene-7'-norbornane (5), bis(bicyclo[3.3.1.]non-9-ylidene) (6), bis(homoadamantane) (7), cyclohexene (8), 1-octene (9), trans-5-decene (10) and 2-methyl-1-pentene (11)) have been determined in dichloroethane at 25 degrees C using UV kinetics, and the primary DKIE, k(OH)/k(OD), is 1.05 +/- 0.05 in all cases. By comparison of the rates of epoxidation of sterically encumbered alkenes, it is suggested that the spiro epoxidation transition state is favored over a planar one. The products of the epoxidation of anti-sesquinorbornene are determined to be the epoxide and a cis-hydroxy ester, the latter most probably being formed by acid-catalyzed ring opening of the epoxide by in situ-produced m-chlorobenzoic acid produced in situ to form a beta-hydroxy carbocation and carboxylate ion pair that collapses to product.

  6. Pollination of Cypripedium plectrochilum (Orchidaceae) by Lasioglossum spp. (Halictidae): the roles of generalist attractants versus restrictive floral architecture.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Luo, Y; Bernhardt, P; Kou, Y; Perner, H

    2008-03-01

    The pollination of Cypripedium plectrochilum Franch. was studied in the Huanglong Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China. Although large bees (Bombus, Apis), small bees (Ceratina, Lasioglossum), ants (Formica sp.), true flies (Diptera) and a butterfly were all found to visit the flowers, only small bees, including three Lasioglossum spp. (L. viridiclaucum, L. sichuanense and L. sp.; Halictidae) and one Ceratina sp., carried the flower's pollen and contacted the receptive stigma. Measurements of floral architecture showed that interior floral dimensions best fit the exterior dimensions of Lasioglossum spp., leading to the consistent deposition and stigmatic reception of dorsally-placed, pollen smears. The floral fragrance was dominated by one ketone, 3-methyl-Decen-2-one. The conversion rate of flowers into capsules in open (insect) pollinated flowers at the site was more than 38%. We conclude that, while pigmentation patterns and floral fragrance attracted a wide variety of insect foragers, canalization of interior floral dimensions ultimately determined the spectrum of potential pollinators in this generalist, food-mimic flower. A review of the literature showed that the specialised mode of pollination-by-deceit in C. plectrochilum, limiting pollinators to a narrow and closely related guild of 'dupes' is typical for other members of this genus.

  7. New Anthraquinone Derivatives from Geosmithia lavendula

    PubMed Central

    Malak, Lourin G.; Bishay, Daoud W.; Abdel-Baky, Afaf M.; Moharram, Ahmed M.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    A phytochemical study of Geosmithia lavendula Pitt led to the isolation of three new anthraquinones: 1-acetyl-2,4,6,8-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1), 2-acetyl-1,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (2), and 1-acetyl-2,4,5,6,7-pentahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), as well as another new compound named didodecyl thiodipropionate (propionic acid, 3,3-sulfinyl di-1,1′-didodecyl ester) (4), along with ten known compounds: 1-acetyl-2,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (rhodolamprometrin) (5), 1-acetyl-2,4,5,7,8-pentahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (6), (22E)-ergosta-6,22-diene-3β,5α,8α-triol, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, oleic acid, D-mannitol, palmitic acid, stearic acid, cis-vaccenic acid and 2-decenal. The structures of the isolated metabolites were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Compound 1 exhibited moderate activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with an IC50 value of 16.1 μg/mL. PMID:23513726

  8. Protective effect of phenolic compounds on carbonyl-amine reactions produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Delgado, Rosa M; Zamora, Rosario

    2017-08-15

    The degradation of phenylalanine initiated by 2-pentenal, 2,4-heptadienal, 4-oxo-2-pentenal, 4,5-epoxy-2-heptenal, or 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal in the presence of phenolic compounds was studied to determine the structure-activity relationship of phenolic compounds on the protection of amino compounds against modifications produced by lipid-derived carbonyls. The obtained results showed that flavan-3-ols were the most efficient phenolic compounds followed by single m-diphenols. The effectiveness of these compounds was found to be related to their ability to trap rapidly the carbonyl compound, avoiding in this way the reaction of the carbonyl compound with the amino acid. The ability of flavan-3-ols for this reaction is suggested to be related to the high electronic density existing in some of the aromatic carbons of their ring A. This is the first report showing that carbonyl-phenol reactions involving lipid-derived reactive carbonyls can be produced more rapidly than carbonyl-amine reactions, therefore providing a satisfactory protection of amino compounds.

  9. Changes in the key odorants of Italian Hazelnuts ( Coryllus avellana L. Var. Tonda Romana) induced by roasting.

    PubMed

    Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2010-05-26

    Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis on aroma distillates isolated from either raw Italian hazelnuts or a roasted hazelnut material produced thereof revealed 37 odor-active compounds in the raw nuts, whereas 46 aroma compounds were detected in the roasted nut material. 2-Methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine and 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as well as 5-methyl-4-heptanone predominated with the highest flavor dilution factors in the raw nuts, whereas 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 2-furfurylthiol, and 2-thenylthiol as well as (Z)-2-octenal, (Z)-2-nonenal, and (Z)-2-decenal showed the highest odor activities in the roasted nuts. These odorants, as well as several others, were previously unknown in hazelnuts. In addition, the intensely seasoning-like smelling 3,5,5'-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was identified for the first time as a food aroma compound on the basis of a newly developed synthetic route and NMR measurements.

  10. Identification the Key Odorants in Different Parts of Hyla Rabbit Meat via Solid Phase Microextraction Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuejie; He, Zhifei; Lv, Jingzhi; Zhang, En; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the volatile compounds of hind leg, foreleg, abdomen and Longissimus dorsi in both male and female Hyla rabbit meat by solid phase microextraction tandem with gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and to seek out the key odorants via calculating the odor activity value and principal component analysis. Cluster analysis is used to study the flavor pattern differences in four edible parts. Sixty three volatile compounds were detected, including 23 aldehydes, 4 alcohols, 5 ketones, 11 esters, 5 aromatics, 8 acids and 7 hydrocarbons. Among them, 6 aldehydes and 3 acids were identified as the potential key odorants according to the ratio of concentration and threshold. The contents of volatile compounds in male Hyla rabbit meat were significantly higher than those in female one (p<0.05). The results of principal component analysis showed that the first two principal component cumulative variance contributions reach 87.69%; Hexanal, octanal, 2-nonenal, 2-decenal and decanal were regard as the key odorants of Hyla rabbit meat by combining odor activity value and principal component analysis. Therefore volatile compounds of rabbit meat can be effectively characterized. Cluster analysis indicated that volatile chemical compounds of Longissimus dorsi were significantly different from other three parts, which provide reliable information for rabbit processing industry and for possible future sale.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Artemisia umbelliformis Lam, an endangered aromatic species in Southern French Alps, influence plant P and essential oil contents.

    PubMed

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Deprêtre, Nicolas; Koszela, Nathalie; Chambon, Catherine; Gianinazzi, Silvio

    2011-08-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi of Artemisia umbelliformis, investigated in natural and cultivated sites in the Southern Alps of France, showed typical structures (arbuscules, vesicles, hyphae) as well as spores and mycelia in its rhizosphere. Several native AM fungi belonging to different Glomeromycota genera were identified as colonizers of A. umbelliformis roots, including Glomus tenue, Glomus intraradices, G. claroideum/etunicatum and a new Acaulospora species. The use of the highly mycorrhizal species Trifolium pratense as a companion plant impacted positively on mycorrhizal colonization of A. umbelliformis under greenhouse conditions. The symbiotic performance of an alpine microbial community including native AM fungi used as inoculum on A. umbelliformis was evaluated in greenhouse conditions by comparison with mycorrhizal responses of two other alpine Artemisia species, Artemisia glacialis and Artemisia genipi Weber. Contrary to A. genipi Weber, both A. umbelliformis and A. glacialis showed a significant increase of P concentration in shoots. Volatile components were analyzed by GC-MS in shoots of A. umbelliformis 6 months after inoculation. The alpine microbial inoculum increased significantly the percentage of E-β-ocimene and reduced those of E-2-decenal and (E,E)-2-4-decadienal indicating an influence of alpine microbial inoculum on essential oil production. This work provides practical indications for the use of native AM fungi for A. umbelliformis field culture.

  12. Local Light-Induced Modification of the Inside of Microfluidic Glass Chips.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rui Rijo; Pujari, Sidharam P; Lange, Stefanie C; Sen, Rickdeb; Vrouwe, Elwin Xander; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-03-15

    The ability to locally functionalize the surface of glass allows for myriad biomedical and chemical applications. This would be the case if the surface functionalization can be induced using light with wavelengths for which standard glass is almost transparent. To this aim, we present the first example of a photochemical modification of hydrogen-terminated glass (H-glass) with terminal alkenes. Both flat glass surfaces and the inside of glass microchannels were modified with a well-defined, covalently attached organic monolayer using a range of wavelengths, including sub-band-gap 302 nm ultraviolet light. A detailed characterization thereof was conducted by measurements of the static water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning Auger microscopy (SAM). Germanium attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (GATR-FTIR) indicates that the mechanism of the surface modification proceeds via an anti-Markovnikov substitution. Reacting H-glass with 10-trifluoro-acetamide-1-decene (TFAAD) followed by basic hydrolysis affords the corresponding primary amine-terminated monolayer, enabling additional functionalization of the substrate. Furthermore, we show the successful formation of a photopatterned amine layer by the specific attachment of fluorescent nanoparticles in very discrete regions. Finally, a microchannel was photochemically patterned with a functional linker allowing for surface-directed liquid flow. These results demonstrate that H-glass can be modified with a functional tailor-made organic monolayer, has highly tunable wetting properties, and displays significant potential for further applications.

  13. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) sensu lato (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) no Brasil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Os ácaros tenuipalpídeos ou ácaros planos são importantes fitófagos constituintes do agroecossistema e florestas semitropical e tropical (JEPPSON et al., 1975; HOY, 2011), sendo que algumas espécies estão associadas à transmissão de fitovírus (CHAGAS et al., 2001 e 2003; CHILDERS et al., 2001; KITAJ...

  14. [Linear lichen planopilaris of the face].

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Nadia G; Luna, Paula C; Etcheverry, Mauro D; Nocito, Mabel J; Castellanos Posse, Maria L; Marchesi, Carolina; Garuti, Romina A; Carmona Cuello, Lucía E; Carabajal, Graciela; Mazzini, Miguel A

    2010-07-15

    Linear lichen planopilaris of the face is a rare variant of lichen plano- pilaris. Asymptomatic follicular papules in a linear configuration are the characteristic clinical features. The incidence is still unknown, but there are a few cases reported exclusively in male adults. We present the case of a fourteen-year-old girl with linear lichen planopilaris of the face. Improvement was obtained with the use of tacrolimus 0.03 percent ointment.

  15. Construction and Tests of an Ebert-Fastie Spectrograph with Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, O.; Furenlid, L.; Cornejo, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se presenta el desarrollo, , pruebas de laboratoric y observacionales de un espectr6grafo tipo Ebert-Fastie fuera del plano con fibras 6pticas. Tambien se dan algunos resultados observacionales. ABSTRACT. We present the development, laboratory and observational tests of an spectrograph of the off-plane Ebert-Fastie type with optical fibers, we also give some observational results. Key words: INSTRUMENTS - SPECTROSCOPY - RADIAL VELOCITIES

  16. Real Image Visual Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    cylindrical lenses, each being a plano convex lens, see Figure 8. The lenticular sheet is transparent, the front face presents Figure 8. Lenticular screen...two mutually perpendicular line images are formed. Reflected rays in the tangential plane focus at a point t and the reflected rays in the sagital plane...perpendicular to the tangential plane) focus at a point s. In the ODD the sagital rays focus at the image plane therefore the sagital astigmatism is

  17. Interferometric study on Gouy phase anomaly of microlens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myun-Sik; Scharf, Toralf; Noell, Wilfried; Herzig, Hans Peter; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the Gouy phase anomaly of light in the focus of refractive plano-convex microlens arrays by using longitudinal-differential (LD) interferometry and a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We put emphasis on determining the amount of the Gouy phase shift for the line focus of the cylindrical lens and the point focus of the spherical lens. We discuss additional phase structures caused by diffraction, which lead to the discrepancy from the conventional Gouy phase shift.

  18. Design and construction of a spin-wave lens

    PubMed Central

    Toedt, Jan-Niklas; Mundkowski, Mark; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present the focusing of a Damon-Eshbach wave in a Ni80Fe20 film by a shaped, discrete transition of the film thickness. We devised an algorithm to determine the required shape of a spin-wave lens. Due to the anisotropy three geometries qualify as plano-convex lenses. One lens geometry has been realized experimentally and the emitted spin-wave pattern is investigated by time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy. PMID:27650652

  19. Export of the Virulence Factors from Shigella Flexneri and Characterization of the mxi loci

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-20

    moved across the cytoplasmic membrane in the absence of any processing event (e.g., a·hemolysin, IpaA·O, and Yops , Table 1). Hence. protein ...which shows homology to the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein , Yop M. While this excreted Y. pestis antigen has been characterized as...locus results in loss of Yersinia outer membrane proteins ( Yops ) Hand M in the outer membrane and their accumulation within the bacteria (Plano, et

  20. Penetration of high-intensity Er:YAG laser light emitted by IR hollow optical fibers with sealing caps in water.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Shi, Yi-Wei; Endo, Masashi; Ito, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Jelinkova, Helena

    2004-04-20

    The penetration depth in water was measured for Er:YAG laser light in a high density relevant to clinical applications. Various types of focusing elements were used to guide the light efficiently. We found that the transmission distance depended strongly on the beam shape in the water. When we used a plano-convex type of focusing cap, the penetration depth was larger than that when a dome- or ball-type cap were used.

  1. Barlow Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    An additional lens that increases the effective focal length and magnification of a telescope. It is a negative diverging lens (either concave on both sides or, more usually, `plano-concave'—flat on one side and concave on the other) that is placed in the converging cone of light a short distance in front of the focal plane of the objective or primary mirror. By decreasing the angle at which the ...

  2. Determination of the Tribological Fundamentals of Solid Lubricated Ceramics. Volume 3. Appendices P through II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Sciences Center; Tucson, AZ, Hughes P.O. M9-315734-KKD ................................ AAI-AA18 APPENDIX BB - K.V. ravi, et al. " Thin Film Diamond...BB I-BB37 APPENDIX CC - L.S. Piano, S. Yokota, and K.V. Ravi, " Thin Film Diamond...CCI-CCI6 APPENDIX DD - L.S. Plano, S. Yokota, and K.V. Ravi, " Thin Film Diamond Deposition on

  3. Design and construction of a spin-wave lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toedt, Jan-Niklas; Mundkowski, Mark; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present the focusing of a Damon-Eshbach wave in a Ni80Fe20 film by a shaped, discrete transition of the film thickness. We devised an algorithm to determine the required shape of a spin-wave lens. Due to the anisotropy three geometries qualify as plano-convex lenses. One lens geometry has been realized experimentally and the emitted spin-wave pattern is investigated by time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy.

  4. Simultaneous compression of the passively mode-locked pulsewidth and pulse train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Xiang-Chun; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Zhao-Qing; Sun, Zhan-Ao; Yang, Fu-Min; Tan, De-Tong; Chen, Wan-Zhen; Lu, Wen-Hu; Xiao, Chi-Kun

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous compression of the passively mode-locked pulse width and pulse train have been achieved by using a plano-convex unstable resonator hybrided by a nonlinear Sagnac ring interferometer. The greater than 30 mJ single pulse energy of a lone oscillator and less than or equal to 10 ps pulsewidth have been obtained. Using this system, the LAGEOS and ETALON satellites' laser ranging have been performed successfully.

  5. Design and construction of a spin-wave lens.

    PubMed

    Toedt, Jan-Niklas; Mundkowski, Mark; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang

    2016-09-21

    In this work, we present the focusing of a Damon-Eshbach wave in a Ni80Fe20 film by a shaped, discrete transition of the film thickness. We devised an algorithm to determine the required shape of a spin-wave lens. Due to the anisotropy three geometries qualify as plano-convex lenses. One lens geometry has been realized experimentally and the emitted spin-wave pattern is investigated by time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy.

  6. Properties of caustics produced by a positive lens: meridional rays.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis; Moreno, Ivan

    2010-10-01

    We study the formation of the caustic surfaces formed in both convex-plane and plano-convex spherical lenses by considering a plane wave incident on the lens along the optical axis. Using the caustic formulas and a paraxial approximation we derive analytical expressions to evaluate the spherical aberration to third order. Furthermore, we apply the formulas to evaluate the circle of least confusion for a positive lens.

  7. Cultural Resource Investigation of the Grand Forks/East Grand Forks Urban Study and the East Grand Forks Flood Control Project,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    However, Saylor (1975) identified a Paleo-Indian site dated from 10,250 to 9525 B.P. along a beach of Lake Agassiz in Manitoba. Of the Plano culture, no...Brown’s Val- ley in association with a burial in a gravel pit laid down the .K. Tintah beach stage of Lake Agassiz (Ibid.). Saylor (1975) reported...Trunk Highway Archaeologist, Minnesota Historical Society, Personal Communication, November. Phillips, Gary 1980 Director, Red River Valley Historical

  8. SPEEDS: An Approach to Support Programming Environments Using Expert Database Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Flute, Bassoon, Percussion, Harpsichord Minutes and Seconds Available. Overture, Symphony, Concerto, Ballet, Tone Poem, Recital, Suite, Solo...sinst:"Select the instrument(s) you would like to feature in this block" CHOICES sinst: Piano, Strings, Brass, Guitar, Organ, Winds, Harpsichord ...Category < Classic < Contemporary Ballet Chamber piece Recital (e~ect the instrument(s) Plano < Guitar Harpsichord Oboe Bass you would

  9. Dioptric changes in eyes with reversed intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masahiro; Tsuji, Hideyuki; Ueda, Tetsuo; Kanzaki, Mamiko; Hara, Yoshiaki

    2005-03-01

    To theoretically calculate refractive changes in eyes with reversed intraocular lenses (IOLs). Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan. With the ray-tracing method, the refractive changes in a theoretical eye model with a reversed IOL in the capsular bag were calculated. Data for 3 models, anterior biconvex (MA60AC, Alcon), posterior biconvex (MA60BM, Alcon), and convex plano (UV2565T, Menicon), were provided by the manufacturer and used in the analysis. Using the assumption that the axial length varied from 22 to 27 mm, the anterior-biconvex IOLs elicited small refractive changes when reversed. The posterior-biconvex IOLs elicited a significant myopic shift (up to 0.90 diopter [D]) when reversed. The convex-plano IOLs elicited a significant hyperopic shift (up to 2.01 D) when reversed. Anterior-biconvex IOLs with similar anterior and posterior radii of curvature will not cause large diopter surprises when reversed. High-power posterior-convex IOLs will cause significant myopic diopter surprises when reversed. Both these changes shift toward myopic if the postoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD) becomes shallow. Medium- to high-power convex-plano IOLs will cause a large hyperopic shift when reversed. This hyperopic shift decreases if the postoperative ACD becomes shallower.

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    López-Fuenzalida, Antonio; Rodríguez Canales, Carolina; Reyes Ponce, Álvaro; Contreras Molina, Ángela; Fernández Quezada, Javiera; Aguirre Polanco, Carolina

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: dado el incremento del sobrepeso y obesidad infantil, es relevante estudiar no solo las consecuencias metabólicas, sino también aquellas de índole musculoesqueléticas que pueden afectar la funcionalidad motriz, como es el pie plano, en esta población. Objetivo: identificar la asociación entre el estado nutricional y la prevalencia de pie plano en niños y niñas chilenos de 6 a 10 años. Métodos: el z-score del índice de masa corporal (IMC) y el registro y análisis de las huellas plantares según la metodología de Hernández-Corvo fue llevado a cabo en 388 escolares (52,3% niñas). Un test de diferencia para dos proporciones fue utilizado para evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos. Se considera una significancia estadística con p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: la prevalencia del exceso de peso fue de más del 40%. Esta prevalencia fue más alta en las niñas (47,8%) que en los niños (42,7%). La prevalencia de pie plano en todos los niños fue del 17%, presentando valores más elevados el pie derecho (18,3%) que el izquierdo (15,7%). Hay un incremento significativo de la prevalencia de pie plano en los niños obesos en relación con los niños con sobrepeso y normopeso. Conclusión: el estado nutricional está asociado con incrementos en la prevalencia de pie plano en niños. En la población infantil de 6 a 10 años de edad, la obesidad está asociada con la alteración morfológica del pie.

  11. Cephalometric Evaluation of Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Mouth Breathing.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Helena Afonso; Furtado, Ivo Ãlvares; Silva, Francisco Salvado; Ustrell Torrent, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Os ortodontistas tratam frequentemente crianças com respiração oral. O objectivo deste estudo foi avaliar as posições dentárias, efeitos esqueléticos e espaço aéreo da faringe, causados pela respiração bucal em crianças com rinite alérgica crónica, comparando com grupo de controlo de padrão respiratório normal.Material e Métodos: Foram avaliadas setenta crianças caucasianas do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (Lisboa), entre Setembro/ 2009 e Fevereiro/2013. O grupo de estudo compreendia 35 crianças com rinite alérgica crónica de ambos os géneros, idades entre 5 e 14 anos, reação positiva a aeroalergénios, respiração bucal e má-oclusão dentária. O grupo controlo incluiu 35 crianças, da mesma idade, ambos os géneros, com respiração nasal e má-oclusão dentária, que recorreram ao departamento de ortodontia. Utilizaram-semedidas de Ricketts, Steiner e análise de McNamara. Foi aplicado teste estatístico t de Student.Resultados: Verificaram-se diferenças estatísticas significativas entre respiradores orais e nasais, respectivamente quanto à altura facial inferior (49,1/45,9 mm), ângulo entre o plano de Frankfurt e o plano mandibular (30,1/26,9º), ângulo entre a linha Sela-Nasion e o plano oclusal (17,3/15º), comprimento maxilar (78,4/82,4 mm) e mandibular (102,4/107 mm), overbite (0,8/3,1mm) e overjet (4/4,7 mm).Discussão: A comparação entre os grupos demonstrou que as crianças com rinite alérgica e respiração oral apresentam maior altura facial inferior, maior ângulo entre o plano de Frankfurt e o plano mandibular e maior ângulo entre a linha Sela-Nasion e o plano oclusal. Este grupo apresentou também menor comprimento da maxila e da mandíbula, menor overbite e diminuição do espaço aéreo respiratório superior.Conclusões: As crianças com rinite alérgica e respiração oral têm faces mais longas, maxilas e mandíbulas mais curtas e espaço aéreo faríngeo menor. Não existem diferen

  12. [Quality analysis of observational studies on pelvic organ prolapse in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y T; Tao, L Y; He, H J; Han, J S

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of observational studies on pelvic organ prolapse in China. Methods: The checklist of strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement was applied to evaluate the observational studies. The articles were searched in the SinoMed database using the terms: prolapse, uterine prolapse, cystocele, rectal prolapse and pelvic floor; limited to Chinese core journals in obstetrics and gynecology from January 1996 to December 2015. With two 10-year groups (1996-2005 and 2006-2015), the χ(2) test was used to evaluate inter-group differences. Results: (1) A total of 386 observational studies were selected, including 15.5%(60/386) of case-control studies, 80.6%(311/386) of cohort studies and 3.9% (15/386) of cross-sectional studies. (2) There were totally 22 items including 34 sub-items in the checklist. There were 17 sub-items (50.0%, 17/34) had a reporting ratio less than 50% in all of aticles, including: 1a (study's design) 3.9% (15/386), 6a (participants) 24.6% (95/386), 6b (matched studies) 0 (0/386), 9 (bias) 8.3% (32/386), 10 (study size) 3.9%, 11 (quantitative variables) 41.2% (159/386), 12b-12e (statistical methods in detail) 0-2.6% (10/386), 13a (numbers of individuals at each stage of study) 18.9% (73/386), 13b (reasons for non-participation at each stage) 18.9%, 13c (flow diagram) 0, 16b and 16c (results of category boundaries and relative risk) 9.6% (37/386) and 0, 19 (limitations) 31.6% (122/386), 22 (funding) 20.5% (79/386). (3) The quality of articles published in the two decades (1996-2005 and 2006-2015) were compared, and 38.2%(13/34) of sub-items had been significantly improved in the second 10-year (all P<0.05). The improved items were as follows: 1b (integrity of abstract), 2 (background/rationale), 6a (participants), 7 (variables), 8 (data sources/measurement), 9 (bias), 11 (quantitative variables), 12a (statistical methods), 17 (other analyses), 18 (key results), 19 (limitations

  13. Prescribing indicators at primary health care centers within the WHO African region: a systematic analysis (1995-2015).

