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Sample records for 2007 antimicrobials division

  1. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Donald; DePaolo, Donald

    2008-07-21

    Research in earth and atmospheric sciences has become increasingly important in light of the energy, climate change, and other environmental issues facing the United States and the world. The development of new energy resources other than fossil hydrocarbons, the safe disposal of nuclear waste and greenhouse gases, and a detailed understanding of the climatic consequences of our energy choices are all critical to meeting energy needs while ensuring environmental safety. The cleanup of underground contamination and the preservation and management of water supplies continue to provide challenges, as they will for generations into the future. To address the critical energy and environmental issues requires continuing advances in our knowledge of Earth systems and our ability to translate that knowledge into new technologies. The fundamental Earth science research common to energy and environmental issues largely involves the physics, chemistry, and biology of fluids in and on the Earth. To manage Earth fluids requires the ability to understand their properties and behavior at the most fundamental molecular level, as well as prediction, characterization, imaging, and manipulation of those fluids and their behavior in real Earth reservoirs. The broad range of disciplinary expertise, the huge range of spatial and time scales, and the need to integrate theoretical, computational, laboratory and field research, represent both the challenge and the excitement of Earth science research. The Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is committed to addressing the key scientific and technical challenges that are needed to secure our energy future in an environmentally responsibly way. Our staff of over 200 scientists, UC Berkeley faculty, support staff and guests perform world-acclaimed fundamental research in hydrogeology and reservoir engineering, geophysics and geomechanics, geochemistry, microbial ecology

  2. Antimicrobial peptides trigger a division block in Escherichia coli through stimulation of a signalling system

    PubMed Central

    Yadavalli, Srujana S.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Leibman, Rachel S.; Chen, Annie I.; Stern, Andrew M.; Roggiani, Manuela; Lippa, Andrew M.; Goulian, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an important component of the molecular arsenal employed by hosts against bacteria. Many bacteria in turn possess pathways that provide protection against these compounds. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the PhoQ/PhoP signalling system is a key regulator of this antimicrobial peptide defence. Here we show that treating E. coli with sublethal concentrations of antimicrobial peptides causes cells to filament, and that this division block is controlled by the PhoQ/PhoP system. The filamentation results from increased expression of QueE, an enzyme that is part of a tRNA modification pathway but that, as we show here, also affects cell division. We also find that a functional YFP–QueE fusion localizes to the division septum in filamentous cells, suggesting QueE blocks septation through interaction with the divisome. Regulation of septation by PhoQ/PhoP may protect cells from antimicrobial peptide-induced stress or other conditions associated with high-level stimulation of this signalling system. PMID:27471053

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates from retail meat in the United States between 2002 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Young, S R; Tong, E; Abbott, J W; Womack, N; Friedman, S L; McDermott, P F

    2010-12-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. has been a growing public health concern globally. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter spp. recovered by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) retail meat program. Retail meat samples (n = 24,566) from 10 U.S. states collected between 2002 and 2007, consisting of 6,138 chicken breast, 6,109 ground turkey, 6,171 ground beef, and 6,148 pork chop samples, were analyzed. A total of 2,258 Campylobacter jejuni, 925 Campylobacter coli, and 7 Campylobacter lari isolates were identified. Chicken breast samples showed the highest contamination rate (49.9%), followed by ground turkey (1.6%), whereas both pork chops and ground beef had <0.5% contamination. The most common resistance was to doxycycline/tetracycline (46.6%), followed by nalidixic acid (18.5%), ciprofloxacin (17.4%), azithromycin and erythromycin (2.8%), telithromycin (2.4%), clindamycin (2.2%), and gentamicin (<0.1%). In a subset of isolates tested, no resistance to meropenem and florfenicol was seen. C. coli isolates showed higher resistance rates to antimicrobials, with the exception of doxycycline/tetracycline, than those seen for C. jejuni. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting resulted in 1,226 PFGE profiles among the 2,318 isolates, with many clones being widely dispersed throughout the 6-year sampling period.

  4. Comparison of Antimicrobial Consumption Patterns in the Swiss and Danish Cattle and Swine Production (2007–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Luís P.; Nielsen, Liza R.; Alban, Lis; Müntener, Cedric R.; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary antimicrobial consumption patterns vary considerably across Europe. These differences are not only limited to the total amount consumed but are also observed with regards to the relative proportion of the various antimicrobial classes used. Currently, most of the data on veterinary antimicrobials are reported at sales level without any information on the consumption by different animal species. This hinders a proper comparison of antimicrobial consumption at the species level between countries. However, it is imperative to improve our understanding on antimicrobial usage patterns at the species level, as well as on the drivers contributing to those differences. This will allow for development of tailored interventions with the lowest possible risk for human health, while ensuring effective treatment of diseased livestock. An important step to attain such an objective is to perform detailed comparisons of the antimicrobial consumption in each species between countries. We compared antimicrobial consumption estimates for cattle and pigs in Switzerland and Denmark, in order to distinguish species-specific patterns and trends in consumption from 2007 to 2013. Swiss data were obtained from a previous study that assessed methodologies to stratify antimicrobial sales per species; Danish antimicrobial consumption estimates were assembled from Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme reports. A decrease in antimicrobial consumption in milligrams per kilogram of biomass was observed for both countries (4.5% in Denmark and 34.7% in Switzerland) when comparing 2013 to 2007. For pigs and cattle, the overall consumption per kilogram of biomass of most antimicrobial classes was higher in Switzerland than in Denmark. Large variations in the relative consumption of different antimicrobial classes were also evident. Sulfonamides/trimethoprim and tetracyclines were consumed in a higher proportion in Switzerland than in Denmark, whereas

  5. Advances in the discovery of novel antimicrobials targeting the assembly of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ma, Shutao

    2015-05-05

    Currently, wide-spread antimicrobials resistance among bacterial pathogens continues being a dramatically increasing and serious threat to public health, and thus there is a pressing need to develop new antimicrobials to keep pace with the bacterial resistance. Filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), a prokaryotic cytoskeleton protein, plays an important role in bacterial cell division. It as a very new and promising target, garners special attention in the antibacterial research in the recent years. This review describes not only the function and dynamic behaviors of FtsZ, but also the known natural and synthetic inhibitors of FtsZ. In particular, the small molecules recently developed and the future directions of ideal candidates are highlighted.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of canine uropathogens at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Ball, Katherine R; Rubin, Joseph E; Chirino-Trejo, M; Dowling, Patricia M

    2008-10-01

    Between January 2002 and June 2007, uropathogens were isolated from 473 of 1557 canine urine samples submitted to Prairie Diagnostic Services from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Culture and susceptibility results were analyzed, retrospectively, to estimate the prevalence of common bacterial uropathogens in dogs with urinary tract infections and to identify changes in antimicrobial resistance. The most common pathogens identified were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus intermedius, Enterococcus spp., and Proteus spp. Antimicrobial resistance increased during the study period, particularly among recurrent E. coli isolates. Using the formula to help select rational antimicrobial therapy (FRAT), bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to gentamicin, fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and groups 4 and 5 (third generation) cephalosporins.

  7. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with on-going natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated VOCs in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. In this report are groundwater geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 18-21, 2007, and June 16-18, 2008, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For 2007 and 2008, strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs were inferred for 9 of 16 upper-aquifer wells and piezometers in the northern and southern phytoremediation plantations. Predominant redox conditions in groundwater from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained mildly reducing and somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs. Dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentrations measured in the upper aquifer during 2007 and 2008 generally have been lower than H2 concentrations measured before 2002. However, widespread and relatively high methane and sulfide concentrations indicate that the lower H2 concentrations measured do not support a trend from strongly to mildly reducing redox conditions because no widespread changes in groundwater redox conditions were identified that should result in less favorable conditions for the reductive dechlorination of the

  8. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of Actionbacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from slaughter pigs in Taiwan (2002-2007).

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Yao; Lin, Chao-Nan; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Chiou, Ming-Tang

    2011-02-01

    In total, 211 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae were collected from pigs with hemorrhagic pneumonia at slaughterhouses during 2002-2007. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for each isolate of A. pleuropneumoniae to 10 antimicrobial agents. Serovar 1 of A. pleuropneumoniae was predominant in Taiwan in 138 of the 211 isolates, followed by serovars 2 and 5. More than 90% of collected isolates were sensitive to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and chloramphenical. However, lincospectin and gentamicin were relatively less susceptible with sensitivities of only 2.4 and 5.7%, respectively. Additionally, ceftiofur had the highest in vitro activity with an MIC(50) of 2.2 µg/ml, followed by cephalothin (2.7 µg/ml) and chloramphenicol (7.9 µg/ml). Lincospectin had the least activity with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of 73.9 and 114.5 µg/ml, respectively. The data indicate that ceftiofur and cephalothin were extremely active against A. pleuropneumoniae and with minimum MIC values. These drugs are suitable for controlling and treating hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia outbreaks in swine.

  9. Activity of telavancin and comparator antimicrobial agents tested against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from hospitalised patients in Europe (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-10-01

    The activity of telavancin was evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. collected from European hospitals as part of an international surveillance study (2007-2008). A total of 7534 staphylococcal clinical isolates [5726 Staphylococcus aureus and 1808 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)] were included. Isolates were tested for susceptibility according to reference methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010 and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) 2009 criteria. Telavancin breakpoints approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were applied. Telavancin activity was evaluated against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) displaying several antibiogram resistance patterns, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Telavancin was active against S. aureus [MIC(50/90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively)=0.12/0.25mg/L; 100.0% susceptible] and CoNS (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L), inhibiting all isolates at < or =0.5mg/L. Similar results were observed when S. aureus were stratified by year or country of origin (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L). When MRSA isolates were clustered according to 48 different resistance patterns, telavancin showed consistent MIC(90) values (0.25mg/L) regardless of multidrug resistance. Amongst CoNS, telavancin was slightly more active against Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus xylosus (MIC(50)=0.12 mg/L) compared with Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus warneri (MIC(50)=0.25mg/L). Overall, telavancin exhibited MIC(90) results two- to eight-fold lower than comparators (daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin and linezolid). Based upon MIC(90) values, telavancin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a contemporary (2007-2008) collection of Staphylococcus spp

  10. Acute antimicrobial pesticide-related illnesses among workers in health-care facilities - California, Louisiana, Michigan, and Texas, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    2010-05-14

    Antimicrobial pesticides (e.g., sterilizers, disinfectants, and sanitizers) are chemicals used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms on inanimate objects and surfaces. Health-care facilities use antimicrobial pesticides to prevent pathogen transmission from contaminated environmental surfaces. Occupational exposures to antimicrobial pesticides are known to cause adverse health effects. To assess the nature and frequency of such exposures in health-care settings, CDC analyzed data from pesticide poisoning surveillance programs in California, Louisiana, Michigan, and Texas (the only four states that regularly collect data on antimicrobial pesticide-related illness) for the period 2002-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which identified 401 cases of work-related illness associated with antimicrobial pesticide exposures in health-care facilities. Most cases were identified through workers compensation systems (61%) and occurred among females (82%) and persons aged 25-54 years (73%). The most frequent occupations reported were janitors/housekeepers (24%) and nursing/medical assistants (16%). The reported mechanism of injury usually was splashes/spills (51%). The eyes were the most common organ/system affected (55%); only 15% of the 265 persons who had exposures while handling antimicrobial pesticides reported using eye protection. Reported symptoms were mostly mild and temporary. One fatality due to acute asthma and subsequent cardiopulmonary collapse was identified. Health-care facilities should educate workers about antimicrobial pesticide hazards, promote the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) as appropriate, and implement effective risk communication strategies for antimicrobial pesticide use to prevent bystander exposure. Improved design of handling equipment might prevent handler and bystander exposure.

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans, Retail Meats and Food Animals: 2002-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitor System (NARMS) tracks antimicrobial susceptibility in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meats and food animals. We analyzed changes in ceftiofur resistance (TioR), nalidixic acid resistance (NalR) and multidrug resistance (MDR-AmpC, define...

  12. No Clear Effect of Initiating Vaccination against Common Endemic Infections on the Amounts of Prescribed Antimicrobials for Danish Weaner and Finishing Pigs during 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Amanda Brinch; de Knegt, Leonardo Víctor; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Alban, Lis

    2017-01-01

    It is often stated that vaccines may help reduce antimicrobial use in swine production. However, limited evidence is available outside clinical trials. We studied the change in amounts of antimicrobials prescribed for weaners and finishers in herds following initiation of vaccination against five common endemic infections: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Lawsonia intracellularis. Comparison was made to the change after a randomly selected date in herds not vaccinating against each of the infections. Danish sow herds initiating vaccination during 2007–2013 were included (69–334 herds, depending on the analysis). Danish sow herds with no use of the vaccine in question were included as non-exposed herds (130–570 herds, depending on the analysis). Antimicrobial prescriptions for weaners in sow herds and for finishers in receiving herds were extracted from the VetStat database for a period of 12 months before and 6–18 months after the first purchase of vaccine, or random date and quantified as average animal daily doses (ADDs) per 100 animals per day. The herd-level difference between ADD in the period after and before vaccination was the outcome in linear regression models for weaner pigs, and linear mixed-effects models for finishing pigs, taking into account sow herds delivering pigs to two or more finisher herds. Three plausible risk factors (Baseline ADD, purchase of specific vaccine, purchase of other vaccines) and five confounders (herd size, export and herd health status, year and season) were initially considered in all 10 models. The main significant effect in all models was the Baseline ADD; the higher the Baseline ADD was for weaner and finishing pigs, the larger the decrease in ADD was following vaccination (or random date for non-vaccinating herds). Regardless of vaccination status, almost equal proportions of herds experienced a

  13. Temporal Trends of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Spain from 1979 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Fenoll, A.; Granizo, J. J.; Aguilar, L.; Giménez, M. J.; Aragoneses-Fenoll, L.; Hanquet, G.; Casal, J.; Tarragó, D.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal trends of serotypes from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Spain from 1979 to September 2007 under antibiotic and vaccine pressure were analyzed. A significant trend in pneumococcal conjugate 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) serotypes (except serotype 4) was found, whereby the prevalence increased from the early 1980s and decreased in the 2000s for all but serotype 23F, which began decreasing in the late 1980s. Among the major non-PCV7 serotypes, a significant decrease was observed for serotypes 1, 5, and 7F in the 1980s. From the late 1990s, serotypes 1, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A increased significantly, while serotypes 3 and 8 showed similar but nonsignificant trends over time. The incidence of IPD cases was 10.7/100,000 for the period 1996 to 2006, with reporting coverage ranging from 18% to 43%. A significant decrease in IPD incidence due to PCV7 serotypes was observed, while the incidence of non-PCV7 serotypes increased, with the consequence that there was no clear pattern in the overall incidence of IPD. Penicillin nonsusceptibility was correlated with the proportion of PCV7 serotypes. Erythromycin nonsusceptibility increased in association with long-half-life macrolide consumption and then decreased in 2004 to 2007. The increase in PCV7 serotypes and antibiotic nonsusceptibility related to antibiotic consumption in the 1980s and 1990s was reversed in the 2000s, probably as a result of PCV7 immunization. The decrease in IPD incidence due to PCV7 serotypes was mirrored by an increase in that of non-PCV7 serotypes. The impact of various preventive/therapeutic strategies on pneumococcal evolution is serotype dependent, and the dynamics remain unpredictable. PMID:19225097

  14. Antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens in Spain: latest data and changes over 11 years (1996-1997 to 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Martín-Herrero, Jose E; Mazón, Ana; García-Delafuente, Celia; Robles, Purificación; Iriarte, Victor; Dal-Ré, Rafael; García-de-Lomas, Juan

    2010-07-01

    A nationwide multicenter susceptibility surveillance study (Susceptibility to the Antimicrobials Used in the Community in España [SAUCE] project), SAUCE-4, including 2,559 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2,287 Streptococcus pyogenes, and 2,736 Haemophilus influenzae isolates was carried out from May 2006 to June 2007 in 34 Spanish hospitals. Then, the results from SAUCE-4 were compared to those from all three previous SAUCE studies carried out in 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 to assess the temporal trends in resistance and the phenotypes of resistance over the 11-year period. In SAUCE-4, on the basis of the CLSI breakpoints, penicillin (parenteral, nonmeningitis breakpoint) and cefotaxime were the antimicrobials that were the most active against S. pneumoniae (99.8% and 99.6%, respectively). Only 0.9% of isolates had a penicillin MIC of > or = 2 microg/ml. In S. pyogenes, nonsusceptibility to erythromycin was observed in 19.4% of isolates. Among the H. influenzae isolates, a beta-lactamase-positive prevalence of 15.7% was found. A statistically significant temporal decreasing trend over the 11-year period was observed for nonsusceptibility (from 60.0% to 22.9%) and resistance (from 36.5% to 0.9%) to penicillin and for the proportion of erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) phenotype (from 98.4% to 81.3%). A similar trend was observed for the prevalence of ampicillin resistance (from 37.6% to 16.1%), beta-lactamase production (from 25.7% to 15.7%), and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) in H. influenzae (from 13.5% to 0.7%). Among erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pyogenes, a significant increasing trend in the prevalence of MLS(B) was observed (from 7.0% to 35.5%). SAUCE-4 confirms a generalized decline in the resistance of the main respiratory pathogens to the antimicrobials as well as a shift in their resistance phenotypes.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance among Respiratory Pathogens in Spain: Latest Data and Changes over 11 Years (1996-1997 to 2006-2007)▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Martín-Herrero, Jose E.; Mazón, Ana; García-Delafuente, Celia; Robles, Purificación; Iriarte, Victor; Dal-Ré, Rafael; García-de-Lomas, Juan

