Science.gov

Sample records for 2006-2015 plano decenal

  1. Starspots on LO Pegasi, 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Robert O.; Chalmers, Mark; Geda, Robel; Henry, Brandi; Sliupas, Viesulas

    2016-01-01

    LO Pegasi is a rapidly rotating (P = 10.154 hr) young solar analog (spectral class K5-7V) variable star of BY Dra type that exhibits dark starspots on its surface that modulate its brightness as they are carried into and out of view by the star's rotation. Surface maps of the spot distribution were produced based on BVRI photometry obtained at Perkins Observatory from 2006-2015. The maps were generated from the light curves via a non-linear inversion algorithm that uses the differences in the limb darkening through different filter passbands to improve the latitude resolution of the maps. We present an analysis of variations in the size of a polar spot suggested by changes in the average brightness and the amplitude of the rotational modulation from year to year.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  7. A Trio in Plano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Sandra K.

    1979-01-01

    The article briefly highlights a few of the experiences of a commerical food preparation teacher, an auto body teacher, and a special education aide, who all work together to provide a comprehensive vocational program for mainstreamed handicapped high school students at Plano High School in Plano, Texas. (DLS)

  8. Fluctuations in cloud-top height measured by CALIPSO from 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Abhnil Amtesh

    2017-02-01

    The inception of space-borne lidar has added vital information on clouds vertical profile and distribution over the globe. This includes CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), which has been screening clouds with CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) consistently from mid 2006. CALIOP cloud-top height (CTH) measurement capability exists for layers with optical depth (τ > 0.01), allowing it to detect subvisual and thin cirrus with high confidence. The CTH forms an essential parameter in understanding the role of clouds on climate, especially fluctuations in the effective CTH is significant in determining the cloud-feedback. Using CALIPSO Level 2 cloud layer product with a 5 km horizontal resolution from mid 2006-2015, fluctuations in effective CTH are shown for the tropics and the whole globe.

  9. Growth characteristic, guest distribution, guest ordering and the stability of urea inclusion compounds with 1-decene, n-decane and mixture of 1-decene and n-decane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Ge, Xihui; Zhang, Minqing; Zhu, Huaigong; Zhang, Zijian; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Growth characteristics of urea inclusion compounds with 1-decene, n-decane and mixture of 1-decene and n-decane (relative mass ratio = 1:1) were studied by CCD high-speed Camera. The present studies show that the speed of UICs growth in tunnel direction is faster than in vertical direction and the length of UICs with 1-decene is shorter than UICs with n-decane, and the length of UICs with mixture is between them due to the influence of the vinyl in 1-decene. The value of R = I(CH2)/I(CH3) and M = I(CHCH2)/I(CH3) in FTIR spectrum of UICs increasing with growth time demonstrates that urea prefers to include n-decane than 1-decene. 13C CP/MAS NMR studies of UICs indicate that the arrangement of 1-decene in UICs is CH3⋯CH3 and CHCH2⋯CH2CH. The arrangement of 1-decene in UICs leads to short chain of UICs with 1-decene in tunnel direction. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of UICs with MIX reveal that there are three different types of arrangement: CH3⋯CH3, CHCH2⋯CH3 and CHCH2⋯CH2CH. The methods of FTIR and DSC were used to test the stability of UICs with different guests. The result shows that UICs with n-decane are stable than UICs with 1-decene. And the stability of UICs with mixture is in the middle.

  10. Volcano and Earthquake Monitoring Plan for the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, 2006-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    To provide Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and its surrounding communities with a modern, comprehensive system for volcano and earthquake monitoring, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) has developed a monitoring plan for the period 2006-2015. Such a plan is needed so that YVO can provide timely information during seismic, volcanic, and hydrothermal crises and can anticipate hazardous events before they occur. The monitoring network will also provide high-quality data for scientific study and interpretation of one of the largest active volcanic systems in the world. Among the needs of the observatory are to upgrade its seismograph network to modern standards and to add five new seismograph stations in areas of the park that currently lack adequate station density. In cooperation with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its Plate Boundary Observatory Program (PBO), YVO seeks to install five borehole strainmeters and two tiltmeters to measure crustal movements. The boreholes would be located in developed areas close to existing infrastructure and away from sensitive geothermal features. In conjunction with the park's geothermal monitoring program, installation of new stream gages, and gas-measuring instruments will allow YVO to compare geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes and ground motions, to hydrothermal events, such as anomalous water and gas discharge. In addition, YVO seeks to characterize the behavior of geyser basins, both to detect any precursors to hydrothermal explosions and to monitor earthquakes related to fluid movements that are difficult to detect with the current monitoring system. Finally, a monitoring network consists not solely of instruments, but requires also a secure system for real-time transmission of data. The current telemetry system is vulnerable to failures that could jeopardize data transmission out of Yellowstone. Future advances in monitoring technologies must be accompanied by improvements in the infrastructure for

  11. Working towards TB elimination the WHO Regional Strategic Plan (2006-2015).

    PubMed

    Nair, Nani; Cooreman, Erwin

    2006-03-01

    DOTS has expanded rapidly in the South-East Asia Region over the period of the Partnership's first Global Plan (2001-2005), with almost 100% geographical coverage achieved in 2005. All countries have made impressive progress in improving coverage and quality. This progress has been made possible through strong political commitment and large investments in TB control for improved infrastructure, reliable drug supply, increased staffing, improved laboratory services, and intensified training and supervision. Accomplishing the objectives outlined in this document will require sustaining the progress in all countries and particularly in the five high burden countries for achieving major regional and global impact. National TB programmes will need to be supported to maintain or surpass the 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rates. The achievement of the TB-related targets linked to the MDGs will also depend on how effectively initiatives such as DOTS-Plus, PPM DOTS and interventions for TB/ HIV among others, are implemented. National governments and development partners must fulfill their commitments to mobilizing and sustaining adequate resources to support the full range of activities envisaged. The benefits of full and effective implementation of all the planned interventions would be substantial. These will result in 20 to 25 million TB cases being treated in DOTS program mes and more than 150 000 drug-resistant cases receiving treatment through DOTS-Plus during the period 2006-2015. In addition, at least 250 000 HIV-infected TB patients may also receive anti-retroviral therapy. As a consequence, the prevalence of TB is expected to fall below 175/100 000 and the number of TB deaths is expected to fall to between 100 000 and 150 000 per year. There would also be substantial economic benefits given that TB disproportionately affects adults in their most productive years. Considering these aspects, it is expected that the TB incidence will decline

  12. 78 FR 11760 - 3-decen-2-one; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... occurrence in many foods that are common in the human diet including yogurt, skipjack tuna, edible porcini... scientific literature indicate humans are already exposed to 3-decen-2-one in the diet from foods that... occurring in foods that are common in the human diet, and presents little, if any, risk to non-...

  13. Acetic Acid, 2-Undecanone, and (E)-2-Decenal Ultrastructural Malformations on Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Ntalli, Nikoletta; Ratajczak, Marlena; Oplos, Chrisostomos; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Adamski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural compounds to control phytonematodes is significantly increasing, as most of the old synthetic pesticides have been banned due to their eco-hostile character. Plant secondary metabolites are now evaluated as biologically active molecules against Meloidogyne spp. but their target site in the nematode body is rarely specified. Herein, we report on the ultrastructure modifications of the Meloidogyne incognita J2 after treatment with nematicidal plant secondary metabolites, that is acetic acid, (E)-2-decenal, and 2-undecanone. The commercial nematicide fosthiazate acting on acetylcholinesterase was used as control. For this reason, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been employed. The acetic acid mainly harmed the cuticle, degenerated the nuclei of pseudocoel cells, and vacuolised the cytoplasm. The (E)-2-decenal and 2-undecanone did neither harm to the cuticle nor the somatic muscles but they degenerated the pseudocoel cells. (E)-2-decenal caused malformation of somatic muscles. According to the above, the nematicidal compounds seem to enter the nematode body principally via the digestive system rather than the cuticle, since the main part of the damage is internal. PMID:28154431

  14. Effects of meteorological conditions on sulfur dioxide air pollution in the North China plain during winters of 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Chase; Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Anderson, Mark; Yang, Kai

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has seen frequent occurrences of severe air pollution episodes of high loading in SO2 during winters in the North China Plain (NCP). Using satellite data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations, and National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP) meteorological reanalysis, this study examines meteorological and synoptic conditions associated with air pollution episodes during 2006-2015 winters. OMI-based SO2 data suggest a large decrease (∼30% in area average) of SO2 emissions since 2010. Statistical analysis shows that meteorological conditions associated with the top 10% of OMI-based high SO2 days are found on average to be controlled by high pressure systems with 2 m s-1 lower wind speeds, slightly warmer, 1-2 °C, temperatures and 10-20% higher relative humidities from the surface to 850 hPa. Numerical experiments with GOES-Chem nested grid simulations at 0.5° × 0.667° resolution are conducted for winters of 2009 as a control year, and 2012 and 2013 as years for sensitivity analysis. The experiments reveal that year-to-year change of winter columnar SO2 amounts and distributions in first order are linearly proportional to the change in SO2 emissions, regardless of the differences in meteorological conditions. In contrast, the surface SO2 amounts and distributions exhibit highly non-linear relationships with respect to the emissions and stronger dependence on the meteorological conditions. Longer data records of atmospheric SO2 from space combined with meteorological reanalysis are needed to further study the meteorological variations in air pollution events and the air pollution climatology in the context of climate change.

  15. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  16. Amine degradation by 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal in model systems.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Gallardo, Emerenciana; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2006-03-22

    The reactions of 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal with octylamine, benzylamine, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester were studied to investigate if amines may suffer a Strecker type degradation by epoxyalkenals analogously to amino acids. In addition to other reactions, the studied amines were converted into their corresponding Strecker aldehydes (octanal, benzaldehyde, and methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate, respectively) to an extent that depended on the pH, the temperature, the amount of epoxyalkenal, and the amine involved. Each amine exhibited an optimum pH for the reaction, but the corresponding Strecker aldehydes were produced to a significant extent within a broad pH range. In addition, the temperature mostly influenced the reaction rate, which was increased between 6.5 and 9.5 times when the reaction was carried out at 60 degrees C than when it took place at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, Strecker aldehyde formation was linearly correlated with the amount of the epoxyalkenal present in the reaction mixture. Nevertheless, the reaction yield mostly depended on the amine involved. Thus, octylamine only produced trace amounts of octanal, benzylamine was converted into benzaldehyde with a yield of 4.3%, and 2-phenylglycine methyl ester was converted into methyl 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate with a reaction yield of 49%. All of these results suggest that suitable amines can be degraded by epoxyalkenals to their corresponding Strecker aldehydes to a significant extent.

  17. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  18. Influence of Winemaking Processing Steps on the Amounts of (E)-2-Decenal and Tridecane as Off-Odorants Caused by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys).

    PubMed

    Mohekar, Pallavi; Osborne, James; Wiman, Nik G; Walton, Vaughn; Tomasino, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    Brown marmorated stink bugs (BMSB) release stress compounds, tridecane and (E)-2-decenal, that affect final wine quality. This study focuses on determining the effect of wine processing on (E)-2-decenal and tridecane release in both red and white wines. Wines were produced by adding live BMSB to grape clusters at densities of 0, 0.3, 1, and 3 bugs/cluster. Compound concentrations were measured using headspace solid phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. For red wines, the highest levels of stress compounds were found using 3 BMSB/cluster [tridecane, 614 μg/L; (E)-2-decenal, 2.0 μg/L]. Pressing was found to be the critical process point for stress compound release, and additional pressing processes, press types, and press fractions were investigated. BMSB taint for white wines was not found to be problematic with respect to wine quality. An action control of 3 BMSB/cluster is recommended as this was related to the known consumption rejection threshold for (E)-2-decenal.

  19. Reinterpretation of the Robein and Plano Silts, northeastern Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, B.B.; Kempton, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Reinterpretation of till stratigraphy in northern Illinois and recently obtained radiocarbon dates suggest the Plano Silt is lithologically and stratigraphically indistinguishable from the Robein Silt. These recent data suggest colluvial silt and organic-rich sediment were deposited in most of the northern Illinois between >50,000 and 23,000 RCBP. This age range agrees with radiocarbon dates from the Mid-Wisconsinan Sidney Interstadial Soil of the Huron-Erie Lobe. Altonian (Early to Mid-Wisconsinan)-age till associated with the Lake Michigan Lobe has not yet been identified. Horberg and others recognize in northeastern Illinois a single basal Wisconsinan organic-rich zone; peat, silt and loess of the Farmdalian Substage were interpreted to overlie Sangamon Soil developed in Illinoian drift. They also interpreted a reddish-brown diamicton overlying the Plano Silt at its type section as the Capron Till Member of late Altonian age. The new data support the earlier interpretation of a single organic-rich deposit between Wisconsinan and Illinoian drifts. The Plano Silt should be abandoned as a rock-stratigraphic unit. The Robein Silt includes colluvium and organic-rich sediment not only of Farmdalian age, but also Altonian age in most of northern Illinois, similar to the rest of the upper Mississippi River Valley. The evidence of nearly continuous Robein deposition restricts possible Altonian-age glacial deposits to a narrow band on Capron Ridge in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin.

  20. 75 FR 27119 - ViewPoint Financial Group, Inc., Plano, Texas; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision ViewPoint Financial Group, Inc., Plano, Texas; Approval of Conversion... application of ViewPoint MHC and ViewPoint Bank, Plano, Texas, to convert to the stock form of...

  1. 75 FR 52065 - SharePlus Federal Bank, Plano, TX; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision SharePlus Federal Bank, Plano, TX; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on August 12, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application...

  2. Protecting Plano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines how one school district used a comprehensive plan, that included cooperation between parents, students, and local law enforcement, to effectively respond to the current furor over school security. The components and costs of the plan are highlighted. (GR)

  3. Focal-length-tunable elastomer-based liquid-filled plano-convex mini lens.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chaolong; Dai, Bo; Zhuo, Ran; Yuan, Xupeng; Gao, Xiumin; Wen, Jing; Sheng, Bin; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-01-15

    A liquid plano-convex lens with focal length tuning is proposed, which is formed by sinking an oil droplet onto the bottom of an elastomer. A simple and low-cost fabrication method is presented. The lens aperture and initial focal length can be controlled during the fabrication. Furthermore, focal length tuning is demonstrated. The lens made of a 40 mg oil droplet can achieve the tuning range from 12 to 17 mm. The effective aperture of the lens is about 2.8 mm. In the demonstration of an imaging system, the lens assists in focusing and a clear image can be observed.

  4. Designing null phase screens to test a fast plano-convex aspheric lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelOlmo-Márquez, Jesús; Castán-Ricaño, Diana; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2015-08-01

    We have obtained a formula to represent the wavefront produced by a plano-convex aspheric lens with symmetry of revolution considering a plane wavefront propagating parallel to the optical axis and impinging on the refracting surface, it is called a zero-distance phase front, being it the first wavefront to be out of the optical system. Using a concept of differential geometry called parallel curves it is possible to obtain an analytic formula to represent the wavefront propagated at arbitrary distances through the optical axis. In order to evaluate qualitatively a plano-convex aspheric lens, we have modified slightly an interferometer Tywman-Green as follow: In the reference beam we use a plane mirror and the beam of test we have used a spatial light modulator (SLM) to compensate the phase produced by the lens under test. It will be called a null phase interferometer. The main idea is to recombine both wavefronts in order to get a null interferogram, otherwise we will associate the patterns of the interferogram to deformations of the lens under test. The null phase screens are formed with concentric circumferences assuming different gray levels printed on SLM.

  5. Plasmonic plano-semi-cylindrical nanocavities with high-efficiency local-field confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanocavity arrays were achieved by producing isolated silver semi-cylindrical nanoshells periodically on a continuous planar gold film. Hybridization between localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the Ag semi-cylindrical nanoshells (SCNS) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in the gold film was observed as split bonding and anti-bonding resonance modes located at different spectral positions. This led to strong local field enhancement and confinement in the plano-concave nanocavites. Narrow-band optical extinction with an amplitude as high as 1.5 OD, corresponding to 97% reduction in the transmission, was achieved in the visible spectrum. The resonance spectra of this hybrid device can be extended from the visible to the near infrared by adjusting the structural parameters.

  6. Plasmonic plano-semi-cylindrical nanocavities with high-efficiency local-field confinement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanocavity arrays were achieved by producing isolated silver semi-cylindrical nanoshells periodically on a continuous planar gold film. Hybridization between localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the Ag semi-cylindrical nanoshells (SCNS) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in the gold film was observed as split bonding and anti-bonding resonance modes located at different spectral positions. This led to strong local field enhancement and confinement in the plano-concave nanocavites. Narrow-band optical extinction with an amplitude as high as 1.5 OD, corresponding to 97% reduction in the transmission, was achieved in the visible spectrum. The resonance spectra of this hybrid device can be extended from the visible to the near infrared by adjusting the structural parameters. PMID:28074853

  7. The Changing Landscape of Neuroscience Research, 2006-2015: A Bibliometric Study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Goto, Tazuko K; Leung, W Keung

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is beneficial to evaluate changes in neuroscience research field regarding research directions and topics over a defined period. Such information enables stakeholders to quickly identify the most influential research and incorporate latest evidence into research-informed education. To our knowledge, no study reported changes in neuroscience literature over the last decade. Therefore, the current study determined research terms with highest citation scores, compared publication shares of research areas and contributing countries in this field from 2006 to 2015 and identified the most productive journals. Methods: Data were extracted from Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Only articles and reviews published in journals classified under the JCR "Neurosciences" category over the period of interest were included. Title and abstract fields of each included publication were extracted and analyzed via VOSviewer to identify recurring terms with high relative citation scores. Two term maps were produced for publications over the study period to illustrate the extent of co-occurrence, and the impact of terms was evaluated based on their relative citation scores. To further describe the recent research priority or "hot spots," 10 terms with the highest relative citation scores were identified annually. In addition, by applying Bradford's law, we identified 10 journals being the most productive journals per annum over the survey period and evaluated their bilbiometric performances. Results: From 2006 to 2015, there were 47 terms involved in the annual lists of top 10 terms with highest relative citation scores. The most frequently recurring terms were autism (8), meta-analysis (7), functional connectivity (6), default mode network (4) and neuroimaging (4). Neuroscience research related to psychology and behavioral sciences showed an increase in publication share over the survey period, and China has become one of the major contributors to neuroscience research. Ten journals were frequently identified (≥8 years) as core journals within the survey period. Discussion: The landscape of neuroscience research has changed recently, and this paper provides contemporary overview for researchers and health care workers interested in this field's research and developments. Brain imaging and brain connectivity terms had high relative citation scores.

  8. Streptococcus pyogenes Pneumonia in Adults: Clinical Presentation and Molecular Characterization of Isolates 2006-2015

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Esther; Montes, Milagrosa; Vicente, Diego; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the preantibiotic era Streptococcus pyogenes was a common cause of severe pneumonia but currently, except for postinfluenza complications, it is not considered a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Aim and Material and Methods This study aimed to identify current clinical episodes of S. pyogenes pneumonia, its relationship with influenza virus circulation and the genotypes of the involved isolates during a decade in a Southern European region (Gipuzkoa, northern Spain). Molecular analysis of isolates included emm, multilocus-sequence typing, and superantigen profile determination. Results Forty episodes were detected (annual incidence 1.1 x 100,000 inhabitants, range 0.29–2.29). Thirty-seven episodes were community-acquired, 21 involved an invasive infection and 10 developed STSS. The associated mortality rate was 20%, with half of the patients dying within 24 hours after admission. Influenza coinfection was confirmed in four patients and suspected in another. The 52.5% of episodes occurred outside the influenza seasonal epidemic. The 67.5% of affected persons were elderly individuals and adults with severe comorbidities, although 13 patients had no comorbidities, 2 of them had a fatal outcome. Eleven clones were identified, the most prevalent being emm1/ST28 (43.6%) causing the most severe cases. Conclusions S. pyogenes pneumonia had a continuous presence frequently unrelated to influenza infection, being rapidly fatal even in previously healthy individuals. PMID:27027618

  9. Formation of a plano-convex micro-lens array in fused silica glass by using a CO2 laser-assisted reshaping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Ik-Bu; Yoo, Dongyoon; Noh, Young-Chul; Sung, Jae-Hee; Lee, Seong-Ku; Choi, Hun-Kook; Ahsan, Md. Shamim

    2016-08-01

    We report on fabricating high-fill-factor plano-convex spherical and square micro-lens arrays on fused silica glass surface by using a CO2 laser-assisted reshaping technique. Initially, periodic micro-pillars are encoded on glass surfaces by means of a femtosecond laser beam, afterwards, the micro-pillars are polished several times by irradiating a CO2 laser beam on top of the micro-pillars. Consequently, a spherical micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 50 μm × 50 μm and a square micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 100 μm × 100 μm are formed on the surface of the fused silica glass. We also study the intensity distribution of light passing through the glass sample engraved with a spherical micro-lens array. The simulation result shows that the focal length of the spherical micro-lens array is 35 μm. Furthermore, we investigate the optical properties of glass samples with engraved micro-lens arrays. The proposed CO2-laser-based reshaping technique is simple and fast and shows promises for fabricating arrays of smooth micro-lenses in various transparent materials.

  10. Fabrication of long-focal-length plano-convex microlens array by combining the micro-milling and injection molding processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kirchberg, Stefan; Jiang, Bing-Yan; Xie, Lei; Jia, Yun-Long; Sun, Lei-Lei

    2014-11-01

    A uniform plano-convex spherical microlens array with a long focal length was fabricated by combining the micromilling and injection molding processes in this work. This paper presents a quantitative study of the injection molding process parameters on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The variation of the injection process parameters, i.e., barrel temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure, was found to have a significant effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses, especially the barrel temperature. The filling-to-packing switchover point is also critical to the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The optimal uniformity was achieved when the polymer melts completely filled the mold cavity, or even a little excessively filled the cavity, during the filling stage. In addition, due to the filling resistance, the practical filling-to-packing switchover point can vary with the change of the filling processing conditions and lead to a non-negligible effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. Furthermore, the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses is mainly attributed to the two functions of injection speed: transferring the filling-to-packing switchover point and affecting the distribution of residual flow stress in the polymer melt.

  11. Fabrication and evaluation of variable focus and large deformation plano-convex microlens based on non-ionic poly(vinyl chloride)/dibutyl adipate gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Youn; Yeo, Myoung; Shin, Eun-Jae; Park, Won-Hyeong; Jang, Jong-Seok; Nam, Byeong-Uk; Bae, Jin Woo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a variable focus microlens module based on a transparent, electroactive, and non-ionic PVC/DBA gel. A non-ionic PVC/DBA (nPVC) gel on an ITO glass was confined beneath a rigid annular electrode, and applied pressure squeezed a bulge of the nPVC gel into the annular electrode, resulting in a hemispherical plano-convex nPVC gel microlens. The proposed nPVC gel microlens was analyzed and optimized. When voltage is applied to the circular perimeter (the annular electrode) of this fabricated microlens, electrically induced creep deformation of the nPVC gel occurs, changing its optical focal length. The focal length remarkably increases from 3.8 mm up to 14.3 mm with increasing applied voltages from 300 V to 800 V. Due to its compact, transparent, and electroactive characteristics, the proposed nPVC gel microlens can be easily inserted into small consumer electronic devices, such as digital cameras, camcorders, cell phones, and other portable optical devices.

  12. Wavefronts, light rays and caustic associated with the refraction of a spherical wave by two interfaces: the axicon and the plano-convex parabolic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto

    2015-06-01

    In this work we assume that we have three optical media with constant refraction indexes n0, n1 and n2 separated by arbitrary refracting surfaces. In the optical medium with refraction index n0 we place a point light source at an arbitrary position. The aim of the present work is to obtain exact expressions for the wavefront train and the caustic associated with the evolution of the spherical wave emitted by the point light source. To this end, we construct a complete integral of the eikonal equation and we show that the evolution of the refracted wavefronts and light rays are described by a map between two subsets of {{R}3}. The caustic is computed as the image of the critical set associated with this map. The general results are applied to an axicon and a plano-convex parabolic lenses (glass made) when the point light source is placed on the optical axis. We find that, due to the change in the index of refraction, the spherical wavefront emitted by the point light source during its evolution experiences a metamorphosis in such a way that at the caustic region the wavefronts develop singularities and self-intersections.

  13. Antigenic characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in India, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sudipta; Nagarajan, Shanmugasundaram; Kumar, Manoj; Murugkar, Harshad V; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Venkatesh, Govindarajulu; Tosh, Chakradhar

    2017-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major health concern worldwide. In this study, we focused on antigenic analysis of HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in India between 2006 and 2015 comprising 25 isolates from four phylogenetic clades 2.2 (1 isolate), 2.2.2.1 (1 isolate), 2.3.2.1a (17 isolates) and 2.3.2.1c (6 isolates). Seven H5N1 isolates from all four clades were selected for production of chicken antiserum, and antigenic analysis was carried out by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. HI data indicated antigenic divergence (6-21 fold reduction in cross-reactivity) between the two recently emerged clades 2.3.2.1a and 2.3.2.1c. These two clades are highly divergent (21-128 fold reduction in HI titre) from the earlier clades 2.2 /2.2.2.1 isolated in India. However, a maximum of 2-fold and 4-fold reduction in cross-reactivity was observed within the isolates of homologous clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.2.1a, respectively. The molecular basis of inter-clade antigenic divergence was examined in the haemagglutinin (HA) antigenic sites of the H5N1 virus. Amino acid changes at 8 HA antigenic sites were observed between clades 2.3.2.1a and 2.3.2.1c, whereas 20-23 substitutions were observed between clades 2.3.2.1a/2.3.2.1c and 2.2/2.2.2.1. Therefore, a systematic analysis of antigenic drift of the contemporary field isolates is a pre-requisite for determining the suitable strain(s) for vaccine candidature.

  14. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-02-22

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids.

  15. Characteristics of Initial Prescription Episodes and Likelihood of Long-Term Opioid Use - United States, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj; Hayes, Corey J; Martin, Bradley C

    2017-03-17

    Because long-term opioid use often begins with treatment of acute pain (1), in March 2016, the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain included recommendations for the duration of opioid therapy for acute pain and the type of opioid to select when therapy is initiated (2). However, data quantifying the transition from acute to chronic opioid use are lacking. Patient records from the IMS Lifelink+ database were analyzed to characterize the first episode of opioid use among commercially insured, opioid-naïve, cancer-free adults and quantify the increase in probability of long-term use of opioids with each additional day supplied, day of therapy, or incremental increase in cumulative dose. The largest increments in probability of continued use were observed after the fifth and thirty-first days on therapy; the second prescription; 700 morphine milligram equivalents cumulative dose; and first prescriptions with 10- and 30-day supplies. By providing quantitative evidence on risk for long-term use based on initial prescribing characteristics, these findings might inform opioid prescribing practices.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of bovine Salmonella enterica isolates submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, J R; Sethi, A K; Aulik, N A; Poulsen, K P

    2017-02-01

    Salmonellosis on the dairy continues to have a significant effect on animal health and productivity and in the United States. Additionally, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica causes an estimated 1.2 million cases of human illness annually. Contributing to the morbidity and mortality in both human and domestic animal species is emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Salmonella species and increased incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates. This study describes serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns for various Salmonella serotypes isolated from bovine samples submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) over the past 10 yr. Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data were obtained from the laboratory information management system at WVDL. Data from accessions were limited to bovine samples submitted to the WVDL between January 2006 and June 2015 and those that had both a definitive serotype and complete results for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 4,976 isolates were identified. Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin was the most prevalent serotype identified among bovine samples submitted to the WVDL, accounting for a total of 1,153 isolates (23% of total isolates) over the study period. Along with Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Cerro (795, 16%), Newport (720, 14%), Montevideo (421, 8%), Kentucky (419, 8%), and Typhimurium (202, 4%) comprised the top 6 most commonly isolated serotypes during that time. Overall, resistance of bovine Salmonella isolates in the study population remained stable, although decreases in resistance were noted for gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole during the study period. All isolates remained susceptible to enrofloxacin. These data show that antimicrobial susceptibility for bovine Salmonella has changed in the population served by WVDL in the past 10 yr. This information is important for understanding Salmonella disease ecology in Wisconsin. Our findings are also relevant for animal and public health by improving informed antimicrobial use, new drug development, and regulation of their use in food animals.

  17. Prevalence and time trends of spina bifida in fourteen cities located in the Liaoning province of northeast China, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Ba, Gen; Wu, Qi-Jun; Chen, Yan-Ling; Huang, Yan-Hong; Gong, Ting-Ting

    2017-01-27

    The present study sought to assess the time trends of spina bifida on the basis of cases identified by the Liaoning Birth Defects Registry in 14 cities from 2006 to 2015. We calculated the prevalence of spina bifida, percent and average change of time trends, and contribution rates of each city. Poisson regression model was used to find the line of best fit for spina bifida prevalence by year, with year as a continuous independent variable. From 2006 to 2015, a total of 2,029 spina bifida cases were identified from 3,248,954 live births (6.25/10,000 live births). We observed statistically significant decreasing trend of overall time trend (11.57% each year). Chaoyang, Fuxin, and Huludao were the top three leading cities, with 14.30/10,000 live births, 9.70/10,000 live births, and 9.20/10,000 live births, respectively. Inversely, the bottom three cities with lowest prevalence were Anshan (2.64/10,000 live births), Dandong (3.43/10,000 live births), and Dalian (3.45/10,000 live births). Of note, we observed significant decreasing trends in over half of these cities (n = 8). In addition, the decreasing trend of overall time trend could be mainly attributed to cities of Shenyang, Fushun, and Jinzhou which accounted for nearly one third. In summary, our study suggested a decreasing time trend of spina bifida during the past decade in the Liaoning province. The findings of this study provide evidence that the nationwide folic acid supplement program has been an effective strategy to prevent spina bifida.

  18. Time trends in the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of neural tube defects in Liaoning Province, China, 2006-2015: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tie-Ning; Gong, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yan-Ling; Wu, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Li, Jing; Li, Li-Li; Zhou, Chen; Huang, Yan-Hong

    2017-02-03

    To evaluate the time trends in the prevalence of neural tube defects and all their subtypes as well as to identify the epidemiological characteristics of these malformations documented in the Liaoning Province of northeast China from 2006 to 2015. This was a population-based observational study using data from 3,248,954 live births as well as from 6217 cases of neural tube defects, 1,600 cases of anencephaly, 2,029 cases of spina bifida, 404 cases of encephalocele, and 3,008 cases of congenital hydrocephalus from 14 cities in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. All analyses were conducted using SPSS software. During the observational period, the prevalence of neural tube defects, anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, and congenital hydrocephalus was 19.1, 4.9, 6.2, 1.2, and 9.3 per 10,000 live births, respectively. Significantly decreasing trends were observed in the prevalence of all these malformations except for encephalocele. Notably, relatively higher prevalence rates were found in isolated compared with non-isolated malformations, with significant differences in selected characteristics (e.g., prognosis status, gestational age, and birth weight) between isolated and non-isolated cases of these malformations. The prevalence of neural tube defects showed a downward trend in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. However, more attention should be focused on non-isolated cases in the future because of the severe clinical manifestations. Future prevention efforts should be strengthened to reduce the risk of these malformations, especially the non-isolated subtype, in areas with high prevalence.

  19. An evolutionarily stable strategy and the critical point of hog futures trading entities based on replicator dynamic theory: 2006-2015 data for China's 22 provinces.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jinbo; Deng, Lingfei; Wang, Gangyi

    2017-01-01

    Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the steady state between the two trading entities. The results show that the steady state is one in which hedgers adopt a "buy" strategy and speculators adopt a "do not speculate" strategy, but this type of extreme steady state is not easily realized. Thus, to explore the rational proportion of hedgers and speculators in the evolutionary stabilization strategy, bidding processes were simulated using weekly average hog prices from 2006 to 2015, such that the conditions under which hedgers and speculators achieve a steady state could be analyzed. This task was performed to achieve the stability critical point, and we show that only when the value of λ is satisfied and the conditions of hog futures price changes and futures price are satisfied can hedgers and speculators achieve a rational proportion and a stable hog futures market. This market can thus provide a valuable reference for the development of the Chinese hog futures market and the formulation and guidance of relevant departmental policies.

  20. 78 FR 3415 - 3-Decen-2-One; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... burn-off potato sprouts in storage facilities. The applicant proposes the use of a new chemical which... sprouts. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part 166 was submitted as part of this request. As part of... unseasonably warmer by 3-5 degrees Fahrenheit. This resulted in potatoes sprouting early in storage...

  1. Plano Entrópico de galaxias tempranas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. G.; Alonso, M. V.; García Lambas, D.

    Early-type galaxies are systems in quasi-equilibrium and we can assume that their specific entropy is constant. This property is reflected in the ob- served correlations among photometric parameters describing the galaxy profiles. We discuss preliminary results of computing the specific entropy in several clusters and groups of galaxies. The galaxy sample is a subsam- ple of the spectro-photometric ENEAR survey (da Costa et al. 2000) of early-type galaxies in the local Universe. The Entropic Plane would allow us to understand the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies in dynamical terms and the processes involved in such relationships. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Studies on the Aroma of Five Fresh Tomato Cultivars and the Precursors of the cis- and trans-4,5-Epoxy-(E)-2-Decenals and Methional

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three tasty (BR-139, FA-624 and FA-612) and two less tasty (R 144 and R 175) fresh greenhouse tomato cultivars, which significantly differ in their flavor profiles, were screened for potent odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Based on AEDA results, 19 volatiles were selected for ...

  3. Superposición de los planos de la imagen y de la transformada de Fourier de un objeto plano transparente.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guel-Sandoval, S.

    Any Fresnel hologram, under suitable illumination, can give virtual images of the object and its Fourier spectrum. It is shown how to obtain a real superposition of both images, over the same plane, simply by changing the way of illuminating the hologram.

  4. Distribución de planos orbitales de sistemas binarios en la Galaxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Díaz, R. J.

    In this work we study the orientations of the orbital planes of visual binary stellar systems. This analysis was carried out on a certain region of the sky, where we found a peculiar distribution of the position angles of elongated planetary nebulae. The distribution of the orientations of binary systems towards the galactic center shows some non-random characteristics, although the number of objects studied is not enough to conclude about the relationship between orientations of the planetary nebulae and the population of visual binary stellar systems studied.

  5. An analytical and experimental evaluation of the plano-cylindrical Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Allums, S. L.; Cosby, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Plastic Fresnel lenses for solar concentration are attractive because of potential for low-cost mass production. An analytical and experimental evaluation of line-focusing Fresnel lenses with application potential in the 200 to 370 C range is reported. Analytical techniques were formulated to assess the solar transmission and imaging properties of a grooves-down lens. Experimentation was based primarily on a 56 cm-wide lens with f-number 1.0. A sun-tracking heliostat provided a non-moving solar source. Measured data indicated more spreading at the profile base than analytically predicted. The measured and computed transmittances were 85 and 87% respectively. Preliminary testing with a second lens (1.85 m) indicated that modified manufacturing techniques corrected the profile spreading problem.

  6. Automatización de la adquisición de campos planos de cielo durante el atardecer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areal, M. B.; Acosta, J. A.; Buccino, A. P.; Perna, P.; Areso, O.; Mauas, P.

    2016-08-01

    Since 2009, the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio keeps in development an optical observatory mainly aimed to the detection of extrasolar planets and the monitoring of stellar activity. In this framework, the telescopes Meade LX200 16 Horacio Ghielmetti in the Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, and MATE (Magnetic Activity and Transiting Exoplanets) in the Estación de Altura at the Observatorio Astronomico Felix Aguilar were assembled. Both telescopes can operate automatically through all night, which generates a massive volume of data. Because of this, it becomes essential the automatization of the acquisition and analysis of the regular observations as well as the calibration images; in particular the flat fields. In this work a method to simplify and automatize the acquisition of these images was developed. This method uses the luminosity values of the sky, registered by a weather station located next to the observation site.

  7. 77 FR 59953 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ....com/lomrs.htm. City of Parker, 75002. 5700 East Parker Road, Parker, TX 75002. Collin City of Plano..., Mayor, City Suite 250, Plano, team.com/lomrs.htm. of Plano, 1520 TX 75074. Avenue K, Plano, TX...

  8. 78 FR 14573 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... West Nueva 420, San Antonio, Street, 10th TX 78207. Floor, San Antonio, TX 78205. Collin City of Plano...). Dyer, Mayor, City Avenue K, Plano, team.com/lomrs.htm. of Plano, 1520 TX 75074. Avenue K, Plano,...

  9. Recent developments in finishing of deep concave, aspheric, and plano surfaces utilizing the UltraForm 5-axes computer controlled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambrick, Scott; Bechtold, Mike; DeFisher, Scott; Mohring, David; Meisenzahl, Joe

    2009-05-01

    OptiPro Systems has developed a robust 5-axes computer controlled platform, for implementation of the sub-aperture UltraForm Finishing (UFF) process specifically focused on finishing AlON, spinel and transparent polycrystalline alumina (PCA) steep concave, convex and ogive shaped infrared domes and aspheres. Traditional manufacturing of optical components typically involves a three-stage process: grinding, lapping and polishing. The lapping and polishing stages are focused at reducing the surface roughness while preserving the integrity of the form acquired during grinding. Polishing of non spherical and irregular shapes is nearly impossible using traditional full aperture techniques. However, finishing these non-spherical and irregular shapes is possible using UltraForm Finishing. A brief description of the evolution of the UltraForm hardware and processes will be presented, with the current hardware developments. A review of the results with regard to form/figure and roughness improvements on glass, AlON and transparent PCA will be presented using a variety of grinding and finishing abrasives. Differences in the abrasive materials, some bound, and others loose in a slurry have a large impact on the process cycle time and resultant surface roughness.

  10. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Butyraldehyde/Acetic Acid 19/4 Yes. Allyl Alcohol/Toluene Diisocyanate 15/12 No. Decene/Ethyl Benzene 30/32 Yes..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories:...

  11. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Butyraldehyde/Acetic Acid 19/4 Yes. Allyl Alcohol/Toluene Diisocyanate 15/12 No. Decene/Ethyl Benzene 30/32 Yes..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories:...

  12. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Butyraldehyde/Acetic Acid 19/4 Yes. Allyl Alcohol/Toluene Diisocyanate 15/12 No. Decene/Ethyl Benzene 30/32 Yes..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories:...

  13. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Butyraldehyde/Acetic Acid 19/4 Yes. Allyl Alcohol/Toluene Diisocyanate 15/12 No. Decene/Ethyl Benzene 30/32 Yes..., the inorganic acids. The cargo groups in the compatibility chart are separated into two categories:...

  14. Structural Effects of Biodiesel on Soot Volume Fraction in a Laminar Co-Flow Diffusion Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, Jason

    An experimental study was performed to determine the structural effects of biodiesel on soot volume fraction in a laminar co-flow diffusion flame. These include the effects of the ester function group, the inclusion of a double bond, and its positional effect. The soot volume fraction and temperature profiles of a biodiesel surrogate, n-Decane, 1-Decene, and 5-Decene fuels were measured. Improvements were made to existing laser extinction and rapid thermocouple insertion apparatus and were used to measure soot volume fraction and temperature profiles respectively. Flow rates of each fuel were determined in order to keep the temperature effects on soot negligible. Using n-Decane as a baseline, the double bond increased soot production and was further increased with a more centrally located double bond. The ester function group containing oxygen decreased soot production. The order of most to least sooting fuels were as follows 5-Decene > 1-Decene > n-Decane > Biodiesel Surrogate.

  15. 77 FR 20992 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ..., below the eight row, the table should appear as follows: Texas: Collin City of Plano (10-06- June 23, 2011; June The Honorable Phil August 31, 2010 480140 0997P). 30, 2011; The Plano Dyer, Mayor, City of Star Courier. Plano, 1520 Avenue K, Plano, TX 75074. BILLING CODE 1505-01-D...

  16. 78 FR 20332 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    .... 5700 East Parker Road, Parker, TX 75002. ] Collin City of Plano (12- The Honorable Phil City Hall, 1520 http://www.rampp- May 31, 2013......... 480140 06-2183P). Dyer, Mayor, City Avenue K, Plano, team.com/lomrs.htm. of Plano, 1520 TX 75074. Avenue K, Plano, TX 75074. Fort Bend City of Sugar Land...

  17. Búsqueda de un posible blazar débil brillando a través del Plano %Galáctico en la región de HESSJ1356-645

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichel, A. C.; Cillis, A. N.

    H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) observatory detected the extended gamma-ray source HESSJ1356-645; localized at 5 pc from the pulsar PSR J1357-6429. The most plausible scenario on the origin of the very high emission is a Pulsar Wind Nebula powered by the mentioned pulsar. PSRJ1357-6429 is a young and energetic pulsar. X-ray emission from the pulsar was detected for the first time using data from XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites; but without seeing pulsed emission from the source due to low statistic. Afterwards Fermi and XMM-Newton were able to detect pulsations. Recently; 2012A&A...540A..28D 2012A&A...540A..28D reported a possible optical counterpart of the pulsar; but the authors could not discard that this source could be associated to a faint Active Galactic Nuclei. In order to unravel if the possible optical counterpart is or not a blazar; we applied the association method known as the WISE blazar Strip; based on the properties of Infrared colors using the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). According to this method we could not associate the possible optical counterpart to a blazar. Applying the same methodology; we also investigated if the sources seen in the field of HESSJ1356-645 by Chandra and XMM satellites could be blazars seen through the Galactic disk without a positive result either. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Mi Quinto Libro de Maquinas Simples: El Plano Inclinado. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Fifth Book of Simple Machines: The Inclined Plane. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the fifth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains the principles and some of the uses of inclined planes, as they appear in simple machines, by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book…

  19. Surface properties of pillared acid-activated bentonite as catalyst for selective production of linear alkylbenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihian, Hossein; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Acid-activated and pillared montmorillonite were prepared as novel catalysts for alkylation of benzene with 1-decene for production of linear alkylbenzene. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption isotherms, temperature programmed desorption of NH3, scanning electron microscopy and elemental and thermal analysis techniques. It was found that acid-activation of clays prior to pillaring increased the porosity, total specific surface area, total pore volume and surface acidity of the catalysts. Optimization of the reaction conditions was performed by varying catalyst concentration (0.25-1.75 wt%), reactants ratio (benzene to 1-decene of 8.75, 12 and 15) and temperature (115-145 °C) in a batch slurry reactor. Under optimized conditions more than 98% conversion of 1-decene, and complete selectivity for monoalkylbenzenes were achieved.

  20. Food volatile compounds facilitating HII mesophase formation: solubilization and stability.

    PubMed

    Amar-Zrihen, Natali; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-05-25

    Four lipophilic food volatile molecules of different chemical characteristics, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, linalool, and trans-4-decenal, were solubilized into binary mixtures of monoolein/water, facilitating the formation of reverse hexagonal (H(II)) mesophases at room temperature without the need of solvents or triglycerides. Some of the flavor compounds are important building blocks of the hexagonal mesostructure, preventing phase transition with aging. The solubilization loads were relatively high: 12.6, 10.0, 12.6, and 10.0 wt % for phenylacetaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, linalool, and trans-4-decenal, respectively. Phenylacetaldehyde formed mixtures of lamellar and cubic phases. Linalool, 2,6-dimethyl-5-heptenal, and trans-4-decenal induced structural shift from lamellar directly to H(II) mesophase, remaining stable at room temperature. Lattice parameters were found to increase with water content and to decrease with temperature and/or food volatile content. trans-4-Decenal produces more stable H(II) mesophase compared to linalool-loaded mesophase. At 40-60 °C, depending on the chemical structure and on the solubilization location of the food volatile compounds, the H(II) mesophase transforms to isotropic micellar phase, facilitating the release of the food volatile compounds. Molecular interactions suggest the existence of two consecutive stages in the solubilization process.

  1. Advancing Literacy: A Review of LIFE 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    When it became clear that existing literacy efforts would not be enough to enable some countries to reach Education for All (EFA) Goal 4 (a 50 percent improvement in levels of adult literacy), UNESCO launched the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE, 2006-2015). 35 countries with literacy rates below 50 percent and/or a population of more…

  2. Looking Forward with LIFE: Literacy Initiative for Empowerment. Global LIFE Mid-Term Evaluation Report 2006-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) launched the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (2006-2015)--LIFE--to tackle the literacy challenge. This is a collaborative effort to accelerate literacy efforts in thirty five of the world's most challenged countries and thereby to unlock progress to reach all of the…

  3. Governance Challenges in the Initiatives for Out-of-School Children in Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Maclean, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the initiatives for out-of-school children in Tajikistan. The Tajik government has published two blueprint documents, namely, the "National Strategy for Education Development 2006-2015" and the "National Strategy for Education Development until 2020," which outlines a national vision for universal access…

  4. Changes induced by UV radiation during virgin olive oil storage.

    PubMed

    Luna, G; Morales, M T; Aparicio, R

    2006-06-28

    The effects of UV radiation on the chemical and sensory characteristics of virgin olive oils (cv. Arbequina and Picual) were assessed. Even small doses of UV radiation induced oxidation of the virgin olive oil samples. Total phenols and fatty acids contents decreased during the process as well as the intensity of the bitter and fruity sensory attributes, while the intensity of the rancid sensory attribute notably increased. Acetaldehyde, 2-butenal, 2-pentenal, octane, octanal, hexanal, nonanal, and 2-decenal were the volatile compounds most affected, showing an important increase during the irradiation process. Nonanal, hexanal, and pentanal showed high correlation with the rancid sensory attribute (90%, 86%, and 86%, respectively). 2-Decenal and nonanal concentrations allowed us to predict the alteration level of the samples by mean of multiple Ridge regression.

  5. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  6. N-Alkane oxidation enzymes of a pseudomonad.

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, V R; Traxler, R W; Sobek, J M

    1977-01-01

    A nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent n-alkane dehydrogenase and an NAD phosphate (reduced form)-dependent alkane hydroxylase have been purified from cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain 196Aa grown anaerobically on n-alkane. The n-alkane dehydrogenase (fraction R-3), obtained as a single peak from Bio-Gel P-60, showed an overall 135-fold purification and was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography to convert n-decane to 1-decene. The alkene hydroxylase activity in the S-3 fraction, purified 167 times from diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, was shown by the same methodology to convert decene to decanol. Commercial ferredoxin has been shown to increase the alkane dehydrogenase activity. An NAD-, flavine adenine dinucleotide-, and iron-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was demonstrated in the R-3 fraction. A mechanism for the anaerobic conversion of n-alkane to fatty acid has been proposed. PMID:869535

  7. Amine attack on coordinated alkenes: an interconversion from anti-Markovnikoff to Markovnikoff products.

    PubMed

    Pryadun, Ruslan; Sukumaran, Dinesh; Bogadi, Robert; Atwood, Jim D

    2004-10-06

    A sequence of alkene complexes of platinum, PtCl(2)(PPh(3))(alkene) (alkene = ethylene, propene, 1-butene, cis-2-butene, 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-decene), has been prepared. These complexes are characterized by NMR spectroscopy, including assignment of each proton, and X-ray crystal structures of the 1-propene and 1-hexene complexes. Each complex was reacted with diethylamine. For the 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-decene complexes, the amine displaces the alkene. For the smaller alkenes, the diethylamine nucleophilically attacks the coordinated alkene. For propene and 1-butene, the low-temperature addition leads to the anti-Markovnikoff nucleophilic attack, which slowly converts at room temperature to the Markovnikoff product. The transformation from anti-Markovnikoff to Markovnikoff addition occurs without diethylamine dissociation.

  8. Flame Spreading Across Liquid Fuels at Sub-Flash Point Temperatures: Measurements and Techniques (The Fuel Surface Tension, Vapor Pressure, Flash Point, Viscosity and Flame Spread Rate)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-07-01

    Properties of n-Decene Sources: 1. API Technical Data Book-Petroleum Re f:Lning, American Petroleum Institute , 1966 2. Other sources (as noted) Formula: Ci1... American Petroleum Institute (1966). Absolute Viscosity of the Liquid: See Figure 5 Surface Tension (with air): See Figure 4 Specific Beat of the...using a procedure outlined on page 7-155 of the AP1 Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining, American Petroleum Institute (1966). Thermal Conductivity

  9. Electrochemistry of Metal Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-30

    1-butene (BTE), 1-pentene (PTE), l-hexene (HXE), 1-- octene (OCE) and l--decene (DCE). Vibrational spectra of the adsorbed layers were obtained by use...Surface Sci., 92, 617 (1980). 39. Electrochemical Hydrogenation of Ethylene at Well-Defined Pt(100) and Pt(111) Surfaces. Arthur T. Hubbard, Mark A...Surf Sci., 147, 241 (1984). 75. A Comparison of Gas Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogenation of Ethylene at ** Platinum Surfaces. Andrzej Wieckowski

  10. Synthesis of Synthetic Hydrocarbons Via Alpha Olefins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    lubricants include both homopolymers and copolymers. The patented homopolymers are based on isobutylene, octene or decene. The copolymers include ethylene ...erse if necessary and identify by block number) 1108 07 3 0704synthetic hydrocarbon, polyalphaolefin, alkyl benzene, I ethylene propylene, NMR 10, A...telomerization) of ethylene to mesitylene and meta xylene yields straight chain alkyl, aromatic oils in which the chain length, structure and point

  11. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hou-Jin; Chen, Ting; Xie, Ying-Lu; Chen, Wen-Dan; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2013-01-01

    The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5), together with three known compounds, incarnal (2), arthrosporone (3), and (2E)-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:23434797

  12. Application of solid-phase microextraction to the analysis of volatile compounds in virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, A; Beltrán, G; Aguilera, M P

    2004-03-05

    Solid-phase microextraction was used as a technique for headspace sampling of extra virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil samples with different off-flavours. A 100 microm coated polydimethylsiloxane fiber was used to extract volatile aldehydes, the sampling temperature was 45 degrees C and the fiber has been exposed to the headspace for 15 min. Nonanal and 2-decenal were present in all the olive oils with extraction off-flavours but were not in extra virgin olive oil sample.

  13. The Human Factors of Sensor Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    White, 1999).. 3 Figure 2. Revised JDL user model, 2003-2006 (Blasch & Plano , 2003)....................................... 4 Figure 3. The...Figure 2. Revised JDL user model, 2003-2006 (Blasch & Plano , 2003). 2. Purpose of Report The purpose of this report is to provide a general...2. As an example from a military intelligence analyst environment, the six functions associated with this level are (Blasch & Plano , 2003) 1

  14. 76 FR 29797 - Westpoint Home, Inc., New York Corporate Sales Office, New York, NY, Including Employees Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ...-Salem, NC Sales Office, Winston-Salem, NC; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for... the subject firm: Plano, Texas; Daleville, Indiana; Rogers, Arkansas; and Winston-Salem, North... Plano, Texas, Daleville, Indiana, Rogers, Arkansas, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The intent of...

  15. 78 FR 42107 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Plano, Texas; Huawei Device USA, Inc. of Plano, Texas (``Huawei Device''); Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland; Nokia Inc. of White Plains, New York (``Nokia Inc.''); ZTE Corporation of Shenzhen, China; and ZTE (USA) Inc. of Richardson, Texas, and cease and desist orders against Huawei Device and Nokia...

  16. 77 FR 55498 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Technologies (USA) (collectively ``the Huawei Respondents'') to amend the Notice of Investigation (``NOI'') and... Device USA Inc. of Plano, Texas. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amanda S. Pitcher, Office of the... Technologies (USA) of Plano, Texas; ZTE Corporation of Shenzhen, China; and ZTE (USA) Inc. of Richardson,...

  17. Investigation of molecular metabolites in expired air of healthy man in condition of long-term isolation in hermetical confined environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Mardanov, Robert; Markin, Andrey; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    Investigation of intermediary metabolites, produced in cells, in expired air of healthy man is directed on determination of molecular markers which are reflecting normal physiological pro-cesses in an organism, as well as on determination and validation of biomarkers for objective screening and non-invasive prenosological diagnostics of disorders in metabolic processes caused by negative effect of live environment. Investigation of influence of long-term isolation in her-metical confined environment on composition of healthy human expired air was made during experiment with 105 days isolation in condition of controlled environment and standard food ra-tion. Expired air samples were analyzed on gas chromatograph associated with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The investigation results show that at rest hydroxy ketones, mostly 1-hydroxy-prorapanone-2 (acetol), aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde), acetophenone, phenol and fatty acids were determined. After physical performance (oxidative stress) the content of ke-tones (heptanone-2, heptanone-3), phenol, determined aldehydes (decenal, octadecenal) and acetol in expired air of volunteers decreased. It can be concerned with prevailing of alternative -methylglyoxalic metabolic pathway and caused by oxidative stress. Analysis of expired air samples taken on 30, 60 and 90 day of isolation showed that in conditions of long-term iso-lation concentration of heptanone-2, heptanone-3, 2,3-butadione, acetol, furanones, aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde) and acetophenone is increasing while concentration of phenol and fatty acids is decreasing as compared to samples taken before isolation. It was shown that dynamics of concentration of saturated hydrocarbons in expired air can be informative marker for estima-tion of organism response to oxidative stress, while the level of acetol can be used as indicator of man's training status, validity of exercise load and as a marker of hypoxic state.

  18. Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a "character impact compound" of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental enrichment

  19. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages.

  20. Behavioral Responses to Mammalian Blood Odor and a Blood Odor Component in Four Species of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical “metallic, blood-like” odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a “character impact compound” of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental

  1. [Oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus vs. lichenoid lesions. Case report].

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Fernández-Cuevas, Laura; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana Lilia; Guerrero-Ramos, Brenda; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Milke-García, María Pilar; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el desarrollo de carcinoma escamocelular a partir del liquen plano bucal es controversial. Describimos un caso con carcinoma escamocelular intrabucal, que cursa con lesiones de liquen plano bucal y se analizan las dificultades para distinguir los cambios incipientes del carcinoma escamocelular de las lesiones por liquen plano intrabucales que lleven a establecer un diagnóstico certero de ambas entidades. Caso clínico: hombre de 57 años, con antecedente de tabaquismo y hábito alcohólico crónico, que presenta lesión tumoral ulcerada en borde lateral izquierdo de lengua y placas blancas reticulares bilaterales en mucosa yugal, bordes laterales y vientre de lengua. El reporte histopatológico fue de carcinoma escamocelular invasor moderadamente diferenciado y liquen plano respectivamente. Conclusiones: la naturaleza premaligna del liquen plano bucal es controvertida, esto por inconsistencia en los criterios diagnóstico clínicos e histológicos que permitan diferenciar los casos de liquen plano bucal de otras lesiones como las reacciones liquenoides o displasias intraepiteliales con alto potencial de malignización. Posiblemente las reacciones liquenoides bucales tienen un mayor riesgo de transformación maligna al compararse con el clásico liquen plano bucal.

  2. Heterogeneous glacier thinning patterns over the last 40 years in Langtang Himal, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Bolch, Tobias; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    This study presents volume and mass changes of seven (five partially debris-covered, two debris-free) glaciers in the upper Langtang catchment in Nepal. We use a digital elevation model (DEM) from 1974 stereo Hexagon satellite data and seven DEMs derived from 2006-2015 stereo or tri-stereo satellite imagery (e.g., SPOT6/7). The availability of multiple independent DEM differences allows the identification of a robust signal and narrowing down of the uncertainty about recent volume changes. The volume changes calculated over several multiyear periods between 2006 and 2015 consistently indicate that glacier thinning has accelerated with respect to the period 1974-2006. We calculate an ensemble-mean elevation change rate of -0.45 ± 0.18 m a-1 for 2006-2015, while for the period 1974-2006 we compute a rate of -0.24 ± 0.08 m a-1. However, the behavior of glaciers in the study area is heterogeneous, and the presence or absence of debris does not seem to be a good predictor for mass balance trends. Debris-covered tongues have nonlinear thinning profiles, and we show that recent accelerations in thinning correlate with the presence of supraglacial cliffs and lakes. At stagnating glacier areas near the glacier front, however, thinning rates decreased with time or remained constant. The April 2015 Nepal earthquake triggered large avalanches in the study catchment. Analysis of two post-earthquake DEMs revealed that the avalanche deposit volumes remaining 6 months after the earthquake are negligible in comparison to 2006-2015 elevation changes. However, the deposits compensate about 40 % the mass loss of debris-covered tongues of 1 average year.