    PubMed

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Brhlikova, Petra; Pollock, Allyson M

    2016-08-22

    Rational medicine use is essential to optimize quality of healthcare delivery and resource utilization. We aim to conduct a systematic review of changes in prescribing patterns in the WHO African region and comparison with WHO indicators in two time periods 1995-2005 and 2006-2015. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, Africa-Wide Nipad, Africa Journals Online (AJOL), Google scholar and International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) Bibliography databases to identify primary studies reporting prescribing indicators at primary healthcare centres (PHCs) in Africa. This was supplemented by a manual search of retrieved references. We assessed the quality of studies using a 14-point scoring system modified from the Downs and Black checklist with inclusions of recommendations in the WHO guidelines. Forty-three studies conducted in 11 African countries were included in the overall analysis. These studies presented prescribing indicators based on a total 141,323 patient encounters across 572 primary care facilities. The results of prescribing indicators were determined as follows; average number of medicines prescribed per patient encounter = 3.1 (IQR 2.3-4.8), percentage of medicines prescribed by generic name =68.0 % (IQR 55.4-80.3), Percentage of encounters with antibiotic prescribed =46.8 % (IQR 33.7-62.8), percentage of encounters with injection prescribed =25.0 % (IQR 18.7-39.5) and the percentage of medicines prescribed from essential medicines list =88.0 % (IQR 76.3-94.1). Prescribing indicators were generally worse in private compared with public facilities. Analysis of prescribing across two time points 1995-2005 and 2006-2015 showed no consistent trends. Prescribing indicators for the African region deviate significantly from the WHO reference targets. Increased collaborative efforts are urgently needed to improve medicine prescribing practices in Africa with the aim of enhancing the optimal utilization of

  14. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves.

  15. Optimization of antifungal activity of Aeollanthus heliotropioides oliv essential oil and Time Kill Kinetic Assay.

    PubMed

    Ngo Mback, M N L; Agnaniet, H; Nguimatsia, F; Jazet Dongmo, P-M; Hzounda Fokou, J-B; Bakarnga-Via, I; Fekam Boyom, F; Menut, C

    2016-09-01

    The limitations encountered in the management of fungal infections are due to the resistance, high toxicity, and overuse of conventional antifungal drugs. For bringing solutions, the antifungal activity of Aeollanthus heliotropioides essential oil will be evaluated and optimized. The aerial parts of A. heliotropioides were harvested and essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition was determined using gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The sensitivity of fungal strains was determined using broth microdilution method. The fungicidal parameters were checked by viability assay using methylene blue dye. The Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index was determined according the two-dimensional checkboard methods. The efficiency of the simulated optimum concentrations confirmed experimentally on American type culture collection strains, through the Time Kill Kinetic Study. The yield of extraction of essential oil was 0.1%. The major compounds were linalool (38.5%), Z-α-farnesene (25.1%), 9-hexa-decen-1-ol (13.9%) saturated/unsaturated massoia and γ-lactones (4.5%). The MIC of extract on yeast isolates ranged from 0.6mg/mL to 5mg/mL. The combination of essential oil with thymol leads mainly to synergistic effects (0.5≤FICI). The optimums of essential oil (1.6±0.4μl/mL) and thymol (0.6±0.1mg/mL) revealed a total inhibition of yeast after 120 and 180minutes according to the yeasts strains used. This study highlights the in vitro antifungal activity of A. heliotropioides essential oil and it synergistic effect with thymol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolism of ginger component [6]-shogaol in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huadong; Soroka, Dominique; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2013-05-01

    There are limited data on the metabolism of [6]-shogaol (6S), a major bioactive component of ginger. This study demonstrates metabolism of 6S in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. The in vitro metabolism of 6S was compared among five species using liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. Following incubations with 6S, three major reductive metabolites 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-3-ol (M6), 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M9), and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M11), as well as two new oxidative metabolites (1E,4E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-deca-1,4-dien-3-one (M14) and (E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-dec-1-en-3-one (M15) were found in all species. The kinetic parameters of M6 in liver microsomes from each respective species were quantified using Michaelis-Menten theory. A broad CYP-450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, precluded the formation of oxidative metabolites, M14 and M15, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an aldo-keto reductase inhibitor, eradicated the formation of the reductive metabolites M6, M9, and M11 in all species. Metabolites M14 and M15 were tested for cancer cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis and both showed substantial activity, with M14 displaying greater potency than 6S. We conclude that 6S is metabolized extensively in mammalian species mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human, and that there are significant interspecies differences to consider when planning preclinical trials toward 6S chemoprevention. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Preliminary assessment of the potential role of urbanization in the distribution of carbamate and organophosphate resistant populations of Culex species in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A; Froeschl, Guenter; Boakye, Daniel; Rinder, Heinz

    2015-01-08

    Besides its role as a pathogen vector, Culex species also indirectly promotes the transmission of malaria if the use of bed nets or indoor residual spraying is discontinued due to a lack of insecticide efficacy against it. A recent survey revealed widespread occurrence of pyrethroid resistance among urban populations of this mosquito in Ghana. In order to plan and implement insecticide-based resistance management strategies, this study was carried out to assess resistance status of Culex species to organophosphate and carbamate in urban areas in Ghana and the possible mechanisms involved as well as environmental factors associated with its distribution. Mosquito larvae were sampled from various land use and ecological settings and in different seasons. In adults, susceptibility to organophosphates (fenitrothion, malathion) and carbamates (propoxur, bendiocarb) were determined. Mixed function oxidase (MFO) and α- and β-esterase assays, as well as a PCR diagnostic assay to determine ace1 mutation were performed in individual mosquitoes. Culex quinquefasciatus as well as C. decens and other unidentified Culex species were found breeding in polluted water bodies in the study sites. Across all sites and seasons, carbamate induced mortality was 94.1% ± 15.4 whereas mortality caused by organophosphate was 99.5% ± 2.2. In addition, ace1 mutation and high levels of esterases were detected in some of the mosquito populations. There was a strong correlation between susceptibility status of the mosquitoes and the level of absorbance of β-esterase (Pearson r=- 0.841, p=0.004). The study found low prevalence of resistance to carbamate and organophosphate insecticides among Culex species from Ghana. However, there were populations with ace1 mutations and high levels of esterases, which can confer high resistance to these classes of insecticides. Thus, it is important to monitor activities or behaviour that has the potential to select for carbamate and organophosphate

  18. Induction of a wide range of C(2-12) aldehydes and C(7-12) acyloins in the kidney of Wistar rats after treatment with a renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate.

    PubMed

    Toyokuni, S; Luo, X P; Tanaka, T; Uchida, K; Hiai, H; Lehotay, D C

    1997-01-01

    An iron chelate, ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA), induces renal proximal tubular necrosis associated with lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage that finally leads to a high incidence of renal cell carcinoma in rodents. In the present study, we investigated what kinds of C(2-12) saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and C(7-12) acyloins, metabolites of saturated aldehydes, are produced in the kidney and liver within 24 h after single i.p. administration of 15 mg Fe/kg of Fe-NTA, or after repeated (1 or 3 wk) i.p. administration of 5-10 mg Fe/kg of Fe-NTA. Amounts of twenty one aldehydes and five acyloins were determined by capillary column gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas. Most of the aldehydes and all the acyloins measured revealed a significant dose-dependent increase 1 to 3 h after single administration in the kidney, among which 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) showed the highest increase (27.3-fold) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was the most abundant aldehyde (2.40 nmol/100 mg wet tissue). In the liver, however, the increase in aldehydes and acyloins was less prominent. After repeated administration of Fe-NTA, only 9 aldehydes (ethanal; furfural; trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal; nonanal; trans-2,cis-6-nonadienal; HNE; decanal; trans-4,cis-4-decenal; MDA) and 4 acyloins (3-hydroxyheptan-2-one; 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one; 3-hydroxynonan-2-one; 3-hydroxydodecan-2-one) showed a significant increase. Immunohistochemistry further demonstrated an increased amount of HNE-modified and MDA-modified proteins in the renal proximal tubules after repeated Fe-NTA administration. Some of the aldehydes measured such as HNE and MDA are reportedly cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic. Accumulation of these aldehydes may play a role in this renal carcinogenesis model.

  19. 6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, protects dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease models via anti-neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Ju, Mi Sun; Ha, Sang Keun; Park, Yongkon; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

    2013-01-01

    Aim: 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown various neurobiological and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-shogaol on neuroinflammatory-induced damage of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. Methods: Cultured rat mesencephalic cells were treated with 6-shogaol (0.001 and 0.01 μmol/L) for 1 h, then with MPP+(10 μmol/L) for another 23 h. The levels of TNF-α and NO in medium were analyzed spectrophotometrically. C57/BL mice were administered 6-shogaol (10 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for 3 d, and then MPTP (30 mg/kg, ip) for 5 d. Seven days after the last MPTP injection, behavioral testings were performed. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and macrophage antigen (MAC)-1 were determined with immunohistochemistry. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 was measured using RT PCR. Results: In MPP+-treated rat mesencephalic cultures, 6-shogaol significantly increased the number of TH-IR neurons and suppressed TNF-α and NO levels. In C57/BL mice, treatment with 6-shogaol reversed MPTP-induced changes in motor coordination and bradykinesia. Furthermore, 6-shogaol reversed MPTP-induced reductions in TH-positive cell number in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and TH-IR fiber intensity in stratum (ST). Moreover, 6-shogaol significantly inhibited the MPTP-induced microglial activation and increases in the levels of TNF-α, NO, iNOS, and COX-2 in both SNpc and ST. Conclusion: 6-Shogaol exerts neuroprotective effects on DA neurons in in vitro and in vivo PD models. PMID:23811724

  20. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of storage on volatile profiles in roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Xiao, Lu; Zhang, Gong; Ebeler, Susan E; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2014-11-19

    Hexanal, peroxide value, and lipid hydroperoxides are common indicators of lipid oxidation in food products. However, these markers are not always reliable as levels are dynamic and often can be detected only after significant oxidation has occurred. Changes in the volatile composition of light- and dark-roast almonds were evaluated during storage over 24 weeks at 25 or 35 °C using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several volatile changes were identified in association with early oxidation events in roasted almonds. Hexenal decreased significantly during the first 6 weeks of storage and did not increase above initial levels until 20-24 weeks of storage depending upon the degree of roast. In contrast, levels of 1-heptanol and 1-octanol increased at 16-20 weeks, depending upon the degree of roast, and no initial losses were observed. Seventeen new compounds, absent in raw and freshly roasted almonds but detectable after 6 weeks of storage, were identified. Of these, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 3-octen-2-one, 2-decanone, (E)-2-decenal, 2,4-nonadienal, pentyl oxirane, and especially acetic acid increased significantly (that is, >10 ng/g). The degree of roasting did not correlate with the levels of these compounds. Significant decreases in roasting-related aroma volatiles such as 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, furfural, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methylpyrazine, and 1-methylthio-2-propanol were observed by 4 weeks of storage independent of the degree of roast or storage conditions.

  2. Synthesis and Size-Separation of Colloidally-Stable Silicon Nanocrystals for the Investigation of their Size-Dependent Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastronardi, Melanie

    Silicon nanocrystals (ncSi) possess unique optical properties that vary predictably with crystal size, which means they can be tailored to suit specific requirements for use in optoelectronic devices and biological applications. The work presented in this thesis outlines contributions made in developing size-separation methods to obtain uniform-sized samples of colloidally-stable ncSi from non-uniform ensembles, which result from most common syntheses that produce colloidally-stable particles. Non-uniform samples of ncSi were prepared using the straightforward thermal processing of sol-gel glasses, followed by HF etching to liberate hydride-capped ncSi from an encapsulating matrix. Thermal hydrosilylation was employed to passivate the ncSi surface with both allylbenzene and 1-decene. Density gradient ultracentrifugation and size-selective precipitation methods were used to isolate size-separated ncSi, which enabled definitive characterization of size-dependent optical properties including photoluminescence (PL), PL absolute quantum yields, and PL lifetimes. A detailed investigation of the chemical reactivity of allylbenzene-capped ncSi with different gaseous atmospheres as probed by in situ luminescence spectroscopy, conducted under both continuous and intermittent illumination, helped elucidate the roles of O2, H2O and mixtures of O2/H 2O, with respect to oxidation of ncSi as a function of size. The results presented in this thesis have played a crucial role towards obtaining a complete understanding of ncSi, a most promising material, and providing vital information that will aid in developing and tailoring perceived applications in advanced materials and biomedical devices.

  3. Hydrophobic Coatings by Thiol-Ene Click Functionalization of Silsesquioxanes with Tunable Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Génois, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    The hydrolysis-condensation of trialkoxysilanes under strictly controlled conditions allows the production of silsesquioxanes (SSQs) with tunable size and architecture ranging from ladder to cage-like structures. These nano-objects can serve as building blocks for the preparation of hybrid organic/inorganic materials with selected properties. The SSQs growth can be tuned by simply controlling the reaction duration in the in situ water production route (ISWP), where the kinetics of the esterification reaction between carboxylic acids and alcohols rules out the extent of organosilane hydrolysis-condensation. Tunable SSQs with thiol functionalities (SH-NBBs) are suitable for further modification by exploiting the simple thiol-ene click reaction, thus allowing for modifying the wettability properties of derived coatings. In this paper, coatings were prepared from SH-NBBs with different architecture onto cotton fabrics and paper, and further functionalized with long alkyl chains by means of initiator-free UV-induced thiol-ene coupling with 1-decene (C10) and 1-tetradecene (C14). The coatings appeared to homogeneously cover the natural fibers and imparted a multi-scale roughness that was not affected by the click functionalization step. The two-step functionalization of cotton and paper warrants a stable highly hydrophobic character to the surface of natural materials that, in perspective, suggests a possible application in filtration devices for oil-water separation. Furthermore, the purification of SH-NBBs from ISWP by-products was possible during the coating process, and this step allowed for the fast, initiator-free, click-coupling of purified NBBs with C10 and C14 in solution with a nearly quantitative yield. Therefore, this approach is an alternative route to get sol-gel-derived, ladder-like, and cage-like SSQs functionalized with long alkyl chains. PMID:28786939

  4. Hydrophobic Coatings by Thiol-Ene Click Functionalization of Silsesquioxanes with Tunable Architecture.

    PubMed

    Dirè, Sandra; Bottone, Davide; Callone, Emanuela; Maniglio, Devid; Génois, Isabelle; Ribot, François

    2017-08-08

    The hydrolysis-condensation of trialkoxysilanes under strictly controlled conditions allows the production of silsesquioxanes (SSQs) with tunable size and architecture ranging from ladder to cage-like structures. These nano-objects can serve as building blocks for the preparation of hybrid organic/inorganic materials with selected properties. The SSQs growth can be tuned by simply controlling the reaction duration in the in situ water production route (ISWP), where the kinetics of the esterification reaction between carboxylic acids and alcohols rules out the extent of organosilane hydrolysis-condensation. Tunable SSQs with thiol functionalities (SH-NBBs) are suitable for further modification by exploiting the simple thiol-ene click reaction, thus allowing for modifying the wettability properties of derived coatings. In this paper, coatings were prepared from SH-NBBs with different architecture onto cotton fabrics and paper, and further functionalized with long alkyl chains by means of initiator-free UV-induced thiol-ene coupling with 1-decene (C10) and 1-tetradecene (C14). The coatings appeared to homogeneously cover the natural fibers and imparted a multi-scale roughness that was not affected by the click functionalization step. The two-step functionalization of cotton and paper warrants a stable highly hydrophobic character to the surface of natural materials that, in perspective, suggests a possible application in filtration devices for oil-water separation. Furthermore, the purification of SH-NBBs from ISWP by-products was possible during the coating process, and this step allowed for the fast, initiator-free, click-coupling of purified NBBs with C10 and C14 in solution with a nearly quantitative yield. Therefore, this approach is an alternative route to get sol-gel-derived, ladder-like, and cage-like SSQs functionalized with long alkyl chains.

  5. Effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "Lacón" from Celta pig breed.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the finishing diet on the volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product), from the Celta pig breed was studied. Thirty-six pigs were separated into three groups according to the type of feeding during the finish-fattening period of three months (concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut). From the pigs of each diet, four batches of dry-cured "lacón" were manufactured. From each batch, samples of fresh meat, meat after salting, after post-salting, and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of drying-ripening were taken. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-six volatile compounds were identified and quantified from dry-cured "lacón" samples in pigs finished with chestnut, eighty-two for concentrate fed pigs and eighty in pigs fed with the mixed diet. The number of identified volatile compounds increased during the manufacturing process; at 84 days of drying-ripening, in the dry-cured "lacón" samples from pigs finished with concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut, 54, 58 and 62 volatile compounds were detected, respectively. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was hydrocarbons in the three feeding systems, followed by aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Discriminant analysis selected six variables (dodecane, butadienol, pentenol, 2-pentenal, decen-3-ona and pyridine-2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions which allowed verification of chestnut in the finishing diet.

  6. Sex attractant pheromone of the red-shouldered stink bug Thyanta pallidovirens: a pheromone blend with multiple redundant components.

    PubMed

    McBrien, H L; Millar, J G; Rice, R E; McElfresh, J S; Cullen, E; Zalom, F G

    2002-09-01

    The male-produced sex pheromone of the red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta pallidovirens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) consists of a blend of methyl (E2,Z4,Z6)-decatrienoate (E2,Z4,Z6-10:COOMe), and the sesquiterpenes (+)-alpha-curcumene, (-)-zingiberene, and (-)-beta-sesquiphellandrene. In laboratory bioassays, sexually mature males attracted sexually mature females but not males, and females did not attract either sex. Extracts of volatiles collected from sexually mature males contained compounds not present in extracts from females or sexually immature males, and male-produced extract was attractive to females. Biological activity was lost when the extract was fractionated, indicating that the pheromone consisted of at least two components having different chemical properties. Individually, pheromone components were not attractive to females, but E2,Z4,Z6-10:COOMe in combination with at least one of the three male-produced sesquiterpenes was attractive. The presence of more than one sesquiterpene in the blend did not increase attraction, indicating redundancy in the pheromone signal. Male extract was as attractive as a blend reconstructed from synthesized compounds, indicating all biologically active components had been identified. In bioassays conducted at dusk in a 1- x 1- x 1-m screen field cage, females were attracted to synthetic pheromone lures. In field trials, adult female T pallidovirens were attracted to pheromone-baited traps in relatively low numbers. The profile of volatiles released by sexually mature males of a congeneric species, Thyanta accerra custator McAtee, was remarkably similar to that of male T. pallidovirens, with the exception that the former species produced (E)-2-decenal, a compound that was not found in T. pallidovirens extracts.

  7. Observation of different catalytic activity of various 1-olefins during ethylene/1-olefin copolymerization with homogeneous metallocene catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wannaborworn, Mingkwan; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2011-01-07

    This research aimed to investigate the copolymerization of ethylene and various 1-olefins. The comonomer lengths were varied from 1-hexene (1-C₆) up to 1-octadecene (1-C₁₈) in order to study the effect of comonomer chain length on the activity and properties of the polymer in the metallocene/MAO catalyst system. The results indicated that two distinct cases can be described for the effect of 1-olefin chain length on the activity. Considering the short chain length comonomers, such as 1-hexene, 1-octene and 1-decene, it is obvious that the polymerization activity decreased when the length of comonomer was higher, which is probably due to increased steric hindrance at the catalytic center hindering the insertion of ethylene monomer to the active sites, hence, the polymerization rate decreased. On the contrary, for the longer chain 1-olefins, namely 1-dodecene, 1-tetradecene and 1-octadecene, an increase in the comonomer chain length resulted in better activity due to the opening of the gap aperture between C(p)(centroid)-M-C(p)-(centroid), which forced the coordination site to open more. This effect facilitated the polymerization of the ethylene monomer at the catalytic sites, and thus, the activity increased. The copolymers obtained were further characterized using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and ¹³C-NMR techniques. It could be seen that the melting temperature and comonomer distribution were not affected by the 1-olefin chain length. The polymer crystallinity decreased slightly with increasing comonomer chain length. Moreover, all the synthesized polymers were typical LLDPE having random comonomer distribution.

  8. The effect of feed solids concentration and inlet temperature on the flavor of spray dried whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that unit operations in whey protein manufacture promote off-flavor production in whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed solids concentration in liquid retentate and spray drier inlet temperature on the flavor of dried whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 ppm hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain WPC80 retentate (25% solids, wt/wt). The liquid retentate was then diluted with deionized water to the following solids concentrations: 25%, 18%, and 10%. Each of the treatments was then spray dried at the following temperatures: 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C. The experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the WPC80 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses. Particle size and surface free fat were also analyzed. Both main effects (solids concentration and inlet temperature) and interactions were investigated. WPC80 spray dried at 10% feed solids concentration had increased surface free fat, increased intensities of overall aroma, cabbage and cardboard flavors and increased concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, decanal, (E)2-decenal, DMTS, DMDS, and 2,4-decadienal (P < 0.05) compared to WPC80 spray dried at 25% feed solids. Product spray dried at lower inlet temperature also had increased surface free fat and increased intensity of cardboard flavor and increased concentrations of pentanal, (Z)4-heptenal, nonanal, decanal, 2,4-nonadienal, 2,4-decadienal, and 2- and 3-methyl butanal (P < 0.05) compared to product spray dried at higher inlet temperature. Particle size was higher for powders from increased feed solids concentration and increased inlet temperature (P < 0.05). An increase in feed solids concentration in the liquid retentate and inlet temperature within the parameters evaluated decreased off-flavor intensity in the resulting WPC80.

  9. Identification of volatiles from oxidised phosphatidylcholine molecular species using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhao, Minjie; Khalil, Ali; Marcic, Christophe; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS) was used to investigate the volatile compounds from oxidised phosphatidylcholine molecular species. 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) and 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SLPC) were chosen as models. The influence of several parameters on the efficiency of volatile oxidised compounds (VOCs) microextraction, such as type of fibre, extraction duration and temperature were studied. The best results were obtained with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre used at 50 °C during 25 min. The effect of oxidation temperature on the yield of VOCs from SOPC and SLPC was investigated. Oxidative kinetics of SOPC and SLPC were investigated by measuring both the production of VOCs and the degradation of starting materials. More than 30 VOCs were detected by means of the reference mass spectra of the National Institute of Standards and Technology mass spectral library, and most of them were further confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention time with those obtained from authentic reference compounds under the same analytical conditions. Moreover, the origins of VOCs from oxidised PLs were studied by comparing those obtained from their corresponding triacylglycerides under the same experimental conditions. The main VOCs identified from oxidised SOPC were (E)-2-decenal, nonanal and octanal and from oxidised SLPC were (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal and (E, E)-2,4-decadienal. The proposed method was applied to a real food sample, soy lecithin.