    2010-01-01

    A nationwide multicenter susceptibility surveillance study (Susceptibility to the Antimicrobials Used in the Community in España [SAUCE] project), SAUCE-4, including 2,559 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2,287 Streptococcus pyogenes, and 2,736 Haemophilus influenzae isolates was carried out from May 2006 to June 2007 in 34 Spanish hospitals. Then, the results from SAUCE-4 were compared to those from all three previous SAUCE studies carried out in 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 to assess the temporal trends in resistance and the phenotypes of resistance over the 11-year period. In SAUCE-4, on the basis of the CLSI breakpoints, penicillin (parenteral, nonmeningitis breakpoint) and cefotaxime were the antimicrobials that were the most active against S. pneumoniae (99.8% and 99.6%, respectively). Only 0.9% of isolates had a penicillin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml. In S. pyogenes, nonsusceptibility to erythromycin was observed in 19.4% of isolates. Among the H. influenzae isolates, a β-lactamase-positive prevalence of 15.7% was found. A statistically significant temporal decreasing trend over the 11-year period was observed for nonsusceptibility (from 60.0% to 22.9%) and resistance (from 36.5% to 0.9%) to penicillin and for the proportion of erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype (from 98.4% to 81.3%). A similar trend was observed for the prevalence of ampicillin resistance (from 37.6% to 16.1%), β-lactamase production (from 25.7% to 15.7%), and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) in H. influenzae (from 13.5% to 0.7%). Among erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pyogenes, a significant increasing trend in the prevalence of MLSB was observed (from 7.0% to 35.5%). SAUCE-4 confirms a generalized decline in the resistance of the main respiratory pathogens to the antimicrobials as well as a shift in their resistance phenotypes. PMID:20439616

  16. Prevalence, serotype diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in imported shipments of spice offered for entry to the United States, FY2007-FY2009.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Jane M; Kleinmeier, Daria; Hammack, Thomas S; Westerman, Ann

    2013-06-01

    In response to increased concerns about spice safety, the U.S. FDA initiated research to characterize the prevalence of Salmonella in imported spices. Shipments of imported spices offered for entry to the United Sates were sampled during the fiscal years 2007-2009. The mean shipment prevalence for Salmonella was 0.066 (95% CI 0.057-0.076). A wide diversity of Salmonella serotypes was isolated from spices; no single serotype constituted more than 7% of the isolates. A small percentage of spice shipments were contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains (8.3%). Trends in shipment prevalence for Salmonella associated with spice properties, extent of processing, and export country, were examined. A larger proportion of shipments of spices derived from fruit/seeds or leaves of plants were contaminated than those derived from the bark/flower of spice plants. Salmonella prevalence was larger for shipments of ground/cracked capsicum and coriander than for shipments of their whole spice counterparts. No difference in prevalence was observed between shipments of spice blends and non-blended spices. Some shipments reported to have been subjected to a pathogen reduction treatment prior to being offered for U.S. entry were found contaminated. Statistical differences in Salmonella shipment prevalence were also identified on the basis of export country.

  17. Educational antimicrobial susceptibility testing as a critical component of microbiology laboratory proficiency programs: American Proficiency Institute results for 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Glick, Teri; Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Ross, James E; Rhomberg, Paul R; Edson, Daniel C

    2013-04-01

    External laboratory proficiency programs are an important requirement for test quality assurance (EQA) and compliance to regulatory guidelines (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments and inspections). The American Proficiency Institute (API) regularly distributes EQA sample challenges (test events) including an Educational Sample (ES) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Beginning in 2007, API has sent 3 ES samples annually, each a well-characterized (molecular/phenotypic methods) strain having an interesting/emerging mechanism of resistance. Hundreds of USA laboratories, usually serving small- to medium-size hospitals and clinics, participate in the API ungraded ES test event. Analysis of responses is made and reported electronically as ES critiques addressing contemporary susceptibility testing issues that affect patient therapy. Seven Gram-positive (+) and 8 Gram-negative (-) ES strains were tested over the 5 years (2007-2011) with organism identification (graded) accuracy of 95.3% (range, 91.0-99.2%) for Gram (-) and 97.0% (range, 94.2-100.0%) for Gram (+) challenges. Susceptibility testing categorical accuracy was generally greatest for the disk diffusion test (91.0/97.0%) compared to the MIC methods (commercial automated or manual) combined (89.9/96.1%, for Gram [-]/Gram [+], respectively). The most worrisome observations of these ES samples were as follows: 1) poor recognition of ESBL- and serine carbapenemase-producing strains (various types including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapanemase) due to delayed application of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [CLSI] guidelines; 2) overcalling of ESBL in organisms having wild-type non-ESBL enzymes (OXA series; OXA, 1/30) due to commercial system or participant interpretive error; and 3) occasional drug-bug discords noted in nonfermentative Gram (-) bacilli. In conclusion, the API ES series of ungraded susceptibility testing challenges (accuracy was >90%) has been well received by subscribers and

  18. A Nationwide Study of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Bacteremia in Finland Over a 10-Year Period, 1998–2007, With Special Reference to Clinical Characteristics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lauhio, Anneli; Ellström, Patrik; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2011-01-01

    Background. Campylobacter bacteremia is an uncommon condition, usually diagnosed in elderly and immunocompromised patients. Methods. Blood culture isolates and clinical information were collected for patients with diagnoses of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli bacteremia in Finland from 1998 through 2007. Bacterial species were identified by means of polymerase chain reaction analysis, and minimal inhibitory concentrations for ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, meropenem, and metronidazole were determined with an agar dilution method. Medical records and mortality data within 1 year after the bacteremic episode were reviewed. Results. The study included 76 patients (median age, 46 years), for whom bacterial isolates (C. jejuni in 73, C. coli in 3) and clinical information were available. Most patients (70%) had no significant underlying diseases. The majority (82%) of the isolates were susceptible for all antimicrobial agents tested. However, antimicrobial therapy seemed to have only a limited effect, because no differences could be detected between patients with appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment and those with delayed appropriate, inappropriate, or no antimicrobial therapy, either in the duration of hospitalization (median, 4 days for both groups) or in attributable mortality. The outcome of the infection was severe in 4 patients infected with C. jejuni; 2 died within 30 days, spondylodiscitis developed in 1, and Guillain-Barré syndrome developed in 1. Conclusions. C. jejuni and C. coli bacteremia occurred mainly in moderately young individuals without severe underlying diseases. The bacterial isolates were predominantly susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and the outcome of the disease was typically good, regardless of appropriate or inappropriate antimicrobial treatment given in the hospital. PMID:21921217

  19. Salmonella Newport as Reported by the Animal Arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System – Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) 1997-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Since the early 1990’s there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upw...

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from symbovine flies, cattle and sympatric insectivorous house martins from a farm in the Czech Republic (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Rybaríková, Jana; Dolejská, Monika; Materna, David; Literák, Ivan; Cízek, Alois

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli was tested in symbovine flies and sympatric house martins (Delichon urbica) at a dairy farm. Antimicrobial resistant E. coli was detected in 89% (n=147) of isolates from flies within a calf barn. Isolates with the same antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, genes, and pulsotypes were found between both fly and calf E. coli isolates, suggesting that the calves were the initial source of the antimicrobial resistant strains in fly isolates. Symbovine flies were considered as important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains at a dairy farm, due to their intensive contact with cattle feces and manure. House martin fecal samples from the same farm contained 4.5% (n=393) of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. House martin isolates displayed different macrorestriction profiles than fly isolates and the significance of house martins as a reservoir and vector of antimicrobial resistant E. coli appears low.

  1. Antimicrobial Stewardship

    PubMed Central

    Doron, Shira; Davidson, Lisa E.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is increasing; however, antimicrobial drug development is slowing. Now more than ever before, antimicrobial stewardship is of the utmost importance as a way to optimize the use of antimicrobials to prevent the development of resistance and improve patient outcomes. This review describes the why, what, who, how, when, and where of antimicrobial stewardship. Techniques of stewardship are summarized, and a plan for implementation of a stewardship program is outlined. PMID:22033257

  2. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  3. Antimicrobials Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  4. Structures Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1995 are presented.

  5. Antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, F; Mittermayer, H

    2008-03-01

    The aim of antimicrobial management or stewardship programmes is to ensure proper use of antimicrobial agents in order to provide the best treatment outcomes, to lessen the risk of adverse effects (including antimicrobial resistance), and to promote cost-effectiveness. Increasingly, long-term sustainability is found to be the major focus of antimicrobial stewardship. Implementing structural measures in healthcare institutions is therefore a major, but not the sole, focus of attention in promoting prudent use of antibiotics. The problem of antimicrobial resistance requires common strategies at all levels--for the prescribers and at ward, departmental, hospital, national and international levels.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  7. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Visitor Information Contact Us Research > NIAID's Role in Research > Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance > Understanding share with facebook share with twitter ... Prevention, Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Antimicrobial ... To prevent antimicrobial resistance, you and your healthcare ...

  8. PROFILE OF THE GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION, UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A history of the man-made island on which the Gulf Ecology Division is located,from its origin in 1876 to the present day (2007). Contains a synopsis of current research and future plans of the division.

  9. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are enhanced even better through secondary bonding relationships. Further, polymer blend compatibilization is considered due to similar molecular relationships and polarities. With compatibilization of triclosan in polymers a more uniform stability for nonpolar triclosan in the polymer solid state is retained by the antimicrobial for extremely low release with minimum solubility into aqueous solution. As a result, triclosan is projected for long extended lifetimes as an antimicrobial polymer additive. Further, triclosan rapid alternating ether bond rotations disrupt secondary bonding between chain monomers in the resin state to reduce viscosity and enhance polymer blending. Thus, triclosan is considered for a polymer additive with multiple properties to be an antimicrobial with additional benefits as a nonpolar toughening agent and a hydrophobic wetting agent. The triclosan material relationships with alternating ether bond rotations are described through a complete different form of medium by comparisons with known antimicrobial properties that upset bacterial cell membranes through rapid fluctuating mechanomolecular energies. Also, triclosan bond entanglements with secondary bonding can produce structural defects in weak bacterial lipid membranes requiring pliability that can then interfere with cell division. Regarding applications with polymers, triclosan can be incorporated by mixing into a resin system before cure, melt mixed with thermoplastic polymers that set on cooling

  10. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2004-09-28

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  11. Prevention of adverse events in hospitalized patients using an antimicrobial review program.

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmo, B J; Luber, A D; Corelli, R L; Flaherty, J F; Jacobs, R A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an antimicrobial review system is associated with a reduction in antimicrobial-associated adverse events. DESIGN: All antimicrobial medication orders for patients hospitalized over a two-year period were evaluated. High-level interventions intended to prevent adverse antimicrobial events were collated. Based on literature estimates of adverse antimicrobial events, potential reduction of high-level adverse antimicrobial events was estimated. SETTING: Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Division of Infectious Diseases at a tertiary care teaching hospital. RESULTS: A total of 452 interventions were classified as "high-level." The incidence of preventable adverse antimicrobial events requiring intervention was 16 per 1000 antimicrobial orders. The incidence of high-level errors necessitating intervention was 4.4 per 1000 antimicrobial orders. An estimated 125 to 198 high-level adverse events were avoided. CONCLUSION: An antimicrobial review program has the potential to reduce significant adverse events in hospitalized patients. PMID:10560287

  12. Ireland (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Between 51.5 and 55.5 degrees north latitude, Ireland could easily find itself buried in snow during the winter, but the island's average temperature in January is 7 degrees Celsius (45 degrees Fahrenheit). Ireland's mild climate results from the influence of the ocean current known as the North Atlantic Drift, which extends the warm waters of the Gulf Stream northward. The island enjoys mild temperatures in the summertime as well; extreme heat and cold are virtually unknown. Precipitation ranges from 78.5 centimeters (31 inches) around Dublin to 300 centimeters (118 inches) along the west coast. The mild, rainy climate is good for vegetation. In this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on May 2, 2007, Ireland overwhelms the viewer with hues of green, particularly in the interior, where the vegetation overlies lowlands of limestone--the remains of marine animals from an ancient sea. Little of the island's famous greenness results from trees, however. Seventeenth-century clearing removed most of the country's forests, and despite replanting efforts, Ireland is Europe's least forested country, after Iceland. The island's mild temperatures and humidity have instead blanketed the landscape in abundant grasses. Along Ireland's west coast, bare brown rocks emerge from the plant cover. In the north, the rocks are primarily ancient, crystalline rocks deposited well over a billion years ago. In the south, the rocks are primarily sandstone deposited roughly 350 million years ago. Evidence of urbanization dots the landscape, especially along the east coast. The metropolitan area of Dublin appears as an uneven patch of gray, mingled with dots of green. Human habitation is also evident around Londonderry, Belfast, and Cork.

  13. Antimicrobial Stewardship

    PubMed Central

    King, Sarah; Exley, Josephine; Taylor, Jirka; Kruithof, Kristy; Larkin, Jody; Pardal, Mafalda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract RAND Europe undertook a systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness and cost effectiveness on changing the public's risk related behaviour pertaining to antimicrobial use to inform the development of a NICE public health guideline aimed at delaying antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The review considered educational interventions targeting individuals, communities or the general public delivered via any mode. Specifically, it aimed to address: 1. Which educational interventions are effective and cost-effective in changing the public's behaviour to ensure they only ask for antimicrobials when appropriate and use them correctly? 2. Which educational interventions are effective and cost-effective in changing the public's behaviour to prevent infection and reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance? Overall, 60 studies met the inclusion criteria; 29 related to research question 1, and 36 related to research question 2 (five studies were applicable to both). The key findings are summarised in “Evidence Statements” in accordance with NICE guidelines. Evidence Statements provide a high level overview of the key features of the evidence including: the number of studies, the quality of evidence, and the direction of the estimated effect followed by a brief summary of each of the supporting studies. Studies are grouped into Evidence Statements by setting and intervention. PMID:28083399

  14. Antimicrobial polymers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed.

  15. Division Chief Meeting, April, 1929

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Caption: 'LMAL division chiefs confer with the engineer-in-charge in April 1929. Left to right: E.A. Myers, Personnel Division; Edward R. Sharp, Property and Clerical Division; Thomas Carroll, Flight Test Division; Henry J.E. Reid, engineer in chief; Carlton Kemper, Power Plants Division; Elton Miller, aerodynamics division.'

  16. Naval Research Laboratory Space Science Division Newsletter: 01/2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-20

    corona (COR1 and COR2) and the interplanetary medium between the corona and Earth (HI1 and HI2). Each of the two NASA STEREO spacecraft contains...satellite for a 3-year mission to study the solar corona . OCT: Unprecedented observations of Coronal Mass Ejections as they form at the Sun and...travel through coronal and interplanetary space to the orbit of the Earth are now being provided by the SECCHI experiment, which launched aboard NASA’s

  17. JSOU and NDIA SO/LIC Division Essays (2007)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Create several content-rich Darknet environments—a private virtual network where users connect only to people they trust7—that offer e-mail, file...chat rooms, and Darknets ). Moon: Cyber-Herding Cyber-Herding Nodes and Relationship Network Gatherer Construction Demolition Structure of Cyber-Herding...the extrem- ist messages, concentrating Web sites, and developing Darknets . A visual illustration of the entire process follows Phase 7. Phase 5

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Ali Adem; Ren, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics). PMID:24287494

  19. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  20. Transitional Division Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Robert A.; Meyer, Ruth Ann

    1982-01-01

    A survey of general mathematics students whose teachers were taking an inservice workshop revealed that they had not yet mastered division. More direct introduction of the standard division algorithm is favored in elementary grades, with instruction of transitional processes curtailed. Weaknesses in transitional algorithms appear to outweigh…

  1. Division Iv: Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, Christopher; D'Antona, Francesca; Spite, Monique; Asplund, Martin; Charbonnel, Corinne; Docobo, Jose Angel; Gray, Richard O.; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2012-04-01

    This Division IV was started on a trial basis at the General Assembly in The Hague 1994 and was formally accepted at the Kyoto General Assembly in 1997. Its broad coverage of ``Stars'' is reflected in its relatively large number of Commissions and so of members (1266 in late 2011). Its kindred Division V, ``Variable Stars'', has the same history of its beginning. The thinking at the time was to achieve some kind of balance between the number of members in each of the 12 Divisions. Amid the current discussion of reorganizing the number of Divisions into a more compact form it seems advisable to make this numerical balance less of an issue than the rationalization of the scientific coverage of each Division, so providing more effective interaction within a particular field of astronomy. After all, every star is variable to a certain degree and such variability is becoming an ever more powerful tool to understand the characteristics of every kind of normal and peculiar star. So we may expect, after hearing the reactions of members, that in the restructuring a single Division will result from the current Divisions IV and V.

  2. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  3. Food Antimicrobials Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernández Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  4. SMARTE 2007 TUTORIAL - JANUARY 2007 REVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe 2007 is a web-based decision support tool intended to help revitalization practitioners find information, perform data analysis, communicate, and evaluate future reuse options for a site or area. This tutorial CD was developed to help users navigate SMARTe 2007. It is appr...

  5. Oriented divisions, fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Scott E.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    During development, the establishment of proper tissue architecture depends upon the coordinated control of cell divisions not only in space and time, but also direction. Execution of an oriented cell division requires establishment of an axis of polarity and alignment of the mitotic spindle along this axis. Frequently, the cleavage plane also segregates fate determinants, either unequally or equally between daughter cells, the outcome of which is either an asymmetric or symmetric division, respectively. The last few years have witnessed tremendous growth in understanding both the extrinsic and intrinsic cues that position the mitotic spindle, the varied mechanisms in which the spindle orientation machinery is controlled in diverse organisms and organ systems, and the manner in which the division axis influences the signaling pathways that direct cell fate choices. PMID:24021274

  6. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    1999-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported are a synopsis of the work and accomplishments reported by the Division during the 1996 calendar year. A bibliography containing 42 citations is provided.