  3. Novel Engineered Compound Semiconductor Heterostructures for Advanced Electronics Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-22

    AlxGal.xAs-GaAs quantum well heterostructures. L.J. Guido, B.T. Cunningham, D.W. Nam, K.C. Hsieh, W.E. Plano , J.S. Major, Jr., E.J. Vesely, A.R. Sugg, N...in heavily carbon-doped Al, Ga.,__As-GaAs quantum well heterostructures L. J. Guido, B. T. Cunningham, 0. W. Nam,a K. C. Hsieh, W. E. Plano , J. S...American institute of Physics 741 193 ANOMALOUS LUMINESCENCE PROPERTIES OF GaAs GROWN BY MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY I. SZAFRANEK, MA. PLANO , MJ. MCCOLLUM

  4. Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration: Analysis of an Energy Department Task Force Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    baseline case for the period 2006- 2015 , but would save $25 billion for 2016-2030, saving $15 billion over the 25-year period. About half the extra...teamwork by designating many of its facilities as User Facilities. Examples of such facilities are the high-energy density devices (e.g., the NIF [LLNL’s...facilities have been operated in this manner for many years. The labs treat major facilities such as NIF , Sandia’s Z Machine, and the Los Alamos

  5. 77 FR 26788 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof Determination Not To Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ..., China; FutureWei Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Huawei, Technologies (USA) of Plano, Texas; Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland; Nokia Inc. of White Plains, New York; ZTE Corporation of Guangdong Province,...

  6. 78 FR 55294 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof Commission Determination To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Shenzhen, China; FutureWei Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Huawei, Technologies (USA) of Plano, Texas; Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland; Nokia Inc. of White Plains, New York; ZTE Corporation of Shenzhen, China;...

  7. 76 FR 54252 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Huawei, Technologies (USA), 5700 Tennyson Parkway, Suite 500, Plano, TX 75024. Nokia Corporation, Keilalahdentie 2-4, FIN-00045 Nokia Group, Espoo, Finland. Nokia Inc., 102 Corporate Park Drive, White Plains,...

  8. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Plan of 1784 From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Plan of 1784 From Mapas y Planos-Luisiana y Archivo General de Indias, Seville Florida 99 - Bateria de San Antonio, San Carlos & Hovey Roads, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  9. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  10. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  11. Risk Assessment for Foodservice Establishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Outlines a method designed to protect the public's health by simply and systematically prioritizing food service operations for inspection and evaluation. Discusses the method, implementation, and results of a program for the city of Plano, Texas. (LZ)

  12. Metathesis process for preparing an alpha, omega-functionalized olefin

    DOEpatents

    Burdett, Kenneth A.; Mokhtarzadeh, Morteza; Timmers, Francis J.

    2010-10-12

    A cross-metathesis process for preparing an .alpha.,.omega.-functionalized olefin, such as methyl 9-decenoate, and an .alpha.-olefin having three or more carbon atoms, such as 1-decene. The process involves contacting in a first reaction zone an .alpha.-functionalized internal olefin, such as methyl oleate, and an .alpha.-olefinic monomer having three or more carbon atoms, such as 1-decene, with a first metathesis catalyst to prepare an effluent stream containing the .alpha.,.omega.-functionalized olefin, such as methyl 9-decenoate, an unfunctionalized internal olefin, such as 9-octadecene, unconverted reactant olefins, and optionally, an .alpha.,.omega.-difunctionalized internal olefinic dimer, such as dimethyl 9-octadecen-1,18-dioate; separating said effluent streams; then contacting in a second reaction zone the unfunctionalized internal olefin with ethylene in the presence of a second metathesis catalyst to obtain a second product effluent containing the .alpha.-olefinic monomer having three or more carbon atoms; and cycling a portion of the .alpha.-olefinic monomer stream(s) to the first zone.

  13. Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaoming; Song, Shiqing; Tan, Chen; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin

    2013-01-15

    The "enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation" method was employed to obtain oxidized tallow. Nine beeflike flavours (BFs) were prepared through Maillard reaction with oxidized tallow and other ingredients. Volatile compounds of oxidized tallow and beeflike flavours were analysed by SPME/GC-MS. Six sensory attributes (meaty, beefy, tallowy, simulate, burnt and off-flavour) were selected to assess BFs. Thirty four odour-active compounds were identified to represent beef odour through GC-O analysis based on detection frequency method. GC-MS profiles of oxidized tallow were correlated with GC-O responses and sensory attributes of BFs using partial least squares regression modelling (PLSR). Twenty nine compounds were considered as the potential precursors of oxidized tallow. Among them, tetradecanoic acid, d-limonene, 1,7-heptandiol, 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, (Z)-4-undecenal, (Z)-4-decenal, (E)-4-nonenal and 5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone were unique products generated from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation of tallow, while hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, pentanal, acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-pentylfuran, γ-nonalactone, 2-undecenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal and (Z)-2-heptenal were common products generated from thermal oxidation of tallow.

  14. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part I: Case of aquaculture water from earthen-ponds farming.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive analyses were accomplished to explore the odorous molecules responsible for off-odour development in earthen-ponds rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture farming in Germany. In this part of the study, water odorants were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE); then, extracts were analysed by one- and two- dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry using two columns with different polarity (DB-FFAP and DB-5). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extract samples revealed 54 odorants, and 47 of them were identified. In this study, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture water including, amongst others, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), 5α-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone), and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Moreover, the sensory experiment indicated that (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, and 1-octen-3-one are the main contributors to the metallic, cucumber, and mushroom notes of the samples.

  15. Characterization of epoxydecenal isomers as potent odorants in black tea (Dimbula) infusion.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2006-06-28

    In a black tea (Dimbula) infusion, the potent "sweet and/or juicy" odorants were identified as the cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenals by comparison of their gas chromatography retention indices, mass spectra, and odor quality to those of the actual synthetic compounds. Of the two odorants, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal has been identified for the first time in the black tea. On the basis of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the flavor distillate obtained using the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique from the black tea infusion, these isomers showed higher flavor dilution (FD) factors. The FD factors and concentrations of these odorants in the black tea infusion were observed to be much higher than those from Japanese green tea. In addition, the model studies showed that these odorants were generated from linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides by heating, but the generated amounts of these odorants from linoleic acid were much less than those of its hydroperoxides. It can be assumed from these results that the withering and fermentation, which are characteristic processes during the manufacturing of the black tea, which includes the enzymatic reaction such as lipoxygenase, is one of the most important factors for the formation of the epoxydecenal isomers.

  16. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    PubMed

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

  17. Changes in volatile compounds of gamma-irradiated fresh cilantro leaves during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

    2002-12-18

    Consumption of salsas and dishes containing cilantro has been linked to several recent outbreaks of food-borne illness due to contamination with human pathogens. Ionizing irradiation can effectively eliminate food-borne pathogens from various vegetables including cilantro. However, the effect of irradiation on aroma of fresh cilantro is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of irradiation on volatile compounds of fresh cilantro leaves. Fresh cilantro leaves (Coriandrum sativum L) were irradiated with 0, 1, 2, or 3 kGy gamma radiation and then stored at 3 degrees C up to 14 days. Volatile compounds were extracted using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), followed by gas chromatographic separation and mass spectra detection at 0, 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. Most of the volatile compounds identified were aldehydes. Decanal and (E)-2-decenal were the most abundant compounds, accounting for more than 80% of the total amount of identified compounds. The amounts of linalool, dodecanal, and (E)-2-dodecenal in irradiated samples were significantly lower than those in nonirradiated samples at day 14. However, the most abundant compounds [decanal and (E)-2-decenal] were not consistently affected by irradiation. During storage at 3 degrees C, the amount of most aldehydes peaked at 3 days and then decreased afterward. Our results suggest irradiation of fresh cilantro for safety enhancement at doses up to 3 kGy had minimal effect on volatile compounds compared with the losses that occurred during storage.

  18. Inter- and intraspecific variation in defensive compounds produced by five neotropical stink bug species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Pareja, Martín; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raúl A; Moraes, Maria C B

    2007-07-01

    The differences in composition of defensive secretions between nymphs, adult males and adult females of Chinavia impicticornis (=Acrosternum impicticorne), Chinavia ubica (=Acrosternum ubicum), Euschistus heros, Dichelops melacanthus and Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were analysed within and between species using compositional log-ratio statistics and canonical variates analysis. Differences in composition between nymphs, males and females were found for all species, as well as when all species were pooled. In particular, tetradecanal appears to be a predominantly nymphal compound in D. melacanthus, E. heros and P. guildinii. In the two Chinavia species 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and an unknown compound were more dominant in nymphs. The interspecific analysis revealed a good separation of defensive compounds according to their taxonomic relationship. Thus, the two Chinavia species grouped together, with (E)-2-decenal and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, contributing to this separation. The other three species also differed from each other, with (E)-2-octenal associated to D. melacanthus, (E)-2-hexenal to P. guildinii and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and tetradecanal to E. heros. The pooled analysis of stage ignoring species revealed tetradecanal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-decenal (tentative identification) strongly associated to nymphs. Thus, there are predictable differences between stages, and many of the differences are conserved between species. Consideration of these differences could prove to be important in understanding stink bug-natural enemy interactions, and in optimising biocontrol efforts.

  19. Essential oil constituents of the aerial parts and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides (Apiaceae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, N; Shamkhani, H; Ghelichpour, Z; Mohammadi, M A; Sonboli, A

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts at different growing stages and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides DC., from Iran were investigated. The oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Forty-five, 52, 40 and 36 components were identified in the essential oils of aerial parts (vegetative, flowering and fruit) and root representing of the 99.2, 99.0, 99.8 and 99.6% of the total oils, respectively. The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant in vegetative stage was dominated by n-decanal (36.5%) and n-dodecanal (25.3%). n-Decanal (35.8%) and 2E-decenal (25.1%) were the main constituents of the plant oil in flowering stage whereas 2E-decenal (32.1%) and 2E-dodecenal (21.5%) were characterised as the main components of the plant oil in fruit stage. In the essential oil of root, the major identified components were 2-dodecenoic acid (29.8%) and 2E-Dodecenol (12.7%).

  20. Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-06-11

    The volatiles present in fresh, pink-fleshed Colombian guavas ( Psidium guajava, L.), variety regional rojo, were carefully isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, and the aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, and 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, ( Z)-3-hexenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, and cinnamyl acetate as important aroma contributors. Enantioselective gas chromatography revealed an enantiomeric distribution close to the racemate in 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate as well as in 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol. In addition, two fruity smelling diastereomeric methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoates were identified as the ( R,S)- and the ( S,S)-isomers, whereas the ( S,R)- and ( R,R)-isomers were absent. Seven odorants were identified for the first time in guavas, among them 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, and methional were the most odor-active.

  1. Development and experimental validation of a versatile prototype Swing Arm Profilometer for measuring optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, H.; Lin, Z.; Ma, L.; Wu, S.; Wu, F.

    2011-11-01

    A versatile prototype Swing Arm Profilometer (SAP) is developed and experimentally validated in the Institute of Optics and Electronics (IOE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The configurations for the SAP are introduced. The measurement principles for measuring plano, spherical and aspherical mirrors are given. Four validation experiments are performed on the prototype SAP using plano, spherical and aspherical mirror samples. The measurement uncertainty for the current prototype SAP is 0.5micro

  2. Fabrication Techniques for Fiber Optic Fire Control Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    using trichloroethylene. The blanks were then cleaned with naptha solvent and cheesecloth. ■ HHPP Figure 6. Configuration of Plano-Plano Fiber... Beeswax was used to cement the blanks to the blocking plate instead of stickum wax. The 11 same prcedure for rough grinding the first side of blanks...on a hot plate to melt the bees- wax. The blanks were then placed in a vapor degreaser and cleaned with a naptha solvent and cheesecloth. 3

  3. Pharmacologic Plus Optical Penalization Treatment for Amblyopia: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare weekend atropine augmented by a plano lens for the sound eye with weekend atropine alone for moderate amblyopia in children 3 to <7 years old. Methods In a multi-center clinical trial, 180 children with moderate amblyopia (20/40 to 20/100) were randomized to weekend atropine augmented by a plano lens or weekend atropine alone. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV testing protocol at 18 weeks. Results At 18 weeks, amblyopic eye improvement averaged 2.8 lines in the atropine plus plano lens group and 2.4 lines in the atropine alone group (mean difference between groups adjusted for baseline acuity 0.3 lines; 95% confidence interval, −0.2 to 0.8). Amblyopic eye acuity was 20/25 or better in 24 (29%) patients in the atropine-only group and 35 (40%) patients in the atropine plus plano lens group (P=0.03). More patients in the atropine plus plano lens group had reduced sound eye acuity at 18 weeks; however, there were no cases of persistent reverse amblyopia. Conclusions As an initial treatment for moderate amblyopia, the augmentation of weekend atropine with a plano lens does not substantially improve amblyopic eye acuity when compared with atropine alone. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of children with unilateral amblyopia Trial Registry Name Trial Comparing Atropine to Atropine Plus a Plano Lens for the Sound Eye for Amblyopia in Children 3 to <7 Years Old PMID:19139333

  4. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: An Example of Cocoa Butter Triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Schotten, Christiane; Plaza, Dorota; Manzini, Simone; Nolan, Steven P; Ley, Steven V; Browne, Duncan L; Lapkin, Alexei

    2015-07-06

    The direct chemical conversion of cocoa butter triglycerides, a material available as a postmanufacture waste stream from the food industry, to 1-decene by way of ethenolysis is reported. The conversion of the raw waste material was made possible by use of 1 mol % of the [RuCl2(iBu-phoban)2(3-phenylindenyl)] catalyst. The process has been investigated in both batch and flow conditions, where the latter approach employs a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube gas-liquid membrane contactor to deliver ethylene to the reaction system. These preliminary studies culminate in a continuous processing system, which maintained a constant output over a 150 min period tested.

  5. Deposit control additives and fuel compositions containing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abramo, G.P.; Avery, N.L.; Trewella, J.C.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a fuel composition comprising a major amount of a fuel and an additive which imparts intake valve deposit inhibiting properties to the fuel. It comprises a polyisobutenyl succinimide which is the reaction product of a polyisobutenyl succinic anhydride and a polyalkylene polyamine; a polymer of isobutylene; an ester which is an adipate, phthalate, isophthalate, terephthalate and trimellitate of iso-octanol, iso-nonanol, iso-decanol, or iso-tridecanol or mixture thereof, polyol ester of neopentyl glycol, pentaerythritol or trimethylol-propane with corresponding monocarboxylic acid, oligomer and polymer ester of dicarboxylic acid, polyol and monoalcohol; and a polyether which is a polymer or copolymer of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide, pentene oxide, hexene oxide, octene oxide, decene oxide or isomer thereof.

  6. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: An Example of Cocoa Butter Triglyceride

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct chemical conversion of cocoa butter triglycerides, a material available as a postmanufacture waste stream from the food industry, to 1-decene by way of ethenolysis is reported. The conversion of the raw waste material was made possible by use of 1 mol % of the [RuCl2(iBu-phoban)2(3-phenylindenyl)] catalyst. The process has been investigated in both batch and flow conditions, where the latter approach employs a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube gas–liquid membrane contactor to deliver ethylene to the reaction system. These preliminary studies culminate in a continuous processing system, which maintained a constant output over a 150 min period tested. PMID:26322250

  7. Photophysical properties of luminescent silicon nanoparticles surface-modified with organic molecules via hydrosilylation.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Mari; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Wada, Satoshi; Kawashima, Akira; Nakajima, Ayako; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Ishioka, Junya; Shibayama, Tamaki; Watanabe, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent silicon nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention for their potential uses in various applications. Many approaches have been reported to protect the surface of silicon nanoparticles and prevent their easy oxidation. Various air-stable luminescent silicon nanoparticles have been successfully prepared. However, the effect of interactions of the π-electron system with the silicon surface on the excited state properties of silicon nanoparticles is unclear. In this study, we have successfully prepared silicon nanoparticles protected with three organic compounds (styrene, 1-decene, and 1-vinyl naphthalene) and have examined their photophysical properties. The ligand π-electron systems on the silicon surface promoted the light harvesting ability for the luminescence through a charge transfer transition between the protective molecules and silicon nanoparticles and also enhanced the radiative rate of the silicon nanoparticles.

  8. Titanium compounds as catalysts of higher alpha-olefin-based super-high-molecular polymers synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, K. B.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Manzhay, V. N.; Vetrova, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of polymers of 10 million or more molecular weight is a difficult task even in a chemical lab. Higher α-olefin-based polymer agents of such kind have found a narrow but quite important niche, the reduction of drag in the turbulent flow of hydrocarbon fluids such as oil and oil-products. In its turn, searching for a catalytic system capable to produce molecules of such a high length and to synthesize polymers of a low molecular-mass distribution is part of a global task of obtaining a high-quality product. In this paper we had observed a number of industrial catalysts with respect to their suitability for higher poly-α- olefins synthesis. A number samples representing copolymers of 1-hexene with 1-decene obtained on a previous generation catalyst, a microsphere titanium chloride catalytic agent had been compared to samples synthesized using a titanium-magnesium catalyst both in solution and in a polymer medium.

  9. Process for the synthesis of unsaturated alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Maughon, Bob R.; Burdett, Kenneth A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2007-02-13

    A process of preparing an unsaturated alcohol (olefin alcohol), such as, a homo-allylic mono-alcohol or homo-allylic polyol, involving protecting a hydroxy-substituted unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester, such as methyl ricinoleate, derived from a seed oil, to form a hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester; homo-metathesizing or cross-metathesizing the hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester to produce a product mixture containing a hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product; and deprotecting the hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product under conditions sufficient to prepare the unsaturated alcohol. Preferably, methyl ricinoleate is converted by cross-metathesis or homo-metathesis into the homo-allylic mono-alcohol 1-decene-4-ol or the homo-allylic polyol 9-octadecene-7,12-diol, respectively.

  10. Evolved gas analysis of secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Williams, E.L. II; Grosjean, E. ); Novakov, T. )

    1994-11-01

    Secondary organic aerosols have been characterized by evolved gas analysis (EGA). Hydrocarbons selected as aerosol precursors were representative of anthropogenic emissions (cyclohexene, cyclopentene, 1-decene and 1-dodecene, n-dodecane, o-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) and of biogenic emissions (the terpenes [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-pinene and d-limonene and the sesquiterpene trans-caryophyllene). Also analyzed by EGA were samples of secondary, primary (highway tunnel), and ambient (urban) aerosols before and after exposure to ozone and other photochemical oxidants. The major features of the EGA thermograms (amount of CO[sub 2] evolved as a function of temperature) are described. The usefulness and limitations of EGA data for source apportionment of atmospheric particulate carbon are briefly discussed. 28 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Nanofiltration properties of PTMSP in binary organic solvents mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkin, A. A.; Kossov, A. A.; Volkov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the stability and nanofiltration performance of poly[1-(trimethylsilyl)- 1-propyne] (PTMSP) in ethanol solutions of butylaldehyde, 1-decanal, 1-hexene, 1-decene was evaluated. It was found that PTMSP was insoluble in all aldehyde solutions, but it was soluble at olefin concentration of 80% or higher. Nanofiltration experiments demonstrate that binary mixtures of 1-decanal and ethanol viscosity are not the parameter affecting on membrane permeability and rejection of solute as well as swelling degree. In the case of decanol/ethanol solutions both solution viscosity and molar volume demonstrate the best fit of experimental data. It was shown that with the decrease of ethanol content in the feed, the rejection of anionic solute Remazol Brilliant Blue R (MW 626) increases from 94 up to 97%.

  12. Carbonyl products of the gas phase reaction of ozone with symmetrical alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, E.; Grosjean, D.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, carbonyl products have been identified and their yields measured in experiments involving the gas phase reaction of ozone with the eight symmetrical alkenes ethylene, cis-3-hexene, cis-4-octene, trans-4-octene, cis-5-decene, trans-5-decene, trans-2, 5-dimethyl-3-hexene, and (cis+trans)-3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene in purified air. Sufficient cyclohexane was added to scavenge the hydroxyl radical (OH) in order to minimize the reaction of OH with the alkenes and with their carbonyl products. Formation yields (carbonyl formed/ozone reacted) of primary carbonyls were close to the value of 1.0 that is consistent with simple reaction mechanism. Carbonyls other than the primary carbonyls R{sub 1}COR{sub 2} were identified as products. Their formation is discussed in terms of subsequent reactions of the R{sub 1}R{sub 2}COO biradicals CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CHOO, CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CHOO, CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}CHOO, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHCHOO, and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}C(CH{sub 3})OO. Similarities and differences are discussed for cis and trans isomers and for biradical reactions as a function of the nature and number of the substituents. The results are compared to those for the biradicals H{sub 2}COO, CH{sub 3}CHOO, and (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}COO from simpler symmetrical alkenes and contribute to a better understanding of the ozone-alkene reaction under atmospheric conditions. 51 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Pressure dependence of stabilized Criegee intermediate formation from a sequence of alkenes.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Greg T; Donahue, Neil M

    2011-05-05

    Ozonolysis is a key reaction in atmospheric chemistry, although important details of the behavior of the ozonolysis intermediates are not known. The key intermediate in ozonolysis, the Criegee intermeiate (CI), is known to quickly isomerize, with the favored unimolecular pathway depending on the relative barriers to isomerization. Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI), those with energy below any barriers to isomerization, may result from initial formation with low energy or collisional stabilization of high energy CI. Bimolecular reactions of SCI have been proposed to play a role in OH formation and nucleation of new particles, but unimolecular reactions of SCI may well be too fast for these to be significant. We present measurements of the pressure dependence of SCI formation for a set of alkenes utilizing a hexafluoroacetone scavenger. We studied four alkenes (2,3-dimethyl-2-butene (TME), trans-5-decene, cyclohexene, α-pinene) to characterize how size and cyclization (endo vs exo) affect the stability of Criegee intermediates formed in ozonolysis. SCI yields in ozonolysis were measured in a high pressure flow reactor within a range of 30-750 Torr. The linear alkenes show considerable stabilization with trans-5-decene showing 100% stabilization at ∼400 Torr and TME having 65% stabilization at 710 Torr. Extrapolation of the yields for linear alkenes to 0 Torr shows yields significantly above zero, indicating that a fraction of their CI are formed below the barrier to isomerization. CI from endocyclic alkenes show little to no stabilization and appear to have neglible stabilization at 0 Torr. Cyclohexene derived CI showed no stabilization even at 650 Torr, while α-pinene CI had ∼15% stabilization at 740 Torr. Our results show a strong dependence of SCI formation on carbon number; adding just 2 to 3 CI carbons in linear alkenes increases stabilization by a factor of 10. Stabilization for endocyclic alkenes, at atmospheric pressure, begins to occur at a carbon

  14. Simultaneous determination of ten taste and odor compounds in drinking water by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Yuan, Shengguang; Wei, Zi; Song, Hanwen; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2013-11-01

    Taste and odor (T&O) problems in drinking water frequently occur because of many compounds present in the water, of which trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are well-known. In this study, a fast and effective method was established for simultaneous determination of 10 T&O compounds, including geosmin, MIB, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 2-methylbenzofuran, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), cis-3-hexenyl acetate, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal, trans, cis-2,6-nonadienal, and trans-2-decenal in water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An orthogonal array experimental design was used to optimize the effects of SPME fiber, extraction temperature, stirring rate, NaCI content, extraction time, and desorption time. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 73 ng/L were lower than or close to the odor threshold concentrations (OTCs). All the 10 T&O compounds were detected in the 14 water samples including surface water, treatment process water and tap water, taken from a waterworks in Lianyungang City, China. MB and geosmin were detected in most samples at low concentration. Six T&O compounds (IPMP, IBMP, trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, 2-methylbenzofuran, trans-2-decenal, and TCA) were effectively decreased in water treatment process (sedimentation and filtration) that is different from cis-3-hexenyl acetate, MIB and geosmin. It is noted that the TCA concentrations at 15.9-122.3 ng/L and the trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal concentrations at 79.9-190.1 ng/L were over 10 times higher than their OTCs in tap water. The variation of the analytes in the all water samples, especially distribution system indicated that distribution system cannot be ignored as a T&O compounds source.

  15. Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashish

    The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

  16. Semi-field evaluation of several novel alkenol analogs of 1-octen-3-ol as attractants to adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E; Ikediobi, C O; Hallmon, C F; Johnson, R; Onyeozili, E N; Farah, S M; Mazu, T; Latinwo, L M; Ayuk-Takem, L; Berniers, U R

    2011-09-01

    The compound 1-octen-3-ol is a known attractant of some mosquito species, which has led to the hypothesis that olfactory stimulation by this alkenol may be associated with the following structural elements: a terminal site of unsaturation or high electron density; a structural capability for hydrogen bonding, e.g., -OH, -NH2, NHR, NR2, etc.; a saturated hydrocarbon chain of a certain minimum length; and a certain relative distance between the region of high electron density and the alcohol (or other hydrogen-bonding) functional group. Using this logic, we synthesized 20 alkenol analogs based on the octenol double-bonded carbon skeleton. The attraction of female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus to these analogs was compared with 1-octen-3-ol as a standard in semi-field trials. For both species, collections from Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) suction traps baited with the alkenol analogs in the absence of carbon dioxide were not significantly different from octenol-only baited traps, with the exception of (Z)-3-hepten-1-ol which collected significantly more Ae. albopictus. In the presence of CO2, most of the collections from traps baited with an alkenol were considerably increased for both species but not different from octenol plus CO2, with the exception of Ae. albopictus where (Z)-3-decen-1-ol, (Z)-4-hexen-1-ol, 7-octen-2-ol, and 8-nonen-3-ol significantly depressed trap catches. Although no clearly identifiable structure-activity relationship could be determined from our collected data, we did find that MMX traps baited with carbon dioxide and 4-penten-2-ol or (E)-2-decen-4-ol significantly enhanced Cx. quinquefasciatus collections up to nearly 3-fold compared with octenol plus carbon dioxide.

  17. Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal: a new candidate host material for the ytterbium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yeqing; You, Zhenyu; Zhu, Zhaojie; Xu, Jinlong; Li, Jianfu; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hongyan; Tu, Chaoyang

    2013-10-01

    A disordered laser crystal Yb3+-doped Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal was grown by the Czochralski technique. The characterized room temperature polarized spectra, re-absorption possibility and laser performance showed that this crystal should be a promising gain material, not only suitable for diode pumping, but also a good candidate for the generation of tunable and short pulse lasers. End pumped by a diode laser at 976 nm in plano-concave and plano-plano cavity, a 3.65 W output power with a slope efficiency of 65% was achieved by using a c-cut Yb3+:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal. The output laser wavelength shifted from 1042 to 1062 nm.

  18. Estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnéticos en Cuerpos Masivos Rotantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velandia Heredia, N.; Tejeiro, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    A partir del estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnéticos en cuerpos masivos rotantes, planteamos la expresión para medir el desfase en el tiempo, para diferentes observadores, que se dan cuando viajan dos rayos de luz por una guía de onda o de manera libre (geodésicas), en el plano azimutal y en el plano polar. Con lo anterior queremos abordar el experimento tipo Michelson y Morley, de forma que podamos involucrar el valor de la densidad del momento angular (a) en el retraso temporal para los dos haces de luz que viajan por los brazos del interferómetro, cuando este último es ubicado en el plano ecuatorial.

  19. The dynamic interdependence of international financial markets: An empirical study on twenty-seven stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingwei; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the dynamic interdependence of international financial markets. Based on the data regarding daily returns of each market during the period 2006-2015 from Yahoo finance, we mainly focus on examining 27 markets from three continents, including Asia, America and Europe. By checking the dynamic interdependence between those markets, we find that markets from different continents have strong correlation at specific time shift. We also obtain that markets from different continents not only have a strong linkage with others at same day, but at a delay of one day, especially between Asia, Europe and Asia, America. In addition, we further analyze the time-varying influence strength between each two continents and observe that this value has abnormal changes during the financial crisis. These findings can provide us significant insights to understand the underlying dynamic interdependency of international financial markets and further help us make corresponding reasonable decisions.

  20. Pulmonary tuberculosis in Romania at the dawn of the millennium--a major public health issue.

    PubMed

    Marica, C

    2009-01-01

    TB incidence in our country is still quite high compared to the average of the European Union countries (1st place among EU countries and 3rd place among WHO European Region countries), which means that a national coordinated response against this disease needs to become the priority of the current health care policy. The multi-factorial conditioning, which includes the social and economic dimensions of TB spreading, requires a multi-disciplinary and inter-sectorial approach to this pathology, going beyond healthcare services. The National Tuberculosis Control Strategy is a part of Romania's Country Strategy based on the guidelines set out in WHO's 2006-2015 Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis (MDGs 2015) and it provides the necessary framework for refining and harmonizing the national legislation and regulations with the European laws after Romania's integration in the EU.

  1. Evolutionary features of influenza A/H5N1 virus populations in Egypt: poultry and human health implications.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Abdelwhab, E M; Harder, Timm C

    2016-07-01

    Since 2006, in Egypt, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has established endemic status in poultry. Bayesian evolutionary analysis sampling trees suggested an introduction date in the third quarter of 2005. Evolutionary dynamics using Bayesian analysis showed that H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1.1 evolved at higher rates than those of clade 2.2.1.2. Bayesian skyline plot analysis of the HA gene of 840 and NA gene of 401 Egyptian H5N1 viruses from 2006-2015 identified two waves of viral population expansion correlating with the stepwise emergence of the 2.2.1.1 variant lineage in 2008 and with the newly emerging 2.2.1.2 cluster in late 2014. H5N1 infections in human hosts in 2014-2015 were statistically linked to a contemporary poultry outbreak.

  2. Multidimensional Analysis and Location Intelligence Application for Spatial Data Warehouse Hotspot in Indonesia using SpagoBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uswatun Hasanah, Gamma; Trisminingsih, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Spatial data warehouse refers to data warehouse which has a spatial component that represents the geographic location of the position or an object on the Earth's surface. Spatial data warehouse can be visualized in the form of a crosstab tables, graphs, and maps. Spatial data warehouse of hotspot in Indonesia has been constructed by researchers from FIRM NASA 2006-2015. This research develops multidimensional analysis module and location intelligence module using SpagoBI. The multidimensional analysis module is able to visualize online analytical processing (OLAP). The location intelligence module creates dynamic map visualization in map zone and map point. Map zone can display the different colors based on the number of hotspot in each region and map point can display different sizes of the point to represent the number of hotspots in each region. This research is expected to facilitate users in the presentation of hotspot data as needed.

  3. Microbiological water examination during laboratory courses generates new knowledge for students, scientists and the government.

    PubMed

    Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

    2015-10-01

    Contaminated water is globally the main vehicle for microbial pathogens in most regions. Teaching future microbiologist and employees in the food industry on the importance of hygienically satisfactory water, microbiological analyses and how to ensure good water quality and safety is highly relevant. This paper presents a complete experimental design for water analyses as a tool to teach students the methods and other key elements in microbiology, including food safety, environmental dissemination and survival of microorganisms, laboratory practices, water legislation and critical evaluation of results. All results from the last 10 classes (2006-2015) in a university course on seafood microbiology have been compiled and are presented here. Questionnaires used with former students reveal that the laboratory course is highly appreciated, and that many students remember important aspects of the water analyses, even after several years. The questionnaire results were consistent with our perception that some students find calculation of dilutions difficult to comprehend.

  4. Regeneration, relocation and health behaviours in deprived communities.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Ade; Mason, Phil

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, recent regeneration programmes have aimed to improve the health of those who remain in their neighbourhood (Remainers) and those who are relocated (Outmovers); thus, as part of the 10-year GoWell study (2006-2015) of the effects of demolition, rebuilding and housing improvements on residents and communities, we examined associations of health behaviours with residential conditions and location status in deprived neighbourhoods of Glasgow. Better internal dwelling conditions were associated with several better health behaviours; in relation to neighbourhood conditions, the results were more mixed. Outmovers often exhibited worse health behaviours than Remainers, perhaps because environmental and social conditions were little altered by relocation, and because personal support mechanisms were missing. Health behaviours were relatively good among Remainers, indicating that in situ changes might stimulate life-changing improvements, but relocation less so.

  5. PREVALENCE OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Chincharadze, S; Vadachkoria, Z; Mchedlishvili, I

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate take significant place in congenital malformations. We aimed to study epidemiological peculiarities of these pathologies in Georgia for 2006-2015. We compared magnitude of its distribution with the data from 1981-1990. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Georgia in 2006-2015 was 0.95±0.04 per 1000 live births, while in 1981-1990- it was 1.05, i.e. in contrast to 1980's frequency of these pathological conditions decreased to some extent. Distribution of cleft lip and palate varies across the country regions. The most intensive spread has been observed in Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, where prevalence composed 2.28/1000. In the rest of the regions frequency of these pathologies is significantly lower. For instance, in Kakheti the rate is equal to 1,87/1000, in Kvemo Kartli - 1.56/1000, in Shida Kartli - 1.55/1000. In the rest of the regions prevalence rate is lower than the country average. It should be noted that in Tbilisi the rate is as low as 0.80/1000. The lowest level has been reported in Guria - 0.56/1000. Currently cleft lip with palate is the most frequently occurring anomaly in Georgia accounting for 39.8% of all congenital malformations. Cleft lip alone ranks the second - 36.1%, followed by cleft palate (24.1%). These pathologies are more frequent in boys than in girls. 60.3% of the cases are reported in males, in contrast to girls - 39.7% (p<0.01). Usually, cleft palate is the most common among girls, but in our case, it had higher prevalence among boys, 53.6% vs. 46,4%. Thus cleft lip and palate distribution in Georgia is characterized by epidemiological peculiarities, which should be considered in implementation of preventive measures.

  6. French Geological Repository Project for High Level and Long-Lived Waste: Scientific Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Landais, P.; Lebon, P.; Ouzounian, G.

    2008-07-01

    The feasibility study presented in the Dossier 2005 Argile set out to evaluate the conditions for building, operating and managing a reversible disposal facility. The research was directed at demonstrating a potential for confining long-lived radioactive waste in a deep clay formation by establishing the feasibility of the disposal principle. Results have been enough convincing and a Planning Act was passed on 28 June, 2006. Decision in principle has been taken to dispose of intermediate and high level long-lived radioactive waste in a geological repository. An application file for a license to construct a disposal facility is requested by end of 2014 and its commissioning is planned for 2025. Based on previous results as well as on recommendations made by various Dossier 2005 evaluators, a new scientific programme for 2006-2015 has been defined. It gives details of what will be covered over the 2006-2015 period. Particular emphasis is placed on consolidating scientific data, increasing understanding of certain mechanisms and using a scientific and technical integration approach. It aims at integrating scientific developments and engineering advances. The scientific work envisaged beyond 2006 has the benefit of a unique context, which is direct access to the geological medium over long timescales. It naturally extends the research carried out to date, and incorporates additional investigations of the geological medium, and the preparation of demonstration work especially through full-scale tests. Results will aim at improving the representation of repository evolutions over time, extract the relevant parameters for monitoring during the reversibility phases, reduce the parametric uncertainties and enhance the robustness of models for performance calculations and safety analyses. Structure and main orientation of the ongoing scientific programme are presented. (author)

  7. Airport and Airway Costs Allocated to the Public Sector 1985-1997.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    of the nature of public goods, see: i r i . Solberq, Intermediate Microeconomics, ( Plano , TX, h .e,; Publications, Inc., 1982), pp. 546-47, and...technical treatment can be found in Richard W. Ii,- b, Public Finance: A Normative Theory, ( Plano , TX, Business 1’,kbl icat ions, Inc., 1981), Chapter...FL 6.32 OPF, FL MIA, FL 14.62 TMB, FL MIAFI, FL 10.30 ORL, FL MCO, FL 9.36 PNS, FL NPA, FL 12.15 SPG, FL PIE , FL 12.30 PIE , FL TPA, FL 9.68 FTY, GA

  8. Passively Q-switched Nd:GdTaO4 laser by graphene oxide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bingyuan; Song, Qi; Wang, Guoju; Gao, Yajing; Zhang, Qingli; Wang, Minghong; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a laser diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:GdTaO4 crystal laser at 1066 nm using a multilayer graphene oxide as the saturable absorber (GOSA). The GOSA is fabricated by transferring the liquid-phase-exfoliated GO nanosheets onto a K9 glass substrate. When the GOSA was inserted into the plano-plano laser cavity, a stable Q-switched laser operation is achieved with a maximum average output power of 0.382 W and repetition rate of 362 kHz. The shortest pulse duration is 194 ns and the single pulse energy is about 1.05 μJ.

  9. Focusing metasurface quantum-cascade laser with a near diffraction-limited beam

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Luyao; Chen, Daguan; Itoh, Tatsuo; ...

    2016-10-17

    A terahertz vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VECSEL) is demonstrated using an active focusing reflectarray metasurface based on quantum-cascade gain material. The focusing effect enables a hemispherical cavity with flat optics, which exhibits higher geometric stability than a plano-plano cavity and a directive and circular near-diffraction limited Gaussian beam with M2 beam parameter as low as 1.3 and brightness of 1.86 × 106 Wsr–1m–2. As a result, this work initiates the potential of leveraging inhomogeneous metasurface and reflectarray designs to achieve high-power and high-brightness terahertz quantum-cascade VECSELs.

  10. Design optical antenna and fiber coupling system based on the vector theory of reflection and refraction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Yang, Huajun; Mao, Shengqian

    2015-10-05

    A Cassegrain antenna system and an optical fiber coupling system which consists of a plano-concave lens and a plano-convex lens are designed based on the vector theory of reflection and refraction, so as to improve the transmission performance of the optical antenna and fiber coupling system. Three-dimensional ray tracing simulation are performed and results of the optical aberrations calculation and the experimental test show that the aberrations caused by on-axial defocusing, off-axial defocusing and deflection of receiving antenna can be well corrected by the optical fiber coupling system.

  11. Implementation of an Education Technology Policy in Namibia's High Schools: Through the Eyes of the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Perien Joniell

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Namibian high school teachers experienced the ICT policy for education in their schools. This mixed methods sequential explanatory design consists of two distinct phases: quantitative followed by qualitative (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). Quantitative data collection involved the distribution and…

  12. Photographic Video Disc Technology Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-27

    that are adjustable for alignment purposes. The laser beam is then expanded to fill »he back of the objective lens by a plano -convex lens. This beam...channel. A more detailed description follows: The FM encoded in- formation from the PIN photodicde is amplified by a wide band, low noise pie -amp

  13. Preliminary Laboratory Measurements of the Boss Modulation Transfer Function.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-05

    NOVS IOSOE190.rTE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATIO~N OF THIS P& PIE fmhnw D.. ut e UNCLASSIFIED $CgUftv CL&Aqmaymm OF TWOI Pawav...these reasons, a focal length between 100 and 20b cm seemed appropriate. A single element, plano -convex lens with a focal length of 105 cm was finally

  14. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Crystal Lake Dam (CT 00138), Lower Connecticut River Basin, Middletown, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    than 2’ from the foundation, and each :. pie ." is keyed to its neighbor will reduce the piping liability along the rock contact. *"A11 parts of the... plano and ecifications for the proposed dam at Crystal Lake. Hr. Uelti has just returned from Switterland where he has spent a year study- Lng the

  15. A Unified Two-Dimensional Approach to the Calculation of Three- Dimensional Hypersonic Flows, with Application to Bodies of Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-01-01

    8217rinRE-DifMENSONAL HtYPERtSONIC 15.W indicated-flow-separation oin the leewardl side of (lie body for excellent agreemelnt in tlie plano of symmlletry...REIMARKS b~ound~ary layers may, inl like imanner, prove useful il- pie - A mnethod of characteristics employing p)ressure and-flow deigdrednesoa

  16. The Use of Tactical Airlift as a Tool of Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    policy pie and did not get the more visible equipment and supply support we have provided other earthquake victims. On the other hand, when floods...H.W. Wilson Company, 1986); and Jack C. Plano and Roy Olton, The International Relations Dictionary (Santa Barbara, Cal.: ABC-Clio, 1988), pp. 7-8. 16

  17. Joint Data Management for MOVINT Data-to-Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Joint Data Management for MOVINT Data-to-Decision Making Erik P. Blasch Defence R&D Canada-Valcartier 2459 Pie -XI Blvd...Geographical Hard-Soft Information Fusion Systems,” Fusion10, 2010. [73] E. Blasch and S. Plano , “DFIG Level 5 (User Refinement) issues supporting

  18. DARPA DICE Manufacturing Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    ProcessModel * apModel) I ROSE_PUT_OBJ (Process Model,PERS I STENTýp Model,apModel); 3 ~/* plan Access Methods * ProcessModel * plano f return...items:U • graph type (bar, stacked bar, line, and pie ). * header and footer positioning, border style, text, font, and color. • data styles: line

  19. Rapid Nonconjugate Adaptation of Vertical Voluntary Pursuit Eye Movements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    applied to the post-adaptation data from the left eye magnification condition: YRpost(Transformed) = (2 * YRpre) - YRPost (6) For example, if the pie ...nonconjugate adaptation with spectacle- mounted plano -cylindrical lenses, Lemij (1990) demonstrated that nonconjugate pursuit adaptation was

  20. A Study of the Acoustic-Optic Effect in Nematics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    experiment did not bear this out. Cholester ie liiuid crys tals have also been used1 2 ’ 1 inl pie "ce of nematiJes in the cosircells. For these(- cell...the deformation of the disc cros:; section. As the planes move upward the fluid bulges out at the bottom ind in at the top. AF4 the plano :; then move

  1. From the Pinhole Camera to the Shape of a Lens: The Camera-Obscura Reloaded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Max; Priemer, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how the form of a plano-convex lens and a derivation of the thin lens equation can be understood through simple physical considerations. The basic principle is the extension of the pinhole camera using additional holes. The resulting images are brought into coincidence through the deflection of light with an arrangement of prisms.…

  2. "In Honor of Excellence."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anna May

    1983-01-01

    Spotlights seven outstanding secondary school theatre programs and their directors: Frank Bluestein, Germantown, TN; John Steele, Plano, TX; Joe Juliano, Hamden, CT; Jack Parkhurst, Ralston, NE; Robert Geuder (Thomas Jefferson High School) Cedar Rapids, IA; Judith Rethwisch (Affton High School) St. Louis, MO; and Henry Wicke (Packer Collegiate…

  3. RFID Student Educational Experiences at the UNT College of Engineering: A Sequential Approach to Creating a Project-Based RFID Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, V. V.; Varanasi, M. R.; Kougianos, E.; Wang, Shuping; Raman, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes radio frequency identification (RFID) projects, designed and implemented by students in the College of Engineering at the University of North Texas, as part of their senior-design project requirement. The paper also describes an RFID-based project implemented at Rice Middle School in Plano, TX, which went on to win multiple…

  4. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  5. Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper compares and contrasts "inductive" and "deductive" research approaches as described by Trochim (2006) and Plano Clark and Creswell (2007). It also examines the "exploratory" and "confirmatory" approaches by Onwueghuzie and Leech (2005) with respect to the assumption each holds about the nature of knowledge. The paper starts…

  6. Educational Multimedia Implementation in Schools: Producer-Teacher-Student Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lyn; Eshet, Yoram; Klemes, Joel

    This paper presents findings demonstrating benefits of cooperation between Edunetics, a commercial multimedia production company, and the Plano Independent School District (Texas) that resulted in a unique curriculum integration project. The "Message in a Fossil" (MIF) simulation software was used with three pairs of second grade…

  7. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay differentiates between Bolbphorus damnificus and Bolbophorus type II sp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A duplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed to differentiate between Bolbophorus damnificus and Bolbophorus type II species cercariae. Both trematode species are prevalent throughout the commercial catfish industry,.as both infect the ram’s horn snail, Plano...

  8. 78 FR 72865 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... is not a toll-free number) or email at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the... Corporation, Toronto, Canada CERTON Software, Inc., Melbourne, FL Chromalloy, San Antonio, TX Click Bond, Inc... Siemens PLM Software, Plano, TX Sierra Nevada Corporation, Space Systems, Littleton, CO SIFCO...

  9. Physics Just for Fun--An Individualized Course Using Harvard Project Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, John G.

    The development of an individualized course at Plano High School, Texas, is described. The first attempt, using only suggested guidelines, was considered unsuccessful. The second structure adopted included: (1) specific, measurable behavioral objectives, (2) both basic and advanced required assignments, (3) tests to measure achievement of the…

  10. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this kindergarten teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. Divided according to visual, auditory, and verbal…

  11. On a Different "Plane": Cross-Language Effects on the Conceptual Representations of Within-Language Homonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areas Da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Schwartz, Ana I.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether bilinguals' conceptual representation of homonyms in one language are influenced by meanings in the other. One hundred and seventeen Spanish-English bilinguals generated sentences for 62 English homonyms that were also cognates with Spanish and which shared at least one meaning with Spanish (e.g., plane/"plano"). Production…

  12. Mainstreaming Revisited: 20 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Daryl J.; Wigle, Stanley E.

    This study investigated the changes in the mainstreaming practices of five school districts, which were originally described in a 1974 study by Birch. The districts involved were: Tacoma (Washington), Richardson (Texas), Plano (Texas), Tucson (Arizona), and Louisville (Kentucky). Survey forms were sent to superintendents of the original six…

  13. The "A" Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Larry D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Academic Team (A Team) program at Plano (Texas) Senior High School provides academic enrichment for talented students in grades 9-12. Outstanding A Team students are recognized with trophies and scholarships. The school district and the high school have found the program an excellent means of encouraging academic achievement. (MCG)

  14. Building the Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    In this column, the author shares some of the processes involved with the restructuring of the elementary curriculum and the role of technology in the classroom. When Plano ISD committed time, talent, and technology to a new educational vision, the Elementary Integrated Curriculum project was born. The goal: to integrate subject matter and…

  15. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level two teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  16. Data-Driven Decision-Making: Mission Accomplished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    When the author and his colleagues last left Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Texas' Plano Independent School District in April 2008, both school districts were immersed in the long and labored advance toward becoming a fully matured data-driven operation, one that uses sophisticated technologies to gather data, sort and interpret it, and…

  17. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level one teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  18. Continuous Progress and Nongraded Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, June

    1983-01-01

    Four schools offering a continuous progress or nongraded approach to pacing for gifted students are reviewed: the Plano (TX) Independent School District, The University of Pittsburgh Laboratory School, the Chesapeake (VA) Demonstration School, and the University of California at Los Angeles Elementary School. (CL)

  19. On the Road to DDDM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Two school districts--Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Plano Independent School District in Texas--have undertaken ambitious initiatives in recent years to introduce data-driven decision-making into their operations. Although each has struggled with different obstacles, both have progressed beyond the initial two stages on the DDDM continuum,…

  20. Sharing the Light of Faith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Hazel

    1999-01-01

    Presents the parish programs at the Prince of Peace Catholic Community in Plano, Texas and at the Holy Family Parish Community in Inverness, Illinois as examples of what can be accomplished when imaginative, inspired, and knowledgeable teachers take on family catechesis as their mission. (VWC)

  1. Reservoir Control Center: Activities and Accomplishments of the Southwestern Division of the Army Corps of Engineers Related to Reservoir Regulation and Water Management. Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    P - N N @I ty in F. WI WI POP ’A 40 4 I" ’Ad ry iIn In OP o- 2 ~ ~ ~ C 00 P,4 oPPwPI W O P o I Ai Wk N. 001 NUD a PIE 1" InP ’A 0P- 0-1 P c ’ ’ad a a...trict. Mr. McKnight said North Texas has just gotten into the solid waste business and is now operating the former Plano -Richardson landfill. He also...Ingram stated that on the water side, a new combination 60- to 96-inch line has been completed into Plano from Lake Lavon which provides a pumping

  2. Modeling the Behavior of the Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Dirac delta function P(x-Xl) oX1 x2 L0 x4 x5 (b) Pulse function ()Step approximnation 41 01 0xl x2 03 x4 x5 (e) pie c al sins function. 7 N Z a.*<Wm, L(f...PATTERNS L 3X. ~H 0.9x L 0 0 25H-PLone E- PLano -1e0 -150 -120 -90 -60 -3 0 33 so 90 120 150 150 AngLe Off Bor’esLgh. (Degrees) FLgure A.1 PredLcted...Wr’[’HI Cr of Substrate 10.5 _ -Cof Substrote - 2 .3 4 - L 0 0.- J - a H-PLone E- PLano -110 -150 -120 -90 -G 3 0 6 so 10 IO mfingLo Of’f BoreeLght

  3. Focus modulation of cylindrical vector beams through negative-index grating lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengming; Xu, Ji; Zhong, Yi; Ren, Rong; Lu, Yunqing; Wan, Hongdan; Wang, Jin; Ding, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    A cylindrically symmetric negative-index grating lens composed of unitary material is proposed as an effective method to modulate the focusing of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs). The grating parameters are designed to obtain an appropriate negative index, and the lens profile is tailored to realize the constructive interference. The plano-concave lens is parameterized to achieve desired focal length and the plano-cone lens is proposed to obtain large depth of focus. An optical needle is generated with radially polarized incidence, and an optical tube is achieved with incidence of azimuthal polarization. Moreover, the presented modulation methods can be applied for any arbitrary polarized CVBs. This work offers a more flexible and effective approach to design negative-index lenses for subwavelength focusing of CVBs, which has potential application value in related areas, such as optical trapping, and other nano-optics fields.

  4. Investigation of the neutral-solution etch process for refractive SOE antireflective surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Antireflection of optically clear glass used in photovoltaic concentrator refractive secondary optical elements (SOE's) was investigated using the neutral-solution etch process developed by Schott Glass. Test coupons and SOE's made from barium zinc glass, which does not solarize under ultraviolet exposure, were successfully etched at the center point process variable conditions of 87{degrees}C and 24 hours. Reflectance of the plano-plano dropped from 7.7% to 0.8%, with a corresponding increase in transmission from 91.7% to 98.5%. The etching process uses non-hydrofluoric, relatively non-toxic chemicals in a low-cost process well suited for use by photovoltaic system manufacturers during production. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Passive Q-switching of Yb bulk lasers by a graphene saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, P. A.; Serres, J. M.; Mateos, X.; Liu, J.; Zhang, H.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Yumashev, K. V.; Petrov, V.; Griebner, U.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2016-04-01

    Compact Yb:KLu(WO4)2 and Yb:LuVO4 lasers diode-pumped at 978 nm are passively Q-switched by a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser generated 165 ns/0.49 μJ pulses at 1030 nm with 170 mW average output power and 12 % slope efficiency. With the Yb:LuVO4 laser, 152 ns/0.83 μJ pulses were achieved. The output power reached 300 mW at 1024 nm, and the slope efficiency was 10 %. Laser operation in a plano-plano cavity is achieved with both crystals with thermal lensing playing a key role in their performance. A model describing graphene Q-switched Yb lasers is developed. Our results indicate the potential of graphene for passive Q-switching of ~1 μm bulk lasers.

  6. Focusing metasurface quantum-cascade laser with a near diffraction-limited beam

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao; Chen, Daguan; Itoh, Tatsuo; Reno, John L.; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2016-10-17

    A terahertz vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VECSEL) is demonstrated using an active focusing reflectarray metasurface based on quantum-cascade gain material. The focusing effect enables a hemispherical cavity with flat optics, which exhibits higher geometric stability than a plano-plano cavity and a directive and circular near-diffraction limited Gaussian beam with M2 beam parameter as low as 1.3 and brightness of 1.86 × 106 Wsr–1m–2. As a result, this work initiates the potential of leveraging inhomogeneous metasurface and reflectarray designs to achieve high-power and high-brightness terahertz quantum-cascade VECSELs.

  7. Free-forms optics into astronomical use: the case of an all-mirror anamorphic collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Paolo

    2008-07-01

    Up to now, optical design of astronomical instrumentation has been based onto "classical" surfaces, i.e. plano surfaces, spherical surfaces, and some classes of aspheric surfaces. More complex surfaces (like cylinders), are used from time to time to correct for aberrations. A new class of more general surfaces, i.e. non-rotationally symmetrical and completely "free-form" surfaces have been recently introduced. Their use in astronomy, however, has not widely used so far. We propose a new layout for an anamorphic collimator based onto two "free-form" cylinder surfaces, giving diffraction limited images. This collimator can be used to create an elliptical pupil, and allows reducing size of optical systems, too. Two interesting cases of application in astronomy are shown: a very-high resolution spectrograph for large telescopes, and an interferometer cavity to test large plano optics.

  8. Sistema Planeta-Satélite. Simulación orbital y potenciales gravitatorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, C.; Carrillo, M.

    Se presenta un programa (desarrollado en Quick Basic 4.5) que simula, en tres dimensiones, el movimiento orbital de un satélite (o luna) alrededor de un planeta, al tiempo que calcula y grafica, en un plano, el potencial gravitatorio del sistema en función de la distancia al planeta. Para la simulación orbital, se emplea la matriz de transformación entre el sistema del planeta y el plano orbital. Para el cálculo y graficación del potencial se aplica un desarrollo en serie hasta el segundo orden, que da cuenta del efecto de achatamiento de los polos, en caso de que éste exista. Las longitudes de los ejes del planeta, la masa de éste y del satélite, sus tamaños aparentes, y los parámetros orbitales son introducidos por el usuario.

  9. Development of a 160X crossed lens photovoltaic concentrator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McDanal, A.J.

    1986-03-01

    A new concentrator concept, the crossed lens solar photovoltaic concentrator, is described. The innovative concentrator cross-couples simple plano-cylindrical lenses with a linear Fresnel lens to achieve a geometric concentration ratio of 160X. The linear Fresnel lens provides lateral focussing of the incident sunlight while the plano-cylindrical lenses provide longitudinal focussing. The combined lateral/longitudinal focussing results in a series of focal spots on the photovoltaic receiver rather than a continuous focal line. An initial prototype module was fabricated and performance tested. The demonstrated peak electrical efficiency is 15.1% at 28/sup 0/C cell temperature. Incorporation of recently developed design improvements (a proprietary prismaic cell cover and a lens anti-reflection coating) indicates that a 20% module efficiency is achievable.

  10. Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er(3+):Yb(3+):LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal at 1.5-1.6 microm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujin; Lin, Yanfu; Huang, Jianhua; Gong, Xinghong; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

    2010-06-21

    An Er(3+):Yb(3+):LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal doped with 24.1 at.% Yb(3+) and 1.1 at.% Er(3+) ions was grown by the flux method. The polarized spectroscopic properties related to the operation of 1.5-1.6 microm laser of the crystal were evaluated at room temperature. The laser properties of a 0.7-mm-thick, c-cut crystal were investigated in diode-end-pumped hemispherical and plano-plano cavities, respectively. Compared with those of Er(3+):Yb(3+):YAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal obtained under similar experimental conditions, higher maximum output peak power, higher slope efficiency, and lower threshold were achieved in the Er(3+):Yb(3+):LuAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal.

  11. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  12. Role of β-Oxidation Enzymes in γ-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Waché, Yves; Aguedo, Mario; Choquet, Armelle; Gatfield, Ian L.; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Belin, Jean-Marc

    2001-01-01

    Some microorganisms can transform methyl ricinoleate into γ-decalactone, a valuable aroma compound, but yields of the bioconversion are low due to (i) incomplete conversion of ricinoleate (C18) to the C10 precursor of γ-decalactone, (ii) accumulation of other lactones (3-hydroxy-γ-decalactone and 2- and 3-decen-4-olide), and (iii) γ-decalactone reconsumption. We evaluated acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase activity (encoded by the POX1 through POX5 genes) in Yarrowia lipolytica in lactone accumulation and γ-decalactone reconsumption in POX mutants. Mutants with no acyl-CoA oxidase activity could not reconsume γ-decalactone, and mutants with a disruption of pox3, which encodes the short-chain acyl-CoA oxidase, reconsumed it more slowly. 3-Hydroxy-γ-decalactone accumulation during transformation of methyl ricinoleate suggests that, in wild-type strains, β-oxidation is controlled by 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. In mutants with low acyl-CoA oxidase activity, however, the acyl-CoA oxidase controls the β-oxidation flux. We also identified mutant strains that produced 26 times more γ-decalactone than the wild-type parents. PMID:11722925

  13. Role of beta-oxidation enzymes in gamma-decalactone production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Waché, Y; Aguedo, M; Choquet, A; Gatfield, I L; Nicaud, J M; Belin, J M

    2001-12-01

    Some microorganisms can transform methyl ricinoleate into gamma-decalactone, a valuable aroma compound, but yields of the bioconversion are low due to (i) incomplete conversion of ricinoleate (C(18)) to the C(10) precursor of gamma-decalactone, (ii) accumulation of other lactones (3-hydroxy-gamma-decalactone and 2- and 3-decen-4-olide), and (iii) gamma-decalactone reconsumption. We evaluated acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase activity (encoded by the POX1 through POX5 genes) in Yarrowia lipolytica in lactone accumulation and gamma-decalactone reconsumption in POX mutants. Mutants with no acyl-CoA oxidase activity could not reconsume gamma-decalactone, and mutants with a disruption of pox3, which encodes the short-chain acyl-CoA oxidase, reconsumed it more slowly. 3-Hydroxy-gamma-decalactone accumulation during transformation of methyl ricinoleate suggests that, in wild-type strains, beta-oxidation is controlled by 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. In mutants with low acyl-CoA oxidase activity, however, the acyl-CoA oxidase controls the beta-oxidation flux. We also identified mutant strains that produced 26 times more gamma-decalactone than the wild-type parents.