  10. Metabolism of Ginger Component [6]-Shogaol in Liver Microsomes from Mouse, Rat, Dog, Monkey, and Human

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huadong; Soroka, Dominique; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2013-01-01

    Scope There are limited data on the metabolism of [6]-shogaol, a major bioactive component of ginger. This study demonstrates metabolism of [6]-shogaol in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. Methods and results The in vitro metabolism of [6]-shogaol was compared among five species using liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. Following incubations with [6]-shogaol, three major reductive metabolites 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-3-ol (M6), 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M9), and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M11), as well as two new oxidative metabolites (1E, 4E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-deca-1,4-dien-3-one (M14) and (E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-dec-1-en-3-one (M15) were found in all species. The kinetic parameters of M6 in liver microsomes from each respective species were quantified using Michaelis-Menten theory. A broad CYP-450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, precluded the formation of oxidative metabolites M14 and M15, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an aldo-keto reductase inhibitor, eradicated the formation of the reductive metabolites M6, M9, and M11 in all species. Metabolites M14 and M15 were tested for cancer cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis and both showed substantial activity, with M14 displaying greater potency than [6]-shogaol. Conclusion We conclude that [6]-shogaol is metabolized extensively in mammalian species mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human, and that there are significant interspecies differences to consider when planning pre-clinical trials towards [6]-shogaol chemoprevention. PMID:23322474

  11. pH-sensitive transformation of the peptidic bolaamphiphile self-assembly: exploitation for the pH-triggered chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jinyoung; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2014-03-01

    Control of the macroscopic self-assembled structure of the amphiphilic molecule has been a challenging issue in micro/nanotechnologies. In this study, the microtubular self-assembly of a novel peptidic bolaamphiphile, bis(N-α-amido-glycylglycine)-1,10-decene dicarboxylate, which undergoes reversible structural transformation between microtubes and precipitates as a function of pH, was exploited for pH-triggered chemical release. At neutral and basic conditions above a pH of 6, the peptidic bolaamphiphilic molecule self-assembled to form tubular structures several hundreds of micrometers in length. When the solution became acidic below a pH of 4, the tubular assembly disintegrated to form aggregated precipitates. The reversible transformation of precipitate to microtube was achieved by raising the pH above 6. From the Raman spectroscopy results, it was revealed that the hydrogen bonds of the amide group and carboxylate were enhanced under the acidic conditions. These variation of the hydrogen bonds resulted in precipitation of peptidic bolaamphiphilic molecules while rupturing the microtubular structure. The pH-sensitive microscopic structural transformation was exploited for release of a chemical in which the pH-triggered release of a model chemical, a fluorescence dye of ANS, was demonstrated. The ANS dye was released gradually with decreasing pH, which suggests gradual disintegration of the microtubular self-assembly. Furthermore, this pH-triggered release of a chemical was exploited for the chemical reaction of gold ion reduction to produce solid clusters. This study demonstrated the reversible transformation of peptidic bolaamphiphile and its application as a pH-sensitive host matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  13. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-04-08

    Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas.

  14. Development of Methodologies For The Analysis of The Efficiency of Flood Reduction Measures In The Rhine Basin On The Basis of Reference Floods (deflood)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahe, P.; Herpertz, D.; Buiteveld, H.; Busch, N.; Engel, H.; Helbig, A.; Naef, F.; Wilke, K.

    After some years of extreme flooding in the 1990s extended efforts were made to im- prove flood protection by means of an integrated river basin management. Part of this strategy is the implementation of decentralised flood reduction measures (FRM). With this in mind, the CHR/IRMA-SPONGE Project DEFLOOD was initiated. By estab- lishing a set of methodological tools this project aims at making a step further towards a quantitative hydrological evaluation of the effects of local FRM on flood generation in large river basins. The basin of the River Mosel and in particular, the basin of its tributary Saar served as case study area for testing the methodological approach. A framework for an integrated river basin modelling approach (FIRM U Flood Reduc- tion) based on generation of hydrometeorological reference conditions, precipitation- runoff modelling and flood routing procedures was set up. In this approach interfaces to incorporate the results of scenario calculations by meso-scale hydrological mod- elling are defined in order to study the downstream propagation of the effect of decen- tralised flood reduction measures including the potential retention along minor rivers in large rivers. Examples for scenario calculations are given. Based on the experience gained the strategy for the use of the methodological framework within the context of river basin management practice are identified. The application of the methodol- ogy requires a set of actions which has to be installed in the Rhine/Meuse basins. The recommendations suggest that - beside progress in hydrological modelling - a base of knowledge needs to be built up and administered which encompasses hydrologically relevant information on the actual state and prospected developments in the River Rhine basin. Furthermore, problem-oriented hydrological process studies in selected small-scale river basins ought to be carried out. Based on these studies conceptual meso-scale modelling approaches can be improved and

  15. [An ecologic study of adult and larval Culicidae in a rice field of Kou Valley, Burkino Faso].

    PubMed

    Robert, V; Ouari, B; Ouedraogo, V; Carnevale, P

    1988-12-01

    An entomological survey based on collections of human bait mosquitoes and of mosquito larvae was carried out through one year in a rice-field, the Kou Valley of southwest Burkina Faso. Each year, in this irrigated rice field there are two crops of rice, one during the dry season and another during the wet one. Between the two rice cycles irrigation is interrupted and the rice field becomes dry. The rice crop cycle moves through several stages, all of which have positive or negative effects on the development of the larvae of most abundant mosquitoes species. Rice cultivation does not explain however entirely the ecology of mosquito populations. Two main limiting factors for mosquito development are highlighted: the season with two periods (1. dry, 2. wet) and the rice cultivation with three periods (1. start of the flooding, growing rice transplantation and tillering, 2. rice heading and flowering, 3. rice maturation and harvest). The development of a majority of mosquito species depends strictly on rice growth: (i) Anopheles gambiae s.1. uses the whole rice field during the first period of rice cultivation until growing rice protects the larval breeding places from solar radiation. It is the most frequent mosquito (53% of the man-biting mosquitoes caught). 5% of its larvae are parasitized with a fungus Coelomomyces sp., (ii) A. pharoensis has its maximum density during the second period of rice cultivation, as Culex gr. decens; both seem to succeed better in the dry season, contrary to all other anophelines, (iii) A. coustani profits by the third period when the pH of the breeding places becomes basic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Asplenioideae Species as a Reservoir of Volatile Organic Compounds with Potential Therapeutic Properties.

    PubMed

    Froissard, Didier; Rapior, Sylvie; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Fruchier, Alain; Sol, Vincent; Fons, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    Twelve French Asplenioideae ferns (genera Asplenium and subgenera Ceterach and Phyllitis) were investigated for the first time for volatile organic compounds (VOC) using GC-MS. Sixty-two VOC biosynthesized from the lipidic, shikimic, terpenic and carotenoid pathways were identified. Several VOC profiles can be highlighted from Asplenium jahandiezii and A. xalternifolium with exclusively lipidic derivatives to A. onopteris with an equal ratio of lipidic/shikimic compounds. Very few terpenes as caryophyllene derivatives were identified, but only in A. obovatum subsp. bilotii. The main odorous lipidic derivatives were (E)-2-decenal (waxy and fatty odor), nonanal (aldehydic and waxy odor with a fresh green nuance), (E)-2-heptenal (green odor with a fatty note) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor), reported for all species. A few VOC are present in several species in high content, i.e., 9-oxononanoic acid used as a precursor for biopolymers (19% in A. jahandiezii), 4-hydroxyacetophenone with a sweet and heavy floral odor (17.1% in A. onopteris), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid used as a precursor in the synthesis of parabens (11.3% in A. foreziense). Most of the identified compounds have pharmacological activities, i.e., octanoic acid as antimicrobial, in particular against Salmonellas, with fatty and waxy odor (41.1% in A. petrarchae), tetradecanoic acid with trypanocidal activity (13.3% in A. obovatum subsp. bilotii), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (8.7% in A. onopteris) with antimicrobial and anti-aging effects, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde as an inhibitor of growth of human cancer cells (6.7% in Ceterach officinarum), and phenylacetic acid with antifungal and antibacterial activities (5.8% in A. onopteris). Propionylfilicinic acid was identified in the twelve species. The broad spectrum of odorous and bioactive VOC identified from the Asplenium, Ceterach and Phyllitis species are indeed of great interest to the cosmetic and food industries.

  17. [Dyslalias associated to maloclussion in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Reyes, Adriana; Reyes Y Zepeda, Adriana; Moyaho-Bernal, Angeles; Moreno-García, Alicia; Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro José; Hernández-Ruíz, Ana Karen; Bejarano-Huertas, Ruth; López-Colombo, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: el test para evaluar los procesos fonológicos de simplificación (TEPROSIF) es un instrumento que sirve para identificar las dislalias. El objetivo fue determinar la asociación entre dislalias y maloclusión dental en niños de 4 a 6 años mediante la aplicación del TEPROSIF. Métodos: después de su estandarización (kappa 0.9) el instrumento se aplicó en 116 niños de 4 a 6 años. Los pacientes se llevaron a oclusión céntrica por deglución. Se observó tipo de mordida, sobremordida, oclusión y plano terminal para relacionarlos con la dislalia presentada. Utilizamos ?? y consideramos estadísticamente significativa una p = 0.05. Resultados: fueron un total de 55 niños (47.4 %) y 61 niñas (52.6 %), con edad media de 5 años + 0.71. La sustitución de fonemas se encontró con más frecuencia. Hubo correlación significativa entre omisión de fonemas y plano terminal (p = 0.01), arco de Baume tipo I (p = 0.00) y ausencia de dientes (p = 0.00). También entre sustitución de fonemas y plano terminal (p = 0.03), tipo de mordida (p = 0.01) y ausencia de dientes (p = 0.00). Conclusión: en niños de 4 a 6 años, la sustitución de fonemas es la alteración más frecuente; esta va seguida de la omisión de fonemas y, por último, la distorsión de fonemas.

  18. The Effect of Two-Zone Concentric Bifocal Spectacle Lenses on Refractive Error Development and Eye Growth in Young Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Wildsoet, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the effects on refractive error development and eye growth in young chicks of two-zone concentric lens designs, which differentially affect the defocus experiences of central and peripheral retinal regions. Methods. Monocular defocusing lenses were worn for 5 days from 17 days of age. Four two-zone concentric lens designs (overall optical zone diameter, 10 mm) combining plano with either −5- or +5-D power were used. Lens designs were as follows: (1) +5 D center (+5C), (2) +5 D periphery (+5P), (3) −5 D center (−5C), and (4) −5 D peripheral (−5P), with plano in periphery for all C-designs and in the center for P-designs. Five central zone diameters (CZDs) were tested, ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 mm in 1-mm increments. Plano, +5- and −5-D single-vision (SV) lenses were used as the control. A minimum of six birds were included in each lens group. Results. For the two-zone lenses, the P designs (i.e., peripheral defocus) had greater effects than the C designs (i.e., central defocus) on both on-axis eye growth and refractions. All but the 6.5-mm CZD +5P lens induced larger changes than the +5SV lens. The +5C lenses with CZD less than 5.5 mm had little effect. The two-zone −5-D lenses had less effect than the −5SV lens, and only the 6.5-mm CZD lens of the −5C series had a significant effect. Conclusions. The results demonstrate that peripheral defocus can influence both peripheral and central refractive development. The inhibitory effect on axial eye growth of the +5P lenses opens the possibility that appropriately designed concentric lenses may control the progression of human myopia. PMID:20861487

  19. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984, Procurement, Programs, Aircraft, Missiles, Weapons & Tracked Combat Vehicles. Part 4. Ammunition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    3D526) 53 DAKA-PPC (3E443) 5 Cost & Audit (2) APA (9) MIPA (10) DANA-PP (3E374) 1 Plano/Systema (1) PWTCV (10) PAA (11) DAMA-RA (3E360) I Construction (1...established sustainability levels. The current FY 1984 program will support three commercial I oers and provides a mobilzation base of qualified...Amnitio , Am ldwlet Paw=m or sort FrOJect Accout Vfl aOs ot Cjjs Activity 2 - Amimition Production Actual Estimate Estiate Estimate Base Suwort FT

  20. Como Lo Hago Yo: Tratamiento Quirurgico Del Mielomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    En Argentina hay plan de fortificación con ácido fólico. Diagnostico prenatal no siempre es correcto. Cierre según técnica. Cerramos músculo. No favorecemos corpectomía temprana en casos de cifosis. Suturamos la plaqueta. Cerramos el plano muscular. Hidrocefalia: Válvula de derivación, generalmente dentro de los dos primeros meses. Ventriculostomía no está indicada. Chiari II. Laminectomia cervical alta. Siringomielia: Derivación desde la cavidad al peritoneo. PMID:24791219

  1. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  2. Uniform pump scheme for a LD face-pumped Nd:YAG slab amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Dan; Fan, Zhongwei; Chen, Yanzhong; Guo, Guangyan; He, Jianguo; Zhao, Tianzhuo

    2016-10-01

    A new pump-shaping scheme for a LD face-pumped Nd:YAG slab laser amplifier is proposed, aiming to achieve uniform pump distributions. Plano-concave cylindrical mirror arrays are used to homogenize the pump distributions in the LD slow axes, and meanwhile optical-waveguide structures are used for the LD fast axes. Simulations based on ray tracing method indicate that the scheme effectively realizes uniform pump intensity distributions. The fluorescence distributions and small signal gains at different locations both verify the pump uniformity reaches higher than 90%.

  3. Talbot conditions, Talbot resonators, and first-order systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R; Flores-Arias, María Teresa; Bao, Carmen; Pérez, María Victoria; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2003-04-01

    A study of first-order Talbot resonators is presented. The general conditions for Talbot effect in ABCD systems are determined. These conditions are applied to the computation of the diffraction overlapping coefficients between array Gaussian emitters in a general first-order Talbot resonator. Relations on the ray-transfer matrix to generate the symmetric and the totally antisymmetric supermodes of the array are derived. These relations generalize the free-space, round-trip lengths of 1/2 and 1/4 of the Talbot distance. A new type of resonator based on a plano-convex gradient-index rod is proposed.

  4. Strength of thin chemtempered lenses: drop-ball testing.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, W H; Rosenfield, A R; Gulati, S T; Rieger, R A; Hoekstra, K E

    1978-12-01

    Failure heights were measured in drop-ball tests for both chemtempered and heat-tempered plano, white crown glass lenses from five different optical laboratories. It was found that (1) failure height was proportional to the square of the lens thickness, (2) chemtempered lenses substantially thinner than 2.0 mm are as resistant to breakage as 2.0-mm-thick heat-tempered lenses, and (3) a close correlation existed between results of single-drop and multiple-drop tests and between results of tests using rigid and compliant mounts.

  5. Ion exchange tempering of glass ophthalmic lenses.

    PubMed

    Keeney, A H; Duerson, H L

    1975-08-01

    We performed low velocity drop-ball tests using 5/8-, 7/8-, and 1-inch diameter steel balls on ophthalmic crown glass lenses chemically tempered by the ion exchange process. Four representative dioptric strengths (+ 2.50 spherical, - 2.50 spherical, -2.50 cylindrical, and plano) were studied with the isolated lenses mounted, convex side up, on the American National Standards Institute Z80 test block. New ion exchange lenses exhibited a 100 to 350% greater capacity for attenuation of energy from low velocity, large size missiles than matched lenses of similar strength prepared by the conventional heat-treating and air-quenching process.

  6. Strength of thin chemtempered lenses: static load testing.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, W H; Rosenfield, A R; Gulati, S T; Rieger, R A; Hoekstra, K E

    1979-01-01

    Static load tests were conducted on heat-tempered and chemtempered plano white crown glass lenses from five different optical laboratories. With both ball-on-ring and ring-on-ring loading, chemtempered lenses considerably thinner than 2.0 mm were found to be as failure resistant as 2.0-mm-thick heat-tempered lenses. A similar result was obtained previously using the drop-ball test. It is shown that the theory of brittle fracture can be used to relate the results of different tests and provides a rational basis for comparing the relative performance of chemtempered and heat-tempered lenses.

  7. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  8. Tracking integration in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally moving optics.

    PubMed

    Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-05-09

    In this work the concept of tracking-integrated concentrating photovoltaics is studied and its capabilities are quantitatively analyzed. The design strategy desists from ideal concentration performance to reduce the external mechanical solar tracking effort in favor of a compact installation, possibly resulting in lower overall cost. The proposed optical design is based on an extended Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) algorithm and uses two laterally moving plano-convex lenses to achieve high concentration over a wide angular range of ±24°. It achieves 500× concentration, outperforming its conventional concentrating photovoltaic counterparts on a polar aligned single axis tracker.

  9. Suppression of spatial hole burning in a solid-state laser with the degenerate resonator configuration.

    PubMed

    Tai, Po-Tse; Hsieh, Wen-Feng; Wu, Hsiao-Hua

    2005-03-07

    Under degenerate resonator configuration and tightly focused pump beam in a linear-cavity solid-state laser, the spatial hole-burning effect can be suppressed. This laser can attain very high intensity in the gain medium due to shrinkage of its beam waist to match the pump beam and therefore most of its gain is depleted even by a standing wave. This was demonstrated by a simulation with spatial dependent rate equations and experiment results of a plano-concave Nd:YVO4 laser. The suppression effect was observed up to 20 times the pump threshold.

  10. Mixed-Methods Research in the Discipline of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Harrison, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of 294 mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing. Creswell and Plano Clark's typology was most frequently used along with concurrent timing. Bivariate statistics was most often the highest level of statistics reported in the results. As for qualitative data analysis, content analysis was most frequently used. The majority of nurse researchers did not specifically address the purpose, paradigm, typology, priority, timing, interaction, or integration of their mixed-methods studies. Strategies are suggested for improving the design, conduct, and reporting of mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing.

  11. Adaptive double-sided fluidic lens of polydimethylsiloxane membranes of matching thickness.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunhwan; Han, Dong Seok; Won, Yong Hyub

    2011-12-01

    A fluidic lens with double-sided polydimethylsiloxane membranes of different thicknesses that complement each other to reduce spherical aberration was fabricated. It is operated with magnetic repulsion induced by the current in the voice coil. The optical power of the proposed lens was observed to be considerably higher compared to that of a typical convex glass lens. The focal lengths of rays passing through the optical axis and the edge of the lens was measured and compared with the simulation data. The spherical aberration of the proposed lens was observed to be negligibly small compared to that of a plano-convex lens. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Terahertz wavelength encoding compressive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) compressive imaging can obtain two dimensional image with a single or linear detector, which can overcome the bottleneck problem of lacking of THz two dimensional detectors. In this presentation, we propose a method to obtain two dimensional images using a linear detector. A plano-convex cylindrical lens is employed to perform Fourier transform and to encode one dimensional information of an object into wavelengths. After recording, both amplitude and phase information for different frequency at each pixel of the line detector are extracted, two dimensional image of the object can be reconstructed. Numerical simulation demonstrates the validity of the proposed method.

  13. Huygens' Principle: Exact wavefronts produced by aspheric lenses.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis; Maldonado, Arturo; Qureshi, Naser

    2013-12-02

    We obtain simple exact formulas for the refracted wavefronts through plano-convex aspheric lenses with arbitrary aspheric terms by considering an incident plane wavefront propagating along the optical axis. We provide formulas for the zero-distance phase front using the Huygens' Principle and the Malus-Dupin theorem. Using the fact that they are equivalent, we have in the second method found a way to use an improper integral, instead of the usual evaluated integral, to arrive at these formulas. As expected, when the condition of total internal reflection is satisfied, there is no contribution to the formation of the refracted wavefront.

  14. Orientational order of some liquid crystal/dye mixtures obtained from optical birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielejewska, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    This study presents optical birefringence measurements as a function of temperature for the liquid crystal/dye mixtures. The optical birefringence of the liquid crystals used in liquid crystal displays technology is related to the order parameter , which is crucial from the development point of view. The properties of the dyes (4-dimethylamino-4‧-nitrostilbene and N,N‧-bis(2,5-di-tert-buthylphenyl)-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide) as a guest molecule are tested over the whole region of nematic phase occurrence by three different methods: measurement with use of the plano-convex lens, Berek's compensator and photoelastic modulator.

  15. Solar Magnetic Field Studies (Photon Counter).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    shown in Figure 3. The prism is fabricated by cutting an ordinary right angle prism into pie shaped slices. These slices are cemented together in a...circle as they would lie in a complete pie . The masks are glued on as indicated in Figure 4 with the result that the virtual images of the masks are...that aberration is suppressed by cementing a plano -convec lens on the prism. The lens is chosen so that the virtual images are aplanatically immersed as

  16. Chromatic aberration measurement for transmission interferometric testing.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kibyung; Greivenkamp, John E

    2008-12-10

    A method of chromatic aberration measurement is described based on the transmitted wavefront of an optical element obtained from a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The chromatic aberration is derived from transmitted wavefronts measured at five different wavelengths. Reverse ray tracing is used to remove induced aberrations associated with the interferometer from the measurement. In the interferometer, the wavefront transmitted through the sample is tested against a plano reference, allowing for the absolute determination of the wavefront radius of curvature. The chromatic aberrations of a singlet and a doublet have been measured.

  17. Factors Affecting "Ghosting" In Time-Multiplexed Piano-Stereoscopic Crt Display Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny

    1987-06-01

    Two factors contributing to "ghosting" (image doubling) in plano-stereoscopic CRT displays are phosphor decay and dynamic range of the shutters. A ghosting threshold must be crossed before comfortable fusion can take place. The ghosting threshold changes as image brightness increases and with higher-contrast subjects and those with larger parallax values. Because of the defects of existing liquid crystal shutters, we developed a liquid-crystal shutter with high dynamic range, good transmission, and high speed. With these shutters, residual ghosting is a result of phosphor persistence.

  18. From health plan companies to international insurance companies: changes in the accumulation regime and repercussions on the healthcare system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Ligia; Scheffer, Mario; Tavares, Leandro Reis; Braga, Iale Falleiros

    2016-11-03

    The concentration and internationalization of health plan companies in Brazil gave them a clearly financial face. Based on the need to understand the health care industry's capital accumulation patterns, the current study examines health plan companies' expansion strategies through the classification of their supply and demand characteristics by recent historical periods and an analysis of recent shareholding trends in one of the leading corporations in the Brazilian health care industry. The 1960s to 2000s witnessed changes in the scale of demands for health plans and adherence by companies to long-term accumulation strategies. Beginning in the early 21st century, changes in the shareholding structures of the largest Brazilian company, consistent with the financialization of its accumulation regime, resulted in the rapid multiplication of its capital. Deepening segmentation of the health care system in a context marked by the downturn in the national economy challenges the preservation of public subsidies for private health plans. Resumo: A concentração e internacionalização de empresas de planos de saúde no Brasil conferiram-lhes feição financeira. Considerando a necessidade de compreender os padrões de acumulação desse setor, o trabalho examina estratégias de expansão das empresas de planos de saúde por meio da periodização de atributos da oferta e demanda e exame da trajetória patrimonial recente de um dos grandes grupos do setor. Entre os anos 1960 e 2000, ocorreram alterações na escala das demandas por planos de saúde e adesão das empresas a estratégias de acumulação de longo prazo. A partir do século XXI, as alterações nas estruturas societárias da maior empresa brasileira, compatíveis com o regime de acumulação financeirizada, resultaram na multiplicação de seu capital em um curto intervalo de tempo. O aprofundamento da segmentação do sistema de saúde, em um contexto marcado pela desaceleração da economia, questiona a

  19. A three-dimensional self-supporting low loss microwave lens with a negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenberg, Isaac M.; Sarma, Sanjay E.; Wu, Bae-Ian

    2012-10-01

    Demonstrations of focusing with metamaterial lenses have predominantly featured two dimensional structures or stacks of planar elements, both limited by losses which hinder realized gain near the focal region. In this study, we present a plano-concave lens built from a 3D self-supporting metamaterial structure featuring a negative refractive index between 10 and 12 GHz. Fabricated using macroscopic layered prototyping, the lens curvature, negative index and low loss contribute to a recognizable focus and free space gains above 13 dB.