  7. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    2001-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included in this report are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported is a synopsis of the work and accomplishments completed by the Division during the 1997, 1998, and 1999 calendar years. A bibliography containing 93 citations is provided.

  8. Antimicrobial AApeptides

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Peng; Shi, Yan; Teng, Peng; Cao, Annie; Xu, Hai; Li, Qi; Cai, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public concerns in the 21st century. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) can potentially mitigate the problem through bacterial membrane disruption; however, they suffer from moderate activity and low stability. We recently developed a new class of peptidomimetics termed “AApeptides”. This class of peptidomimetics can mimic the mechanism of action of HDPs, and effectively arrest the growth of multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. As they are built on unnatural backbone, they are resistant to proteolytic degradation. In this review, we summarize the development of this class of antimicrobial peptidomimetics, and discuss the future perspective on how they can move forward on combating antibiotic resistance. PMID:27758686

  9. Division i: Fundamental Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Dennis D.; Klioner, Sergei A.; Vondrák, Jan; Evans, Dafydd Wyn; Hohenkerk, Catherine Y.; Hosokawa, Mizuhiko; Huang, Cheng-Li; Kaplan, George H.; Knežević, Zoran; Manchester, Richard N.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Petit, Gérard; Schuh, Harald; Soffel, Michael H.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the division is to address the scientific issues that were developed at the 2009 IAU General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro. These are:•Astronomical constants-Gaussian gravitational constant, Astronomical Unit, GMSun, geodesic precession-nutation•Astronomical software•Solar System Ephemerides-Pulsar research-Comparison of dynamical reference frames•Future Optical Reference Frame•Future Radio Reference Frame•Exoplanets-Detection-Dynamics•Predictions of Earth orientation•Units of measurements for astronomical quantities in relativistic context•Astronomical units in the relativistic framework•Time-dependent ecliptic in the GCRS•Asteroid masses•Review of space missions•Detection of gravitational waves•VLBI on the Moon•Real time electronic access to UT1-UTCIn pursuit of these goals Division I members have made significant scientific and organizational progress, and are organizing a Joint Discussion on Space-Time Reference Systems for Future Research at the 2012 IAU General Assembly. The details of Division activities and references are provided in the individual Commission and Working Group reports in this volume. A comprehensive list of references related to the work of the Division is available at the IAU Division I website at http://maia.usno.navy.mil/iaudiv1/.

  10. Antimicrobial Drugs in Fighting against Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Ahmed, Saeed; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of antimicrobial resistance, together with the lack of newly developed antimicrobial drugs, represents an alarming signal for both human and animal healthcare worldwide. Selection of rational dosage regimens for traditional antimicrobial drugs based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles as well as development of novel antimicrobials targeting new bacterial targets or resistance mechanisms are key approaches in tackling AMR. In addition to the cellular level resistance (i.e., mutation and horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants), the community level resistance (i.e., bilofilms and persisters) is also an issue causing antimicrobial therapy difficulties. Therefore, anti-resistance and antibiofilm strategies have currently become research hotspot to combat antimicrobial resistance. Although metallic nanoparticles can both kill bacteria and inhibit biofilm formation, the toxicity is still a big challenge for their clinical applications. In conclusion, rational use of the existing antimicrobials and combinational use of new strategies fighting against antimicrobial resistance are powerful warranties to preserve potent antimicrobial drugs for both humans and animals. PMID:27092125

  11. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    EPA Science Inventory

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  12. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  13. Order Division Automated System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kniemeyer, Justin M.; And Others

    This publication was prepared by the Order Division Automation Project staff to fulfill the Library of Congress' requirement to document all automation efforts. The report was originally intended for internal use only and not for distribution outside the Library. It is now felt that the library community at-large may have an interest in the…

  14. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Antimicrobial Nanomaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    using spent mushroom substrate . Langmuir 2007; 23: 7113–7117. 19. Landsdown AB. Silver in health care: Antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Curr...32403-5323 DISCLAIMER Reference herein to any specific commercial product , process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or...assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product , or process disclosed

  16. Painless Division with Doc Spitler's Magic Division Estimator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitler, Gail

    1981-01-01

    An approach to teaching pupils the long division algorithm that relies heavily on a consistent and logical approach to estimation is reviewed. Once learned, the division estimator can be used to support the standard repeated subtraction algorithm. (MP)

  17. Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG): development and impact of the Scottish National Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme.

    PubMed

    Nathwani, Dilip; Sneddon, Jacqueline; Malcolm, William; Wiuff, Camilla; Patton, Andrea; Hurding, Simon; Eastaway, Anne; Seaton, R Andrew; Watson, Emma; Gillies, Elizabeth; Davey, Peter; Bennie, Marion

    2011-07-01

    In 2008, the Scottish Management of Antimicrobial Resistance Action Plan (ScotMARAP) was published by the Scottish Government. One of the key actions was initiation of the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG), hosted within the Scottish Medicines Consortium, to take forward national implementation of the key recommendations of this action plan. The primary objective of SAPG is to co-ordinate and deliver a national framework or programme of work for antimicrobial stewardship. This programme, led by SAPG, is delivered by NHS National Services Scotland (Health Protection Scotland and Information Services Division), NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, and NHS National Education Scotland as well as NHS board Antimicrobial Management Teams. Between 2008 and 2010, SAPG has achieved a number of early successes, which are the subject of this review: (i) through measures to optimise prescribing in hospital and primary care, combined with infection prevention measures, SAPG has contributed significantly to reducing Clostridium difficile infection rates in Scotland; (ii) there has been engagement of all key stakeholders at local and national levels to ensure an integrated approach to antimicrobial stewardship within the wider healthcare-associated infection agenda; (iii) development and implementation of data management systems to support quality improvement; (iv) development of training materials on antimicrobial stewardship for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving clinical management of infections (e.g. community-acquired pneumonia) through quality improvement methodology. The early successes achieved by SAPG demonstrate that this delivery model is effective and provides the leadership and focus required to implement antimicrobial stewardship to improve antimicrobial prescribing and infection management across NHS Scotland.

  18. 2016 T Division Lightning Talks

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann; Adams, Luke Clyde; Ferre, Gregoire Robing; Grantcharov, Vesselin; Iaroshenko, Oleksandr; Krishnapriyan, Aditi; Kurtakoti, Prajvala Kishore; Le Thien, Minh Quan; Lim, Jonathan Ng; Low, Thaddeus Song En; Lystrom, Levi Aaron; Ma, Xiaoyu; Nguyen, Hong T.; Pogue, Sabine Silvia; Orandle, Zoe Ann; Reisner, Andrew Ray; Revard, Benjamin Charles; Roy, Julien; Sandor, Csanad; Slavkova, Kalina Polet; Weichman, Kathleen Joy; Wu, Fei; Yang, Yang

    2016-11-29

    These are the slides for all of the 2016 T Division lightning talks. There are 350 pages worth of slides from different presentations, all of which cover different topics within the theoretical division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  19. Anti-antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lloyd; Lamarre, Baptiste; Diu, Ting; Ravi, Jascindra; Judge, Peter J.; Temple, Adam; Carr, Matthew; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Su, Bo; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Martyna, Glenn; Crain, Jason; Watts, Anthony; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial or host defense peptides are innate immune regulators found in all multicellular organisms. Many of them fold into membrane-bound α-helices and function by causing cell wall disruption in microorganisms. Herein we probe the possibility and functional implications of antimicrobial antagonism mediated by complementary coiled-coil interactions between antimicrobial peptides and de novo designed antagonists: anti-antimicrobial peptides. Using sequences from native helical families such as cathelicidins, cecropins, and magainins we demonstrate that designed antagonists can co-fold with antimicrobial peptides into functionally inert helical oligomers. The properties and function of the resulting assemblies were studied in solution, membrane environments, and in bacterial culture by a combination of chiroptical and solid-state NMR spectroscopies, microscopy, bioassays, and molecular dynamics simulations. The findings offer a molecular rationale for anti-antimicrobial responses with potential implications for antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23737519

  20. [Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery].

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Mensa, José; Trilla, Antoni; Cainzos, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery refers to a very brief course of an antimicrobial agent initiated just before the start of the procedure. The efficacy of antimicrobials to prevent postoperative infection at the site of surgery (incisional superficial, incisional deep, or organ/space infection) has been demonstrated for many surgical procedures. Nevertheless, the majority of studies centering on the quality of preoperative prophylaxis have found that a high percentage of the antimicrobials used are inappropriate for this purpose. This work discusses the scientific basis for antimicrobial prophylaxis, provides general recommendations for its correct use and specific recommendations for various types of surgery. The guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis are based on results from well-designed studies, whenever possible. These guidelines are focussed on reducing the incidence of infection at the surgical site while minimizing the contribution of preoperative administration of antimicrobials to the development of bacterial resistance.

  1. Energy Systems Divisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, John

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the JSC Energy Systems Divisions work in propulsion. Specific work in LO2/CH4 propulsion, cryogenic propulsion, low thrust propulsion for Free Flyer, robotic and Extra Vehicular Activities, and work on the Morpheus terrestrial free flyer test bed is reviewed. The back-up slides contain a chart with comparisons of LO2/LCH4 with other propellants, and reviewing the advantages especially for spacecraft propulsion.

  2. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  3. Division Quilts: A Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sarah S.; Lupton, Tina M.; Richardson, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    As teachers seek activities to assist students in understanding division as more than just the algorithm, they find many examples of division as fair sharing. However, teachers have few activities to engage students in a quotative (measurement) model of division. Efraim Fischbein and his colleagues (1985) defined two types of whole-number…

  4. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2007-2008, with selected comparisons…

  5. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2006-2007, with selected comparisons…

  6. TIMSS 2007 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Ruddock, Graham J.; O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Arora, Alka; Erberber, Ebru

    2005-01-01

    Developing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 Assessment Frameworks represents an extensive collaborative effort involving individuals and expert groups from more than 60 countries around the world. The document contains three frameworks for implementing TIMSS 2007--the Mathematics Framework, the Science…

  7. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  8. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  9. Artificial cell division.

    PubMed

    Mange, Daniel; Stauffer, André; Petraglio, Enrico; Tempesti, Gianluca

    2004-01-01

    After a survey of the theory and some realizations of self-replicating machines, this paper presents a novel self-replicating loop endowed with universal construction and computation properties. Based on the hardware implementation of the so-called Tom Thumb algorithm, the design of this loop leads to a new kind of cellular automaton made of a processing and a control units. The self-replication of the Swiss flag serves as an artificial cell division example of the loop which, according to autopoietic evaluation criteria, corresponds to a cell showing the phenomenology of a living system.

  10. Women of the Solar Physics Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.

    2007-05-01

    In 1970, when the Solar Physics Division was established, the invitation to become a founding member of the Division was extended by the Organizing Committee to a group of 61 solar scientists of which 4 were women (6.6%). At the first SPD meeting in Huntsville AL (1970), 11% of the papers were given by women. Near that time (1973), women accounted for 8% of all AAS members. The representation of women in the SPD has more than doubled in percentage since the first years. Currently, women comprise about 15.5% of SPD members which, however, is less than the percentage in the AAS general membership (18%) in March 2007. In the 37 years that the SPD has existed, women have frequently held the office of Treasurer and Secretary of the Division and made notable contributions. Elske V.P. Smith was elected the first Treasurer of the SPD and that began a long tradition. Women appear to be considered exceptionally trustworthy since they have been reelected and occupied the position of Treasurer for 75% of the available terms. The Office of SPD Secretary has seen a woman for 13% of the terms. Yet women are practically absent among those in the top leadership positions and in the lists of prize winners of the SPD. Among the 21 SPD Chairs, only 1 woman, Judith T. Karpen, has held that office. The Hale Prize has been awarded 19 times in almost 3 decades, and all of the awardees have been men. Several aspects of the participation of women and their contributions to the Solar Physics Division of the AAS will be reviewed, and compared to that of the AAS and astronomy in general.

  11. Antimicrobials in beekeeping.

    PubMed

    Reybroeck, Wim; Daeseleire, Els; De Brabander, Hubert F; Herman, Lieve

    2012-07-06

    The bee diseases American and European foulbrood and nosemosis can be treated with anti-infectious agents. However, in the EU and the USA the use of these agents in beekeeping is strictly regulated due to the lack of tolerance (e.g. Maximum Residue Limit) for residues of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in honey. This article reviews the literature dealing with antimicrobials of interest in apiculture, stability of these antimicrobials in honey, and disposition of the antimicrobials in honeybee hives.

  12. Osservazioni Mercurio nel 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassati, M.

    2008-10-01

    Report of the Mercury Program of the UAI Planets Section, 38 observations, drawings and digital images, during the year 2007. We had evidence of the ray system around the crater Kuiper, seen as a bright area.

  13. Deconstructing Calculation Methods, Part 4: Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In the final article of a series of four, the author deconstructs the primary national strategy's approach to written division. The approach to division is divided into five stages: (1) mental division using partition; (2) short division of TU / U; (3) "expanded" method for HTU / U; (4) short division of HTU / U; and (5) long division.…

  14. Understanding Microbial Divisions of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheren; Claessen, Dennis; Rozen, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Divisions of labor are ubiquitous in nature and can be found at nearly every level of biological organization, from the individuals of a shared society to the cells of a single multicellular organism. Many different types of microbes have also evolved a division of labor among its colony members. Here we review several examples of microbial divisions of labor, including cases from both multicellular and unicellular microbes. We first discuss evolutionary arguments, derived from kin selection, that allow divisions of labor to be maintained in the face of non-cooperative cheater cells. Next we examine the widespread natural variation within species in their expression of divisions of labor and compare this to the idea of optimal caste ratios in social insects. We highlight gaps in our understanding of microbial caste ratios and argue for a shift in emphasis from understanding the maintenance of divisions of labor, generally, to instead focusing on its specific ecological benefits for microbial genotypes and colonies. Thus, in addition to the canonical divisions of labor between, e.g., reproductive and vegetative tasks, we may also anticipate divisions of labor to evolve to reduce the costly production of secondary metabolites or secreted enzymes, ideas we consider in the context of streptomycetes. The study of microbial divisions of labor offers opportunities for new experimental and molecular insights across both well-studied and novel model systems. PMID:28066387

  15. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun; Mishra, Biswajit; Lau, Kyle; Lushnikova, Tamara; Golla, Radha; Wang, Xiuqing

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms. PMID:25806720

  17. Divisions of geologic time-major chronostratigraphic and geochronologic units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Effective communication in the geosciences requires consistent uses of stratigraphic nomenclature, especially divisions of geologic time. A geologic time scale is composed of standard stratigraphic divisions based on rock sequences and is calibrated in years. Over the years, the development of new dating methods and the refinement of previous methods have stimulated revisions to geologic time scales. Advances in stratigraphy and geochronology require that any time scale be periodically updated. Therefore, Divisions of Geologic Time, which shows the major chronostratigraphic (position) and geochronologic (time) units, is intended to be a dynamic resource that will be modified to include accepted changes of unit names and boundary age estimates. This fact sheet is a modification of USGS Fact Sheet 2007-3015 by the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Names Committee.

  18. Alternative Antimicrobial Approach: Nano-Antimicrobial Materials

    PubMed Central

    Beyth, Nurit; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Domb, Avi; Khan, Wahid; Hazan, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous existing potent antibiotics and other antimicrobial means, bacterial infections are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the need to develop additional bactericidal means has significantly increased due to the growing concern regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm associated infections. Consequently, attention has been especially devoted to new and emerging nanoparticle-based materials in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The present review discusses the activities of nanoparticles as an antimicrobial means, their mode of action, nanoparticle effect on drug-resistant bacteria, and the risks attendant on their use as antibacterial agents. Factors contributing to nanoparticle performance in the clinical setting, their unique properties, and mechanism of action as antibacterial agents are discussed in detail. PMID:25861355

  19. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in adults.

    PubMed

    Enzler, Mark J; Berbari, Elie; Osmon, Douglas R

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is commonly used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases, including herpes simplex infection, rheumatic fever, recurrent cellulitis, meningococcal disease, recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis, influenza, infective endocarditis, pertussis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as infections associated with open fractures, recent prosthetic joint placement, and bite wounds. Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended for various surgical procedures to prevent surgical site infections. Optimal antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis should be bactericidal, nontoxic, inexpensive, and active against the typical pathogens that can cause surgical site infection postoperatively. To maximize its effectiveness, intravenous perioperative prophylaxis should be administered within 30 to 60 minutes before the surgical incision. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be of short duration to decrease toxicity and antimicrobial resistance and to reduce cost.

  20. The Division of Household Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna D.; Huber, Joan

    A study was conducted to test the following hypotheses concerning division of household labor (DOHL) between husbands and wives: (1) the division of household labor is somewhat affected by the availability of time, especially the wife's time; (2) there are strong effects of relative power, as measured by market-related resources, marital…

  1. Lightning Talks 2015: Theoretical Division

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, Jack S.

    2015-11-25

    This document is a compilation of slides from a number of student presentations given to LANL Theoretical Division members. The subjects cover the range of activities of the Division, including plasma physics, environmental issues, materials research, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and computational methods.

  2. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  3. Physics Division computer facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division maintains several computer systems for data analysis, general-purpose computing, and word processing. While the VMS VAX clusters are still used, this past year saw a greater shift to the Unix Cluster with the addition of more RISC-based Unix workstations. The main Divisional VAX cluster which consists of two VAX 3300s configured as a dual-host system serves as boot nodes and disk servers to seven other satellite nodes consisting of two VAXstation 3200s, three VAXstation 3100 machines, a VAX-11/750, and a MicroVAX II. There are three 6250/1600 bpi 9-track tape drives, six 8-mm tapes and about 9.1 GB of disk storage served to the cluster by the various satellites. Also, two of the satellites (the MicroVAX and VAX-11/750) have DAPHNE front-end interfaces for data acquisition. Since the tape drives are accessible cluster-wide via a software package, they are, in addition to replay, used for tape-to-tape copies. There is however, a satellite node outfitted with two 8 mm drives available for this purpose. Although not part of the main cluster, a DEC 3000 Alpha machine obtained for data acquisition is also available for data replay. In one case, users reported a performance increase by a factor of 10 when using this machine.