  14. Predicted 3D structures of olfactory receptors with details of odorant binding to OR1G1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Goddard, William A.

    2014-12-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are responsible for mediating the sense of smell; they allow humans to recognize an enormous number of odors but the connection between binding and perception is not known. We predict the ensemble of low energy structures for the human OR1G1 (hOR1G1) and also for six other diverse ORs, using the G protein-coupled receptor Ensemble of Structures in Membrane BiLayer Environment complete sampling method that samples 13 trillion different rotations and tilts using four different templates to predict the 24 structures likely to be important in binding and activation. Our predicted most stable structures of hOR1G1 have a salt-bridge between the conserved D3.49 and K6.30 in the D(E)RY region, that we expect to be associated with an inactive form. The hOR1G1 structure also has specific interaction in transmembrane domains (TMD) 3-6 (E3.39 and H6.40), which is likely an important conformational feature for all hORs because of the 94 to 98 % conservation among all hOR sequences. Of the five ligands studied (nonanal, 9-decen-1-ol, 1-nonanol, camphor, and n-butanal), we find that the 4 expected to bind lead to similar binding energies with nonanol the strongest.

  15. Intramolecular hydroalkoxylation of non-activated C=C bonds catalysed by zeolites: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mayoral, Elena; Matos, Ines; Nachtigall, Petr; Položij, Miroslav; Fonseca, Isabel; Vitvarová-Procházková, Dana; Čejka, Jiří

    2013-06-01

    The high activity and selectivity of zeolites in the cyclisation of unsaturated alcohols is reported for the first time; the details of a reaction mechanism based on quantum chemical calculations are also provided. The high efficiency of zeolites MFI, BEA and FAU in the cyclisation of unsaturated alcohols (cis-decen-1-ol, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-ol and 2-allylphenol) to afford oxygen-containing heterocyclic rings is demonstrated. The best catalytic performance is found for zeolites with the optimum concentration of Brønsted acid sites (ca. 0.2 mmol g(-1)) and the minimum number of Lewis acid sites. It is proposed that the efficiency of the catalysts is reduced by the existence of the so-called dual site, at which a molecule of unsaturated alcohol can simultaneously interact with two acid sites (an OH group with one and the double bond with the other Brønsted site), which increases the interaction strength. The formation of such adsorption complexes leads to a decrease in the catalyst activity because of (i) an increase in the reaction barrier, (ii) an unfavourable conformation and (iii) diffusion limitations. A new procedure for the preparation of tetrahydrofurans and pyrans over zeolite catalysts provides important oxygen-containing heterocycles with numerous applications.

  16. New Anthraquinone Derivatives from Geosmithia lavendula

    PubMed Central

    Malak, Lourin G.; Bishay, Daoud W.; Abdel-Baky, Afaf M.; Moharram, Ahmed M.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    A phytochemical study of Geosmithia lavendula Pitt led to the isolation of three new anthraquinones: 1-acetyl-2,4,6,8-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1), 2-acetyl-1,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (2), and 1-acetyl-2,4,5,6,7-pentahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), as well as another new compound named didodecyl thiodipropionate (propionic acid, 3,3-sulfinyl di-1,1′-didodecyl ester) (4), along with ten known compounds: 1-acetyl-2,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (rhodolamprometrin) (5), 1-acetyl-2,4,5,7,8-pentahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (6), (22E)-ergosta-6,22-diene-3β,5α,8α-triol, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, oleic acid, D-mannitol, palmitic acid, stearic acid, cis-vaccenic acid and 2-decenal. The structures of the isolated metabolites were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Compound 1 exhibited moderate activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with an IC50 value of 16.1 μg/mL. PMID:23513726

  17. Substrate range and enantioselectivity of epoxidation reactions mediated by the ethene-oxidising Mycobacterium strain NBB4.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Samantha; McCarl, Victoria; Holmes, Andrew J; Coleman, Nicholas V; Rutledge, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    Mycobacterium strain NBB4 is an ethene-oxidising micro-organism isolated from estuarine sediments. In pursuit of new systems for biocatalytic epoxidation, we report the capacity of strain NBB4 to convert a diverse range of alkene substrates to epoxides. A colorimetric assay based on 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine) has been developed to allow the rapid characterisation and quantification of biocatalytic epoxide synthesis. Using this assay, we have demonstrated that ethene-grown NBB4 cells epoxidise a wide range of alkenes, including terminal (propene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 1-octene and 1-decene), cyclic (cyclopentene, cyclohexene), aromatic (styrene, indene) and functionalised substrates (allyl alcohol, dihydropyran and isoprene). Apparent specific activities have been determined and range from 2.5 to 12.0 nmol min(-1) per milligram of cell protein. The enantioselectivity of epoxidation by Mycobacterium strain NBB4 has been established using styrene as a test substrate; (R)-styrene oxide is produced in enantiomeric excesses greater than 95%. Thus, the ethene monooxygenase of Mycobacterium NBB4 has a broad substrate range and promising enantioselectivity, confirming its potential as a biocatalyst for alkene epoxidation.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Primary and Secondary Deuterium Kinetic Isotope Effects for Epoxidation of Alkenes and Ethylene with m-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Terry; Slebocka-Tilk, H.; Brown, R. S.

    1999-01-08

    The secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effect (DKIE) for the epoxidation of ethylene and d(4)-ethylene by m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (MCPBA) is determined to be 0.83, or 0.95/alpha-H. The second-order rate constants for MCPBA and MCPBA-O-D epoxidation of a variety of alkenes that differ in the steric access to the double bond (anti-sesquinorbornene (2), tetramethylethylene (3), adamantylideneadamantane (4), 7-norbornylidene-7'-norbornane (5), bis(bicyclo[3.3.1.]non-9-ylidene) (6), bis(homoadamantane) (7), cyclohexene (8), 1-octene (9), trans-5-decene (10) and 2-methyl-1-pentene (11)) have been determined in dichloroethane at 25 degrees C using UV kinetics, and the primary DKIE, k(OH)/k(OD), is 1.05 +/- 0.05 in all cases. By comparison of the rates of epoxidation of sterically encumbered alkenes, it is suggested that the spiro epoxidation transition state is favored over a planar one. The products of the epoxidation of anti-sesquinorbornene are determined to be the epoxide and a cis-hydroxy ester, the latter most probably being formed by acid-catalyzed ring opening of the epoxide by in situ-produced m-chlorobenzoic acid produced in situ to form a beta-hydroxy carbocation and carboxylate ion pair that collapses to product.

  19. Common gas phase molecules from fungi affect seed germination and plant health in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecophysiological roles in mediating inter-kingdom signaling with arthropods but less is known about their interactions with plants. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a model in order to test the physiological effects of 23 common vapor-phase fungal VOCs that included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and other chemical classes. After exposure to a shared atmosphere with the 23 individual VOCs for 72 hrs, seeds were assayed for rate of germination and seedling formation; vegetative plants were assayed for fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration. All but five of the VOCs tested (1-decene, 2-n-heptylfuran, nonanal, geosmin and -limonene) had a significant effect in inhibiting either germination, seedling formation or both. Seedling formation was entirely inhibited by exposure to 1-octen-3-one, 2-ethylhexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and butanal. As assayed by a combination of fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration, 2-ethylhexanal had a negative impact on two-week-old vegetative plants. Three other compounds (1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanal, and 2-heptylfuran) decreased fresh weight alone. Most of the VOCs tested did not change the fresh weight or chlorophyll concentration of vegetative plants. In summary, when tested as single compounds, fungal VOCs affected A. thaliana in positive, negative or neutral ways. PMID:25045602

  20. Essential oils of Retama raetam from Libya: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Awen, Bahlul Zayed Sh; Unnithan, C Ramachandra; Ravi, Subban; Kermagy, Adel; Sasikumar, J M; Khrbash, Amal S; Ekreem, Wafa Lutfi

    2011-05-01

    Retama raetam (Forssk) Webb & Berthel is well known in the folk medicine of North and East Mediterranean regions for the treatment of microbial infections. The powdered leaves are used to heal circumcision wounds and used as an antiseptic for wounds, skin rash and pruritus. In this study, to validate this antiseptic property, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the flowers of R. raetam was evaluated. The oil was obtained using hydrodistillation and was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity was achieved using disc diffusion and broth dilution assay against six bacteria species. Analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of β-linalool (51%), 2-decen-1-ol (6.6%) and limonene (7.4%) as the major components. The results showed significant activity against microorganisms, especially Staphylococcus aureus, with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 5.0 mm and 3.0 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The results on the antibacterial activity provide scientific support for the use of these plants in traditional herbal preparations.

  1. Identification of potent odorants in Japanese green tea (Sen-cha).

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, K; Masuda, H

    1999-12-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of a Japanese green tea (Sen-cha) sample resulted in the detection of 36 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 10 and 5000. Thirty-six potent odorants were identified from 36 odor-active peaks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and/or the multidimensional GC/MS (MDGC/MS) system. Among these components, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-2-butanethiol (meaty), (Z)-1, 5-octadien-3-one (metallic), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (meaty), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (fatty), beta-damascone (honey-like), beta-damascenone (honey-like), (Z)-methyl jasmonate (floral), and indole (animal-like) showed the highest FD factors. Therefore, these odorants were the most important components of the Japanese green tea odor. In addition, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-2-butanethiol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, methional, 2-ethyl-3, 5-dimethylpyrazine, (Z)-4-decenal, beta-damascone, maltol, 5-octanolide, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, and 2-aminoacetophenone were newly identified compounds in the green tea.

  2. In depth study of acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting: role of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-09-01

    Coffee, as a source of acrylamide, needs to be investigated in depth to understand the contribution of different precursors. This study aimed to investigate the contributions of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation on acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting. Coffee beans and model systems were used to monitor the accumulation of neo-formed carbonyls during heating through sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 3,4-dideoxyosone, which were identified as the major sugar decomposition products in both roasted coffee and model systems. Among others, 2-octenal, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal were identified in relatively high quantities in roasted coffee. Formation and elimination of HMF in coffee during roasting had a kinetic pattern similar to those of acrylamide. Its concentration rapidly increased within 10 min followed by an exponential decrease afterward. The amount of lipid oxidation products tended to increase linearly during roasting. It was concluded from the results that roasting formed a pool of neo-formed carbonyls from sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation, and they play certain role on acrylamide formation in coffee.

  3. Identification the Key Odorants in Different Parts of Hyla Rabbit Meat via Solid Phase Microextraction Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jingzhi; Zhang, En

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the volatile compounds of hind leg, foreleg, abdomen and Longissimus dorsi in both male and female Hyla rabbit meat by solid phase microextraction tandem with gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and to seek out the key odorants via calculating the odor activity value and principal component analysis. Cluster analysis is used to study the flavor pattern differences in four edible parts. Sixty three volatile compounds were detected, including 23 aldehydes, 4 alcohols, 5 ketones, 11 esters, 5 aromatics, 8 acids and 7 hydrocarbons. Among them, 6 aldehydes and 3 acids were identified as the potential key odorants according to the ratio of concentration and threshold. The contents of volatile compounds in male Hyla rabbit meat were significantly higher than those in female one (p<0.05). The results of principal component analysis showed that the first two principal component cumulative variance contributions reach 87.69%; Hexanal, octanal, 2-nonenal, 2-decenal and decanal were regard as the key odorants of Hyla rabbit meat by combining odor activity value and principal component analysis. Therefore volatile compounds of rabbit meat can be effectively characterized. Cluster analysis indicated that volatile chemical compounds of Longissimus dorsi were significantly different from other three parts, which provide reliable information for rabbit processing industry and for possible future sale. PMID:28115882

  4. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  5. Silica cross-linked micelles loading with silicon nanoparticles: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guo-Hui; Barras, Alexandre; Boussekey, Luc; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-08-14

    A new family of luminescent and stable silicon-based nanoparticles (NPs), silica cross-linked pluronic F127 (PF127) micelles loaded with decyl capped silicon nanoparticles (decyl-SiNPs), were synthesized in aqueous media. The decyl-SiNPs were prepared by first liberating hydride terminated SiNPs (H-SiNPs) from a porous silicon matrix followed by their functionalization via hydrosilylation with 1-decene under photochemical activation. The silicon-based NPs exhibit bright photoluminescence (PL) with a quantum yield of ∼3.8% and peaking at ∼2.0 eV, which lies within the transmission window that is useful for biological imaging. They display a hydrodynamic size of ∼25 nm with exterior polyethylene oxide (PEO) blocks stretching out in aqueous media. Chloroform was found to quench the excitation at energy above 4.9 eV by shielding the incident light or relaxing the charge carriers, which highlights that caution against solvent interference should be taken when performing the studies on PL origin and luminescence efficiency of SiNPs. For PF127, the blocks of hydrophilic PEO participate in the PL quenching, while poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) does not. The colloidal solution displays excellent PL stability against salt (NaCl) and temperature but is susceptible to basic solution at pH above 9.

  6. Volatile profile of cashew apple juice fibers from different production steps.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; de Almeida, Áfia Suely Santos da Silva; Lemos, Ana Paula Dajtenko; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues; Garruti, Deborah dos Santos

    2015-05-27

    This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, γ-dodecalactone, (E)-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability.

  7. Preparation of ansa-metallocenes for production of poly(α-olefin) lubricants.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hae; Jang, Young Eun; Jeon, Jong Yeob; Go, Min Jeong; Lee, Junseong; Kim, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang-Ick; Lee, Bun Yeoul

    2014-07-14

    An ansa-zirconocene bearing methyl substituents at all positions adjacent to the bridgehead [(-C(Ph)HC(Ph)H-)(η(5)-2,5-Me2C5H2)2ZrCl2] (4) was prepared in high yields (78%) through the reductive dimerization of 1,4-dimethyl-6-phenylfulvene utilizing ZrCl2·DME generated in situ. The structure of 4 was subsequently confirmed using X-ray crystallography. 4 exhibited excellent catalytic performance with regard to 1-decene oligomerization, which was carried out with the intention of preparing lubricant base stocks. High activities (21 × 10(6) g mol(-1) Zr h(-1) activity; TON = 150 000; TOF = 42 s(-1)) were observed at temperatures as high as 120 °C and the oligomer distribution was appropriate for lubricant application. The simulated distillation (SIMDIS) data confirmed that a wide range of oligomers were formed, ranging from the dimer (2-mer) to 20-mer. A minimal amount of the dimer and oligomers larger than the 10-mer was formed (13 and 25 wt%, respectively). Alternatively, a typical unbridged complex such as (η(5)-nBuC5H4)2ZrCl2 primarily produced dimers (54 wt%), whereas the ansa-zirconocene (EBI)ZrCl2 primarily produced oligomers larger than 10-mer (62 wt%). The methyl substituents at the positions adjacent to the bridgehead in 4 played a significant role in the catalytic performance.

  8. Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Kerstin; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-05-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract/distillate prepared from a Hungarian-type salami and subsequent identification experiments led to the identification of 51 of 55 odor-active compounds detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-4096. Nineteen of these compounds are reported for the first time as aroma components of dry-fermented sausages, among them 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide. The highest FD factors were found for 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, sweet), 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(1-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), and acetic acid (pungent, sour). Forty-five aroma compounds were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of odor thresholds in oil. The highest OAVs were calculated for acetic acid, acetaldehyde, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. A model mixture containing 33 odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the sausage was prepared in a matrix consisting of 44% sunflower oil and 56% aqueous phosphate buffer. A comparison of the overall aroma of this model mixture with the original showed a very high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds were successfully identified.

  9. Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Ikram Bou; Tlili, Nizar; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Rubio, Ana Gracia Pérez; Perez-Camino, Maria Carmen; Albouchi, Ali; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the content of tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, carotenoids, and volatile compounds in the kernel oils from six walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties. The levels of β-carotene ranged between 0.22 and 0.62 mg/kg, followed by lutein (0.01-0.06 mg/kg). The total content of tocopherol ranged from 186.5 to 436.2 mg/kg of the extracted oil and the major isoform in all samples was γ-tocopherol. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (974-1494 mg/kg) followed by campesterol then Δ-5-avenasterol. The major triterpenic alcohol was cycloartenol (226.4-532.1 mg/kg). Hexacosanol (9.71-28.15 mg/kg) was the major aliphatic alcohol. The detected volatile compounds were pentanal, hexanal, nonanal, 2-decenal and hexanol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties, which are probably due to genetic factors.

  10. Pollination of Cypripedium plectrochilum (Orchidaceae) by Lasioglossum spp. (Halictidae): the roles of generalist attractants versus restrictive floral architecture.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Luo, Y; Bernhardt, P; Kou, Y; Perner, H

    2008-03-01

    The pollination of Cypripedium plectrochilum Franch. was studied in the Huanglong Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China. Although large bees (Bombus, Apis), small bees (Ceratina, Lasioglossum), ants (Formica sp.), true flies (Diptera) and a butterfly were all found to visit the flowers, only small bees, including three Lasioglossum spp. (L. viridiclaucum, L. sichuanense and L. sp.; Halictidae) and one Ceratina sp., carried the flower's pollen and contacted the receptive stigma. Measurements of floral architecture showed that interior floral dimensions best fit the exterior dimensions of Lasioglossum spp., leading to the consistent deposition and stigmatic reception of dorsally-placed, pollen smears. The floral fragrance was dominated by one ketone, 3-methyl-Decen-2-one. The conversion rate of flowers into capsules in open (insect) pollinated flowers at the site was more than 38%. We conclude that, while pigmentation patterns and floral fragrance attracted a wide variety of insect foragers, canalization of interior floral dimensions ultimately determined the spectrum of potential pollinators in this generalist, food-mimic flower. A review of the literature showed that the specialised mode of pollination-by-deceit in C. plectrochilum, limiting pollinators to a narrow and closely related guild of 'dupes' is typical for other members of this genus.

  11. Effects of natural and synthetic alarm pheromone and individual pheromone components on foraging behavior of the giant Asian honey bee, Apis dorsata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Qu, Yufeng; Nieh, James C

    2014-10-01

    Social pollinators such as honey bees face attacks from predators not only at the nest, but also during foraging. Pollinating honey bees can therefore release alarm pheromones that deter conspecifics from visiting dangerous inflorescences. However, the effect of alarm pheromone and its chemical components upon bee avoidance of dangerous food sources remains unclear. We tested the responses of giant honey bee foragers, Apis dorsata, presented with alarm pheromone at a floral array. Foragers investigated the inflorescence with natural alarm pheromone, but 3.3-fold more foragers preferred to land on the 'safe' inflorescence without alarm pheromone. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, we identified eight chemical components in the alarm pheromone, of which three components (1-octanol, decanal and gamma-octanoic lactone) have not previously been reported in this species. We bioassayed six major compounds and found that a synthetic mixture of these compounds elicited behaviors statistically indistinguishable from responses to natural alarm pheromone. By testing each compound separately, we show that gamma-octanoic lactone, isopentyl acetate and (E)-2-decen-1-yl acetate are active compounds that elicit significant alarm responses. Gamma-octanoic lactone elicited the strongest response to a single compound and has not been previously reported in honey bee alarm pheromone. Isopentyl acetate is widely found in the alarm pheromones of sympatric Asian honey bee species, and thus alarmed A. dorsata foragers may produce information useful for conspecifics and heterospecifics, thereby broadening the effects of alarm information on plant pollination.

  12. Identification and biotransformation of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge-Date Palm waste using Pyrolysis-GC/MS technique.

    PubMed

    El Fels, Loubna; Lemee, Laurent; Ambles, André; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    The behavior of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge activated with palm tree waste was studied for 6 months using Py-GC/MS. The main aliphatic compounds represented as doublet alkenes/alkanes can be classified into three groups. The first group consists of 11 alkenes (undecene, tridecene, pentadecene, hexadecene, heptadecene, octadecene, nonadecene, eicosene, uncosene, docosene, tricosene) and 15 alkanes (heptane, octane, nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, heptadecane, octadecane, nonadecane, eicosane, uncosane, docosane, and tricosane), which remain stable during the co-composting process. The stability of these compounds is related to their recalcitrance behavior. The second group consists of five alkenes (heptene, octene, nonene, decene, dodecene) and tridecane as a single alkane that decreases during co-composting. The decrease in these compounds is the combined result of their metabolism and their conversion into other compounds. The third group is constituted with tetradecene and hexadecane that increase during composting, which could be explained by accumulation of these compounds, which are released by the partial breakdown of the substrate. As a result, these molecules are incorporated or adsorbed in the structure of humic substances.

  13. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  14. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guanshen; Ren, Jie; Ouyang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Liying; Wang, Mengze; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bolin; Zhu, Baoqing

    2016-10-02

    This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E)-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  15. Exocrine secretions of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp.): clarification and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Zhang, Aijun; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2013-01-01

    Wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Arilus) are general predators, the females of which have reddish-orange subrectal glands (SGs) that are eversible like the osmeteria in some caterpillars. The rancid odor of Arilus and other reduviids actually comes from Brindley's glands, which in the North (A. cristatus) and South (A. carinatus) American wheel bugs studied emit similar blends of 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, and 2-methylbutanoic acids. The Arilus SG secretions studied here are absolutely species-specific. The volatile SG components of A. carinatus include (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, 4-oxo-nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4- or (Z,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-nonenal; whereas in A. cristatus the SG secretion contains beta-pinene, limonene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, thymol methyl ether, alpha-terpineol, bornyl acetate, methyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and farnesol. Arilus spp. SG secretions may be sex pheromones, but verification of this hypothesis requires further testing.

  16. Assessment of the oxidative stability of conventional and high-oleic sunflower oil by means of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Katharina Domitila; Kleeberg, Kim Karen; Jahreis, Gerhard; Fritsche, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) was used to identify in total 74 volatile lipid oxidation compounds altogether in thermally stressed conventional and high-oleic sunflower (HOSF) oil samples (in accelerated storage conditions for 14 days at 80°C). Out of the volatile compounds identified, six volatile compounds were selected as marker compounds for the assessment of lipid oxidation of sunflower (SF) and HOSF oils due to their low odour threshold values and fatty-rancid odour impression. Additionally, other oxidation parameters such as fatty acid composition, peroxide value (PV), anisidine value and tocopherol and tocotrienol composition were determined. Multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis) were applied to identify sensitive oxidation marker compounds. Preliminary results revealed that hexanal, E-2-heptenal, E-2-decenal and E,E-2,4-nonadienal were the most suitable in differentiating HOSF and SF oil varieties from each other and SF samples with differing oxidative properties. Differentiation of SF samples according to their volatile compound composition was done in accordance with the results from the well-known oil quality parameters (e.g. PV or fatty acid composition). In conclusion, the combination of volatile compound analysis with HS-SPME-GC and multivariate statistical methods provides a sensitive tool in differentiating conventional SF and HOSF oils by means of volatile lipid oxidation marker compounds.

  17. Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.

    PubMed

    Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

    2010-10-01

    Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles.

  18. Characterization of Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug) biogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their role in secondary organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Danielle; Dutcher, Dabrina; Raymond, Timothy

    2013-11-01

    The formation of aerosols is a key component in understanding cloud formation in the context of radiative forcings and global climate modeling. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are a significant source of aerosols, yet there is still much to be learned about their structures, sources, and interactions. The aims of this project were to identify the BVOCs found in the defense chemicals of the brown marmorated stink bug Halymorpha halys and quantify them using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and test whether oxidation of these compounds by ozone-promoted aerosol and cloud seed formation. The bugs were tested under two conditions: agitation by asphyxiation and direct glandular exposure. Tridecane, 2(5H)-furanone 5-ethyl, and (E)-2-decenal were identified as the three most abundant compounds. H. halys were also tested in the agitated condition in a smog chamber. It was found that in the presence of 100-180 ppm ozone, secondary aerosols do form. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) were used to characterize the secondary aerosols that formed. This reaction resulted in 0.23 microg/ bug of particulate mass. It was also found that these secondary organic aerosol particles could act as cloud condensation nuclei. At a supersaturation of 1%, we found a kappa value of 0.09. Once regional populations of these stink bugs stablilize and the populations estimates can be made, the additional impacts of their contribution to regional air quality can be calculated.

  19. Changes in the key odorants of Italian Hazelnuts ( Coryllus avellana L. Var. Tonda Romana) induced by roasting.

    PubMed

    Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2010-05-26

    Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis on aroma distillates isolated from either raw Italian hazelnuts or a roasted hazelnut material produced thereof revealed 37 odor-active compounds in the raw nuts, whereas 46 aroma compounds were detected in the roasted nut material. 2-Methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine and 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as well as 5-methyl-4-heptanone predominated with the highest flavor dilution factors in the raw nuts, whereas 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 2-furfurylthiol, and 2-thenylthiol as well as (Z)-2-octenal, (Z)-2-nonenal, and (Z)-2-decenal showed the highest odor activities in the roasted nuts. These odorants, as well as several others, were previously unknown in hazelnuts. In addition, the intensely seasoning-like smelling 3,5,5'-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was identified for the first time as a food aroma compound on the basis of a newly developed synthetic route and NMR measurements.

  20. Protective effect of phenolic compounds on carbonyl-amine reactions produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Delgado, Rosa M; Zamora, Rosario

    2017-08-15

    The degradation of phenylalanine initiated by 2-pentenal, 2,4-heptadienal, 4-oxo-2-pentenal, 4,5-epoxy-2-heptenal, or 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal in the presence of phenolic compounds was studied to determine the structure-activity relationship of phenolic compounds on the protection of amino compounds against modifications produced by lipid-derived carbonyls. The obtained results showed that flavan-3-ols were the most efficient phenolic compounds followed by single m-diphenols. The effectiveness of these compounds was found to be related to their ability to trap rapidly the carbonyl compound, avoiding in this way the reaction of the carbonyl compound with the amino acid. The ability of flavan-3-ols for this reaction is suggested to be related to the high electronic density existing in some of the aromatic carbons of their ring A. This is the first report showing that carbonyl-phenol reactions involving lipid-derived reactive carbonyls can be produced more rapidly than carbonyl-amine reactions, therefore providing a satisfactory protection of amino compounds.

  1. A tangerine-scented social odour in a monogamous seabird.

    PubMed Central

    Hagelin, Julie C; Jones, Ian L; Rasmussen, L E L

    2003-01-01

    Social odours, conspecific chemical signals, have been demonstrated in every class of vertebrate except birds. The apparent absence is surprising, as every bird examined has a functional olfactory system and many produce odours. The crested auklet (Aethia cristatella), a monogamous seabird, exhibits a distinctive tangerine-like scent closely associated with courtship. Using T-maze experiments, we tested whether auklets preferred conspecific odours and whether they distinguished between different types of scent, two prerequisites of chemical communication. Crested auklets exhibited: (i) an attraction to conspecific feather odour; (ii) a preference for two chemical components of feather scent (cis-4-decenal and octanal), which we identified as seasonally elevated; and (iii) differential responses to odours, as indicated by a preference for auklet odour, an aversion to mammalian musk, but no significant response to banana essence (amyl acetate). Our results suggest that crested auklets detect plumage odour and preferentially orientate towards this stimulus. The striking and well-described courtship display that involves the scented neck region, the 'ruff sniff', provides a conspicuous behavioural mechanism for odour transmission and the potential for scent assessment during sexual selection. Although the importance and full social function of chemical signals are just beginning to be understood in birds, including crested auklets, social odours promise to reveal a largely unexplored and possibly widespread means of avian communication. PMID:12965022

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Artemisia umbelliformis Lam, an endangered aromatic species in Southern French Alps, influence plant P and essential oil contents.

    PubMed

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Deprêtre, Nicolas; Koszela, Nathalie; Chambon, Catherine; Gianinazzi, Silvio

    2011-08-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi of Artemisia umbelliformis, investigated in natural and cultivated sites in the Southern Alps of France, showed typical structures (arbuscules, vesicles, hyphae) as well as spores and mycelia in its rhizosphere. Several native AM fungi belonging to different Glomeromycota genera were identified as colonizers of A. umbelliformis roots, including Glomus tenue, Glomus intraradices, G. claroideum/etunicatum and a new Acaulospora species. The use of the highly mycorrhizal species Trifolium pratense as a companion plant impacted positively on mycorrhizal colonization of A. umbelliformis under greenhouse conditions. The symbiotic performance of an alpine microbial community including native AM fungi used as inoculum on A. umbelliformis was evaluated in greenhouse conditions by comparison with mycorrhizal responses of two other alpine Artemisia species, Artemisia glacialis and Artemisia genipi Weber. Contrary to A. genipi Weber, both A. umbelliformis and A. glacialis showed a significant increase of P concentration in shoots. Volatile components were analyzed by GC-MS in shoots of A. umbelliformis 6 months after inoculation. The alpine microbial inoculum increased significantly the percentage of E-β-ocimene and reduced those of E-2-decenal and (E,E)-2-4-decadienal indicating an influence of alpine microbial inoculum on essential oil production. This work provides practical indications for the use of native AM fungi for A. umbelliformis field culture.

  3. Identification the Key Odorants in Different Parts of Hyla Rabbit Meat via Solid Phase Microextraction Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuejie; He, Zhifei; Lv, Jingzhi; Zhang, En; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the volatile compounds of hind leg, foreleg, abdomen and Longissimus dorsi in both male and female Hyla rabbit meat by solid phase microextraction tandem with gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and to seek out the key odorants via calculating the odor activity value and principal component analysis. Cluster analysis is used to study the flavor pattern differences in four edible parts. Sixty three volatile compounds were detected, including 23 aldehydes, 4 alcohols, 5 ketones, 11 esters, 5 aromatics, 8 acids and 7 hydrocarbons. Among them, 6 aldehydes and 3 acids were identified as the potential key odorants according to the ratio of concentration and threshold. The contents of volatile compounds in male Hyla rabbit meat were significantly higher than those in female one (p<0.05). The results of principal component analysis showed that the first two principal component cumulative variance contributions reach 87.69%; Hexanal, octanal, 2-nonenal, 2-decenal and decanal were regard as the key odorants of Hyla rabbit meat by combining odor activity value and principal component analysis. Therefore volatile compounds of rabbit meat can be effectively characterized. Cluster analysis indicated that volatile chemical compounds of Longissimus dorsi were significantly different from other three parts, which provide reliable information for rabbit processing industry and for possible future sale.

  4. Local Light-Induced Modification of the Inside of Microfluidic Glass Chips.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rui Rijo; Pujari, Sidharam P; Lange, Stefanie C; Sen, Rickdeb; Vrouwe, Elwin Xander; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-03-15

    The ability to locally functionalize the surface of glass allows for myriad biomedical and chemical applications. This would be the case if the surface functionalization can be induced using light with wavelengths for which standard glass is almost transparent. To this aim, we present the first example of a photochemical modification of hydrogen-terminated glass (H-glass) with terminal alkenes. Both flat glass surfaces and the inside of glass microchannels were modified with a well-defined, covalently attached organic monolayer using a range of wavelengths, including sub-band-gap 302 nm ultraviolet light. A detailed characterization thereof was conducted by measurements of the static water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning Auger microscopy (SAM). Germanium attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (GATR-FTIR) indicates that the mechanism of the surface modification proceeds via an anti-Markovnikov substitution. Reacting H-glass with 10-trifluoro-acetamide-1-decene (TFAAD) followed by basic hydrolysis affords the corresponding primary amine-terminated monolayer, enabling additional functionalization of the substrate. Furthermore, we show the successful formation of a photopatterned amine layer by the specific attachment of fluorescent nanoparticles in very discrete regions. Finally, a microchannel was photochemically patterned with a functional linker allowing for surface-directed liquid flow. These results demonstrate that H-glass can be modified with a functional tailor-made organic monolayer, has highly tunable wetting properties, and displays significant potential for further applications.

  5. Penetration of high-intensity Er:YAG laser light emitted by IR hollow optical fibers with sealing caps in water.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Shi, Yi-Wei; Endo, Masashi; Ito, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Jelinkova, Helena

    2004-04-20

    The penetration depth in water was measured for Er:YAG laser light in a high density relevant to clinical applications. Various types of focusing elements were used to guide the light efficiently. We found that the transmission distance depended strongly on the beam shape in the water. When we used a plano-convex type of focusing cap, the penetration depth was larger than that when a dome- or ball-type cap were used.

  6. Barlow Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    An additional lens that increases the effective focal length and magnification of a telescope. It is a negative diverging lens (either concave on both sides or, more usually, `plano-concave'—flat on one side and concave on the other) that is placed in the converging cone of light a short distance in front of the focal plane of the objective or primary mirror. By decreasing the angle at which the ...

  7. [Linear lichen planopilaris of the face].

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Nadia G; Luna, Paula C; Etcheverry, Mauro D; Nocito, Mabel J; Castellanos Posse, Maria L; Marchesi, Carolina; Garuti, Romina A; Carmona Cuello, Lucía E; Carabajal, Graciela; Mazzini, Miguel A

    2010-07-15

    Linear lichen planopilaris of the face is a rare variant of lichen plano- pilaris. Asymptomatic follicular papules in a linear configuration are the characteristic clinical features. The incidence is still unknown, but there are a few cases reported exclusively in male adults. We present the case of a fourteen-year-old girl with linear lichen planopilaris of the face. Improvement was obtained with the use of tacrolimus 0.03 percent ointment.

  8. Design and construction of a spin-wave lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toedt, Jan-Niklas; Mundkowski, Mark; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present the focusing of a Damon-Eshbach wave in a Ni80Fe20 film by a shaped, discrete transition of the film thickness. We devised an algorithm to determine the required shape of a spin-wave lens. Due to the anisotropy three geometries qualify as plano-convex lenses. One lens geometry has been realized experimentally and the emitted spin-wave pattern is investigated by time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy.

  9. Design and construction of a spin-wave lens

    PubMed Central

    Toedt, Jan-Niklas; Mundkowski, Mark; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present the focusing of a Damon-Eshbach wave in a Ni80Fe20 film by a shaped, discrete transition of the film thickness. We devised an algorithm to determine the required shape of a spin-wave lens. Due to the anisotropy three geometries qualify as plano-convex lenses. One lens geometry has been realized experimentally and the emitted spin-wave pattern is investigated by time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy. PMID:27650652

  10. An Analysis of the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) Forecasting Method for Predicting Second Destination Transportation (SDT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    transportation funding. As a result of the recent funding cuts throughout the armed services, it is more critical than ever to be able to predict, with a greater...attributed to the "naivet@" of the BJ time series modeling process. Due to SDT funding cuts , MAC SDT shipments were divert~d to MSC SDT shipments causing...Operations Manaegement : Serving_the Customer (Third Edition). Plano TX: Business Publications Incorporated, 1988. 146 20. "Tonnage," Encyclopedia

  11. Diffractive Optics Applied to Eyepiece Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    into photoresist to create master, b.) making the tool from the master, c.) casting the pattern into UV resin on a piano -convex refractive element, d...respect to the aperture stop location) : plano-convex and convex- piano . The shape of the element can drastically affect the aberration correction. The...criteria. An alternative to placing the diffractive surface on the piano -convex element was to place it on a planar substrate in front of the first lens

  12. Construction and Tests of an Ebert-Fastie Spectrograph with Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, O.; Furenlid, L.; Cornejo, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se presenta el desarrollo, , pruebas de laboratoric y observacionales de un espectr6grafo tipo Ebert-Fastie fuera del plano con fibras 6pticas. Tambien se dan algunos resultados observacionales. ABSTRACT. We present the development, laboratory and observational tests of an spectrograph of the off-plane Ebert-Fastie type with optical fibers, we also give some observational results. Key words: INSTRUMENTS - SPECTROSCOPY - RADIAL VELOCITIES

  13. Carbon Nanotubes Application in the Extraction Techniques of Pesticides: A Review.

    PubMed

    Jakubus, Aleksandra; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2017-01-02

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently one of the most promising groups of materials with some interesting properties, such as lightness, rigidity, high surface area, high mechanical strength in tension, good thermal conductivity or resistance to mechanical damage. These unique properties make CNTs a competitive alternative to conventional sorbents used in analytical chemistry, especially in extraction techniques. The amount of work that discusses the usefulness of CNTs as a sorbent in a variety of extraction techniques has increased significantly in recent years. In this review article, the most important feature and different applications of solid-phase extraction (SPE), including, classical SPE and dispersive SPE using CNTs for pesticides isolation from different matrices, are summarized. Because of high number of articles concerning the applicability of carbon materials to extraction of pesticides, the main aim of proposed publication is to provide updated review of the latest uses of CNTs by covering the period 2006-2015. Moreover, in this review, the recent papers and this one, which are covered in previous reviews, will be addressed and particular attention has been paid on the division of publications in terms of classes of pesticides, in order to systematize the available literature reports.

  14. DNA and dispersal models highlight constrained connectivity in a migratory marine megavertebrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naro-Maciel, Eugenia; Hart, Kristen M.; Cruciata, Rossana; Putman, Nathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Population structure and spatial distribution are fundamentally important fields within ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. To investigate pan-Atlantic connectivity of globally endangered green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from two National Parks in Florida, USA, we applied a multidisciplinary approach comparing genetic analysis and ocean circulation modeling. The Everglades (EP) is a juvenile feeding ground, whereas the Dry Tortugas (DT) is used for courtship, breeding, and feeding by adults and juveniles. We sequenced two mitochondrial segments from 138 turtles sampled there from 2006-2015, and simulated oceanic transport to estimate their origins. Genetic and ocean connectivity data revealed northwestern Atlantic rookeries as the major natal sources, while southern and eastern Atlantic contributions were negligible. However, specific rookery estimates differed between genetic and ocean transport models. The combined analyses suggest that post-hatchling drift via ocean currents poorly explains the distribution of neritic juveniles and adults, but juvenile natal homing and population history likely play important roles. DT and EP were genetically similar to feeding grounds along the southern US coast, but highly differentiated from most other Atlantic groups. Despite expanded mitogenomic analysis and correspondingly increased ability to detect genetic variation, no significant differentiation between DT and EP, or among years, sexes or stages was observed. This first genetic analysis of a North Atlantic green turtle courtship area provides rare data supporting local movements and male philopatry. The study highlights the applications of multidisciplinary approaches for ecological research and conservation.

  15. Indirect effects of the generalist avian predator, the goshawk, on life history of an uncommon prey species, the stock dove.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup

    2016-12-01

    Predators account for lethal effects in their prey, but importantly also for non-lethal indirect effects through the presence and the activity of predators. Such non-lethal effects include altered timing of reproduction, incidence of reproduction, clutch size and quality of offspring produced. We investigated the effects of goshawks Accipiter gentilis on reproduction of the stock dove Columba oenas in 1723 breeding events during 2006-2015 in Northern Denmark, while simultaneously accounting for effects of climate on reproduction of stock doves. Stock doves were consumed by goshawks 36 times less frequently than expected from their abundance, showing that lethal effects of predation were negligible. Laying date advanced at higher temperatures and stronger winds. Laying was delayed when the population size of goshawks increased, and the effects of goshawks interacted wind speed. The frequency of eggs that did not hatch increased with the population size of goshawks, and with increasing temperatures. Recruitment rate of stock doves decreased with increasing population size of goshawks and stock doves. These findings show that indirect effects of predation by goshawks on stock doves were much larger than direct lethal effects and that climate change interacted with predator-prey interactions.

  16. Data sharing: A critical foundation to advance global integrated Earth system science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David; Doldirina, Catherine; Withee, Gregory

    A critical foundation for a successful Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is the exchange of observations recorded from in-situ, aircraft, and satellite networks in a full and open manner with minimum time delay and minimum cost, recognizing relevant international instruments and national policies and legislation. This is, in its simplest form, the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles, which initially were adopted at the First Earth Observation Summit on 31 July 2003 in Washington, United States. It was restated in the 2006-2015 GEOSS Implementation Plan, which is adopted by Group on Earth Observation (GEO) Members and Participating Organizations. Currently, there are 90 Members and 77 Participating Organizations. This paper will describe the evolution of data sharing within the GEO since announcing a principle, creating an action plan, establishing mechanisms, and witnessing progress. Topics include highlights from the 2009 Implementation Guidelines, 2010 GEOSS Data Sharing Action Plan, and GEO infrastructure activities such as the GEO Data Sharing Working Group, GEOSS Data-CORE, GEOSS Data Quality Guidelines, and others. The paper will conclude with audience suggestions on how to improve sharing of Earth observations to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system.

  17. Chronic disease prevention: health effects and financial costs of strategies to reduce salt intake and control tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Asaria, Perviz; Chisholm, Dan; Mathers, Colin; Ezzati, Majid; Beaglehole, Robert

    2007-12-15

    In 2005, WHO set a global goal to reduce rates of death from chronic (non-communicable) disease by an additional 2% every year. To this end, we investigated how many deaths could potentially be averted over 10 years by implementation of selected population-based interventions, and calculated the financial costs of their implementation. We selected two interventions: to reduce salt intake in the population by 15% and to implement four key elements of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We used methods from the WHO Comparative Risk Assessment project to estimate shifts in the distribution of risk factors associated with salt intake and tobacco use, and to model the effects on chronic disease mortality for 23 countries that account for 80% of chronic disease burden in the developing world. We showed that, over 10 years (2006-2015), 13.8 million deaths could be averted by implementation of these interventions, at a cost of less than US$0.40 per person per year in low-income and lower middle-income countries, and US$0.50-1.00 per person per year in upper middle-income countries (as of 2005). These two population-based intervention strategies could therefore substantially reduce mortality from chronic diseases, and make a major (and affordable) contribution towards achievement of the global goal to prevent and control chronic diseases.

  18. Data from Russian Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Hearn, Michael; Zakharov, A.; Zelenyi, Lev

    The Russian Federal Space Program for 2006-2015 includes three major flight projects - Phobos- Soil, Luna-Glob, and Venus-D. Of these, only the first is in active development now, with launch planned for the 2009 Martian launch window. The primary goal of the Phobos-Soil mission, to be described in detail in session B04, is to return a sample of soil from Phobos to Earth for laboratory analysis, but the goals also include a detailed study of Phobos (its regolith, internal structure, and its dynamics) and studies of the Martian environment (dust, plasma, and fields). The overall scientific goal is to understand Phobos as representatives of primitive small bodies and to understand their role in the Martian system (how they became satellites). The spacecraft will land on the Phobos surface and take a sample of the soil. The return capsule will be launched by a return rocket from the surface of Phobos while the mother-ship remains on the surface for lengthy in situ investigations. Instrumentation on the mother-ship includes gamma and neutron spectrometers, an IR spectrometer, a seismometer, a panchromatic camera, a dust sensor, and a plasma package. This talk will describe the digital data to be returned, all of which will be archived consistent with recommendations from the IPDA and the PDS.

  19. Future Projections of Trans-Arctic Shipping Potential and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Smith, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    As the Arctic Ocean transitions towards a seasonally ice-free state, efforts to predict new connections between the Arctic and the global economy are underway. In particular, record lows in September sea ice extent from 2007-2013 have recast Arctic shipping routes as emerging international seaways for export of resources and as potential alternative pathways for global trade. While ensemble-averaged output from sea ice models suggest significant increases in vessel accessibility in September by midcentury (Smith & Stephenson, 2013), the seasonal length and variability of trans-Arctic shipping is not well understood. In addition, differences in ice extent due to inter-model variability reveal significant uncertainties in the magnitude and location of future vessel access. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping as driven by sea ice output from CMIP5 models. Optimal vessel transits from North America and Europe to the Bering Strait are estimated for two periods representing present-day (2006-2015) and midcentury (2040-2059) conditions under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5), assuming Polar Class 6 (PC6) and open-water vessels (OW) with medium and no ice-breaking capability, respectively. Results illustrate a range of potential futures for shipping in the Arctic owing to differences in model choice, vessel capability, and climate forcing. Inter-model differences reveal the importance of model choice in devising projections for strategic planning by governments, environmental agencies, and the global maritime industry.

  20. Re-emergence of amantadine-resistant variants among highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Bagato, Ola; Kandeil, Ahmed; Mostafa, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sara H; Hassanneen, Hamdi M; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to undergo substantial evolution. Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is a major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Numerous studies have focused on the genetic and evolutionary dynamics of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes; however, studies on the susceptibility of HPAI H5N1 viruses to amantadine and genetic diversity of the matrix (M) gene are limited. Accordingly, we studied the amantadine susceptibility of the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated in Egypt during 2006-2015 based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We analyzed data on 253 virus sequences and constructed a phylogenetic tree to calculate selective pressures on sites in the M2 gene associated with amantadine-resistance among different clades. Selection pressure was identified in the transmembrane domain of M2 gene at positions 27 and 31. Amantadine-resistant variants emerged in 2007 but were not circulating between 2012 and 2014. By 2015, amantadine-resistant HPAI H5N1 viruses re-emerged. This may be associated with the uncontrolled prescription of amantadine for prophylaxis and control of avian influenza infections in the poultry farm sector in Egypt. More epidemiological research is required to verify this observation.

  1. Venera-D: Russian mission for complex investigation of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Zasova, L.; Perminov, V.; Ekonomov, A.; Basilevsky, A.; Gerasimov, M.; Linkin, V.; Rodin, A.; Skalsky, A.

    Russian Federal Space program for 2006-2015 includes a mission "Venera-D" for complex investigation of Venus. It is planned to be launched around 2016, by rocket Soyuz-2. According to preliminary investigation in Babakin Center mass of 1900 kg may be delivered to Venus. This mass may include orbiter, balloon(s), lander(s) with long living station on the surface of Venus. Scientific goals: investigation of structure, composition and dynamics of the atmosphere, structure and chemical composition of the clouds and nature of the hazes, investigation of the composition and properties of the surface, search for the volcanic activity, interaction between atmosphere and the surface, search for the electric and acoustic activity in the atmosphere, search for seismic activity, investigations of ionosphere and magnetosphere. A conception of the mission is under development now: new elements, like balloons, flying at different levels in the atmosphere may be down to 10 km altitude with landing and working on the surface, and descend module with long living station on the surface are considered. With existing electronics working at around 300C and corresponding insulation the life of station on the surface may be provided for a month We acknowledge IKI RAS for financial support, grant "Perspectiva"

  2. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish–English and English–Spanish Bilingual Readers

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Roberto R.; Cieślicka, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated) or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries) meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., “creampuff”). We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time) for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003) and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015). PMID:27065911

  3. Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides canislagopodis (Krabbe 1865) tetrathyridia found in rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Skirnisson, Karl; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G; Nielsen, Ólafur K

    2016-08-01

    Necropsies of 1010 rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta) sampled in autumn 2006-2015 in northeast Iceland revealed Mesocestoides canislagopodis tetrathyridia infections in six birds (0.6 %), two juvenile birds (3 month old), and four adult birds (15 months or older). Four birds had tetrathyridia in the body cavity, one bird in the liver, and one bird both in the body cavity and the liver. There were more tetrathyridia in the body cavity of the two juveniles (c. 50 in each) than in three adults (10-40), possibly indicating a host-age-related tetrathyridia mortality. Approximately, half of tetrathyridia in the body cavity were free or loosely attached to the serosa, the other half were encapsulated in a thin, loose connective tissue stroma, frequently attached to the lungs and the liver. Tetrathyridia in the liver parenchyma incited variably intense inflammation. Tetrathyridia from the juvenile hosts were whitish, heart-shaped, and flattened, with unsegmented bodies with a slightly pointed posterior end. In the adult hosts, tetrathyridia were sometimes almost rectangular-shaped, slightly wider compared to those in the juveniles, but more than twice as long as the younger-aged tetrathyridia. Tetrathyridia infections are most likely acquired during the brief insectivorous feeding phase of ptarmigan chicks, and the tetrathyridia persist throughout the lifespan of the birds.

  4. The contribution of ozone to future stratospheric temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maycock, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    The projected recovery of ozone from the effects of ozone depleting substances this century will modulate the stratospheric cooling due to CO2, thereby affecting the detection and attribution of stratospheric temperature trends. Here the impact of future ozone changes on stratospheric temperatures is quantified for three representative concentration pathways (RCPs) using simulations from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For models with interactive chemistry, ozone trends offset ~50% of the global annual mean upper stratospheric cooling due to CO2 for RCP4.5 and 20% for RCP8.5 between 2006-2015 and 2090-2099. For RCP2.6, ozone trends cause a net warming of the upper and lower stratosphere. The misspecification of ozone trends for RCP2.6/RCP4.5 in models that used the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC)/Stratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) Ozone Database causes anomalous warming (cooling) of the upper (lower) stratosphere compared to chemistry-climate models. The dependence of ozone chemistry on greenhouse gas concentrations should therefore be better represented in CMIP6.

  5. NOx and NOy in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Chris; Evans, Mathew J.; Lee, James D.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Read, Katie A.; Mendes, Luis N.

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) and their reservoir species (NOy) play a central role in determining the chemistry of the troposphere. Although their concentrations are low (1-100 ppt) in regions such as the remote marine boundary layer, they have a profound impact on ozone production and the oxidizing capacity. There are very few observations of NOx and NOy in remote oceanic regions due to the technical challenges of measuring such low concentrations, and thus our understanding of this background chemistry is incomplete. Here we present long term measurements of NOx (2006-2015) and more recent measurements of speciated NOy (total peroxyacetyl nitrates, PANs; alkyl nitrates, ANs; nitric acid; and aerosol analogues) made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO; 16° 51' N, 24° 52' W) located in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. We identify potential interferences in the NO2 and NOy measurements and methods to eliminate them. Diurnal and seasonal cycles are interpreted using a box model. We find a complex chemistry with interactions between organic and inorganic chemistry, between the aerosol and gas phase, and between the very local and large scales.

  6. The contribution of glacial isostatic adjustment to projections of sea-level change along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Ryan; Milne, Glenn A.; Tarasov, Lev; Engelhart, Simon E.; Hijma, Marc P.; Latychev, Konstantin; Horton, Benjamin P.; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2016-10-01

    We determine the contribution of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) to future relative sea-level change for the North American coastline between Newfoundland and Texas. We infer GIA model parameters using recently compiled and quality-assessed databases of past sea-level changes, including new databases for the United States Gulf Coast and Atlantic Canada. At 13 cities along this coastline, we estimate the GIA contribution to range from a few centimeters (e.g., 3 [-1 to 9] cm Miami) to a few decimeters (e.g., 18 [12-22] cm, Halifax) for the period 2085-2100 relative to 2006-2015 (1-σ ranges given). We provide estimates of uncertainty in the GIA component using two different methods; the more conservative approach produces total ranges (1-σ confidence) that vary from 3 to 16 cm for the cities considered. Contributions from ocean steric and dynamic changes as well as those from changes in land ice are also estimated to provide context for the GIA projections. When summing the contributions from all three processes at the 13 cities considered along this coastline, using median or best-estimate values, the GIA signal comprises 5-38% of the total depending on the adopted climate forcing and location. The contributions from ocean dynamic/steric changes and ice mass loss are similar in amplitude but with spatial variation that approximately cancels, resulting in GIA dominating the net spatial variability north of 35°N.

  7. The influence of periodic wind turbine noise on infrasound array measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise emissions from the continuously growing number of wind turbines in Germany are creating increasing problems for infrasound recording systems. These systems are equipped with highly sensitive micro pressure sensors accurately measuring acoustic signals in a frequency range inaudible to the human ear. Ten years of data (2006-2015) from the infrasound array IGADE in Northern Germany are analysed to quantify the influence of wind turbine noise on infrasound recordings. Furthermore, a theoretical model is derived and validated by a field experiment with mobile micro-barometer stations. Fieldwork was carried out 2004 to measure the infrasonic pressure level of a single horizontal-axis wind turbine and to extrapolate the sound effect for a larger number of nearby wind turbines. The model estimates the generated sound pressure level of wind turbines and thus enables for specifying the minimum allowable distance between wind turbines and infrasound stations for undisturbed recording. This aspect is particularly important to guarantee the monitoring performance of the German infrasound stations I26DE in the Bavarian Forest and I27DE in Antarctica. These stations are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and thus have to meet stringent specifications with respect to infrasonic background noise.

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    López-Fuenzalida, Antonio; Rodríguez Canales, Carolina; Reyes Ponce, Álvaro; Contreras Molina, Ángela; Fernández Quezada, Javiera; Aguirre Polanco, Carolina

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: dado el incremento del sobrepeso y obesidad infantil, es relevante estudiar no solo las consecuencias metabólicas, sino también aquellas de índole musculoesqueléticas que pueden afectar la funcionalidad motriz, como es el pie plano, en esta población. Objetivo: identificar la asociación entre el estado nutricional y la prevalencia de pie plano en niños y niñas chilenos de 6 a 10 años. Métodos: el z-score del índice de masa corporal (IMC) y el registro y análisis de las huellas plantares según la metodología de Hernández-Corvo fue llevado a cabo en 388 escolares (52,3% niñas). Un test de diferencia para dos proporciones fue utilizado para evaluar las diferencias entre los grupos. Se considera una significancia estadística con p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: la prevalencia del exceso de peso fue de más del 40%. Esta prevalencia fue más alta en las niñas (47,8%) que en los niños (42,7%). La prevalencia de pie plano en todos los niños fue del 17%, presentando valores más elevados el pie derecho (18,3%) que el izquierdo (15,7%). Hay un incremento significativo de la prevalencia de pie plano en los niños obesos en relación con los niños con sobrepeso y normopeso. Conclusión: el estado nutricional está asociado con incrementos en la prevalencia de pie plano en niños. En la población infantil de 6 a 10 años de edad, la obesidad está asociada con la alteración morfológica del pie.

  9. Cephalometric Evaluation of Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Mouth Breathing.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Helena Afonso; Furtado, Ivo Ãlvares; Silva, Francisco Salvado; Ustrell Torrent, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Os ortodontistas tratam frequentemente crianças com respiração oral. O objectivo deste estudo foi avaliar as posições dentárias, efeitos esqueléticos e espaço aéreo da faringe, causados pela respiração bucal em crianças com rinite alérgica crónica, comparando com grupo de controlo de padrão respiratório normal.Material e Métodos: Foram avaliadas setenta crianças caucasianas do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (Lisboa), entre Setembro/ 2009 e Fevereiro/2013. O grupo de estudo compreendia 35 crianças com rinite alérgica crónica de ambos os géneros, idades entre 5 e 14 anos, reação positiva a aeroalergénios, respiração bucal e má-oclusão dentária. O grupo controlo incluiu 35 crianças, da mesma idade, ambos os géneros, com respiração nasal e má-oclusão dentária, que recorreram ao departamento de ortodontia. Utilizaram-semedidas de Ricketts, Steiner e análise de McNamara. Foi aplicado teste estatístico t de Student.Resultados: Verificaram-se diferenças estatísticas significativas entre respiradores orais e nasais, respectivamente quanto à altura facial inferior (49,1/45,9 mm), ângulo entre o plano de Frankfurt e o plano mandibular (30,1/26,9º), ângulo entre a linha Sela-Nasion e o plano oclusal (17,3/15º), comprimento maxilar (78,4/82,4 mm) e mandibular (102,4/107 mm), overbite (0,8/3,1mm) e overjet (4/4,7 mm).Discussão: A comparação entre os grupos demonstrou que as crianças com rinite alérgica e respiração oral apresentam maior altura facial inferior, maior ângulo entre o plano de Frankfurt e o plano mandibular e maior ângulo entre a linha Sela-Nasion e o plano oclusal. Este grupo apresentou também menor comprimento da maxila e da mandíbula, menor overbite e diminuição do espaço aéreo respiratório superior.Conclusões: As crianças com rinite alérgica e respiração oral têm faces mais longas, maxilas e mandíbulas mais curtas e espaço aéreo faríngeo menor. Não existem diferen

  10. The effect of feed solids concentration and inlet temperature on the flavor of spray dried whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that unit operations in whey protein manufacture promote off-flavor production in whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed solids concentration in liquid retentate and spray drier inlet temperature on the flavor of dried whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 ppm hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain WPC80 retentate (25% solids, wt/wt). The liquid retentate was then diluted with deionized water to the following solids concentrations: 25%, 18%, and 10%. Each of the treatments was then spray dried at the following temperatures: 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C. The experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the WPC80 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses. Particle size and surface free fat were also analyzed. Both main effects (solids concentration and inlet temperature) and interactions were investigated. WPC80 spray dried at 10% feed solids concentration had increased surface free fat, increased intensities of overall aroma, cabbage and cardboard flavors and increased concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, decanal, (E)2-decenal, DMTS, DMDS, and 2,4-decadienal (P < 0.05) compared to WPC80 spray dried at 25% feed solids. Product spray dried at lower inlet temperature also had increased surface free fat and increased intensity of cardboard flavor and increased concentrations of pentanal, (Z)4-heptenal, nonanal, decanal, 2,4-nonadienal, 2,4-decadienal, and 2- and 3-methyl butanal (P < 0.05) compared to product spray dried at higher inlet temperature. Particle size was higher for powders from increased feed solids concentration and increased inlet temperature (P < 0.05). An increase in feed solids concentration in the liquid retentate and inlet temperature within the parameters evaluated decreased off-flavor intensity in the resulting WPC80.