  20. Introduction of robot-assisted radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer: impact on complications, costs and oncologic outcome.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Emelie; Flöter Rådestad, Angelique; Falconer, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of robot-assisted radical hysterectomy (RRH) on surgical and oncologic outcome and costs compared with open radical hysterectomy (ORH) at a tertiary referral center in Sweden. In this retrospective analysis all patients treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early stage uterine cervical cancer during 2006-2015 were included (n = 304). The patients were divided into two groups, ORH (n = 155) and RRH (n = 149). Patient characteristics, FIGO stage, histology, adjuvant therapy, operation time, length of stay (LOS), lymph node yield, recurrence rate and survival were retrieved from medical records. Complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. In addition, costs related to the surgical treatments were calculated. Blood loss, LOS and intraoperative complications were significantly lower as well as lymph node yield after RRH. No differences in postoperative complications or costs were observed between the two groups. Recurrence of disease was detected in 13.4 and 10.3% after RRH and ORH, respectively. Regression analysis demonstrated that histology, tumor size, positive lymph nodes and type of operation (RRH) were significantly associated with recurrence. The introduction of RRH was accompanied by similar postoperative complication rates and costs but lower LOS compared with ORH. An initial learning curve may account for the higher recurrence rate observed after RRH. These data reinforce the need for structured training and monitoring of outcomes when novel treatment modalities are introduced. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Hypsometric amplification and routing moderation of Greenland ice sheet meltwater release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van As, Dirk; Mikkelsen, Andreas Bech; Holtegaard Nielsen, Morten; Box, Jason E.; Claesson Liljedahl, Lillemor; Lindbäck, Katrin; Pitcher, Lincoln; Hasholt, Bent

    2017-06-01

    Concurrent ice sheet surface runoff and proglacial discharge monitoring are essential for understanding Greenland ice sheet meltwater release. We use an updated, well-constrained river discharge time series from the Watson River in southwest Greenland, with an accurate, observation-based ice sheet surface mass balance model of the ˜ 12 000 km2 ice sheet area feeding the river. For the 2006-2015 decade, we find a large range of a factor of 3 in interannual variability in discharge. The amount of discharge is amplified ˜ 56 % by the ice sheet's hypsometry, i.e., area increase with elevation. A good match between river discharge and ice sheet surface meltwater production is found after introducing elevation-dependent transit delays that moderate diurnal variability in meltwater release by a factor of 10-20. The routing lag time increases with ice sheet elevation and attains values in excess of 1 week for the upper reaches of the runoff area at ˜ 1800 m above sea level. These multi-day routing delays ensure that the highest proglacial discharge levels and thus overbank flooding events are more likely to occur after multi-day melt episodes. Finally, for the Watson River ice sheet catchment, we find no evidence of meltwater storage in or release from the en- and subglacial environments in quantities exceeding our methodological uncertainty, based on the good match between ice sheet runoff and proglacial discharge.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes Application in the Extraction Techniques of Pesticides: A Review.

    PubMed

    Jakubus, Aleksandra; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2017-01-02

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently one of the most promising groups of materials with some interesting properties, such as lightness, rigidity, high surface area, high mechanical strength in tension, good thermal conductivity or resistance to mechanical damage. These unique properties make CNTs a competitive alternative to conventional sorbents used in analytical chemistry, especially in extraction techniques. The amount of work that discusses the usefulness of CNTs as a sorbent in a variety of extraction techniques has increased significantly in recent years. In this review article, the most important feature and different applications of solid-phase extraction (SPE), including, classical SPE and dispersive SPE using CNTs for pesticides isolation from different matrices, are summarized. Because of high number of articles concerning the applicability of carbon materials to extraction of pesticides, the main aim of proposed publication is to provide updated review of the latest uses of CNTs by covering the period 2006-2015. Moreover, in this review, the recent papers and this one, which are covered in previous reviews, will be addressed and particular attention has been paid on the division of publications in terms of classes of pesticides, in order to systematize the available literature reports.

  3. Application of recurrent neural networks for drought projections in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, J. A.; El-Askary, H. M.; Allali, M.; Struppa, D. C.

    2017-05-01

    We use recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to investigate the complex interactions between the long-term trend in dryness and a projected, short but intense, period of wetness due to the 2015-2016 El Niño. Although it was forecasted that this El Niño season would bring significant rainfall to the region, our long-term projections of the Palmer Z Index (PZI) showed a continuing drought trend, contrasting with the 1998-1999 El Niño event. RNN training considered PZI data during 1896-2006 that was validated against the 2006-2015 period to evaluate the potential of extreme precipitation forecast. We achieved a statistically significant correlation of 0.610 between forecasted and observed PZI on the validation set for a lead time of 1 month. This gives strong confidence to the forecasted precipitation indicator. The 2015-2016 El Niño season proved to be relatively weak as compared with the 1997-1998, with a peak PZI anomaly of 0.242 standard deviations below historical averages, continuing drought conditions.

  4. Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1997-2015

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Nancy Ellen; Schroeder, John Alton

    2016-07-01

    Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. LOOP event frequencies and times required for subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience during calendar years 1997 through 2015. LOOP events during critical operation that do not result in a reactor trip, are not included. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. Emergency diesel generator reliability is also considered (failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour). There is an adverse trend in LOOP durations. The previously reported adverse trend in LOOP frequency was not statistically significant for 2006-2015. Grid-related LOOPs happen predominantly in the summer. Switchyard-centered LOOPs happen predominantly in winter and spring. Plant-centered and weather-related LOOPs do not show statistically significant seasonality. The engineering analysis of LOOP data shows that human errors have been much less frequent since 1997 than in the 1986 -1996 time period.

  5. The contribution of ozone to future stratospheric temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maycock, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    The projected recovery of ozone from the effects of ozone depleting substances this century will modulate the stratospheric cooling due to CO2, thereby affecting the detection and attribution of stratospheric temperature trends. Here the impact of future ozone changes on stratospheric temperatures is quantified for three representative concentration pathways (RCPs) using simulations from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For models with interactive chemistry, ozone trends offset ~50% of the global annual mean upper stratospheric cooling due to CO2 for RCP4.5 and 20% for RCP8.5 between 2006-2015 and 2090-2099. For RCP2.6, ozone trends cause a net warming of the upper and lower stratosphere. The misspecification of ozone trends for RCP2.6/RCP4.5 in models that used the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC)/Stratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) Ozone Database causes anomalous warming (cooling) of the upper (lower) stratosphere compared to chemistry-climate models. The dependence of ozone chemistry on greenhouse gas concentrations should therefore be better represented in CMIP6.

  6. Re-emergence of amantadine-resistant variants among highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Bagato, Ola; Kandeil, Ahmed; Mostafa, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sara H; Hassanneen, Hamdi M; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to undergo substantial evolution. Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is a major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Numerous studies have focused on the genetic and evolutionary dynamics of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes; however, studies on the susceptibility of HPAI H5N1 viruses to amantadine and genetic diversity of the matrix (M) gene are limited. Accordingly, we studied the amantadine susceptibility of the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated in Egypt during 2006-2015 based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We analyzed data on 253 virus sequences and constructed a phylogenetic tree to calculate selective pressures on sites in the M2 gene associated with amantadine-resistance among different clades. Selection pressure was identified in the transmembrane domain of M2 gene at positions 27 and 31. Amantadine-resistant variants emerged in 2007 but were not circulating between 2012 and 2014. By 2015, amantadine-resistant HPAI H5N1 viruses re-emerged. This may be associated with the uncontrolled prescription of amantadine for prophylaxis and control of avian influenza infections in the poultry farm sector in Egypt. More epidemiological research is required to verify this observation.

  7. Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides canislagopodis (Krabbe 1865) tetrathyridia found in rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Skirnisson, Karl; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G; Nielsen, Ólafur K

    2016-08-01

    Necropsies of 1010 rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta) sampled in autumn 2006-2015 in northeast Iceland revealed Mesocestoides canislagopodis tetrathyridia infections in six birds (0.6 %), two juvenile birds (3 month old), and four adult birds (15 months or older). Four birds had tetrathyridia in the body cavity, one bird in the liver, and one bird both in the body cavity and the liver. There were more tetrathyridia in the body cavity of the two juveniles (c. 50 in each) than in three adults (10-40), possibly indicating a host-age-related tetrathyridia mortality. Approximately, half of tetrathyridia in the body cavity were free or loosely attached to the serosa, the other half were encapsulated in a thin, loose connective tissue stroma, frequently attached to the lungs and the liver. Tetrathyridia in the liver parenchyma incited variably intense inflammation. Tetrathyridia from the juvenile hosts were whitish, heart-shaped, and flattened, with unsegmented bodies with a slightly pointed posterior end. In the adult hosts, tetrathyridia were sometimes almost rectangular-shaped, slightly wider compared to those in the juveniles, but more than twice as long as the younger-aged tetrathyridia. Tetrathyridia infections are most likely acquired during the brief insectivorous feeding phase of ptarmigan chicks, and the tetrathyridia persist throughout the lifespan of the birds.

  8. PubMed

    Bäckryd, Emmanuel; Heilig, Markus; Hoffmann, Mikael

    2017-05-02

    Opioid prescription changes in Sweden 2000-2015 In contrast to the well-established »opioid epidemic« in the US, very little is known about how the prescription of opioids in Sweden has developed during the last decade. Aggregated data from the open Statistical database of the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare were analyzed descriptively. The yearly prevalence of opioid prescription did not change 2006-2015, but there were dramatic shifts in the choice of opioids. During this period, dextropropoxyphene was pulled off the market. Tramadol was used by fewer individuals (-54 % over the decade), but dosages expressed as Defined Daily Dose/patient/year (DDD/pat/y) increased (+41 %). In contrast, oxycodone and morphine were used by more individuals (+465 % and +137 %, respectively), but DDD/pat/y decreased during the period (-56% and -54%). Studies on non-aggregated data from available registries are needed to further elucidate the circumstances and possible consequences of these shifts in opioid prescription patterns.

  9. Future Projections of Trans-Arctic Shipping Potential and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Smith, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    As the Arctic Ocean transitions towards a seasonally ice-free state, efforts to predict new connections between the Arctic and the global economy are underway. In particular, record lows in September sea ice extent from 2007-2013 have recast Arctic shipping routes as emerging international seaways for export of resources and as potential alternative pathways for global trade. While ensemble-averaged output from sea ice models suggest significant increases in vessel accessibility in September by midcentury (Smith & Stephenson, 2013), the seasonal length and variability of trans-Arctic shipping is not well understood. In addition, differences in ice extent due to inter-model variability reveal significant uncertainties in the magnitude and location of future vessel access. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping as driven by sea ice output from CMIP5 models. Optimal vessel transits from North America and Europe to the Bering Strait are estimated for two periods representing present-day (2006-2015) and midcentury (2040-2059) conditions under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5), assuming Polar Class 6 (PC6) and open-water vessels (OW) with medium and no ice-breaking capability, respectively. Results illustrate a range of potential futures for shipping in the Arctic owing to differences in model choice, vessel capability, and climate forcing. Inter-model differences reveal the importance of model choice in devising projections for strategic planning by governments, environmental agencies, and the global maritime industry.

  10. Revising shortwave and longwave radiation archives in view of possible revisions of the WSG and WISG reference scales: methods and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyeki, Stephan; Wacker, Stefan; Gröbner, Julian; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Wild, Martin

    2017-08-01

    A large number of radiometers are traceable to the World Standard Group (WSG) for shortwave radiation and the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG) for longwave radiation, hosted by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Centre (PMOD/WRC, Davos, Switzerland). The WSG and WISG have recently been found to over- and underestimate radiation values, respectively (Fehlmann et al., 2012; Gröbner et al., 2014), although research is still ongoing. In view of a possible revision of the reference scales of both standard groups, this study discusses the methods involved and the implications on existing archives of radiation time series, such as the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). Based on PMOD/WRC calibration archives and BSRN data archives, the downward longwave radiation (DLR) time series over the 2006-2015 period were analysed at four stations (polar and mid-latitude locations). DLR was found to increase by up to 3.5 and 5.4 W m-2 for all-sky and clear-sky conditions, respectively, after applying a WISG reference scale correction and a minor correction for the dependence of pyrgeometer sensitivity on atmospheric integrated water vapour content. Similar increases in DLR may be expected at other BSRN stations. Based on our analysis, a number of recommendations are made for future studies.

  11. Indirect effects of the generalist avian predator, the goshawk, on life history of an uncommon prey species, the stock dove.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup

    2016-12-01

    Predators account for lethal effects in their prey, but importantly also for non-lethal indirect effects through the presence and the activity of predators. Such non-lethal effects include altered timing of reproduction, incidence of reproduction, clutch size and quality of offspring produced. We investigated the effects of goshawks Accipiter gentilis on reproduction of the stock dove Columba oenas in 1723 breeding events during 2006-2015 in Northern Denmark, while simultaneously accounting for effects of climate on reproduction of stock doves. Stock doves were consumed by goshawks 36 times less frequently than expected from their abundance, showing that lethal effects of predation were negligible. Laying date advanced at higher temperatures and stronger winds. Laying was delayed when the population size of goshawks increased, and the effects of goshawks interacted wind speed. The frequency of eggs that did not hatch increased with the population size of goshawks, and with increasing temperatures. Recruitment rate of stock doves decreased with increasing population size of goshawks and stock doves. These findings show that indirect effects of predation by goshawks on stock doves were much larger than direct lethal effects and that climate change interacted with predator-prey interactions.

  12. DNA and dispersal models highlight constrained connectivity in a migratory marine megavertebrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naro-Maciel, Eugenia; Hart, Kristen M.; Cruciata, Rossana; Putman, Nathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Population structure and spatial distribution are fundamentally important fields within ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. To investigate pan-Atlantic connectivity of globally endangered green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from two National Parks in Florida, USA, we applied a multidisciplinary approach comparing genetic analysis and ocean circulation modeling. The Everglades (EP) is a juvenile feeding ground, whereas the Dry Tortugas (DT) is used for courtship, breeding, and feeding by adults and juveniles. We sequenced two mitochondrial segments from 138 turtles sampled there from 2006-2015, and simulated oceanic transport to estimate their origins. Genetic and ocean connectivity data revealed northwestern Atlantic rookeries as the major natal sources, while southern and eastern Atlantic contributions were negligible. However, specific rookery estimates differed between genetic and ocean transport models. The combined analyses suggest that post-hatchling drift via ocean currents poorly explains the distribution of neritic juveniles and adults, but juvenile natal homing and population history likely play important roles. DT and EP were genetically similar to feeding grounds along the southern US coast, but highly differentiated from most other Atlantic groups. Despite expanded mitogenomic analysis and correspondingly increased ability to detect genetic variation, no significant differentiation between DT and EP, or among years, sexes or stages was observed. This first genetic analysis of a North Atlantic green turtle courtship area provides rare data supporting local movements and male philopatry. The study highlights the applications of multidisciplinary approaches for ecological research and conservation.

  13. The contribution of ozone to future stratospheric temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maycock, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    The projected recovery of ozone from the effects of ozone depleting substances this century will modulate the stratospheric cooling due to CO2, thereby affecting the detection and attribution of stratospheric temperature trends. Here the impact of future ozone changes on stratospheric temperatures is quantified for three representative concentration pathways (RCPs) using simulations from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For models with interactive chemistry, ozone trends offset 50% of the global annual mean upper stratospheric cooling due to CO2 for RCP4.5 and 20% for RCP8.5 between 2006-2015 and 2090-2099. For RCP2.6, ozone trends cause a net warming of the upper and lower stratosphere. The misspecification of ozone trends for RCP2.6/RCP4.5 in models that used the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC)/Stratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) Ozone Database causes anomalous warming (cooling) of the upper (lower) stratosphere compared to chemistry-climate models. The dependence of ozone chemistry on greenhouse gas concentrations should therefore be better represented in CMIP6.

  14. Venera-D: Russian mission for complex investigation of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Zasova, L.; Perminov, V.; Ekonomov, A.; Basilevsky, A.; Gerasimov, M.; Linkin, V.; Rodin, A.; Skalsky, A.

    Russian Federal Space program for 2006-2015 includes a mission "Venera-D" for complex investigation of Venus. It is planned to be launched around 2016, by rocket Soyuz-2. According to preliminary investigation in Babakin Center mass of 1900 kg may be delivered to Venus. This mass may include orbiter, balloon(s), lander(s) with long living station on the surface of Venus. Scientific goals: investigation of structure, composition and dynamics of the atmosphere, structure and chemical composition of the clouds and nature of the hazes, investigation of the composition and properties of the surface, search for the volcanic activity, interaction between atmosphere and the surface, search for the electric and acoustic activity in the atmosphere, search for seismic activity, investigations of ionosphere and magnetosphere. A conception of the mission is under development now: new elements, like balloons, flying at different levels in the atmosphere may be down to 10 km altitude with landing and working on the surface, and descend module with long living station on the surface are considered. With existing electronics working at around 300C and corresponding insulation the life of station on the surface may be provided for a month We acknowledge IKI RAS for financial support, grant "Perspectiva"

  15. Data from Russian Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Hearn, Michael; Zakharov, A.; Zelenyi, Lev

    The Russian Federal Space Program for 2006-2015 includes three major flight projects - Phobos- Soil, Luna-Glob, and Venus-D. Of these, only the first is in active development now, with launch planned for the 2009 Martian launch window. The primary goal of the Phobos-Soil mission, to be described in detail in session B04, is to return a sample of soil from Phobos to Earth for laboratory analysis, but the goals also include a detailed study of Phobos (its regolith, internal structure, and its dynamics) and studies of the Martian environment (dust, plasma, and fields). The overall scientific goal is to understand Phobos as representatives of primitive small bodies and to understand their role in the Martian system (how they became satellites). The spacecraft will land on the Phobos surface and take a sample of the soil. The return capsule will be launched by a return rocket from the surface of Phobos while the mother-ship remains on the surface for lengthy in situ investigations. Instrumentation on the mother-ship includes gamma and neutron spectrometers, an IR spectrometer, a seismometer, a panchromatic camera, a dust sensor, and a plasma package. This talk will describe the digital data to be returned, all of which will be archived consistent with recommendations from the IPDA and the PDS.

  16. Clinical tuberculosis and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jordan, T S; Davies, P D

    2010-06-01

    The global targets for tuberculosis (TB) control set by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1991 were detection of at least 70% and cure of at least 85% of new sputum smear-positive TB cases by 2000, later revised to 2005. The DOTS strategy was introduced in the mid-1990s, and later became the cornerstone of the Stop TB Strategy, which was launched along with the Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 in 2006. The Global Plan sets out how and to what extent the Stop TB Strategy should be implemented between 2006 and 2015 to achieve the TB-related Millennium Development Goal (MDG) to halt and reverse the incidence of TB by 2015 and the Stop TB Partnership targets to reduce TB prevalence and death rates to 50% of 1990 levels by 2015, and to eliminate TB as a public health concern by 2050. Treatment success and case detection rates are outcome indicators used to measure the effectiveness of TB control along with the impact indicators incidence, prevalence and death rates. Globally, the rate of treatment success for smear-positive cases treated exceeded the WHA global target of 85% for the first time in 2007. This review focuses on articles related to treatment outcome in TB published in the International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in 2009.

  17. Data sharing: A critical foundation to advance global integrated Earth system science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David; Doldirina, Catherine; Withee, Gregory

    A critical foundation for a successful Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is the exchange of observations recorded from in-situ, aircraft, and satellite networks in a full and open manner with minimum time delay and minimum cost, recognizing relevant international instruments and national policies and legislation. This is, in its simplest form, the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles, which initially were adopted at the First Earth Observation Summit on 31 July 2003 in Washington, United States. It was restated in the 2006-2015 GEOSS Implementation Plan, which is adopted by Group on Earth Observation (GEO) Members and Participating Organizations. Currently, there are 90 Members and 77 Participating Organizations. This paper will describe the evolution of data sharing within the GEO since announcing a principle, creating an action plan, establishing mechanisms, and witnessing progress. Topics include highlights from the 2009 Implementation Guidelines, 2010 GEOSS Data Sharing Action Plan, and GEO infrastructure activities such as the GEO Data Sharing Working Group, GEOSS Data-CORE, GEOSS Data Quality Guidelines, and others. The paper will conclude with audience suggestions on how to improve sharing of Earth observations to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system.

  18. Systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancies: ten-year data from a single centre in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Teh, C L; Wan, S A; Cheong, Y K; Ling, G R

    2016-08-13

    We performed a retrospective study of all systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pregnancies during a 10-year period (2006-2015) to describe the clinical features, maternal and foetal outcomes in our centre. There were 115 pregnancies in 86 women with SLE. Our patients had a mean age of 29.1 years (SD 5.80) and a mean disease duration of 44.63 months (SD 41.17). Fifteen patients had antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Our patients had complicated pregnancies: 26.1% had SLE flares, 13.9% had pre-eclampsia and 45.1% needed caesarean sections. There were 23.3% foetal losses and 25% preterm deliveries in our patients. There was a higher rate of unplanned pregnancies and lupus flare among pregnancies with active SLE at conception. Pregnancies in lupus nephritis have higher incidence of lupus flares during pregnancy but similar maternal and foetal outcomes compared to those without nephritis. The prognostic indicators for adverse foetal outcome in our patients were flare of SLE (HR 4.08 [CI 95% 1.65-10.13, p < 0.01]) and APS (HR 3.07 [CI 95% 1.12-8.42, p < 0.05]) and the prognostic indicator for adverse maternal outcome was hypertension (HR 3.58 [CI 95% 1.30-9.90, p < 0.05]). Lupus pregnancies in our centre remained as high-risk pregnancies with significant maternal and foetal complications.

  19. Indonesian dengue burden estimates: review of evidence by an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Wahyono, T Y M; Nealon, J; Beucher, S; Prayitno, A; Moureau, A; Nawawi, S; Thabrany, H; Nadjib, M

    2017-08-01

    Routine, passive surveillance systems tend to underestimate the burden of communicable diseases such as dengue. When empirical methods are unavailable, complimentary opinion-based or extrapolative methods have been employed. Here, an expert Delphi panel estimated the proportion of dengue captured by the Indonesian surveillance system, and associated health system parameters. Following presentation of medical and epidemiological data and subsequent discussions, the panel made iterative estimates from which expansion factors (EF), the ratio of total:reported cases, were calculated. Panelists estimated that of all symptomatic Indonesian dengue episodes, 57·8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 46·6-59·8) enter healthcare facilities to seek treatment; 39·3% (95% CI 32·8-42·0) are diagnosed as dengue; and 20·3% (95% CI 16·1-24·3) are subsequently reported in the surveillance system. They estimated most hospitalizations occur in the public sector, while ~55% of ambulatory episodes are seen privately. These estimates gave an overall EF of 5·00; hospitalized EF of 1·66; and ambulatory EF of 34·01 which, when combined with passive surveillance data, equates to an annual average (2006-2015) of 612 005 dengue cases, and 183 297 hospitalizations. These estimates are lower than those published elsewhere, perhaps due to case definitions, local clinical perceptions and treatment-seeking behavior. These findings complement global burden estimates, support health economic analyses, and can be used to inform decision-making.

  20. Has the American Public's Interest in Information Related to Relationships Beyond "The Couple" Increased Over Time?

    PubMed

    Moors, Amy C

    2017-01-01

    Finding romance, love, and sexual intimacy is a central part of our life experience. Although people engage in romance in a variety of ways, alternatives to "the couple" are largely overlooked in relationship research. Scholars and the media have recently argued that the rules of romance are changing, suggesting that interest in consensual departures from monogamy may become popular as people navigate their long-term coupling. This study utilizes Google Trends to assess Americans' interest in seeking out information related to consensual nonmonogamous relationships across a 10-year period (2006-2015). Using anonymous Web queries from hundreds of thousands of Google search engine users, results show that searches for words related to polyamory and open relationships (but not swinging) have significantly increased over time. Moreover, the magnitude of the correlation between consensual nonmonogamy Web queries and time was significantly higher than popular Web queries over the same time period, indicating this pattern of increased interest in polyamory and open relationships is unique. Future research avenues for incorporating consensual nonmonogamous relationships into relationship science are discussed.