  4. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  5. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local…

  6. Public Education Finances, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Every five years, the U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finance, as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Section 182. The 2007 Census, similar to annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and assets (cash and…

  7. 2007 Western States Fire Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    A general overview of the Ikhana Uninhabited Air System (UAS) is presented. The contents include: 1) Ikhana UAS; 2) Ikhana UAS / Ground Control Station (GCS); 3) Ikhana UAS / Antennas; 4) Western States Fire Mission 2007 Partners; 5) FAA Certificate of Authorization (COA); 6) Western States Fire Missions (WSFM) 2007; 7) WSFM 1-4 2007; 8) California Wildfire Emergency Response 2007; 9) WSFM 5-8 Emergency Response 2007; 10) WSFM Achievements; and 11) WSFM Challenges.

  8. Fast disinfecting antimicrobial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Ahmad E; Dabkowski, Jeffery M; Nusslein, Klaus; Tew, Gregory N

    2009-01-20

    Silicon wafers and glass surfaces were functionalized with facially amphiphilic antimicrobial copolymers using the "grafting from" technique. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used to grow poly(butylmethacrylate)-co-poly(Boc-aminoethyl methacrylate) from the surfaces. Upon Boc-deprotection, these surfaces became highly antimicrobial and killed S. aureus and E. coli 100% in less than 5 min. The molecular weight and grafting density of the polymer were controlled by varying the polymerization time and initiator surface density. Antimicrobial studies showed that the killing efficiency of these surfaces was independent of polymer layer thickness or grafting density within the range of surfaces studied.

  9. Fast Disinfecting Antimicrobial Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Ahmad E.; Dabkowski, Jeffery M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tew, Gregory N.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon wafers and glass surfaces were functionalized with facially amphiphilic antimicrobial copolymers using the “grafting from” technique. Surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used to grow poly(butylmethacrylate)-co-poly(Boc-aminoethyl methacrylate) from the surfaces. Upon Boc-deprotection, these surfaces became highly antimicrobial and killed S. aureus and E. coli 100% in less than 5 min. The molecular weight and grafting density of the polymer were controlled by varying the polymerization time and initiator surface density. Antimicrobial studies showed that the killing efficiency of these surfaces was independent of polymer layer thickness or grafting density within the range of surfaces studied. PMID:19177651

  10. Prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use in Belgian fattening pig herds.

    PubMed

    Callens, Bénédicte; Persoons, Davy; Maes, Dominiek; Laanen, Maria; Postma, Merel; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    The monitoring of antimicrobial use is an essential step to control the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Between January and October 2010 data on prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use were collected retrospectively on 50 closed or semi-closed pig herds. Ninety-three percent of the group treatments were prophylactic whereas only 7% were methaphylactic. The most frequently used antimicrobials orally applied at group level were colistin (30.7%), amoxicillin (30.0%), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (13.1%), doxycycline (9.9%) and tylosin (8.1%). The most frequently applied injectable antimicrobials were tulathromycin (45.0%), long acting ceftiofur (40.1%) and long acting amoxicillin (8.4%). The treatment incidences (TI) based on the used daily dose pig (UDD(pig) or the actually administered dose per day per kg pig of a drug) for all oral and injectable antimicrobial drugs was on average 200.7 per 1000 pigs at risk per day (min=0, max=699.0), while the TI based on the animal daily dose pig (ADD(pig) or the national defined average maintenance dose per day per kg pig of a drug used for its main indication) was slightly higher (average=235.8, min=0, max=1322.1). This indicates that in reality fewer pigs were treated with the same amount of antimicrobials than theoretically possible. Injectable products were generally overdosed (79.5%), whereas oral treatments were often underdosed (47.3%). In conclusion, this study shows that prophylactic group treatment was applied in 98% of the visited herds and often includes the use of critically important and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In Belgium, the guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials are not yet implemented.

  11. Vegetation Types in Coastal Louisiana in 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mouton, Edmond; Linscombe, Jeb; Hartley, Steve B.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Fur and Refuge Division jointly completed an aerial survey to collect data on 2007 vegetation types in coastal Louisiana. The current map presents the data collected in this effort. The 2007 aerial survey was conducted by using techniques developed over the last thirty years while conducting similar vegetation surveys. Transects flown were oriented in a north-south direction and spaced 1.87 mi (3 km) apart and covered coastal marshes from the Texas State line to the Mississippi State line and from the northern extent of fresh marshes to the southern end of saline (saltwater) marshes on the beaches of the Gulf of Mexico or of coastal bays. Navigation along these transects and to each sampling site was accomplished by using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and geographic information system (GIS) software. As the surveyors reached each sampling station, observed areas of marsh were assigned as fresh, intermediate, brackish, or saline (saltwater) types, and dominant plant species were listed and ranked according to abundance. Delineations of marsh boundaries usually followed natural levees, bayous, or other features that impede or restrict water flow.

  12. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Enright, Michael; Cillessen, J.L.; Gerner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.

    2007-01-01

    This is the forty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2006. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/newUTAH/GW2007.pdf.

  13. Division rules for polygonal cells.

    PubMed

    Cowan, R; Morris, V B

    1988-03-07

    A number of fascinating mathematical problems concerning the division of two-dimensional space are formulated from questions about the planes of cell division in embryonic epithelia. Their solution aids in the quantitative description of cellular arrangement in epithelia. Cells, considered as polygons, site their division line according to stochastic rules, eventually forming a tessellation of the plane. The equilibrium distributions for the resulting mix of polygonal types are explored for a range of stochastic rules. We find surprising links with some classical distributions from the theory of probability.

  14. Physics division annual report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2008-02-28

    This report highlights the activities of the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory in 2006. The Division's programs include the operation as a national user facility of ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System, research in nuclear structure and reactions, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, investigations in medium-energy nuclear physics as well as research and development in accelerator technology. The mission of nuclear physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the core of matter, the fuel of stars, and the basic constituent of life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission.

  15. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  16. Pharmacogenomics of antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Ar Kar; Haas, David W; Hulgan, Todd; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial efficacy and toxicity varies between individuals owing to multiple factors. Genetic variants that affect drug-metabolizing enzymes may influence antimicrobial pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, thereby determining efficacy and/or toxicity. In addition, many severe immune-mediated reactions have been associated with HLA class I and class II genes. In the last two decades, understanding of pharmacogenomic factors that influence antimicrobial efficacy and toxicity has rapidly evolved, leading to translational success such as the routine use of HLA-B*57:01 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity reactions. This article examines recent advances in the field of antimicrobial pharmacogenomics that potentially affect treatment efficacy and toxicity, and challenges that exist between pharmacogenomic discovery and translation into clinical use. PMID:25495412

  17. Novel antimicrobial textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Unchin

    2003-10-01

    Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer

  18. Antimicrobial Compounds in Tears

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

  19. Army Posture Statement 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-14

    and overhead. We are now well underway in deploying the Lean Six Sigma methodology as a vehicle to seek continuous process improvement, eliminate...and morale. • Implemented Lean Six Sigma methodology within all Army Commands, Direct Reporting Units, Army Service Components of Joint Commands...between 2007 and 2013. • Implemented Lean Six Sigma methodology within all Army Commands, Direct Reporting Units, Army Service Components of Joint

  20. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics and in materials science. In addition, this report describes development work on accelerators and on instrumentation for plasma diagnostics, nitrogen exchange rates in tissue, and breakdown in gases by microwave pulses.

  1. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1981-07-01

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-Division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics and in material science. In addition this report describes work on accelerators, microwaves, plasma diagnostics, determination of atmospheric oxygen and of nitrogen in tissue.

  2. Coe Receives 2007 Gilbert Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogue, Scott W.; Coe, Robert S.

    2008-05-01

    Robert S. Coe received the 2007 William Gilbert Award at the 2007 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes outstanding and unselfish work in magnetism of Earth materials and of the Earth and planets.

  3. Unconventional energy resources: 2007-2008 review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes five 2007-2008 resource commodity committee reports prepared by the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Current United States and global research and development activities related to gas hydrates, gas shales, geothermal resources, oil sands, and uranium resources are included in this review. These commodity reports were written to advise EMD leadership and membership of the current status of research and development of unconventional energy resources. Unconventional energy resources are defined as those resources other than conventional oil and natural gas that typically occur in sandstone and carbonate rocks. Gas hydrate resources are potentially enormous; however, production technologies are still under development. Gas shale, geothermal, oil sand, and uranium resources are now increasing targets of exploration and development, and are rapidly becoming important energy resources that will continue to be developed in the future. ?? 2009 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica isolated from bulk tank milk and milk filters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella isolates were recovered from bulk tank milk as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Dairy 2002 and 2007 surveys. In-line milk filters were also tested in the 2007 survey. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among ...

  5. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  6. Beyond Cookies: Understanding Various Division Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Cindy; Magruder, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Having a deeper understanding of division derived from multiple models is of great importance for teachers and students. For example, students will benefit from a greater understanding of division contexts as they study long division, fractions, and division of fractions. The purpose of this article is to build on teachers' and students'…

  7. Peptide Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:16847082

  8. Antimicrobial drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marilyn; Silley, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of our current understanding of the mechanisms associated with the development of antimicrobial drug resistance, international differences in definitions of resistance, ongoing efforts to track shifts in drug susceptibility, and factors that can influence the selection of therapeutic intervention. The latter presents a matrix of complex variables that includes the mechanism of drug action, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the antimicrobial agent in the targeted patient population, the pharmacodynamics (PD) of the bacterial response to the antimicrobial agent, the PK/PD relationship that will influence dose selection, and the integrity of the host immune system. Finally, the differences between bacterial tolerance and bacterial resistance are considered, and the potential for non-traditional anti-infective therapies is discussed.

  9. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    PubMed

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  11. Antimicrobial activity of spices.

    PubMed

    Arora, D S; Kaur, J

    1999-08-01

    Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, in particular, antimicrobial activity. This study compares the sensitivity of some human pathogenic bacteria and yeasts to various spice extracts and commonly employed chemotherapeutic substances. Of the different spices tested only garlic and clove were found to possess antimicrobial activity. The bactericidal effect of garlic extract was apparent within 1 h of incubation and 93% killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi was achieved within 3 h. Yeasts were totally killed in 1 h by garlic extract but in 5 h with clove. Some bacteria showing resistance to certain antibiotics were sensitive to extracts of both garlic and clove. Greater anti-candidal activity was shown by garlic than by nystatin. Spices might have a great potential to be used as antimicrobial agents.

  12. Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites produced by higher plants, which play multiple essential roles in plant physiology and have potential healthy properties on human organism, mainly as antioxidants, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial agents. In the present review the antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities of the most active polyphenol classes are reported, highlighting, where investigated, the mechanisms of action and the structure-activity relationship. Moreover, considering that the microbial resistance has become an increasing global problem, and there is a compulsory need to find out new potent antimicrobial agents as accessories to antibiotic therapy, the synergistic effect of polyphenols in combination with conventional antimicrobial agents against clinical multidrug-resistant microorganisms is discussed.

  13. Preface: Phonons 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Bernard

    2007-06-01

    Conference logo The conference PHONONS 2007 was held 15-20 July 2007 in the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) Paris, France. CNAM is a college of higher technology for training students in the application of science to industry, founded by Henri Grégoire in 1794. This was the 12th International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter. This international conference series, held every 3 years, started in France at Sainte-Maxime in 1972. It was then followed by meetings at Nottingham (1975), Providence (1979), Stuttgart (1983), Urbana-Champaign (1986), Heidelberg (1989), Ithaca (1992), Sapporo (1995), Lancaster (1998), Dartmouth (2001) and St Petersburg (2004). PHONONS 2007 was attended by 346 delegates from 37 different countries as follows: France 120, Japan 45, Germany 25, USA 25, Russia 21, Italy 13, Poland 9, UK 9, Canada 7, The Netherlands 7, Finland 6, Spain 6, Taiwan 6, Greece 4, India 4, Israel 4, Ukraine 4, Serbia 3, South Africa 3, Argentina 2, Belgium 2, China 2, Iran 2, Korea 2, Romania 2, Switzerland 2, and one each from Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Estonia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. There were 5 plenary lectures, 14 invited talks and 84 oral contributions; 225 posters were presented during three poster sessions. The first plenary lecture was given by H J Maris who presented fascinating movies featuring the motion of a single electron in liquid helium. Robert Blick gave us a review on the new possibilities afforded by nanotechnology to design nano-electomechanical systems (NEMS) and the way to use them to study elementary and fundamental processes. The growing interest for phonon transport studies in nanostructured materials was demonstrated by Arun Majumdar. Andrey Akimov described how ultrafast acoustic solitons can monitor the optical properties of quantum wells. Finally, Maurice Chapellier told us how

  14. Building an Academic Colorectal Division

    PubMed Central

    Koltun, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Colon and rectal surgery is fully justified as a valid subspecialty within academic university health centers, but such formal recognition at the organizational level is not the norm. Creating a colon and rectal division within a greater department of surgery requires an unfailing commitment to academic concepts while promulgating the improvements that come in patient care, research, and teaching from a specialty service perspective. The creation of divisional identity then opens the door for a strategic process that will grow the division even more as well as provide benefits to the institution within which it resides. The fundamentals of core values, academic commitment, and shared success reinforced by receptive leadership are critical. Attention to culture, commitment, collaboration, control, cost, and compensation leads to a successful academic division of colon and rectal surgery. PMID:25067922

  15. Institutional Plan FY 2003 - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Chartock, Michael; Hansen, Todd

    2003-01-27

    The Fiscal Year (FY) 2003-2007 Institutional Plan describes the strategic directions and key issues that Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory management must address with the Department of Energy (DOE) in charting its future as a multiprogram national laboratory. The Plan provides an overview of the Laboratory's mission, strategic plan, initiatives, and the resources required to fulfill its role in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. The Plan facilitates the Department of Energy's ongoing efforts to strengthen the Integrated Laboratory System. Preparation and review of the Institutional Plan is one element of the Department of Energy's strategic management planning activities, implemented through an annual planning process. The Plan supports the President's Management Agenda and the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. The Plan complements the current performance-based contract between the Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California, and summarizes Best Management Practices for a potential future results-based contract as a basis for achieving DOE goals and the Laboratory's scientific and operations objectives. It identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the Plan is coordinated by the Planning and Strategic Development Office from information contributed by Berkeley Lab's scientific and support divisions and DOE comments on prior years' plans. The Laboratory Mission section identifies the specific strengths of Berkeley Lab that contribute to the mission in general and the Integrated Laboratory System in particular. The Laboratory Strategic Plan section identifies the existing activities in support of DOE Office of Science and other sponsors; support for DOE goals; and the Laboratory Scientific Vision and

  16. 75 FR 65523 - Dawson Metal Company, Inc., Industrial Division, Jamestown, NY; Notice of Negative Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dawson Metal Company, Inc., Industrial Division, Jamestown, NY; Notice... metal fabrication. The initial negative determination based on the findings that the subject firm did... regarding ] purchases of precision sheet metal fabrication for 2007, 2008, and January through April...

  17. Antimicrobial resistance challenged with metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the achievements of science and medicine, as it deactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial platforms to prevent and treat infections from these resistant strains. Metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules are emerging as an alternative to conventional platforms because they combine multiple mechanisms of action into one platform due to the distinctive properties of metals. For example, metals interact with intracellular proteins and enzymes, and catalyse various intracellular processes. The macromolecular architecture offers a means to enhance antimicrobial activity since several antimicrobial moieties can be conjugated to the scaffold. Further, these macromolecules can be fabricated into antimicrobial materials for contact-killing medical implants, fabrics, and devices. As volatilization or leaching out of the antimicrobial moieties from the macromolecular scaffold is reduced, these medical implants, fabrics, and devices can retain their antimicrobial activity over an extended period. Recent advances demonstrate the potential of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules as effective platforms that prevent and treat infections from resistant strains. In this review these advances are thoroughly discussed within the context of examples of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules, their mechanisms of action and biocompatibility.

  18. Phased cell division, specific division rates and other biological observations of Dinophysis populations in sub-surface layers off the south coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Hazel; Velo-Suarez, Lourdes; Reguera, Beatriz; Raine, Robin

    2014-03-01

    The proportions of viable cells of Dinophysis spp. that were paired (dividing) and recently divided during a cell cycle were measured on populations of D. acuta and D. acuminata observed off the south coast of Ireland in July 2007 and July 2009. Both species exhibited phased cell division in 2009 with maximum frequency of division (fmax) 2 h after sunrise. Different patterns of division (timing of fmax) were shown by D. acuta in 2007, when the population aggregated in a thin layer was transported by a coastal jet flow. High resolution (decimetre-scale) profiles within the thin layer showed large differences in the vertical distribution of biological properties (feeding status, mortality). Values of the specific growth rate μ were compared to estimates derived in similar fashion from observations on Dinophysis populations elsewhere. Different patterns exhibited by the same species in different regions may be attributed to adaptations to latitudinal differences (length of photoperiod). The question of whether phased cell division always occurs in Dinophysis populations, and the incorporation of the potential specific division rate into models of Dinophysis growth are discussed. Comprehensive field data sets demonstrate the impact of the results on the coherence of Dinophysis populations during their transport along the Irish coast in jet-like flows towards sites of intensive shellfish culture.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David; Walsh, Fiona

    2016-04-19

    In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans.