  11. pH-sensitive transformation of the peptidic bolaamphiphile self-assembly: exploitation for the pH-triggered chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jinyoung; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2014-03-01

    Control of the macroscopic self-assembled structure of the amphiphilic molecule has been a challenging issue in micro/nanotechnologies. In this study, the microtubular self-assembly of a novel peptidic bolaamphiphile, bis(N-α-amido-glycylglycine)-1,10-decene dicarboxylate, which undergoes reversible structural transformation between microtubes and precipitates as a function of pH, was exploited for pH-triggered chemical release. At neutral and basic conditions above a pH of 6, the peptidic bolaamphiphilic molecule self-assembled to form tubular structures several hundreds of micrometers in length. When the solution became acidic below a pH of 4, the tubular assembly disintegrated to form aggregated precipitates. The reversible transformation of precipitate to microtube was achieved by raising the pH above 6. From the Raman spectroscopy results, it was revealed that the hydrogen bonds of the amide group and carboxylate were enhanced under the acidic conditions. These variation of the hydrogen bonds resulted in precipitation of peptidic bolaamphiphilic molecules while rupturing the microtubular structure. The pH-sensitive microscopic structural transformation was exploited for release of a chemical in which the pH-triggered release of a model chemical, a fluorescence dye of ANS, was demonstrated. The ANS dye was released gradually with decreasing pH, which suggests gradual disintegration of the microtubular self-assembly. Furthermore, this pH-triggered release of a chemical was exploited for the chemical reaction of gold ion reduction to produce solid clusters. This study demonstrated the reversible transformation of peptidic bolaamphiphile and its application as a pH-sensitive host matrix.

  12. Influence of storage on volatile profiles in roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Xiao, Lu; Zhang, Gong; Ebeler, Susan E; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2014-11-19

    Hexanal, peroxide value, and lipid hydroperoxides are common indicators of lipid oxidation in food products. However, these markers are not always reliable as levels are dynamic and often can be detected only after significant oxidation has occurred. Changes in the volatile composition of light- and dark-roast almonds were evaluated during storage over 24 weeks at 25 or 35 °C using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several volatile changes were identified in association with early oxidation events in roasted almonds. Hexenal decreased significantly during the first 6 weeks of storage and did not increase above initial levels until 20-24 weeks of storage depending upon the degree of roast. In contrast, levels of 1-heptanol and 1-octanol increased at 16-20 weeks, depending upon the degree of roast, and no initial losses were observed. Seventeen new compounds, absent in raw and freshly roasted almonds but detectable after 6 weeks of storage, were identified. Of these, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 3-octen-2-one, 2-decanone, (E)-2-decenal, 2,4-nonadienal, pentyl oxirane, and especially acetic acid increased significantly (that is, >10 ng/g). The degree of roasting did not correlate with the levels of these compounds. Significant decreases in roasting-related aroma volatiles such as 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, furfural, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methylpyrazine, and 1-methylthio-2-propanol were observed by 4 weeks of storage independent of the degree of roast or storage conditions.

  13. Observation of different catalytic activity of various 1-olefins during ethylene/1-olefin copolymerization with homogeneous metallocene catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wannaborworn, Mingkwan; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2011-01-07

    This research aimed to investigate the copolymerization of ethylene and various 1-olefins. The comonomer lengths were varied from 1-hexene (1-C₆) up to 1-octadecene (1-C₁₈) in order to study the effect of comonomer chain length on the activity and properties of the polymer in the metallocene/MAO catalyst system. The results indicated that two distinct cases can be described for the effect of 1-olefin chain length on the activity. Considering the short chain length comonomers, such as 1-hexene, 1-octene and 1-decene, it is obvious that the polymerization activity decreased when the length of comonomer was higher, which is probably due to increased steric hindrance at the catalytic center hindering the insertion of ethylene monomer to the active sites, hence, the polymerization rate decreased. On the contrary, for the longer chain 1-olefins, namely 1-dodecene, 1-tetradecene and 1-octadecene, an increase in the comonomer chain length resulted in better activity due to the opening of the gap aperture between C(p)(centroid)-M-C(p)-(centroid), which forced the coordination site to open more. This effect facilitated the polymerization of the ethylene monomer at the catalytic sites, and thus, the activity increased. The copolymers obtained were further characterized using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and ¹³C-NMR techniques. It could be seen that the melting temperature and comonomer distribution were not affected by the 1-olefin chain length. The polymer crystallinity decreased slightly with increasing comonomer chain length. Moreover, all the synthesized polymers were typical LLDPE having random comonomer distribution.

  14. Effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "Lacón" from Celta pig breed.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the finishing diet on the volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product), from the Celta pig breed was studied. Thirty-six pigs were separated into three groups according to the type of feeding during the finish-fattening period of three months (concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut). From the pigs of each diet, four batches of dry-cured "lacón" were manufactured. From each batch, samples of fresh meat, meat after salting, after post-salting, and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of drying-ripening were taken. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-six volatile compounds were identified and quantified from dry-cured "lacón" samples in pigs finished with chestnut, eighty-two for concentrate fed pigs and eighty in pigs fed with the mixed diet. The number of identified volatile compounds increased during the manufacturing process; at 84 days of drying-ripening, in the dry-cured "lacón" samples from pigs finished with concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut, 54, 58 and 62 volatile compounds were detected, respectively. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was hydrocarbons in the three feeding systems, followed by aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Discriminant analysis selected six variables (dodecane, butadienol, pentenol, 2-pentenal, decen-3-ona and pyridine-2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions which allowed verification of chestnut in the finishing diet.

  15. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves.

  16. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  17. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period.

  18. Induction of a wide range of C(2-12) aldehydes and C(7-12) acyloins in the kidney of Wistar rats after treatment with a renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate.

    PubMed

    Toyokuni, S; Luo, X P; Tanaka, T; Uchida, K; Hiai, H; Lehotay, D C

    1997-01-01

    An iron chelate, ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA), induces renal proximal tubular necrosis associated with lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage that finally leads to a high incidence of renal cell carcinoma in rodents. In the present study, we investigated what kinds of C(2-12) saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and C(7-12) acyloins, metabolites of saturated aldehydes, are produced in the kidney and liver within 24 h after single i.p. administration of 15 mg Fe/kg of Fe-NTA, or after repeated (1 or 3 wk) i.p. administration of 5-10 mg Fe/kg of Fe-NTA. Amounts of twenty one aldehydes and five acyloins were determined by capillary column gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas. Most of the aldehydes and all the acyloins measured revealed a significant dose-dependent increase 1 to 3 h after single administration in the kidney, among which 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) showed the highest increase (27.3-fold) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was the most abundant aldehyde (2.40 nmol/100 mg wet tissue). In the liver, however, the increase in aldehydes and acyloins was less prominent. After repeated administration of Fe-NTA, only 9 aldehydes (ethanal; furfural; trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal; nonanal; trans-2,cis-6-nonadienal; HNE; decanal; trans-4,cis-4-decenal; MDA) and 4 acyloins (3-hydroxyheptan-2-one; 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one; 3-hydroxynonan-2-one; 3-hydroxydodecan-2-one) showed a significant increase. Immunohistochemistry further demonstrated an increased amount of HNE-modified and MDA-modified proteins in the renal proximal tubules after repeated Fe-NTA administration. Some of the aldehydes measured such as HNE and MDA are reportedly cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic. Accumulation of these aldehydes may play a role in this renal carcinogenesis model.

  19. Synthesis and Size-Separation of Colloidally-Stable Silicon Nanocrystals for the Investigation of their Size-Dependent Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastronardi, Melanie

    Silicon nanocrystals (ncSi) possess unique optical properties that vary predictably with crystal size, which means they can be tailored to suit specific requirements for use in optoelectronic devices and biological applications. The work presented in this thesis outlines contributions made in developing size-separation methods to obtain uniform-sized samples of colloidally-stable ncSi from non-uniform ensembles, which result from most common syntheses that produce colloidally-stable particles. Non-uniform samples of ncSi were prepared using the straightforward thermal processing of sol-gel glasses, followed by HF etching to liberate hydride-capped ncSi from an encapsulating matrix. Thermal hydrosilylation was employed to passivate the ncSi surface with both allylbenzene and 1-decene. Density gradient ultracentrifugation and size-selective precipitation methods were used to isolate size-separated ncSi, which enabled definitive characterization of size-dependent optical properties including photoluminescence (PL), PL absolute quantum yields, and PL lifetimes. A detailed investigation of the chemical reactivity of allylbenzene-capped ncSi with different gaseous atmospheres as probed by in situ luminescence spectroscopy, conducted under both continuous and intermittent illumination, helped elucidate the roles of O2, H2O and mixtures of O2/H 2O, with respect to oxidation of ncSi as a function of size. The results presented in this thesis have played a crucial role towards obtaining a complete understanding of ncSi, a most promising material, and providing vital information that will aid in developing and tailoring perceived applications in advanced materials and biomedical devices.

  20. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-04-08

    Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas.

  1. [An ecologic study of adult and larval Culicidae in a rice field of Kou Valley, Burkino Faso].

    PubMed

    Robert, V; Ouari, B; Ouedraogo, V; Carnevale, P

    1988-12-01

    An entomological survey based on collections of human bait mosquitoes and of mosquito larvae was carried out through one year in a rice-field, the Kou Valley of southwest Burkina Faso. Each year, in this irrigated rice field there are two crops of rice, one during the dry season and another during the wet one. Between the two rice cycles irrigation is interrupted and the rice field becomes dry. The rice crop cycle moves through several stages, all of which have positive or negative effects on the development of the larvae of most abundant mosquitoes species. Rice cultivation does not explain however entirely the ecology of mosquito populations. Two main limiting factors for mosquito development are highlighted: the season with two periods (1. dry, 2. wet) and the rice cultivation with three periods (1. start of the flooding, growing rice transplantation and tillering, 2. rice heading and flowering, 3. rice maturation and harvest). The development of a majority of mosquito species depends strictly on rice growth: (i) Anopheles gambiae s.1. uses the whole rice field during the first period of rice cultivation until growing rice protects the larval breeding places from solar radiation. It is the most frequent mosquito (53% of the man-biting mosquitoes caught). 5% of its larvae are parasitized with a fungus Coelomomyces sp., (ii) A. pharoensis has its maximum density during the second period of rice cultivation, as Culex gr. decens; both seem to succeed better in the dry season, contrary to all other anophelines, (iii) A. coustani profits by the third period when the pH of the breeding places becomes basic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Asplenioideae Species as a Reservoir of Volatile Organic Compounds with Potential Therapeutic Properties.

    PubMed

    Froissard, Didier; Rapior, Sylvie; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Fruchier, Alain; Sol, Vincent; Fons, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    Twelve French Asplenioideae ferns (genera Asplenium and subgenera Ceterach and Phyllitis) were investigated for the first time for volatile organic compounds (VOC) using GC-MS. Sixty-two VOC biosynthesized from the lipidic, shikimic, terpenic and carotenoid pathways were identified. Several VOC profiles can be highlighted from Asplenium jahandiezii and A. xalternifolium with exclusively lipidic derivatives to A. onopteris with an equal ratio of lipidic/shikimic compounds. Very few terpenes as caryophyllene derivatives were identified, but only in A. obovatum subsp. bilotii. The main odorous lipidic derivatives were (E)-2-decenal (waxy and fatty odor), nonanal (aldehydic and waxy odor with a fresh green nuance), (E)-2-heptenal (green odor with a fatty note) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor), reported for all species. A few VOC are present in several species in high content, i.e., 9-oxononanoic acid used as a precursor for biopolymers (19% in A. jahandiezii), 4-hydroxyacetophenone with a sweet and heavy floral odor (17.1% in A. onopteris), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid used as a precursor in the synthesis of parabens (11.3% in A. foreziense). Most of the identified compounds have pharmacological activities, i.e., octanoic acid as antimicrobial, in particular against Salmonellas, with fatty and waxy odor (41.1% in A. petrarchae), tetradecanoic acid with trypanocidal activity (13.3% in A. obovatum subsp. bilotii), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (8.7% in A. onopteris) with antimicrobial and anti-aging effects, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde as an inhibitor of growth of human cancer cells (6.7% in Ceterach officinarum), and phenylacetic acid with antifungal and antibacterial activities (5.8% in A. onopteris). Propionylfilicinic acid was identified in the twelve species. The broad spectrum of odorous and bioactive VOC identified from the Asplenium, Ceterach and Phyllitis species are indeed of great interest to the cosmetic and food industries.

  3. [Dyslalias associated to maloclussion in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Reyes, Adriana; Reyes Y Zepeda, Adriana; Moyaho-Bernal, Angeles; Moreno-García, Alicia; Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro José; Hernández-Ruíz, Ana Karen; Bejarano-Huertas, Ruth; López-Colombo, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: el test para evaluar los procesos fonológicos de simplificación (TEPROSIF) es un instrumento que sirve para identificar las dislalias. El objetivo fue determinar la asociación entre dislalias y maloclusión dental en niños de 4 a 6 años mediante la aplicación del TEPROSIF. Métodos: después de su estandarización (kappa 0.9) el instrumento se aplicó en 116 niños de 4 a 6 años. Los pacientes se llevaron a oclusión céntrica por deglución. Se observó tipo de mordida, sobremordida, oclusión y plano terminal para relacionarlos con la dislalia presentada. Utilizamos ?? y consideramos estadísticamente significativa una p = 0.05. Resultados: fueron un total de 55 niños (47.4 %) y 61 niñas (52.6 %), con edad media de 5 años + 0.71. La sustitución de fonemas se encontró con más frecuencia. Hubo correlación significativa entre omisión de fonemas y plano terminal (p = 0.01), arco de Baume tipo I (p = 0.00) y ausencia de dientes (p = 0.00). También entre sustitución de fonemas y plano terminal (p = 0.03), tipo de mordida (p = 0.01) y ausencia de dientes (p = 0.00). Conclusión: en niños de 4 a 6 años, la sustitución de fonemas es la alteración más frecuente; esta va seguida de la omisión de fonemas y, por último, la distorsión de fonemas.

  4. The Effect of Two-Zone Concentric Bifocal Spectacle Lenses on Refractive Error Development and Eye Growth in Young Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Wildsoet, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the effects on refractive error development and eye growth in young chicks of two-zone concentric lens designs, which differentially affect the defocus experiences of central and peripheral retinal regions. Methods. Monocular defocusing lenses were worn for 5 days from 17 days of age. Four two-zone concentric lens designs (overall optical zone diameter, 10 mm) combining plano with either −5- or +5-D power were used. Lens designs were as follows: (1) +5 D center (+5C), (2) +5 D periphery (+5P), (3) −5 D center (−5C), and (4) −5 D peripheral (−5P), with plano in periphery for all C-designs and in the center for P-designs. Five central zone diameters (CZDs) were tested, ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 mm in 1-mm increments. Plano, +5- and −5-D single-vision (SV) lenses were used as the control. A minimum of six birds were included in each lens group. Results. For the two-zone lenses, the P designs (i.e., peripheral defocus) had greater effects than the C designs (i.e., central defocus) on both on-axis eye growth and refractions. All but the 6.5-mm CZD +5P lens induced larger changes than the +5SV lens. The +5C lenses with CZD less than 5.5 mm had little effect. The two-zone −5-D lenses had less effect than the −5SV lens, and only the 6.5-mm CZD lens of the −5C series had a significant effect. Conclusions. The results demonstrate that peripheral defocus can influence both peripheral and central refractive development. The inhibitory effect on axial eye growth of the +5P lenses opens the possibility that appropriately designed concentric lenses may control the progression of human myopia. PMID:20861487

  5. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - analysis of clinical features, laboratory characteristics and therapeutic outcome of 24 patients treated at a Tertiary Care Center in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Shahid; Zaidi, Syed Z. A.; Motabi, Ibraheem H; Alshehry, Nawal Faiez; AlGhamdi, Mubarak S.; Tailor, Imran Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disease. The primary aim was overall response rate (ORR) assessment in the treated patients Methods: This retrospective study included 24 patients treated during 2006-2015. TTP patients with microangiopathic hemolysis (MAHA) and thrombocytopenia were included. We analyzed clinical features, laboratory characteristics and treatment outcomes of 24 TTP patients treated at our tertiary care center (KFMC). Results: Twenty-four TTP patients (18 females; 6 males) had a mean age of 33.5±13.9 years; 22(91%) had neurologic features, 7(29%) fever, 10(42%) renal impairment; 4(20.83%) cardiac manifestations; 22(91.7%) had triad with additional neurologic abnormalities; only 2(8.2%) had pentad of TTP. Majority (54.16%) had idiopathic TTP. All patients received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE); 23(95.8%) received adjunctive corticosteroids and 13(54.2%) received rituximab either due to refractoriness to TPE on ~day7, or earlier. Twenty-one out of 24 (87.5%) achieved complete remission (CR) without any subsequent relapse. At 22 months (median, range 1-113), 20 patients (83.3%) are alive at the time of report. Three patients died during acute episode because of sever disease or delayed treatment and one died in CR. Conclusion: TPE, steroids and or rituximab was very effective in preventing high risk of mortality and achieving durable CR in 87.5% of patients. More awareness is needed for early diagnosis and early referral to centers with appropriate tertiary care facilities.. PMID:28083052

  6. Hypsometric control on glacier mass balance sensitivity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, D.; Sass, L.; Arendt, A. A.; O'Neel, S.; Kienholz, C.; Larsen, C.; Burgess, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Mass loss from glaciers in Alaska is dominated by strongly negative surface balances, particularly on small, continental glaciers but can be highly variable from glacier to glacier. Glacier hypsometry can exert significant control on mass balance sensitivity, particularly if the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is in a broad area of low surface slope. In this study, we explore the spatial variability in glacier response to future climate forcings on the basis of hypsometry. We first derive mass balance sensitivities (30-70 m ELA / 1° C and 40-90 m ELA / 50% decrease in snow accumulation) from the ~50-year USGS Benchmark glaciers mass balance record. We subsequently assess mean climate fields in 2090-2100 derived from the IPCC AR5/CMIP5 RCP 6.0 5-model mean. Over glaciers in Alaska, we find 2-4° C warming and 10-20% increase in precipitation relative to 2006-2015, but a corresponding 0-50% decrease in snow accumulation due to rising temperatures. We assess changes in accumulation area ratios (AAR) to a rising ELA using binned individual glacier hypsometries. For an ELA increase of 150 m, the mean statewide AAR drops by 0.45, representing a 70% reduction in accumulation area on an individual glacier basis. Small, interior glaciers are the primary drivers of this reduction and for nearly 25% of all glaciers, the new ELA exceeds the glacier's maximum elevation, portending eventual loss. The loss of small glaciers, particularly in the drier interior of Alaska will significantly modify streamflow properties (flashy hydrographs, earlier and reduced peak flows, increased interannual variability, warmer temperatures) with poorly understood downstream ecosystem and oceanographic impacts.

  7. Nearly a Decade of CALIPSO Observations of Asian and Saharan Dust Properties Near Source and Transport Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Liu, Z.; Tackett, J.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C.; Winker, D.; H. Yu,

    2015-01-01

    The lidar on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, makes robust measurements of dust and has generated a length of record that is significant both seasonally and inter-annually. We exploit this record to determine a multi-year climatology of the properties of Asian and Saharan dust, in particular seasonal optical depths, layer frequencies, and layer heights of dust gridded in accordance with the Level 3 data products protocol, between 2006-2015. The data are screened using standard CALIPSO quality assurance flags, cloud aerosol discrimination (CAD) scores, overlying features and layer properties. To evaluate the effects of transport on the morphology, vertical extent and size of the dust layers, we compare probability distribution functions of the layer integrated volume depolarization ratios, geometric depths and integrated attenuated color ratios near the source to the same distributions in the far field or transport region. CALIPSO is collaboration between NASA and Centre National D'études Spatiales (CNES), was launched in April 2006 to provide vertically resolved measurements of cloud and aerosol distributions. The primary instrument on the CALIPSO satellite is the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), a near-nadir viewing two-wavelength polarization-sensitive instrument. The unique nature of CALIOP measurements make it quite challenging to validate backscatter profiles, aerosol type, and cloud phase, all of which are used to retrieve extinction and optical depth. To evaluate the uncertainty in the lidar ratios, we compare the values computed from dust layers overlying opaque water clouds, considered nominal, with the constant lidar ratio value used in the CALIOP algorithms for dust. We also explore the effects of noise on the CALIOP retrievals at daytime by comparing the distributions of the properties at daytime to the nighttime distributions.

  8. Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS): a mid-term analysis of progress in 50 countries.

    PubMed

    Kamara, Lidija; Lydon, Patrick; Bilous, Julian; Vandelaer, Jos; Eggers, Rudi; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Meaney, William; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Within the overall framework set out in the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) for the period 2006-2015, over 70 countries had developed comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs) by 2008, outlining their plans for implementing the GIVS strategies and for attaining the GIVS Goals at the midpoint in 2010 or earlier. These goals are to: (1) reach ≥90% and ≥80% vaccination coverage at national and district level, respectively; and (2) reduce measles-related mortality by 90% compared with the 2000 level. Fifty cMYPs were analysed along the four strategic areas of the GIVS: (1) protecting more people in a changing world; (2) introducing new vaccines and technologies; (3) integrating immunization, other health interventions and surveillance in the health system context; and (4) immunizing in the context of global interdependence. By 2010, all 50 countries planned to have introduced hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine, 48 the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine and only a few countries had firm plans to introduce pneumococcal or rotavirus vaccines. Countries seem to be inadequately prepared in terms of cold-chain requirements to deal with the expected increases in storage that will be required for vaccines, and in making provisions to establish a corresponding surveillance system for planned new vaccine introductions. Immunization contacts are used to deliver other health interventions, especially in the countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Region. The cost for the planned immunization activities will double to U$27 per infant, of which U$5 per infant is the expected shortfall. Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) funding is becoming the largest contributor to immunization programmes.

  9. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2016-09-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only. Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  10. Extreme rainfall analysis based on precipitation events classification in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Lorenzo; Fiori, Elisabetta; Molini, Luca

    2016-04-01

    the raingauges observation in northern Italy for the period 2006-2015.

  11. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University.

    PubMed

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2017-02-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only. Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  12. [Fight against tuberculosis in the world].

    PubMed

    El Kamel, A; Joobeur, S; Skhiri, N; Cheikh Mhamed, S; Mribah, H; Rouatbi, N

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in a major health problem in the world. WHO and its partners especially, the stop TB partnership launched numerous strategies against TB especially in the 1990. Strategy DOTS (directly observed therapy short course) was launched in 1995. One main key was the direct supervision of drug intake by patients. Progress was achieved but it was insufficient. A new strategy called "Stop TB Strategy 2006-2015" was launched in 2006 in the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) elaborated by United Nations. The common goals were to halt and start to reverse the incidence of TB, reduce the prevalence and death rate by 50% compared to their level in 1990 by 2015 to eliminate TB as a public health problem by 2050. The end of 2010 marks the mid-point of the Global Plan and is an obvious time to update it and take into account actual progress with a focus on the 2015 to reach goals. So an updated Global Plan to stop TB 2011-2015, was launched. Expected progress and targets were defined for 2015, in diagnosis and treatment, in co-infection TB/HIV, in drug-resistant TB and achievements expected in new tests for diagnosis, new medications, new vaccines and new regimens with shorter duration of treatment. WHO and partners have started discussions to define the new post 2015 strategy to TB control and elimination. Risk factors (diabetes, malnutrition, tobacco smoke…) and socioeconomic factors, which are associated with TB, should be included in the new strategy to eliminate TB in 2050.

  13. Half a degree additional warming, prognosis and projected impacts (HAPPI): background and experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Daniel; AchutaRao, Krishna; Allen, Myles; Bethke, Ingo; Beyerle, Urs; Ciavarella, Andrew; Forster, Piers M.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Gillett, Nathan; Haustein, Karsten; Ingram, William; Iversen, Trond; Kharin, Viatcheslav; Klingaman, Nicholas; Massey, Neil; Fischer, Erich; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Scinocca, John; Seland, Øyvind; Shiogama, Hideo; Shuckburgh, Emily; Sparrow, Sarah; Stone, Dáithí; Uhe, Peter; Wallom, David; Wehner, Michael; Zaaboul, Rashyd

    2017-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has accepted the invitation from the UNFCCC to provide a special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and on related global greenhouse-gas emission pathways. Many current experiments in, for example, the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP), are not specifically designed for informing this report. Here, we document the design of the half a degree additional warming, projections, prognosis and impacts (HAPPI) experiment. HAPPI provides a framework for the generation of climate data describing how the climate, and in particular extreme weather, might differ from the present day in worlds that are 1.5 and 2.0 °C warmer than pre-industrial conditions. Output from participating climate models includes variables frequently used by a range of impact models. The key challenge is to separate the impact of an additional approximately half degree of warming from uncertainty in climate model responses and internal climate variability that dominate CMIP-style experiments under low-emission scenarios.Large ensembles of simulations (> 50 members) of atmosphere-only models for three time slices are proposed, each a decade in length: the first being the most recent observed 10-year period (2006-2015), the second two being estimates of a similar decade but under 1.5 and 2 °C conditions a century in the future. We use the representative concentration pathway 2.6 (RCP2.6) to provide the model boundary conditions for the 1.5 °C scenario, and a weighted combination of RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 for the 2 °C scenario.

  14. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2017-02-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only . Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  15. Acute bithalamic infarct manifesting as sleep-like coma: A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Honig, Asaf; Eliahou, Ruth; Eichel, Roni; Shemesh, Ari Aharon; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Auriel, Eitan

    2016-12-01

    Bilateral thalamic infarction (BTI) typically presents as a sleep-like coma (SLC) without localizing signs, posing a diagnostic challenge that may lead the treating physician to search for toxic or metabolic causes and delay treatment. We review our experience with BTI of different etiologies, and emphasize the critical role of timely imaging, diagnosis, and management in a series of 12 patients with a presentation of SLC and acute BTI who were managed in our Medical Centers from 2006-2015. In 11/12, urgent head CT scans showed normal brain tissue, while diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI revealed symmetric bilateral thalamic hyperintense lesions with variable degrees of brainstem involvement. In 1/12, CT scans revealed a contralateral subacute stroke from a thalamic infarct 1month earlier with a unilateral hyperintense lesion on DWI-MRI. From clinical and imaging findings (DWI-MRI, CT angiography and venography), etiology was attributed to embolic causes (cardio-embolism, artery-to-artery mechanism), small vessel disease, or deep sinus vein thrombosis secondary to dural arteriovenous (AV) fistula. Three patients had good outcomes after prompt diagnosis and optimal treatment in <3hours (intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in two patients cardio-embolic etiology and neuro-endovascular repair in one patient with venous infarction due to a dural AV fistula). The diagnosis was made beyond the therapeutic window in seven patients, who were left with significant neurological sequelae. Higher awareness of BTI presenting as SLC is warranted. Optimal patient management includes urgent DWI-MRI. In cases of BTI, further imaging workup is indicated to provide a comprehensive assessment for etiology. Early diagnosis and prompt, targeted intervention are crucial.

  16. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  17. On the Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Zika Virus Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Andrew J.; Morin, Cory W.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Wilhelmi, Olga; Hayden, Mary; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Reiskind, Michael; Lloyd, Alun L.; Smith, Kirk; Schmidt, Chris A.; Scalf, Paige E.; Ernst, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An ongoing Zika virus pandemic in Latin America and the Caribbean has raised concerns that travel-related introduction of Zika virus could initiate local transmission in the United States (U.S.) by its primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Methods: We employed meteorologically driven models for 2006-2015 to simulate the potential seasonal abundance of adult Aedes aegypti for fifty cities within or near the margins of its known U.S. range. Mosquito abundance results were analyzed alongside travel and socioeconomic factors that are proxies of viral introduction and vulnerability to human-vector contact.     Results: Meteorological conditions are largely unsuitable for Aedes aegypti over the U.S. during winter months (December-March), except in southern Florida and south Texas where comparatively warm conditions can sustain low-to-moderate potential mosquito abundance. Meteorological conditions are suitable for Aedes aegypti across all fifty cities during peak summer months (July-September), though the mosquito has not been documented in all cities. Simulations indicate the highest mosquito abundance occurs in the Southeast and south Texas where locally acquired cases of Aedes-transmitted viruses have been reported previously. Cities in southern Florida and south Texas are at the nexus of high seasonal suitability for Aedes aegypti and strong potential for travel-related virus introduction. Higher poverty rates in cities along the U.S.-Mexico border may correlate with factors that increase human exposure to Aedes aegypti.     Discussion: Our results can inform baseline risk for local Zika virus transmission in the U.S. and the optimal timing of vector control activities, and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance for Aedes mosquitoes and Aedes-transmitted viruses. PMID:27066299

  18. An anomalous African dust event and its impact on aerosol radiative forcing on the Southwest Atlantic coast of Europe in February 2016.

    PubMed

    Sorribas, M; Adame, J A; Andrews, E; Yela, M

    2017-04-01

    A desert dust (DD) event that had its origin in North Africa occurred on the 20th-23rd of February 2016. The dust transport phenomenon was exceptional because of its unusual intensity during the coldest season. A historical dataset (2006-2015) of February meteorological scenarios using ECMWF fields, meteorological parameters, aerosol optical properties, surface O3 and AOD retrieved from MODIS at the El Arenosillo observatory (southwestern Spain) were analysed and compared with the levels during the DD event to highlight its exceptionality. Associated with a low-pressure system in western North Africa, flows transported air from the Sahel to Algeria and consequently increased temperatures from the surface to 700hPa by up to 7-9°C relative to the last decade. These conditions favoured the formation of a Saharan air layer. Dust was transported to the north and reached the Western Mediterranean Basin and the Iberian Peninsula. The arrival of the DD event at El Arenosillo did not affect the surface weather conditions or ozone but did impact the aerosol radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere (RFTOA). Aerosol radiative properties did not change relative to historical; however, the particle size and the amount of the aerosol were significantly higher. The DD event caused an increase (in absolute terms) of the mean aerosol RFTOA to a value of -8.1Wm(-2) (long-term climatological value ~-1.5Wm(-2)). The aerosol RFTOA was not very large relative other DD episodes; however, our analysis of the historical data concluded that the importance of this DD event lay in the month of occurrence. European phenological datasets related to extreme atmospheric events predominantly reflect changes that are probably associated with climate change. This work is an example of this phenomenon, showing an event that occurred in a hotspot, the Saharan desert, and its impact two thousand km away.

  19. Global reductions in seafloor biomass in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel O B; Yool, Andrew; Wei, Chih-Lin; Henson, Stephanie A; Ruhl, Henry A; Watson, Reg A; Gehlen, Marion

    2014-06-01

    Seafloor organisms are vital for healthy marine ecosystems, contributing to elemental cycling, benthic remineralization, and ultimately sequestration of carbon. Deep-sea life is primarily reliant on the export flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean for food, but most ocean biogeochemistry models predict global decreases in export flux resulting from 21st century anthropogenically induced warming. Here we show that decadal-to-century scale changes in carbon export associated with climate change lead to an estimated 5.2% decrease in future (2091-2100) global open ocean benthic biomass under RCP8.5 (reduction of 5.2 Mt C) compared with contemporary conditions (2006-2015). Our projections use multi-model mean export flux estimates from eight fully coupled earth system models, which contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, that have been forced by high and low representative concentration pathways (RCP8.5 and 4.5, respectively). These export flux estimates are used in conjunction with published empirical relationships to predict changes in benthic biomass. The polar oceans and some upwelling areas may experience increases in benthic biomass, but most other regions show decreases, with up to 38% reductions in parts of the northeast Atlantic. Our analysis projects a future ocean with smaller sized infaunal benthos, potentially reducing energy transfer rates though benthic multicellular food webs. More than 80% of potential deep-water biodiversity hotspots known around the world, including canyons, seamounts, and cold-water coral reefs, are projected to experience negative changes in biomass. These major reductions in biomass may lead to widespread change in benthic ecosystems and the functions and services they provide.

  20. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-10-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  1. Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling Pathways in mouse Longissimus Dorsi after 30-day BION-M1 Spaceflight and Subsequent Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoev, Timur; Blottner, Dieter; Shenkman, Boris; Lomonosova, Yulia; Vilchinskaya, Natalia; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana; Salanova, Michele

    The aim of the study was to analyze some of the key markers regulating anabolic and catabolic processes in mouse m. longissimus dorsi, an important back muscle system for trunk stabilization, following 30-day spaceflight and 8-day recovery period. C57/black mice were divided into 3 groups: 1) Vivarium Control (n=7), 2) Flight (n=5), 3) Recovery (n=5). The experiment was carried out in accordance with the rules of biomedical ethics certified by the Russian Academy of Sciences Committee on Bioethics. Using Western-blotting analysis we determined the content of IRS-1, p-AMPK, MURF-1 and eEF2 in m. longissimus dorsi. The content of IRS-1 in mice m. longissimus dorsi after the 30-day flight did not differ from the control group, however, in the Recovery group IRS-1 level was 80% higher (p<0.05) as compared to Control. Phospho-AMPK content remained unchanged. In the Recovery group there was an increase of eEF2 by 75% compared to the Control (p<0.05). After spaceflight MuRF-1 content was increased more than 2 times compared to the control animals. Thus, our findings showed that the work of the IRS-1 - dependent signaling pathway is only active in the recovery period. The content of the ubiquitin-ligase MURF-1 that takes parts in degrading myosin heavy chain was increased after the spaceflight, however, after 8-day recovery period MURF-1 level did not exceed the control indicating normalization of protein degradation in m. longissimus dorsi. The work was supported by the program of basic research of RAS and Federal Space Program of Russia for the period of 2006-2015.

  2. Active geodynamics of the Marmara Sea region: How to combine all geophysical observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Hayrullah; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Lengliné, Olivier; Bouchon, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The Marmara Sea region is presently hosting a major seismic gap along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The region is located at the western termination of a unique sequence of large earthquakes initiated by the 1939 Mw 7.9 Erzincan earthquake and propagated westwards over 1000 km. Understanding the active geodynamics of the Marmara region is essential to assess the seismic behaviour of the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) and its related structures. We therefore have taken an initiative to give a comprehensive view of the regional lithosphere and the geomechanical response of the fault trying to combine all important geophysical observations. Using the broadband seismic data acquired between 2007-2015, we computed crustal seismic velocity distribution (from ambient noise tomography), crustal thickness map (from receiver function analysis) and uppermost mantle velocity distribution (from Pn tomography). The vast amount of data provides a good spatial coverage of the region and high resolution of images. Along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF), we present the seismicity below the Marmara Sea for the period the 2006-2015 to provide insights on the seismic response of the fault. The analysis shows that the seismic behaviour is varying along the fault. In addition, long term repeating earthquakes are searched along the MMF and found in the western part of the MMF. In the light of accurate and extensive observations, several open questions emerge from this compilation: Is the cumulated seismic moment released by the repeaters comparable to tectonic rate of the fault in the region? Are there any correlations between the rheology of the crust and the seismic response of the fault? Is there an influence of the fault asymmetry on the fault rupture?

  3. 9+ Years of CALIPSO PSC Observations: An Evolving Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.

    2015-01-01

    record from 2006- 2015.

  4. Planning to improve global health: the next decade of tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Maher, Dermot; Dye, Chris; Floyd, Katherine; Pantoja, Andrea; Lonnroth, Knut; Reid, Alasdair; Nathanson, Eva; Pennas, Thad; Fruth, Uli; Cunningham, Jane; Ignatius, Heather; Raviglione, Mario C; Koek, Irene; Espinal, Marcos

    2007-05-01

    The Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 is a road map for policy-makers and managers of national programmes. It sets out the key actions needed to achieve the targets of the Millennium Development Goals relating to tuberculosis (TB): to halve the prevalence and deaths by 2015 relative to 1990 levels and to save 14 million lives. Developed by a broad coalition of partners, the plan presents a model approach combining interventions that can feasibly be supplied on the ground. The main areas of activity set out in the plan are: scaling up interventions to control tuberculosis; promoting the research and development of improved diagnostics, drugs and vaccines; and engaging in related activities for advocacy, communications and social mobilization. Scenarios for the planning process were developed; these looked at issues both globally and in seven epidemiological regions. The scenarios made ambitious but realistic assumptions about the pace of scale-up and implementation coverage of the activities. A mathematical model was used to estimate the impact of scaling up current interventions based on data from studies of tuberculosis biology and from experience with tuberculosis control in diverse settings. The estimated costs of the activities set out in the Global Plan were based on implementing interventions and researching and developing drugs, diagnostics and vaccines; these costs were US$ 56 billion over 10 years. When translated into cost per disability adjusted life year averted, these costs compare favourably with those of other public health interventions. This approach to planning for global tuberculosis control is a valuable example of developing plans to improve global health that has relevance for other health issues.

  5. Healthy workplaces for health workers in Canada: knowledge transfer and uptake in policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Shamian, Judith; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    The World Health Report launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006-2015), with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce strategies including healthy workplaces for health workers. Evidence shows that healthy workplaces improve recruitment and retention, workers' health and well-being, quality of care and patient safety, organizational performance and societal outcomes. Over the past few years, healthy workplace issues in Canada have been on the agenda of many governments and employers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a progress update, using different data-collection approaches, on knowledge transfer and uptake of research evidence in policy and practice, including the next steps for the healthy workplace agenda in Canada. The objectives of this paper are (1) to summarize the current healthy workplace initiatives that are currently under way in Canada; (2) to synthesize what has been done in reality to determine how far the healthy workplace agenda has progressed from the perspectives of research, policy and practice; and (3) to outline the next steps for moving forward with the healthy workplace agenda to achieve its ultimate objectives. Some of the key questions discussed in this paper are as follows: Has the existing evidence on the benefits of healthy workplaces resulted in policy change? If so, how and to what extent? Have the existing policy initiatives resulted in healthier workplaces for healthcare workers? Are there indications that healthcare workers, particularly at the front line, are experiencing better working conditions? While there has been significant progress in bringing policy changes as a result of research evidence, our synthesis suggests that more work is needed to ensure that existing policy initiatives bring effective changes to the workplace. In this paper, we outline the next steps for research, policy and practice that are required to help the healthy workplace agenda achieve its ultimate objectives.

  6. Solar Magnetic Field Studies (Photon Counter).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    shown in Figure 3. The prism is fabricated by cutting an ordinary right angle prism into pie shaped slices. These slices are cemented together in a...circle as they would lie in a complete pie . The masks are glued on as indicated in Figure 4 with the result that the virtual images of the masks are...that aberration is suppressed by cementing a plano -convec lens on the prism. The lens is chosen so that the virtual images are aplanatically immersed as

  7. Optical Settling Tube.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-21

    voltage from A3B is calibated by R24 so that 0 to S VOC corresponds to 0 to 100% transmission In water. $ PIE Val. 1W Ocean p.c. V f tyl.i / 10. .3 BARIZ...ohm VR ADS30 ?I - P2.. k ohm DETECTOq - PVlOOA ?, R4 in2 K ohm potentiometer LEO - V5020 IT (li-IO F. 25 VOC LENS - PLANO -CONVtX. f t 4- MM Ci, CJ. C9

  8. Mixed-Methods Research in the Discipline of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Harrison, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of 294 mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing. Creswell and Plano Clark's typology was most frequently used along with concurrent timing. Bivariate statistics was most often the highest level of statistics reported in the results. As for qualitative data analysis, content analysis was most frequently used. The majority of nurse researchers did not specifically address the purpose, paradigm, typology, priority, timing, interaction, or integration of their mixed-methods studies. Strategies are suggested for improving the design, conduct, and reporting of mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing.

  9. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  10. Tracking integration in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally moving optics.

    PubMed

    Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-05-09

    In this work the concept of tracking-integrated concentrating photovoltaics is studied and its capabilities are quantitatively analyzed. The design strategy desists from ideal concentration performance to reduce the external mechanical solar tracking effort in favor of a compact installation, possibly resulting in lower overall cost. The proposed optical design is based on an extended Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) algorithm and uses two laterally moving plano-convex lenses to achieve high concentration over a wide angular range of ±24°. It achieves 500× concentration, outperforming its conventional concentrating photovoltaic counterparts on a polar aligned single axis tracker.

  11. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  12. Cultural Resources Survey for the Lake Darling-Souris River Project, North Dakota (1982).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    using stratigraphy, artifact styles and forms, and absolute dating techniques such as radiocarbon . Willey and Sabloff (1974) refer to this as the...been radiocarbon dated from 8900 to 8130 B.C. The Plano cultures on the Plains includes Agate Basin types, dated to 8480 B.C. at the type site; Hell... radiocarbon dated from 1090 B.C. to A.D. 25 (Reeves 1983a). Also at the Mortlach site, Wettlaufer identified a culture known as Besant. This is an

  13. Talbot conditions, Talbot resonators, and first-order systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R; Flores-Arias, María Teresa; Bao, Carmen; Pérez, María Victoria; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2003-04-01

    A study of first-order Talbot resonators is presented. The general conditions for Talbot effect in ABCD systems are determined. These conditions are applied to the computation of the diffraction overlapping coefficients between array Gaussian emitters in a general first-order Talbot resonator. Relations on the ray-transfer matrix to generate the symmetric and the totally antisymmetric supermodes of the array are derived. These relations generalize the free-space, round-trip lengths of 1/2 and 1/4 of the Talbot distance. A new type of resonator based on a plano-convex gradient-index rod is proposed.

  14. Strength of thin chemtempered lenses: drop-ball testing.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, W H; Rosenfield, A R; Gulati, S T; Rieger, R A; Hoekstra, K E

    1978-12-01

    Failure heights were measured in drop-ball tests for both chemtempered and heat-tempered plano, white crown glass lenses from five different optical laboratories. It was found that (1) failure height was proportional to the square of the lens thickness, (2) chemtempered lenses substantially thinner than 2.0 mm are as resistant to breakage as 2.0-mm-thick heat-tempered lenses, and (3) a close correlation existed between results of single-drop and multiple-drop tests and between results of tests using rigid and compliant mounts.

  15. Ion exchange tempering of glass ophthalmic lenses.

    PubMed

    Keeney, A H; Duerson, H L

    1975-08-01

    We performed low velocity drop-ball tests using 5/8-, 7/8-, and 1-inch diameter steel balls on ophthalmic crown glass lenses chemically tempered by the ion exchange process. Four representative dioptric strengths (+ 2.50 spherical, - 2.50 spherical, -2.50 cylindrical, and plano) were studied with the isolated lenses mounted, convex side up, on the American National Standards Institute Z80 test block. New ion exchange lenses exhibited a 100 to 350% greater capacity for attenuation of energy from low velocity, large size missiles than matched lenses of similar strength prepared by the conventional heat-treating and air-quenching process.

  16. Strength of thin chemtempered lenses: static load testing.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, W H; Rosenfield, A R; Gulati, S T; Rieger, R A; Hoekstra, K E

    1979-01-01

    Static load tests were conducted on heat-tempered and chemtempered plano white crown glass lenses from five different optical laboratories. With both ball-on-ring and ring-on-ring loading, chemtempered lenses considerably thinner than 2.0 mm were found to be as failure resistant as 2.0-mm-thick heat-tempered lenses. A similar result was obtained previously using the drop-ball test. It is shown that the theory of brittle fracture can be used to relate the results of different tests and provides a rational basis for comparing the relative performance of chemtempered and heat-tempered lenses.

  17. Como Lo Hago Yo: Tratamiento Quirurgico Del Mielomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    En Argentina hay plan de fortificación con ácido fólico. Diagnostico prenatal no siempre es correcto. Cierre según técnica. Cerramos músculo. No favorecemos corpectomía temprana en casos de cifosis. Suturamos la plaqueta. Cerramos el plano muscular. Hidrocefalia: Válvula de derivación, generalmente dentro de los dos primeros meses. Ventriculostomía no está indicada. Chiari II. Laminectomia cervical alta. Siringomielia: Derivación desde la cavidad al peritoneo. PMID:24791219

  18. Chromatic aberration measurement for transmission interferometric testing.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kibyung; Greivenkamp, John E

    2008-12-10

    A method of chromatic aberration measurement is described based on the transmitted wavefront of an optical element obtained from a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The chromatic aberration is derived from transmitted wavefronts measured at five different wavelengths. Reverse ray tracing is used to remove induced aberrations associated with the interferometer from the measurement. In the interferometer, the wavefront transmitted through the sample is tested against a plano reference, allowing for the absolute determination of the wavefront radius of curvature. The chromatic aberrations of a singlet and a doublet have been measured.

  19. A three-dimensional self-supporting low loss microwave lens with a negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenberg, Isaac M.; Sarma, Sanjay E.; Wu, Bae-Ian

    2012-10-01

    Demonstrations of focusing with metamaterial lenses have predominantly featured two dimensional structures or stacks of planar elements, both limited by losses which hinder realized gain near the focal region. In this study, we present a plano-concave lens built from a 3D self-supporting metamaterial structure featuring a negative refractive index between 10 and 12 GHz. Fabricated using macroscopic layered prototyping, the lens curvature, negative index and low loss contribute to a recognizable focus and free space gains above 13 dB.

  20. Factors Affecting "Ghosting" In Time-Multiplexed Piano-Stereoscopic Crt Display Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny

    1987-06-01

    Two factors contributing to "ghosting" (image doubling) in plano-stereoscopic CRT displays are phosphor decay and dynamic range of the shutters. A ghosting threshold must be crossed before comfortable fusion can take place. The ghosting threshold changes as image brightness increases and with higher-contrast subjects and those with larger parallax values. Because of the defects of existing liquid crystal shutters, we developed a liquid-crystal shutter with high dynamic range, good transmission, and high speed. With these shutters, residual ghosting is a result of phosphor persistence.

  1. From health plan companies to international insurance companies: changes in the accumulation regime and repercussions on the healthcare system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Ligia; Scheffer, Mario; Tavares, Leandro Reis; Braga, Iale Falleiros

    2016-11-03

    The concentration and internationalization of health plan companies in Brazil gave them a clearly financial face. Based on the need to understand the health care industry's capital accumulation patterns, the current study examines health plan companies' expansion strategies through the classification of their supply and demand characteristics by recent historical periods and an analysis of recent shareholding trends in one of the leading corporations in the Brazilian health care industry. The 1960s to 2000s witnessed changes in the scale of demands for health plans and adherence by companies to long-term accumulation strategies. Beginning in the early 21st century, changes in the shareholding structures of the largest Brazilian company, consistent with the financialization of its accumulation regime, resulted in the rapid multiplication of its capital. Deepening segmentation of the health care system in a context marked by the downturn in the national economy challenges the preservation of public subsidies for private health plans. Resumo: A concentração e internacionalização de empresas de planos de saúde no Brasil conferiram-lhes feição financeira. Considerando a necessidade de compreender os padrões de acumulação desse setor, o trabalho examina estratégias de expansão das empresas de planos de saúde por meio da periodização de atributos da oferta e demanda e exame da trajetória patrimonial recente de um dos grandes grupos do setor. Entre os anos 1960 e 2000, ocorreram alterações na escala das demandas por planos de saúde e adesão das empresas a estratégias de acumulação de longo prazo. A partir do século XXI, as alterações nas estruturas societárias da maior empresa brasileira, compatíveis com o regime de acumulação financeirizada, resultaram na multiplicação de seu capital em um curto intervalo de tempo. O aprofundamento da segmentação do sistema de saúde, em um contexto marcado pela desaceleração da economia, questiona a

  2. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  3. High power single-frequency continuously-tunable compact extended-cavity semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Laurain, A; Myara, M; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I; Garnache, A

    2009-06-08

    We demonstrate high power high efficiency (0:3 W) low noise single frequency operation of a compact extended-cavity surface-emitting-semiconductor-laser exhibiting a continuous tunability over 0:84 THz with high beam quality. We took advantage of thermal lens-based stability to develop a short (< 3 mm) plano-plano external cavity without any intracavity filter. The structure is optically pumped by a 1 W commercial 830 nm multimode diode laser. No heat management was required. We measured a low divergence circular TEM(00) beam at the diffraction limit (M(2) < 1:05) with a linear light polarization (> 37 dB). The side mode suppression ratio is 60 dB. The free running laser linewidth is 850 kHz limited by pump induced thermal fluctuations. Thanks to this high-Q external cavity approach, the frequency noise is low and the dynamics is in the relaxation-oscillation-free regime, exhibiting a low intensity noise, with a cutoff frequency approximately 250 MHz above which the shot noise level is reached. We show that pump properties define the cavity design and laser coherence.

  4. Formation of cylindrical micro-lens array on fused silica glass surface using CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hun-Kook; Ahsan, Md. Shamim; Yoo, Dongyoon; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Kim, Jin-Tae; Jung, Deok; Kim, Jin-Hyeok; Kang, Ho-Min

    2015-12-01

    This paper demonstrates the laser assisted formation of plano-convex cylindrical and flat-top curved micro-lens array on fused silica glass surface. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are irradiated on the sample glass to fabricate periodic linear micro-gratings on the glass surface. Afterwards, we reshape the micro-gratings by several times irradiation of a CO2 laser beam by focusing the laser beam on top of the micro-gratings. As a consequence, plano-convex cylindrical micro-lens array with a period varying from 20 to 40 μm are formed on fused silica glass surface. However, flat-top curved gratings' array is observed on the glass surface for a gratings' period of 50 μm. The fabricated micro-lenses show great consistency in size and shape throughout the sample area. Furthermore, we analyze the formation mechanism of micro-lens array on glass surface using the CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique. The proposed reshaping technique exhibits great potential for forming a large variety of micro-lens arrays on the surface of various transparent materials.

  5. Modified method of accommodative facility evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzia, Boleslaw; Pieczyrak, Danuta; Tondel, Grazyna; Maples, Willis C.

    1998-10-01

    Background: Accommodative facility testing is a common test performed by optometrist to investigate an individuals skill at focusing objects at near and at far. The traditional test however harbors possible confounding variables including individual variance in reaction time, visual acuity, verbal skills and oculomotor function. We have designed a test procedure to control these variables. Methods: Children were evaluated with a traditional accommodative facility test, a test which evaluated reaction time and language skill but without accommodative (plano lenses) and a test which evaluated reaction time, language skill and accommodative facility (+/- 2.00 D lenses). Results: Speed of reaction time was 2.9 sec/cycle for the plano lenses (for dominant eye). Speed of reaction with +/- 2.00 D lenses was 6.6 sec/cycle for dominant eye and the monocular speed of accommodations was calculated to average 3.7 sec/cycle. Normative data reported in the literature was calculated to be 5.5 sec/cycle. Discussion: We found that both our method which controls for confounding variables the traditional method reveal similar findings but that individual subjects would pass one method and fail the other. This is attributed to variation in the reaction time and digit naming skill. Conclusions: Although both methods reap similar results, both methods should be employed to discover, in those who score below the expected finding, to tease out whether or not the fault falls within the reaction time/language area or whether it is a true accommodative facility dysfunction.

  6. Exploring the imaging properties of thin lenses for cryogenic infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druart, Guillaume; Verdet, Sebastien; Guerineau, Nicolas; Magli, Serge; Chambon, Mathieu; Grulois, Tatiana; Matallah, Noura

    2016-05-01

    Designing a cryogenic camera is a good strategy to miniaturize and simplify an infrared camera using a cooled detector. Indeed, the integration of optics inside the cold shield allows to simply athermalize the design, guarantees a cold pupil and releases the constraint on having a high back focal length for small focal length systems. By this way, cameras made of a single lens or two lenses are viable systems with good optical features and a good stability in image correction. However it involves a relatively significant additional optical mass inside the dewar and thus increases the cool down time of the camera. ONERA is currently exploring a minimalist strategy consisting in giving an imaging function to thin optical plates that are found in conventional dewars. By this way, we could make a cryogenic camera that has the same cool down time as a traditional dewar without an imagery function. Two examples will be presented: the first one is a camera using a dual-band infrared detector made of a lens outside the dewar and a lens inside the cold shield, the later having the main optical power of the system. We were able to design a cold plano-convex lens with a thickness lower than 1mm. The second example is an evolution of a former cryogenic camera called SOIE. We replaced the cold meniscus by a plano-convex Fresnel lens with a decrease of the optical thermal mass of 66%. The performances of both cameras will be compared.

  7. Spectral performance of monolithic holmium and thulium lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Fabry-Perot resonators have been used to demonstrate single-mode lasing of holmium and neodymium YAG. The previous demonstration in the holmium laser required TE cooling the crystal to -15 C in order to achieve threshold. The present study extends that result, demonstrating +25 C operation in a 1-mm thick plano/plano resonator. The experimental configuration of lasing both the holmium and thulium lasers used a 500-mW diode laser which was collimated, circularized, and focused into a beam radius of 60 microns. The single-frequency lasing spectrum of the holmium laser is shown. By adjusting the mirror reflectivity, the ability to control the laser's wavelength is demonstrated. This laser operated with 11 mW of optical power, a 57-percent slope efficiency, and 120-mW threshold vs absorbed diode power laser for the 60-micron beam radius. The thulium laser operated very efficiently at room temperature, but on seven longitudinal modes. The Tm:TAG laser exhibits typical characteristics of spatial hole burning not seen in the Ho:Tm:YAG for flat/flat resonators.

  8. Formation of cylindrical micro-lens array in fused silica glass using laser irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hun-Kook; Ahsan, Md. Shamim; Yoo, Dongyoon; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Kim, Jin Tae; Jung, Deok; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we report the development of plano-convex cylindrical micro-lens array on the surface of fused silica glass using laser processing technology. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are irradiated on the target fused silica glass substrate to pattern periodic micro-grooves. Afterwards, laser beam from CO2 laser source is applied several times on the previously micro-patterned fused silica glass surface, the purpose of which is to polish the micro-patterned glass surface. As a consequence, periodic plano-convex cylindrical micro-lens array is evolved on the glass surface. The micro-lens array shows great consistency in size and shape throughout the sample area. We also investigate various optical properties of the micro-lenses evolved glass substrates including the diffraction pattern and diffraction efficiency of light. The glass sample comprising cylindrical micro-lens array can diffract light with moderate diffraction efficiency. We strongly believe that, it is possible to engineer cylindrical micro-lens array on the surface of a variety of transparent materials including glasses and polymers over a large area.

  9. Characteristics of optimized fibre-optic ultrasound receivers for minimally invasive photoacoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.