  1. Proglacial River Reveals Substantial Greenland Ice Sheet Climate Sensitivity and Meltwater Routing Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van As, D.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Holtegaard Nielsen, M.; Claesson Liljedahl, L.; Lindback, K.; Pitcher, L. H.; Hasholt, B.

    2016-12-01

    A 12.000 km2 area of the Greenland ice sheet discharges meltwater via the proglacial Watson River in west Greenland. In a ten-year time span of continuous monitoring (2006-2015), the river discharged 3.8 km3 to 11.2 km3 yr-1. The large interannual variability is for an important part explained by hypsometric amplification: the flattening of the ice sheet with elevation adds 70% meltwater discharge sensitivity to atmospheric temperature. Comparing river discharge with ice sheet surface meltwater production from an observation-based surface mass balance model we quantify multiple-day routing delays for meltwater transit through the supra-, en-, sub- and proglacial system. This delay increases with ice sheet surface elevation: on average five days for surface water at the previous-known equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 1550 m, and seven days at the 2009-2015 ELA of ca. 1800 m above sea level. A flooding of the Kangerlussuaq bridge as in July 2012 thus requires a multi-day high-melt episode and can therefore be anticipated by in-situ monitoring of ice sheet melt. No evidence of significant en- or subglacial meltwater retention is found.

  2. Acquisition of choice in concurrent chains: Assessing the cumulative decision model.

    PubMed

    Grace, Randolph C

    2016-05-01

    Concurrent chains is widely used to study pigeons' choice between terminal links that can vary in delay, magnitude, or probability of reinforcement. We review research on the acquisition of choice in this procedure. Acquisition has been studied with a variety of research designs, and some studies have incorporated no-food trials to allow for timing and choice to be observed concurrently. Results show that: Choice can be acquired rapidly within sessions when terminal links change unpredictably; under steady-state conditions, acquisition depends on both initial- and terminal-link schedules; and initial-link responding is mediated by learning about the terminal-link stimulus-reinforcer relations. The cumulative decision model (CDM) proposed by Christensen and Grace (2010) and Grace and McLean (2006, 2015) provides a good description of within-session acquisition, and correctly predicts the effects of initial and terminal-link schedules in steady-state designs (Grace, 2002a). Questions for future research include how abrupt shifts in preference within individual sessions and temporal control of terminal-link responding can be modeled. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decadal oxygen change in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Johannes; Brandt, Peter; Schmidtko, Sunke; Krahmann, Gerd

    2017-07-01

    Repeat shipboard and multi-year moored observations obtained in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) were used to study the decadal change in oxygen for the period 2006-2015. Along 23° W between 6 and 14° N, oxygen decreased with a rate of -5.9 ± 3.5 µmol kg-1 decade-1 within the depth covering the deep oxycline (200-400 m), while below the OMZ core (400-1000 m) oxygen increased by 4.0 ± 1.6 µmol kg-1 decade-1 on average. The inclusion of these decadal oxygen trends in the recently estimated oxygen budget for the ETNA OMZ suggests a weakened ventilation of the upper 400 m, whereas the ventilation strengthened homogeneously below 400 m. The changed ventilation resulted in a shoaling of the ETNA OMZ of -0.03 ± 0.02 kg m-3 decade-1 in density space, which was only partly compensated by a deepening of isopycnal surfaces, thus pointing to a shoaling of the OMZ in depth space as well (-22 ± 17 m decade-1). Based on the improved oxygen budget, possible causes for the changed ventilation are analyzed and discussed. Largely ruling out other ventilation processes, the zonal advective oxygen supply stands out as the most probable budget term responsible for the decadal oxygen changes.

  4. Chronic disease prevention: health effects and financial costs of strategies to reduce salt intake and control tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Asaria, Perviz; Chisholm, Dan; Mathers, Colin; Ezzati, Majid; Beaglehole, Robert

    2007-12-15

    In 2005, WHO set a global goal to reduce rates of death from chronic (non-communicable) disease by an additional 2% every year. To this end, we investigated how many deaths could potentially be averted over 10 years by implementation of selected population-based interventions, and calculated the financial costs of their implementation. We selected two interventions: to reduce salt intake in the population by 15% and to implement four key elements of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We used methods from the WHO Comparative Risk Assessment project to estimate shifts in the distribution of risk factors associated with salt intake and tobacco use, and to model the effects on chronic disease mortality for 23 countries that account for 80% of chronic disease burden in the developing world. We showed that, over 10 years (2006-2015), 13.8 million deaths could be averted by implementation of these interventions, at a cost of less than US$0.40 per person per year in low-income and lower middle-income countries, and US$0.50-1.00 per person per year in upper middle-income countries (as of 2005). These two population-based intervention strategies could therefore substantially reduce mortality from chronic diseases, and make a major (and affordable) contribution towards achievement of the global goal to prevent and control chronic diseases.

  5. Observations of upper ocean stability and heat fluxes in the Antarctic from under-ice Argo float profile data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. A.; Riser, S.

    2016-12-01

    Sea ice growth around Antarctica is intimately linked to the stability and thermohaline structure of the underlying ocean. As sea ice grows, the resulting brine triggers convective instabilities that deepen the mixed layer and entrain warm water from the weakly stratified pycnocline. The heat released from this process acts as a strong negative feedback to ice growth which, under the right scenarios, can exceed the initial atmospheric heat loss. Much of our current understanding of this ice-ocean interaction comes from a handful of relatively short field campaigns in the Weddell Sea. Here, we supplement those observations with an analysis of over 9000 under-ice Argo float profiles, collected between 2006-2015. These profiles provide an unprecedented view of the temporal and spatial variability of the upper ocean structure throughout the Antarctic region. With these observations and a theoretical understanding of the coupled ice-ocean system, we assess the ocean's potential to limit thermodynamic ice growth as well as its susceptibility to deep convection in different regions. Using these results, we infer how recent climatic changes may influence Antarctic sea ice growth and deep ocean ventilation in the near future.

  6. A Time Series Analysis of Associations between Daily Temperature and Crime Events in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Schinasi, Leah H; Hamra, Ghassan B

    2017-07-07

    Urban crime may be an important but overlooked public health impact of rising ambient temperatures. We conducted a time series analysis of associations between temperature and crimes in Philadelphia, PA, for years 2006-2015. We obtained daily crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department, and hourly temperature and dew point data from the National Centers for Environmental Information. We calculated the mean daily heat index and daily deviations from each year's seasonal mean heat index value. We used generalized additive models with a quasi-Poisson distribution, adjusted for day of the week, public holiday, and long-term trends and seasonality, to estimate relative rates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals. We found that the strongest associations were with violent crime and disorderly conduct. For example, relative to the median of the distribution of mean daily heat index values, the rate of violent crimes was 9% (95% CI 6-12%) higher when the mean daily heat index was at the 99th percentile of the distribution. There was a positive, linear relationship between deviations of the daily mean heat index from the seasonal mean and rates of violent crime and disorderly conduct, especially in cold months. Overall, these analyses suggest that disorderly conduct and violent crimes are highest when temperatures are comfortable, especially during cold months. This work provides important information regarding the temporal patterns of crime activity.

  7. The modified operative technique of partial eversion carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    McBride, Richard; Porter, Johnathan; Al-Khaffaf, Haytham

    2017-01-01

    We report a modified operative technique termed partial eversion carotid endarterectomy (PECE). During a 9-year period (2006-2015), 352 patients underwent PECE. Indications for surgery, intraoperative details, and outcomes were recorded. The initial 185 patients had carotid duplex ultrasound imaging at 6 weeks and then at 6, 12, and 24 months. Subsequent patients had carotid imaging at 4 to 6 weeks. Indications included stroke (76), transient ischemic attack (153), and amaurosis fugax (33); 58 patients were asymptomatic, and 32 patients had surgery before cardiac surgery. Median clamp time was 14 minutes (interquartile range, 11.5-17 minutes). Median total operation time was 41 minutes (interquartile range, 31-72 minutes). Outcomes included four transient ischemic attacks (1.2%), five strokes (1.4%), and two deaths at 30 days (0.5%). No significant cranial nerve injuries or carotid restenosis was detected during follow-up. PECE is technically straightforward, with outcomes comparable to those of current operative techniques. Its advantages included reduced operative and carotid clamping time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contribution of Hormonal Cytology in Girls and Adolescents to Reproductive Health: A Traditional Technique Monitoring Recent Problems.

    PubMed

    Dušková, Jaroslava; Goldová, Barbara; Matiášková, Lenka; Beková, Alena; Skřenková, Jana

    2017-01-01

    To study the contribution of hormonal cytology in contemporary disturbances of fertility. Over a 10-year period (2006-2015), 6,688 vaginal fornix cytologies of 2,350 patients were investigated. For a more detailed analysis, a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015 was chosen. Four hundred and fifty-two patients were investigated, many of them several times and for a period longer than the 3 years analyzed. The main disorders examined and treated via a gentle hormonal medication support and life style corrections by a pediatric gynecologist were: pubertas praecox - thelarche praecox and early menarche; dysfunctional juvenile metrorrhagia; central and peripheral endocrine disorders; eating disorders - anorexia mentalis and bulimia; obesity; excessive sport activities; autoimmune disorders, and others. Normalization of the menstrual cycle was achieved while monitoring progress with a series of hormonal cytologies in a majority of patients. Hormonal cytology is a non-invasive and economical method, illustrating the direct effect of steroid on target cells. It contributes to reproductive health support by: (a) indicating the possible need and type of steroid therapy; (b) monitoring the normalization of cycle disturbances; (c) ruling out or indicating the need for more detailed steroid metabolism investigation. Thus, it represents a basic but valuable means of examination in child and adolescent gynecology. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The influence of periodic wind turbine noise on infrasound array measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise emissions from the continuously growing number of wind turbines in Germany are creating increasing problems for infrasound recording systems. These systems are equipped with highly sensitive micro pressure sensors accurately measuring acoustic signals in a frequency range inaudible to the human ear. Ten years of data (2006-2015) from the infrasound array IGADE in Northern Germany are analysed to quantify the influence of wind turbine noise on infrasound recordings. Furthermore, a theoretical model is derived and validated by a field experiment with mobile micro-barometer stations. Fieldwork was carried out 2004 to measure the infrasonic pressure level of a single horizontal-axis wind turbine and to extrapolate the sound effect for a larger number of nearby wind turbines. The model estimates the generated sound pressure level of wind turbines and thus enables for specifying the minimum allowable distance between wind turbines and infrasound stations for undisturbed recording. This aspect is particularly important to guarantee the monitoring performance of the German infrasound stations I26DE in the Bavarian Forest and I27DE in Antarctica. These stations are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and thus have to meet stringent specifications with respect to infrasonic background noise.

  10. NOx and NOy in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Chris; Evans, Mathew J.; Lee, James D.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Read, Katie A.; Mendes, Luis N.

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) and their reservoir species (NOy) play a central role in determining the chemistry of the troposphere. Although their concentrations are low (1-100 ppt) in regions such as the remote marine boundary layer, they have a profound impact on ozone production and the oxidizing capacity. There are very few observations of NOx and NOy in remote oceanic regions due to the technical challenges of measuring such low concentrations, and thus our understanding of this background chemistry is incomplete. Here we present long term measurements of NOx (2006-2015) and more recent measurements of speciated NOy (total peroxyacetyl nitrates, PANs; alkyl nitrates, ANs; nitric acid; and aerosol analogues) made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO; 16° 51' N, 24° 52' W) located in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. We identify potential interferences in the NO2 and NOy measurements and methods to eliminate them. Diurnal and seasonal cycles are interpreted using a box model. We find a complex chemistry with interactions between organic and inorganic chemistry, between the aerosol and gas phase, and between the very local and large scales.

  11. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish–English and English–Spanish Bilingual Readers

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Roberto R.; Cieślicka, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated) or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries) meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., “creampuff”). We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time) for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003) and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015). PMID:27065911

  12. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Roberto R; Cieślicka, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated) or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries) meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., "creampuff"). We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time) for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003) and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015).

  13. The contribution of glacial isostatic adjustment to projections of sea-level change along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Ryan; Milne, Glenn A.; Tarasov, Lev; Engelhart, Simon E.; Hijma, Marc P.; Latychev, Konstantin; Horton, Benjamin P.; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2016-10-01

    We determine the contribution of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) to future relative sea-level change for the North American coastline between Newfoundland and Texas. We infer GIA model parameters using recently compiled and quality-assessed databases of past sea-level changes, including new databases for the United States Gulf Coast and Atlantic Canada. At 13 cities along this coastline, we estimate the GIA contribution to range from a few centimeters (e.g., 3 [-1 to 9] cm Miami) to a few decimeters (e.g., 18 [12-22] cm, Halifax) for the period 2085-2100 relative to 2006-2015 (1-σ ranges given). We provide estimates of uncertainty in the GIA component using two different methods; the more conservative approach produces total ranges (1-σ confidence) that vary from 3 to 16 cm for the cities considered. Contributions from ocean steric and dynamic changes as well as those from changes in land ice are also estimated to provide context for the GIA projections. When summing the contributions from all three processes at the 13 cities considered along this coastline, using median or best-estimate values, the GIA signal comprises 5-38% of the total depending on the adopted climate forcing and location. The contributions from ocean dynamic/steric changes and ice mass loss are similar in amplitude but with spatial variation that approximately cancels, resulting in GIA dominating the net spatial variability north of 35°N.

  14. Technology development for long-lived Venus landers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekonomov, 1.; Korablev, O.; Zasova, L.

    2007-08-01

    Simultaneously with many successful lander missions on Venus in 1972-1985 Soviet Union began develop long-lived lander on surface of Venus. The basic problem were extreme conditions on a surface: P=10MPa, T=500 C . Then operations have been stopped and have renewed in 2006 already in new Russia. Mission "VENERA (VENUS) - D" is included into the Federal space program of Russia on 2006 - 2015 with launch in 2016. To this date Russia alone can't create a reliable electronics for 500 C, but we have got examples GaN electronics for 350 C. Cooling technology with boiling water is offered for interior devices of lander at pressure 10 MPa and temperature 310 C. As the power source of an electronics we use high-temperature galvanic cells on the base of Li4Si [LiCl, KCl, LiF] FeS2 which are released in Russia as reserve power sources. They are capable to work directly on a surface of Venus without any thermal protection. At lander two kinds of vacuum technology can be used: 1) in multilayer (MLI ) thermal blanket for lander, 2) in electro-vacuum devices, for example transmitter . For creation and maintenance of vacuum at temperature 400-500 C: chemical gas absorbers ( getter materials ) are used, they actively absorb both carbon dioxide and nitrogen .

  15. High-Performance PVC Gel for Adaptive Micro-Lenses with Variable Focal Length.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin Woo; Shin, Eun-Jae; Jeong, Jaeu; Choi, Dong-Soo; Lee, Jong Eun; Nam, Byeong Uk; Lin, Liwei; Kim, Sang-Youn

    2017-05-18

    This paper presents a bio-inspired adaptive micro-lens with electrically tunable focus made of non-ionic high-molecular-weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gel. The optical device mimics the design of the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle of the human eye. It consists of a plano-convex PVC gel micro-lens on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass, confined with an annular electrode operating as an artificial ciliary muscle. Upon electrical activation, the electroactive adhesive force of the PVC gel is exerted on the annular anode electrode, which reduces the sagittal height of the plano-convex PVC gel lens, resulting in focal length variation of the micro-lens. The focal length increases from 3.8 mm to 22.3 mm as the applied field is varied from 200 V/mm to 800 V/mm, comparable to that of the human lens. The device combines excellent optical characteristics with structural simplicity, fast response speed, silent operation, and low power consumption. The results show the PVC gel micro-lens is expected to open up new perspectives on practical tunable optics.

  16. Exploring the imaging properties of thin lenses for cryogenic infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druart, Guillaume; Verdet, Sebastien; Guerineau, Nicolas; Magli, Serge; Chambon, Mathieu; Grulois, Tatiana; Matallah, Noura

    2016-05-01

    Designing a cryogenic camera is a good strategy to miniaturize and simplify an infrared camera using a cooled detector. Indeed, the integration of optics inside the cold shield allows to simply athermalize the design, guarantees a cold pupil and releases the constraint on having a high back focal length for small focal length systems. By this way, cameras made of a single lens or two lenses are viable systems with good optical features and a good stability in image correction. However it involves a relatively significant additional optical mass inside the dewar and thus increases the cool down time of the camera. ONERA is currently exploring a minimalist strategy consisting in giving an imaging function to thin optical plates that are found in conventional dewars. By this way, we could make a cryogenic camera that has the same cool down time as a traditional dewar without an imagery function. Two examples will be presented: the first one is a camera using a dual-band infrared detector made of a lens outside the dewar and a lens inside the cold shield, the later having the main optical power of the system. We were able to design a cold plano-convex lens with a thickness lower than 1mm. The second example is an evolution of a former cryogenic camera called SOIE. We replaced the cold meniscus by a plano-convex Fresnel lens with a decrease of the optical thermal mass of 66%. The performances of both cameras will be compared.

  17. Multiwatt-power highly-coherent compact single-frequency tunable vertical-external-cavity-surface-emitting-semiconductor-laser.

    PubMed

    Laurain, A; Myara, M; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I; Garnache, A

    2010-07-05

    We demonstrate high power (2.1W) low noise single frequency operation of a tunable compact verical-external-cavity surface-emitting- laser exhibiting a high beam quality. We took advantage of thermal lens-based stability to develop a short (3-10 mm) plano-plano external cavity without any intracavity filter. The semiconductor structure emitting at 1microm is optically pumped by a 8W commercial 808 nm multimode diode laser at large incidence angle. For heat management purpose the GaAs-based VECSEL membrane was bonded on a SiC substrate. We measured a low divergence quasi-circular TEM00 beam (M2 = 1.2) close to diffraction limit, with a linear light polarization (>30 dB).We simulated the steady state laser beam of this unstable cavity using Fresnel diffraction. The side mode suppression ratio is > 45 dB. The free running laser linewidth is 37 kHz limited by pump induced thermal fluctuations. Thanks to this high-Q external cavity approach, the frequency noise is low and the dynamics is in the relaxation-oscillation-free regime, exhibiting low intensity noise (< 0.1%), with a cutoff frequency approximately 41MHz above which the shot noise level is reached. The key parameters limiting the laser power and coherence are studied. This design/properties can be extended to other wavelengths.

  18. Spectral performance of monolithic holmium and thulium lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Fabry-Perot resonators have been used to demonstrate single-mode lasing of holmium and neodymium YAG. The previous demonstration in the holmium laser required TE cooling the crystal to -15 C in order to achieve threshold. The present study extends that result, demonstrating +25 C operation in a 1-mm thick plano/plano resonator. The experimental configuration of lasing both the holmium and thulium lasers used a 500-mW diode laser which was collimated, circularized, and focused into a beam radius of 60 microns. The single-frequency lasing spectrum of the holmium laser is shown. By adjusting the mirror reflectivity, the ability to control the laser's wavelength is demonstrated. This laser operated with 11 mW of optical power, a 57-percent slope efficiency, and 120-mW threshold vs absorbed diode power laser for the 60-micron beam radius. The thulium laser operated very efficiently at room temperature, but on seven longitudinal modes. The Tm:TAG laser exhibits typical characteristics of spatial hole burning not seen in the Ho:Tm:YAG for flat/flat resonators.

  19. Transformation optics relay lens design for imaging from a curved to a flat surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherill, Julia

    Monocentric lenses provide compact, broadband, high resolution, wide-field imaging. However, they produce a curved image surface and have found limited use. The use of an appropriately machined fiber bundle to relay the curved image plane onto a flat focal plane array (FPA) has recently emerged as a potential solution. Unfortunately the spatial sampling that is intrinsic to the fiber bundle relay can have a negative effect on image resolution, and vignetting has been identified as another potential shortcoming of this solution. This thesis describes a metamaterial lens yielding a high-performance image relay from a curved surface to a flat focal plane. Using quasi-conformal transformation optics, a Maxwell's fish-eye lens is transformed into a concave-plano shape. A design with a narrower range of constitutive parameters is deemed more likely to be manufacturable. Therefore, the way in which the particular shape of the concave-plano reimager influences the range of needed constitutive parameters is explored. Finally, image quality metrics, such as spot size and light efficiency, are quantified.

  20. Modified method of accommodative facility evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzia, Boleslaw; Pieczyrak, Danuta; Tondel, Grazyna; Maples, Willis C.

    1998-10-01

    Background: Accommodative facility testing is a common test performed by optometrist to investigate an individuals skill at focusing objects at near and at far. The traditional test however harbors possible confounding variables including individual variance in reaction time, visual acuity, verbal skills and oculomotor function. We have designed a test procedure to control these variables. Methods: Children were evaluated with a traditional accommodative facility test, a test which evaluated reaction time and language skill but without accommodative (plano lenses) and a test which evaluated reaction time, language skill and accommodative facility (+/- 2.00 D lenses). Results: Speed of reaction time was 2.9 sec/cycle for the plano lenses (for dominant eye). Speed of reaction with +/- 2.00 D lenses was 6.6 sec/cycle for dominant eye and the monocular speed of accommodations was calculated to average 3.7 sec/cycle. Normative data reported in the literature was calculated to be 5.5 sec/cycle. Discussion: We found that both our method which controls for confounding variables the traditional method reveal similar findings but that individual subjects would pass one method and fail the other. This is attributed to variation in the reaction time and digit naming skill. Conclusions: Although both methods reap similar results, both methods should be employed to discover, in those who score below the expected finding, to tease out whether or not the fault falls within the reaction time/language area or whether it is a true accommodative facility dysfunction.

  1. High power single-frequency continuously-tunable compact extended-cavity semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Laurain, A; Myara, M; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I; Garnache, A

    2009-06-08

    We demonstrate high power high efficiency (0:3 W) low noise single frequency operation of a compact extended-cavity surface-emitting-semiconductor-laser exhibiting a continuous tunability over 0:84 THz with high beam quality. We took advantage of thermal lens-based stability to develop a short (< 3 mm) plano-plano external cavity without any intracavity filter. The structure is optically pumped by a 1 W commercial 830 nm multimode diode laser. No heat management was required. We measured a low divergence circular TEM(00) beam at the diffraction limit (M(2) < 1:05) with a linear light polarization (> 37 dB). The side mode suppression ratio is 60 dB. The free running laser linewidth is 850 kHz limited by pump induced thermal fluctuations. Thanks to this high-Q external cavity approach, the frequency noise is low and the dynamics is in the relaxation-oscillation-free regime, exhibiting a low intensity noise, with a cutoff frequency approximately 250 MHz above which the shot noise level is reached. We show that pump properties define the cavity design and laser coherence.

  2. Microchip Yb:CaLnAlO4 lasers with up to 91% slope efficiency.

    PubMed

    Loiko, Pavel; Serres, Josep Maria; Mateos, Xavier; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun; Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Navratil, Petr; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomas; Zhang, Xuzhao; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Major, Arkady

    2017-07-01

    Multi-watt continuous-wave (CW) operation of tetragonal rare-earth calcium aluminate Yb:CaLnAlO4(Ln=Gd,Y)) crystals in plano-plano microchip lasers was demonstrated with an almost quantum-defect-limited slope efficiency. Pumped at 978 nm by an InGaAs laser diode, a 3.4 mm long 8 at. % Yb:CaGdAlO4 laser generated 7.79 W at 1057-1065 nm with a slope efficiency of η=84% (with respect to the absorbed pump power). An even higher η=91% was achieved with a 2.5 mm long 3 at. % Yb:CaYAlO4 laser, from which 5.06 W were extracted at 1048-1056 nm. Both lasers produced linearly polarized output (σ-polarization) with an almost circular diffraction-limited beam (Mx,y2<1.1). The output performance of the developed lasers was modeled, yielding an internal loss coefficient as low as 0.004-0.007  cm(-1). In addition, their spectroscopic properties were revisited.