  20. Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Kristen; Stoffella, Sylvia; Meyers, Rachel; Girotto, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The frequent use of antimicrobials in pediatric patients has led to a significant increase in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections among children. Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been created in many hospitals in an effort to curtail and optimize the use of antibiotics. Pediatric-focused programs are necessary because of the differences in antimicrobial need and use among this patient population, unique considerations and dosing, vulnerability for resistance due to a lifetime of antibiotic exposure, and the increased risk of adverse events. This paper serves as a position statement of the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) who supports the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs for all pediatric patients. PPAG also believes that a pediatric pharmacy specialist should be included as part of that program and that services be covered by managed care organizations and government insurance entities. PPAG also recommends that states create legislation similar to that in existence in California and Missouri and that a federal Task Force for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria be permanently established. PPAG also supports post-doctoral pharmacy training programs in antibiotic stewardship.

  1. Report: EPA Did Not Properly Process a Hospital Disinfectant and Sanitizer Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00018, March 29, 2007. EPA’s Office of Pesticides Program-Antimicrobials Division (OPP-AD) did not properly process registration for an antimicrobial pesticide that was the subject of our review.

  2. Manpower Division Looks at CETA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The Manpower Division at the American Vocational Association (AVA) convention in Houston was concerned about youth unemployment and about the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA)--its problems and possibilities. The panel discussion reported here reveals some differing perspectives and a general consensus--that to improve their role in…

  3. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  4. Divisions of geologic time (Bookmark)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-05-03

    DescriptionThis bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the second USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  5. Understanding Partitive Division of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Jack M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Concrete experience should be a first step in the development of new abstract concepts and their symbolization. Presents concrete activities based on Hyde and Nelson's work with egg cartons and Steiner's work with money to develop students' understanding of partitive division when using fractions. (MDH)

  6. Environmental Transport Division: 1979 report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Schubert, J.F.; Bowman, W.W.; Adams, S.E.

    1980-03-01

    During 1979, the Environmental Transport Division (ETD) of the Savannah River Laboratory conducted atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic, and marine studies, which are described in a series of articles. Separate abstracts were prepared for each. Publications written about the 1979 research are listed at the end of the report.

  7. 75 FR 16178 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ..., 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Joint Venture Agreement Between Cambridge Major Laboratories... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture Agreement Between Cambridge Major Laboratories, Inc. and Konarka Technologies, Inc.,...

  8. Physics division annual report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, K., ed.

    2001-10-04

    This report summarizes the research performed in 2000 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory and medium energy physics research, and accelerator research and development. As the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee and the nuclear science community create a new long range plan for the field in 2001, it is clear that the research of the Division is closely aligned with and continues to help define the national goals of our field. The NSAC 2001 Long Range Plan recommends as the highest priority for major new construction the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), a bold step forward for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The accelerator R&D in the Physics Division has made major contributions to almost all aspects of the RIA design concept and the community was convinced that this project is ready to move forward. 2000 saw the end of the first Gammasphere epoch at ATLAS, One hundred Gammasphere experiments were completed between January 1998 and March 2000, 60% of which used the Fragment Mass Analyzer to provide mass identification in the reaction. The experimental program at ATLAS then shifted to other important research avenues including proton radioactivity, mass measurements with the Canadian Penning Trap and measurements of high energy gamma-rays in nuclear reactions with the MSU/ORNL/Texas A&M BaF{sub 2} array. ATLAS provided 5460 beam-research hours for user experiments and maintained an operational reliability of 95%. Radioactive beams accounted for 7% of the beam time. ATLAS also provided a crucial test of a key RIA concept, the ability to accelerate multiple charge states in a superconducting heavy-ion linac. This new capability was immediately used to increase the performance for a scheduled experiment. The medium energy program continued to make strides in examining how the quark-gluon structure of matter

  9. Environmental Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S; Gallegos, G; Berg, L L; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S; Doman, J L; Ferry, L S; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Kumamoto, G; Larson, J; MacQueen, D H; Paterson, L; Revelli, M A; Ridley, M; Rueppel, D; Wegrecki, A M; Wilson, K; Woollett, J

    2008-09-24

    The purposes of the 'Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2007' are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites--the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2007: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  10. 76 FR 4724 - Emerson Transportation Division, a Division of Emerson Electric, Including Workers Located...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ..., Including Workers Located Throughout the United States; Bridgeton, MO; Amended Certification Regarding... Emerson Transportation Division, a division of Emerson Electric, including workers located throughout...

  11. Preface: LEHTSC2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    LEHTSC2007 was held at AIST in Tsukuba, Japan, from 31 October to 3 November, and was attended by 110 scientists from twelve countries. In late October, the autumn leaves of the beautiful ginkgo trees change colour from verdant green to bright yellow, as always. For its part, the conference set out to search for the `Genome information', addressing the greatest unsolved mystery in current condensed matter physics, that is, the pairing mechanism of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC). Although there has been much effort and tremendous accumulated knowledge since the discovery of HTSC by Bednorz and Müller in 1986, we have failed to reach an unified view on the microscopic mechanism of HTSC. The fact that no mechanism has yet been accepted as an universal model may indicate that we may still be lacking `some important ingredients'. The search for the `missing ingredients' is now being accelerated as experimental techniques have improved to become state-of-the-art and overwhelmingly detailed information is readily attainable. Our attitude of cooperative communication is even more needed. Unfortunately, researchers with different ideas often tend to `phase-separate', and cross participation in scientific meetings is low. A complex phenomena like HTSC, often show different `shapes and colours' which can easily lead to misunderstanding if we narrow our view. This issue is expressed in the subtitle, `Spin, phonon, or the third way?' meaning that the `missing ingredients' (electron-lattice interaction) which has long been neglected must be properly taken into account to reach an understanding of the true mechanism. As Chairman of the Organizing Committee, I would like to express my greatest appreciation to all invited speakers, oral and poster contributors as their works confirmed that we are indeed taking the third way. In total there were 53 invited and contributed oral talks and 25 poster presentations. All lectures were followed by active comments and

  12. 2007 Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, Stephen M. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is pushing the envelope of research and technology in aeronautics, space exploration, science, and space operations. Our research in aeropropulsion, structures and materials, and instrumentation and controls is enabling next-generation transportation systems that are faster, more environmentally friendly, more fuel efficient, and safer. Our research and development of space flight systems is enabling advanced power, propulsion, communications, and human health systems that will advance the exploration of our solar system. This report selectively summarizes NASA Glenn Research Center s research and technology accomplishments for fiscal year 2007. Comprising 104 short articles submitted by the staff scientists and engineers, the report is organized into six major sections: Aeropropulsion, Power and Space Propulsion, Communications, Space Processes and Experiments, Instrumentation and Controls, and Structures and Materials. It is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all the research and technology work done over the past fiscal year; most of the work is reported in Glenn-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations. For each article in this report, a Glenn contact person has been identified, and where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained.

  13. Light Sources 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M. Q.; Devonshire, R.

    2007-04-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources (LS:11) held in Fudan University, Shanghai, China in the period May 20th to 24th, 2007. In the 32 years since the first symposium was held in Loughborough, UK, the LS series has established itself as the major international event which brings together on a regular basis the world's leading scientists and engineers involved in the research and development of light source technologies. The participants come from the R&D laboratories of the world’s leading light source manufacturing companies and from research groups in universities, government laboratories and research institutes. The highly multi-disciplinary nature of the field results in a unique mix of physicists, chemists, chemical physicists, materials scientists and electrical, electronic and mechanical engineers attending the symposia. The more than 250 papers in these LS:11 proceedings provide an excellent overview of the current status of light source science and technology. The energy efficiency and light emission characteristics of existing technologies continue to be improved, solid state technologies are advancing rapidly and innovation flourishes generally. Audience Professional scientists and engineers involved in light source related R&D. Postgraduate-level students in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, materials science, and electrical and electronic engineering. The contents will also be of interest to anyone with a background in science and engineering wishing to gain an overview of current activity in this important global industry and research field.

  14. 2007 LDRD ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    French, T

    2008-12-16

    I am pleased to present the fiscal year 2007 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This represents the first year that SRNL has been eligible for LDRD participation and our results to date demonstrate we are off to an excellent start. SRNL became a National Laboratory in 2004, and was designated the 'Corporate Laboratory' for the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in 2006. As you will see, we have made great progress since these designations. The LDRD program is one of the tools SRNL is using to enable achievement of our strategic goals for the DOE. The LDRD program allows the laboratory to blend a strong basic science component into our applied technical portfolio. This blending of science with applied technology provides opportunities for our scientists to strengthen our capabilities and delivery. The LDRD program is vital to help SRNL attract and retain leading scientists and engineers who will help build SRNL's future and achieve DOE mission objectives. This program has stimulated our research staff creativity, while realizing benefits from their participation. This investment will yield long term dividends to the DOE in its Environmental Management, Energy, and National Security missions.

  15. Fires in Myanmar (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, fires are common and widespread throughout the dry season, which roughly spans the northern hemisphere winter months. People set fires to clear crop stubble and brush and to prepare grazing land for a new flush of growth when the rainy season arrives. These intentional fires are too frequently accompanied by accidental fires that invade nearby forests and woodlands. The combination of fires produces a thick haze that alternately lingers and disperses, depending on the weather. This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite shows fire activity on March 19, 2007, across eastern India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and China. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red on the image. The darker green areas are generally more wooded areas or forests, while the paler green and tan areas are agricultural land. Smoke pools over low-lying areas of the hilly terrain in gray pockets. The green tops of rolling hills in Thailand emerge from a cloud of low-lying smoke. According to news reports from Thailand, the smoke blanket created air quality conditions that were considered unhealthy for all groups, and it prompted the Thai Air Force to undertake cloud-seeding attempts in an effort to cleanse the skies with rain. Commercial air traffic was halted due to poor visibility.

  16. Assessment of antimicrobial usage and residues in commercial chicken eggs from smallholder poultry keepers in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nonga, H E; Simon, C; Karimuribo, E D; Mdegela, R H

    2010-08-01

    Occurrence of antimicrobial residues in commercial chicken eggs was determined in Morogoro municipality between January and February 2007. Twenty smallholder farmers were interviewed on the types of antimicrobials, reasons of use and their awareness on antimicrobial withdrawal period. Seventy egg samples were collected for qualitative antimicrobial drug residues analysis by use of agar well diffusion and Delvotest SP assays. It was found that farmers use antimicrobial drugs as prophylaxis and treatment of common chicken diseases namely fowl typhoid (85%), infectious bursa disease (Gumboro) (65%) infectious coryza (65%), collibacilosis (55%), coccidiosis (54%), Newcastle disease (50%), helminthosis (20%) and fowl pox (15%). Antimicrobials accounted for 85% of the drugs commonly used. It was also found that 65% of the farmers treat their chicken themselves. The common drugs were oxytetracycline (75%), egg booster (50%), amprolium (35%), sulphamethoxypyridazine (35%), sulphanilamide (25%), chlortetracyclines (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), sulphadiazine-trimethoprim (20%), duoxycycline (20%), sulphadiazine (25%) and flumequine (10%). Eighty per cent of the farmers had knowledge on antimicrobial withdrawal period sold eggs before withdrawal period and almost 85% were unaware of possible effects of antimicrobial residues in humans. All 70 eggs were positive to antimicrobial residues by Delvotest kit, but 21.4% positive with agar well diffusion test. It was concluded that the presence of antimicrobial residues in table eggs could be of public health significance to the egg consumers in Morogoro municipality.

  17. NAVO MSRC Navigator. Fall 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    investigations; ocean engineering and marine acoustics; marine geology and geophysics; and bathymetric surveying. 11FALL 007NAVO MSRC NAVIGATOR As...MSRC NAVIGATOR HiPC 2007International Conference on High Performance Computing December 18-21, 2007Goa, India , http://www.hipc.org/ i I i l i

  18. THE Journal's 2007 Innovators: 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Through a variety of efforts large and small, across schools, districts, and even oceans, educators are making teaching and learning alive through the pioneering use of technology. Together, they are "T.H.E. Journal"'s class of 2007 Innovators. This article presents the class of 2007 Innovators along with their profiles. They are: (1) Edith…

  19. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel J.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    From April 25 through June 30, 2007, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy conducted its fifth survey of the privatization of bus, food and janitorial services among Michigan's 552 conventional public school districts. All Michigan school districts responded. In 2007, the Mackinac Center also conducted a nationwide survey of state education…

  20. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  1. Water Resources Division training catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Foxhoven, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The National Training Center provides technical and management sessions nesessary for the conductance of the U.S. Geological Survey 's training programs. This catalog describes the facilities and staff at the Lakewood Training Center and describes Water Resources Division training courses available through the center. In addition, the catalog describes the procedures for gaining admission, formulas for calculating fees, and discussion of course evaluations. (USGS)

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  3. Substandard/Counterfeit Antimicrobial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs are a growing global problem. The most common substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials include beta-lactams (among antibiotics) and chloroquine and artemisin derivatives (among antimalarials). The most common type of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs have a reduced amount of the active drug, and the majority of them are manufactured in Southeast Asia and Africa. Counterfeit antimicrobial drugs may cause increased mortality and morbidity and pose a danger to patients. Here we review the literature with regard to the issue of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials and describe the prevalence of this problem, the different types of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs, and the consequences for the individuals and global public health. Local, national, and international initiatives are required to combat this very important public health issue. PMID:25788516

  4. Antimicrobial Peptides and Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Samantha; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Koon, Hon Wai

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of innate immunity. They are often expressed in response to colonic inflammation and infection. Over the last several years, the roles of several antimicrobial peptides have been explored. Gene expression of many AMPs (beta defensin HBD2-4 and cathelicidin) is induced in response to invasion of gut microbes into the mucosal barrier. Some AMPs are expressed in a constitutive manner (alpha defensin HD 5-6 and beta defensin HBD1), while others (defensin and bactericidal/permeability increasing protein BPI) are particularly associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) due to altered defensin expression or development of autoantibodies against Bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI). Various AMPs have different spectrum and strength of antimicrobial effects. Some may play important roles in modulating the colitis (cathelicidin) while others (lactoferrin, hepcidin) may represent biomarkers of disease activity. The use of AMPs for therapeutic purposes is still at an early stage of development. A few natural AMPs were shown to be able to modulate colitis when delivered intravenously or intracolonically (cathelicidin, elafin and SLPI) in mouse colitis models. New AMPs (synthetic or artificial non-human peptides) are being developed and may represent new therapeutic approaches against colitis. This review discusses the latest research developments in the AMP field with emphasis in innate immunity and pathophysiology of colitis. PMID:22950497

  5. [Antimicrobial mechanisms of action].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Jorge; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A large number of families and groups of antimicrobial agents are of clinical interest. The mechanisms by which compounds with antibacterial activity inhibit growth or cause bacterial death are varied and depend on the affected targets. The bacterial cell wall-a unique structure in most bacteria that is absent in eukaryotic cells-can be affected in several ways: at different stages of synthesis (fosfomycin, cycloserine) or transport (bacitracin, mureidomycins) of its metabolic precursors, or by a direct action on its structural organization (beta-lactams, glycopeptides). The main drugs affecting the cytoplasmic membrane are polymyxins and daptomycin. Protein synthesis can be blocked by a large variety of compounds that affect any of the phases of this process, including activation (mupirocin), initiation (oxazolidinones, aminoglycosides), binding of the tRNA amino acid complex to ribosomes (tetracyclines, glycylcyclines) and elongation (amphenicols, lincosamides, macrolides, ketolides, streptogramins, fusidic acid). The metabolism of nucleic acids can be altered at the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase or in the process of DNA coiling (quinolones); some compounds affect DNA directly (nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans). Trimethoprim and sulfamides (often used in combination) are examples of antimicrobial agents that block bacterial metabolic pathways. Some compounds are unable to inhibit or kill bacteria in themselves, but can block bacterial mechanisms of resistance, enhancing the activity of other antimicrobials administered in combination. Among this group of agents, only certain beta-lactamase inhibitors are currently in clinical use.

  6. IFLA Advisory Group on Division 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloss, Marjorie E.; Hegedus, Peter; Law, Derek; Nilsen, Sissel; Raseroka, Kay; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Wu, Jianzhong

    Following the 1999 IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) Conference, the Executive Board established an Advisory group to examine issues that were raised concerning Division 8, specifically the recommendation to mainstream Section 8 activities with the other seven divisions, thus dissolving this division. This…

  7. 7 CFR 29.16 - Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.16 Division. Tobacco Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Division. 29.16 Section 29.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  8. Unemployment and Household Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Boas

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between unemployment of men and women and the division of labor in their households and how the psychological well-being of unemployed individuals related to the division of labor in their families. Changes in the employment status of men and women had only limited effects on household division of labor. (Author/ABL)

  9. 7 CFR 29.16 - Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Division. 29.16 Section 29.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.16 Division. Tobacco Division, Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  10. 75 FR 16843 - Core Manufacturing, Multi-Plastics, Inc., Division, Sipco, Inc., Division, Including Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Core Manufacturing, Multi-Plastics, Inc., Division, Sipco, Inc..., 2009, applicable to workers of Core Manufacturing, Multi-Plastics, Inc., Division and Sipco, Inc... of Core Manufacturing, Multi-Plastics, Inc., Division and Sipco, Inc., Division, including...

  11. Semiannual Report: Apr 1, 2007 - Sept 30, 2007

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Semiannual Report #EPA-350-R-07-003, Nov, 2007. This semiannual report includes details on these and other issues, including investigations that resulted in payments to the Federal Government and criminal, civil, or administrative actions.

  12. 2007 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2008-04-09

    During the 2007 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2007, there were 172 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 172 person-trips, 160 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 12 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 14 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Division laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors.