    2015-03-01

    A range of miniature (125μm o.d.) fibre optic ultrasound sensors based on the use of interferometric polymer optical cavities has been developed for minimally invasive photoacoustic imaging and sensing applications. It was observed that by careful selection of both the fibre tip and cavity geometry it is possible to achieve exceptional acoustic performance. Specifically, rounding the tip of the fibre to remove the presence of sharp diffractive boundaries enables a well behaved frequency response along with a near omnidirectional response at frequencies in the tens of MHz range to be achieved. The use of a plano-convex rather than a planar cavity provides high finesse and therefore detection sensitivity. Thus, by using a plano-convex cavity formed at the tip of radiused single mode fibre it was possible to realise a miniature ultrasound detector with a bandwidth of 80MHz, a noise-equivalent pressure of 40Pa (over a 20MHz measurement bandwidth) and a near omnidirectional response at frequencies as high as 30MHz. These characteristics suggest this type of sensor could find applications in interventional medicine for guiding needles or catheters, as mechanically scanned photoacoustic imaging probes or in laser scanning OR-PAM.

  10. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  11. Ecology of larval mosquitoes, with special reference to Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culcidae) in market-garden wells in urban Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Robert, V; Awono-Ambene, H P; Thioulouse, J

    1998-11-01

    The urban area of Dakar, Senegal, contains > 5,000 market-garden wells that provide permanent sites for mosquito larvae, in particular Anopheles arabiensis Patton, the major vector of malaria. A study of the bioecology of mosquito larvae was conducted over 1 yr with a monthly visit to 48 of these wells. Overall, 9,589 larvae were collected of which 80.1% were Culicinae and 11.9% Anophelinae. Larvae from stages III and IV (n = 853) were identified to 10 species. An. arabiensis represented 86% of the anophelines collected and An. ziemanni Grunberg 14%. The most common Culicinae species included Aedeomyia africana Neveu-Lemaire, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Mimomyia splendens Theobald. Maximum anopheline abundance was observed at the end of the dry season in June, whereas maximum Culicinae abundance was observed at the end of the rainy season in September. Most wells (67%) did not harbor any An. arabiensis larvae and in the remaining 33% the larval abundance was low, averaging 0.54 larvae in stages III-IV per tray sample. To identify factors that determine the abundance of larvae in these wells, a co-inertia (multivariate) analysis was carried out to account for physicochemical variables (depth, turbidity, temperature, pH, conductivity, Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3--, and NO3- concentrations) and biological variables (abundance of mosquito species, predators [e.g., fish, Dytiscidae, Notonectidae, odonates], molluscs [Bulinus and Biomphalaria], and surface plants [water lettuce, Lemna, and filamentous algae]). The co-inertia analysis indicated that the abundance of An. arabiensis was associated with Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. decens for the physiochemical data but was not associated with other mosquito species for floro-faunistic data. The conditions associated with abundant An. arabiensis were warm temperature (28-30 degrees C), clear and not too deep water (< 0.5 m), elevated concentrations of HCO3- and CO3--, low concentrations of NO3- and NaCl, low populations of

  12. Metathetical reactions of Re(VII) alkylidene-alkylidyne complexes of the type Re(CR[prime])(CHR[prime])[OCMe(CF[sub 3])[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Toreki, R.; Vaughan, G.A.; Schrock, R.R.; Davis, W.M. )

    1993-01-13

    1-Decene and methyl 9-decenoate react with syn- and anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6]) to give syn- and anti-Re(C-t-Bu)[CH(CH[sub 2])[sub 7]Me](OR[sub F6])[sub 2] and syn- and anti-Re(C-t-Bu)[CH(CH[sub 2])[sub 7]CO[sub 2]Me](OR[sub F6])[sub 2], respectively (OR[sub F6] = OCMe(CF[sub 3])[sub 2]). The new alkylidene complexes are unstable in the presence of excess terminal olefin and decompose upon attempted isolation. However, vinylferrocene reacts relatively smoothly and reversibly with syn-Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] in a noncoordinating solvent to yield tert-butylethylene and primarily anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CHFc)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] (Fe = ferrocenyl). anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CHFc)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2]. In the presence of THF or dimethoxyethane, complexes of the type syn- or anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CHR)(OR[sub F6])S[sub 2] (R = Me, Et, Ph; S = THF or 0.5DME) could be prepared in high yield from Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] and CH[sub 2][double bond]CHR. Heteroatom-substituted (O, S, or N) terminal olefins react more rapidly than ordinary olefins with Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] in the presence of THF to yield complexes of the type syn- or anti-Re(C-t-Bu)(CHX)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2](THF)[sub 2] (X = OR, SR, NR[sub 2], or p-dimethylaminophenyl). 2-Pentene or methyl oleate is metathesized in the presence of Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2], and intermediate alkylidene complexes can be observed in each case. Addition of 3-hexene to Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] followed by TMEDA yields Re(C-t-Bu)(CHEt)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2](TMEDA). Internal olefins are metathesized only very slowly by Re(C-t-Bu)(CH-t-Bu)(OR[sub F6])[sub 2] in the presence of several equivalents of THF or DME or especially in neat THF or DME. 58 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Optimization of H3O+/O2+ Dual-mode Ionization in PTR-MS for Simultaneous Detection of Alkanes, Olefins and Aromatic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador-Muñoz, O.; Misztal, P. K.; Weber, R.; Drozd, G.; Worton, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of VOC composition from fossil fuels are analytically challenging because of the complex mixture of hydrocarbons (saturated, unsaturated, aromatics, etc). Speciated chemical measurements typically rely on relatively slow GC separation. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is advantageous due to its fast response and high sensitivity. The most common ionization mechanism applied to VOC detection by PTR-MS is proton transfer from hydronium ion (H3O+). However, alkanes cannot be detected using H3O+ ionization chemistry because their proton affinities are too low. Ionization of alkanes is possible via electron transfer and/or hydride abstraction using O2+ or NO+. We used PTR-MS to analyze aromatic, alkene and alkane (linear, branched and cyclic) compounds simultaneously not by switching the ionization agents, but by adjusting the drift tube voltage and optimizing the ratio of H3O+/O2+ produced in the instrument's ion source. The highest detection sensitivity for aromatic and alkene compounds was produced by proton transfer from H3O+, while hydride abstraction by O2+ allowed detection of alkanes. For alkanes, sensitivities ranged from 1.1±0.01 cps/ppbv for n-decane to 74.7±0.25 cps/ppbv for decalin. Sensitivities in O2+ mode were from 6 (Adamantane) to 146 (4-Methyl nonane) times higher than those obtained in H3O+ mode under the same ion source and drift tube voltage conditions. Sensitivities for butyl benzene and 1-decene were 157±0.57 and 66.8±0.21 cps/ppbv, respectively. Sensitivity differences among C10 hydrocarbons are related to their structure, which affects their ionization energies (IE) and hence ease of hydride abstraction. Sensitivities at the parent ion mass were inversely correlated with IE (142 cps/ppbv/eV). This suggests higher electronic stability for cyclic non substituted compounds, followed by cyclic substituted, branch linear and linear C10 hydrocarbons. Although selectivity is a known shortcoming of quadrupole

  14. On the reduced sensitivity of the Atlantic overturning to Greenland ice sheet melting in projections: a multi-model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swingedouw, Didier; Rodehacke, Christian; Olsen, Steffen; Menary, Matthew; Gao, Yongqi; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Mignot, Juliette

    2014-05-01

    Large uncertainties exist concerning the impact of Greenland ice sheet melting on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) in the future, partly due to different sensitivity of the AMOC to freshwater input in the North Atlantic among climate models. Here we analyse five projections from different coupled ocean-atmosphere models with an additional 0.1 Sv of freshwater released around Greenland between 2050 and 2089. We find on average a further weakening of the AMOC at 26°N of 1.1 ± 0.6 Sv representing a 27 ± 14% supplementary weakening in 2080-2089, as compared to the weakening relative to 2006-2015 due to the effect of the external forcing only. This weakening is lower than what has been found with the same ensemble of models in an identical experimental set-up but under recent historical conditions. This lower sensitivity in a warmer world is explained by two main factors. First, a tendency of decoupling is observed between the surface and the deep ocean caused by an increased thermal stratification in the North Atlantic under the effect of global warming. This induces a shoaling of ocean deep ventilation through convection hence ventilating only intermediate levels. The second important effect concerns the so-called Canary Current freshwater leakage; a process by which additionally released freshwater in the North Atlantic leaks along the Canary Current and escapes the convection zones towards the subtropical area. This leakage is increasing in a warming climate, which is a consequence of decreasing gyres asymmetry due to changes in Ekman pumping. We propose that these changes are related with the northward shift of the jet stream in a warmer world. For these two reasons the AMOC is less susceptible to freshwater perturbations (near the deep water formation sides) in the North Atlantic as compared to the recent historical climate conditions. Finally, we propose a bilinear model that accounts for the two former processes to explain the decrease

  15. On the reduced sensitivity of the Atlantic overturning to Greenland ice sheet melting in projections: a multi-model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swingedouw, Didier; Rodehacke, Christian B.; Olsen, Steffen M.; Menary, Matthew; Gao, Yongqi; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Mignot, Juliette

    2014-08-01

    Large uncertainties exist concerning the impact of Greenland ice sheet melting on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) in the future, partly due to different sensitivity of the AMOC to freshwater input in the North Atlantic among climate models. Here we analyse five projections from different coupled ocean-atmosphere models with an additional 0.1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s) of freshwater released around Greenland between 2050 and 2089. We find on average a further weakening of the AMOC at 26°N of 1.1 ± 0.6 Sv representing a 27 ± 14 % supplementary weakening in 2080-2089, as compared to the weakening relative to 2006-2015 due to the effect of the external forcing only. This weakening is lower than what has been found with the same ensemble of models in an identical experimental set-up but under recent historical climate conditions. This lower sensitivity in a warmer world is explained by two main factors. First, a tendency of decoupling is detected between the surface and the deep ocean caused by an increased thermal stratification in the North Atlantic under the effect of global warming. This induces a shoaling of ocean deep ventilation through convection hence ventilating only intermediate levels. The second important effect concerns the so-called Canary Current freshwater leakage; a process by which additionally released freshwater in the North Atlantic leaks along the Canary Current and escapes the convection zones towards the subtropical area. This leakage is increasing in a warming climate, which is a consequence of decreasing gyres asymmetry due to changes in Ekman pumping. We suggest that these modifications are related with the northward shift of the jet stream in a warmer world. For these two reasons the AMOC is less susceptible to freshwater perturbations (near the deep water formation sides) in the North Atlantic as compared to the recent historical climate conditions. Finally, we propose a bilinear model that accounts for the two former

  16. Quantifying PM2.5-meteorology sensitivities in a global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.; Tai, A. P. K.; Fiore, A. M.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2016-10-01

    Climate change can influence fine particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5) through changes in air pollution meteorology. Knowledge of the extent to which climate change can exacerbate or alleviate air pollution in the future is needed for robust climate and air pollution policy decision-making. To examine the influence of climate on PM2.5, we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model version 3 (GFDL CM3), a fully-coupled chemistry-climate model, combined with future emissions and concentrations provided by the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). For each of the RCPs, we conduct future simulations in which emissions of aerosols and their precursors are held at 2005 levels while other climate forcing agents evolve in time, such that only climate (and thus meteorology) can influence PM2.5 surface concentrations. We find a small increase in global, annual mean PM2.5 of about 0.21 μg m-3 (5%) for RCP8.5, a scenario with maximum warming. Changes in global mean PM2.5 are at a maximum in the fall and are mainly controlled by sulfate followed by organic aerosol with minimal influence of black carbon. RCP2.6 is the only scenario that projects a decrease in global PM2.5 with future climate changes, albeit only by -0.06 μg m-3 (1.5%) by the end of the 21st century. Regional and local changes in PM2.5 are larger, reaching upwards of 2 μg m-3 for polluted (eastern China) and dusty (western Africa) locations on an annually averaged basis in RCP8.5. Using multiple linear regression, we find that future PM2.5 concentrations are most sensitive to local temperature, followed by surface wind and precipitation. PM2.5 concentrations are robustly positively associated with temperature, while negatively related with precipitation and wind speed. Present-day (2006-2015) modeled sensitivities of PM2.5 to meteorological variables are evaluated against observations and found to agree reasonably well with observed sensitivities (within 10-50% over the

  17. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of aerosol optical depth in the Sichuan basin, China, the recent ten years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Quanliang; Che, Huizheng; Zhang, Renjian; Gui, Ke; Zhang, Huan; Zhao, Tianliang

    2016-12-01

    The applicability of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product was verified using CE-318 sun photometric data for the Sichuan area. The results show that MODIS_3K AOD agrees well with the AOD derived from the CE-318 sun photometer, with a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.91). And we used the MODIS AOD product analyzed the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the annual, seasonal and monthly distribution of AOD in the Sichuan area over the last ten years (2006-2015). In the Sichuan area, the mean change of AOD over the 10-year period showed a significant decreasing trend, reaching its maximum in 2010 and its minimum in 2015. Considering only the first five years, the lowest value was reached in 2008 and the overall trend was a standard symmetrical "V" type. Over the later five years, the annual average AOD value showed an overall decreasing trend. The monthly averaged AOD indicated a "double peaks" fluctuation trend; the two peaks appeared in March and August, and AOD changes were relatively small between September and January. Overall, the average value of AOD reached its highest values in spring, and its lowest values in autumn. In the city of Chengdu, the monthly and seasonal changes in the trend were essentially the same as those of the whole Sichuan area; However, the Chengdu AOD monthly and seasonal average change rate was higher than that of Sichuan as a whole. This shows that Chengdu is still the main contributor to the enhanced AOD value for the entire Sichuan region. The spatial distribution of AOD values indicates an "east high, west low" situation across the Sichuan area and Chengdu is one of three cities with the highest AOD values. However, the spatial variation of AOD trend value indicated an "east low, west high" the spatial distribution across the Sichuan region, opposite to the spatial distribution. Moreover, in the past 10 years, the overall AOD changes in Sichuan showed a downward

  18. Quantifying PM2.5-Meteorology Sensitivities in a Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.; Tai, A. P. K.; Fiore, A. M.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can influence fine particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5) through changes in air pollution meteorology. Knowledge of the extent to which climate change can exacerbate or alleviate air pollution in the future is needed for robust climate and air pollution policy decision-making. To examine the influence of climate on PM2.5, we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model version 3 (GFDL CM3), a fully-coupled chemistry-climate model, combined with future emissions and concentrations provided by the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). For each of the RCPs, we conduct future simulations in which emissions of aerosols and their precursors are held at 2005 levels while other climate forcing agents evolve in time, such that only climate (and thus meteorology) can influence PM2.5 surface concentrations. We find a small increase in global, annual mean PM2.5 of about 0.21 micro-g/cu m3 (5%) for RCP8.5, a scenario with maximum warming. Changes in global mean PM2.5 are at a maximum in the fall and are mainly controlled by sulfate followed by organic aerosol with minimal influence of black carbon. RCP2.6 is the only scenario that projects a decrease in global PM2.5 with future climate changes, albeit only by -0.06 micro-g/cu m (1.5%) by the end of the 21st century. Regional and local changes in PM2.5 are larger, reaching upwards of 2 micro-g/cu m for polluted (eastern China) and dusty (western Africa) locations on an annually averaged basis in RCP8.5. Using multiple linear regression, we find that future PM2.5 concentrations are most sensitive to local temperature, followed by surface wind and precipitation. PM2.5 concentrations are robustly positively associated with temperature, while negatively related with precipitation and wind speed. Present-day (2006-2015) modeled sensitivities of PM2.5 to meteorological variables are evaluated against observations and found to agree reasonably well with observed sensitivities (within 10e50

  19. Quantitative risk assessment of the introduction of rabies into Japan through the illegal landing of dogs from Russian fishing boats in the ports of Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Nigel C L; Ogawa, Hidehito; Yamada, Akio; Sugiura, Katsuaki

    2016-06-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since 1958 and various preventive measures are in place protecting the country from the introduction of the disease. Historical reviews indicate that the illegal landing of dogs from Russian fishing boats in the ports of Hokkaido occurred frequently especially in the early 2000s and this could potentially be a source of introduction of rabies into Japan. The method of scenario tree modelling was used and the following entry and exposure pathway was considered the most likely route of rabies entry: a rabies-infected dog arriving on a Russian fishing boat lands in a port of Hokkaido in Japan, it becomes infectious, contacts and infects a susceptible domestic animal (companion dog, stray dog or wildlife). Input parameter values were based on surveys of Russian fishermen, expert opinion and scientific data from the literature. At present (2006-2015), the probability of the introduction of rabies as a result of one Russian fishing boat arriving at a port of Hokkaido is 8.33×10(-10) (90% Prediction Interval (PI): 7.15×10(-11)-5.34×10(-9)), while this probability would have been 7.70×10(-9) (90% PI: 6.40×10(-10)-4.81×10(-8)) in the past (1998-2005). Under the current situation (average annual number of boat arrivals is 1106), rabies would enter Japan every 1,084,849 (90% PI: 169,215-20,188,348) years, while the disease would have been introduced every 18,309 (90% PI: 2929-220,048) years in the past (average annual number of boat arrivals is 7092). The risk of rabies introduction has decreased 59 fold due to both the effective control of the issue of illegal landing of dogs and the decline in the number of Russian boat arrivals. Control efforts include education of Russian fishermen, establishment of warning signs, daily patrols and regular port surveillance of potential dog landing activity. Furthermore, scenario analysis revealed that the policy of mandatory domestic dog vaccination does not contribute effectively to Japan's rabies

  20. Interannual variations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud formation and nitric acid observed by CALIOP and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Alyn; Santee, Michelle L.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-12-01

    We use satellite-borne measurements collected over the last decade (2006-2015) from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) to investigate the nitric acid distribution and the properties of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the early winter Antarctic vortex. Frequently, at the very start of the winter, we find that synoptic-scale depletion of HNO3 can be detected in the inner vortex before the first lidar detection of geophysically associated PSCs. The generation of "sub-visible" PSCs can be explained as arising from the development of a solid particle population with low number densities and large particle sizes. Assumed to be composed of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), the sub-visible PSCs form at ambient temperatures well above the ice frost point, but also above the temperature at which supercooled ternary solution (STS) grows out of the background supercooled binary solution (SBS) distribution. The temperature regime of their formation, inferred from the simultaneous uptake of ambient HNO3 into NAT and their Lagrangian temperature histories, is at a depression of a few kelvin with respect to the NAT existence threshold, TNAT. Therefore, their nucleation requires a considerable supersaturation of HNO3 over NAT, and is consistent with a recently described heterogeneous nucleation process on solid foreign nuclei immersed in liquid aerosol. We make a detailed investigation of the comparative limits of detection of PSCs and the resulting sequestration of HNO3 imposed by lidar, mid-infrared, and microwave techniques. We find that the temperature history of air parcels, in addition to the local ambient temperature, is an important factor in the relative frequency of formation of liquid/solid PSCs. We conclude that the initiation of NAT nucleation and the subsequent development of large NAT particles capable of sedimentation and denitrification in the early winter do not emanate from an ice

  1. Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.

    PubMed

    Waldmann-Selsam, Cornelia; Balmori-de la Puente, Alfonso; Breunig, Helmut; Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m(2)) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact

  2. Breast cancer publication network: profile of co-authorship and co-organization

    PubMed Central

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Abotalebi, Parvaneh; Ghavami, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the highest reasons of deaths for people in the world. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of global scientific activities in the field of breast cancer during a period of 10 years through 2006-2015. Methods: The current study was performed by utilizing the scientometrics analysis and mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks. The Web of Science Core Collection (WoS-CC)database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of breast cancer through 2006 to 2015. Research productivity was measured through analysis several parameters, including: the number and time course of publications, the journal and language of publications, the frequency and type of publications, as well as top 20 active sub-categories together with country contribution. The extracted data were transferred into the Excel charts and plotted as diagrams. The Science of Science (Sci2) and CiteSpace softwares were used as tools for mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks of the published papers. Results: Analysis of data indicated that the number of publications in the field of breast cancer has linearly increased and correlated with the time-course of the study. The number of publication indexed in WoS-CC in 2015 was two times greater than that of 2006, which reached from 15 229 documents in 2006 to 30 667 documents in 2015. English Language accounted for 98% of total publications as the most dominant language. The vast majority of publications' type was in the form of original journal articles (64.7%). Based on Bradford scatterings law, the journal of "Cancer Research" was the most productive journal among the core journals, while the USA, China, and England were the most prolific countries in the field. The co-organization network indicated the dominant role of Harvard University in the field. Conclusion: The integrity of network indicated that scientists in the field of breast cancer

  3. Characterizing major agricultural land change trends in the Western Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang; Taff, Gregory N.; Ren, Jie; Campbell, James B.

    2016-12-01

    In this study we developed annual corn/soybean maps for the Western Corn Belt within the United States using multi-temporal MODIS NDVI products from 2001 to 2015 to support long-term cropland change analysis. Based on the availability of training data (cropland data layer from the USDA-NASS), we designed a cross-validation scheme for 2006-2015 MODIS data to examine the spatial generalization capability of a neural network classifier. Training data points were derived from a three-state sub-region consisting of North Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa. Trained neural networks were applied to the testing sub-region (South Dakota, Kansas, Minnesota, and Missouri) to generate corn/soybean maps. Using a default threshold value (neural network output signal ⩾ 0.5), the neural networks performed well for South Dakota and Minnesota. Overall accuracy was higher than 80% (kappa > 0.55) for all testing years from 2006 to 2015. However, we observed high variation of classification performance for Kansas (overall accuracy: 0.71-0.82) and Missouri (overall accuracy: 0.65-0.77) for various testing years. We developed a threshold-moving method that decreases/increases threshold values of neural network output signals to match MODIS-derived corn/soybean acreage with the NASS acreage statistics. Over 70% of testing states and years showed improved classification performance compared to the use of a default 0.5 threshold. The largest improvement of kappa value was about 0.08. This threshold-moving method was used to generate MODIS-based annual corn/soybean map products for 2001-2015. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was then used to identify areas that showed significant (p < 0.05) upward/downward trends. Areas showing fast increase of corn/soybean intensities were mainly located in North Dakota, South Dakota, and the west portion of Minnesota. The highest annual increase rate for a 5-km moving window was about 6.8%.

  4. Thrombocytopenia in cirrhosis: Impact of fibrinogen on bleeding risk

    PubMed Central

    Thakrar, Sonali V; Mallett, Susan V

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between baseline platelet count, clauss fibrinogen, maximum amplitude (MA) on thromboelastography, and blood loss in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). METHODS A retrospective analysis of our OLT Database (2006-2015) was performed. Baseline haematological indices and intraoperative blood transfusion requirements, as a combination of cell salvage return and estimation of 300 mls/unit of allogenic blood, was noted as a surrogate for intraoperative bleeding. Two groups: Excessive transfusion (> 1200 mL returned) and No excessive transfusion (< 1200 mL returned) were analysed. All data analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23. RESULTS Of 322 OLT patients, 77 were excluded due to fulminant disease; redo transplant or baseline haemoglobin (Hb) of < 80 g/L. One hundred and fourteen (46.3%) were classified into the excessive transfusion group, 132 (53.7%) in the no excessive transfusion group. Mean age and gender distribution were similar in both groups. Baseline Hb (P ≤ 0.001), platelet count (P = 0.005), clauss fibrinogen (P = 0.004) and heparinase MA (P = 0.001) were all statistically significantly different. Univariate logistic regression with a cut-off of platelets < 50 × 109/L as the predictor and Haemorrhage as the outcome showed an odds ratio of 1.393 (95%CI: 0.758-2.563; P = 0.286). Review of receiver operating characteristic curves showed an area under the curve (AUC) for platelet count of 0.604 (95%CI: 0.534-0.675; P = 0.005) as compared with AUC for fibrinogen level, 0.678 (95%CI: 0.612-0.744; P ≤ 0.001). A multivariate logistic regression shows United Kingdom model for End Stage Liver Disease (P = 0.006), Hb (P = 0.022) and Fibrinogen (P = 0.026) to be statistically significant, whereas Platelet count was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION Platelet count alone does not predict excessive transfusion. Additional investigations, e.g., clauss fibrinogen and viscoelastic tests, provide more

  5. Managing Fine Sediment in Regulated Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    A paradigm useful in managing dams and diversions is that the combined effects of changing flow regime and sediment supply perturb regulated rivers into sediment deficit or sediment surplus. In the U.S. Southwest, large dams constructed on interregional rivers typically create sediment deficit segments >100 km long. Further downstream, sediment surplus may occur if desert tributaries deliver sufficient amounts of fine sediment, such as parts of the Rio Grande, lower Green River, and Colorado River delta. Sediment surplus also occurs on most smaller regional rivers. The protocols for managing rivers perturbed into sediment deficit have been refined for the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam but are nonetheless challenged by externally determined water-supply agreements that require annual water deliveries that sometimes occur when there has been little tributary resupply. Virtually all of the naturally supplied sand to the depleted, 100-km long Marble Canyon comes from the Paria River. The sand delivery rate since 2012 was sufficiently large to trigger short-duration controlled floods under the High Flow Experiment (HFE) Protocol. The sand mass balance of Marble Canyon since 2012 when the HFE Protocol was adopted was positive due to the combination of relatively large sand delivery from the Paria River and average total annual flows. Large total annual flows have the potential to export large amounts of sand and create a negative sand mass balance. Despite the challenge of managing a scarce and highly variable sand supply and occasional years of large reservoir releases, the long-term (2006-2015) sand mass balance for the upstream half of Marble Canyon is indeterminant and is positive for the downstream half of Marble Canyon. The apparent success of managing sand in Grand Canyon under deficit conditions suggests that fine sediment management protocols might be developed for other regulated rivers. Implementation would require establishment of networks of

  6. Breast cancer publication network: profile of co-authorship and co-organization.

    PubMed

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Abotalebi, Parvaneh; Ghavami, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the highest reasons of deaths for people in the world. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of global scientific activities in the field of breast cancer during a period of 10 years through 2006-2015. Methods: The current study was performed by utilizing the scientometrics analysis and mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks. The Web of Science Core Collection (WoS-CC)database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of breast cancer through 2006 to 2015. Research productivity was measured through analysis several parameters, including: the number and time course of publications, the journal and language of publications, the frequency and type of publications, as well as top 20 active sub-categories together with country contribution. The extracted data were transferred into the Excel charts and plotted as diagrams. The Science of Science (Sci2) and CiteSpace softwares were used as tools for mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks of the published papers. Results: Analysis of data indicated that the number of publications in the field of breast cancer has linearly increased and correlated with the time-course of the study. The number of publication indexed in WoS-CC in 2015 was two times greater than that of 2006, which reached from 15 229 documents in 2006 to 30 667 documents in 2015. English Language accounted for 98% of total publications as the most dominant language. The vast majority of publications' type was in the form of original journal articles (64.7%). Based on Bradford scatterings law, the journal of "Cancer Research" was the most productive journal among the core journals, while the USA, China, and England were the most prolific countries in the field. The co-organization network indicated the dominant role of Harvard University in the field. Conclusion: The integrity of network indicated that scientists in the field of breast cancer

  7. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion as an Antidote for the Treatment of Acute Poisoning: A Bibliometric Analysis of Human and Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Waring, W Stephen; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Rahhal, Belal; Awang, Rahmat

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the role of intravenous lipid formulations as potential antidotes in patients with severe cardiotoxicity caused by drug toxicity. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of all human and animal studies featuring lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. The Scopus database search was performed on 5 February 2016 to analyse the research output related to intravenous lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. Research indicators used for analysis included total number of articles, date (year) of publication, total citations, value of the h-index, document types, countries of publication, journal names, collaboration patterns and institutions. A total of 594 articles were retrieved from Scopus database for the period of 1955-2015. The percentage share of global intravenous lipid emulsion research output showed that research output was 85.86% in 2006-2015 with yearly average growth in this field of 51 articles per year. The USA, United Kingdom (UK), France, Canada, New Zealand, Germany, Australia, China, Turkey and Japan accounted for 449 (75.6%) of all the publications. The total number of citations for all documents was 9,333, with an average of 15.7 citations per document. The h-index of the retrieved documents for lipid emulsion research as antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning was 49. The USA and the UK achieved the highest h-indices, 34 and 14, respectively. New Zealand produced the greatest number of documents with international collaboration (51.9%) followed by Australia (50%) and Canada (41.4%) out of the total number of publications for each country. In summary, we found an increase in the number of publications in the field of lipid emulsion after 2006. The results of this study demonstrate that the majority of publications in the field of lipid emulsion were published by high-income countries. Researchers from

  8. 30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Nevzorov, Aleksei V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Savelieva, Ekaterina S.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.

    2017-02-01

    There are only four lidar stations in the world which have almost continuously performed observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) state over the last 30 years. The longest time series of the SAL lidar measurements have been accumulated at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) since 1973, the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia) since 1974, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) since 1976. The fourth lidar station we present started to perform routine observations of the SAL parameters in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) in 1986. In this paper, we mainly focus on and discuss the stratospheric background period from 2000 to 2005 and the causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk in the 2006-2015 period. During the last decade, volcanic aerosol plumes from tropical Mt. Manam, Soufrière Hills, Rabaul, Merapi, Nabro, and Kelut and extratropical (northern) Mt. Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt, Sarychev Peak, Eyjafjallajökull, and Grímsvötn were detected in the stratosphere over Tomsk. When it was possible, we used the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model to assign aerosol layers observed over Tomsk to the corresponding volcanic eruptions. The trajectory analysis highlighted some surprising results. For example, in the cases of the Okmok, Kasatochi, and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, the HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectories, started from altitudes of aerosol layers detected over Tomsk with a lidar, passed over these volcanoes on their eruption days at altitudes higher than the maximum plume altitudes given by the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. An explanation of these facts is suggested. The role of both tropical and northern volcanic eruptions in volcanogenic aerosol loading of the midlatitude stratosphere is also discussed. In addition to volcanoes, we considered other possible causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk, i.e., the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events and smoke plumes from strong forest fires. At least

  9. The role of turbulence in the cycling of persistent organic pollutants in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, Kieran

    2014-05-01

    and distributions in sediment. Pre-storm sediment POP concentrations may or may not be recovered in the time period following the storm, which depends on a number of factors including the hydrophobicity of the substance, the amount already contained in the system and the amount of it entering the system. Results from a ten year present day run (1996-2005) and three ten year scenario runs (2006-2015, 2046-2055, 2090-2099) are presented. Distributions of near-bottom turbulent diffusivity coefficients and POP distributions are presented and discussed, as are the effects of the turbulence on the different POP model processes.

  10. Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jianjun; Shang, Ce; Zheng, Yuanlin; Feng, Yaming; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials’ refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science. PMID:26149952

  11. Foil assisted replica molding for fabrication of microfluidic devices and their application in vitro.

    PubMed

    Micheal, Issac J; Vidyasagar, Aditya J; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Mekala, Naveen Kumar; Asthana, Amit; Rao, Ch Mohan

    2014-10-07

    We present a simple, rapid, benchtop, Foil Assisted Rapid Molding (FARM) method for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. This novel technique involves the use of aluminium foil, pen and an X-Y plotter to create semi-circular or plano-concave, shallow microchannels. It is an easy do-it-yourself (DIY) technique for creating a microfluidic device in three simple steps: (1) create a channel design using the CAD software, (2) plot the patterns on aluminium foil and (3) use the reverse of the engraved foil as a mold to create microfluidic devices. In this report, we present a detailed study of the proposed method by varying a range of parameters such as foil thickness, tip material, and tip sizes and by investigating their effect on the creation of channels with varying geometry. Furthermore, we demonstrated the cytocompatibility of these devices in vitro.

  12. Microwave Cavity for Anapole Moment Measurement in Francium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiehang; Sheng, Dong; Orozco, Luis

    2011-05-01

    We present a study of the Polka-Dot microwave plano-spherical mirror for a Fabry-Perot resonator. The microwave resonator is an essential element of the apparatus to measure the anapole moment in francium. A crucial requirement for the cavity is the mode-matching into the fundamental Gaussian TEM00 mode. We investigate new coupling mechanisms of the radiation into the cavity to suppress unwanted higher order modes. We are exploring the method of printing two dimensional array of holes and feeding in through horn antennas. According to a HFSS simulation, this method should improve significantly the mode purity in contrast to conventional antenna. We fabricate the mirrors on standard optical blank using standard film deposition techniques with lithographic method to print the pattern. Preliminary tests show resonances, with potential improvements of the Q factors. Work supported by DOE and NSF

  13. First Report on Determination of Possible Movement of Corps and Division Artillery Utilizing C-47, B-17, and B-24 Air Planes, and First Report on Ordnance Program No. 6077

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-02-12

    parallol with the longitudinal axis of tho Plano ~. Additional boxes were placed in the center Tith the 1long axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of...crv-:-,ette ro~ur-cls T;:. fo lrai_ 2! - 1 .ý Pie for. nl oad inZ - *7 -harý V.ok. adltitional .1"M .,lm ca =i’,c c-mrried - 2. -4 a8a to~* z I, 2...61 under wneels. b. ~ pie es f p ari in ~ 2" 6" x 6 ’ for block i . C. Threa pleces off llu-btzr I" x 6" 36 urder doll., d.IYo blocks 6,1 x 6- x.Ld

  14. The construction of a highly transportable laser ranging station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The technology of the transportable Laser Ranging Station (TLRS) used in crustal dynamics studies was examined. The TLRS used a single photoelectron beam of limited energy density returned from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS). Calibration was accomplished by the diversion of a small portion of the outgoing beam attenuated to the same level as the satellite return. Timing for the system was based on a self calibrating Ortec TD811, 100 picosec time interval device. The system was contained in a modified, single chassis recreational vehicle that allowed rapid deployment. The TLRS system was only airmobile on the largest transport aircraft. A 30 cm simple plano/concave transfer lens telescope aided in beam direction. The TLRS system fulfills the need for an accurate method of obtaining range measurements to the LAGEOS satellite incorporated in a mobile, air transportable, and economical configuration.

  15. Design and fabrication of a micro CPV system based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 microcells array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutteau, Sebastien; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    From few millimeters to few hundreds of micrometers, solar cells used in CPV systems are made smaller and smaller, to benefit from the lower influence of the temperature and series resistance. We propose in this work microconcentration systems adapted to thin film microcells arrays. Due to the miniaturization, the complete system is expected to be very compact, lightweight, enabling a simple tracking. First, a numerical study has been performed to evaluate an optimal design with only plano-spherical microlenses with a geometrical ratio of 100x and an acceptance angle around +/- 3°. Second, a fabrication process has been developed to realize the designed system. Arrays of 2500 microlenses with a diameter between 300 and 500μm and a focal length around 1mm have been created. Finally, we propose a first prototype coupling 2500 microcells and microlenses arrays for middle concentration applications.

  16. Evidence for the Presence of a Warping of the Ionizing Gas I-Ayer Derived from H166a Emission Observations in the Outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azcarate, I. N.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Colomb, F. R.

    1990-12-01

    RESUMEN Se presentan resultados de un relevamiento de Ia emisi6n de la ifnea H 1 66a en el rango de longitudes galacticas 2700 < 1 <3000 y para tres latitudes galacticas b = 0.00, b = l0.50. De los mismos, resulta que hay evidencia de un alabeo de Ia capa de gas jonizado en el plano galactico, en las partes exteriores de Ia Galaxia. ABSTRACT Results from an H166a emission survey in the Galactic longitude range 2700 < 1 <3000 and for three Galactic latitudes (b = 0.00, b = 0.50), are presented. From these results, there is evidence for the presence of a warping of the ionized gas layer in the galactic plane, in the outer Galaxy. K words: GALAXY-SThUCTURE - RADIO HNES-

  17. Experimental investigation of precision grinding oriented to achieve high process efficiency for large and middle-scale optic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Jin, Tan; Guo, Zongfu; Lu, Ange; Qu, Meina

    2016-10-01

    High efficiency machining of large precision optical surfaces is a challenging task for researchers and engineers worldwide. The higher form accuracy and lower subsurface damage helps to significantly reduce the cycle time for the following polishing process, save the cost of production, and provide a strong enabling technology to support the large telescope and laser energy fusion projects. In this paper, employing an Infeed Grinding (IG) mode with a rotary table and a cup wheel, a multi stage grinding process chain, as well as precision compensation technology, a Φ300mm diameter plano mirror is ground by the Schneider Surfacing Center SCG 600 that delivers a new level of quality and accuracy when grinding such large flats. Results show a PV form error of Pt<2 μm, the surface roughness Ra<30 nm and Rz<180 nm, with subsurface damage <20 μm, and a material removal rates of up to 383.2 mm3/s.

  18. Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianjun; Shang, Ce; Zheng, Yuanlin; Feng, Yaming; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-07-01

    A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials’ refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

  19. Compact photonic spin filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Zhenxing; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-10-01

    In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact photonic spin filter formed by integrating a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens (focal length of ±f ) into a conventional plano-concave lens (focal length of -f). By choosing the input port of the filter, photons with a desired spin state, such as the right-handed component or the left-handed one, propagate alone its original propagation direction, while the unwanted spin component is quickly diverged after passing through the filter. One application of the filter, sorting the spin-dependent components of vector vortex beams on higher-order Poincaré sphere, is also demonstrated. Our scheme provides a simple method to manipulate light, and thereby enables potential applications for photonic devices.

  20. Steps toward 8m honeycomb mirror blanks. III - 1.8m honeycomb sandwich blanks cast from borosilicate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Hill, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design, fabrication techniques, and equipment used for producing two 1.8-m honeycomb sandwich blanks, eventually leading to production of 8-m blanks, are reported. The procedure employed 85 cast hexagonal tiles at the bottom section, affixed against flotation by SiC bolts. The two plano concave mirrors are 1.83 m thick, weight 500 kg, and are each designed for 19 supports of astatic-lever type. Both blanks are of high quality and with an adequately low bubble content; one is to be figured to high-precision 0.25-arcsecond images, and is to be tested on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Construction of a spin-casting facility based on the same principle is being planned for test-fabricating spin-cast mirrors on a smaller scale.

  1. Extra-articular arthrodesis of the subtalar joint: a clinical study and review.

    PubMed

    Bratberg, J J; Scheer, G E

    1977-01-01

    A series of 73 Grice extra-articular arthrodeses in 54 children with hind foot valgus is presented with an overall satisfactory result in 79% of these cases. The diagnostic categories in which we have used this procedure include: cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, meningomyelocele, pes plano valgus, convex pes valgus, osteogenesis imperfecta, congenital hydrocephalus, partial adactylia, and congenital calcaneovalgus. The results with 11 meningomyelocele deformities are encouraging as only 2 of these children required a triple arthrodesis; 5 out of 6 patients in whom the opposite foot could serve as a control developed a smaller foot on the opposite extremity as a result of this procedure. This operative procedure was considered definitive treatment in 47% of the cases (264 operative feet) and produced satisfactory results in 74% of the cases (573 operative feet) reported in the literature.

  2. Reflections of a former vice president on long-time cardiac experiences

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Richard B. (“Dick”)

    2009-01-01

    Editor's Note: Mr. Cheney, 46th vice president of the United States, was the featured guest speaker at the third annual Baylor Health Care System Foundation Heart and Vascular Dinner on April 7, 2009, at the home of Kathy and Harlan Crow (Figures 1 and 2). Previous speakers were former Senator Bob Dole and Denton Cooley, MD. Cheney spoke about his experiences with cardiovascular disease, his 40-year career in public service, and the challenges facing health care. Mr. Cheney has had four heart attacks and numerous other cardiovascular episodes, beginning with his first heart attack when he was 37 years old. The Foundation's Heart and Vascular Campaign, which has raised more than $11.2 million toward its $20 million fundraising goal, supports eight cardiology fellows and four residents in vascular surgery, as well as cardiovascular research at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas, Baylor Hamilton Heart and Vascular Hospital, and The Heart Hospital Baylor Plano. PMID:21240297

  3. Customized Titanium Mesh for Repairing Cranial Defects: A Method With Comprehensive Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Long, Jianhong; Yang, Xinghua; Lei, Shaorong; Xiao, Muzhang; Fan, Pengju; Qi, Min; Tan, Wuyuan

    2015-11-01

    Titanium cranioplasty is one of the well-established and widely used techniques for repairing cranial defects. In this paper, we present an improved way to design and create titanium meshes with more evaluation process. Computed tomography scan data of patients were used to create three-dimensional virtual models. Implants were designed with NX ImageWare 13.2 (Siemens PLM Software, Plano, TX). Final titanium meshes were assessed by Geomagic Studio 12 (Geomagic, Inc., Morrisville, NC) and NX ImageWare 13.2.Titanium meshes were designed and applied to cranioplasty surgery on 8 patients. Postoperative results were evaluated by computed tomography scanning and further analyzed with rainbow difference tomography. All patients were satisfied with the outcome. With this method, surgeons, engineers, and patients work together to evaluate and edit implant design. Our method provides better communication and comprehensive evaluation, which result in a satisfying outcome.

  4. Fast and compact wide-field Gregorian telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2012-09-01

    A traditional Gregorian telescope features an intermediate focus, which makes the system longer than an equivalent fnumber Cassegrain design. One could shorten the Gregorian system by inserting a flat mirror before the secondary mirror. We explore the potential of this compact configuration for sky survey imaging with relaxed requirements for angular resolution. A 0.5 m f/1.4 telescope with 4 deg full field is presented. The modified design consists of two elliptical mirrors and a folding flat in between. A plano-convex field flattener is used near the focal plane. The telescope optical performance is analyzed and possible improvements are discussed based on aberration balancing. A special emphasis is given to stay light analysis and baffle designs are considered.

  5. [INVITED] Epsilon-near-zero metalenses operating in the visible. Invited paper for the section : Hot topics in Metamaterials and Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Peña, V.; Navarro-Cía, M.; Beruete, M.

    2016-06-01

    Several converging lenses working in the permittivity near to zero (ENZ) regime at optical frequencies are designed using an array of metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides. These plasmonic waveguides show a dispersive nature that enable to mimic an effective ENZ medium when using the fast wave transverse electric (TE1) mode near its cut-off wavelength. By arranging multiple plasmonic waveguides with the correct engineered dimensions, several metalenses, including graded index (GRIN) ones, and diffractive optical elements (i.e., zoned metalenses) are proposed. The metalenses are designed at λ0=474.9 nm (f=631.67 THz) with a focal length of 10.75λ0. Numerical results demonstrate that the best performance is obtained for the case of the GRIN metalens in terms of the focal position, transversal resolution and thickness, reducing its volume up to ∼52.3% with respect to the smooth-profiled plano-concave metalens.

  6. Method of making an integral window hermetic fiber optic component

    DOEpatents

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1996-11-12

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam. 9 figs.

  7. Method of making an integral window hermetic fiber optic component

    DOEpatents

    Dalton, Rick D.; Kramer, Daniel P.; Massey, Richard T.; Waker, Damon A.

    1996-11-12

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  8. Characteristic analysis of aspheric quasi-optical lens antenna in millimeter-wave radiometer imaging system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Gyum; Moon, Nam-Won; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Kim, Hwang-Kyeom; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2013-02-20

    Quasi-optical imaging systems require low blurring effect and large depth of focus (DOF) to get an acceptable sharpness of the image. To reduce aberration-limited blurring, the aspheric convex plano lenses with an aperture diameter of 350 mm are designed in W-band. We analyzed theoretically and experimentally the millimeter-wave band lens characteristics, such as beam spot size, spatial resolution (SR), and DOF, via f-number. It is first used to verify the DOF through f-number in the system-level test with the developed W-band radiometer imaging system. We have confirmed that the larger f-number of quasi-optical lens leads to a larger DOF but a lower SR.

  9. Comb mode filtering silver mirror cavity for spectroscopic distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmíd, R.; Hänsel, A.; Pravdová, L.; Sobota, J.; Číp, O.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present a design of an external optical cavity based on Fabry-Perot etalons applied to a 100 MHz Er-doped fiber optical frequency comb working at 1560 nm to increase its repetition frequency. A Fabry-Perot cavity is constructed based on a transportable cage system with two silver mirrors in plano-concave geometry including the mode-matching lenses, fiber coupled collimation package and detection unit. The system enables full 3D angle mirror tilting and x-y off axis movement as well as distance between the mirrors. We demonstrate the increase of repetition frequency by direct measurement of the beat frequency and spectrally by using the virtually imaged phased array images.

  10. Manufacturing aspheric mirrors made of zero thermal expansion cordierite ceramics using Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Jun; Maloney, Chris

    2016-07-01

    NEXCERATM cordierite ceramics, which have ultra-low thermal expansion properties, are perfect candidate materials to be used for light-weight satellite mirrors that are used for geostationary earth observation and for mirrors used in ground-based astronomical metrology. To manufacture the high precision aspheric shapes required, the deterministic aspherization and figure correction capabilities of Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) are tested. First, a material compatibility test is performed to determine the best method for achieving the lowest surface roughness of RMS 0.8nm on plano surfaces made of NEXCERATM ceramics. Secondly, we will use MRF to perform high precision figure correction and to induce a hyperbolic shape into a conventionally polished 100mm diameter sphere.

  11. Research on an artificial dielectric material for millimeter-wave imaging application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbang; Mei, Hanxue; Yang, Kui; Zhao, Lu; Liu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Material made of artificial molecules fabricated from cage-shaped granules of conductor (CGC) is introduced and its electrical and magnetic characteristics are presented. Its refractive index, calculated using complex relative permittivity and complex relative permeability, is 1.504 at 35 GHz. A two-element lens, consisting of a pair of spherical plano-convex lenses, was designed and fabricated by embedding CGC in poly(methyl methacrylate). The active millimeter-wave imaging system was constructed with the two-element lens by having the curved surfaces face each other. Millimeter-wave (MMW) images of a right trapezoid and twin bars were obtained. The image quality was acceptable, proving that the CGC material has the ability to refract MMWs in MMW imaging and that the ability contrasts with that of some traditional high polymer material.

  12. Advanced adhesion and friction measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-03-01

    An advanced micro-force tester for investigating the micromechanical behavior of various patterned surfaces in dry and wet conditions is presented in this paper. The parallel slice-beam configuration of the tester not only eliminates the large load-dependent slope and tangential displacement at the free end that is found in a single beam system, but also performs a trans-scale deflection with high sensitivity and linearity for force sensing. Meanwhile, the simple structure is characterized by low cost, high efficiency, and ease of fabrication. An integrated nano- and micro-stage comprise the mobile table to produce a large stroke with high resolution, which is specifically required in wet adhesion testing because of the formation of a long liquid bridge. Preliminary experiments of adhesion and friction conducted using PDMS pillars with a plano-convex lens validated the feasibility of this setup.

  13. Self-curable solid-state elastic dye lasers capable of mechanical stress probing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Liao, Zhifu; Zhou, Yuan; Cui, Yuanjing; Qian, Guodong

    2013-05-15

    Herein, a highly sensitive stress probe is reported based on pyrromethene 597 (PM597) doped elastic polydimethylsiloxane films. By sandwiching the dye doped elastic film with two plano dichromatic mirrors, a solid-sate microcavity laser with low laser threshold (~0.2 μJ) is presented as a straightforward probing method for mechanical stress, which is monitored by the laser output spectra, demonstrating a resolution limit higher than 0.01 MPa. The photostability of PM597 doped into the microcavity laser is higher than 7222 GJ/mol, which is among the highest record ever reported to our knowledge and a fast self-recovery on the laser output in less than 1 h, attributed to diffusion of dye molecules is observed, indicating a practical durability for such stress probes.

  14. Integral window hermetic fiber optic components

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  15. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet

    2014-02-18

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  16. Design of macro-filter-lens with simultaneous chromatic and geometric aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Dilip K; Brown, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    A macro-filter-lens design that can correct for chromatic and geometric aberrations simultaneously while providing for a long focal length is presented. The filter is easy to fabricate since it involves two spherical surfaces and a planar surface. Chromatic aberration correction is achieved by making all the rays travel the same optical distance inside the filter element (negative meniscus). Geometric aberration is corrected for by the lens element (plano-convex), which makes the output rays parallel to the optic axis. This macro-filter-lens design does not need additional macro lenses and it provides an inexpensive and optically good (aberration compensated) solution for macro imaging of objects not placed close to the camera.

  17. Nonmechanical zoom system through pressure-controlled tunable fluidic lenses.

    PubMed

    Savidis, Nickolaos; Peyman, Gholam; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2013-04-20

    We have developed a variable-power zoom system that incorporates fluidic lenses and has no moving parts. The designed system applies two single-chamber plano-convex fluid singlets, each with their own distinct design, as well as a conventional refractive lens. In this paper, we combine the two fluid elements to form a variable-power telescope, while the fixed lens enables image formation. In this configuration, the image plane location is fixed. By synchronizing the powers of the two fluidic lenses, we produce a varying magnification zoom system. The design of each lens and the coupled system is analyzed. The coupled device experimentally produced a magnification range of 0.1× to 10× zoom or a 20× zoom magnification range with no moving parts. Furthermore, we expand on optical performance and capabilities of our system with fluidic lenses relative to traditional zoom lenses.

  18. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  19. [A very slow-growing exophytic hemisphere glioma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Carlos; Caballero, Hugo; Bucheli, Carlos; Berciano, José; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso; Martino, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. Los gliomas de bajo grado presentan un patron de crecimiento caracteristico a traves de las fibras de la sustancia blanca. El crecimiento exofitico en gliomas de bajo grado hemisfericos no se ha descrito previamente. Se presenta un caso de glioma hemisferico de lenta progresion y con crecimiento exofitico. Caso clinico. Varon de 55 años, con crisis parciales motoras secundarias a un oligodendroglioma de grado II de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud. El tumor infiltraba la circunvolucion frontal superior con extension exofitica que se extendia por encima de la circunvolucion precentral. Fue seguido con controles clinicorradiologicos durante 23 años. El analisis de la evolucion radiologica del tumor demostraba un crecimiento tumoral lento, con una velocidad de crecimiento de 0,5 mm al año. Durante la exeresis quirurgica se definio un plano subaracnoideo entre el componente exofitico y la circunvolucion precentral, que se encontraba desplazada inferiormente sin infiltracion tumoral. La estimulacion electrica intraoperatoria no evidencio funcion en el componente exofitico, pero si en la circunvolucion precentral. No se observaron deficits neurologicos postoperatorios. Conclusiones. La velocidad de crecimiento en gliomas de bajo grado se ha estimado en 4-6 mm al año. El tumor que se describe aqui tiene una velocidad de crecimiento de 0,5 mm al año, muy por debajo de esta media. La identificacion de la porcion exofitica es un paso importante en la planificacion preoperatoria. Este componente es mas facil de resecar debido al plano de clivaje subaracnoideo y a la ausencia de funcion.

  20. Deep seated gravitational slope deformation and hydraulic vul-nerability of the low Biferno valley (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeandro, Annalisa; Guerricchio, Alessandro; Doglioni, Angelo; Simeone, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Geological and geomorphologic features of low Biferno valley are affected by a deep seated gravitational slope deformation produced by the orogenesis of Apennines whit a fulcrum located next to confluence with Cigno's stream. As a consequence of this deep deformation the low river Biferno valley is particularly vulnerable to alluvial phenomena. The work provides an analysis of this deep gravitative deformation that characterizes the examined zone: the interpretation of a Digital Elevation Model and some geological sections (produced with the aid of Geographical Information System) has shown as both basin's morphology and plano-altimetric variation of Biferno river have been affected by this phenomenon. The aim is a description of the DSGSD and the consequences on morphology of the basin and on the Biferno's course. The tectonic action has compressed and fractured this area, which is afterwards collapsed by means of a deep slide with a rupture surface probably at the interface between blue-gray clays and clayey sands. The deformation is attested by a great scarp, in which Cigno stream positioned itself at the toe, by the collapse of the zone between streams and by the features of plano-altimetric pattern of Biferno river. Biferno has to deviate its course: in order to cross the obstacle characterized by the toe of the deep slide, the river shifts from the right riverside to the left and causes erosional processes and consequent landslide. After the confluence with Cigno stream, the river has to regain energy and makes a meandering path. In this new configuration, floods can hardly get canalized in this meanders and naturally come out from the bed of ordinary flow, invading a wide zone of the valley. Then, it emerges as the presence of deep seated gravitational slope deformation could constitute an aggravating element for the vulnerability of the territory and predisposes the zone to alluvial phenomena and landslides.

  1. Anatomical and functional graft survival, 10 years after epikeratoplasty in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Anita; Gupta, Anoop K; Sharma, Namrata; Nindrakrishna, Sasikala; Vajpayee, Rasik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of epikeratoplasty in keratoconus (KC), utilizing manually-prepared plano donor lenticules in terms of flattening of the cone, reduction in astigmatism and improvement in the visual acuity. Materials and Methods: Patients with KC, having visual acuity <20/200, astigmatism >12 diopters (D) but without corneal opacity underwent epikeratoplasty, using manually prepared plano donor lenticules from fresh or M.K preserved corneas, between 1990 - 2000 and followed for 10 years, were included in this report. Visual acuity slit-lamp-biomicroscopy, keratometry, and refraction were performed at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months for all 59 patients. The same were carried out at 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years depending upon the availability of the patient for that period. Results: Of the 59 patients, only 26 were available for follow-up after 10 years. At 3 months, 1 year and 5 years, best corrected visual acuity of (BCVA) ≥20/60 were achieved in 84.7%, 84.4% and 80.3% of eyes, respectively. BCVA was 73% at 10-year follow- up, which was due to the presence of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). The average keratometric astigmatism and average flattening in diopters stabilized at the end of 3 months, which remained constant at 1, 5, and 10-year follow-up. The average diopter of myopia was stabilized by 1 year, which was almost same at 10 year. Graft was clear in all but 1 eye at 10 year follow-up. Conclusion: Epikeratoplasty is a useful technique for keratoconic eyes without apical scarring who fail or unable to use contact lenses. PMID:23275216

  2. Climate variabilty in Northeast Brazil lakes since the LGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcq, B.; Albuquerque, A.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Costa, R. L.; Sifeddine, A.; Zocatelli, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Late Glacial and Holocene climate evolution in Northeast Brazil is from different the rest of South America. We present here the results from two Northeast lakes: Caço and Boqueirão, both situated some tens of kilometers from the Atlantic coast. Although there is some indications of wetness during the LGM from stalagmite formation, the Caço lake, which is the only one where late glacial sediments have been sampled, was dry until 17 kyrs when sandy layers were deposited by flash floods. The lake developed during H1 and lake-level peaked from 16 to 12 kyrs. It has been shown that Heinrich events provoked a southward shift of ITCZ which should have enhanced rainfalls in Northeast Brazil. During the Holocene, what dominated the millenary climate trend is the change in insolation, due to the precession of equinoxes, which was increased (decreased) from January to February (June to August) from 12 to 9 kyrs. This forcing difference has been reduced progressively until now with a faster decrease around 5-4 kyrs. The insolation diminution in Austral summer provoked a drop of South American Monsoon, and associated rainfalls, which is marked in Southeast Brazil and Amazonia by savannah development and lake drying. In Northeast Brazil, on the contrary, Early to Middle Holocene climate (12 to 4 kyrs) is markedly wetter. Climate simulations by AOGCM indicate that it is due to a more southern position of ITCZ during austral summers. Analysis with IPSL AOGCM show that this situation lasted until at least 4 kyrs. The two lakes have almost completely dried around 3 kyrs for lake Caço and 1550 AD for Boqueirão. This is in agreement with what we know of Holocene paleoclimate and the diminishing presence of ITCZ in the region. What is surprising is the reappearance of both lakes, very recently, probably during the last 100 yrs. Another striking feature is the great decenal to centennial variability of lake-level observed between 3 and 2 kyrs at lake Boqueirão. Lake Caço was

  3. Solution rheology of polyelectrolytes and polyelectrolyte-surfactant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plucktaveesak, Nopparat

    (styrene-alt-sodium maleate) and poly(diisobutylene- alt-sodium maleate) show the polyelectrolyte behavior as predicted. However, the viscosity as a function of concentration of sodium maleate based copolymers with 1-alkenes; 1-octene (C8), 1-decene (C10), 1-dodecene (C12) and 1-hexene (C14) exhibit an abnormal scaling power, which might be caused by aggregation of the alkene tails to form micelles. In the last chapter, we report the rheological properties of aqueous solutions of poly(acrylic acid) and oppositely charged surfactant, dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C12TAB). The solution viscosity decreases as surfactant is added, partly because the polyelectrolyte wraps around the surface of the spherical surfactant micelles, shortening the effective chain length. The effects of polymer molecular weight, polymer concentration, and polymer charge have been studied with no added salt. The results are compared with the predictions of a simple model based on the scaling theory for the viscosity of dilute and unentangled semidilute polyelectrolyte solutions in good solvent. This model takes into account two effects of added surfactant. The effective chain length of the polyelectrolyte is shortened when a significant fraction of the chain wraps around micelles. Another effect is the change of solution ionic strength resulting from surfactant addition that further lowers the viscosity. The parameters used in this model are independently determined, allowing the model to make a quantitative prediction of solution viscosity with no adjustable parameters. The model is also applied to predict the decrease in viscosity of various polyelectrolyte/oppositely charged surfactant systems reported in literature. The results are in good agreement with experimental data, proving that our model applies to all polyelectrolytes mixed with oppositely charged surfactants that form spherical micelles.