  3. Parameters affecting specimen flatness of two-dimensional crystals for electron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Vonck, J

    2000-11-01

    The flatness of two-dimensional (2D) crystals on the support film is a critical factor in protein electron crystallography. The influence of the carbon support film and of different grid makes and materials on flatness was investigated, using as a criterion the sharpness of diffraction spots perpendicular to the tilt axis of electron diffraction patterns of purple membrane tilted in the microscope at 45 degrees. In a quantitative test, carbon film that had been evaporated without sparks forming gave a much larger proportion of flat crystals than "sparked" carbon. Titanium grids were superior to copper, probably because they introduce less cryo-crinkling of the carbon film when the sample is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature, as their thermal expansion coefficient is closer to that of carbon. While the molybdenum grids from Plano were unsuitable for data collection because of their tendency of break the carbon, molybdenum grids from Pacific GridTech gave a much larger yield of flat crystals than the titanium grids. Scanning electron microscope images of the grids as supplied by the manufacturer showed that the Plano grids had very narrow and irregular grid bars, while the Pacific GridTech grids were very smooth with a large surface-to-hole ratio.

  4. Null screens type Hartmann to test simple lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Santiago, Gabriel; Castán-Ricaño, Diana; Gozález-Galindo, Alfredo; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2015-08-01

    In order to evaluate either qualitative or quantitatively the shape of fast plano-convex aspheric lenses, a method to design null screens type Hartmann is proposed. The null screens are formed with non-uniform spots, which allows to have uniform images at detection's plane. The screens are printed on a foil sheet and placed in front of the lens under test, they are illuminated with a collimated monochromatic beam propagating along the optical axis, in such a way that through the process of refraction will form a uniform spot patterns which are recorded at a predefined plane of detection. Finally, processing properly its image recorded we could be able to get a quantitative evaluation of the lens under test. The designs of these null screens are based on the equations of the caustic surface produced by refraction. A preliminary test for a fast plano-convex aspheric lens with F=# = 0:8 is presented in this work. This method could also be applied to alignment of optical systems.

  5. Effect of intraocular lens design on migration of lens epithelial cells onto the posterior capsule.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, T; Eguchi, G

    1997-01-01

    To find the conditions that prevent posterior capsule opacification through in vitro analysis of the relationship between intraocular lens (IOL) optic configuration and lens epithelial cell (LEC) migration. Division of Morphogenesis, Department of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan. In a preliminary experiment, we measured the size of the capsular bag of rabbits at 8, 16, 20, and 26 weeks of age. The size of a 20-week-old capsular bag was the same size as the capsular bag in senescent Japanese eyes. We isolated the capsular bags in 20- and 8-week-old rabbits. The bags along with a biconvex (BC), convex-plano (CP), or no IOL (C) were cultured, and the eyes were divided into one of six groups (8W-C, 8W-BC, 8W-CP, 20W-C, 20W-BC and 20W-CP), each including six specimens. Two specimens in the 8W-CP group completely blocked LEC migration at the optic edge. All specimens in the 20W-CP group and one in the 20W-BC group showed cell aggregation along the optic edge. None of the other specimens in the BC and C groups blocked migration or showed cell aggregation. In the rabbit-model study, the convex-plano lens was superior to the biconvex lens in inhibiting migration of LECs. A firm contact between the IOL and the posterior capsule blocked the migration.

  6. Formation of cylindrical micro-lens array on fused silica glass surface using CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hun-Kook; Ahsan, Md. Shamim; Yoo, Dongyoon; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Kim, Jin-Tae; Jung, Deok; Kim, Jin-Hyeok; Kang, Ho-Min

    2015-12-01

    This paper demonstrates the laser assisted formation of plano-convex cylindrical and flat-top curved micro-lens array on fused silica glass surface. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are irradiated on the sample glass to fabricate periodic linear micro-gratings on the glass surface. Afterwards, we reshape the micro-gratings by several times irradiation of a CO2 laser beam by focusing the laser beam on top of the micro-gratings. As a consequence, plano-convex cylindrical micro-lens array with a period varying from 20 to 40 μm are formed on fused silica glass surface. However, flat-top curved gratings' array is observed on the glass surface for a gratings' period of 50 μm. The fabricated micro-lenses show great consistency in size and shape throughout the sample area. Furthermore, we analyze the formation mechanism of micro-lens array on glass surface using the CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique. The proposed reshaping technique exhibits great potential for forming a large variety of micro-lens arrays on the surface of various transparent materials.

  7. Spectral performance of monolithic holmium and thulium lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Fabry-Perot resonators have been used to demonstrate single-mode lasing of holmium and neodymium YAG. The previous demonstration in the holmium laser required TE cooling the crystal to -15 C in order to achieve threshold. The present study extends that result, demonstrating +25 C operation in a 1-mm thick plano/plano resonator. The experimental configuration of lasing both the holmium and thulium lasers used a 500-mW diode laser which was collimated, circularized, and focused into a beam radius of 60 microns. The single-frequency lasing spectrum of the holmium laser is shown. By adjusting the mirror reflectivity, the ability to control the laser's wavelength is demonstrated. This laser operated with 11 mW of optical power, a 57-percent slope efficiency, and 120-mW threshold vs absorbed diode power laser for the 60-micron beam radius. The thulium laser operated very efficiently at room temperature, but on seven longitudinal modes. The Tm:TAG laser exhibits typical characteristics of spatial hole burning not seen in the Ho:Tm:YAG for flat/flat resonators.

  8. Single-mode fiber linearly tapered planar waveguide tunable coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Alok K.; Hussain, Anwar

    1997-09-01

    We developed a simple system of tunable fiber film coupler using a linearly tapered thin-film planar waveguide (PWG) evanescently coupled by a single-mode distributed fiber half-coupler. We investigate the characteristics of the coupler theoretically and experimentally taking into consideration the refractive index ( n f ) of nonuniform films, the magnitude of nonuniformity ( m ) of the films, and the source wavelength ( ). The thickness variation of the nonuniform film is along the direction of propagation of optical power. Tapered and plano concave thin films of a mix of oils as well as a plano concave poly(methyl methacrylate) film were fabricated to serve as nonuniform PWG s. Similar to single-mode fiber with a uniform thickness PWG coupler, such a coupler also provides light modulation with a change of n f . However, position shifting of a half-coupler in a tapered PWG structure along the direction of propagation exhibits the variation of fiber throughput power. This action serves as a simple system for a tunable fiber film coupler. Wavelength-dependent throughput fiber power for such a coupler also behaves as a filter. The center wavelength can be controlled by shifting the position of the half-coupler. A coupling fiber as a half-coupler can be used for efficient coupling. We performed a theoretical analysis of the structure using Marcuse s model and observed good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Formation of cylindrical micro-lens array in fused silica glass using laser irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hun-Kook; Ahsan, Md. Shamim; Yoo, Dongyoon; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Kim, Jin Tae; Jung, Deok; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we report the development of plano-convex cylindrical micro-lens array on the surface of fused silica glass using laser processing technology. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are irradiated on the target fused silica glass substrate to pattern periodic micro-grooves. Afterwards, laser beam from CO2 laser source is applied several times on the previously micro-patterned fused silica glass surface, the purpose of which is to polish the micro-patterned glass surface. As a consequence, periodic plano-convex cylindrical micro-lens array is evolved on the glass surface. The micro-lens array shows great consistency in size and shape throughout the sample area. We also investigate various optical properties of the micro-lenses evolved glass substrates including the diffraction pattern and diffraction efficiency of light. The glass sample comprising cylindrical micro-lens array can diffract light with moderate diffraction efficiency. We strongly believe that, it is possible to engineer cylindrical micro-lens array on the surface of a variety of transparent materials including glasses and polymers over a large area.

  10. Characteristics of optimized fibre-optic ultrasound receivers for minimally invasive photoacoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.

    2015-03-01

    A range of miniature (125μm o.d.) fibre optic ultrasound sensors based on the use of interferometric polymer optical cavities has been developed for minimally invasive photoacoustic imaging and sensing applications. It was observed that by careful selection of both the fibre tip and cavity geometry it is possible to achieve exceptional acoustic performance. Specifically, rounding the tip of the fibre to remove the presence of sharp diffractive boundaries enables a well behaved frequency response along with a near omnidirectional response at frequencies in the tens of MHz range to be achieved. The use of a plano-convex rather than a planar cavity provides high finesse and therefore detection sensitivity. Thus, by using a plano-convex cavity formed at the tip of radiused single mode fibre it was possible to realise a miniature ultrasound detector with a bandwidth of 80MHz, a noise-equivalent pressure of 40Pa (over a 20MHz measurement bandwidth) and a near omnidirectional response at frequencies as high as 30MHz. These characteristics suggest this type of sensor could find applications in interventional medicine for guiding needles or catheters, as mechanically scanned photoacoustic imaging probes or in laser scanning OR-PAM.

  11. Metathetical reactions of Re(VII) alkylidene-alkylidyne complexes of the type Re(CR[prime])(CHR[prime])[OCMe(CF[sub 3])[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Toreki, R.; Vaughan, G.A.; Schrock, R.R.; Davis, W.M. )

    1993-01-13

    1-Decene and methyl 9-decenoate react with syn- and anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6]) to give syn- and anti-Re(C-t-Bu)[CH(CH[sub 2])[sub 7]Me](OR[sub F6])[sub 2] and syn- and anti-Re(C-t-Bu)[CH(CH[sub 2])[sub 7]CO[sub 2]Me](OR[sub F6])[sub 2], respectively (OR[sub F6] = OCMe(CF[sub 3])[sub 2]). The new alkylidene complexes are unstable in the presence of excess terminal olefin and decompose upon attempted isolation. However, vinylferrocene reacts relatively smoothly and reversibly with syn-Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] in a noncoordinating solvent to yield tert-butylethylene and primarily anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CHFc)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] (Fe = ferrocenyl). anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CHFc)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2]. In the presence of THF or dimethoxyethane, complexes of the type syn- or anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CHR)(OR[sub F6])S[sub 2] (R = Me, Et, Ph; S = THF or 0.5DME) could be prepared in high yield from Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] and CH[sub 2][double bond]CHR. Heteroatom-substituted (O, S, or N) terminal olefins react more rapidly than ordinary olefins with Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] in the presence of THF to yield complexes of the type syn- or anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CHX)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2](THF)[sub 2] (X = OR, SR, NR[sub 2], or p-dimethylaminophenyl). 2-Pentene or methyl oleate is metathesized in the presence of Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2], and intermediate alkylidene complexes can be observed in each case. Addition of 3-hexene to Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] followed by TMEDA yields Re(C-t-Bu)(CHEt)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2](TMEDA). Internal olefins are metathesized only very slowly by Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] in the presence of several equivalents of THF or DME or especially in neat THF or DME. 58 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Optimization of H3O+/O2+ Dual-mode Ionization in PTR-MS for Simultaneous Detection of Alkanes, Olefins and Aromatic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador-Muñoz, O.; Misztal, P. K.; Weber, R.; Drozd, G.; Worton, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of VOC composition from fossil fuels are analytically challenging because of the complex mixture of hydrocarbons (saturated, unsaturated, aromatics, etc). Speciated chemical measurements typically rely on relatively slow GC separation. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is advantageous due to its fast response and high sensitivity. The most common ionization mechanism applied to VOC detection by PTR-MS is proton transfer from hydronium ion (H3O+). However, alkanes cannot be detected using H3O+ ionization chemistry because their proton affinities are too low. Ionization of alkanes is possible via electron transfer and/or hydride abstraction using O2+ or NO+. We used PTR-MS to analyze aromatic, alkene and alkane (linear, branched and cyclic) compounds simultaneously not by switching the ionization agents, but by adjusting the drift tube voltage and optimizing the ratio of H3O+/O2+ produced in the instrument's ion source. The highest detection sensitivity for aromatic and alkene compounds was produced by proton transfer from H3O+, while hydride abstraction by O2+ allowed detection of alkanes. For alkanes, sensitivities ranged from 1.1±0.01 cps/ppbv for n-decane to 74.7±0.25 cps/ppbv for decalin. Sensitivities in O2+ mode were from 6 (Adamantane) to 146 (4-Methyl nonane) times higher than those obtained in H3O+ mode under the same ion source and drift tube voltage conditions. Sensitivities for butyl benzene and 1-decene were 157±0.57 and 66.8±0.21 cps/ppbv, respectively. Sensitivity differences among C10 hydrocarbons are related to their structure, which affects their ionization energies (IE) and hence ease of hydride abstraction. Sensitivities at the parent ion mass were inversely correlated with IE (142 cps/ppbv/eV). This suggests higher electronic stability for cyclic non substituted compounds, followed by cyclic substituted, branch linear and linear C10 hydrocarbons. Although selectivity is a known shortcoming of quadrupole

  13. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  14. Metabolism of [6]-Shogaol in Mice and in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huadong; Lv, Lishuang; Soroka, Dominique; Warin, Renaud F.; Parks, Tiffany A.; Hu, Yuhui; Zhu, Yingdong; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    Ginger has received extensive attention because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. However, the metabolic fate of its major components is still unclear. In the present study, the metabolism of [6]-shogaol, one of the major active components in ginger, was examined for the first time in mice and in cancer cells. Thirteen metabolites were detected and identified, seven of which were purified from fecal samples collected from [6]-shogaol-treated mice. Their structures were elucidated as 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-3-ol (M6), 5-methoxy-1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M7), 3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl-decan-3-one (M8), 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M9), 5-methylthio-1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M10), 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one (M11), and 5-methylthio-1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol (M12) on the basis of detailed analysis of their 1H, 13C, and two-dimensional NMR data. The rest of the metabolites were identified as 5-cysteinyl-M6 (M1), 5-cysteinyl-[6]-shogaol (M2), 5-cysteinylglycinyl-M6 (M3), 5-N-acetylcysteinyl-M6 (M4), 5-N-acetylcysteinyl-[6]-shogaol (M5), and 5-glutathiol-[6]-shogaol (M13) by analysis of the MSn (n = 1–3) spectra and comparison to authentic standards. Among the metabolites, M1 through M5, M10, M12, and M13 were identified as the thiol conjugates of [6]-shogaol and its metabolite M6. M9 and M11 were identified as the major metabolites in four different cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HT-29, H-1299, and CL-13), and M13 was detected as a major metabolite in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. We further showed that M9 and M11 are bioactive compounds that can inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Our results suggest that 1) [6]-shogaol is extensively metabolized in these two models, 2) its metabolites are bioactive compounds, and 3) the mercapturic acid pathway is one of the major

  15. Ecology of larval mosquitoes, with special reference to Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culcidae) in market-garden wells in urban Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Robert, V; Awono-Ambene, H P; Thioulouse, J

    1998-11-01

    The urban area of Dakar, Senegal, contains > 5,000 market-garden wells that provide permanent sites for mosquito larvae, in particular Anopheles arabiensis Patton, the major vector of malaria. A study of the bioecology of mosquito larvae was conducted over 1 yr with a monthly visit to 48 of these wells. Overall, 9,589 larvae were collected of which 80.1% were Culicinae and 11.9% Anophelinae. Larvae from stages III and IV (n = 853) were identified to 10 species. An. arabiensis represented 86% of the anophelines collected and An. ziemanni Grunberg 14%. The most common Culicinae species included Aedeomyia africana Neveu-Lemaire, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Mimomyia splendens Theobald. Maximum anopheline abundance was observed at the end of the dry season in June, whereas maximum Culicinae abundance was observed at the end of the rainy season in September. Most wells (67%) did not harbor any An. arabiensis larvae and in the remaining 33% the larval abundance was low, averaging 0.54 larvae in stages III-IV per tray sample. To identify factors that determine the abundance of larvae in these wells, a co-inertia (multivariate) analysis was carried out to account for physicochemical variables (depth, turbidity, temperature, pH, conductivity, Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3--, and NO3- concentrations) and biological variables (abundance of mosquito species, predators [e.g., fish, Dytiscidae, Notonectidae, odonates], molluscs [Bulinus and Biomphalaria], and surface plants [water lettuce, Lemna, and filamentous algae]). The co-inertia analysis indicated that the abundance of An. arabiensis was associated with Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. decens for the physiochemical data but was not associated with other mosquito species for floro-faunistic data. The conditions associated with abundant An. arabiensis were warm temperature (28-30 degrees C), clear and not too deep water (< 0.5 m), elevated concentrations of HCO3- and CO3--, low concentrations of NO3- and NaCl, low populations of

  16. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  17. An anomalous African dust event and its impact on aerosol radiative forcing on the Southwest Atlantic coast of Europe in February 2016.

    PubMed

    Sorribas, M; Adame, J A; Andrews, E; Yela, M

    2017-04-01

    A desert dust (DD) event that had its origin in North Africa occurred on the 20th-23rd of February 2016. The dust transport phenomenon was exceptional because of its unusual intensity during the coldest season. A historical dataset (2006-2015) of February meteorological scenarios using ECMWF fields, meteorological parameters, aerosol optical properties, surface O3 and AOD retrieved from MODIS at the El Arenosillo observatory (southwestern Spain) were analysed and compared with the levels during the DD event to highlight its exceptionality. Associated with a low-pressure system in western North Africa, flows transported air from the Sahel to Algeria and consequently increased temperatures from the surface to 700hPa by up to 7-9°C relative to the last decade. These conditions favoured the formation of a Saharan air layer. Dust was transported to the north and reached the Western Mediterranean Basin and the Iberian Peninsula. The arrival of the DD event at El Arenosillo did not affect the surface weather conditions or ozone but did impact the aerosol radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere (RFTOA). Aerosol radiative properties did not change relative to historical; however, the particle size and the amount of the aerosol were significantly higher. The DD event caused an increase (in absolute terms) of the mean aerosol RFTOA to a value of -8.1Wm(-2) (long-term climatological value ~-1.5Wm(-2)). The aerosol RFTOA was not very large relative other DD episodes; however, our analysis of the historical data concluded that the importance of this DD event lay in the month of occurrence. European phenological datasets related to extreme atmospheric events predominantly reflect changes that are probably associated with climate change. This work is an example of this phenomenon, showing an event that occurred in a hotspot, the Saharan desert, and its impact two thousand km away.

  18. Global reductions in seafloor biomass in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel O B; Yool, Andrew; Wei, Chih-Lin; Henson, Stephanie A; Ruhl, Henry A; Watson, Reg A; Gehlen, Marion

    2014-06-01

    Seafloor organisms are vital for healthy marine ecosystems, contributing to elemental cycling, benthic remineralization, and ultimately sequestration of carbon. Deep-sea life is primarily reliant on the export flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean for food, but most ocean biogeochemistry models predict global decreases in export flux resulting from 21st century anthropogenically induced warming. Here we show that decadal-to-century scale changes in carbon export associated with climate change lead to an estimated 5.2% decrease in future (2091-2100) global open ocean benthic biomass under RCP8.5 (reduction of 5.2 Mt C) compared with contemporary conditions (2006-2015). Our projections use multi-model mean export flux estimates from eight fully coupled earth system models, which contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, that have been forced by high and low representative concentration pathways (RCP8.5 and 4.5, respectively). These export flux estimates are used in conjunction with published empirical relationships to predict changes in benthic biomass. The polar oceans and some upwelling areas may experience increases in benthic biomass, but most other regions show decreases, with up to 38% reductions in parts of the northeast Atlantic. Our analysis projects a future ocean with smaller sized infaunal benthos, potentially reducing energy transfer rates though benthic multicellular food webs. More than 80% of potential deep-water biodiversity hotspots known around the world, including canyons, seamounts, and cold-water coral reefs, are projected to experience negative changes in biomass. These major reductions in biomass may lead to widespread change in benthic ecosystems and the functions and services they provide. © 2013 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Seasonal water storage modulating seismicity on California faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Fu, Y.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-12-01

    In California the accumulation of winter snowpack in the Sierra Nevada, surface water in lakes and reservoirs, and groundwater in sedimentary basins follow the annual cycle of wet winters and dry summers. The surface loads resulting from the seasonal changes in water storage produce elastic deformation of the Earth's crust. Micro-earthquakes in California appear to follow a subtle annual cycle, possibly in response to the water load. Previous studies posit that temperature, atmospheric pressure, or hydrologic changes may strain the lithosphere and promote additional earthquakes above background levels. Here we use GPS vertical time series (2006 - 2015) to constrain models of monthly hydrospheric loading and compute annual peak-to-peak stresses on faults throughout northern California, which can exceed 1kPa. Depending on fault geometry the addition or removal of water increases the Coulomb failure stress. The largest stress amplitudes are occurring on dipping reverse faults in the Coast Ranges and along the eastern Sierra Nevada range front. We analyze M≥2.0 earthquakes with known focal mechanisms in northern and central California to resolve fault normal and shear stresses for the focal geometry. Our results reveal more earthquakes occurring during slip-encouraging stress conditions and suggest that earthquake populations are modulated at periods of natural loading cycles, which promote failure by subtle stress changes. The most notable shear-stress change occurs on more shallowly dipping structures. However, vertically dipping strike-slip faults are common throughout California and experience smaller amplitude stress change but still exhibit positive correlation with seasonal loading cycles. Our seismicity analysis suggests the annual hydrologic cycle is a viable mechanism to promote earthquakes and provides new insight to fault mechanical properties.

  20. Impact of socioeconomic and meteorological factors on reservoirs' air quality: a case in the Three Gorges Reservoir of Chongqing (TGRC), China over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Zhou, Fengwu; Cui, Jian; Du, Ke; Leng, Qiangmei; Yang, Fumo; Chan, Andy; Zhao, Hongting

    2017-07-01

    The Three Gorges Dam's construction and industrial transfer have resulted in a new air pollution pattern with the potential to threaten the reservoir eco-environment. To assess the impact of socioeconomic factors on the pattern of air quality vairation and economical risks, concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM10, industry genres, and meteorological conditions were selected in the Three Gorges Reservoir of Chongqing (TGRC) during 2006-2015. Results showed that air quality had improved to some extent, but atmospheric NO2 showed an increased trend during 2011-2015. Spatially, higher atmospheric NO2 extended to the surrounding area. The primary industry, especially for agriculture, had shown to be responsible for the remarkable increase of atmospheric NO2 (p < 0.01) due to the direct burning of agricultural straws and the emission of livestock breeding. The improvement of regional industrial structure and industrialization benefited air pollutant reductions, but construction industries had inhibited the improvement of regional air quality. In the tertiary industry, the cargo industry at ports had significantly decreased atmospheric NO2 as a result of eliminating the obsoleted small ships. Contrarily, the highway transportation had brought more air pollutants. The relative humidity was shown to be the main meteorological factor, which had an extremely remarkable relation with atmospheric SO2 (p < 0.01) and a significant correlation with atmospheric NO2 (p < 0.05), respectively. In the future, the development of agriculture and livestock breeding would make regional air quality improvement difficult, and atmospheric SO2, NO2, and PM10 deposition would aggravate regional soil and water acidification and reactivate heavy metal in soil and sediment, further to pose a high level of ecological risk in the TGRC and other countries with reservoirs in the world.

  1. Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling Pathways in mouse Longissimus Dorsi after 30-day BION-M1 Spaceflight and Subsequent Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoev, Timur; Blottner, Dieter; Shenkman, Boris; Lomonosova, Yulia; Vilchinskaya, Natalia; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana; Salanova, Michele

    The aim of the study was to analyze some of the key markers regulating anabolic and catabolic processes in mouse m. longissimus dorsi, an important back muscle system for trunk stabilization, following 30-day spaceflight and 8-day recovery period. C57/black mice were divided into 3 groups: 1) Vivarium Control (n=7), 2) Flight (n=5), 3) Recovery (n=5). The experiment was carried out in accordance with the rules of biomedical ethics certified by the Russian Academy of Sciences Committee on Bioethics. Using Western-blotting analysis we determined the content of IRS-1, p-AMPK, MURF-1 and eEF2 in m. longissimus dorsi. The content of IRS-1 in mice m. longissimus dorsi after the 30-day flight did not differ from the control group, however, in the Recovery group IRS-1 level was 80% higher (p<0.05) as compared to Control. Phospho-AMPK content remained unchanged. In the Recovery group there was an increase of eEF2 by 75% compared to the Control (p<0.05). After spaceflight MuRF-1 content was increased more than 2 times compared to the control animals. Thus, our findings showed that the work of the IRS-1 - dependent signaling pathway is only active in the recovery period. The content of the ubiquitin-ligase MURF-1 that takes parts in degrading myosin heavy chain was increased after the spaceflight, however, after 8-day recovery period MURF-1 level did not exceed the control indicating normalization of protein degradation in m. longissimus dorsi. The work was supported by the program of basic research of RAS and Federal Space Program of Russia for the period of 2006-2015.