  13. Structure-activity relationships and action mechanisms of collagen-like antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Ryo; Dazai, Yui; Mima, Takehiko; Koide, Takaki

    2017-01-01

    An antimicrobial triple-helical peptide, R3, was previously obtained from a collagen-like combinatorial peptide library. In this research, based on structure-activity relationship studies of R3, a more potent peptide, RR4, with increased positive net charge and charge density relative to R3, was developed. RR4 exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains, including multidrug-resistant strains. Its action could be attributed to entry into cells and interactions with intercellular molecules such as DNA/RNA that inhibited cell division rather than increasing bacterial membrane permeability. Furthermore, RR4 exhibited remarkable stability in serum and low cytotoxicity.

  14. The research agenda of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Peters, N Kent; Dixon, Dennis M; Holland, Steven M; Fauci, Anthony S

    2008-04-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is an intrinsic and inevitable aspect of microbial survival that continually challenges human health. Research on antimicrobial resistance is central to the mission of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). In fiscal year 2007, NIAID invested more than USD800 million to support basic and translational research on antimicrobials, more than USD200 million of which is devoted to understanding the causes, consequences, and treatments of antimicrobial drug resistance. The complex process that facilitates the transformation of ideas into therapies requires a pipeline that runs from bench to bedside, and NIAID has leveraged the entire spectrum of conventional and biodefense resources. NIAID works in partnership with other federal agencies, industry, foundation partners, and foreign governments. The basic and clinical research supported by NIAID will, ideally, continue to yield profound rewards in terms of the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

  15. Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella isolated from Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Pedroso, Nuno Miguel; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Tavares, Luís; Vilela, Cristina Lobo

    2010-10-01

    Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758) are present in a wide range of aquatic environments. Salmonella isolates have been obtained from otters at rehabilitation centers and in the wild and are sometimes associated with serious illnesses. Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella were isolated from otter fecal samples collected in March 2006, September 2007, and March 2008 in two river basins in southern Portugal. From 67 samples tested, five were positive for Salmonella (7.58%). None of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and all were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. Our results confirm the role of otters as potential carriers of Salmonella and the importance of environmental exposure to antimicrobial agents in selection for resistance in bacteria.

  16. National Lakes Assessment 2007 Results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Lakes Assessment samples over 1,000 lakes, ponds and reservoirs across the country. Key findings from this assessment in 2007 include the biological condition and most widespread stressors of these waterbodies.

  17. 1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing front (east) facade and north side, 213 Division Street is visible at left and 217 Division Street appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  18. Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

    2011-06-02

    This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ≤ 0.031/≥ 64, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ≤ 0.031/≤ 0.031, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/2, 1/4, ≤ 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 μg/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas.

  19. Absorbent silver (I) antimicrobial fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, silver in form of silver ions, has been gaining importance in the wound management as an effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Silver has a long history as an antimicrobial agent, especially in the treatment of wounds. Alginates and carboxymethyl (CM) cotton contain carboxyl...

  20. Engineering Antimicrobials Refractory to Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-drug resistant superbugs are a persistent problem in modern health care, demonstrating the need for a new class of antimicrobials that can address this concern. Triple-acting peptidoglycan hydrolase fusions are a novel class of antimicrobials which have qualities well suited to avoiding resis...

  1. Use of Antimicrobials during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of any drug during pregnancy is complicated by concerns of adverse effects, not only on the pregnant woman, but also on the fetus. This paper provides an overview of the use of antimicrobials in pregnancy, based on current knowledge of fetal development and on available documented experience. The author also discusses the use of specific antimicrobial agents during pregnancy. PMID:21263935

  2. Plant antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Robert; Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Buchwald, Waldemar; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a component of barrier defense system of plants. They have been isolated from roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves of a wide variety of species and have activities towards phytopathogens, as well as against bacteria pathogenic to humans. Thus, plant AMPs are considered as promising antibiotic compounds with important biotechnological applications. Plant AMPs are grouped into several families and share general features such as positive charge, the presence of disulfide bonds (which stabilize the structure), and the mechanism of action targeting outer membrane structures.

  3. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2016-04-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data on microbiological feed quality was obtained from the Voluntary Feed Control under the Mink producers Organization, and data on herd size and the relation between farm and feed producer was obtained from the registers at Kopenhagen Fur, based on yearly reporting from the mink producers. Descriptive analysis showed a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period. From 2007 to 2011, a 102% increase in annual antimicrobial TP was noted; on herd level, the increase was associated with an increasing frequency of prescription, and a decrease in the amounts prescribed in months with prescription. A binomial model showed that on herd level, the annual number of months with antimicrobial prescription was significantly (p<0.01) affected by feed producer, veterinarian, disease (specific laboratory diagnosis) infection, herd size and year, with an interaction between feed producer and year. A log-normal model showed that in months with antimicrobial use, the TP on herd level was significantly (p<0.001) affected by year, month (season), feed producer, feed quality score, veterinarian, herd size and laboratory confirmed diagnosis of

  4. Antimicrobial dyes and mechanosensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Ramiz A

    2013-08-01

    The search for new and effective antimicrobial agents has never been as important; however, since the discovery of antibiotics, exploring the antimicrobial activity of dyes has been forgotten. Antimicrobial dyes are an untapped resource and have the ability to potentially combat the spread of drug-resistant bacteria either alone or as antimicrobial adjuvants. The mechanosensitive ion channel of large conductance (MscL) is highly conserved and ubiquitous in bacterial species. There is evidence to suggest that at least one triphenylmethane dye acts through the highly conserved MscL channel and combining the two approaches of exploring the mechanism of action of other triphenylmethane dyes or antimicrobial dyes in general and the novel MscL target provides a new opportunity for further exploration.

  5. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  6. Structures Division 1994 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1994 are presented.

  7. NEN Division Funding Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, Ernst I.; Goettee, Jeffrey D.; Desimone, David J.; Lakis, Rollin E.; Miko, David K.

    2012-09-05

    The work in NEN Division revolves around proliferation detection. The sponsor funding model seems to have shifted over the last decades. For the past three lustra, sponsors are mainly interested in funding ideas and detection systems that are already at a technical readiness level 6 (TRL 6 -- one step below an industrial prototype) or higher. Once this level is reached, the sponsoring agency is willing to fund the commercialization, implementation, and training for the systems (TRL 8, 9). These sponsors are looking for a fast turnaround (1-2 years) technology development efforts to implement technology. To support the critical national and international needs for nonprolifertion solutions, we have to maintain a fluent stream of subject matter expertise from the fundamental principals of radiation detection through prototype development all the way to the implementation and training of others. NEN Division has large funding gaps in the Valley of Death region. In the current competitive climate for nuclear nonproliferation projects, it is imminent to increase our lead in this field.

  8. Environmental Energy Technologies Division Newsletter, Fall 2007,Vol.4, No. 4)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allan

    2007-12-14

    This issue's special focus is on advanced lithium ionbatteries for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The four articlesaddressing this area explore the modeling of lithium ion batterychemistries; the use of advanced diagnostic methods to study the physicsand chemistry of battery materials; a laboratory for advanced batterytesting; and approaches for improving battery safety. EETD's research isfunded by the Department of Energy's BATT (Batteries for AdvancedTransportation Technologies) program, FreedomCar and Vehicle TechnologiesProgram.

  9. Antimicrobial Mechanism of Monocaprylate

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Sutherland, Duncan S.; Sundh, Maria; Mygind, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Monoglyceride esters of fatty acids occur naturally and encompass a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Monocaprylate is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and can function both as an emulsifier and as a preservative in food. However, knowledge about its mode of action is lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to elucidate the mechanism behind monocaprylate's antimicrobial effect. The cause of cell death in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was investigated by examining monocaprylate's effect on cell structure, membrane integrity, and its interaction with model membranes. Changes in cell structure were visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and propidium iodide staining showed membrane disruption, indicating the membrane as a site of action. This indication was confirmed by measuring calcein leakage from membrane vesicles exposed to monocaprylate. AFM imaging of supported lipid bilayers visualized the integration of monocaprylate into the liquid disordered, and not the solid ordered, phase of the membrane. The integration of monocaprylate was confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance measurements, showing an abrupt increase in mass and hydration of the membrane after exposure to monocaprylate above a threshold concentration. We hypothesize that monocaprylate destabilizes membranes by increasing membrane fluidity and the number of phase boundary defects. The sensitivity of cells to monocaprylate will therefore depend on the lipid composition, fluidity, and curvature of the membrane. PMID:22344642

  10. Antimicrobial mechanism of monocaprylate.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Sutherland, Duncan S; Sundh, Maria; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-04-01

    Monoglyceride esters of fatty acids occur naturally and encompass a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Monocaprylate is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and can function both as an emulsifier and as a preservative in food. However, knowledge about its mode of action is lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to elucidate the mechanism behind monocaprylate's antimicrobial effect. The cause of cell death in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was investigated by examining monocaprylate's effect on cell structure, membrane integrity, and its interaction with model membranes. Changes in cell structure were visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and propidium iodide staining showed membrane disruption, indicating the membrane as a site of action. This indication was confirmed by measuring calcein leakage from membrane vesicles exposed to monocaprylate. AFM imaging of supported lipid bilayers visualized the integration of monocaprylate into the liquid disordered, and not the solid ordered, phase of the membrane. The integration of monocaprylate was confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance measurements, showing an abrupt increase in mass and hydration of the membrane after exposure to monocaprylate above a threshold concentration. We hypothesize that monocaprylate destabilizes membranes by increasing membrane fluidity and the number of phase boundary defects. The sensitivity of cells to monocaprylate will therefore depend on the lipid composition, fluidity, and curvature of the membrane.

  11. Changes in the antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria from 2007-2009 to 2010-2012 based on the CLSI methodology.

    PubMed

    Hastey, Christine J; Boyd, Halsey; Schuetz, Audrey N; Anderson, Karen; Citron, Diane M; Dzink-Fox, Jody; Hackel, Meredith; Hecht, David W; Jacobus, Nilda V; Jenkins, Stephen G; Karlsson, Maria; Knapp, Cynthia C; Koeth, Laura M; Wexler, Hannah; Roe-Carpenter, Darcie E

    2016-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates was conducted at four independent sites from 2010 to 2012 and compared to results from three sites during the period of 2007-2009. This data comparison shows significant changes in antimicrobial resistance in some anaerobic groups. Therefore, we continue to recommend institutions regularly perform susceptibility testing when anaerobes are cultured from pertinent sites. Annual generation of an institutional-specific antibiogram is recommended for tracking of resistance trends over time.

  12. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  13. Divisions Panel Discussion: Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevin; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Wolter, Anna; Haghighipour, Nader; Yan, Yihua; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Silva, David; Guinan, Edward

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this panel discussion was to encourage conversation around potential collaborations between the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and IAU Divisions. The discussion was facilitated by the OAD and the conversation revolved mainly around two questions: (i) What should the OAD be doing to enhance the work of the Divisions? (ii) What could the Divisions (both members and respective scientific discipline in general) contribute towards the implementation of the IAU strategic plan?

  14. 75 FR 45166 - Jeld-Wen, Inc., Hawkins Window Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Nicolet Staffing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Jeld-Wen, Inc., Hawkins Window Division, Including On-Site Leased...- clad windows and patio doors did not contribute to worker group separations and that the subject firm... windows and patio doors during 2007, 2008, January through April 2008, and January through April 2009....

  15. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  16. Physics division annual report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2007-03-12

    This report highlights the research performed in 2005 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The mission of Nuclear Physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the matter that makes up stars, planets and human life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission and 2005 was a year of great progress. One of the most exciting developments is the initiation of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, CARIBU. By combining a Cf-252 fission source, the gas catcher technology developed for rare isotope beams, a high-resolution isobar separator, and charge breeding ECR technology, CARIBU will make hundreds of new neutron-rich isotope beams available for research. The cover illustration shows the anticipated intensities of low-energy beams that become available for low-energy experiments and for injection into ATLAS for reacceleration. CARIBU will be completed in early 2009 and provide us with considerable experience in many of the technologies developed for a future high intensity exotic beam facility. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the isomeric states in {sup 252}No that helps pin down the single particle structure expected for superheavy elements, and a new low-background measurement of {sup 16}N beta-decay to determine the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction rate that is so important in astrophysical environments. Precise mass measurements shed new light on the unitarity of the quark weak-mixing matrix in the search for physics beyond the standard model. ATLAS operated for 4686 hours of research in FY2005 while achieving 95% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium-Energy Physics, radium isotopes were

  17. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  18. Novel formulations for antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2014-10-09

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  20. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  1. Antimicrobial peptides: therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    Kang, Su-Jin; Park, Sung Jean; Mishig-Ochir, Tsogbadrakh; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2014-12-01

    The increasing appearance of multidrug-resistant pathogens has created an urgent need for suitable alternatives to current antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which act as defensive weapons against microbes, have received great attention because of broad-spectrum activities, unique action mechanisms and rare antibiotic-resistant variants. Despite desirable characteristics, they have shown limitations in pharmaceutical development due to toxicity, stability and manufacturing costs. Because of these drawbacks, only a few AMPs have been tested in Phase III clinical trials and no AMPs have been approved by the US FDA yet. However, these obstacles could be overcome by well-known methods such as changing physicochemical characteristics and introducing nonnatural amino acids, acetylation or amidation, as well as modern techniques like molecular targeted AMPs, liposomal formulations and drug delivery systems. Thus, the current challenge in this field is to develop therapeutic AMPs at a reasonable cost as well as to overcome the limitations.

  2. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  3. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article.

  4. Antimicrobial peptides: properties and applicability.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, W; Veerman, E C; Helmerhorst, E J; Amerongen, A V

    2001-04-01

    All organisms need protection against microorganisms, e. g. bacteria, viruses and fungi. For many years, attention has been focused on adaptive immunity as the main antimicrobial defense system. However, the adaptive immune system, with its network of humoral and cellular responses is only found in higher animals, while innate immunity is encountered in all living creatures. The turning point in the appreciation of the innate immunity was the discovery of antimicrobial peptides in the early eighties. In general these peptides act by disrupting the structural integrity of the microbial membranes. It has become clear that membrane-active peptides and proteins play a crucial role in both the innate and the adaptive immune system as antimicrobial agents. This review is focused on the functional and structural features of the naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides, and discusses their potential as therapeutics.

  5. Automation of antimicrobial activity screening.

    PubMed

    Forry, Samuel P; Madonna, Megan C; López-Pérez, Daneli; Lin, Nancy J; Pasco, Madeleine D

    2016-03-01

    Manual and automated methods were compared for routine screening of compounds for antimicrobial activity. Automation generally accelerated assays and required less user intervention while producing comparable results. Automated protocols were validated for planktonic, biofilm, and agar cultures of the oral microbe Streptococcus mutans that is commonly associated with tooth decay. Toxicity assays for the known antimicrobial compound cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were validated against planktonic, biofilm forming, and 24 h biofilm culture conditions, and several commonly reported toxicity/antimicrobial activity measures were evaluated: the 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Using automated methods, three halide salts of cetylpyridinium (CPC, CPB, CPI) were rapidly screened with no detectable effect of the counter ion on antimicrobial activity.

  6. Evolution of in vitro antimicrobial resistance in an equine hospital over 3 decades.

    PubMed

    Malo, Annie; Cluzel, Caroline; Labrecque, Olivia; Beauchamp, Guy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Leclere, Mathilde

    2016-07-01

    This study identified antimicrobial resistance patterns of commonly isolated bacteria at the Equine Hospital of the Université de Montréal between 2007 and 2013, and compared the results with the resistance patterns observed in tests performed in previous decades in the same hospital. A total of 396 antimicrobial susceptibility tests were analyzed by the Kirby-Bauer method during the period 2007 to 2013 and compared to 233 and 255 tests completed in 1986 to 1988 and 1996 to 1998, respectively. The most common bacteria were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) and Escherichia coli. Except for resistance of coagulase-positive staphylococci to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, there was no overall increase in resistance observed between 1986 to 1988 and 2007 to 2013 for antimicrobials reported for all 3 periods. However, between 1996 to 1998 and 2007 to 2013, there was an increase in in vitro resistance to enrofloxacin for E. coli and Enterobacter spp., and to ceftiofur for Enterobacter spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci. No increase in resistance was observed for S. zooepidemicus and no isolate was resistant to penicillin.