  4. Earthquake effects in thermal neutron variations at the high-altitude station of Northern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonova, Valentina; Chubenko, Alexandr; Kryukov, Sergey; Lutsenko, Vadim

    2016-04-01

    , and the probability of detecting by 18NM64 monitor of thermal neutrons is extremely low (less than 0, 01). We used it for analysis variations of thermal neutrons during earthquakes 2006-2015. The catalog of earthquakes in the vicinity of Almaty with intensity ≥ 3b, including 25 events, is composed on the basis of observations of the Kazakhstan National Data center. Experimental data of registration of thermal and high-energy neutrons (≥ 200 MeV) with duration not less than 14 days are prepared for an each event. The main statistical characteristics of experimental data are calculated and the normalization is carried out. The increase of thermal neutrons flux of the lithospheric origin during of seismic processes activation is observed for ~ 60% of events. However, before the earthquake the increase of thermal neutron flux is observed only for ~ 30-35% of events. It is shown that the amplitude of the additional thermal neutron flux from the Earth's crust is equal to 5-7% of the background level. Sometimes it reaches values of 10-12%. We propose to employ method of allocating the thermal neutron flux of the lithospheric origin for short-term prediction of earthquakes in seismoactive regions.

  5. The role of wildfires and forest succession in stream biogeochemistry within the continuous permafrost zone of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokushkin, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires transform boreal and subarctic forested landscapes leading to the changes in organic matter and inorganic nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems. To get an insight to the fire effect on C fluxes and general hydrochemical characteristics of streams draining continuous permafrost terrains of Central Siberian Plateau (64o N 100o E), we have selected the chronosequence of basins (n = 17) which were severely affected by fires (>80% of basin area) in the time range from 1 to 116 years ago. Stream waters were sampled continuously during frost free seasons (May-September) of 2006-2015. Four streams have been equipped with water level, temperature and conductivity probes for continuous monitoring. The strongest negative effect of wildfires on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in streams has occurred right after a fire event, and minimum mean annual concentrations of DOC appeared between 15 and 20 years elapsed after a fire. The most pronounced decrease in DOC concentrations during an annual cycle found in freshet period (May-June) and summer-fall storm events: differences of DOC concentrations among "intact" (>100 years after fire) and recent fire basins (<6 years) reached as much as 2-fold. Less differentiation among basins appears under lowflow conditions, as DOC-depleted solutes from deeper soil layers become dominating in stream flow. Following the post-fire forest recovery, the seasonal mean DOC concentrations in streams demonstrated linear growth at the rate of ca. 0.11 mgC/l/a and approached the initial values already after ca. 60 years after fire disturbance. An opposite trend (i.e. increasing load to streams after fire impact) was observed for dissolved inorganic carbon, major anions and cations. Sulfate was found to be a good tracer of fire affect as increased 200-fold in stream waters right after a fire and steady decreased at the rate [SO42-] = 3.65 x (year after fire)^-0.75 as terrestrial ecosystems were recovering after a fire. For

  6. ISRU in the Context of Future European Human Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. M.; Tomatis, C.

    2002-01-01

    the latest requirements. In addition, the paper will explore the options for compressing, cooling and storing gaseous products, methods for extracting buffer gases (such as nitrogen), and chemistries for producing additional oxygen. The paper will be written from the viewpoint of what European industry might be able to offer to a future set of Martian ISRU requirements, but in the context of an international human Mars mission. For example, the development of a compact Sabatier reactor for ISS air revitalisation, and high temperature methane cracking reactors by Astrium GmbH are considered. Other, current research has highlighted low temperature catalytic decomposition of methane, under evaluation as means of producing carbon nanofibres; and the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 as relevant technologies. This paper will also consider some key issues in ISRU design which have not yet been widely addressed, including the suitability of an Ar/N2 buffer gas mixture for life support (and the difficulties of its separation from the Martian atmosphere), the transfer of hydrogen feedstock to Mars, the storage of products on the surface, and the thermal balance in an ISRU plant (e.g. the balance of energy required for liquefaction of oxygen, against the heat sink available from the liquid hydrogen feedstock). In addition, this paper will detail the selected reaction chemistries for each required subsystem, giving (where possible) mass, power and volume estimates. These will be drawn together, justified and presented as a system level design for an ISRU plant. Finally, a technology roadmap for ISRU development will be covered, suggesting near term (2002-2006), medium term (2006-2015) and long term (2015-2030) priorities which could enable a European ISRU capability to be qualified for initial human Mars exploration.

  7. LD dual-end-pumped CW Tm:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin-yu; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Yong-ji; Wang, Chao; Jin, Guang-yong

    2013-09-01

    We report on a LD dual-end-pumped 792nm continuous wave operation Tm:YLF laser. Firstly, the rate equation of LD end-pumped CW operation Tm:YLF laser were established, in which the energy transfer upconversion and without energy transfer upconversion under continuous-wave considerate were considered, as well the pump threshold and the slope efficiency of the laser system were analyzed. Simultaneously, the cavity stability condition and the pattern matching of the plano- concave resonator were analyzed according to ABCD Matrix theory. Comparing respectively the laser threshold and the slope efficiency and optical-optical conversion efficiency under circumstances which the output mirror transmittance of 15% and 23%. In addition, the M2 of the output laser were contrasted and analyzed in adjusting the resonator cavity length by using different radius of curvature of the output mirror in 150mm, 200mm and 300mm all in the above case. As the process of thermal lens focal length changing greater than 90mm, it exhibited that the two fundamental modes in the cavity resonator matched well in numerical simulation when the radius of curvature of the output mirror was 300mm, as well the two fundamental modes matched well when it more than 100mm in a certain pump power. We designed a single LD dual-end-pumped continuous wave operation Tm:YLF laser. Using Tm:YLF (3 at.%) crystal for gain medium, which the size was 3×3×14mm3. In experiments, the Tm:YLF laser crystal keeps 291K and the temperature control method is water cooling. The length of the resonator was 135mm when L shape plano-concave resonator was applied, and the radius of curvature output mirror was 300mm, as well as the temperature of the Tm:YLF laser crystal was 291K. The output laser we observed by this system and the central laser wavelength was 1944nm. The threshold power was 8.11W and the highest output power reaches to 4.01W when the totally input pump power was 17W, and the optical conversion efficiency was 23

  8. [Quality of life in obese patients and change after bariatric surgery medium and long term].

    PubMed

    Alcaraz García, Aurora María; Ferrer Márquez, Manuel; Parrón Carreño, Tesifón

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: La obesidad mórbida ha crecido enormemente en las últimas décadas, representando un grave problema de Salud Pública. Se caracteriza por el acúmulo de grasa corporal y la presencia de enfermedades asociadas a ella, que repercute en el plano físico, psíquico y social. Se ha considerado a la ciguría bariátrica como el tratamiento más eficaz para la pérdida de peso, consiguiendo el bienestar de la persona obesa en los planos anteriormente descritos. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto en la calidad de vida de las personas obesas antes y después de ser intervenidas de cirugía bariátrica, mediante la técnica de gastrectomía vertical laparoscópica (GVL) en un seguimiento a corto, medio y largo plazo. Metodo: La población de estudio son todas las personas con obesidad mórbida y son candidatos a cirugía, que acuden al Servicio de Cirugía Bariátrica del Hospital Torrecárdenas (Almería). El diseño es un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, prospectivo. Resultados: Tras la evaluación del pacientes obeso al año, a los dos años y a los cinco años de la cirugía, se ha observado disminución del peso, por tanto, descenso en el IMC y en el grado de obesidad, la mejoría o desaparición de las comorbilidades y un aumento en las variables de CV. Discusión: La GVL consigue disminuir el exceso de peso y por tanto el IMC y el grado de obesidad, al igual que el número de enfermedades asociadas a la obesidad, aumentando asi la CV.

  9. Controle orbital de satélites artificiais com propulsão e uso de gravidade lunar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. S.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.

    2003-08-01

    A redução do custo de combustível de uma manobra é atualmente a grande prioridade de todos os programas espaciais existentes no mundo. As manobras assistidas pela gravidade são uma ótima forma de se contornar o problema pois proporcionam economias com vasto impacto no custo final da missão. Neste trabalho é feito um estudo particular do controle orbital de um satélite artificial da Terra usando a gravidade da Lua. O objetivo é estudar uma técnica econômica para uma mudança de plano de um satélite que está em órbita em volta da Terra. A idéia principal desta abordagem é enviar primeiramente o veículo espacial em direção à Lua usando uma manobra mono-impulsiva para que assim o campo gravitacional da Lua possa fazer a mudança de plano desejada (sem custo de combustível) e só então retornar o veículo aos valores iniciais de semi-eixo e excentricidade usando uma manobra bi-impulsiva tipo Hohmann. Para tanto, é assumido que a espaçonave inicia em uma órbita circular coplanar à órbita da lua em torno da Terra e a meta é colocá-la em uma órbita similar que difere da órbita inicial somente pela inclinação. São usadas equações analíticas baseadas na abordagem Patched Conics para se calcular a variação na velocidade, momento angular, energia e inclinação do veículo espacial que realiza esta manobra. Várias simulações são feitas para se avaliar as economias de combustível envolvidas.

  10. Sedimentary processes of the Kusawa Lake torrent system, Yukon, Canada, as revealed by the September 16, 1982 flood event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowey, Grant W.

    2002-08-01

    The Kusawa Lake torrent system is located in the northern Canadian Cordillera of southwestern Yukon. It is Holocene in age and consists of a catchment area, gorge and alluvial fan complex. The north compartment of the catchment is a third-order basin covering an area of 13.2 km 2. It is characterized by active slumping of Quaternary glacial deposits that supply sediment for the torrent system. The gorge is approximately 800 m long and distinguished by 10 m high vertical walls cut into granitic bedrock. The fan complex is semiconical in shape and covers an area of 1.52 km 2. The active part of the fan is plano-convex in longitudinal profile, covers an area of 0.75 km 2, and is subdivided into an upper, middle and lower fan, based on the occurrence of seven sedimentary facies that were deposited by a catastrophic flood in 1982. The upper fan is characterized by boulder gravel levees and boulder gravel lobes that were deposited by debris flows. It is also characterized by sandy boulder gravel that may represent a transition from debris flow to dominantly hyperconcentrated flow processes. The middle fan is distinguished by sandy cobble gravel and sandy pebble gravel that is interbedded with horizontally laminated sand. These sediments were deposited by hyperconcentrated flows. The lower fan is characterized by horizontally bedded and laminated sand that may represent a transition from hyperconcentrated flow to sheetflood dominant processes, and by sand channels that represent rechannelized waning-flood discharge. The fan displays downfan trends in grain size (boulders to sand), slope style (plano-concave), and slope value (4-1°) typical of sheetflood-dominated fans. The initiation of sedimentation in the Kusawa Lake torrent system was due to a combination of rainfall flooding and flooding related to catastrophic slope failure in the catchment area. Slope failure leads to the formation of a landslide dam and lake, and when the dam fails, the draining lake results in a

  11. The Temperature Dependence of Soil Moisture Characteristics of Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehzadeh, Amir

    1990-01-01

    The temperature dependence of static and dynamic characteristics of four soils: glass beads, Plainfield sand, Plano silt loam, and Elkmound sandy loam were explored. Gain -factor model was employed for quantifying the temperature dependences. The study required novel methods and technologies which were developed and employed for the rapid, and transient measurement of soil-moisture characteristics of these soils. A pressurized 2 cm-high column of soil is sandwiched between two air blocking membranes interfacing outside pressurized water system. Water content (Theta ) is measured with a 2 Curie gamma-ray source combined with a fast detection system giving a statistical accuracy of +/-0.2%. Moisture potential ( Psi) down to -2000 cm was measured with a newly developed "stripper" tensionmeter. While a slowly varying soil-water pressure was imposed on the thin sample through the membranes, firmly held in contact with the soil, water content and moisture -potentials were being monitored in the sample. A plot of water content versus water pressure gave the static characteristics (Theta,Psi ) of soils. An array of tensiometers (between the membranes) allowed measurement of the potential profile; in conjunction with the time-varying water content this permitted measurement of dynamic characteristics, conductivity versus water content (K,Theta). For the (Theta, Psi) characteristics, the measurements indicated that, wholly for glass beads, and largely for sand, the surface tension of pure water governs the temperature response. The temperature dependence of Plano silt loam was largely independent of water content and was roughly five times the temperature dependence of the surface tension of pure water. For Elkmound sandy loam the dependence was complex and not easily explained. Two factors appear to limit further system improvement. (1) A sample thinner than 2 cm faces difficulties of fitting three tensionmeters into the thickness. This limit on the thickness, in turn

  12. Comparison of nanoparticle-mediated transfection methods for DNA expression plasmids: efficiency and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reproducibly high transfection rates with low methodology-induced cytotoxic side effects are essential to attain the required effect on targeted cells when exogenous DNA is transfected. Different approaches and modifications such as the use of nanoparticles (NPs) are being evaluated to increase transfection efficiencies. Several studies have focused on the attained transfection efficiency after NP-mediated approaches. However, data comparing toxicity of these novel approaches with conventional methods is still rare. Transfection efficiency and methodology-induced cytotoxicity were analysed after transfection with different NP-mediated and conventional approaches. Two eukaryotic DNA-expression-plasmids were used to transfect the mammalian cell line MTH53A applying six different transfection protocols: conventional transfection reagent (FuGENE HD, FHD), FHD in combination with two different sizes of stabilizer-free laser-generated AuNPs (PLAL-AuNPs_S1,_S2), FHD and commercially available AuNPs (Plano-AuNP), and two magnetic transfection protocols. 24 h post transfection efficiency of each protocol was analysed using fluorescence microscopy and GFP-based flow cytometry. Toxicity was assessed measuring cell proliferation and percentage of propidium iodide (PI%) positive cells. Expression of the respective recombinant proteins was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Results The addition of AuNPs to the transfection protocols significantly increased transfection efficiency in the pIRES-hrGFPII-eIL-12 transfections (FHD: 16%; AuNPs mean: 28%), whereas the magnet-assisted protocols did not increase efficiency. Ligand-free PLAL-AuNPs had no significant cytotoxic effect, while the ligand-stabilized Plano-AuNPs induced a significant increase in the PI% and lower cell proliferation. For pIRES-hrGFPII-rHMGB1 transfections significantly higher transfection efficiency was observed with PLAL-AuNPs (FHD: 31%; PLAL-AuNPs_S1: 46%; PLAL-AuNPs_S2: 50%), while the magnet

  13. Orthographic projection capillary array fluorescent sensor for mHealth.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-10-01

    To overcome the limited sensitivity of phone cameras for mobile health (mHealth) fluorescent detection, we have previously developed a capillary array which enables a ∼100 × increase in detection sensitivity. However, for an effective detection platform, the optical configuration must allow for uniform measurement sensitivity between channels when using such a capillary array sensor. This is a challenge due to the parallax inherent in imaging long parallel capillary tubes with typical lens configurations. To enable effective detection, we have developed an orthographic projection system in this work which forms parallel light projection images from the capillaries using an object-space telecentric lens configuration. This optical configuration results in a significantly higher degree of uniformity in measurement between channels, as well as a significantly reduced focal distance, which enables a more compact sensor. A plano-convex lens (f=150 mm) was shown to produce a uniform orthographic projection when properly combined with the phone camera's built in lens (f=4mm), enabling measurements of long capillaries (125 mm) to be made from a distance of 160 mm. The number of parallel measurements which can be made is determined by the size of the secondary lens. Based on these results, a more compact configuration with shorter 32 mm capillaries and a plano-convex lens with a shorter focal length (f=10mm) was constructed. This optical system was used to measure serial dilutions of fluorescein with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10nM, similar to the LOD of a commercial plate reader. However, many plate readers based on standard 96 well plate requires sample volumes of 100 μl for measurement, while the capillary array requires a sample volume of less than 10 μl. This optical configuration allows for a device to make use of the ∼100 × increase in fluorescent detection sensitivity produced by capillary amplification while maintaining a compact size and capability to

  14. Eccrine porocarcinoma: cytologic diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, Alexandra; Tamiolakis, Dimitrios; Tsagatakis, Thomas; Geronatsiou, Katerina; Haniotis, Vrettos; Kafoussi, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O porocarcinoma écrino (PE) é um tumor maligno pouco comum dos anexos cutâneos. Trata-se de um adenocarcinoma da glândula sudorípara écrina com propensão para recorrer localmente e para originar metástases ao longo dos gânglios linfáticos regionais. Este artigo apresenta um diagnóstico por citologia aspirativa com agulha fina (CAAF) de um PE, associado ao exame histológico e de imunocito/histoquímica.Caso Clínico: São descritos os achados da citologia de um porocarcinoma écrino numa doente de 76 anos de idade, bem como as características histológicas do tumor cutâneo. A citologia aspirativa revelou que o tumor se caracterizava pela presença de células atípicas malignas com citoplasma basófilo, núcleos hipercromáticos e nucléolos proeminentes. O diagnóstico citológico foi confirmado pela histologia.Conclusões: É crucial obter um diagnóstico pré-operatório preciso de modo a desencadear um plano cirúrgico curativo. A CAAF possibilita uma abordagem pouco invasiva, segura e efectiva, de modo a esclarecer um diagnóstico diferencial exigente.

  15. Ancient lenses in art and sculpture and the objects viewed through them, dating back 4500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoch, Jay M.

    1998-07-01

    The early history of lenses is controversial. The author has sought to address the problem by identifying lens elements (mainly convex/plano) which remain associated with objects intended to be viewed through them (i.e., in their original context). These are found in museums in sculptures, rings, pendants, etc. A number of outstanding examples will be illustrated in the talk; these sophisticated pieces of art are certainly not first constructs. Most are of rock crystal, rose quartz, or glass. Lenses have origin among artisans rather than scientists. Clearly, skills were often lost and rediscovered. Early lens-like objects have been found broadly in the eastern Mediterranean area/Middle East, in France, in Italy (Rome), and possibly in Peru and Scandinavia, etc. To date, the earliest lenses identified in context are from the IV/V Dynasties of Egypt, dating back to about 4500 years ago (e.g., the superb `Le Scribe Accroupi' and `the Kai' in the Louvre; added fine examples are located in the Cairo Museum). Latter examples have been found in Knossos (Minoan [Herakleion Museum]; ca. 3500 years ago); others had origin in Greece (examples in the Athens National Archeological Museum and the British Museum equals BM), in Rome (Metropolitan Museum, NY; BM; Vatican Museums; Bologna Archeological Museum), etc. Also. of great interest is the study of possible lens applications. This is a fascinating scientific, artistic and intellectual project.

  16. The implementation of concave micro optical devices using a polymer dispensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Yi; Lee, Chih-Chun; Fang, Weileun

    2008-08-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach to implementing a double-concave (DCV) microlens using a simple polymer dispensing and sucking process. The DCV microlens is implemented at room temperature using a commercially-available pneumatic-controlled polymer dispensing system. The DCV lens profile can be tuned by varying the volume of the dispensed polymer. It is also easy to integrate the present polymer DCV microlens with other suspended micromachined devices such as silicon nitride film and silicon-on-glass (SOG) micromachined structures. This study further employs the process for DCV to implement a concave mirror. The measurement results show a typical DCV lens (made of NOA63 polymer) with negative focal lengths of -1.42 mm (red laser) and -1.17 mm (blue laser), and a concave mirror with a focal length of 3.28 mm. Moreover, this study also demonstrates the integration of a DCV microlens with other optical components, such as plano-convex and double-convex lenses.

  17. Robust motion-free and error-correcting method of estimating the focal length of a lens.

    PubMed

    Reza, Syed Azer; Anjum, Arslan

    2017-01-10

    This paper presents a motion-free technique to characterize the focal length of any spherical convex or concave lens. The measurement test-bench uses a Gaussian laser beam, an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL), a digital micro-mirror device (DMD), and a standard photo-detector (PD). The method requires measuring beam spot sizes for different focal length settings of the ECVFL and using the measurement data to obtain a focal length estimate through an iterative least-squares-based curve-fitting algorithm. The method is also shown to overcome potential measurement errors that arise due to inaccurate placement of optical components on the test-bench as well as unknown principal plane locations of asymmetric lens samples such as plano-convex lenses. Contrary to the commercially deployed and other proposed methods of focal length characterization, this method does not involve any bulk mechanical motion of optical elements. This approach eliminates measurement errors due to gradual mechanical wear and tear and improves measurement repeatability by minimizing mechanical hysteresis. The compact and fully automated method delivers fast, repeatable, and reliable measurements, which we believe makes it ideal for deployment in industrial lens production units and characterizing lenses used in sensitive imaging systems and various other optical experiments and systems. Measured focal lengths are within the 1% manufacturer-provided tolerance values showing excellent agreement between theory and experiments. We also demonstrate measurement robustness by rectifying discrepancies between known and actual separation distances on the measurement test bench.

  18. Measurement of an Evaporating Drop on a Reflective Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Zhang, Nengli

    2004-01-01

    A figure depicts an apparatus that simultaneously records magnified ordinary top-view video images and laser shadowgraph video images of a sessile drop on a flat, horizontal substrate that can be opaque or translucent and is at least partially specularly reflective. The diameter, contact angle, and rate of evaporation of the drop as functions of time can be calculated from the apparent diameters of the drop in sequences of the images acquired at known time intervals, and the shadowgrams that contain flow patterns indicative of thermocapillary convection (if any) within the drop. These time-dependent parameters and flow patterns are important for understanding the physical processes involved in the spreading and evaporation of drops. The apparatus includes a source of white light and a laser (both omitted from the figure), which are used to form the ordinary image and the shadowgram, respectively. Charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera 1 (with zoom) acquires the ordinary video images, while CCD camera 2 acquires the shadowgrams. With respect to the portion of laser light specularly reflected from the substrate, the drop acts as a plano-convex lens, focusing the laser beam to a shadowgram on the projection screen in front of CCD camera 2. The equations for calculating the diameter, contact angle, and rate of evaporation of the drop are readily derived on the basis of Snell s law of refraction and the geometry of the optics.

  19. Long-term Results of Small-incision Lenticule Extraction in High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Yusuf; Alagöz, Cengiz; Demir, Abdülvahit; Ölçücü, Onur; Özveren, Mehmet; Ağca, Alper; Özgürhan, Engin Bilge; Demirok, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate two-year results of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for correction of high myopia. Materials and Methods: Forty-five eyes of 35 patients with mean spherical equivalent (SE) of -7.10±0.95 D who underwent routine SMILE by a single surgeon and were followed for at least 2 years were analyzed by retrospective chart review. SMILE was performed with a Visumax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). Follow-up intervals were at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Uncorrected and best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal wavefront measurements, and all complications were recorded. Results: After 2 years, 86% of eyes with plano target had an uncorrected distant visual acuity (VA) of 20/20 or better. Two percent of eyes lost 1 line of CDVA, while 32% gained 1 line. The mean SE after 2 years was -0.30±0.50 D. Corneal total high-order aberrations (HOA) increased from 0.43 to 0.92 μm at postoperative 12 months. There were metallic foreign bodies at the corneal interface in 1 eye of 1 patient which caused no decrease in VA. Conclusion: SMILE for high myopia seems safe and effective in light of two-year follow-up results. The procedure caused a moderate increase in HOA. PMID:28058160

  20. Micro-optical design of a three-dimensional microlens scanner for vertically integrated micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Maciej; Bargiel, Sylwester; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Jia, Chenping; Frömel, Jörg; Wiemer, Maik

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the optical design of a miniature 3D scanning system, which is fully compatible with the vertical integration technology of micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The constraints related to this integration strategy are considered, resulting in a simple three-element micro-optical setup based on an afocal scanning microlens doublet and a focusing microlens, which is tolerant to axial position inaccuracy. The 3D scanning is achieved by axial and lateral displacement of microlenses of the scanning doublet, realized by micro-electro-mechanical systems microactuators (the transmission scanning approach). Optical scanning performance of the system is determined analytically by use of the extended ray transfer matrix method, leading to two different optical configurations, relying either on a ball lens or plano-convex microlenses. The presented system is aimed to be a core component of miniature MOEMS-based optical devices, which require a 3D optical scanning function, e.g., miniature imaging systems (confocal or optical coherence microscopes) or optical tweezers.

  1. Development of a real time MTF test bench for visible optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Yuheng; Fan, Jiming; Xiang, Chunchang; Shen, Weimin

    2010-11-01

    A real-time MTF test bench for visible optical systems is presented in this paper. This test bench can perform quick on-axis and off-axis MTF measurement of optical systems whose aperture are less than 200mm in visible wavelength. A high quality off-axis parabolic collimator is used as object generator of this test bench. The image analyzer is a microscopy with CCD camera installed on a multi-axis motion stage. The software of this MTF test bench provides a good interface for the operators to set measurement parameters and control this bench. Validation of this test bench, performed with a 50mm plano-convex audit lens, shows that MTF measurement error of this bench is within 0.04. Besides MTF measurement, this bench can also perform effective focal length (EFL) and back focal length (BFL) without any hardware modification. Transmittance of optical system can also be performed on this bench with an integrating sphere.

  2. 3D integration of microfluidics and microoptics inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing for photonic biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Wang, Zhongke; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2008-02-01

    Optical waveguides with a propagation loss of around 0.5 dB/cm are written inside photosensitive Foturan glass by internal modification of refractive index using femtosecond (fs) laser. Integration of the optical wafveguides with a micromirror enables us to bend the guided laser beam at an angle of 90° with a bending loss of less than 0.3 dB. In the meanwhile, a plano-convex microlens is completely embedded inside the Foturan glass chip via formation of a three-dimensional (3D) hollow microstructure using fs laser direct writing followed by heat treatment and successive wet etching. This technique can also be used to fabricate microfluidic devices and therefore realizes 3D integration of microoptical and microfluidic components by one continuous procedure. Subsequently, microoptical waveguides are further integrated into the single glass chip. Demonstration of optical measurements using the integrated microchip reveals that photonic biosensing can be performed with an efficiency increased by a factor of 8 for fluorescence detection and by a factor of 3 for absorption detection.

  3. Intricate Plasma-Scattered Images and Spectra of Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Talib, Md. Ridzuan

    2016-08-01

    We report on some interesting phenomena in the focusing and scattering of femtosecond laser pulses in free space that provide insights on intense laser plasma interactions. The scattered image in the far field is analyzed and the connection with the observed structure of the plasma at the focus is discussed. We explain the physical mechanisms behind the changes in the colorful and intricate image formed by scattering from the plasma for different compressions, as well as orientations of plano-convex lens. The laser power does not show significant effect on the images. The pulse repetition rate above 500 Hz can affect the image through slow dynamics The spectrum of each color in the image shows oscillatory peaks due to interference of delayed pulse that correlate with the plasma length. Spectral lines of atomic species are identified and new peaks are observed through the white light emitted by the plasma spot. We find that an Ar gas jet can brighten the white light of the plasma spot and produce high resolution spectral peaks. The intricate image is found to be extremely sensitive and this is useful for applications in sensing microscale objects.

  4. Intricate Plasma-Scattered Images and Spectra of Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Talib, Md. Ridzuan

    2016-01-01

    We report on some interesting phenomena in the focusing and scattering of femtosecond laser pulses in free space that provide insights on intense laser plasma interactions. The scattered image in the far field is analyzed and the connection with the observed structure of the plasma at the focus is discussed. We explain the physical mechanisms behind the changes in the colorful and intricate image formed by scattering from the plasma for different compressions, as well as orientations of plano-convex lens. The laser power does not show significant effect on the images. The pulse repetition rate above 500 Hz can affect the image through slow dynamics The spectrum of each color in the image shows oscillatory peaks due to interference of delayed pulse that correlate with the plasma length. Spectral lines of atomic species are identified and new peaks are observed through the white light emitted by the plasma spot. We find that an Ar gas jet can brighten the white light of the plasma spot and produce high resolution spectral peaks. The intricate image is found to be extremely sensitive and this is useful for applications in sensing microscale objects. PMID:27571644

  5. Dispersión de velocidades en cúmulos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, H.; García Lambas, D.; Quintana, H.; Infante, L.

    Se ha estudiado la dinámica de galaxias en cúmulos en base a una muestra de aproximadamente 4000 galaxias con estimas de velocidad radial pertenecientes a 40 cúmulos. Se desarrolló un algoritmo para identificar sub-estructuras del tipo ``grupos de galaxias". Una vez eliminada este tipo de sub-estructura se computaron los perfiles radiales de dispersión de velocidades (VDP) para los 40 cúmulos de galaxias. Dada las características de la muestra, fue posible estimar el VDP hasta grandes distancias del centro del cúmulo llegando en algunos casos hasta 7 Mpc-1. Los resultados indican que el 65% de los cúmulos presentan un VDP plano a grandes radios consistente con el modelo isotermo. Estos resultados son discutidos en el marco de las recientes controversias suscitadas respecto de la dinámica de los cúmulos vía los perfiles de temperaturas de cúmulos derivados de la emisión en rayos-X.

  6. Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traverso, Peter; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.

    2016-10-01

    A Thomson scattering system is being commissioned for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a five-field period current-carrying torsatron. The system takes a single point measurement at the magnetic axis to both calibrate the two- color soft x-ray Te system and serve as an additional diagnostic for the V3FIT 3D equilibrium reconstruction code. A single point measurement will reduce the uncertainty in the reconstructed peak pressure by an order of magnitude for both current-carrying plasmas and future gyrotron-heated stellarator plasmas. The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum 2 J, Nd:YaG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and a two-aperture optical baffle system to minimize stray light. The beam line propagates 8 m to the CTH device mid-plane with the beam diameter < 3 mm inside the plasma volume. Thomson scattered light is collected by two adjacent f/2 plano-convex condenser lenses and focused onto a custom fiber bundle. The fiber is then re-bundled and routed to a Holospec f/1.8 spectrograph to collect the red-shifted scattered light from 535-565 nm. The system has been designed to measure plasmas with core Te of 100 to 200 eV and densities of 5 ×1018 to 5 ×1019 m-3. Work supported by USDOE Grant DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  7. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emaneting from its crest. On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of

  8. Near-infrared transillumination at 1310-nm for the imaging of early dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert S.; Huynh, Gigi D.; Jones, Graham C.; Fried, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    New imaging technologies are needed for the early detection of dental caries (decay) in the interproximal contact sites between teeth. Previous measurements have demonstrated that dental enamel is highly transparent in the near-IR at 1300-nm. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1300-nm was used to acquire images through tooth sections of varying thickness and whole teeth in order to demonstrate the utility of a near-IR dental transillumination system for the imaging of early dental caries (decay). Simulated lesions, which model the optical scattering of natural dental caries, were placed in plano-parallel dental enamel sections. The contrast ratio between the simulated lesions and surrounding sound enamel was calculated from analysis of acquired projection images. The results show significant contrast between the lesion and the enamel (>0.35) and a spatial line profile that clearly resolves the lesion in samples as thick as 6.75-mm. This study clearly demonstrates that a near-IR transillumination system has considerable potential for the imaging of early dental decay.

  9. Deformation coupling between the Archean Pukaskwa intrusive complex and the Hemlo shear zone, Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodas, Nathaniel T.; Gébelin, Aude; Ferré, Eric C.; Misgna, Girmay M.

    2013-11-01

    Archean greenstone belts typically form narrow sheared basins separating bulbous tonalo-trondjhemo-granodioritic (TTG) intrusive complexes. The role played by gravity in the development of such dome-and-keel structures constitutes a key question in Archean tectonics. The Pukaskwa intrusive complex (PIC)-Hemlo greenstone belt system stands as a remarkable example of the dome-and-keel architecture that commonly occurs in Archean terrains. Abundant strain markers in the greenstone belt and in the Hemlo shear zone (HSZ) attest of late sinistral strike-slip kinematics (D2) whereas, in general, the quartzofeldspathic coarse-grained rocks of the Pukaskwa intrusive complex bear little macroscopically visible kinematic indicators, most likely due to pervasive recrystallization. The PIC consists dominantly of a heterogeneous assemblage of TTG plutonic rocks and gneisses, which overall are less dense than the greenstone rocks. The study of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), based on 120 stations and 1947 specimens from the PIC, reveals east-west trending prolate and plano-linear fabrics across the northern margin of the complex, i.e., along the HSZ. Since geotherms were higher in the Archean than in the present, the effective viscosity of the TTG units would have been sufficiently low to allow their diapiric ascent through denser greenstone rocks. Here we propose an alternative model where thrust tectonics is responsible for the early structuration of the PIC. Later transpressive tectonics causes strain localization along internal strike-slip shear zones and along lithological boundaries.

  10. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er: YAG laser

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Charles E.; Furu, Laurence H.

    1997-01-01

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 .mu.m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 .mu.m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 .mu.m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 .mu.m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems.

  11. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  12. Variable aberration generator using a high-order even aspheric singlet for testing optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinfeng; Chen, Shanyong; Xue, Shuai

    2016-10-01

    Traditional null optics is generally designed for a particular optical surface. It must be redesigned when the test surface is changed no matter the null optic is reflective, transmitted or a CGH. Development of advanced optical machining and testing based on deterministic figuring and null test makes it possible to apply high-order aspheres. This paper presents a plano-concave singlet to realize variable aberration correction for testing different surfaces. The concave surface is an even asphere with high-order terms. By changing the axial distances among the transmission sphere, the null singlet and the test surface, variable aberrations are generated to meet the aberration balance requirement for various surfaces. The residual aberrations are confirmed within the vertical dynamic range of measurement of the interferometer. It enables flexible testing of optical surfaces without dedicated null optics. The optical design verifies that the aspheric singlet can be used to test conic surfaces with different conic constant and radius of curvature ranging from ellipsoid, paraboloid to hyperboloid and an even asphere.

  13. The role of affordances in children's learning performance and efficiency when using virtual manipulative mathematics touch-screen apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Bullock, Emma K.; Shumway, Jessica F.; Tucker, Stephen I.; Watts, Christina M.; Westenskow, Arla; Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Gulkilik, Hilal; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on understanding the role that affordances played in children's learning performance and efficiency during clinical interviews of their interactions with mathematics apps on touch-screen devices. One hundred children, ages 3 to 8, each used six different virtual manipulative mathematics apps during 30-40-min interviews. The study used a convergent mixed methods design, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently to answer the research questions (Creswell and Plano Clark 2011). Videos were used to capture each child's interactions with the virtual manipulative mathematics apps, document learning performance and efficiency, and record children's interactions with the affordances within the apps. Quantitized video data answered the research question on differences in children's learning performance and efficiency between pre- and post-assessments. A Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test was used to explore these data. Qualitative video data was used to identify affordance access by children when using each app, identifying 95 potential helping and hindering affordances among the 18 apps. The results showed that there were changes in children's learning performance and efficiency when children accessed a helping or a hindering affordance. Helping affordances were more likely to be accessed by children who progressed between the pre- and post-assessments, and the same affordances had helping and hindering effects for different children. These results have important implications for the design of virtual manipulative mathematics learning apps.

  14. Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Inhwa; Xiao, Jianliang; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Lu, Chaofeng; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Yoon, Jongseung; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging systems that exploit arrays of photodetectors in curvilinear layouts are attractive due to their ability to match the strongly nonplanar image surfaces (i.e., Petzval surfaces) that form with simple lenses, thereby creating new design options. Recent work has yielded significant progress in the realization of such “eyeball” cameras, including examples of fully functional silicon devices capable of collecting realistic images. Although these systems provide advantages compared to those with conventional, planar designs, their fixed detector curvature renders them incompatible with changes in the Petzval surface that accompany variable zoom achieved with simple lenses. This paper describes a class of digital imaging device that overcomes this limitation, through the use of photodetector arrays on thin elastomeric membranes, capable of reversible deformation into hemispherical shapes with radii of curvature that can be adjusted dynamically, via hydraulics. Combining this type of detector with a similarly tunable, fluidic plano-convex lens yields a hemispherical camera with variable zoom and excellent imaging characteristics. Systematic experimental and theoretical studies of the mechanics and optics reveal all underlying principles of operation. This type of technology could be useful for night-vision surveillance, endoscopic imaging, and other areas that require compact cameras with simple zoom optics and wide-angle fields of view. PMID:21245356

  15. Sub-micron period metal lattices fabricated by interfering ultraviolet femtosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Yoshiki; Matsuba, Yoshiki; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2016-05-01

    The interference pattern of a femtosecond laser has been utilized to fabricate nanostructures in the lattice. In this paper, SH (second-harmonic) waves (λ = 392.5 {{nm}}) of a femtosecond laser were applied to four beams interfering laser processing using a demagnification system as a beam correlator. The lattice constant of the resultant matrix was shortened to 760 nm. The unit structures fabricated on gold thin films were nanoholes, nanobumps, nanodrops or nanowhiskers, and their unit size was minimized compared to the case with a greater lattice constant formed by fundamental wavelengths. The radius of a nanoball on top of a nanodrop was between 42 and 76 nm, and the radius of metallic hole arrays (MHA) was 220 nm. The energy efficiency of the laser increased by 4.79 times due to better absorption coefficient of gold at ultraviolet wavelengths. In addition, the smallest lattice constant was estimated with the use of a commercial plano-convex fused-silica lens and a NIR (near-infrared) achromatic lens.

  16. Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Jumpei; Matsuyama, Satoshi Sano, Yasuhisa; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2015-09-15

    We developed an ion beam figuring system that utilizes electrostatic deflection. The system can produce an arbitrary shape by deterministically scanning the ion beam. The scan of the ion beam, which can be precisely controlled using only an electrical signal, enables us to avoid degradation of the mirror shape caused by imperfect acceleration or deceleration of a mechanically scanning stage. Additionally, this surface figuring method can easily be combined with X-ray metrology because the workpiece remains fixed during the figuring. We evaluated the figuring accuracy of the system by fabricating a plano-elliptical mirror for X-ray focusing. A mirror with a shape error of 1.4 nm root mean square (RMS) with a maximum removal depth of 992 nm, which corresponds to figuring accuracy of 0.14% RMS, was achieved. After the second shape corrections, an elliptical shape with a shape error of approximately 1 nm peak-to-valley, 0.48 nm RMS could be fabricated. Then, the mirror surface was smoothed by a low-energy ion beam. Consequently, a micro-roughness of 0.117 nm RMS, measured by atomic force microscopy, was achieved over an area of 1 × 1 μm{sup 2}.

  17. MRF Applications: On the Road to Making Large-Aperture Ultraviolet Laser Resistant Continuous Phase Plates for High-Power Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Hachkowski, M R; Nelson, A; Xin, K

    2006-10-26

    Over the past two years we have developed MRF tools and procedures to manufacture large-aperture (430 X 430 mm) continuous phase plates (CPPs) that are capable of operating in the infrared portion (1053 nm) of high-power laser systems. This is accomplished by polishing prescribed patterns of continuously varying topographical features onto finished plano optics using MRF imprinting techniques. We have been successful in making, testing, and using large-aperture CPPs whose topography possesses spatial periods as low as 4 mm and surface peak-to-valleys as high as 8.6 {micro}m. Combining this application of MRF technology with advanced MRF finishing techniques that focus on ultraviolet laser damage resistance makes it potentially feasible to manufacture large-aperture CPPs that can operate in the ultraviolet (351 nm) without sustaining laser-induced damage. In this paper, we will discuss the CPP manufacturing process and the results of 351-nm/3-nsec equivalent laser performance experiments conducted on large-aperture CPPs manufactured using advanced MRF protocols.

  18. [Retrospect of tuberculosis control in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hijjar, Miguel Aiub; Gerhardt, Germano; Teixeira, Gilmário M; Procópio, Maria José

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to look back on the course of action involving measures of tuberculosis control in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, covering the history of social struggles and pointing out institutions and people that have dedicated themselves to looking for solutions to these issues. The Brazilian response to tuberculosis started in society with the Ligas Contra a Tuberculose (Leagues Against Tuberculosis), promoting scientific advances, such as the BCG vaccination, which begun in 1927. From the public power, the Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (TB Prophylaxis Inspection Service - 1920), the Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (National Service of Tuberculosis - 1940), and the Campanha Nacional Contra a Tuberculose (National Campaign Against Tuberculosis - 1946), coordinated national policies such as chemotherapy, beginning with the discovery of streptomycin in 1944. The emergence of bacterial resistance led to the development of several therapeutic schemes. The Scheme 1 (rifampycin, hydrazide and pyrazinamid), which was the main one in 1979 and is still used nowadays, had a great epidemiological effect. The WHO declared TB a public health emergency in 1993. In response, Brazil developed some strategies; the first one was the Plano Emergencial para Controle da Tuberculose (Emergency Plan for Tuberculosis Control - 1994), prioritizing 230 municipalities. The current prospects are an effective municipalization of actions and their greater integration with the Programas de Agentes Comunitários e Saúde da Família (Humanitarian Agents and Family Health Programs).

  19. A kind of transmission-type lens using in x-ray band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Li, Xiao-li; Xu, Xiangyan

    2015-02-01

    The negative refractive index characteristics of one-dimensional photonic crystal consisted by Fibonacci multi-layer films has been studied by numerical method. The refractive indices for two materials, which are used to construct the Fibonacci multi-layer films, are 0.920 and 0.999, respectively. The calculation result shows that, on one hand, there are several negative refractive index zones for this kind of photonic crystal even if the refractive indices are very small; on the other hand, the difference is very large for the frequency between the zones. As an example, a kind of transmission-type plano-concave lens is designed. The simulation of the electromagnetic field distribution for the lens demonstrates that the lens can focus the incoming X-ray radiation. At the same time, the calculation of the absorption strength and refractive indices for real materials shows that not only there are large differences for the absorption strength with different materials, but also the refractive indices for real materials are different in X-ray band. Obviously, the characteristics above support a kind of transmission-type lens using in X-ray.

  20. Translation, adaptation and validation the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho; Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; da Silva, Daniel Dutra Romualdo; Bosco, Adriana Aparecida; Gabriel, Beatriz Diniz; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Rodrigues, Júlia Santos Nunes; Pagano, Adriana Silvina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to translate, adapt and validate the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context. This protocol was developed by the American Diabetes Association and guides the procedure of educators for the care of children and adolescents with diabetes in schools. Method: this methodological study was conducted in four stages: initial translation, synthesis of initial translation, back translation and content validation by an expert committee, composed of 94 specialists (29 applied linguists and 65 health professionals), for evaluation of the translated version through an online questionnaire. The concordance level of the judges was calculated based on the Content Validity Index. Data were exported into the R program for statistical analysis: Results: the evaluation of the instrument showed good concordance between the judges of the Health and Applied Linguistics areas, with a mean content validity index of 0.9 and 0.89, respectively, and slight variability of the index between groups (difference of less than 0.01). The items in the translated version, evaluated as unsatisfactory by the judges, were reformulated based on the considerations of the professionals of each group. Conclusion: a Brazilian version of Diabetes Medical Management Plan was constructed, called the Plano de Manejo do Diabetes na Escola. PMID:27508911

  1. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  2. Comparative in vitro microradiographic effects of resin-modified and autopolymerizing glass ionomers on demineralization of primary and permanent enamel.

    PubMed

    Wandera, A; Garcia, G

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro effects of resin-modified and autopolymerizing glass ionomer restorative materials on demineralization of primary and permanent human enamel. Thirty primary and permanent enamel specimens measuring approximately 3 x 4 x 4 mm were sectioned and plano-paralleled before random placement of materials: Photac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer; Ketac-Fil, an autopolymerizing glass ionomer; and Tytin, a silver amalgam. After incubation for twenty-four hours, the samples were pH cycled for eight hours at pH 5.0 and sixteen hours at pH 7.2 for a total of two weeks, all at 37 degrees C. The specimens were then subjected to an artificial caries challenge at pH 5.0 for 196 hours. The specimens were embeded in Epon 812 and incubated at 55 degrees C for thirty-six hours. Microsections were produced from each sample and subjected to microradiography and quantitative microdensitometry. Data on lesion depth and mineral content were analyzed by Two Way ANOVA and Student Newman-Keuls Pairwise Multiple Comparison tests. There were significant differences in lesion depth and mineral content between groups (p < 0.05) and between permanent and primary enamel. This study demonstrates that Photac-Fil and Ketac-Fil prevent in vitro demineralization at varying levels in primary and permanent enamel.

  3. Design of interferometer system on Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. H.; An, Y. H.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    A 94 GHz heterodyne interferometer system was designed to measure the plasma density of VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus), which was recently built at Seoul National University. Two 94 GHz Gunn oscillators with a frequency difference of 40 MHz were used in the microwave electronics part of a heterodyne interferometer system. A compact beam focusing system utilizing a pair of plano-convex lenses and a concave mirror was designed to maximize the effective beam reception and spatial resolution. Beam path analysis based on Gaussian optics was used in the design of the beam focusing system. The design of the beam focusing system and the beam path analysis were verified with a couple of experiments that were done within an experimental framework that considered the real dimensions of a vacuum vessel. Optimum distances between the optical components and the beam radii along the beam path obtained from the experiments were in good agreement with the beam path analysis using the Gaussian optics. Both experimentation and numerical calculations confirmed that the designed beam focusing system maximized the spatial resolution of the measurement; moreover, the beam waist was located at the center of the plasma to generate a phase shift more effectively in plasmas. The interferometer system presented in this paper is expected to be used in the measurements of line integrated plasma densities during the start-up phase of VEST.

  4. A simple and compact smartphone accessory for quantitative chemiluminescence-based lateral flow immunoassay for salivary cortisol detection.

    PubMed

    Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Anfossi, Laura; Baggiani, Claudio; Simoni, Patrizia; Di Nardo, Fabio; Roda, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    We have developed a simple and accurate biosensor based on a chemiluminescent (CL)-lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) method integrated in a smartphone to quantitatively detect salivary cortisol. The biosensor is based on a direct competitive immunoassay using peroxidase-cortisol conjugate, detected by adding the chemiluminescent substrate luminol/enhancer/hydrogen peroxide. The smartphone camera is used as light detector, for image acquisition and data handling via a specific application. We 3D-printed simple accessories to adapt the smartphone. The system comprises a cartridge, which houses the LFIA strip, and a smartphone adaptor with a plano-convex lens and a cartridge-insertion slot. This provides a mini-darkbox and aligned optical interface between the camera and the LFIA membrane for acquiring CL signals. The method is simple and fast, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/mL. It provides quantitative analysis in the range of 0.3-60 ng/mL, which is adequate for detecting salivary cortisol in the clinically accepted range. It could thus find application in the growing area of home-self-diagnostic device technology for clinical biomarker monitoring, overcoming the current difficulties in achieving sensitive and quantitative information with conventional systems taking the advantage of smartphone connectivity and the enhanced performance of the included camera.

  5. Improvement on object detection accuracy by using two compound eye systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mengchao; Wang, Keyi

    2014-09-01

    Compound eye is a multiple apertures imaging device, indicates that it can be applied for three-dimensional object detection. In our previous report, an artificial compound eye system was developed for 3D object detection. The system consists of a layer of plano-convex microlenses and a prism-like beam steering lens. An innovative multi-position calibration method is developed to relate the incident light rays and the relevant image points. Theoretically, one compound eye system alone is capable of 3D objects detection. However, the detection accuracy is limited due to the relatively small baseline between the adjacent microlenses. In this work, an equivalent large baseline is obtained by using a two compound eyes system. Preliminary experiments were performed to verify the improvement on the accuracy of 3D object detection. The experimental results with two compound eyes are compared with that obtained by only one compound eye. Experimental results show that the system with two compound eyes can detect an object much more accurately, indicating the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method.

  6. Reflective off-axis point-diffraction interferometer based on Michelson architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hongyi; Guo, Lili; Zhong, Zhi; Shan, Mingguang; Zhang, Yabin

    2015-02-01

    A reflective off-axis point-diffraction interferometer based on Michelson architecture is built to measure static and dynamic quantitative phase in a single shot. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, a pinhole mirror, a reflective mirror and two lenses to build a 4f optical system. The pinhole mirror is used as a low-pass spatial filter to generate reference wave. By tilting the reflective mirror, a small angle is created between the object beam and the reference beam to enable an off-axis interferogram. To reconstruct an interferogram with a few fringes, Kreis Fourier method is used to recovery the specimen phase. Using a plano-convex cylinder lens and an evaporative alcohol drop as the specimens, experiments are run to verify the effectiveness and robustness with this interferometer. Experimental results show that this interferometer has not only simple setup and good anti-interference performance, but also good real-time ability, which makes it suitable for dynamic phase measurement.

  7. Experimental Analysis of Desalination Unit Coupled with Solar Water Lens Concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaithanya, K. K.; Rajesh, V. R.; Suresh, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    The main problem that the world faces in this scenario is shortage of potable water. Hence this research work rivets to increase the yield of desalination system in an economical way. The integration of solar concentrator and desalination unit can project the desired yield, but the commercially available concentrated solar power technologies (CSP) are not economically viable. So this study proposes a novel method to concentrate ample amount of solar radiation in a cost effective way. Water acting as lens is a highlighted technology initiated in this work, which can be a substitute for CSP systems. And water lens can accelerate the desalination process so as to increase the yield economically. The solar irradiance passing through the water will be concentrated at a focal point, and the concentration depends on curvature of water lens. The experimental analysis of water lens makes use of transparent thin sheet, supported on a metallic structure. The Plano convex shape of water lens is developed by varying the volume of water that is being poured on the transparent thin sheet. From the experimental analysis it is inferred that, as the curvature of water lens increases, solar irradiance can be focused more accurately on to the focus and a higher water temperature is obtained inside the solar still.

  8. Influence of power changes in single cut rigid contact lenses on tear pump efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fink, B A; Carney, L G; Hill, R M

    1992-09-01

    Differences between corneal oxygen uptake rates measured after 5 min of static (without blinking) and 5 min of dynamic (with blinking once every 5 s) non-gas permeable (polymethyl methacrylate) contact lens wear, referenced to the oxygen uptake rates of the normal open eye, were used as indications of tear pump efficiencies associated with each of seven contact lens back vertex powers (-9.00 to +9.00 D, in 3.00 D steps). Measurements were made in vivo on six human corneas showing with-the-rule (0.25 to 0.87 D) toricity. Lens overall diameter was 8.8 mm, optic zone diameter was 7.4 mm, and base curve radius was fitted "on K." Lens center thickness was 0.14 mm for all minus-powered lenses, and 0.19, 0.26, 0.34, and 0.41 mm for the plano, +3.00, +6.00, and +9.00 D lenses, respectively, maintaining an edge thickness of 0.11 mm. Under both static and dynamic wearing conditions, no significant differences were found among the corneal oxygen uptake rates associated with the various contact lens back vertex powers; however, the difference between the static and dynamic condition data, an indication of tear pump efficiency, was greatest for the -3.00 D lens. The difference values associated with the +9.00 and +6.00 D lenses were significantly lower than those associated with the minus power lenses.

  9. Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, A. R.

    En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer más eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronómica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino óptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar físico necesario para instalar un periférico, es posible la habilitación de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundará en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitará la observación, casi simultánea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuirá el frecuente cambio del instrumental periférico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por último, también de interés, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecución.

  10. Optical lenses design and experimental investigations of a dynamic focusing unit for a CO2 laser scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yue; Zhang, Huaxin; Liu, Peng; Jiao, Guohua

    2016-09-01

    Laser scanners are critical components in material processing systems, such as welding, cutting, and drilling. To achieve high-accuracy processing, the laser spot size should be small and uniform in the entire objective flat field. However, traditional static focusing method using F-theta objective lens is limited by the narrow flat field. To overcome these limitations, a dynamic focusing unit consisting of two lenses is presented in this paper. The dual-lens system has a movable plano-concave lens and a fixed convex lens. As the location of the movable optical elements is changed, the focal length is shifted to keep a small focus spot in a broad flat processing filed. The optical parameters of the two elements are theoretical analyzed. The spot size is calculated to obtain the relationship between the moving length of first lens and the shift focus length of the system. Also, the Zemax model of the optical system is built up to verify the theoretical design and optimize the optical parameter. The proposed lenses are manufactured and a test system is built up to investigate their performances. The experimental results show the spot size is smaller than 450um in all the 500*500mm 2 filed with CO2 laser. Compared with the other dynamic focusing units, this design has fewer lenses and no focusing spot in the optical path. In addition, the focal length minimal changes with the shit of incident laser beam.

  11. Real-time dynamic calibration of a tunable frequency laser source using a Fabry-Pérot interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mandula, Gábor Kis, Zsolt; Lengyel, Krisztián

    2015-12-15

    We report on a method for real-time dynamic calibration of a tunable external cavity diode laser by using a partially mode-matched plano-concave Fabry-Pérot interferometer in reflection geometry. Wide range laser frequency scanning is carried out by piezo-driven tilting of a diffractive grating playing the role of a frequency selective mirror in the laser cavity. The grating tilting system has a considerable mechanical inertness, so static laser frequency calibration leads to false results. The proposed real-time dynamic calibration based on the identification of primary- and Gouy-effect type secondary interference peaks with known frequency and temporal history can be used for a wide scanning range (from 0.2 GHz to more than 1 GHz). A concave spherical mirror with a radius of R = 100 cm and a plain 1% transmitting mirror was used as a Fabry-Pérot interferometer with various resonator lengths to investigate and demonstrate real-time calibration procedures for two kinds of laser frequency scanning functions.

  12. Single-pulse femtosecond laser Bessel beams drilling of high-aspect-ratio microholes based on electron dynamics control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Xiaowei; Xia, Bo; Yan, Xueliang; Han, Weina; Lu, Yongfeng; Jiang, Lan

    2014-11-01

    Microholes drilling has attracted extensive research efforts for its broad applications in photonics, microfluidics, optical fibers and many other fields. A femtosecond (fs) laser is a promising tool for high-precision materials processing with reduced recast/microcracks and minimized heat affected zones. But there remain many challenges in hole drilling using conventional fs laser with Gaussian beams, such as low aspect ratio and taper effects. We report small-diameter and high-aspect-ratio microholes with taper free drilling in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) using single-pulse fs laser Bessel beams. Axicon is used to transform Gaussian beams into Bessel beams, which then irradiate in the sample by a telescope consisting of plano-convex lens and microscope objective. Using this technique, we enhance the aspect ratio of microholes by 55 times as compared with Gaussian beams. We attribute this high aspect ratio and high quality microholes formation to the unique spatial intensity distribution and propagation stability of Bessel beams, which can effectively adjust the transient localized electron density distribution leading to a long and uniform localized-interacted zone. By using the optimized pulse energy and focal depth position, the microholes diameter ranges between 1.4-2.1 μm and the aspect ratio can exceed 460. This efficient technique is of great potentials for fabrication of microphotonics devices and microfluidics.

  13. Design and improvements of the Attitude Control System of the FIREBall balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montel, Johan; Mirc, Frédéri; Pérot, Etienne; Zenone, Isabelle; Nicot, Jean-Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Gomes, Albert; Evrard, Jean; Tapie, Pierre; Vola, Pascal; Milliard, Bruno; Grange, Robert; Schiminovich, David

    2016-07-01

    FIREBALL (the Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon, funded by CNES-NASA, PI C.Martin, Caltech) is a balloon-borne 1m telescope coupled to an ultraviolet Multi Object Spectrometer (MOS), designed to study the faint and diffuse emission of the circumgalactic medium. The third flight of the experiment is planned in summer 2017. The goal of this paper is to describe the accurate pointing system of the 5-metres high / 1500kg gondola - that has been designed to fulfill stringent pointing requirements: less than 1 arcsec in elevation and cross elevation, and about 1 arcmin in field rotation (around the line of sight axis), over long integration time (a few hours). The pointing system is based on a multi stage closed loop scheme (4 Degrees Of Freedom), relying on a 1DOF gondola azimuth controller, a 2DOF gimbal frame supporting a 1.2-meter plano siderostat, and a 1DOF field rotation control system. The attitude determination is based on the hybridization of two accurate sensors: a Fiber Optic Gyrometer measurement unit and a star sensor integrated inside the instrument. The manuscript presents the design of the ACS. We also focus on flight train stability issues - due to the pendulum and torsion modes -, on the geometric equations specific to a siderostat pointing system, and on the description of the tests facilities.