  2. Impacts of Climate Change on Stream Temperatures in the Clearwater River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearsley, J. R.; Chegwidden, O.; Nijssen, B.

    2016-12-01

    Dworshak Dam in northern Idaho impounds the waters of the North Fork of the Clearwater River, creating a reservoir of approximately 4.278 km3 at full pool elevation. The dam's primary purpose is for flood control and hydroelectric power generation. It also provides important water quality benefits by releasing cold water into the Clearwater River during the summer when conditions become critical for migrating endangered species of salmon. Changes in the climate may have an impact on the ability of Dworshak Dam and Reservoir to provide these benefits. To investigate the potential for extreme outcomes that would limit cold water releases from Dworshak Reservoir and compromise the fishery, we implemented a system of hydrologic and water temperature models that simulate daily-averaged water temperatures in both the riverine and reservoir environments. We used the macroscale hydrologic model, VIC, to simulate land surface water and energy fluxes, the one-dimensional, time-dependent stream temperature model, RBM, to simulate river temperatures and a modified version of CEQUAL-W2 to simulate water temperatures in Dworshak Reservoir. A long-term hydrologically based gridded data set of meteorological forcing provided the input for comparing model results with available observations of flow and water temperature. For purposes of investigating the impacts of climate change, we used the results from ten of the most recent Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate change models scenarios in conjunction with the estimates of anthropogenic inputs of climate change gases from two representative concentration pathways (RCP). We compared the simulated results associated with a range of outcomes at critical river locations from the climate scenarios with existing conditions assuming that the reservoir would be operated under a rule curve based on the average reservoir elevation for the period 2006-2015 rule curve and for power demands represented by that same period.

  3. 9+ Years of CALIPSO PSC Observations: An Evolving Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.

    2015-01-01

    record from 2006- 2015.

  4. Nearly a Decade of CALIPSO Observations of Asian and Saharan Dust Properties Near Source and Transport Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Liu, Z.; Tackett, J.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C.; Winker, D.; H. Yu,

    2015-01-01

    The lidar on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, makes robust measurements of dust and has generated a length of record that is significant both seasonally and inter-annually. We exploit this record to determine a multi-year climatology of the properties of Asian and Saharan dust, in particular seasonal optical depths, layer frequencies, and layer heights of dust gridded in accordance with the Level 3 data products protocol, between 2006-2015. The data are screened using standard CALIPSO quality assurance flags, cloud aerosol discrimination (CAD) scores, overlying features and layer properties. To evaluate the effects of transport on the morphology, vertical extent and size of the dust layers, we compare probability distribution functions of the layer integrated volume depolarization ratios, geometric depths and integrated attenuated color ratios near the source to the same distributions in the far field or transport region. CALIPSO is collaboration between NASA and Centre National D'études Spatiales (CNES), was launched in April 2006 to provide vertically resolved measurements of cloud and aerosol distributions. The primary instrument on the CALIPSO satellite is the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), a near-nadir viewing two-wavelength polarization-sensitive instrument. The unique nature of CALIOP measurements make it quite challenging to validate backscatter profiles, aerosol type, and cloud phase, all of which are used to retrieve extinction and optical depth. To evaluate the uncertainty in the lidar ratios, we compare the values computed from dust layers overlying opaque water clouds, considered nominal, with the constant lidar ratio value used in the CALIOP algorithms for dust. We also explore the effects of noise on the CALIOP retrievals at daytime by comparing the distributions of the properties at daytime to the nighttime distributions.

  5. Active geodynamics of the Marmara Sea region: How to combine all geophysical observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Hayrullah; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Lengliné, Olivier; Bouchon, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The Marmara Sea region is presently hosting a major seismic gap along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The region is located at the western termination of a unique sequence of large earthquakes initiated by the 1939 Mw 7.9 Erzincan earthquake and propagated westwards over 1000 km. Understanding the active geodynamics of the Marmara region is essential to assess the seismic behaviour of the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) and its related structures. We therefore have taken an initiative to give a comprehensive view of the regional lithosphere and the geomechanical response of the fault trying to combine all important geophysical observations. Using the broadband seismic data acquired between 2007-2015, we computed crustal seismic velocity distribution (from ambient noise tomography), crustal thickness map (from receiver function analysis) and uppermost mantle velocity distribution (from Pn tomography). The vast amount of data provides a good spatial coverage of the region and high resolution of images. Along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF), we present the seismicity below the Marmara Sea for the period the 2006-2015 to provide insights on the seismic response of the fault. The analysis shows that the seismic behaviour is varying along the fault. In addition, long term repeating earthquakes are searched along the MMF and found in the western part of the MMF. In the light of accurate and extensive observations, several open questions emerge from this compilation: Is the cumulated seismic moment released by the repeaters comparable to tectonic rate of the fault in the region? Are there any correlations between the rheology of the crust and the seismic response of the fault? Is there an influence of the fault asymmetry on the fault rupture?

  6. Has dementia research lost its sense of reality? A descriptive analysis of eligibility criteria of Dutch dementia research protocols.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, K R; van Bruchem-Visser, R L; van de Vathorst, S; Mattace Raso, F U S

    2016-06-01

    A substantial proportion of dementia patients are excluded from research participation, while for extrapolation of the study findings, it is important that the research population represents the patient population. The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of dementia research and its exclusion criteria in order to get a clearer picture whether the research participants represent the general dementia population. Dementia studies registered at ToetsingOnline.nl between 2006-2015 were analysed. Study characteristics, funding and eligibility criteria were described and analysed using a standardised score sheet. The search yielded 103 usable study protocols. The number of trials has increased over the years, and 35% of the studies were industry-financed. Alzheimer's disease was the most researched type of dementia (84%). In observational studies the most frequently observed exclusion criterion is a neurological condition, while in drug studies and other intervention studies this is a somatic condition. Of all protocols, 86% had at least one exclusion criterion concerning comorbidity. Most studies focused on mild or moderate dementia (78%). Our study has shown that the distribution of dementia research over the different subtypes of dementia does not correspond with the prevalence of these subtypes in clinical practice. The research population in the protocols is not representative of the larger patient population. A greater number of dementia patients could derive benefit from the conducted research if the research agenda were more closely aligned with disease prevalence. A better representation of all dementia patients in research will help to meet the needs of these patients.

  7. [Fight against tuberculosis in the world].

    PubMed

    El Kamel, A; Joobeur, S; Skhiri, N; Cheikh Mhamed, S; Mribah, H; Rouatbi, N

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in a major health problem in the world. WHO and its partners especially, the stop TB partnership launched numerous strategies against TB especially in the 1990. Strategy DOTS (directly observed therapy short course) was launched in 1995. One main key was the direct supervision of drug intake by patients. Progress was achieved but it was insufficient. A new strategy called "Stop TB Strategy 2006-2015" was launched in 2006 in the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) elaborated by United Nations. The common goals were to halt and start to reverse the incidence of TB, reduce the prevalence and death rate by 50% compared to their level in 1990 by 2015 to eliminate TB as a public health problem by 2050. The end of 2010 marks the mid-point of the Global Plan and is an obvious time to update it and take into account actual progress with a focus on the 2015 to reach goals. So an updated Global Plan to stop TB 2011-2015, was launched. Expected progress and targets were defined for 2015, in diagnosis and treatment, in co-infection TB/HIV, in drug-resistant TB and achievements expected in new tests for diagnosis, new medications, new vaccines and new regimens with shorter duration of treatment. WHO and partners have started discussions to define the new post 2015 strategy to TB control and elimination. Risk factors (diabetes, malnutrition, tobacco smoke…) and socioeconomic factors, which are associated with TB, should be included in the new strategy to eliminate TB in 2050. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Tobacco cessation and household spending on non-tobacco goods: results from the US Consumer Expenditure Surveys.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Erin S; Dave, Dhaval M; Pozen, Alexis; Fahs, Marianne; Gallo, William T

    2017-03-16

    To estimate the impact of tobacco cessation on household spending on non-tobacco goods in the USA. Using 2006-2015 Consumer Expenditure Survey data, 9130 tobacco-consuming households were followed for four quarters. Households were categorised during the fourth quarter as having: (1) recent tobacco cessation, (2) long-term cessation, (3) relapsed cessation or (4) no cessation. Generalised linear models were used to compare fourth quarter expenditures on alcohol, food at home, food away from home, housing, healthcare, transportation, entertainment and other goods between the no-cessation households and those with recent, long-term or relapsed cessation. The full sample was analysed, and then analysed by income quartile. In the full sample, households with long-term and recent cessation had lower spending on alcohol, food, entertainment and transportation (p<0.001). Recent cessation was further associated with reduced spending on food at home (p<0.001), whereas relapsed cessation was associated with higher spending on healthcare and food away from home (p<0.001). In the highest income quartile, long-term and recent cessations were associated with reduced alcohol spending only (p<0.001), whereas in the lowest income quartile, long-term and recent cessations were associated with lower spending on alcohol, food at home, transportation and entertainment (p<0.001). Households that quit tobacco spend less in areas that enable or complement their tobacco cessation, most of which may be motivated by financial strain. The most robust association between tobacco cessation and spending was the significantly lower spending on alcohol. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal mass: FNA or core needle biopsy?

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Shun; Choi, Euna; Idrees, Muhammad T; Chen, Shaoxiong; Wu, Howard H

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing indications for percutaneous renal biopsy. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA), with or without core needle biopsy (CB), has been used increasingly in the management of renal tumors at the study institution. A computerized search of laboratory records was conducted to retrieve FNA cases of renal masses as well as the correlating CB and/or nephrectomy specimens. The cases spanned a period of 10 years (2006-2015). The diagnoses were classified into 5 categories: malignant, suspicious for malignancy, neoplastic, atypical, and negative/nondiagnostic. Based on the results of the nephrectomy specimens, the diagnostic rate, sensitivity, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated among 3 groups of specimens: FNA only, CB only, and combined FNA and CB. A total of 247 cases of FNA with 123 correlating CB and 101 follow-up nephrectomy specimens were identified. The diagnostic rate, sensitivity, and diagnostic accuracy were 72%, 78%, and 96%, respectively, for FNA; 87%, 92%, and 94%, respectively, for CB; and 92%, 92%, and 94%, respectively, for the combined FNA and CB group. Renal cell carcinoma and its variants were the most common histologic diagnoses (112 of 174 cases; 64%). Significant diagnostic discrepancy was noted in one case: a malignant melanoma that was misdiagnosed as renal cell carcinoma in both the preoperative FNA specimen and in the CB specimen. In the current study, both FNA and CB demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy (96% and 94%, respectively). The combination of FNA and CB was found to significantly improve the diagnostic rate when compared with either FNA alone (92% vs 72%; P<.05) or CB alone (92% vs 87%). Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:407-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Tuberculosis mortality trends in cuba, 1998 to 2007.

    PubMed

    González, Edilberto; Risco, Grisel E; Borroto, Susana; Perna, Abel; Armas, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death throughout the world. The World Health Organization's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 proposes that countries cut TB mortality by half compared to 1990 rates. In Cuba, TB mortality declined steadily throughout the 20th century, particularly after 1960. Objective Describe TB mortality distribution and trends in Cuba from January 1998 to December 2007 by infection site, sex, age and province, and determine progress towards the WHO's 2015 target for TB mortality reduction. Methods A time series ecological study was conducted. Death certificates stating TB as cause of death were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division, and population data by age group, sex, and province were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau. Crude and specific death rate trends and variation were analyzed. Results TB mortality declined from 0.4 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 0.2 (under half the 1990 rate) in 2007. Clinical forms of the disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, also declined. The highest mortality rates were found in males and in the group aged ≥ 65 years. Rates were also highest in the capital, Havana, with extreme values of 0.73 and 0.39 per 100,000 population at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. Conclusions Deaths from TB declined steadily compared to total deaths and deaths caused by infectious diseases. The Global Plan to Stop TB target was met well ahead of 2015. If this trend continues, TB is likely to become an exceptional cause of death in Cuba.

  11. Response in thermal neutrons intensity on the activation of seismic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonova, Valentina; Chubenko, Alexandr; Kryukov, Sergey; Lutsenko, Vadim

    2017-04-01

    Results of study of thermal and high-energy neutrons intensity during the activation of seismic activity are presented. Installations are located close to the fault of the earth's crust at the high-altitude station of cosmic rays (3340 m above sea level, 20 km from Almaty) in the mountains of Northern Tien-Shan. High correlation and similarity of responses to changes of space and geophysical conditions in the absence of seismic activity are obtained between data of thermal neutron detectors and data of the standard neutron monitor, recording the intensity of high-energy particles. These results confirm the genetic connection of thermal neutrons at the Earth's surface with high-energy neutrons of the galactic origin and suggest same sources of disturbances of their flux. However, observations and analysis of experimental data during the activation of seismic activity showed the frequent breakdown of the correlation between the intensity of thermal and high-energy neutrons and the absence of similarity between variations during these periods. We suppose that the cause of this phenomenon is the additional thermal neutron flux of the lithospheric origin, which appears under these conditions. Method of separating of thermal neutron intensity variations of the lithospheric origin from neutrons variations generated in the atmosphere is proposed. We used this method for analysis of variations of thermal neutrons intensity during earthquakes (with intensity ≥ 3b) in the vicinity of Almaty which took place in 2006-2015. The increase of thermal neutrons flux of the lithospheric origin during of seismic processes activation was observed for 60% of events. However, before the earthquake the increase of thermal neutron flux is only observed for 25-30% of events. It is shown that the amplitude of the additional thermal neutron flux from the Earth's crust is equal to 5-7% of the background level.

  12. Acute bithalamic infarct manifesting as sleep-like coma: A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Honig, Asaf; Eliahou, Ruth; Eichel, Roni; Shemesh, Ari Aharon; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Auriel, Eitan

    2016-12-01

    Bilateral thalamic infarction (BTI) typically presents as a sleep-like coma (SLC) without localizing signs, posing a diagnostic challenge that may lead the treating physician to search for toxic or metabolic causes and delay treatment. We review our experience with BTI of different etiologies, and emphasize the critical role of timely imaging, diagnosis, and management in a series of 12 patients with a presentation of SLC and acute BTI who were managed in our Medical Centers from 2006-2015. In 11/12, urgent head CT scans showed normal brain tissue, while diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI revealed symmetric bilateral thalamic hyperintense lesions with variable degrees of brainstem involvement. In 1/12, CT scans revealed a contralateral subacute stroke from a thalamic infarct 1month earlier with a unilateral hyperintense lesion on DWI-MRI. From clinical and imaging findings (DWI-MRI, CT angiography and venography), etiology was attributed to embolic causes (cardio-embolism, artery-to-artery mechanism), small vessel disease, or deep sinus vein thrombosis secondary to dural arteriovenous (AV) fistula. Three patients had good outcomes after prompt diagnosis and optimal treatment in <3hours (intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in two patients cardio-embolic etiology and neuro-endovascular repair in one patient with venous infarction due to a dural AV fistula). The diagnosis was made beyond the therapeutic window in seven patients, who were left with significant neurological sequelae. Higher awareness of BTI presenting as SLC is warranted. Optimal patient management includes urgent DWI-MRI. In cases of BTI, further imaging workup is indicated to provide a comprehensive assessment for etiology. Early diagnosis and prompt, targeted intervention are crucial.

  13. On the Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Zika Virus Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Andrew J.; Morin, Cory W.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Wilhelmi, Olga; Hayden, Mary; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Reiskind, Michael; Lloyd, Alun L.; Smith, Kirk; Schmidt, Chris A.; Scalf, Paige E.; Ernst, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An ongoing Zika virus pandemic in Latin America and the Caribbean has raised concerns that travel-related introduction of Zika virus could initiate local transmission in the United States (U.S.) by its primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Methods: We employed meteorologically driven models for 2006-2015 to simulate the potential seasonal abundance of adult Aedes aegypti for fifty cities within or near the margins of its known U.S. range. Mosquito abundance results were analyzed alongside travel and socioeconomic factors that are proxies of viral introduction and vulnerability to human-vector contact.     Results: Meteorological conditions are largely unsuitable for Aedes aegypti over the U.S. during winter months (December-March), except in southern Florida and south Texas where comparatively warm conditions can sustain low-to-moderate potential mosquito abundance. Meteorological conditions are suitable for Aedes aegypti across all fifty cities during peak summer months (July-September), though the mosquito has not been documented in all cities. Simulations indicate the highest mosquito abundance occurs in the Southeast and south Texas where locally acquired cases of Aedes-transmitted viruses have been reported previously. Cities in southern Florida and south Texas are at the nexus of high seasonal suitability for Aedes aegypti and strong potential for travel-related virus introduction. Higher poverty rates in cities along the U.S.-Mexico border may correlate with factors that increase human exposure to Aedes aegypti.     Discussion: Our results can inform baseline risk for local Zika virus transmission in the U.S. and the optimal timing of vector control activities, and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance for Aedes mosquitoes and Aedes-transmitted viruses. PMID:27066299

  14. Rising levels of New Zealand medical student debt.

    PubMed

    Verstappen, Antonia; Poole, Phillippa

    2017-06-16

    There is little recent data on the debt levels accrued by New Zealand medical graduates. We aimed to quantify the level of student loan debt accrued by medical graduates upon completion of their medical degree, and to investigate the association of New Zealand Government Student Loan (GSL) debt with gender and age. At graduation each year from 2006-2015, students from one New Zealand medical programme were invited to complete a career intention survey that included information on levels of GSL debt and the number of income sources used. The overall response rate was 83.8%. On average, 92% of domestic students reported having some student loan debt, with 28% a debt of $90,000 or more. The proportion of students reporting a student loan debt of $90,000 or more increased over the period of the study (P<0.0001). While older students were more likely to have a larger student loan debt than younger students, there was no difference in debt levels by gender. Students with larger student loans were more likely to rely on a larger number of financial sources to fund their studies. New Zealand medical students are carrying higher levels of student loan debt year on year. The effect of this on the future medical workforce is not certain; however, this could be negative if graduates choose to enter careers that are more highly paid over areas of high need. The full impact of large loans on individuals and the health system will take years to determine.

  15. Ezetimibe: Use, costs, and adverse events in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha A; Ostino, Remo; David, Michael C; Martin, Jennifer H; Tett, Susan E

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the subsidized use and reported adverse events of ezetimibe, used to lower cholesterol, in Australia over the 11 years following its inclusion on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2004. Pharmacoepidemiological analysis of dispensed prescriptions from Medicare Australia. Adverse event data were obtained from the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Use was measured by the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 population per day for each calendar year. Adverse events were counted by organ class system. Total ezetimibe use rose to 8.46 DDD/1000 population/d in the 11 years to 2015. Ezetimibe as a sole active ingredient was the most commonly dispensed formulation followed by the two combination products containing ezetimibe and 40 mg or 80 mg simvastatin. The average yearly increase in utilization was 19% with a 24% annual increase in costs to government (2006-2015) to $169.0 million in 2015. There were substantial differences in ezetimibe use between states, with no relationship to deaths from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in each jurisdiction. The major reported adverse events were musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. Ezetimibe use has increased rapidly in Australia since receiving public subsidy. Although the indications for subsidy are very restricted, there appears to have been widespread use, not explained by differential geographical IHD death rates. Latest guidelines still question the value of ezetimibe, so further discussion about whether the public spending on this medication for any potential improvement in population health outcomes is justified. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  17. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-10-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  18. Hypsometric control on glacier mass balance sensitivity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, D.; Sass, L.; Arendt, A. A.; O'Neel, S.; Kienholz, C.; Larsen, C.; Burgess, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Mass loss from glaciers in Alaska is dominated by strongly negative surface balances, particularly on small, continental glaciers but can be highly variable from glacier to glacier. Glacier hypsometry can exert significant control on mass balance sensitivity, particularly if the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is in a broad area of low surface slope. In this study, we explore the spatial variability in glacier response to future climate forcings on the basis of hypsometry. We first derive mass balance sensitivities (30-70 m ELA / 1° C and 40-90 m ELA / 50% decrease in snow accumulation) from the ~50-year USGS Benchmark glaciers mass balance record. We subsequently assess mean climate fields in 2090-2100 derived from the IPCC AR5/CMIP5 RCP 6.0 5-model mean. Over glaciers in Alaska, we find 2-4° C warming and 10-20% increase in precipitation relative to 2006-2015, but a corresponding 0-50% decrease in snow accumulation due to rising temperatures. We assess changes in accumulation area ratios (AAR) to a rising ELA using binned individual glacier hypsometries. For an ELA increase of 150 m, the mean statewide AAR drops by 0.45, representing a 70% reduction in accumulation area on an individual glacier basis. Small, interior glaciers are the primary drivers of this reduction and for nearly 25% of all glaciers, the new ELA exceeds the glacier's maximum elevation, portending eventual loss. The loss of small glaciers, particularly in the drier interior of Alaska will significantly modify streamflow properties (flashy hydrographs, earlier and reduced peak flows, increased interannual variability, warmer temperatures) with poorly understood downstream ecosystem and oceanographic impacts.

  19. Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS): a mid-term analysis of progress in 50 countries.

    PubMed

    Kamara, Lidija; Lydon, Patrick; Bilous, Julian; Vandelaer, Jos; Eggers, Rudi; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Meaney, William; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Within the overall framework set out in the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) for the period 2006-2015, over 70 countries had developed comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs) by 2008, outlining their plans for implementing the GIVS strategies and for attaining the GIVS Goals at the midpoint in 2010 or earlier. These goals are to: (1) reach ≥90% and ≥80% vaccination coverage at national and district level, respectively; and (2) reduce measles-related mortality by 90% compared with the 2000 level. Fifty cMYPs were analysed along the four strategic areas of the GIVS: (1) protecting more people in a changing world; (2) introducing new vaccines and technologies; (3) integrating immunization, other health interventions and surveillance in the health system context; and (4) immunizing in the context of global interdependence. By 2010, all 50 countries planned to have introduced hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine, 48 the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine and only a few countries had firm plans to introduce pneumococcal or rotavirus vaccines. Countries seem to be inadequately prepared in terms of cold-chain requirements to deal with the expected increases in storage that will be required for vaccines, and in making provisions to establish a corresponding surveillance system for planned new vaccine introductions. Immunization contacts are used to deliver other health interventions, especially in the countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Region. The cost for the planned immunization activities will double to U$27 per infant, of which U$5 per infant is the expected shortfall. Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) funding is becoming the largest contributor to immunization programmes.

  20. Reappraisal of Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) in the management of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A retrospective analysis from a reference center in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro Javier; Almazan, Maria Cristina; Quipildor, Marcelo; Juarez, Marisa; Gil, Jose Fernando; Espinosa, Marco; Canabire, Maria; Cajal, Silvana Pamela

    2017-10-05

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently implicated with cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas; its diagnosis is based on the identification of amastigotes in lesions, which is limited by low parasite burden. Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) is a support tool for diagnosis, based on delayed type hypersensitivity responses to Leishmania antigens injected intradermally, used in endemic areas as a complement to diagnosis. A retrospective analysis of individuals evaluated for their first episode of tegumentary leishmaniasis at a reference center in Argentina during the period 2006-2015 was performed, with the goal of assessing its usefulness as a support tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Demographic, clinical and diagnostic work-up were analyzed in individuals with clinically compatible lesions, lesion`s smear and LST. A total of 733 cases that met the case definition were included in the analysis; 678 (93%) localized cutaneous cases, 50 (7%) with mucosal involvement and 5 (<1%) disseminated. Diagnostic confirmation was reached in 474 (65%) cases through positive smears from skin or mucosal lesions, with only 6 cases among this group having negative LST. Among smear negative cases, 190 were negative also by LST, but in 69 instances LST was positive. Across age groups, similar ratios of sensitivity between smear and LST were calculated. Lesions older than 21 days-old were found to correlate with positive results both for smear and LST significantly more than younger lesions. These findings support the clinical use of LST as a diagnostic complement for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis across all age groups even in endemic areas. In this analysis, the correlation with smear was high. Standardization of this technique and further research into its most adequate preparation and utilization protocols across different sites will help in the management of suspicious clinical cases.