  7. Evolution of in vitro antimicrobial resistance in an equine hospital over 3 decades

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Annie; Cluzel, Caroline; Labrecque, Olivia; Beauchamp, Guy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Leclere, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    This study identified antimicrobial resistance patterns of commonly isolated bacteria at the Equine Hospital of the Université de Montréal between 2007 and 2013, and compared the results with the resistance patterns observed in tests performed in previous decades in the same hospital. A total of 396 antimicrobial susceptibility tests were analyzed by the Kirby-Bauer method during the period 2007 to 2013 and compared to 233 and 255 tests completed in 1986 to 1988 and 1996 to 1998, respectively. The most common bacteria were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) and Escherichia coli. Except for resistance of coagulase-positive staphylococci to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, there was no overall increase in resistance observed between 1986 to 1988 and 2007 to 2013 for antimicrobials reported for all 3 periods. However, between 1996 to 1998 and 2007 to 2013, there was an increase in in vitro resistance to enrofloxacin for E. coli and Enterobacter spp., and to ceftiofur for Enterobacter spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci. No increase in resistance was observed for S. zooepidemicus and no isolate was resistant to penicillin. PMID:27429463

  8. 2007 coal preparation buyer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    2007-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 86 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 24th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 30 April - 3 May 2007, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  9. Recruiting Trends, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    College students who plan on entering the labor market can expect to see more job opportunities in the spring of 2007, according to information supplied by 864 companies and organizations to this year's Recruiting Trends Report. After two years of double digit growth, the expansion will slow to a modest 4% to 6%. Two opposing factors appear to be…

  10. Monetary Policy after August 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes conceptually how to think about the dramatic changes in monetary policy since the sub-prime crisis of August 2007. He also discusses how to incorporate these changes and related economic concepts in the teaching of an undergraduate class in macroeconomics. A distinction is made between conventional and…

  11. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  12. ES Review: Selections from 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The second edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, abridged versions of research reports, outside articles and op-eds, book reviews, and other Education Sector publications. The 2007 edition features: (1) K-12 Accountability (Laboratories of Reform: Virtual High Schools and Innovation in Public Education (Bill…

  13. 2007 Youth Policy Summit Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ellen; Fussell, Annemarie; Templin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The NCSSSMST (National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics, Science and Technology) and Keystone Science School co-sponsored two Youth Policy Summits during the summer of 2007. Forty students represented 10 high schools from across the country at each Summit, meeting for a week in June and August at Keystone Science School…

  14. State Governance Action Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related…

  15. Current Issues Survey Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, John S.; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    The Eighth Annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey asked campus information technology leaders to rate the most critical IT challenges facing them, their campuses, and/or their systems. Four findings associated with all respondents to this year's survey merit special mention. First, for the 2007 survey, the CIC decided to split a key issue choice…

  16. Physics Division annual report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.

    2006-04-06

    This report highlights the research performed in 2004 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The intellectual challenges of this research represent some of the most fundamental challenges in modern science, shaping our understanding of both tiny objects at the center of the atom and some of the largest structures in the universe. A great strength of these efforts is the critical interplay of theory and experiment. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the charge radius of He-6 in an atom trap and its explanation in ab-initio calculations of nuclear structure. Precise mass measurements on critical waiting point nuclei in the rapid-proton-capture process set the time scale for this important path in nucleosynthesis. An abrupt fall-off was identified in the subbarrier fusion of several heavy-ion systems. ATLAS operated for 5559 hours of research in FY2004 while achieving 96% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium Energy Physics, substantial progress was made on a long-term experiment to search for the violation of time-reversal invariance using trapped Ra atoms. New results from HERMES reveal the influence of quark angular momentum. Experiments at JLAB search for evidence of color transparency in rho-meson production and study the EMC effect in helium isotopes. New theoretical results include a Poincare covariant description of baryons as composites of confined quarks and non-point-like diquarks. Green's function Monte Carlo techniques give accurate descriptions of the excited states of light nuclei and these techniques been extended to scattering states for astrophysics studies. A theoretical description of the phenomena of proton radioactivity has been extended to triaxial nuclei. Argonne continues to

  17. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  18. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division 1990 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Willard S., Jr., Ed.

    Research and development efforts carried out under sponsorship of the Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research during fiscal year 1990 are described in this compilation of project description summaries. The Division's research is organized in three types of programs: (1) Cognitive Science (the human learner--cognitive…

  19. 25 CFR 227.19 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Division orders. 227.19 Section 227.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.19 Division orders....

  20. 25 CFR 227.19 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Division orders. 227.19 Section 227.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.19 Division orders....

  1. 25 CFR 227.19 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Division orders. 227.19 Section 227.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.19 Division orders....

  2. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States. Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  3. New Study Designs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease. | The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease.

  4. Understanding Division of Fractions: An Alternative View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredua-Kwarteng, E.; Ahia, Francis

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer three alternatives to patterns or visualization used to justify division of fraction "algorithm" invert and multiply". The three main approaches are historical, similar denominators and algebraic, that teachers could use to justify the standard algorithm of division of fraction. The historical approach uses…

  5. 25 CFR 227.19 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Division orders. 227.19 Section 227.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.19 Division orders....

  6. 25 CFR 227.19 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Division orders. 227.19 Section 227.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.19 Division orders....

  7. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  8. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division, 1991 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Willard S., Ed.

    This report documents research and development performed under the sponsorship of the Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research in fiscal year 1991. It provides abstracts (title, principal investigator, project code, objective, approach, progress, and related reports) of projects of three program divisions (cognitive…

  9. The Division of Labor as Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidson, Eliot

    1976-01-01

    Three different principles and ideologies by which the division of labor can be organized are sketched, along with their consequences for variation in structure and content. It is noted that the reality of the division of labor lies in the social interaction of its participants. (Author/AM)

  10. Teaching Cell Division: Basics and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a concise overview of cell division that includes only the essential concepts necessary for understanding genetics and evolution. Makes recommendations based on published research and teaching experiences that can be used to judge the merits of potential activities and materials for teaching cell division. Makes suggestions regarding the…

  11. The Changing Nature of Division III Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    2014-01-01

    Non-selective Division III institutions often face challenges in meeting their enrollment goals. To ensure their continued viability, these schools recruit large numbers of student athletes. As a result, when compared to FBS (Football Bowl Division) institutions these schools have a much higher percentage of student athletes on campus and a…

  12. "American Gothic" and the Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides historical review of gender-based division of labor. Argues that gender-based division of labor served a purpose in survival of tribal communities but has lost meaning today and may be a handicap to full use of human talent and ability in the arts. There is nothing in various art forms which make them more appropriate for males or…

  13. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-08-06

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.

  14. The physiology of bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Egan, Alexander J F; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial cell division is facilitated by the divisome, a dynamic multiprotein assembly localizing at mid-cell to synthesize the stress-bearing peptidoglycan and to constrict all cell envelope layers. Divisome assembly occurs in two steps and involves multiple interactions between more than 20 essential and accessory cell division proteins. Well before constriction and while the cell is still elongating, the tubulin-like FtsZ and early cell division proteins form a ring-like structure at mid-cell. Cell division starts once certain peptidoglycan enzymes and their activators have moved to the FtsZ-ring. Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli simultaneously synthesize and cleave the septum peptidoglycan during division leading to a constriction. The outer membrane constricts together with the peptidoglycan layer with the help of the transenvelope spanning Tol-Pal system.

  15. Gravity and the orientation of cell division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    A novel culture system for mammalian cells was used to investigate division orientations in populations of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the influence of gravity on the positioning of division axes. The cells were tethered to adhesive sites, smaller in diameter than a newborn cell, distributed over a nonadhesive substrate positioned vertically. The cells grew and divided while attached to the sites, and the angles and directions of elongation during anaphase, projected in the vertical plane, were found to be random with respect to gravity. However, consecutive divisions of individual cells were generally along the same axis or at 90 degrees to the previous division, with equal probability. Thus, successive divisions were restricted to orthogonal planes, but the choice of plane appeared to be random, unlike the ordered sequence of cleavage orientations seen during early embryo development.

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Malanovic, Nermina; Lohner, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have remarkably different structures as well as biological activity profiles, whereupon most of these peptides are supposed to kill bacteria via membrane damage. In order to understand their molecular mechanism and target cell specificity for Gram-positive bacteria, it is essential to consider the architecture of their cell envelopes. Before AMPs can interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria, they have to traverse the cell wall composed of wall- and lipoteichoic acids and peptidoglycan. While interaction of AMPs with peptidoglycan might rather facilitate penetration, interaction with anionic teichoic acids may act as either a trap for AMPs or a ladder for a route to the cytoplasmic membrane. Interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane frequently leads to lipid segregation affecting membrane domain organization, which affects membrane permeability, inhibits cell division processes or leads to delocalization of essential peripheral membrane proteins. Further, precursors of cell wall components, especially the highly conserved lipid II, are directly targeted by AMPs. Thereby, the peptides do not inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis via binding to proteins like common antibiotics, but form a complex with the precursor molecule, which in addition can promote pore formation and membrane disruption. Thus, the multifaceted mode of actions will make AMPs superior to antibiotics that act only on one specific target. PMID:27657092

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from clinical cases of canine pyoderma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blunt, Catherine A; van Vuuren, Moritz; Picard, Jacqueline

    2013-05-16

    Successful treatment of canine pyoderma has become compromised owing to the development of antimicrobial resistance with accompanying recurrence of infection. Canine skin samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for microbiological culture and sensitivity between January 2007 and June 2010, from which Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, were selected for this investigation. Antimicrobial resistance of S. intermedius was most prevalent with reference to ampicillin followed by resistance to tetracycline and then potentiated sulphonamides. In general, antimicrobial resistance was low and very few methicillin-resistant isolates were detected. Temporal trends were not noted, except for ampicillin, with isolates becoming more susceptible, and potentiated sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole), with isolates becoming more resistant. In general, both the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration tests yielded similar results for the antimicrobial agents tested. The main difference was evident in the over-estimation of resistance by the Kirby-Bauer test for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, penicillin and doxycycline. Knowledge of trends in bacterial resistance is important for veterinarians when presented with canine pyoderma. Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. intermedius isolated from canine pyodermas will guide veterinarians' use of the most appropriate agent and encourage prudent use of antimicrobials in companion animals.

  18. 2007 Microbial Population Biology (July 22-26, 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony M. Dean Nancy Ryan Gray

    2008-04-01

    Microbial Population Biology covers a diverse range of cutting edge issues in the microbial sciences and beyond. Firmly founded in evolutionary biology and with a strongly integrative approach, past meetings have covered topics ranging from the dynamics and genetics of adaptation to the evolution of mutation rate, community ecology, evolutionary genomics, altruism, and epidemiology. This meeting is never dull: some of the most significant and contentious issues in biology have been thrashed out here. We anticipate the 2007 meeting being no exception. The final form of the 2007 meeting is yet to be decided, but the following topics are likely to be included: evolutionary emergence of infectious disease and antibiotic resistance, genetic architecture and implications for the evolution of microbial populations, ageing in bacteria, biogeography, evolution of symbioses, the role of microbes in ecosystem function, and ecological genomics.

  19. Physics division annual report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, K., ed.; Physics

    2000-12-06

    This report summarizes the research performed in the past year in the Argonne Physics Division. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national heavy-ion user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research with beams of heavy ions, accelerator research and development especially in superconducting radio frequency technology, nuclear theory and medium energy nuclear physics. The Division took significant strides forward in its science and its initiatives for the future in the past year. Major progress was made in developing the concept and the technology for the future advanced facility of beams of short-lived nuclei, the Rare Isotope Accelerator. The scientific program capitalized on important instrumentation initiatives with key advances in nuclear science. In 1999, the nuclear science community adopted the Argonne concept for a multi-beam superconducting linear accelerator driver as the design of choice for the next major facility in the field a Rare Isotope Accelerator (WA) as recommended by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee's 1996 Long Range Plan. Argonne has made significant R&D progress on almost all aspects of the design concept including the fast gas catcher (to allow fast fragmentation beams to be stopped and reaccelerated) that in large part defined the RIA concept the superconducting rf technology for the driver accelerator, the multiple-charge-state concept (to permit the facility to meet the design intensity goals with existing ion-source technology), and designs and tests of high-power target concepts to effectively deal with the full beam power of the driver linac. An NSAC subcommittee recommended the Argonne concept and set as tie design goal Uranium beams of 100-kwatt power at 400 MeV/u. Argonne demonstrated that this goal can be met with an innovative, but technically in-hand, design. The heavy-ion research program focused on GammaSphere, the premier facility for nuclear structure gamma-ray studies. One example of the

  20. 49 CFR 1242.03 - Made by accounting divisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Made by accounting divisions. 1242.03 Section 1242... accounting divisions. The separation shall be made by accounting divisions, where such divisions are maintained, and the aggregate of the accounting divisions reported for the quarter and for the year....

  1. 49 CFR 1242.03 - Made by accounting divisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Made by accounting divisions. 1242.03 Section 1242... accounting divisions. The separation shall be made by accounting divisions, where such divisions are maintained, and the aggregate of the accounting divisions reported for the quarter and for the year....

  2. Peptides and Peptidomimetics for Antimicrobial Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Jenssen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and highlight a few classes of traditional antimicrobial peptides with a focus on structure-activity relationship studies. After first dissecting the important physiochemical properties that influence the antimicrobial and toxic properties of antimicrobial peptides, the contributions of individual amino acids with respect to the peptides antibacterial properties are presented. A brief discussion of the mechanisms of action of different antimicrobials as well as the development of bacterial resistance towards antimicrobial peptides follows. Finally, current efforts on novel design strategies and peptidomimetics are introduced to illustrate the importance of antimicrobial peptide research in the development of future antibiotics. PMID:26184232

  3. Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Piozzi, Antonella; Francolini, Iolanda

    2013-01-01

    The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life. PMID:24005863

  4. Antimicrobial anxiety: the impact of stress on antimicrobial immunity

    PubMed Central

    Radek, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Leukocytes and epithelial cells are fundamental to antimicrobial immunity. Their antimicrobial responses are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune system and are influenced by the host’s response to external stimuli. The efficacy of host defense via antimicrobial responses derives from the ability of AMPs to rapidly identify and eradicate foreign microbes and activate proinflammatory pathways, and from the capacity of later innate and adaptive immune responses to amplify protection through distinct biochemical mechanisms. Recent advances in neuroimmunology have identified a direct link between the neuroendocrine and immune systems, where environmental stimuli are generally believed to promote a transient effect on the immune system in response to environmental challenges and are presumably brought back to baseline levels via neuroendocrine pathways. Stress is an environmental stimulus that flares from a variety of circumstances and has become engrained in human society. Small bouts of stress are believed to enhance the host’s immune response; however, prolonged periods of stress can be detrimental through excess production of neuroendocrine-derived mediators that dampen immune responses to invasive pathogens. Elucidation of the mechanisms behind stress-induced immune modulation of antimicrobial responses will ultimately lead to the development of more effective therapeutic interventions for pathologic conditions. It is the intent of this review to broaden the existing paradigm of how stress-related molecules dampen immune responses through suppression of antimicrobial mechanisms, and to emphasize that bacteria can use these factors to enhance microbial pathogenesis during stress. PMID:20442225

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses: Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Maddox, T W; Clegg, P D; Williams, N J; Pinchbeck, G L

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections. While the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from man has been studied extensively, less work has been undertaken in companion animals, particularly horses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as a cause of infections, with a low prevalence of nasal carriage by horses in the community but higher for hospitalised horses. Molecular characterisation has shown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains either to be predominantly of types associated with horses or of sequence type ST398. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (including multidrug-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates) have caused infections and been documented in faecal carriage by horses, with many significant resistance mechanisms identified. More sporadic reports and molecular characterisation exist for resistance in other bacteria such as enterococci, Salmonella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species. Limited work has been undertaken evaluating risk factors and much of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses remains to be determined.

  6. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  7. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J

    2005-11-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  8. Alaska climate divisions based on objective methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeloff, H.; Bieniek, P. A.; Bhatt, U. S.; Thoman, R.; Walsh, J. E.; Daly, C.; Shulski, M.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska is vast geographically, is located at high latitudes, is surrounded on three sides by oceans and has complex topography, encompassing several climate regions. While climate zones exist, there has not been an objective analysis to identify regions of homogeneous climate. In this study we use cluster analysis on a robust set of weather observation stations in Alaska to develop climate divisions for the state. Similar procedures have been employed in the contiguous United States and other parts of the world. Our analysis, based on temperature and precipitation, yielded a set of 10 preliminary climate divisions. These divisions include an eastern and western Arctic (bounded by the Brooks Range to the south), a west coast region along the Bering Sea, and eastern and western Interior regions (bounded to the south by the Alaska Range). South of the Alaska Range there were the following divisions: an area around Cook Inlet (also including Valdez), coastal and inland areas along Bristol Bay including Kodiak and Lake Iliamna, the Aleutians, and Southeast Alaska. To validate the climate divisions based on relatively sparse station data, additional sensitivity analysis was performed. Additional clustering analysis utilizing the gridded North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was also conducted. In addition, the divisions were evaluated using correlation analysis. These sensitivity tests support the climate divisions based on cluster analysis.

  9. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OHApril 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!The Annual Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference is a unique meeting where several Government Agencies come together to discuss toxicology and risk assessment issues that are not only of concern to the government, but also to a broader audience including academia and industry. The theme of this year's conference is Emerging Issues and Challenges in Risk Assessment and the preliminary agenda includes: Plenary Sessions and prominent speakers (tentative) include: Issues of Emerging Chemical ContaminantsUncertainty and Variability in Risk Assessment Use of Mechanistic data in IARC evaluationsParallel Sessions:Uncertainty and Variability in Dose-Response Assessment Recent Advances in Toxicity and Risk Assessment of RDX The Use of Epidemiologic Data for Risk Assessment Applications Cumulative Health Risk Assessment:

  10. A survey of Clostridium spiroforme antimicrobial susceptibility in rabbit breeding.

    PubMed

    Agnoletti, Fabrizio; Ferro, Tiziana; Guolo, Angela; Marcon, Barbara; Cocchi, Monia; Drigo, Ilenia; Mazzolini, Elena; Bano, Luca

    2009-04-14

    Rabbit meat breeding may be heavily affected by enterotoxaemia due to Clostridium spiroforme. Data on its antimicrobial susceptibility are insufficient, presumably because of difficulties in cultivating and identifying the pathogen. Our aim is therefore to provide this information to veterinary practitioners by focusing on a panel of therapeutics used in intensive rabbit units. Lincomycin was also checked in order to investigate the origin of resistance to macrolides. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined with the agar dilution method according to the CLSI M11-A7 protocol (2007). MIC(50) and MIC(90) were, respectively, 64 and 64microg/ml for tiamulin, 32 and 32microg/ml for norfloxacin, 0.063 and 0.125microg/ml for amoxicillin, and 8 and 16microg/ml for doxycycline. MIC(50) and MIC(90) were 256microg/ml for sulphadimethoxine, spiramycin and lincomycin. Our results have shown that intrinsic or acquired antimicrobial resistances are diffuse in the C. spiroforme population and suggest focusing on prevention rather than on treatment of clostridial overgrowth, by reducing risk factors and using antimicrobials prudently.