  14. Transmission-speckle correlation for measuring dynamic deformation of liquid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhanwei; Guo, Jing; Shi, Wenxiong; Huang, Xianfu; Xie, Huimin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a method based on transmission-speckle correlation is proposed for measuring static and dynamic deformation of liquid surface. In the method, a high-speed camera placed vertically above the tested liquid surface is used to observe and record a special speckle pattern put in advance at the bottom of liquid. According to the Snell's law, the deformation of liquid surface will lead to the movement of the transmission-speckles. In terms of this, the quantitative relationship between height changes of liquid surface and the in-plane displacement of transmission-speckles can be deduced. Combining with multi-directional Newton iteration algorithm, the dynamic deformation field of liquid surface can be calculated from the in-plane displacement vector field of transmission-speckle images in different moment using speckle correlation method. The sensitivity of the method in measuring height changes of liquid surface is discussed. In this paper, a validation test to measure the surface morphology of a plano-convex lens demonstrates the feasibility and the effectiveness of the method. In addition, the dynamic deformation and propagation process of ripples in the water surface caused by a droplet were investigated.

  15. Research of the chemiluminescence detection apparatus for nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Yu; Ni, Xuxiang; Yan, Huimin

    2016-10-01

    The multifunctional nutrition analyzer, which integrates four detection functions, can make fast, accurate, quantitative analysis for a variety of nutrients. In this article we focus on researching the luminescence detection system. Compared with other means, luminescence detection needs no excitation light, and the detection sensitivity is improved due to the reduction of the background light. The apparatus consists of an displacement platform, a microporous plate, a combination of an aspheric lens and a plano-convex lens, an optical fiber and a photon counter connected with a computer. A theoretical light intensity formula is established as a reference and a comparison of the experimental data. In the experiment we applies ATP detection reagent as the experimental reagent, whose magnitudes of concentration are from 10-6 mol/L to 10-12 mol/L. The sensitivity of the apparatus could reach a magnitude of concentration of 0.1nmol/L, and it is estimated to be further improved by at least two magnitudes in theory with the system and the reagent optimized.

  16. Measurement of xenon plasma properties in an ion thruster using laser Thomson scattering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, N.; Tomita, K.; Sugita, K.; Kurita, T.; Nakashima, H.; Uchino, K.

    2012-07-15

    This paper reports on the development of a method for measuring xenon plasma properties using the laser Thomson scattering technique, for application to ion engine system design. The thresholds of photo-ionization of xenon plasma were investigated and the number density of metastable atoms, which are photo-ionized by a probe laser, was measured using laser absorption spectroscopy, for several conditions. The measured threshold energy of the probe laser using a plano-convex lens with a focal length of 200 mm was 150 mJ for a xenon mass flow rate of 20 {mu}g/s and incident microwave power of 6 W; the probe laser energy was therefore set as 80 mJ. Electron number density was found to be (6.2 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} and electron temperature was found to be 2.2 {+-} 0.4 eV at a xenon mass flow rate of 20 {mu}g/s and incident microwave power of 6 W. The threshold of the probe laser intensity against photo-ionization in a miniature xenon ion thruster is almost constant for various mass flow rates, since the ratio of population of the metastable atoms to the electron number density is little changed.

  17. Feasibility test for a V-slit star mapper for pioneer spacecraft terminal navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. F.; Flannery, J. V.; Cragin, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration of the feasibility of using a V-slit star mapper to meet the sensitivity and accuracy of on-board navigational requirements for future Pioneer Missions to the outer planets was conducted by the Control and Sensors Laboratory of TRW. The breadboard was extremely simple in configuration, consisting of an end-on photomultiplier tube and a V-slit reticle located at the focal plane of the objective lens. In addition, a plano-convex lens was used between the reticle and the PMT in a Fabry-Perot configuration. The analytical effort indicated that the sensor should easily meet the requirements. The Pioneer SRA test set was examined to determine its basic accuracy and modify it where necessary to bring its accuracy into the 1-3 arc second range. The test results show that it is feasible to use this type of star mapper in the 10 arc second accuracy range. The test equipment accuracy (approximately 5 arc Sec) was sufficient to bound the sensor errors at less than 10 arc seconds.

  18. Polymeric nanolayered gradient refractive index lenses: technology review and introduction of spherical gradient refractive index ball lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shanzuo; Yin, Kezhen; Mackey, Matthew; Brister, Aaron; Ponting, Michael; Baer, Eric

    2013-11-01

    A nanolayered polymer films approach to designing and fabricating gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses with designer refractive index distribution profiles and an independently prescribed lens surface geometry have been demonstrated to produce a new class of optics. This approach utilized nanolayered polymer materials, constructed with polymethylmethacrylate and a styrene-co-acrylonitrile copolymer with a tailorable refractive index intermediate to bulk materials, to fabricate discrete GRIN profile materials. A process to fabricate nanolayered polymer GRIN optics from these materials through thermoforming and finishing steps is reviewed. A collection of technology-demonstrating previously reported nanolayered GRIN case studies is presented that include: (1) the optical performance of a f/# 2.25 spherical GRIN plano-convex singlet with one quarter (2) the weight of a similar BK7 lens and a bio-inspired aspheric human eye GRIN lens. Original research on the fabrication and characterization of a Luneburg inspired GRIN ball lens is presented as a developing application of the nanolayered polymer technology.

  19. Cognitive fusion analysis based on context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2004-04-01

    The standard fusion model includes active and passive user interaction in level 5 - "User Refinement". User refinement is more than just details of passive automation partitioning - it is the active management of information. While a fusion system can explore many operational conditions over myopic changes, the user has the ability to reason about the hyperopic "big picture." Blasch and Plano developed cognitive-fusion models that address user constraints including: intent, attention, trust, workload, and throughput to facilitate hyperopic analysis. To enhance user-fusion performance modeling (i.e. confidence, timeliness, and accuracy); we seek to explore the nature of context. Context, the interrelated conditions of which something exists, can be modeled in many ways including geographic, sensor, object, and environmental conditioning. This paper highlights user refinement actions based on context to constrain the fusion analysis for accurately representing the trade space in the real world. As an example, we explore a target identification task in which contextual information from the user"s cognitive model is imparted to a fusion belief filter.

  20. [Multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2016-12-16

    Introduccion. En la actualidad, la atencion del paciente con esclerosis multiple y su entorno supone un reto clinico y terapeutico para los profesionales de la salud. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la aparicion de la esclerosis multiple en la literatura, el cine y la television, y reflexionar sobre su imagen en dichos medios. Desarrollo. Se han revisado algunas obras representativas que han abordado la esclerosis multiple, y se ha observado que en muchas de ellas se ofrece una vision muy fidedigna de la enfermedad. Del mismo modo, se han revisado las principales peliculas y series de television que, en ocasiones, son un reflejo cercano al publico general de la vision e impacto de la enfermedad sobre los pacientes o familiares, no exentas de excesos dramaticos y distorsiones de la realidad. Conclusiones. La literatura refleja, en gran medida, la epidemiologia real, los sintomas y la progresion de la enfermedad, mientras que las opciones diagnosticas y terapeuticas parecen estar en un segundo plano. El cine y la television han ofrecido una imagen correcta, pero en ocasiones atendiendo mas a efectos dramaticos. Es importante que la literatura, el cine y la television ofrezcan una vision ajustada a la realidad de esta enfermedad para dar a conocer esta afeccion neurologica y contribuir a disminuir su estigma.

  1. Refractive microlenses for ultraflat photolithographic projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Ossmann, Christian; Weible, Kenneth J.

    2000-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of high quality microlens arrays on 4', 6' and 8'-fused silica wafers. Refractive, plano-convex microlenses are fabricated by using photolithography; a reflow or melting resist technique and reactive ion etching. A diffraction-limited optical performance (p-v wave aberrations of < (lambda) /8, Strehl ratio GTR 0.97) is achieved. Aspherical lens profiles are obtained by varying the etch parameters during the reactive ion etching transfer. The microlens arrays are used for Microlens Projection Lithography (MPL) and within UV-light illumination systems. Microlens Projection Lithography is an innovative technique using KARL SUSS Mask Aligners equipped with an ultra-flat microlens-based projection system. The projection system consists of 500.000 identical micro-objectives side- by-side. Each micro-objective consists of 3 to 4 microlenses. A fully symmetrical optical design eliminates coma, distortion and lateral color. The lens system is frontal- and backside telecentric to provide a unit magnification (+1) over the whole depth of focus. Each micro- objective images a small part of the photomask pattern onto the wafer. The partial images from different channels overlap consistently and form a complete aerial image of the photomask. Microlens Projection Lithography provides an increased depth of focus (GTR 50 microns) at a larger working distance ($GTR 1 mm)than standard proximity printing. Microlens Projection Lithography allows photolithography on curved on non-planar substrates, in V-grooves, holes, etc. using a KARL SUSS Mask Aligner.

  2. Is optimal vision required for the successful execution of an interceptive task?

    PubMed

    Mann, David L; Ho, Nathan Y; De Souza, Neilsen J; Watson, Damien R; Taylor, Scott J

    2007-06-01

    The importance of optimal visual function in demanding interceptive tasks is far from established. The aim of the study was to determine whether induced myopic blur and hence sub-optimal visual function would give rise to a detrimental effect on performance in the execution of an interceptive task. The batting performance of grade level cricket players was assessed facing a bowling machine whilst wearing contact lenses of four different refractive conditions (plano (nil), +1.00, +2.00 and +3.00D over-refraction), inducing increasing amounts of myopic blur. Performance for each condition was assessed based both on the shot quality against each delivery judged by a qualified cricket coach blind to each condition, along with an evaluation of the quality of ball-bat contact for each delivery. No significant change was found in batting performance with the introduction of +1.00 and +2.00D of induced myopic blur. A +3.00D over-correction was required before any significant decrease in batting performance was detected, demonstrating that batters needed to be essentially legally blind (as simulated through the use of the +3.00D over-refraction) before there was any significant measurable decrement in batting performance. We concluded that optimal visual correction is not necessarily required for optimal performance in a demanding interceptive task, and that the human perceptual-motor system is capable of compensating for marked alterations in input.

  3. Optical cavity integrated surface ion trap for enhanced light collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Francisco M.

    Ion trap systems allow the faithful storage and manipulation of qubits encoded in the energy levels of the ions, and can be interfaced with photonic qubits that can be transmitted to connect remote quantum systems. Single photons transmitted from two remote sites, each entangled with one quantum memory, can be used to entangle distant quantum memories by interfering on a beam splitter. Efficient remote entanglement generation relies upon efficient light collection from single ions into a single mode fiber. This can be realized by integrating an ion trap with an optical cavity and employing the Purcell effect for enhancing the light collection. Remote entanglement can be used as a resource for a quantum repeater for provably secure long-distance communication or as a method for communicating within a distributed quantum information processor. We present the integration of a 1 mm optical cavity with a micro-fabricated surface ion trap. The plano-concave cavity is oriented normal to the chip surface where the planar mirror is attached underneath the trap chip. The cavity is locked using a 780 nm laser which is stabilized to Rubidium and shifted to match the 369 nm Doppler transition in Ytterbium. The linear ion trap allows ions to be shuttled in and out of the cavity mode. The Purcell enhancement of spontaneous emission into the cavity mode would then allow efficient collection of the emitted photons, enabling faster remote entanglement generation.

  4. Challenges for nursing at the reach of primary health care goals.

    PubMed

    Cubas, Marcia Regina

    2011-12-01

    The debate is based on the contextualization of the goals presented by the National Primary Health Care Plan (Plano Nacional de Atenção Básica), which despite having improved the quality and attempted to solve inequities and vulnerabilities, still has contradictions to overcome. The plan discusses that nursing, in this setting, is included as a member of the family health team and in the coordination of community health agents. The analysis of the challenges to be overcome was divided into three blocks: undergraduate teaching, the working process, and continuous training. The first block presents a panorama of undergraduates studies in Brazil and how the primary health care issues are addressed in the curricula and understood by faculty and students; the second examines the views that primary health care nurses have about their working process and the guidelines of the Brazilian National Health System; finally, the third block points to the challenges related to the different knowledge and practices that must be developed in nursing, in this specific area of practice.

  5. Development of high-throughput silicon lens and grism with moth-eye anti-reflection structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Imada, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Uchiyama, Masahito; Wada, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Anti-reflection (AR) is very important for high-throughput optical elements. The durability against cooling is required for the AR structure in the cryogenic optics used for mid-infrared astronomical instruments. Moth-eye structure is a promising AR technique strong against cooling. The silicon lens and grism with the moth-eye structure are being developed to make high-throughput elements for long-wavelength mid-infrared instruments. A double-sided moth-eye plano-convex lens (Effective diameter: 33 mm, Focal length: 188 mm) was fabricated. By the transmittance measurement, it was confirmed that its total throughput is 1.7+/- 0.1 times higher than bare silicon lenses in a wide wavelength range of 20{45 μm. It suggests that the lens can achieve 83+/-5% throughput in the cryogenic temperature. It was also confirmed that the moth-eye processing on the lens does not modify the focal length. As for the grism, the homogeneous moth-eye processing on blaze pattern was realized by employing spray coating for the resist coating in EB lithography. The silicon grism with good surface roughness was also developed. The required techniques for completing moth-eye grisms have been established.

  6. Design considerations for miniaturized optical neural probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmann, Linda; Ordonez, Juan S.; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Neural probes are designed to selectively record from or stimulate nerve cells. In optogenetics it is desirable to build miniaturized and long-term stable optical neural probes, in which the light sources can be directly and chronically implanted into the animals to allow free movement and behavior. Because of the size and the beam shape of the available light sources, it is difficult to target single cells as well as spatially localized networks. We therefore investigated design considerations for packages, which encapsulate the light source hermetically and have integrated hemispherical lens structures that enable to focus the light onto the desired region, by optical simulations. Integration of a biconvex lens into the package lid (diameter = 300 μm, material: silicon carbide) increased the averaged absolute irradiance ηA by 298 % compared to a system without a lens and had a spot size of around 120 μm. Solely integrating a plano-convex lens (same diameter and material) results in an ηA of up to 227 %.

  7. Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Inhwa; Xiao, Jianliang; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Lu, Chaofeng; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Yoon, Jongseung; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2011-02-01

    Imaging systems that exploit arrays of photodetectors in curvilinear layouts are attractive due to their ability to match the strongly nonplanar image surfaces (i.e., Petzval surfaces) that form with simple lenses, thereby creating new design options. Recent work has yielded significant progress in the realization of such "eyeball" cameras, including examples of fully functional silicon devices capable of collecting realistic images. Although these systems provide advantages compared to those with conventional, planar designs, their fixed detector curvature renders them incompatible with changes in the Petzval surface that accompany variable zoom achieved with simple lenses. This paper describes a class of digital imaging device that overcomes this limitation, through the use of photodetector arrays on thin elastomeric membranes, capable of reversible deformation into hemispherical shapes with radii of curvature that can be adjusted dynamically, via hydraulics. Combining this type of detector with a similarly tunable, fluidic plano-convex lens yields a hemispherical camera with variable zoom and excellent imaging characteristics. Systematic experimental and theoretical studies of the mechanics and optics reveal all underlying principles of operation. This type of technology could be useful for night-vision surveillance, endoscopic imaging, and other areas that require compact cameras with simple zoom optics and wide-angle fields of view.

  8. Orbital monitoring of the Brazilian pasturelands: patterns, trends and potential ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. G.; Parente, L. L.; Arantes, A. E.; Araujo, F. M.; Brito, J. S.; Nogueira, S.; Faria, A. S.; Santos, A.; Ferreira, M. E.; Silva, J. R.; Rufino, L., Jr.; Vieira, P.; Silva, W. C.; Stefani, F.; Veloso, G.; Nogueira, L.; Aguado, O. O.

    2015-12-01

    In Brazil, where cultivated pastures constitute the dominant land use form, cattle ranching intensification plays a major role towards more environmentally sustainable agricultural practices, through its potential for mitigating GHG emissions, as well as by making available cost-effective land reserve for other uses. However, environmentally sustainable livestock intensification, one of the key goals pursued by Plano ABC (the federal government low carbon agriculture plan), strongly depends on our ability to more precisely identify pasture conditions, improvement needs, and the respective cattle support capacities. To this end, and with the support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, we have concentrated efforts in order to have: 1) a more detailed and updated map of the brazilian pasturelands; 2) a thorough biophysical differentiation of these pastures according to degradation stages / forage levels; and 3) an estimation of overall pasture productivity trends. Our initial estimates, based on the interpretation of satellite and census data, suggest that as much as 50% of the total grazing area in Brazil (about 170 Mhectares) are moderately or severely affected by soil-plant degradation. On the other hand, our preliminary results also corroborate the enormous potential of well managed pastures to positively impact carbon and water fluxes. Based on satellite data and pasture samples from large and productive cattle ranch operations in the central savanna biome in Brazil (Cerrado), we estimated total growing season (October to April) biomass and evapotranspiration to correspond to 9 Gt of carbon and 420 Gt of water, respectively.

  9. Abordaje a la Cisterna Ambiens

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Bravo, Michael Cruz; Garategui, Lucas; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Isolan, Gustavo; Campero, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo: Describir paso a paso el abordaje a la cisterna ambiens por la vía suboccipital retrosigmoidea supracerebelosa infratentorial (SRSI). Descripción: El abordaje SRSI se realiza de la misma manera que el abordaje suboccipital retrosigmoideo (SR), utilizado habitualmente para acceder a la patología del ángulo pontocerebeloso, con las siguientes modificaciones: (1) utilizamos siempre la posición semisentado, (2) la craneotomia-craniectomia debe exponer el seno transverso y extenderse 5 cm medialmente hacia el inion, (3) al realizar la apertura dural es necesario rebatir la duramadre junto con el seno transverso hacia cefálico con puntos de tracción, (4) bajo magnificación con microscopio quirúrgico se debe realizar la apertura de la cisterna cerebelobulbar para drenar líquido cefalorraquídeo, (5) en el plano supracerebeloso es fundamental cortar las bridas aracnoidales y de ser necesario debemos coagular y cortar las venas puente, todas estas maniobras sumadas al efecto de la gravedad brindan mayor apertura del corredor supracerebeloso. Conclusión: El abordaje a la cisterna ambiens por la vía SRSI es una opción segura para el acceso de patologías tumorales que se alojan en esta zona con un componente predominantemente infratentorial. PMID:27999709

  10. The effect of simulated cataract light scatter on retinal vessel oximetry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunni R; Hudson, Chris; Flanagan, John G; Heitmar, Rebekka

    2013-11-01

    To assess the impact of light scatter, similar to that introduced by cataract on retinal vessel blood oxygen saturation measurements using poly-bead solutions of varying concentrations. Eight healthy, young, non-smoking individuals were enrolled for this study. All subjects underwent digital blood pressure measurements, assessment of non-contact intraocular pressure, pupil dilation and retinal vessel oximetry using dual wavelength photography (Oximetry Module, Imedos Systems, Germany). To simulate light scatter, cells comprising a plastic collar and two plano lenses were filled with solutions of differing concentrations (0.001, 0.002 and 0.004%) of polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., USA). The adopted light scatter model showed an artifactual increase in venous optical density ratio (p = 0.036), with the 0.004% condition producing significantly higher venous optical density ratio values when compared to images without a cell in place. Spectrophotometric analysis, and thus retinal vessel oximetry of the retinal vessels, is altered by artificial light scatter.

  11. Spatial Distribution and Coexisting Patterns of Adults and Nymphs of Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Paddy Rice Fields.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Maia, Aline H N; Barrigossi, José A F

    2016-12-01

    The rice stem stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a primary insect pest of paddy rice in South America. Knowledge of its spatial distribution can support sampling plans needed for timely decisions about pest control. This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults and nymphs of T. limbativentris and determine the spatial coexistence of these stages of development. Fifteen paddy rice fields were scouted once each season to estimate insect densities. Scouting was performed on regular grids with sampling points separated by ∼50 m. Moran's I and semivariograms were used to determine spatial distribution patterns. Spatial coexistence of nymphs and adults was explored via spatial point process. Here, adults and nymphs had typically contrasting spatial distribution patterns within the same field; however, the frequency of aggregation was not different between these developmental stages. Adults and nymphs were aggregated in seven fields and randomly distributed in the other eight fields. Uniform distribution of adults or nymphs was not observed. The study-wide semivariogram ranges were ∼40 m for adults and ∼55 m for nymphs. Nymphs and adults spatially coexisted on 67% of the fields. Coexisting patterns were classified using one of the following processes: stage-independent, bidirectional attractive, unidirectional attractive, bidirectional inhibiting, or unidirectional inhibiting. The information presented herein can be important for developing sampling plans for decision-making, implementing tactics for site-specific management, and monitoring areas free of T. limbativentrisResumoO percevejo-do-colmo Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) é uma praga primária na cultura do arroz irrigado na América do Sul. O conhecimento de sua distribuição espacial é essencial para desenvolver planos de amostragem e para o controle desta praga. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a distribuição espacial de

  12. Visual Guidance of Recovery from Lens-Induced Myopia in Tree Shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Amedo, Angela O.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine, in tree shrews, the visual guidance of recovery from negative lens-induced myopia by measuring the effect of wearing low-power negative or positive lenses during recovery. To learn if removing a negative lens for two hours per day, after compensation has occurred, is sufficient to produce recovery. Methods Starting 16 days after natural eye opening (days of visual experience), juvenile tree shrews wore a monocular –5 D lens for 11 days to produce compensation (age-appropriate refraction while wearing the lens). Recovery in four groups was started by discontinuing −5 D lens wear, which caused the treated eyes to be refractively myopic, and substituting: no lens (n = 7), a plano lens (n = 8), a −2 D lens (n = 6) or a +2 D lens (n = 10). In a fifth group (n = 6), the −5 D lens was removed for 2 hours each day but worn the remainder of the time. Non-cycloplegic refractive measurements were made daily for the first 10 days and then less frequently. After 31 to 35 days, the lens-guided recovery period was ended for most animals; periodic measures were continued to assess post-lens recovery changes. Results All the eyes responded to the −5 D lens and were myopic (-4.8±0.1 D, mean ± SEM) compared to the untreated fellow control eye. In all groups except the −2 D Lens group, some animals exhibited slow or incomplete recovery. During recovery, the treated eye of most animals recovered until its refraction, measured with the recovery-lens in place, was near to that of the control eye. Measured without the lens, the −2 D group was myopic and the +2 D group was hyperopic. With the lens in place, the plano-lens, −2 D lens, and +2 D lens groups remained slightly myopic (−1.0±0.3 D, −0.6±0.2 D and −1.3±0.1 D, respectively). The rate of recovery during the first four days was unrelated to the amount of myopia initially experienced by the recovering eyes. Removal of the −5 D lens for two hours each day produced recovery. Conclusions

  13. Array microscopy technology and its application to digital detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Brian P.

    Tuberculosis causes more deaths worldwide than any other curable infectious disease. This is the case despite tuberculosis appearing to be on the verge of eradication midway through the last century. Efforts at reversing the spread of tuberculosis have intensified since the early 1990s. Since then, microscopy has been the primary frontline diagnostic. In this dissertation, advances in clinical microscopy towards array microscopy for digital detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are presented. Digital array microscopy separates the tasks of microscope operation and pathogen detection and will reduce the specialization needed in order to operate the microscope. Distributing the work and reducing specialization will allow this technology to be deployed at the point of care, taking the front-line diagnostic for tuberculosis from the microscopy center to the community health center. By improving access to microscopy centers, hundreds of thousands of lives can be saved. For this dissertation, a lens was designed that can be manufactured as 4x6 array of microscopes. This lens design is diffraction limited, having less than 0.071 waves of aberration (root mean square) over the entire field of view. A total area imaged onto a full-frame digital image sensor is expected to be 3.94 mm2, which according to tuberculosis microscopy guidelines is more than sufficient for a sensitive diagnosis. The design is tolerant to single point diamond turning manufacturing errors, as found by tolerance analysis and by fabricating a prototype. Diamond micro-milling, a fabrication technique for lens array molds, was applied to plastic plano-concave and plano-convex lens arrays, and found to produce high quality optical surfaces. The micro-milling technique did not prove robust enough to produce bi-convex and meniscus lens arrays in a variety of lens shapes, however, and it required lengthy fabrication times. In order to rapidly prototype new lenses, a new diamond machining technique was

  14. Alluvial fans and their natural distinction from rivers based on morphology, hydraulic processes, sedimentary processes, and facies assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, T.C. ); McPherson, J.G. )

    1994-07-01

    Contrary to common contemporary usage, alluvial fans are a naturally unique phenomenon readily distinguishable from other sedimentary environments, including gravel-bed rivers, on the basis of morphology, hydraulic processes, sedimentologic processes, and facies assemblages. The piedmont setting of alluvial fans where the feeder channel of an upland drainage basin intersects the mountain front assures that catastrophic fluid gravity flows and sediment gravity flows, including sheetfloods, rock falls, rock slides, rock avalanches, and debris flows, are major constructional processes, regardless of climate. The unconfinement of these flows at the mountain front gives rise to the high-sloping, semiconical form that typifies fans. The plano-convex cross-profile geometry inherent in this form is the inverse of the toughlike cross-sectional form of river systems, and precludes the development of floodplains that characterize rivers. The relatively high slope of alluvial fans creates unique hydraulic conditions where passing fluid gravity flows attain high capacity, high competency, and upper flow regime, resulting in sheetfloods that deposit low-angle antidune or surface-parallel planar-stratified sequences. These waterlaid facies contrast with the typically lower-flow-regime thick-bedded, cross-bedded, and lenticular channel facies, and associated floodplain sequences, of rivers. The unconfinement of flows on fans causes a swift decrease in velocity, competency, and capacity as they attenuate, inducing rapid deposition that leads to the angular, poorly sorted textures and short radii typical of fans. This condition is markedly different than for rivers, where sediment gravity flows are rare and water flows remain confined by channel walls or spill into floodplains, and increase in depth downstream.

  15. Development of the multi-mode horn-lens configuration for the LSPE-SWIPE B-mode experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, Stephen; Lamagna, Luca; Coppi, Gabriele; de Bernardis, Paolo; Giuliani, Grazia; Gualtieri, Riccardo; Marchetti, Tommaso; Masi, Silvia; Pisano, Giampaolo; Maffei, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The Large Scale Polarisation Explorer (LSPE) is a balloon-borne experiment aiming to measure the B-mode component of the CMB polarisation at large angular scales. Onboard LSPE, the Short Wavelength Instrument for the Polarisation Explorer (SWIPE) is a bolometric polarimeter observing in three bands centred at 140, 220 and 240 GHz. The telescope is a single large-diameter plano-convex lens with a cold aperture stop. A small number of multi-mode feed horns feeding bolometric detectors are used within the focal plane, achieving a sensitivity equivalent to that of 100's of single-mode horns. Simulations have been performed to predict the multi-mode optical response of the horn-lens configuration for centre and off-axis pixels pertaining to each frequency band. The horn has been simulated to a high accuracy using the Method of Moments. Using the horn simulation result as a source, the optical response of the lens has been examined using the more approximate simulation technique; Ray-Launching Geometrical Optics (RL-GO). Solution accuracy and simulation time depend heavily on the choice of RL-GO simulation parameters including: mesh size; the number of launched rays; and how densely the horn source beam is sampled. Individual convergence studies have been performed for each of these parameters and a final model has been obtained as a compromise between simulation time and accuracy. The instrumental polarisation of the lens is predicted to be at the -50 dB level. Finally, the optimal location of where to place the telescope focus in relation to the horn to maximise on-axis gain has been investigated. Several techniques agreed that the `phase centre' is around 20 mm behind the horn aperture at 140 GHz, increasing to 30 mm at 220 and 240 GHz. Taking into account beam truncation effects caused by the finite size of the telescope was found to reduce the overall variation in on-axis gain.

  16. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Benerji, N. S. E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.; Singh, Bijendra E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in

    2015-07-15

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  17. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  18. Zinn-Haller arterial ring observed by ICG angiography in high myopia

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Matsui, K.; Futagami, S.; Yamashita, S.; Tokoro, T.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To delineate the entire Zinn-Haller arterial ring angiographically in vivo.
METHODS—382 highly myopic eyes (210 patients) with refractive errors greater than −8.25 D were examined using indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography. A control group of 80 eyes (40 patients) had refractive errors within plano +/− 3 D.
RESULTS—The Zinn-Haller ring was visible in 206 of 382 highly myopic eyes (53.9%) by ICG angiography. Although only a part of the Zinn-Haller ring was visible in 162 of 206 eyes, in the remaining 44 eyes it was observed almost completely around the optic nerve head. No anastomotic channels between lateral and medial short posterior ciliary arteries were filled by ICG angiography. In 22 of the 44 eyes (50.0%) the Zinn-Haller ring was supplied by branches of the lateral and medial short posterior ciliary arteries; in seven eyes, it was supplied only by the lateral short posterior ciliary artery; and in seven eyes, it was supplied only by the medial short posterior ciliary artery. In none of the control subjects was the Zinn-Haller ring visible by ICG angiography.
CONCLUSIONS—The Zinn-Haller ring observed by ICG angiography was not a complete collateral circle between lateral and medial posterior ciliary arteries. Also, the patterns in supply vessels to the Zinn-Haller ring varied. ICG angiography made possible the detailed observation of the Zinn-Haller ring in human eyes in vivo.

 Keywords: Zinn-Haller circle; blood flow; optic nerve head; myopia PMID:9930263

  19. Nonspherical Radiation Driven Wind Models Applied to Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arauxo, F. X.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT. In this work we present a model for the structure of a radiatively driven wind in the meridional plane of a hot star. Rotation effects and simulation of viscous forces were included in the motion equations. The line radiation force is considered with the inclusion of the finite disk correction in self-consistent computations which also contain gravity darkening as well as distortion of the star by rotation. An application to a typical BlV star leads to mass-flux ratios between equator and pole of the order of 10 and mass loss rates in the range 5.l0 to Mo/yr. Our envelope models are flattened towards the equator and the wind terminal velocities in that region are rather high (1000 Km/s). However, in the region near the star the equatorial velocity field is dominated by rotation. RESUMEN. Se presenta un modelo de la estructura de un viento empujado radiativamente en el plano meridional de una estrella caliente. Se incluyeron en las ecuaciones de movimiento los efectos de rotaci6n y la simulaci6n de fuerzas viscosas. Se consider6 la fuerza de las lineas de radiaci6n incluyendo la correcci6n de disco finito en calculos autoconsistentes los cuales incluyen oscurecimiento gravitacional asi como distorsi6n de la estrella por rotaci6n. La aplicaci6n a una estrella tipica BlV lleva a cocientes de flujo de masa entre el ecuador y el polo del orden de 10 de perdida de masa en el intervalo 5.l0 a 10 Mo/ano. Nuestros modelos de envolvente estan achatados hacia el ecuador y las velocidads terminales del viento en esa regi6n son bastante altas (1000 Km/s). Sin embargo, en la regi6n cercana a la estrella el campo de velocidad ecuatorial esta dominado por la rotaci6n. Key words: STARS-BE -- STARS-WINDS

  20. Characterisation and comparison of ophthalmic instrument quality using a model eye with reverse ray-tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheil, Conor; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2013-05-01

    A physical model eye was constructed to test the quality of ophthalmic instruments. The accuracy and precision of two commercially available instruments were analysed. For these instruments, a particular model eye was obtained which mimicked the physical properties that would be usually measured e.g. corneal topography or optical path within the human eye. The model eye was designed using relatively simple optical components (e.g. plano-convex lenses) separated by appropriate intraocular distances taken from the literature. The dimensions of the model eye were known a priori: The lenses used in the construction of the model eye were characterised ac­ cording to values given in the manufacturers' data sheets and also through measurement using an interferometer. The distances between the lens surfaces were calculated using the interferometric data with reverse ray-tracing. Optical paths were calculated as the product of refractive index and axial distance. The errors inherent in mea­ suring these ocular parameters by different ophthalmic instruments can be considered as producing an erroneous value for the overall refractive power of the eye. The latter is a useful metric for comparing various ophthalmic devices where the direct comparison of quality is not possible or is not practical. For example, a 1% error in anterior corneal radius of curvature will have a more detrimental effect than the same error in posterior corneal radius, due to the relative differences in refractive indices at those surface boundaries. To quantify the error in ocular refractive power, a generic eye model was created in ZEMAX optical design software. The parametric errors were then used to compute the overall error in predicting ocular refractive power, thus highlighting the relative importance of individual errors. This work will help in future determination of acceptable levels of metrological errors in ocular instrumentation.

  1. Development of site-specific locking plates for acetabular fractures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Zhang, Li-Hai; Zhang, Ying-Ze; He, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Li-Cheng; Wang, Yan; Tang, Pei-Fu

    2013-05-01

    Site-specific locking plates have gained popularity for the treatment of fractures. However, the clinical use of a site-specific locking plate for acetabular fractures remains untested due to production limits. To design a universal site-specific locking plate for acetabular fractures, the 3-dimensional (3D) photographic records of 171 pelvises were retrospectively studied to generate a universal posterior innominate bone surface. Using 3D photographical processing software, the 3D coordinate system was reset according to bony landmarks and was scaled based on the acetabular diameter to allow a direct comparison between surfaces. The measured surface was separated into measurement units. At each measurement unit, the authors calculated the average z-axis values in all samples and obtained the 3D coordinate values of the point cloud that could be reconstructed into the universal surface. A plate was subsequently designed in 3D photographical processing software, and the orientation and distribution of locking screws was included. To manufacture a plate, the data were entered into Unigraphics NX version 6.0 software (Siemens PLM Software, Co, Ltd, Plano, Texas) and a CNC digital milling machine (FANUC Co, Ltd, Yamanashi, Japan). The resulting locking plate fit excellently with the reduced bone surface intraoperatively. Plate contouring was avoided intraoperatively. Universal 3.5-mm locking screws locked successfully into the plate, and their orientations were consistent with the design. No screw yielded to acetabular penetration. This method of designing a site-specific acetabular locking plate is practical, and the plates are suitable for clinical use. These site-specific locking plates may be an option for the treatment of acetabular fractures, particularly in elderly patients.

  2. Spatial discrimination against background with different optical systems for collection of fluorescence in laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a graphite tube electrothermal atomizer.

    PubMed

    Yuzefovsky, A I; Lonardo, R F; Michel, R G

    1995-07-01

    A single 90 degrees off-axis ellipsoidal mirror fragment was used in a dispersive detection system for electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The performance of the new optical arrangement was compared with those of optical arrangements that employed a plane mirror in combination with biconvex or plano-convex lenses. All the optical arrangements collected fluorescence in a scheme called front surface illustration. BEAM-4, an optical ray tracing program, was used for calculations of spatial ray distributions and optical collection efficiency for the various optical configurations. Experimentally, the best collection efficiency was obtained by use of the ellipsoidal mirror, in qualitative agreement with simulations done by use of the BEAM-4 software. The best detection limit for cobalt with the new optical arrangement was 20 fg, which was a factor of 5 better than that obtained with conventional optical arrangements with otherwise the same instrumentation. The signal-to-background ratio and the fluorescence collection efficiency were also studied as a function of position of the optical components for the various optical arrangements. For both cobalt and phosphorus, the signal-to-background ratio with the new optical arrangement remained stable within 10-20% during +/- 8 mm shifts in the position of the detection system from the focal plane of the optics. Overall, the new optical arrangement offered high collection efficiency, excellent sensitivity, and facile optical alignment due to efficient spatial separation between the fluorescence signal and the background radiation. The advantages of the new optical arrangement were particularly important during measurements in the presence of high levels of blackbody radiation.

  3. Optical design for the TAIPAN and HECTOR transmissive spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Content, Robert; Lawrence, Jon; Gers, Luke; Zhelem, Ross

    2016-08-01

    TAIPAN is a multi-fibre project for the UK-Schmidt Telescope and Hector is a multi-IFU project for the Anglo- Australian Telescope (AAT) using fibres. Many different transparent designs were studied covering a large parameter space. An important trade-off study was between the use of microlenses on the slit or just bare fibres. Microlenses have disadvantages but permit considerable simplification of the collimator by making the beam very slow. The disadvantages are more important with the UK-Schmidt due to the faster beam from the telescope. With microlenses, the collimator can be a unique spherical plano-convex lens significantly smaller than the mirror that would be needed in a reflective design. For Hector, 26 different camera designs where done to cover the parameter space for 2k x 2k, 2k x 4k, or 4k x 4k detectors, and for 50, 75 or 100 micron fibre cores, with or without microlenses, with a triplet in the camera or a doublet plus singlet, and with a maximum wavelength of 1 or 1.05 microns. Not all combinations were designed but for each parameter there are at least two representative cameras with all other parameters identical. A preliminary cost estimate was made for the most promising designs which permitted to reduce them to 3 for more detailed designing. Also, a theoretical study was done of the PSF obtained with highly packed microlenses at the slit with no space between them and imaging to 2 pixels per microlenses. This maximizes the number of fibres per spectrograph, and thus the total field of view of all IFUs together, but it comes with some disadvantages.

  4. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear

    PubMed Central

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°–150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to

  5. Regiones de formación de estrellas masivas en las Nubes de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbá, R.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Rubio, M.; Walborn, N.

    Las Nubes de Magallanes son un laboratorio formidable para el estudio de regiones de formación estelar. A diferencia de lo que sucede en el plano galáctico, ambas galaxias contienen poco polvo que nos afecte la visión directa de dichas regiones. Por otra parte, la menor metalicidad de las Nubes, nos permiten hacer un estudio comparativo de la formación estelar en ambientes de baja metalicidad. El presente trabajo da una revisión de los progresos notables que hemos alcanzado en el conocimiento del contenido estelar de algunas regiones de formación de estrellas masivas en ambas Nubes, en base a la utilización de imágenes del Telescopio Espacial Hubble, Gemini Sur, y Very Large Telescope, entre otros. En especial, nos concentramos en 30 Doradus y N11 en la Nube Mayor, y en NGC 346 en la Nube Menor. Nuevas imágenes de N11 obtenidas en los últimos meses con la Advanced Camera for Surveys del Hubble (óptico), y con Flamingos en Gemini Sur (infrarrojo), nos han permitido descubrir un nuevo `jet' con origen en una fuente infrarroja sumergida en un pilar polvoriento similar al objeto Herbig-Haro de M20 en nuestra galaxia. Este `jet' (junto a otros tres que hemos descubierto en 30 Doradus), es el cuarto ejemplo confirmado de `jet' asociado a una protoestrella fuera de nuestra galaxia. Además, presentamos el descubrimiento del primer objeto estelar joven masivo de la Nube Menor confirmado espectroscópicamente.

  6. El Sistema de Referencia Celeste convencional de la IAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.

    La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste baricéntrico cuyo plano fundamental y origen de ascensiones rectas estén próximos, respectivamente, al ecuador y equinoccio dinámicos J2000.0. El nuevo sistema de referencia estará materializado por las posiciones J2000.0 de radiofuentes extragalácticas determinadas con la técnica de interferometría de larga línea de base (VLBI). El Working Group on Reference Frames de la IAU (WGRF) decidió adoptar (Grasse, 1995) al sistema de referencia celeste extragaláctico del Servicio Internacional de la Rotación Terrestre (IERS) como futuro sistema de referencia celeste convencional bajo el nombre International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y encomendó su mantenimiento futuro al IERS. El marco de referencia que materializará al ICRS contiene posiciones precisas J2000.0 de más de 600 radiofuentes extragalácticas. Las coordenadas fueron ajustadas en una única solución VLBI en la cual se incluyeron todas las observaciones realizadas hasta octubre de 1995 con la técnica de adquisición de datos VLBI Mark III. Para minimizar los errores sistemáticos que pueden afectar la calidad del marco de referencia se introdujeron mejoras sustanciales en la modelización y en la selección de datos. Un subconjunto de objetos del marco de referencia se utilizó para referir las posiciones estelares determinadas con el satélite astrométrico Hipparcos al ICRS.

  7. Población de galaxias de baja luminosidad en cúmulos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotto, C. A.; Muriel, H.; Moore, B.; García Lambas, D.

    En este trabajo se discute sobre la presencia de un exceso de galaxias de baja luminosidad en medios de alta densidad de galaxias y la posibilidad de que los halos de galaxias cD puedan ser formados a partir de galaxias en cúmulos ricos, los cuales muestran una función de luminosidad (FL) con el extremo débil plano. Se analizaron muestras de cúmulos cercanos obtenidas a partir de los catálogos de Abell y X-ray Sample of Bright Clusters. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los cúmulos de galaxias que tienen emisión en rayos X detectada poseen una FL plana (α ≈ -1.2), consistente con los valores encontrados para las galaxias de campo. En cambio, los cúmulos de galaxias identificados a partir de distribuciones bidimensionales de galaxias que no tienen su contraparte en rayos X, muestran una FL con una pendiente pronunciada en el extremo débil (α ≈ -1.6). Se examinaron además, los posibles efectos debido a la presencia de una galaxia central dominante sobre el extremo débil de la FL. Se analizaron muestras de acuerdo a la clasificación Bautz-Morgan dividiendo en las submuestras I,I-II y II, II- III, III. Las FL resultantes para ambas muestras son indistinguibles. Nuestros resultados son consistentes con la hipótesis de que los efectos de proyección en cúmulos identificados en dos dimensiones pueden producir un exceso artificial de galaxias de baja luminosidad.

  8. TIBIOTARSAL COMPRESSION ARTHRODESIS USING A LATERAL LOCKING PLATE.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Michael J; Nery, Caio; Baumfeld, Daniel; Jastifer, James

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: A artrodese tibiotársica (TT) continua sendo uma importante opção no tratamento da artrose primária ou pós-traumática do tornozelo mas persiste ainda a controvérsia sobre o melhor método de fixação do foco de artrodese. Independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, o objetivo maior é a obtenção da fusão articular sólida, saudável e indolor. O propósito do presente estudo é apresentar os resultados preliminares de um novo sistema de placa bloqueada lateral compressiva para a artrodese do tornozelo. Método: Treze pacientes consecutivos portadores de artrose tibiotársica foram submetidos à artrodese do tornozelo nove pacientes eram homens e quatro mulheres. Com o auxílio de um guia, as superfícies articulares do talo e da tíbia foram decorticadas. Um sistema de compressão foi aplicado para evitar o alinhamento indesejável dos segmentos e uma placa bloqueada pré-moldada lateral foi utilizada para obter a fusão articular. Resultados: Tanto o escore AOFAS quanto o VAS melhoraram com a cirurgia. Todos os tornozelos operados consolidaram dentro do prazo de seis meses. Em todos os pacientes, foi obtido um ótimo alinhamento nos planos sagital, coronal e transverso. Conclusão: Acreditamos que a combinação de compressão bilateral, cortes ósseos com contornos pré-demarcados e placa lateral bloqueada, constitui uma técnica moderna, segura e útil para a artrodese do tornozelo.

  9. [Instrumental gait analysis in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, P; Molina-Rueda, F; Cuesta-Gomez, A; Carratala-Tejada, M; Miangolarra-Page, J C

    2016-11-16

    Introduccion. Las alteraciones en el control motor consecuentes al ictus afectan al patron de marcha, existiendo una importante variabilidad intersujeto. Objetivos. Valorar, a traves de un sistema de captura del movimiento, el patron cinematico de la marcha en sujetos con ictus y establecer que alteraciones del patron de la marcha son comunes entre los participantes. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron nueve pacientes con ictus con capacidad de marcha y diez sujetos controles. Para la captura del movimiento se empleo el sistema VICON Motion System ®. Se analizaron los movimientos articulares de pelvis, cadera, rodilla y tobillo en el plano sagital, y los parametros espaciotemporales de la marcha. Resultados. La funcion motora de los participantes, valorada mediante la escala Fugl-Meyer (seccion del miebro inferior), oscilo entre 15 y 33 puntos. Los participantes presentaron alteraciones en la cinematica comunes entre ellos. En los pacientes con ictus se registro: aumento de la amplitud de movimiento de la pelvis en ambos hemicuerpos (lado afecto y no afecto frente a control, p < 0,01); en la cadera, disminucion de la maxima extension durante la fase de apoyo en el lado afecto (p < 0,01) e incremento de la flexion en las fases de apoyo y oscilacion en el no afecto (p = 0,025); en la rodilla, mayor flexion durante la fase de contacto inicial (lado afecto frente a control, p < 0,01; lado no afecto frente a control, p = 0,02); y en el tobillo, ligera flexion plantar durante la fase de contacto inicial en el lado afecto. Conclusiones. A pesar de la variabilidad clinica, existen alteraciones especificas comunes de la marcha en sujetos con ictus.

  10. The Structure Difference in the Southern Margin of the Dangerous Grounds: Implications for the Final Evolution of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, P.; Shen, C.; Zhao, Z.; Xie, X.; Mei, L.; Gong, J.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We interpret two multi-channel seismic reflection profiles, more than 900 km across the entire Dangerous Grounds, locating in east and west of the southern margin of the South China Sea respectively. Eight Cenozoic sequence boundaries are determined as well as three tectono-stratigraphic units. Detailed analysis of extensional features and unconformities revealed the tectonic in the east and west. Early extension (syn-rifting sequence) occurred in the two profiles during continental rifting, which lasted from Palaeocene to Early Oligocene, and resulted in formation of half-grabens and rotated fault-blocks. Late extension (drift-rifting sequence) has the significant difference in the both profiles. The eastern Dangerous Grounds entered rifting-depression stage and some compressional deformation occurred in the Reed Bank basin at about the beginning of Early Miocene, probably resulting from the collision of the Dangerous Grounds and the Sabah-Cagayan Arc. The western Dangerous Grounds was still in rifting until the end of Early Miocene, forming the MMU or DRU which is strongly erosional and represents a major break in sedimentation and/or erosion in partial area. Denudation fold and inverted fault can be distinguished blow the MMU, indicating the cessation of the South China Sea accompanied the NW compression, while the boundary corresponding the MMU is nearly a plano-conformity in the east. The thermal sag (post-rifting sequence) is characterized by non-faulted draping strata in the whole area. The different structure in east and west may be related to the final evolution of the SCS. When the proto-SCS closed in a scissor fashion plus the clockwise rotation of Borneo, the initial collision (c.20Ma) appeared in east part building the NW foreland basin system from Palawan Trough to Reed Bank in a short-live process, while the west part was drifting southwards until c.15Ma to form the even more remarkable foreland system from Borneo Trough to deep-water Sarawak.

  11. DiffServ experiments: evaluation of some approaches to quality of service control over the Alcatel-NCSU Internet2 testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Aziz; Vouk, Mladen A.; Jones, Emanuele; Dwekat, Zyad

    2002-07-01

    Technological communities that are formed on the basis university, industry and government partnerships are developing and deploying advanced network applications and technologies, accelerating the creation of tomorrow's Internet. Alcatel and North Carolina State University (NCSU) have jointly launched a virtual Lab between Alcatel's Research & Innovation Center in Plano, TX and NCSU campus at Raleigh, NC across the Internet2 national backbone network. The objective of this co-operative work is to conduct a large-scale field trial in the currently deployed state of the art QoS technologies and investigate areas of improvement. Results from phase one of our work in a Differentiated services (DiffServ) experiments over this testbed involving network equipment from Alcatel and other third party vendors show that DiffServ is capable of delivering the premium service using its expedited forwarding (EF) per-hop behaviour (PHB) for a large class of bandwidth starving applications. However, it is found that DiffServ needs some additional mechanisms to efficiently deliver similar services for jitters and delay sensitive applications, especially in a condition of severely congested network. The situation is even more complicated when one considers resource-sharing environments beyond the extreme cases of EF and best effort (BE) only. The second phase of our work involves investigating empirically and through simulation, a fine-grained new integrated scheduling scheme to extend the DiffServ with a variety of adaptive queue management (AQM) solutions and study their effect on end-to-end (e2e) DiffServ experiments involving not only EF/BE but also assured forwarding (AF) traffic.

  12. [Iatrogenic after spinal puncture technique. Prevalence study of headache and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Bauset-Navarro, José Luis; Sánchez-Ortuño, Isabel M; Gómez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Sanz-Monllor, Ainara; Cinesi-Gómez, César; Piñera-Salmerón, Pascual

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo. Establecer la prevalencia existente de cefalea tras practicar una puncion lumbar transdural y los factores de riesgo. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional prospectivo de cohortes. Se reclutaron pacientes del Servicio de Urgencias, del Servicio de Neurologia y del Hospital de Dia. Se recogio la experiencia del facultativo, el numero de punciones, la variacion de plano, la postura del paciente, el anestesico local, el calibre y bisel de la aguja, los grados de inclinacion, la cantidad de liquido, la sobrecarga de fluidoterapia y la indicacion o no de reposo tras la puncion. Tras 48 horas, se establecio la aparicion o no de cefalea. Resultados. Muestra de 59 pacientes, 31 (52,5%) de ellos hombres. Edad media: 47 años; 32 (54,2%) procedentes de Urgencias, 18 (30,5%) de Neurologia y 9 (15,3%) del Hospital de Dia. Hubo 41 (69,5%) en decubito lateral y 7 (11,9%) en sedestacion. Todos con agujas biseladas, 21 (35,6%) del calibre 20 y 38 (64,4%) del calibre 22. Sin reposo estuvieron 8 (13,56%) pacientes y 18 (33,3%) sin sobrecarga de fluidos. Veintitres (38,98%) con cefalea pospuncion lumbar, 12 (52,2%) mujeres, con una edad media de 38,3 ± 16,4 años. La mediana de intensidad de la cefalea fue de 2,6. El tiempo medio de aparicion fue de siete horas. Sin diferencias para ninguno de los factores estudiados, salvo la tendencia observada de mayor incidencia de cefalea a menor edad. Conclusiones. La cefalea pospuncion lumbar en nuestra serie es elevada, sin diferencias segun el servicio donde se practica o la experiencia. Tampoco influye la cantidad de liquido extraido, la posicion del paciente, la indicacion de reposo o la sobrecarga de fluidos.

  13. Brief Daily Periods of Unrestricted Vision Can Prevent Form-Deprivation Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Wensveen, Janice M.; Harwerth, Ronald S.; Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE To characterize how the mechanisms that produce unilateral form-deprivation amblyopia integrate the effects of normal and abnormal vision over time, the effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision on the spatial vision losses produced by monocular form deprivation were investigated in infant monkeys. METHODS Beginning at 3 weeks of age, unilateral form deprivation was initiated in 18 infant monkeys by securing a diffuser spectacle lens in front of one eye and a clear plano lens in front of the fellow eye. During the treatment period (18 weeks), three infants wore the diffusers continuously. For the other experimental infants, the diffusers were removed daily and replaced with clear, zero-powered lenses for 1 (n = 5), 2 (n = 6), or 4 (n = 4) hours. Four infants reared with binocular zero-powered lenses and four normally reared monkeys provided control data. RESULTS The degree of amblyopia varied significantly with the daily duration of unrestricted vision. Continuous form deprivation caused severe amblyopia. However, 1 hour of unrestricted vision reduced the degree of amblyopia by 65%, 2 hours reduced the deficits by 90%, and 4 hours preserved near-normal spatial contrast sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS The severely amblyogenic effects of form deprivation in infant primates are substantially reduced by relatively short daily periods of unrestricted vision. The manner in which the mechanisms responsible for amblyopia integrate the effects of normal and abnormal vision over time promotes normal visual development and has important implications for the management of human infants with conditions that potentially cause amblyopia. PMID:16723458

  14. [Bilateral ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma. A case presentation].

    PubMed

    Briseño-Hernández, Andrés Alejandro; Quezada-López, Deissy Roxana; Castañeda-Chávez, Agar; Dassaejv Macías-Amezcua, Michel; Pintor-Belmontes, Julio Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el linfoma de Burkitt es una forma agresiva de los linfomas no Hodgkin de células B que ocurre con mayor frecuencia en niños y adultos jóvenes; el linfoma de ovario puede aparecer como lesión primaria o, más comúnmente, como una metástasis. Las lesiones primarias de ovario son manifestaciones raras que corresponden a 0.5% de los linfomas no Hodgkin y 1.5% de los tumores de ovario. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 31 años de edad, con debilidad generalizada, incapacidad para la marcha, disnea, hiporexia, fiebre, diaforesis, pérdida de 20 kg de peso, abdomen plano, con dolor abdominal; Ca125 610 U/mL. La tomografía computada abdominal mostró un gran tumor de aspecto sólido que afectaba a la cavidad pélvica derecha. Se extirparon los tumores ováricos bilaterales. Desde el punto de vista microscópico ambas lesiones muestran una imagen en "cielo estrellado" compuesta por un patrón de infiltrado monótono de linfocitos mezclada con macrófagos de citoplasma amplio y claro, abundantes mitosis atípicas, zonas de necrosis y hemorragia. La inmunohistoquímica reveló positividad para CDI0 y CD20, negativo con CD3, índice de proliferación Ki67 alto. Se diagnosticó linfoma tipo Burkitt bilateral de ovario. Conclusiones: el linfoma de Burkitt de ovario bilateral es poco frecuente, con variabilidad de presentación; el dolor abdominal y los tumores abdominales son lo más frecuente. El pronóstico a corto plazo de las pacientes es malo, por lo que es necesario conocer esta afección para poder establecer el diagnóstico temprano.

  15. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges “bottom up”, as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated–pre- and post-PPCDAM (“Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia”)–the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  16. Cost effective aluminum beryllium mirrors for critical optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Say, Carissa; Duich, Jack; Huskamp, Chris; White, Ray

    2013-09-01

    The unique performance of aluminum-beryllium frequently makes it an ideal material for manufacturing precision optical-grade metal mirrors. Traditional methods of manufacture utilize hot-pressed powder block in billet form which is subsequently machined to final dimensions. Complex component geometries such as lightweighted, non-plano mirrors require extensive tool path programming, fixturing, and CNC machining time and result in a high buy-to-fly ratio (the ratio of the mass of raw material purchased to the mass of the finished part). This increases the cost of the mirror structure as a significant percentage of the procurement cost is consumed in the form of machining, tooling, and scrap material that do not add value to the final part. Inrad Optics, Inc. and IBC Advanced Alloys Corp. undertook a joint study to evaluate the suitability of investment-cast Beralcast® 191 and 363 aluminum-beryllium as a precision mirror substrate material. Net shape investment castings of the desired geometry minimizes machining to just cleanup stock, thereby reducing the recurring procurement cost while still maintaining performance. The thermal stability of two mirrors, (one each of Beralcast® 191 and Beralcast® 363), was characterized from -40°F to +150°F. A representative pocketed mirror was developed, including the creation of a relevant geometry and production of a cast component to validate the approach. Information from the demonstration unit was used as a basis for a comparative cost study of the representative mirror produced in Beralcast® and one machined from a billet of AlBeMet® 162 (AlBeMet® is a registered trademark of Materion Corporation). The technical and financial results of these studies will be discussed in detail.

  17. A model for simulating the deposition of water-lain sediments in dryland environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, M. A.; Mackay, R.; Tellam, J. H.; Turner, P.

    A numerical process-imitating model, the Discrete Storm Event Sedimentation Simulator (DSESS), has been developed to represent the climatic and hydraulic conditions of drylands in modelling their geomorphological development and sedimentary facies distributions. The ultimate aim is to provide insights into the lateral variability of permeability in the Triassic Sandstone aquifers of the UK for the study of solute movement. DSESS employs discrete storm-flood automata, released across a cellular landscape, to model sediment transport: erosion, migration and deposition. Sediment classes with different grain sizes can be modelled. Empirical process-based equations are used to quantify the movement of the automata, their erosion potential, sediment-carrying capacity and interaction with the underlying sediments. The approach emphasises the sequence of dryland storm events and associated floods rather than their timing. Flood events are assumed to be discrete in time. Preliminary tests carried out with DSESS using simple systems and idealised initial conditions produce lithological and land surface features characteristic of dryland settings and indicate the potential of the model for large-scale, long-time modelling of sedimentary facies development. Markedly different results are observed across the range of tests carried out in response to the non-linear interactions between the different elements of the landscape and the floodwaters simulated with DSESS. Simulations show that sediment accumulations develop concave upward radial profiles, plano-convex cross-profiles and possess a general lateral grading of sediment with distance from source. The internal grain size architecture shows evidence of both persistent and rapidly changing flow conditions, with both lateral and longitudinal stepping of coarse bodies produced by ‘scour and fill’ events and random avulsions. Armoured layers form so that near-surface sediments have increased likelihood of preservation

  18. [β-Tricalcium Phosphate in the Surgical Treatment of Proximal Humeral Fractures].