  1. A rare clinical case of the isolated primary frontal bone osteoma.

    PubMed

    Pohranychna, Kh

    2016-09-01

    To study a rare clinical case of isolated primary osteoma localized in the frontal bone, provide its detailed clinical and pathomorphological analysis, and evaluate statistical indicators of occurrence frequency and localization of facial skeleton osteomas during 2006-2015. The retrospective case records analysis of patients undergoing treatment in the ma-xillofacial department of Lviv Regional Clinical Hospital and suffering from facial skeleton osteomas was conducted. The clinical examination was carried out in accordance with the inspection protocol required for the examination of patients diagnosed with tumors and tumor-like neoplasms in a particular clinical case. Frontal and lateral views were used in the course of X-ray imaging. Histological studies included macroscopy and microscopy. According to the retrospective case record analysis made over the last 10 years 346 cases of facial bone osteoma were revealed and proved histologically comprising 3.7% of all benign osteogeneous maxillofacial tumors. For the first time in 10 years osteoma localized in the frontal bone had been revealed and thoroughly studied. Macroscopically - a semi-spherical and immovable neoformation 7 cm in diameter of hard consistency, splaying out at 4 cm and being adherent with the frontal bone. Roentgenologically - homogeneous intense shadowing of a round form with relatively distinct outlines complying with clinical sizes. According to the histological data, the tumor consists mostly of the solid osseous tissue and the spongy osseous tissue with the evident thickened trabeculas of the bone located in different directions. The analysis of historical data demonstrated extremely rare localization of primary osteoma of the frontal bone, and indicated the uniqueness of the case and significant clinical importance of its detailed study.

  2. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University.

    PubMed

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2017-02-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only. Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  3. Extreme rainfall analysis based on precipitation events classification in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Lorenzo; Fiori, Elisabetta; Molini, Luca

    2016-04-01

    the raingauges observation in northern Italy for the period 2006-2015.

  4. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  5. The Austrian network of isotopes in rivers: Long-term time series of isotopes in river water in Central Europe (1963-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyhlidal, S.; Rank, D.; Weigand, S.

    2016-12-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen in river water (Figure 1) is mainly determined by the isotopic composition in precipitation water in the drainage area (altitude effect, continental effect, seasonal variations and influence of storms). Several hydrological parameters and processes modify this isotopic signature and its temporal variation: delayed runoff of winter precipitation, residence time of groundwater discharged to the river, confluence with tributaries, evaporation from lakes in the river system as well as anthropogenic influences on the hydrological regime (e.g. reservoirs, irrigation). The comparison of long-term trends of stable isotope ratios in precipitation and river water reveals that, in the case of the Upper Danube Basin (catchment area 101700 km2, mean discharge 1925 m3/s), river water quite well reflects the isotope trends of precipitation. Not only short-term signals (e. g. seasonal δ18O variations or 3H releases from nuclear facilities) but also long-term changes of isotope ratios in precipitation are transmitted through the catchment, for instance the significant increase of δ18O values during the eighties. The different sources of air moisture (Atlantic, Mediterranean) are also clearly represented isotopically in the river system. The river water isotope time series will serve as a basic data set for hydrological investigations as well as for assessing future impacts within the catchment areas. This includes climatic/hydrological changes (e.g. temperature changes, change of precipitation distribution) as well as anthropogenic impacts on the hydrological regime (e.g. reservoirs, change in land use). All these changes will more or less be reflected in the isotopic composition of river water. Figure 1: δ18O (average values 2006-2015) of river water in Central Europe

  6. Detailed reconstruction of the nervous and muscular system of Lobatocerebridae with an evaluation of its annelid affinity.

    PubMed

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Worsaae, Katrine

    2015-12-10

    The microscopic worm group Lobatocerebridae has been regarded a 'problematicum', with the systematic relationship being highly debated until a recent phylogenomic study placed them within annelids (Curr Biol 25: 2000-2006, 2015). To date, a morphological comparison with other spiralian taxa lacks detailed information on the nervous and muscular system, which is here presented for Lobatocerebrum riegeri n. sp. based on immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, supported by TEM and live observations. The musculature is organized as a grid of longitudinal muscles and transverse muscular ring complexes in the trunk. The rostrum is supplied by longitudinal muscles and only a few transverse muscles. The intraepidermal central nervous system consists of a big, multi-lobed brain, nine major nerve bundles extending anteriorly into the rostrum and two lateral and one median cord extending posteriorly to the anus, connected by five commissures. The glandular epidermis has at least three types of mucus secreting glands and one type of adhesive unicellular glands. No exclusive "annelid characters" could be found in the neuromuscular system of Lobatocerebridae, except for perhaps the mid-ventral nerve. However, none of the observed structures disputes its position within this group. The neuromuscular and glandular system of L. riegeri n. sp. shows similarities to those of meiofaunal annelids such as Dinophilidae and Protodrilidae, yet likewise to Gnathostomulida and catenulid Platyhelminthes, all living in the restrictive interstitial environment among sand grains. It therefore suggests an extreme evolutionary plasticity of annelid nervous and muscular architecture, previously regarded as highly conservative organ systems throughout metazoan evolution.

  7. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2017-02-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only . Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  8. Global and regional fluxes of carbon from land use and land cover change 1850-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, R. A.; Nassikas, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    The net flux of carbon from land use and land cover change (LULCC) is an important term in the global carbon balance. Here we report a new estimate of annual fluxes from 1850 to 2015, updating earlier analyses with new estimates of both historical and current rates of LULCC and including emissions from draining and burning of peatlands in Southeast Asia. For most of the 186 countries included we relied on data from Food and Agriculture Organization to document changes in the areas of croplands and pastures since 1960 and changes in the areas of forests and "other land" since 1990. For earlier years we used other sources of information. We used a bookkeeping model that prescribed changes in carbon density of vegetation and soils for 20 types of ecosystems and five land uses. The total net flux attributable to LULCC over the period 1850-2015 is calculated to have been 145 ± 16 Pg C (1 standard deviation). Most of the emissions were from the tropics (102 ± 5.8 Pg C), generally increasing over time to a maximum of 2.10 Pg C yr-1 in 1997. Outside the tropics emissions were roughly constant at 0.5 Pg C yr-1 until 1940, declined to zero around 1970, and then became negative. For the most recent decade (2006-2015) global net emissions from LULCC averaged 1.11 (±0.35) Pg C yr-1, consisting of a net source from the tropics (1.41 ± 0.17 Pg C yr-1), a net sink in northern midlatitudes (-0.28 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1), and carbon neutrality in southern midlatitudes.

  9. Vp model at the junction of Taiwan Orogeny and the western-most Ryukyu Subduction Zone from the integration of Ocean Bottom Seismometer Networks and onland seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, S. J.; Lin, J. Y.; Kuochen, H.; Wang, S. Y.; Liang, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    In Taiwan, since all the seismic stations located in the onland area, previous studies about velocity model of this region should only have high resolution for the onland part and could not provide sufficient constrains for the marine domain. However, most earthquakes with magnitude larger than 7 occur in the eastern offshore Taiwan area, suggesting the presence of high-activity tectonic processes. A better understanding of geological structures in the area must provide important information about the tectonic environments. In this study, we constructed a Vp model by combining earthquake travel times determined from inland stations and 5 temporal Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) arrays, which had been deployed in different time periods from 2008 to 2012, and relocated earthquakes in a decade (2006-2015) provided by Central Weather Bureau (CWB), Taiwan. As a result of a better coverage of seismic ray-paths in eastern flank of the island, this model provides sufficient resolution for the junction area of the Taiwan orogeny and the western-most Ryukyu subduction system. The most notable feature in the model is a low velocity zone underlying along the northwestward subducted Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) extending along 122oE, which could be the product of the subducted forearc basement. The relocated earthquakes sit on the top of the low velocity zone, suggesting its active deformation. It is worth noted that, along the subducted PSP, the relocated earthquake hypocenters present a double Benioff zone east of 122oE, and merged together, getting a relatively larger dipping angle toward the west. This change of seismic pattern was not reported previously and may provide important index for the tectonic evolution. However, further studies will be needed to get more understanding.

  10. Intercomparison of CALIOP Cloud and Aerosol Profiles with in situ Marine Stratocumulus Observations during ORACLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkila, A.; Small Griswold, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the ORACLES ( ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) field campaign that occurred during the months of August and September 2016 off the coast of Namibia is to measure the interactions of biomass burning aerosols (BBA) and clouds. In this region stratocumulus clouds are the dominant cloud type and are a critical component of Earth's radiation budget due to their high albedo and resulting cooling effect. They also impact the hydrological cycle through drizzle production. BBA are the predominant aerosol type in this region and also play multiple roles by modifying the atmospheric temperature structure through absorbing solar radiation and altering cloud properties by serving as CCN. These processes of aerosol-cloud interactions are poorly understood, thus the use of multiple measurement techniques, including space-borne remotely sensed data and in situ measurements, offer a more in depth look into these interactions. To address this complex system we combine satellite data from CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) and in situ data from the FPDR-PDI. CALIOP Level 2 Lidar Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) data was collected and analyzed for the years 2006-2015 to establish a climatological profile for aerosol and clouds in the region. Individual swaths observed during the 2016 field project are used to compare with in situ measurements. The VFM data provides aerosol and cloud types in categories based on their optical properties, along with their vertical structures in the atmosphere. To determine actual microphysical cloud properties we use a FPDR-PDI to measure instantaneous cloud drop size, cloud drop concentration, drop size distributions and liquid water content. This work compares average CALIOP aerosol and cloud profiles across the ORACLES region, including the stratocumulus to cumulus transition, with the in situ FPDR-PDI data to confirm cloud altitude and thickness and cloud-aerosol collocation.

  11. Overweight and Underweight Prevalence Trends in Children from Romania - Pooled Analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies between 2006 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Cinteza, Elena Eliza; Chesaru, Bianca Ioana; Gafencu, Mihai; Mocanu, Veronica; Pascanu, Ionela M; Tatar, Simona Alexandra; Balgradean, Mihaela; Dobre, Michaela; Fica, Simona Vasilica; Ichim, Gabriela Edita; Pop, Raluca; Puiu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    High-quality national representative data on obesity in Romanian children are needed to shape public health policies. To provide a unified data landscape on national prevalence, trends and other factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in Romanian children aged 6-19 years, across the last decade (2006-2015). Using a common protocol, we selected published and unpublished studies that measured Romanian children in schools between 2006 and 2015. Children's BMI was classified using the current WHO, IOTF, and CDC references. 25,060 children from 8 Romanian counties were included in the analysis. The prevalence of underweight children was 5%/4.5%/8.5% (WHO/IOTF/CDC), while the prevalence of overweight (including obese) children was 28.3%/23%/23.2% (WHO/IOTF/CDC). The prevalence of overweight children did not change significantly over the last decade (chi-square test p = 0.6). Male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.37; 95% CI 1.29-1.45, compared to female); prepubertal age (OR = 3.86; 95% CI 3.41-4.36,compared to postpubertal age), and urban environment (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.26, compared to rural environment) had higher risk for overweight. While the prevalence of underweight children was low, almost one in four children in Romania was overweight or obese (according to WHO criteria) between 2006 and 2015. This prevalence remained relatively stable over the last decade. Male gender, prepubertal age, and urban environment, were the most relevant risk factors associated with overweight status in Romanian children. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2016-09-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only. Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder in the perinatal period: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Vignato, Julie; Georges, Jane M; Bush, Ruth A; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2017-03-15

    To report an analysis of the concept of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Prevalence of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder is rising in the USA, with 9% of the U.S. perinatal population diagnosed with the disorder and an additional 18% being at risk for the condition. Left untreated, adverse maternal-child outcomes result in increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Concept analysis via Walker and Avant's approach. The databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, Academic Search Premier and PsychINFO were searched for articles, written in English, published between 2006-2015, containing the terms perinatal and post-traumatic stress disorder. Perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder owns unique attributes, antecedents and outcomes when compared to post-traumatic stress disorder in other contexts, and may be defined as a disorder arising after a traumatic experience, diagnosed any time from conception to 6 months postpartum, lasting longer than 1 month, leading to specific negative maternal symptoms and poor maternal-infant outcomes. Attributes include a diagnostic time frame (conception to 6 months postpartum), harmful prior or current trauma and specific diagnostic symptomatology defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Antecedents were identified as trauma (perinatal complications and abuse), postpartum depression and previous psychiatric history. Consequences comprised adverse maternal-infant outcomes. Further research on perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder antecedents, attributes and outcomes in ethnically diverse populations may provide clinicians a more comprehensive framework for identifying and treating perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Nurses are encouraged to increase their awareness of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder for early assessment and intervention, and prevention of adverse maternal-infant outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley

  14. A Search for Millisecond-pulsar Radio Emission from the Faint Quiescent Soft X-Ray Transient 1H 1905+000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, K.; van Leeuwen, J.; Jonker, P. G.

    2017-05-01

    Transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) switch between an accretion-powered state without radio pulsations and a rotation-powered state with radio pulsations. In the former state, tMSPs are X-ray bright, while in the latter state, they are X-ray dim. Soft X-ray transients (SXTs) undergo similar switches in X-ray, between “high” states with bright X-ray outbursts and “low” states of quiescence. The upper limit on the quiescent X-ray luminosity of SXT 1H 1905+000 suggests that its luminosity might be similar to that of the known tMSPs. A detection of radio pulsations would link SXTs more strongly with tMSPs; and thus, e.g., put stricter constraints on tMSP transitional timescales through the connection with the well-known SXT periods of quiescence. A nondetection allows us, based on the telescope sensitivity, to estimate how likely these sources are to pulsate in radio. Over a 10-year span, 2006-2015, we carried out targeted radio observations at 400/800 MHz with Arecibo, and searched for radio pulsations from the quiescent SXT 1H 1905+000. None of the observations have revealed radio pulsations from the targeted SXT. For a 1 ms pulsar, our flux density upper limit is 10.3 μJy. At an assumed distance of 10 kpc this translates to a pseudo-luminosity upper limit of 1.0 mJy kpc2, which makes our search complete to ˜85% of the known MSP population. Given the high sensitivity, and the generally large beaming fraction of millisecond pulsars, we conclude that SXT 1H 1905+000 is unlikely to emit in radio as a tMSP.

  15. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - analysis of clinical features, laboratory characteristics and therapeutic outcome of 24 patients treated at a Tertiary Care Center in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Shahid; Zaidi, Syed Z. A.; Motabi, Ibraheem H; Alshehry, Nawal Faiez; AlGhamdi, Mubarak S.; Tailor, Imran Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disease. The primary aim was overall response rate (ORR) assessment in the treated patients Methods: This retrospective study included 24 patients treated during 2006-2015. TTP patients with microangiopathic hemolysis (MAHA) and thrombocytopenia were included. We analyzed clinical features, laboratory characteristics and treatment outcomes of 24 TTP patients treated at our tertiary care center (KFMC). Results: Twenty-four TTP patients (18 females; 6 males) had a mean age of 33.5±13.9 years; 22(91%) had neurologic features, 7(29%) fever, 10(42%) renal impairment; 4(20.83%) cardiac manifestations; 22(91.7%) had triad with additional neurologic abnormalities; only 2(8.2%) had pentad of TTP. Majority (54.16%) had idiopathic TTP. All patients received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE); 23(95.8%) received adjunctive corticosteroids and 13(54.2%) received rituximab either due to refractoriness to TPE on ~day7, or earlier. Twenty-one out of 24 (87.5%) achieved complete remission (CR) without any subsequent relapse. At 22 months (median, range 1-113), 20 patients (83.3%) are alive at the time of report. Three patients died during acute episode because of sever disease or delayed treatment and one died in CR. Conclusion: TPE, steroids and or rituximab was very effective in preventing high risk of mortality and achieving durable CR in 87.5% of patients. More awareness is needed for early diagnosis and early referral to centers with appropriate tertiary care facilities.. PMID:28083052

  16. A New High Resolution Climate Dataset for Climate Change Impacts Assessments in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komurcu, M.; Huber, M.

    2016-12-01

    Assessing regional impacts of climate change (such as changes in extreme events, land surface hydrology, water resources, energy, ecosystems and economy) requires much higher resolution climate variables than those available from global model projections. While it is possible to run global models in higher resolution, the high computational cost associated with these simulations prevent their use in such manner. To alleviate this problem, dynamical downscaling offers a method to deliver higher resolution climate variables. As part of an NSF EPSCoR funded interdisciplinary effort to assess climate change impacts on New Hampshire ecosystems, hydrology and economy (the New Hampshire Ecosystems and Society project), we create a unique high-resolution climate dataset for New England. We dynamically downscale global model projections under a high impact emissions scenario using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with three nested grids of 27, 9 and 3 km horizontal resolution with the highest resolution innermost grid focusing over New England. We prefer dynamical downscaling over other methods such as statistical downscaling because it employs physical equations to progressively simulate climate variables as atmospheric processes interact with surface processes, emissions, radiation, clouds, precipitation and other model components, hence eliminates fix relationships between variables. In addition to simulating mean changes in regional climate, dynamical downscaling also allows for the simulation of climate extremes that significantly alter climate change impacts. We simulate three time slices: 2006-2015, 2040-2060 and 2080-2100. This new high-resolution climate dataset (with more than 200 variables saved in hourly (six hourly) intervals for the highest resolution domain (outer two domains)) along with model input and restart files used in our WRF simulations will be publicly available for use to the broader scientific community to support in-depth climate

  17. The U.S. Online News Coverage of Mammography Based on a Google News Search.

    PubMed

    Young Lin, Leng Leng; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2017-07-07

    To characterize online news coverage relating to mammography, including articles' stance toward screening mammography. Google News was used to search U.S. news sites over a 9-year period (2006-2015) based on the search terms "mammography" and "mammogram." The top 100 search results were recorded. Identified articles were manually reviewed. The top 100 news articles were from the following sources: local news outlet (50%), national news outlet (24%), nonimaging medical source (13%), entertainment or culture news outlet (6%), business news outlet (4%), peer-reviewed journal (1%), and radiology news outlet (1%). Most common major themes were the screening mammography controversy (29%), description of a new breast imaging technology (23%), dense breasts (11%), and promotion of a public screening initiative (11%). For the most recent year, article stance toward screening mammography was 59%, favorable; 16%, unfavorable; and 25%, neutral. After 2010, there was an abrupt shift in articles' stances from neutral to both favorable and unfavorable. A wide range of online news sources addressed a range of issues related to mammography. National, rather than local, news sites were more likely to focus on the screening controversy and more likely to take an unfavorable view. The controversial United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines may have influenced articles to take a stance on screening mammography. As such online news may impact public perception of the topic and thus potentially impact guideline adherence, radiologists are encouraged to maintain awareness of this online coverage and to support the online dissemination of reliable and accurate information. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Planning to improve global health: the next decade of tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Maher, Dermot; Dye, Chris; Floyd, Katherine; Pantoja, Andrea; Lonnroth, Knut; Reid, Alasdair; Nathanson, Eva; Pennas, Thad; Fruth, Uli; Cunningham, Jane; Ignatius, Heather; Raviglione, Mario C; Koek, Irene; Espinal, Marcos

    2007-05-01

    The Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 is a road map for policy-makers and managers of national programmes. It sets out the key actions needed to achieve the targets of the Millennium Development Goals relating to tuberculosis (TB): to halve the prevalence and deaths by 2015 relative to 1990 levels and to save 14 million lives. Developed by a broad coalition of partners, the plan presents a model approach combining interventions that can feasibly be supplied on the ground. The main areas of activity set out in the plan are: scaling up interventions to control tuberculosis; promoting the research and development of improved diagnostics, drugs and vaccines; and engaging in related activities for advocacy, communications and social mobilization. Scenarios for the planning process were developed; these looked at issues both globally and in seven epidemiological regions. The scenarios made ambitious but realistic assumptions about the pace of scale-up and implementation coverage of the activities. A mathematical model was used to estimate the impact of scaling up current interventions based on data from studies of tuberculosis biology and from experience with tuberculosis control in diverse settings. The estimated costs of the activities set out in the Global Plan were based on implementing interventions and researching and developing drugs, diagnostics and vaccines; these costs were US$ 56 billion over 10 years. When translated into cost per disability adjusted life year averted, these costs compare favourably with those of other public health interventions. This approach to planning for global tuberculosis control is a valuable example of developing plans to improve global health that has relevance for other health issues.

  19. Half a degree additional warming, prognosis and projected impacts (HAPPI): background and experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Daniel; AchutaRao, Krishna; Allen, Myles; Bethke, Ingo; Beyerle, Urs; Ciavarella, Andrew; Forster, Piers M.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Gillett, Nathan; Haustein, Karsten; Ingram, William; Iversen, Trond; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Klingaman, Nicholas; Massey, Neil; Fischer, Erich; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Scinocca, John; Seland, Øyvind; Shiogama, Hideo; Shuckburgh, Emily; Sparrow, Sarah; Stone, Dáithí; Uhe, Peter; Wallom, David; Wehner, Michael; Zaaboul, Rashyd

    2017-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has accepted the invitation from the UNFCCC to provide a special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and on related global greenhouse-gas emission pathways. Many current experiments in, for example, the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP), are not specifically designed for informing this report. Here, we document the design of the half a degree additional warming, projections, prognosis and impacts (HAPPI) experiment. HAPPI provides a framework for the generation of climate data describing how the climate, and in particular extreme weather, might differ from the present day in worlds that are 1.5 and 2.0 °C warmer than pre-industrial conditions. Output from participating climate models includes variables frequently used by a range of impact models. The key challenge is to separate the impact of an additional approximately half degree of warming from uncertainty in climate model responses and internal climate variability that dominate CMIP-style experiments under low-emission scenarios.Large ensembles of simulations (> 50 members) of atmosphere-only models for three time slices are proposed, each a decade in length: the first being the most recent observed 10-year period (2006-2015), the second two being estimates of a similar decade but under 1.5 and 2 °C conditions a century in the future. We use the representative concentration pathway 2.6 (RCP2.6) to provide the model boundary conditions for the 1.5 °C scenario, and a weighted combination of RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 for the 2 °C scenario.

  20. Healthy workplaces for health workers in Canada: knowledge transfer and uptake in policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Shamian, Judith; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    The World Health Report launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006-2015), with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce strategies including healthy workplaces for health workers. Evidence shows that healthy workplaces improve recruitment and retention, workers' health and well-being, quality of care and patient safety, organizational performance and societal outcomes. Over the past few years, healthy workplace issues in Canada have been on the agenda of many governments and employers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a progress update, using different data-collection approaches, on knowledge transfer and uptake of research evidence in policy and practice, including the next steps for the healthy workplace agenda in Canada. The objectives of this paper are (1) to summarize the current healthy workplace initiatives that are currently under way in Canada; (2) to synthesize what has been done in reality to determine how far the healthy workplace agenda has progressed from the perspectives of research, policy and practice; and (3) to outline the next steps for moving forward with the healthy workplace agenda to achieve its ultimate objectives. Some of the key questions discussed in this paper are as follows: Has the existing evidence on the benefits of healthy workplaces resulted in policy change? If so, how and to what extent? Have the existing policy initiatives resulted in healthier workplaces for healthcare workers? Are there indications that healthcare workers, particularly at the front line, are experiencing better working conditions? While there has been significant progress in bringing policy changes as a result of research evidence, our synthesis suggests that more work is needed to ensure that existing policy initiatives bring effective changes to the workplace. In this paper, we outline the next steps for research, policy and practice that are required to help the healthy workplace agenda achieve its ultimate objectives.