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Marco; Martins, Samuel; Monteiro, Jacinto

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: As fraturas proximais do úmero são cada vez mais frequentes, com maior tendência para o seu tratamento cirúrgico, predominado a utilização da osteossíntese com placa e parafusos bloqueados. Pela falência mecânica e biológica, apesar da evolução deste tipo de implantes, a utilização de enxertos ósseos sintéticos passaram a ser uma opção. Material e Métodos: Num período de 96 meses, avaliámos os doentes com fraturas proximais do úmero, tratados cirurgicamente com placa e parafusos bloqueados e nos quais foi usado enxerto ósseo sintético de fosfato β-tricálcico. Avaliaram-se os resultados funcionais pelo arco de mobilidade e pelos exames radiográficos. Resultados: Nos 19 doentes avaliados, para um follow-up médio de 53 meses, obteve-se um arco de mobilidade com valores médio de abdução de 140º, flexão anterior de 142º, rotação externa de 37º e rotação interna com mão a L3, para um ângulo cefalo-diafisário de 136º. Discussão: A utilização de enxerto ósseo sintético de fosfato β-tricálcico permite a estabilização da redução após fixação das fraturas proximais do úmero estabilizadas com placa e parafusos bloqueados. Esta redução que se traduz na manutenção do ângulo cefalodiafisário, permite a obtenção de bons resultados funcionais como o demonstra o arco de mobilidade nos vários planos. Conclusão: O enxerto ósseo sintético de fosfato β-tricálcico deverá ser encarado como uma terapêutica auxiliar na osteossíntese extramedular das fraturas proximais do úmero, principalmente naquelas com maior dificuldade de manutenção da redução pela maior cominução do calcar medial.

  19. Regional deformation analysis in the Sannio-Matese area (Southern Apennines, Italy) by GPS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrizzo, Francesco; Sepe, Vincenzo; Brandi, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Andrea; de Martino, Prospero; Dolce, Mario; Tammaro, Umberto; Pingue, Folco

    2010-05-01

    the existing GPS vertices and those who had a good state of preservation and a good level of reliability were incorporated into a new of geodetic Matese network, S.A.G.NET, consisted of total 38 3D vertices. Several surveys were carried out starting from 2000 with the aim to define the stress field characterized by plano-altimetric components. In 2006 started an intensive work of gathering and validating to available data, integrating those previously obtained with a new survey carried out in the 2009. In this work describes in detail the final network S.A.G.NET, whose geometry was also bound to distribution facilities seismogenic notes present in the area. We also show the first results obtained from data collected from 2000 to 2009 and the cinematic framework currently in the area.

  20. Expanding the scope of lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Rich, L F

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether applications of current technology, such as cryolathe and excimer laser, might improve outcomes and increase use of lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: Six studies were performed, beginning with animals and progressing to human subjects. The first study compared cryolathed with hand-dissected rabbit corneas to ascertain which created a smoother donor interface. The second animal pilot study was done to determine whether thickness of donor cornea resection could be accurately predicted with the cryolathe. A prospective animal trial was then undertaken to compare lamellar keratoplasty outcomes using cryolathed versus hand-dissected tissue. The fourth work extrapolated previous animal findings to lamellar keratoplasty in human disease. Finally, two ongoing studies are described. The first explores the possibility of sutureless lamellar keratoplasty. The second utilizes the excimer laser to dissect the recipient stromal bed. RESULTS: The initial animal pilot study demonstrated a clearer stromal surface in cryolathed versus hand-dissected corneal tissue. The second pilot showed that plano-powered donor tissue could be generated to predetermined thickness. The prospective animal trial revealed that clear grafts of intended thickness could be obtained with cryolathing. Human studies suggested that lamellar keratoplasty using cryolathe-prepared donor tissue may offer superior results to free-hand dissection. Finally, one ongoing study indicates that sutureless lamellar keratoplasty is untenable, and the other shows that clear grafts can be obtained by combining cryolathed donor tissue with recipient photoablation. CONCLUSION: This body of work demonstrates that use of new lamellar keratoplasty technology may offer expanded scope and better outcomes than traditional lamellar keratoplasty techniques. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4A FIGURE 4B FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 10B FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 12A FIGURE 12B FIGURE 13

  1. New multi-scale approach to improve explanation of patterns of contemporary morphodynamics in the badland landscapes of Central Italy: the important Quaternary context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergari, Francesca; Troiani, Francesco; Della Seta, Marta; Faulkner, Hazel; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Ciccacci, Sirio; Del Monte, Maurizio; Fredi, Paola

    2016-04-01

    , we projected on the longitudinal profiles of the Orcia River and some of its main tributaries a full range of geomorphic features which are relevant for the interpretation of the landscape morphoevolution, connectivity and erosion/deposition dynamics: i) competitive divides; ii) sites with different degree of connectivity within the drainage system; iii) sites experiencing different erosion rates; iv) sites with in-channel depositional features and landslide deposits; v) remnants of relict geomorphic surfaces. The plano-altimetric distribution of such features, compared with the drainage network evolutionary stage, allowed to better understand the morphodynamics of badland areas and to define future scenarios in the perspective of a better management of hazardous processes.

  2. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  3. Integration of Defocus by Dual Power Fresnel Lenses Inhibits Myopia in the Mammalian Eye

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Sally A.; Tse, Dennis Y.; Bowrey, Hannah E.; Leotta, Amelia J.; Lam, Carly S.; Wildsoet, Christine F.; To, Chi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Eye growth compensates in opposite directions to single vision (SV) negative and positive lenses. We evaluated the response of the guinea pig eye to Fresnel-type lenses incorporating two different powers. Methods. A total of 114 guinea pigs (10 groups with 9–14 in each) wore a lens over one eye and interocular differences in refractive error and ocular dimensions were measured in each of three experiments. First, the effects of three Fresnel designs with various diopter (D) combinations (−5D/0D; +5D/0D or −5D/+5D dual power) were compared to three SV lenses (−5D, +5D, or 0D). Second, the ratio of −5D and +5D power in a Fresnel lens was varied (50:50 compared with 60:40). Third, myopia was induced by 4 days of exposure to a SV −5D lens, which was then exchanged for a Fresnel lens (−5D/+5D) or one of two SV lenses (+5D or −5D) and ocular parameters tracked for a further 3 weeks. Results. Dual power lenses induced an intermediate response between that to the two constituent powers (lenses +5D, +5D/0D, 0D, −5D/+5D, −5D/0D and −5D induced +2.1 D, +0.7 D, +0.1 D, −0.3 D, −1.6 D and −5.1 D in mean intraocular differences in refractive error, respectively), and changing the ratio of powers induced responses equal to their weighted average. In already myopic animals, continued treatment with SV negative lenses increased their myopia (from −3.3 D to −4.2 D), while switching to SV positive lenses or −5D/+5D Fresnel lenses reduced their myopia (by 2.9 D and 2.3 D, respectively). Conclusions. The mammalian eye integrates competing defocus to guide its refractive development and eye growth. Fresnel lenses, incorporating positive or plano power with negative power, can slow ocular growth, suggesting that such designs may control myopia progression in humans. PMID:24398103

  4. Blue-Light Filtering Spectacle Lenses: Optical and Clinical Performances

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purposes To evaluate the optical performance of blue-light filtering spectacle lenses and investigate whether a reduction in blue light transmission affects visual performance and sleep quality. Methods Experiment 1: The relative changes in phototoxicity, scotopic sensitivity, and melatonin suppression of five blue-light filtering plano spectacle lenses were calculated based on their spectral transmittances measured by a spectrophotometer. Experiment 2: A pseudo-randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the clinical performance of two blue-light filtering spectacle lenses (BF: blue-filtering anti-reflection coating; BT: brown-tinted) with a regular clear lens (AR) serving as a control. A total of eighty computer users were recruited from two age cohorts (young adults: 18–30 yrs, middle-aged adults: 40–55 yrs). Contrast sensitivity under standard and glare conditions, and colour discrimination were measured using standard clinical tests. After one month of lens wear, subjective ratings of lens performance were collected by questionnaire. Results All tested blue-light filtering spectacle lenses theoretically reduced the calculated phototoxicity by 10.6% to 23.6%. Although use of the blue-light filters also decreased scotopic sensitivity by 2.4% to 9.6%, and melatonin suppression by 5.8% to 15.0%, over 70% of the participants could not detect these optical changes. Our clinical tests revealed no significant decrease in contrast sensitivity either with (95% confidence intervals [CI]: AR–BT [–0.05, 0.05]; AR–BF [–0.05, 0.06]; BT–BF [–0.06, 0.06]) or without glare (95% CI: AR–BT [–0.01, 0.03]; AR–BF [–0.01, 0.03]; BT–BF [–0.02, 0.02]) and colour discrimination (95% CI: AR–BT [–9.07, 1.02]; AR–BF [–7.06, 4.46]; BT–BF [–3.12, 8.57]). Conclusion Blue-light filtering spectacle lenses can partially filter high-energy short-wavelength light without substantially degrading visual performance and sleep quality. These lenses may

  5. New analysis strategies for micro aspheric lens metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugsa, Solomon Abebe

    Effective characterization of an aspheric micro lens is critical for understanding and improving processing in micro-optic manufacturing. Since most microlenses are plano-convex, where the convex geometry is a conic surface, current practice is often limited to obtaining an estimate of the lens conic constant, which average out the surface geometry that departs from an exact conic surface and any addition surface irregularities. We have developed a comprehensive approach of estimating the best fit conic and its uncertainty, and in addition propose an alternative analysis that focuses on surface errors rather than best-fit conic constant. We describe our new analysis strategy based on the two most dominant micro lens metrology methods in use today, namely, scanning white light interferometry (SWLI) and phase shifting interferometry (PSI). We estimate several parameters from the measurement. The major uncertainty contributors for SWLI are the estimates of base radius of curvature, the aperture of the lens, the sag of the lens, noise in the measurement, and the center of the lens. In the case of PSI the dominant uncertainty contributors are noise in the measurement, the radius of curvature, and the aperture. Our best-fit conic procedure uses least squares minimization to extract a best-fit conic value, which is then subjected to a Monte Carlo analysis to capture combined uncertainty. In our surface errors analysis procedure, we consider the surface errors as the difference between the measured geometry and the best-fit conic surface or as the difference between the measured geometry and the design specification for the lens. We focus on a Zernike polynomial description of the surface error, and again a Monte Carlo analysis is used to estimate a combined uncertainty, which in this case is an uncertainty for each Zernike coefficient. Our approach also allows us to investigate the effect of individual uncertainty parameters and measurement noise on both the best

  6. The relationship between nature of science understandings and science self-efficacy beliefs of sixth grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Elisabeth Allyn

    Bandura (1986) posited that self-efficacy beliefs help determine what individuals do with the knowledge and skills they have and are critical determinants of how well skill and knowledge are acquired. Research has correlated self-efficacy beliefs with academic success and subject interest (Pajares, Britner, & Valiante, 2000). Similar studies report a decreasing interest by students in school science beginning in middle school claiming that they don't enjoy science because the classes are boring and irrelevant to their lives (Basu & Barton, 2007). The hypothesis put forth by researchers is that students need to observe models of how science is done, the nature of science (NOS), so that they connect with the human enterprise of science and thereby raise their self-efficacy (Britner, 2008). This study examined NOS understandings and science self-efficacy of students enrolled in a sixth grade earth science class taught with explicit NOS instruction. The research questions that guided this study were (a) how do students' self-efficacy beliefs change as compared with changes in their nature of science understandings?; and (b) how do changes in students' science self-efficacy beliefs vary with gender and ethnicity segregation? A mixed method design was employed following an embedded experimental model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). As the treatment, five NOS aspects were first taught by the teachers using nonintegrated activities followed by integrated instructional approach (Khishfe, 2008). Students' views of NOS using the Views on Nature of Science (VNOS) (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, & Schwartz, 2002) along with their self-efficacy beliefs using three Likert-type science self-efficacy scales (Britner, 2002) were gathered. Changes in NOS understandings were determined by categorizing student responses and then comparing pre- and post-instructional understandings. To determine changes in participants' self-efficacy beliefs as measured by the three subscales, a multivariate

  7. Espectroscopia de candidatos a remanescentes de aglomerados abertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa sobre remanescentes de aglomerados abertos tem despertado grande interesse. Seguindo esta tendência encontramos estudos teóricos e observacionais. Os primeiros baseiam-se em simulações numéricas buscando determinar fração de binárias e distâncias galatocêntricas, tempo de vida e conteúdo estelar. Estes estão relacionados à função inicial de massa e densidade de estrelas, ou seja, se ricos ou pobremente povoados, compactos ou esparsos. No caso observacional procuram-se identificar os remanescentes considerando-se que trazem estas assinaturas de seus percursores. No presente estudo empregamos espectroscopia para analisar oito concentrações pobremente povoadas, previamente classificadas como aglomerados abertos, sendo sete compactas e uma esparsa. As observações foram obtidas através do telescópio de 2,15 m do CASLEO em San Juan, Argentina, em turnos entre 2001 e 2003. Utilizamos uma câmara CCD contendo um chip Tektronics de 1024X1024 pixeis aliado a um espectrógrafo REOSC. O domínio espectral vai de 3700 a 7000 Å. As reduções foram realizadas no Observatório Astronômico de Córdoba (Argentina) usando pacotes IRAF padrões. Determinamos idades, avermelhamentos e tipos espectrais através de comparações com biblioteca de estrelas e de aglomerados. Em alguns casos nossos espectros estavam dominados por estrelas individuais às quais determinamos seus tipos espectrais. Aos oito objetos adicionamos mais cinco da literatura recente analisados via espectro ou diagrama cor-magnitude. O histograma resultante contém idades típicas entre 0.5 e 3 Ganos. Considerando que predominantemente estes objetos encontram-se na vizinhança solar e, portanto, não cruzaram muitas vezes o plano Galático esperamos que a diferença no tempo necessário para dissolução destes prováveis remanescentes seja em função de diferentes massas iniciais.

  8. Mapping fluorophore distributions in three dimensions by quantitative multiple angle-total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Olveczky, B P; Periasamy, N; Verkman, A S

    1997-01-01

    The decay of evanescent field intensity beyond a dielectric interface depends upon beam incident angle, enabling the 3-d distribution of fluorophores to be deduced from total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) images obtained at multiple incident angles. Instrumentation was constructed for computer-automated multiple angle-TIRFM (MA-TIRFM) using a right angle F2 glass prism (n(r) 1.632) to create the dielectric interface. A laser beam (488 nm) was attenuated by an acoustooptic modulator and directed onto a specified spot on the prism surface. Beam incident angle was set using three microstepper motors controlling two rotatable mirrors and a rotatable optical flat. TIRFM images were acquired by a cooled CCD camera in approximately 0.5 degree steps for >15 incident angles starting from the critical angle. For cell studies, cells were grown directly on the glass prisms (without refractive index-matching fluid) and positioned in the optical path. Images of the samples were acquired at multiple angles, and corrected for angle-dependent evanescent field intensity using "reference" images acquired with a fluorophore solution replacing the sample. A theory was developed to compute fluorophore z-distribution by inverse Laplace transform of angle-resolved intensity functions. The theory included analysis of multiple layers of different refractive index for cell studies, and the anisotropic emission from fluorophores near a dielectric interface. Instrument performance was validated by mapping the thickness of a film of dihexyloxacarbocyanine in DMSO/water (n(r) 1.463) between the F2 glass prism and a plano-convex silica lens (458 mm radius, n(r) 1.463); the MA-TIRFM map accurately reproduced the lens spherical surface. MA-TIRFM was used to compare with nanometer z-resolution the geometry of cell-substrate contact for BCECF-labeled 3T3 fibroblasts versus MDCK epithelial cells. These studies establish MA-TIRFM for measurement of submicroscopic distances between

  9. A New Approach to Measure Contact Angle and Evaporation Rate with Flow Visualization in a Sessile Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The contact angle and the spreading process of sessile droplet are very crucial in many technological processes, such as painting and coating, material processing, film-cooling applications, lubrication, and boiling. Additionally, as it is well known that the surface free energy of polymers cannot be directly, measured for their elastic and viscous restraints. The measurements of liquid contact angle on the polymer surfaces become extremely important to evaluate the surface free energy of polymers through indirect methods linked with the contact angle data. Due to the occurrence of liquid evaporation is inevitable, the effects of evaporation on the contact angle and the spreading become very important for more complete understanding of these processes. It is of interest to note that evaporation can induce Marangoni-Benard convection in sessile drops. However, the impacts of the inside convection on the wetting and spreading processes are not clear. The experimental methods used by previous investigators cannot simultaneously measure the spreading process and visualize the convection inside. Based on the laser shadowgraphic system used by the present author, a very simple optical procedure has been developed to measure the contact angle, the spreading speed, the evaporation rate, and to visualize inside convection of a sessile drop simultaneously. Two CCD cameras were used to synchronously record the real-time diameter of the sessile drop, which is essential for determination of both spreading speed and evaporation rate, and the shadowgraphic image magnified by the sessile drop acting as a thin plano-convex lens. From the shadowgraph, the inside convection of the drop can be observed if any and the image outer diameter, which linked to the drop profile, can be measured. Simple equations have been derived to calculate the drop profile, including the instantaneous contact angle, height, and volume of the sessile drop, as well as the evaporation rate. The influence of

  10. The effect of spinal cord stimulation, overall, and the effect of differing spinal cord stimulation technologies on pain, reduction in pain medication, sleep, and function.

    PubMed

    Haddadan, Kayvan; Krames, Elliot S

    2007-04-01

    Background.  Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is effective in reducing pain from a number of differing medical conditions that are refractory to other, more conservative treatments. Much is written in the literature regarding efficacy and safety of SCS; however, no one to our knowledge has compared and reported safety and efficacy of SCS when using differing manufactured SCS devices. We undertook such a preliminary evaluation. Methods.  Charts from the years 2001-2005 of our clinic's patients who had undergone trials and placement of permanent SCS systems were selected for review. All patients who had received either an Advanced Bionics SCS system (Advanced Bionics, Valencia, CA, USA), an Advanced Neuromodulation Systems (ANS) SCS system (ANS, Plano, TX, USA), or a Medtronic SCS system (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) were given a survey to complete for data analysis. Patients were categorized into three groups: those patients having received a Medtronic (Mdt) SCS system, those patients having received an Advance Bionics (ABi) SCS system, and those patients having received an Advance Neuromodulation Systems (ANS) SCS system. Data, limited to volunteers, who gave their written consent, were analyzed for efficacy and complications. Differences in outcomes and safety were analyzed overall and according to manufacturer. Results.  Eighty surveys were mailed out to 80 patients and 30 surveys were completed and returned, a return and completion rate of 37.5%. All patients showed improvement in all aspects including pain relief, sleep, functional activities, and medication use for pain control. When comparing outcomes of SCS from the three different companies, there was no significant statistical difference in average percentage pain relief, sleep improvement, and medication needed for pain control. However, there was a statistically different less change in functional improvement in the ABi group when compared to patients in the Mdt and ANS groups. Conclusions

  11. Paleoseismologic and geomorphic constraints to the deformation style and activity of the Cittanova Fault (southern Calabria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peronace, Edoardo; Della Seta, Marta; Fredi, Paola; Galli, Paolo; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The western side of Southern Calabria is the epicentral region of the strongest earthquakes of Italy. These are mainly generated by extensional faults which are still poorly investigated and/or parameterized. In this study, we explore the potential of the combined analysis of geomorphic markers, stream network morphometry and paleosimological investigations, aimed at identifying and time-constraining the surface effects of the Calabrian seismogenic faults. In this perspective, we presents results from i) plano-altimetric analysis of geomorphic markers related to active tectonics (such as marine and fluvial terraces), ii) paleoseismological investigations, and iii) time-dependent river basin and long-profile metrics of the Cittanova Fault (CF). The CF, responsible for the catastrophic Mw 7.0 earthquake of 5 February 1783, is a N220° striking, 30 km-long normal fault that downthrows the crystalline-metamorphic basement of the Aspromonte massif (~1000 m asl) below the Gioia Tauro Plain, to elevations of ~500-800 m bsl. Radiocarbon dating allowed us to ascribe the depostion of a major terraced alluvial fan (Cittanova-Taurianova terrace, TAC) to the early Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and to date the avulsion of the depositional top surface of TAC to 28 ka. As we have found remnants of the TAC also in the CF footwall offset by 12-17 m, we estimate a vertical slip rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the past 28 ka. Paleoseismological data across the fault scarp evidenced at least three surface ruptures associated to ~Mw 7.0 paleoearthquakes prior to the 1783 event. The recurrence time (~3.2 kyr) is rather longer than other Apennine normal faults (0.3-2.4 kyr), whereas it is consistent with the low slip rate of CF for the late Upper Pleistocene (0.6 mm/yr). On a longer time scale, the spatial configuration of river basin morphometry evidenced the morphodynamic rensponse to the higher slip in the central sector of CF. Furthermore, long-profile metrics, and in particular the spatial

  12. Identificação de radiofontes puntiformes presentes na região observada pelo telescópio BEAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. S.; Wuensche, C. A.; Leonardi, R.; Tello, C.

    2003-08-01

    Radiofontes extragalácticas são um dos principais contaminantes nas medidas da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) em freqüências abaixo de 200 GHz. O estudo de seu comportamento espectral permite determinar a contribuição destas fontes às anisotropias intrísincas da RCF. Um dos experimentos recentes concebidos para estudar a RCF é o BEAST (Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope), cujos primeiros resultados foram publicados em fevereiro de 2003. Nos últimos meses, geramos mapas do céu nas freqüências de 30 GHz e 41 GHz, para um total de 648 horas de observação entre julho e outubro de 2002. Identificamos 4 fontes puntiformes extragalácticas na região do céu situada entre 0h < RA < 24 h e +32° < DEC < +42°, com relação S/R > 4,3 e situadas a pelo menos 25° acima do Plano Galáctico. Suas contrapartidas em 5 GHz, segundo o catálogo GB6, são: J1613+3412, J1635+3808, J0927+3902 e J1642+3948. Estas fontes também foram identificadas pelo satélite WMAP sendo que três coincidem com as observadas pelo BEAST dentro da incerteza do feixe do telescópio e a quarta encontra-se bastante próxima (J1613+3412), embora não seja coincidente. As estimativas preliminares de fluxos obtidas para esses objetos são, respectivamente, 0,51; 0,97; 1,08 e 1,6 Jy em 41 GHz. Usando estes resultados e medidas de fluxos em outras frequências existentes na literatura, apresentamos uma estimativa dos índices espectrais destes objetos no intervalo de frequências entre 4,85 GHz e 41 GHz.

  13. Field Investigations of Landscape Development in southeast Spain for use in Modeling Holocene (8,000 - 1,500 yr) Agropastoral Landuse and Landscape Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimaggio, E. N.; La Roca, N.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Diez-Castillo, A.; Bernabeu, J.; Barton, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    Dramatic changes in land use were associated with the rise of agriculture in the mid Holocene in the Mediterranean region. Both the surface properties and the drainage networks were changed. Along with the direct modifications to surface properties (vegetation removal and change, sediment liberation and compaction) and consequent drainage alteration (terracing, canals), up and downstream responses in the watersheds communicated these changes throughout the landscape. The magnitude, rate, and feedbacks with the growing human populations are critical questions in our effort to assess human-landscape interactions. To investigate these relationships, recent field work in the Penaguila Valley in southeast Spain included landform mapping, alluvial deposit description, and sample collection emphasizing areas of active erosion, remnant land surfaces and their relation to archaeological sites. We have updated our geomorphic maps by refining the delineation of alluvial terraces, steep-walled (40m deep) drainages ("barrancos"), and hollows ("barrancos de fondo plano"). Hollows are curved, elongate, flat-bottomed gullies with steep walls (2-30m tall) and extend headward from the main barrancos. This work enables more accurate terrace correlations necessary for both landscape evolution modeling and interpretation of the development history of the basin. Alluvial terraces are crucial to this research because they record periods of past stable topography. In the Penaguila, sites dating back to late Mesolithic and early Neolithic (around 6600 BP) and subsequent periods (Chalcolithic and Bronze Age) are exposed on a prominent terrace surface mapped as Terrace A. This broad low relief surface is scarred by deep barrancos and hollow formation that expose bedrock marls and overlying alluvial deposits. Stratigraphic profiles and texture analyses of Terrace A deposits reveal overland flow facies and channel networks in reworked and CaCO3-encrusted marls, and several organic

  14. A novel optical detector concept for dedicated and multi-modality in vivo small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Jörg; Schulz, Ralf B.; Unholtz, Daniel; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2007-07-01

    An optical detector suitable for inclusion in tomographic arrangements for non-contact in vivo bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging applications is proposed. It consists of a microlens array (MLA) intended for field-of-view definition, a large-field complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chip for light detection, a septum mask for cross-talk suppression, and an exchangeable filter to block excitation light. Prototype detector units with sensitive areas of 2.5 cm x 5 cm each were assembled. The CMOS sensor constitutes a 512 x 1024 photodiode matrix at 48 μm pixel pitch. Refractive MLAs with plano-convex lenses of 480 μm in diameter and pitch were selected resulting in a 55 x 105 lens matrix. The CMOS sensor is aligned on the focal plane of the MLA at 2.15mm distance. To separate individual microlens images an opaque multi-bore septum mask of 2.1mm in thickness and bore diameters of 400 μm at 480 μm pitch, aligned with the lens pattern, is placed between MLA and CMOS. Intrinsic spatial detector resolution and sensitivity was evaluated experimentally as a function of detector-object distance. Due to its small overall dimensions such detectors can be favorably packed for tomographic imaging (optical diffusion tomography, ODT) yielding complete 2 π field-of-view coverage. We also present a design study of a device intended to simultaneously image positron labeled substrates (positron emission tomography, PET) and optical molecular probes in small animals such as mice and rats. It consists of a cylindrical allocation of optical detector units which form an inner detector ring while PET detector blocks are mounted in radial extension, those gaining complementary information in a single, intrinsically coregistered experimental data acquisition study. Finally, in a second design study we propose a method for integrated optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which yields in vivo functional/molecular information that is intrinsically registered with the

  15. Autogenic dynamics of debris-flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Wilco; de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fans develop their semi-conical shape by cyclic avulsion of their geomorphologically active sector from a fixed fan apex. These cyclic avulsions have been attributed to both allogenic and autogenic forcings and processes. Autogenic dynamics have been extensively studied on fluvial fans through physical scale experiments, and are governed by cyclic alternations of aggradation by unconfined sheet flow, fanhead incision leading to channelized flow, channel backfilling and avulsion. On debris-flow fans, however, autogenic dynamics have not yet been directly observed. We experimentally created debris-flow fans under constant extrinsic forcings, and show that autogenic dynamics are a fundamental intrinsic process on debris-flow fans. We found that autogenic cycles on debris-flow fans are driven by sequences of backfilling, avulsion and channelization, similar to the cycles on fluvial fans. However, the processes that govern these sequences are unique for debris-flow fans, and differ fundamentally from the processes that govern autogenic dynamics on fluvial fans. We experimentally observed that backfilling commenced after the debris flows reached their maximum possible extent. The next debris flows then progressively became shorter, driven by feedbacks on fan morphology and flow-dynamics. The progressively decreasing debris-flow length caused in-channel sedimentation, which led to increasing channel overflow and wider debris flows. This reduced the impulse of the liquefied flow body to the flow front, which then further reduced flow velocity and runout length, and induced further in-channel sedimentation. This commenced a positive feedback wherein debris flows became increasingly short and wide, until the channel was completely filled and the apex cross-profile was plano-convex. At this point, there was no preferential transport direction by channelization, and the debris flows progressively avulsed towards the steepest, preferential, flow path. Simultaneously

  16. Arthroscopic grafting of scaphoid nonunion - surgical technique and preliminary findings from 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Cognet, J-M; Louis, P; Martinache, X; Schernberg, F

    2017-02-01

    We report our experience with the arthroscopic treatment of 23 cases of scaphoid nonunion. We explain the surgical technique and describe the different steps needed to achieve bone union. We report our initial clinical and radiological results. This was a prospective non-randomized study. Inclusion criteria were a scaphoid nonunion without radiocarpal arthritis, without any time limit and without any selection as to nonunion location. Before the operation, patients underwent an X-Ray and CT scan or MRI. Schernberg's classification was used to evaluate the location of the nonunion. Internal fixation was performed with a screw or K-wires. Bone grafts were taken from the dorsal side of the distal radius using a T-Lok™ bone marrow biopsy needle (Argon Medical Devices, Plano, TX, USA). A CT scan was performed 3 months after the operation to determine whether union was achieved. Pain, strength and range of motion were evaluated before and after the operation. The patients' smoking habits were also documented. The average follow-up was 17.3 months (4-41). There were 20 men and 3 women with an average age of 26 years (17-63). The average duration of nonunion before the operation was 17 months (6-60). Based on Schernberg's classification, there was one type I, 12 type II and 10 type III nonunions. Wrist strength increased from 32 to 41kg. Union was obtained in all patients after an average of 4 months (3-12). Numerous treatments have been described for treating scaphoid nonunion: Matti-Russe, Fisk-Fernadez bone graft, vascularized bone graft, bone substitutes, etc. The success rate varies depending on the technique and study design. We have described an arthroscopic technique for treating scaphoid nonunion with very promising preliminary results. Arthroscopic debridement is needed to ensure good quality bone at the graft site, while preserving extrinsic vascularization. Traction is used during the operation to restore the scaphoid height, once debridement has been

  17. Solar thermoelectric generators fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Maria Theresa; Chong, Harold; Kraft, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Solar thermal power generation is an attractive electricity generation technology as it is environment-friendly, has the potential for increased efficiency, and has high reliability. The design, modelling, and evaluation of solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate are presented in this paper. Solar concentration is achieved by using a focusing lens to concentrate solar input onto the membrane of the STEG. A thermal model is developed based on energy balance and heat transfer equations using lumped thermal conductances. This thermal model is shown to be in good agreement with actual measurement results. For a 1 W laser input with a spot size of 1 mm, a maximum open-circuit voltage of 3.06 V is obtained, which translates to a temperature difference of 226 °C across the thermoelements and delivers 25 µW of output power under matched load conditions. Based on solar simulator measurements, a maximum TEG voltage of 803 mV was achieved by using a 50.8 mm diameter plano-convex lens to focus solar input to a TEG with a length of 1000 µm, width of 15 µm, membrane diameter of 3 mm, and 114 thermocouples. This translates to a temperature difference of 18 °C across the thermoelements and an output power under matched load conditions of 431 nW. This paper demonstrates that by utilizing a solar concentrator to focus solar radiation onto the hot junction of a TEG, the temperature difference across the device is increased; subsequently improving the TEG’s efficiency. By using materials that are compatible with standard CMOS and MEMS processes, integration of solar-driven TEGs with on-chip electronics is seen to be a viable way of solar energy harvesting where the resulting microscale system is envisioned to have promising applications in on-board power sources, sensor networks, and autonomous microsystems.

  18. Evolución Dinámica de Cúmulos Estelares Abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    Las estrellas que observamos no se formaron aisladamente, sino que lo hicieron en grupos o cúmulos. Estos sistemas estelares recibenel nombre de cúmulos estelares abiertos o galácticos cuando están constituidos por estrellas de la Población I. Los cúmulos abiertos se localizan preferentemente en el plano galáctico, y en muchos de ellos está teniendo lugar aún una activa formación estelar. El propósito principal de esta tesis doctoral es el estudio de la evolución dinámica de estos sistemas estelares por medio de simulaciones numéricas y de la comparación de sus resultados con datos observacionales. Con este fin se analizan los efectos que, sobre la dinámica de los cúmulos, ejercen varios fenómenos de interés astrofísico tales como el campo gravitatorio galáctico, la pérdida de masa causada por la evolución estelar y la presencia de binarias primordiales. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de más de un centenar de modelos de cúmulos, con poblaciones comprendidas en el intervalo [100, 10.000] estrellas, calculados con NBODY5, un programa estándar en el campo de la Dinámica Estelar Experimental. De los mismos se deduce que el mecanismo principal que rige la dinámica de los cúmulos abiertos es la evolución estelar de su distribución de masas, encontrándose un comportamiento diferencial fuertemente dependiente de la población inicial del cúmulo. Los mecanismos responsables de la desintegración de los cúmulos abiertos son analizados en detalle, proponiéndose un modelo analítico que ajusta razonablemente los resultados de las simulaciones. Además, y con el fin de explicar el elevado número de sistemas múltiples observados en cúmulos abiertos, se estudian los efectos que, sobre los mismos, ejerce la presencia de una cierta fracción de binarias primordiales. El papel de las binarias tambiín depende de la riqueza del cúmulo y sus efectos se interrelacionan con aquellos debidos a la evolución estelar. Por último, se

  19. Observación espectroscópica de NGC 2442

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, E.; Bajaja, E.; Paolantonio, S.

    La galaxia NGC 2442 (SAB(s)bc pec) fue observada con el telescopio de 2,15 m y el espectrógrafo REOSC del CASLEO utilizando el detector CCD Tektronix de 1024 × 1024 pixels de 24 μ m (0,26"). Las exposiciones fueron realizadas con la ranura de 3,3'' × 348'', en el plano focal, ubicadas en seis posiciones, cinco a 40o de áng. de pos. y una a 79o. La mayor parte de las exposiciones se efectuó con la red de 1200 líneas mm-1, a un ángulo de 25,53o cubriendo el rango de λλ 6200 a 6900 con dispersión de 32Å mm-1 y resolución de 2,5 Å. Las relaciones entre las intensidades de las líneas de emisión en el núcleo de NGC 2442 indican que es un LINER lo cual es compatible con la sugerencia de Shobrook de que se trataría de una galaxia Seyfert u otro tipo de galaxia activa. La temperatura y densidad electrónicas nucleares son Te ~14.000 K y Ne ~ 530 cm-3, respectivamente. Una región a 87'' al NE en cambio, donde las intensidades son también altas, presenta características espectrales típicas de una Región HII con Te ~6500 K y Ne ~10 cm-3. La correlación de las intensidades con el CO en 115 GHz y con el continuo en 843 MHz y de las velocidades ópticas con las del CO, a lo largo del eje mayor, son muy buenas. La mayor resolución angular de las observaciones, sin embargo, permite apreciar la existencia de dos componentes de velocidad en el núcleo que pueden corresponder a un anillo en rotación o a un fenómeno de expansión.

  20. Every photon counts: improving low, mid, and high-spatial frequency errors on astronomical optics and materials with MRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Chris; Lormeau, Jean Pierre; Dumas, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Many astronomical sensing applications operate in low-light conditions; for these applications every photon counts. Controlling mid-spatial frequencies and surface roughness on astronomical optics are critical for mitigating scattering effects such as flare and energy loss. By improving these two frequency regimes higher contrast images can be collected with improved efficiency. Classically, Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) has offered an optical fabrication technique to correct low order errors as well has quilting/print-through errors left over in light-weighted optics from conventional polishing techniques. MRF is a deterministic, sub-aperture polishing process that has been used to improve figure on an ever expanding assortment of optical geometries, such as planos, spheres, on and off axis aspheres, primary mirrors and freeform optics. Precision optics are routinely manufactured by this technology with sizes ranging from 5-2,000mm in diameter. MRF can be used for form corrections; turning a sphere into an asphere or free form, but more commonly for figure corrections achieving figure errors as low as 1nm RMS while using careful metrology setups. Recent advancements in MRF technology have improved the polishing performance expected for astronomical optics in low, mid and high spatial frequency regimes. Deterministic figure correction with MRF is compatible with most materials, including some recent examples on Silicon Carbide and RSA905 Aluminum. MRF also has the ability to produce `perfectly-bad' compensating surfaces, which may be used to compensate for measured or modeled optical deformation from sources such as gravity or mounting. In addition, recent advances in MRF technology allow for corrections of mid-spatial wavelengths as small as 1mm simultaneously with form error correction. Efficient midspatial frequency corrections make use of optimized process conditions including raster polishing in combination with a small tool size. Furthermore, a novel MRF

  1. Correlation between magnetic fabrics, strain and biotite microstructure with increasing mylonitisation in the pretectonic Wyangala Granite, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennox, P. G.; de Wall, H.; Durney, D. W.

    2016-04-01

    The Wyangala Granite is a foliated, porphyritic Silurian granite from the Palaeozoic Circum-Pacific type Eastern Lachlan Orogen (ELO) of Australia. It is a paramagnetic ilmenite-bearing, S/marginal I type two-mica- to mainly biotite-granite with different biotite contents and local chlorite alteration. Very highly strained quartz-epidote bands are present. In this contribution, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is compared with independently measured intensity and 3D style of strain, biotite microstructure and degree of mylonitisation for low-strain granites with weak S-foliations, through medium-strain protomylonitic granites with moderate S- and C-foliations to a high-strain altered granite with a strong single foliation. The samples are further analysed for possible contributions from sample heterogeneity, magmatic flow and 'sub-magmatic' deformation. A good correlation, P‧AMS ~ 1.02 + 0.04 ln P‧(e)Qtz, is obtained between site-average degree of AMS (P‧AMS) in the granite and degree of finite-strain anisotropy (P‧(e)Qtz) from aspect ratios of quartz aggregates in S-foliations in hand specimen and outcrop (P‧AMS 1.03-1.14, P‧(e)Qtz 1.4-19). The magnetic fabric ellipsoids agree with a kinematic regime between neutral and pure oblate predicted by the March model. The observed quartz strains, however, exceed the AMS March strains and are near neutral, plano-linear character. The geological factors that may have contributed to these differences include intra- and inter-crystalline deformation of biotite and bimodality in S and C. Magmatic fabric is not clearly evident in either the AMS or the biotite data. New data for synkinematic oligoclase, low-titanium biotite and low-sodium K-feldspar show that conditions during deformation were approximately transitional greenschist-amphibolite facies: i.e., well below solidus. This agrees with published age data that put the granite emplacement in an extensional, back-arc setting in already deformed

  2. [Anogenital Warts in a Major Venereology Clinic: Centro de Saúde da Lapa - Lisbon, 2008 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Gameiro, Ana; Alves, João; Santo, Irene; Azevedo, Jacinta

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: O vírus do papiloma humano é responsável pela infeção sexualmente transmissível mais comum, podendo manifestar--se por um conjunto amplo de doenças, nomeadamente condilomas anogenitais, papilomatose laríngea recorrente, e neoplasias da região anogenital, colo do útero e orofaringe. Estima-se que os condilomas anogenitais afetem 1% da população sexualmente ativa, causados em cerca de 90% pelos genótipos 6 e 11. Material e Métodos: Identificámos os doentes com primeiro diagnóstico de condilomas anogenitais da consulta de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis do Centro de Saúde da Lapa, entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2014, e caracterizámos os doentes por sexo, orientação sexual, idade, localização das lesões, e número de parceiros nos últimos seis meses. Resultados: Foram identificados 902 indivíduos com primeiro diagnóstico de condilomas anogenitais. Observámos uma diminuição significativa de novos casos nas mulheres com < 19 anos (r = -0,848; p = 0,016), e uma diminuição sem significado estatístico nos homens com < 19 anos e nas mulheres entre os 20 - 24 anos. Discussão: Em outubro de 2008, a vacina quadrivalente (genótipos 6, 11, 16, 18) foi introduzida no plano nacional de vacinação de Portugal, abrangendo as adolescentes com 13 anos, com um catch-up para as de 17 anos. A diminuição de primeiros diagnósticos de condilomas anogenitais nas mulheres, deve-se provavelmente à sua vacinação antes de iniciarem a vida sexual. Conclusão: Este estudo reforça a import'ncia do programa nacional de vacinação para o vírus do papiloma humano.

  3. SU-F-BRD-09: Is It Sufficient to Use Only Low Density Tissue-Margin to Compensate Inter-Fractionation Setup Uncertainties in Lung Treatment?

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, K; Yue, N; Chen, T; Millevoi, R; Qin, S; Guo, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In lung radiation treatment, PTV is formed with a margin around GTV (or CTV/ITV). Although GTV is most likely of water equivalent density, the PTV margin may be formed with the surrounding low-density tissues, which may lead to unreal dosimetric plan. This study is to evaluate whether the concern of dose calculation inside the PTV with only low density margin could be justified in lung treatment. Methods: Three SBRT cases were analyzed. The PTV from the original plan (Plan-O) was created with a 5–10 mm margin outside the ITV to incorporate setup errors and all mobility from 10 respiratory phases. Test plans were generated with the GTV shifted to the PTV edge to simulate the extreme situations with maximum setup uncertainties. Two representative positions as the very posterior-superior (Plan-PS) and anterior-inferior (Plan-AI) edge were considered. The virtual GTV was assigned a density of 1.0 g.cm−3 and surrounding lung, including the PTV margin, was defined as 0.25 g.cm−3. Also, additional plan with a 1mm tissue-margin instead of full lung-margin was created to evaluate whether a composite-margin (Plan-Comp) has a better approximation for dose calculation. All plans were generated on the average CT using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm with heterogeneity correction on and all planning parameters/monitor unites remained unchanged. DVH analyses were performed for comparisons. Results: Despite the non-static dose distribution, the high-dose region synchronized with tumor positions. This might due to scatter conditions as greater doses were absorbed in the solid-tumor than in the surrounding low-density lungtissue. However, it still showed missing target coverage in general. Certain level of composite-margin might give better approximation for the dosecalculation. Conclusion: Our exploratory results suggest that with the lungmargin only, the planning dose of PTV might overestimate the coverage of the target during treatment. The significance of this

  4. [Morphometric characteristics of the asterion and the posterolateral surface of the skull: its relationship with dural venous sinuses and its neurosurgical importance].

    PubMed

    Galindo-de León, Salvador; Hernández-Rodríguez, Alejandra Nohemí; Morales-Ávalos, Rodolfo; Theriot-Girón, María Del Carmen; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: el conocimiento de la ubicación y características morfométricas del seno venoso lateral (transverso y sigmoides), así como de su relación con este y otros puntos de referencia anatómicos superficiales, es imprescindible durante los abordajes posterolaterales de la fosa craneal posterior para evitar lesionar las estructuras vasculares y las complicaciones quirúrgicas. Objetivo: determinar un área anatómica de seguridad para realizar un trépano que permita ingresar en la fosa craneal posterior sin lesionar estructuras adyacentes, y estudiar las características morfométricas del asterion, el seno lateral y puntos de referencia óseos de la superficie posterolateral del cráneo. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo efectuado en el Departamento de Anatomía Humana de las Facultad de Medicina y de Odontología de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Se analizaron 176 hemicráneos secos, estructuralmente íntegros y sin ninguna patología o anormalidad evidente. Se utilizó una broca de 1.3 mm de diámetro con la que se perforaron ambos lados de 88 cráneos secos (176 hemicráneos). Los puntos de referencia anatómicos estudiados fueron: asterion, vértice de la apófisis mastoides, espina suprameatal, plano horizontal de Frankfurt, raíz posterior del arco cigomático, protuberancia occipital externa y su relación con el seno venoso lateral. Resultados: el asterion tipo I prevalece en 74.4% de las piezas. En 82.4% de los cráneos el seno venoso lateral se encuentra a nivel del asterion inferior a éste en 12.5% y superior en 5.1%. Conclusiones: con los datos obtenidos de esta y otras investigaciones, el trépano inicial debe situarse 15 mm por debajo del asterion inferior y 15 mm posterior a éste para disminuir los riesgos de lesión del seno venoso lateral.

  5. Precessão do jato de 3C120: simulações hidrodinâmicas 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Raga, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    Observações com técnicas de interferometria com longa linha de base têm mostrado a existência de um jato relativístico com componentes superluminais na região central de 3C 120. Estas componentes são ejetadas em distintas direções no plano do céu e com diferentes velocidades aparentes. Estas características foram interpretadas em trabalhos anteriores como efeitos da precessão do jato relativístico. Neste trabalho, realizamos simulações tri-dimensionais do jato de 3C 120 utilizando os parâmetros de precessão determinados em trabalhos anteriores e variando as características iniciais do jato e meio ambiente, tais como densidade numérica e temperatura. Todas as simulações foram feitas com o código hidrodinâmico YGUAZÚ-A, assumindo-se um jato adiabático descrito por uma equação de estado relativística. Pelo fato de estarmos utilizando um código hidrodinâmico, nós assumimos que a intensidade do campo magnético e a distribuição de partículas, necessários para se calcular a emissão sincrotron, são proporcionais à pressão hidrodinâmica. Comparação entre dois cenários distintos, nos quais o material do jato é ejetado com velocidade constante (jato contínuo) e com velocidade modulada por um padrão sinusoidal no tempo (jato intermitente), é apresentada e discutida. Para jatos que apresentam fenômenos de precessão e intermitência, com amplitude de variação na velocidade de injeção maior que dez por cento da velocidade média de injeção, a hipótese balística, controlada pela intermitencia, é mais provável. Por outro lado, para jatos com precessão mas sem intermitência (ou com amplitude de variabilidade em velocidade mais baixa que no caso anterior), o efeito da precessão na morfologia do jato não é desprezível. Portanto, de um modo geral, ambos efeitos (precessão e movimentos balísticos) devem estar concorrendo para afetar a morfologia dos jatos superluminais.

  6. The Unique Optical Design of the CTI-II Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, J. T.; MacFarlane, M.

    2006-12-01

    The CCD/Transit Instrument with Innovative Instrumentation (CTI-II) is being developed for precision ground-based astrometric and photometric astronomical observations. The 1.8m telescope will be stationary, near-zenith pointing and will feature a CCD-mosaic array operated in time-delay and integrate (TDI) mode to image a continuous strip of the sky in five bands. The heart of the telescope is a Nasmyth-like bent-Cassegrain optical system optimized to produce near diffraction-limited images with near zero distortion over a circular1.42 deg field. The optical design includes an f/2.2 parabolic ULE primary with no central hole salvaged from the original CTI telescope and adds the requisite hyperbolic secondary, a folding flat and a highly innovative all-spherical, five lens corrector which includes three plano surfaces. The reflective and refractive portions of the design have been optimized as individual but interdependent systems so that the same reflective system can be used with slightly different refractive correctors. At present, two nearly identical corrector designs are being evaluated, one fabricated from BK-7 glass and the other of fused silica. The five lens corrector consists of an air-spaced triplet separated from follow-on air-spaced doublet. Either design produces 0.25 arcsecond images at 83% encircled energy with a maximum of 0.0005% distortion. The innovative five lens corrector design has been applied to other current and planned Cassegrain, RC and super RC optical systems requiring correctors. The basic five lens approach always results in improved performance compared to the original designs. In some cases, the improvement in image quality is small but includes substantial reductions in distortion. In other cases, the improvement in image quality is substantial. Because the CTI-II corrector is designed for a parabolic primary, it might be especially useful for liquid mirror telescopes. We describe and discuss the CTI-II optical design with respect

  7. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  8. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    capturadas con mayor frecuencia que los machos. La recaptura de moscas silvestres de A. ludens fue de 0.6 a 24.8%, para A. obliqua fue del 1.3 al 16.2%, para moscas de laboratorio fue de 0.5 a 7.1 y 0.5 a 3%, respectivamente. La esperanza de vida correspondio a 4.7 y 4.3 dias para machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. obliqua respectivamente; mientras que 3 y 2 dias fueron para los machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. ludens . La dispersion para A. ludens y A. obliqua fue de 100 a 250 m tanto para individuos silvestres como de laboratorio. Los adultos de A. ludens silvestre se desplazaron del punto central de liberacion al noroeste, los individuos de laboratorio se movieron hacia el oeste del plano Cartesiano. A su vez los adultos de A. obliqua silvestre se movieron hacia el oeste y las de laboratorio hacia el suroeste. Discutimos las implicaciones de nuestros resultados con relacion al espaciamiento y frecuencia de las liberaciones de moscas esteriles para la supresion de poblaciones silvestres. (author)

  9. Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Estimative of CO2 and CO Vehicular Emission Contribution from the Megacity of SãO Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Nogueira, T.; Martínez, P. J.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R. M.; Ynoue, R.

    2013-12-01

    data presented here compared tunnel measurements performed in 2004 and 2011. The official data estimate an emission of 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles) and 128 million tons per year of CO. The top-down estimative based on tunnel measurements resulted in values approximately 5 times higher, being the difference more attributable to the estimative of the diesel emission factor. The uncertainties are related to the deterioration of the emission factor with time and the driving pattern. The diurnal variation of CO2 atmospheric concentration is characterized by the mobile source emission pattern. CETESB. Relatório Anual de Qualidade do Ar no Estado de São Paulo 2012. Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, São Paulo, Brazil, 2013a. CETESB. Plano de Controle de Poluição Veicular do Estado de São Paulo 2011 /2013. Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, São Paulo, Brazil, 2013b.

  10. Classificação geométrica de galáxias bianeladas através do metódo CART (Classification And Regression Trees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormeño, M. I.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Cavada, G.

    2003-08-01

    A importância deste trabalho deve-se à seleção de objetos ainda não tratados particularmente como uma família e ao emprego de procedimento estatístico robusto que não precisa de pressupostos ou condições de contorno. Contribui, assim, ao melhor entendimento do cenário das Galáxias Aneladas do diagrama de Hubble via classificação e estudo de subclasses. Selecionaram-se 100 galáxias possuidoras de dois anéis do Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies compilado por Ronald Buta, de modo a construir uma amostra completa em termos de conhecimento dos semi-eixos dos anéis interno e externo projetados no plano do céu. Visando uma possível classificação destas galáxias aneladas normais em famílias de acordo com as características geométricas dos anéis, empregou-se primeiramente a Análise de Aglomerados (ferramenta de classificação: medições de semelhança em um espaço bidimensional) para explorar a possível existência de famílias. As variáveis analisadas foram: os diâmetros interiores menores d(I) e maiores D(I), os diâmetros exteriores menores d(E) e maiores D(E), e os ângulos de inclinação dos semi-eixos maiores interiores q(I) e exteriores q(E) dos anéis. Como metodologia de discriminação, empregou-se a construção de Árvores de Classificação. As árvores de classificação constituem um método de discriminação alternativo aos modelos clássicos, tais como a Análise Discriminante e a Regressão Logística, onde uma base de dados é dividida em partições (subgrupos) da árvore por ação de um predictor (variável específica). Os pacotes estatísticos utilizados para o processamento da informação foram: SAS versão 8.0 (Statistical Analisys System) e CART versão 3.6.3. Esta análise estatística sugere a existência de três possíveis famílias de galáxias bianeladas, com base apenas na geometria dos anéis. Como forma exploratória inicial deste resultado, a construção de um diagrama BT (magnitude total) versus o

  11. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  12. Long term landscape evolution within central Apennines (Italy): Marsica and Peligna region morphotectonics and surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccadei, E.; Piacentini, T.; Berti, C.

    2010-12-01

    The relief features of the Apennines have been developed in a complex geomorphological and geological setting from Neogene to Quaternary. Growth of topography has been driven by active tectonics (thrust-related crustal shortening and high-angle normal faulting related to crustal extension), regional rock uplift, and surface processes, starting from Late Miocene(?) - Early Pliocene. At present a high-relief landscape is dominated by morphostructures including high-standing, resistant Mesozoic and early Tertiary carbonates ridges (i.e. thrust ridges, faulted homocline ridges) and intervening, erodible Tertiary siliciclastics valleys (i.e. fault line valleys) and Quaternary continental deposits filled basins (i.e. tectonic valleys, tectonic basins). This study tries to identify paleo-uplands that may be linked to paleo-base levels and aims at the reconstruction of ancient landscapes since the incipient phases of morphogenesis. It analyzes the role of tectonics and morphogenic processes in the long term temporal scale landscape evolution (i.e. Mio?-Pliocene to Quaternary). It is focused on the marsicano-peligna region, located along the main drainage divide between Adriatic side and Tyrrhenian side of Central Apennines, one of the highest average elevation area of the whole chain. The work incorporates GIS-based geomorphologic field mapping of morphostructures and Quaternary continental deposits, and plano-altimetric analysis and morphometry (DEM-, map-based) of the drainage network (i.e. patterns, hypsometry, knick points, Ks). Field mapping give clues on the definition of paleo-landscapes related to different paleo-morpho-climatic environments (i.e. karst, glacial, slope, fluvial). Geomorphological evidence of tectonics and their cross-cutting relationships with morphostructures, continental deposits and faults, provide clues on the deciphering of the reciprocal relationship of antecedence of the paleo-landscapes and on the timing of morphotectonics. Morphotectonic

  13. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluación Diagnóstica Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliação Diagnóstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Célia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    para o ensino do tema nessa série. Os resultados da avaliação diagnóstica serviram como referência para a organização do plano de ensino, viabilizando o processo de aprendizagem, por adequar a sequência didática às características dos estudantes e ao contexto da sala de aula. É esperado que o instrumento apresentado nesse artigo possa ser utilizado também por outros pesquisadores em investigações relacionadas ao tema.

  14. A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

    2006-01-01

    of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove, OR (USA)). Dr. Citek is Associate Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove (USA)). In their comprehensive evaluation of sunglasses, they found some disturbing results. Despite being endorsed by The Skin Cancer Foundation, the Walgreens eyewear samples offer only partial protection to the potential hazards of sunlight exposure. Those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with impact resistant polycarbonate lenses that provide 100% ultraviolet filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision (Nike Inc., Portland OR [USA]), available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features, as well as patented optical and tint designs. Numerous Nike styles offer interchangeable lens options to meet the changing environmental conditions encountered outdoors. These technologies are incorporated into performance-driven frame designs inspired by feedback from some of the world's best athletes. Nonprescription Nike eyewear are available on-line at http://www.nike.com/nikevision, as well as at various well-known retail outlets. Nonprescription and prescription Nike eyewear are also available at the offices of many eye care professionals. Even though our latest report did not include soft contact lens, it is important to emphasize that Dr. Reichow and Dr. Citek have played a leadership role in coordinating the development of the Nike MAXSIGHT, an innovative fully tinted soft contact lens. This contact lens provides distortion-free optics, whether or not you wear prescription contacts. They filter out more than 90% of harmful blue light and 95% of UVA and UVB. For the contact

  15. Dual-porosity modeling of groundwater recharge: testing a quick calibration using in situ moisture measurements, Areuse River Delta, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Eugster, Werner

    sensitivité ont montré que l'investigation de la couverture du sol est suffisante pour l'estimation locale de la RN du fait que l'eau traversant le plan du flux nul se trouverait sous la zone des racines et échapperait à l'évapotranspiration. La RN simulée sur les 0.70 m du sol sous les conditions d'équilibre était de 364 mm, ce qui est comparable aux mesures. Se propone un método sencillo para calibrar el modelo de doble porosidad "MACRO" mediante medidas in-situ obtenidas por TDR durante un breve ensayo de infiltración (2,8 horas), con el objetivo de estimar la recarga local al acuífero. Ésta ha sido modelada de dos formas: considerando los 3 m de suelo no saturado y empleando sólo desde la capa superior hasta el plano de flujo nulo (de 0 a 0,70 m). Se compara la recarga modelada con la recarga local medida en campo, la cual fue de 313 mm durante un ciclo anual (del 15 de octubre de 1990 al 15 de octubre de 1991). Las mejores simulaciones corresponden a la hipótesis de columna entera no saturada en condiciones de equilibrio, excluyendo el efecto de macroporos (valor de 330 mm), mientras que el resultado obtenido para condiciones de no equilibrio en la recarga local está sobreestimado (378 mm). Los análisis de sensibilidad muestran que la investigación del horizonte superior del suelo es suficiente para estimar la recarga local en este caso, ya que el agua almacenada por debajo de esta profundidad parece estar fuera del alcance típico de las raíces de la vegetación y no puede ser evapotranspirada. La recarga modelada en condiciones de equilibrio para la capa superior de 0,70 m de espesor es de 364 mm, valor aceptable respecto a las medidas.