  11. Public health response to a rabid kitten--four states, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-04

    On July 24, 2007, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) was notified by the North Carolina Division of Public Health (NCDPH) of a stray, rabid kitten that had been handled by players on several girls' softball teams during a tournament in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. This report summarizes the public health response to exposure to the rabid kitten and highlights the importance of multistate collaboration in a rabid animal investigation.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Spanish field isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, A; Carvajal, A; García-Feliz, C; Osorio, J; Rubio, P

    2009-08-01

    This study is the first conducted in Spain to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of field isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. One hundred and eight isolates of the bacterium, recovered from different Spanish swine farms between 2000 and 2007, were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, clindamycin and lincomycin were determined using a broth microdilution technique. Most of the isolates showed poor susceptibility to erythromycin (MIC(90)>256 microg/ml), tylosin (MIC(90)>256 microg/ml), clindamycin (MIC(90)>4 microg/ml) and lincomycin (MIC(90)=128 microg/ml). Reduced susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin was observed with a MIC>2 microg/ml in 17.6% and 7.41% of the B. hyodysenteriae isolates, respectively. Moreover, a survival analysis permitted the detection of an increasing trend in the MIC values for almost all the antimicrobials used in the treatment of swine dysentery when comparing recent isolates (from 2006 to 2007) with those recovered in earlier years (between 2000 and 2004).

  13. Photojournal Home Page Graphic 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image is an unannotated version of the Photojournal Home Page graphic released in October 2007. This digital collage contains a highly stylized rendition of our solar system and points beyond. As this graphic was intended to be used as a navigation aid in searching for data within the Photojournal, certain artistic embellishments have been added (color, location, etc.). Several data sets from various planetary and astronomy missions were combined to create this image.

  14. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division 1990 Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    f D-/a33 773 ! COGNITIVE AND NEURAL SCIENCES -DIVISION 1990 PROGRAMS P .. i I’ • . M,’AR ’ OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH 800 NORTH QUINCY STREET ARLINGTON... Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division 1990 Programs PE 61153N * 6. AUTHOR(S)I Edited by W-illard S. Vaughan 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...NOTES This is a compilation of abstracts representing R&D sponsured by the ONR Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division. 12a. DISTRIBUTION AVAILABILITY

  15. Overview of the Applied Aerodynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A major reorganization of the Aeronautics Directorate of the Langley Research Center occurred in early 1989. As a result of this reorganization, the scope of research in the Applied Aeronautics Division is now quite different than that in the past. An overview of the current organization, mission, and facilities of this division is presented. A summary of current research programs and sample highlights of recent research are also presented. This is intended to provide a general view of the scope and capabilities of the division.

  16. History of the Fluids Engineering Division

    DOE PAGES

    Cooper, Paul; Martin, C. Samuel; O'Hern, Timothy J.

    2016-08-03

    The 90th Anniversary of the Fluids Engineering Division (FED) of ASME will be celebrated on July 10–14, 2016 in Washington, DC. The venue is ASME's Summer Heat Transfer Conference (SHTC), Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting (FEDSM), and International Conference on Nanochannels and Microchannels (ICNMM). The occasion is an opportune time to celebrate and reflect on the origin of FED and its predecessor—the Hydraulic Division (HYD), which existed from 1926–1963. Furthermore, the FED Executive Committee decided that it would be appropriate to publish concurrently a history of the HYD/FED.

  17. Biology and Medicine Division: Annual report 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The Biology and Medicine Division continues to make important contributions in scientific areas in which it has a long-established leadership role. For 50 years the Division has pioneered in the application of radioisotopes and charged particles to biology and medicine. There is a growing emphasis on cellular and molecular applications in the work of all the Division's research groups. The powerful tools of genetic engineering, the use of recombinant products, the analytical application of DNA probes, and the use of restriction fragment length polymorphic DNA are described and proposed for increasing use in the future.

  18. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  19. Asymmetric stem cell division: lessons from Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pao-Shu; Egger, Boris; Brand, Andrea H

    2008-06-01

    Asymmetric cell division is an important and conserved strategy in the generation of cellular diversity during animal development. Many of our insights into the underlying mechanisms of asymmetric cell division have been gained from Drosophila, including the establishment of polarity, orientation of mitotic spindles and segregation of cell fate determinants. Recent studies are also beginning to reveal the connection between the misregulation of asymmetric cell division and cancer. What we are learning from Drosophila as a model system has implication both for stem cell biology and also cancer research.

  20. Chemical Sciences Division annual report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The division is one of ten LBL research divisions. It is composed of individual research groups organized into 5 scientific areas: chemical physics, inorganic/organometallic chemistry, actinide chemistry, atomic physics, and chemical engineering. Studies include structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates, transients and dynamics of elementary chemical reactions, and heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. Work for others included studies of superconducting properties of high-{Tc} oxides. In FY 1994, the division neared completion of two end-stations and a beamline for the Advanced Light Source, which will be used for combustion and other studies. This document presents summaries of the studies.

  1. Chemical and Laser Sciences Division annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, N.

    1990-06-01

    The Chemical and Laser Sciences Division Annual Report includes articles describing representative research and development activities within the Division, as well as major programs to which the Division makes significant contributions.

  2. 6. Contextual view of Fairbanks Company, looking south along Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Contextual view of Fairbanks Company, looking south along Division Street, showing relationship of factory to surrounding area, 213, 215, & 217 Division Street appear on right side of street - Fairbanks Company, 202 Division Street, Rome, Floyd County, GA

  3. 3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing rear (west) facade and north side, Fairbanks Company appears at left and 215 Division Street is visible at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  4. 2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 217 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  5. 3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 215 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 213 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Scandinavia after ban of antimicrobial growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Björn; Wierup, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The banned use of antimicrobial growth promoters resulted in a considerably decreased use of antimicrobials in food animal production in Sweden (65%), Denmark (47%), Norway (40%) and Finland (27%). The current prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in animal bacterial populations is also considerably lower than in some other countries in the EU. In the swine production, no or limited effect was found in the finisher production (>25 to 30 kg). Temporary negative effects occurred during the post weaning period (7-30 kg). In Denmark, the cost of production from birth to slaughter per pig produced increased by approximately 1.0 euro with a high variability between pig producers. In the broiler production the termination had no significant negative effect on animal health and welfare or on production economy.

  7. Novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides use different antimicrobial mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavia, Kathryn E; Spinella, Sara A; Elmore, Donald E

    2012-03-01

    The increase in multidrug resistant bacteria has sparked an interest in the development of novel antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides that operate by crossing the cell membrane may also have the potential to deliver drugs to intracellular targets. Buforin 2 (BF2) is an antimicrobial peptide that shares sequence identity with a fragment of histone subunit H2A and whose bactericidal mechanism depends on membrane translocation and DNA binding. Previously, novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides (HDAPs) were designed based on properties of BF2, and DesHDAP1 and DesHDAP3 showed significant antibacterial activity. In this study, their DNA binding, permeabilization, and translocation abilities were assessed independently and compared to antibacterial activity to determine whether they share a mechanism with BF2. To investigate the importance of proline in determining the peptides' mechanisms of action, proline to alanine mutants of the novel peptides were generated. DesHDAP1, which shows significant similarities to BF2 in terms of secondary structure, translocates effectively across lipid vesicle and bacterial membranes, while the DesHDAP1 proline mutant shows reduced translocation abilities and antimicrobial potency. In contrast, both DesHDAP3 and its proline mutant translocate poorly, though the DesHDAP3 proline mutant is more potent. Our findings suggest that a proline hinge can promote membrane translocation in some peptides, but that the extent of its effect on permeabilization depends on the peptide's amphipathic properties. Our results also highlight the different antimicrobial mechanisms exhibited by histone-derived peptides and suggest that histones may serve as a source of novel antimicrobial peptides with varied properties.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  9. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  10. Ruthenium complexes as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfei; Collins, J Grant; Keene, F Richard

    2015-04-21

    One of the major advances in medical science has been the development of antimicrobials; however, a consequence of their widespread use has been the emergence of drug-resistant populations of microorganisms. There is clearly a need for the development of new antimicrobials--but more importantly, there is the need for the development of new classes of antimicrobials, rather than drugs based upon analogues of known scaffolds. Due to the success of the platinum anticancer agents, there has been considerable interest in the development of therapeutic agents based upon other transition metals--and in particular ruthenium(II/III) complexes, due to their well known interaction with DNA. There have been many studies of the anticancer properties and cellular localisation of a range of ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells over the last decade. However, only very recently has there been significant interest in their antimicrobial properties. This review highlights the types of ruthenium complexes that have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and discusses the relationship between chemical structure and biological processing--including site(s) of intracellular accumulation--of the ruthenium complexes in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

  11. Antimicrobial implications of vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Dima A; Miller, Christopher WT; El-Abbassi, Adel M; Cutchins, Della C; Cutchins, Coleman; Grant, William B

    2011-01-01

    Evidence exists that vitamin D has a potential antimicrobial activity and its deficiency has deleterious effects on general well-being and longevity. Vitamin D may reduce the risk of infection through multiple mechanisms. Vitamin D boosts innate immunity by modulating production of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) and cytokine response. Vitamin D and its analogues via these mechanisms are playing an increasing role in the management of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo, acne and rosacea. Vitamin D may reduce susceptibility to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis and the ability to regulate local immune and inflammatory responses offers exciting potential for understanding and treating chronic inflammatory dermatitides. Moreover, B and T cell activation as well as boosting the activity of monocytes and macrophages also contribute to a potent systemic anti-microbial effect. The direct invasion by pathogenic organisms may be minimized at sites such as the respiratory tract by enhancing clearance of invading organisms. A vitamin D replete state appears to benefit most infections, with the possible noteworthy exception of Leishmaniasis. Antibiotics remain an expensive option and misuse of these agents results in significant antibiotic resistance and contributes to escalating health care costs. Vitamin D constitutes an inexpensive prophylactic option and possibly therapeutic product either by itself or as a synergistic agent to traditional antimicrobial agents. This review outlines the specific antimicrobial properties of vitamin D in combating a wide range of organisms. We discuss the possible mechanisms by which vitamin D may have a therapeutic role in managing a variety of infections. PMID:22259647

  12. WESTERN ECOLOGY DIVISION - GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for flyer - general information The Western Ecology Division (WED), part of EPAs National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, provides information to EPA offices and regions nationwide to improve understanding of how human activities affect estuarine,...

  13. Chemical Sciences Division: Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of twelve research Divisions of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a Department of Energy National Laboratory. The CSD is composed of individual groups and research programs that are organized into five scientific areas: Chemical Physics, Inorganic/Organometallic Chemistry, Actinide Chemistry, Atomic Physics, and Physical Chemistry. This report describes progress by the CSD for 1992. Also included are remarks by the Division Director, a description of work for others (United States Office of Naval Research), and appendices of the Division personnel and an index of investigators. Research reports are grouped as Fundamental Interactions (Photochemical and Radiation Sciences, Chemical Physics, Atomic Physics) or Processes and Techniques (Chemical Energy, Heavy-Element Chemistry, and Chemical Engineering Sciences).

  14. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  15. Nanoengineering: Super symmetry in cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial cells can be sculpted into different shapes using nanofabricated chambers and then used to explore the spatial adaptation of protein oscillations that play an important role in cell division.

  16. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  17. 3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division Street in foreground - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  18. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  19. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  20. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  1. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  2. 15 CFR 950.8 - Satellite Data Services Division (SDSD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...., weather forecasting) have been satisfied. The division also provides photographs collected during NASA's... to: Satellite Data Services Division, World Weather Building, Room 606, Washington, DC 20233,...

  3. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Registration Division

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Registration Division (RD) is responsible product registrations, amendments, registrations, tolerances, experimental use permits, and emergency exemptions for conventional chemical pesticides. Find contacts in this division.

  4. ACVIM consensus statement on therapeutic antimicrobial use in animals and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Giguère, S; Guardabassi, L; Morley, P S; Papich, M; Ricciuto, D R; Sykes, J E

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of antimicrobial resistant infections continues to challenge, compromising animal care, complicating food animal production and posing zoonotic disease risks. While the overall role of therapeutic antimicrobial use in animals in the development AMR in animal and human pathogens is poorly defined, veterinarians must consider the impacts of antimicrobial use in animal and take steps to optimize antimicrobial use, so as to maximize the health benefits to animals while minimizing the likelihood of antimicrobial resistance and other adverse effects. This consensus statement aims to provide guidance on the therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animals, balancing the need for effective therapy with minimizing development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from animals and humans.

  5. Plastid Division: Evolution, Mechanism and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Maple, Jodi; Møller, Simon Geir

    2007-01-01

    Background The continuity of chloroplasts is maintained by division of pre-existing chloroplasts. Chloroplasts originated as bacterial endosymbionts; however, the majority of bacterial division factors are absent from chloroplasts and the eukaryotic host has added several new components. For example, the ftsZ gene has been duplicated and modified, and the Min system has retained MinE and MinD but lost MinC, acquiring at least one new component ARC3. Further, the mechanism has evolved to include two members of the dynamin protein family, ARC5 and FZL, and plastid-dividing (PD) rings were most probably added by the eukaryotic host. Scope Deciphering how the division of plastids is coordinated and controlled by nuclear-encoded factors is key to our understanding of this important biological process. Through a number of molecular-genetic and biochemical approaches, it is evident that FtsZ initiates plastid division where the coordinated action of MinD and MinE ensures correct FtsZ (Z)-ring placement. Although the classical FtsZ antagonist MinC does not exist in plants, ARC3 may fulfil this role. Together with other prokaryotic-derived proteins such as ARC6 and GC1 and key eukaryotic-derived proteins such as ARC5 and FZL, these proteins make up a sophisticated division machinery. The regulation of plastid division in a cellular context is largely unknown; however, recent microarray data shed light on this. Here the current understanding of the mechanism of chloroplast division in higher plants is reviewed with an emphasis on how recent findings are beginning to shape our understanding of the function and evolution of the components. Conclusions Extrapolation from the mechanism of bacterial cell division provides valuable clues as to how the chloroplast division process is achieved in plant cells. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the highly regulated mechanism of plastid division within the host cell has led to the evolution of features unique to the

  6. Nuclear Science Division: 1993 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.D.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the activities of the Nuclear Science Division for the 1993 calendar year. This was another significant year in the history of the Division with many interesting and important accomplishments. Activities for the following programs are covered here: (1) nuclear structure and reactions program; (2) the Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics; (3) relativistic nuclear collisions program; (4) nuclear theory program; (5) nuclear data evaluation program, isotope project; and (6) 88-inch cyclotron operations.

  7. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  8. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. We are proud to be able to bring you this report, which we hope will convey not only a description of the Division's scientific activities but also a sense of the enthusiasm and excitement present today in the Earth Sciences.

  9. Friday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    TimeAgenda8:00 am - 8:10 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research GroupDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCI8:10 am - 8:40 amClinical Trials Statistical Concepts for Non-StatisticiansKevin Dodd, PhD |

  10. The fencing problem and Coleochaete cell division.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuandi; Dou, Mingya; Zhou, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    The findings in this study suggest that the solution of a boundary value problem for differential equation system can be used to discuss the fencing problem in mathematics and Coleochaete, a green algae, cell division. This differential equation model in parametric expression is used to simulate the two kinds of cell division process, one is for the usual case and the case with a "dead" daughter cell.

  11. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Laintz, Kenneth E.

    2012-06-19

    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  12. Division II: Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Scrijver, Karel J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.

  13. Peroxisome division and proliferation in plants.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw; Zhang, Xinchun; Hu, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles with crucial functions in development. Plant peroxisomes participate in various metabolic processes, some of which are co-operated by peroxisomes and other organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Defining the complete picture of how these essential organelles divide and proliferate will be instrumental in understanding how the dynamics of peroxisome abundance contribute to changes in plant physiology and development. Research in Arabidopsis thaliana has identified several evolutionarily conserved major components of the peroxisome division machinery, including five isoforms of PEROXIN11 proteins (PEX11), two dynamin-related proteins (DRP3A and DRP3B) and two FISSION1 proteins (FIS1A/BIGYIN and FIS1B). Recent studies in our laboratory have also begun to uncover plant-specific factors. DRP5B is a dual-localized protein that is involved in the division of both chloroplasts and peroxisomes, representing an invention of the plant/algal lineage in organelle division. In addition, PMD1 (peroxisomal and mitochondrial division 1) is a plant-specific protein tail anchored to the outer surface of peroxisomes and mitochondria, mediating the division and/or positioning of these organelles. Lastly, light induces peroxisome proliferation in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, at least in part, through activating the PEX11b gene. The far-red light receptor phyA (phytochrome A) and the transcription factor HYH (HY5 homologue) are key components in this signalling pathway. In summary, pathways for the division and proliferation of plant peroxisomes are composed of conserved and plant-specific factors. The sharing of division proteins by peroxisomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts is also suggesting possible co-ordination in the division of these metabolically associated plant organelles.

  14. Medical Sciences Division report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This year`s Medical Sciences Division (MSD) Report is organized to show how programs in our division contribute to the core competencies of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). ORISE`s core competencies in education and training, environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, occupational and environmental health, and enabling research support the overall mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  16. Antimicrobial Properties of Titanium Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdural, B. K.; Yurum, A.; Bakir, U.; Karakas, G.

    In the present study, nanostructured titania particles were synthesized using hydrothermal processing and their photocatalytic antimicrobial activities were characterized. Sol-gel synthesized TiO2 samples were treated with a two step hydrothermal treatment. The first stage treatment was the alkaline treatment with 10 M of NaOH for 48 h at 130°C, followed with the second step which applied with distilled water for 48 h at 200°C. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images showed that alkaline treatment yields lamellar structure particles from the sol-gel synthesized anatase. Further treatment of nanoplates with distilled water results in crystal growth and the formation of nano structured thorn like particles. The photocatalytic antimicrobial activities of samples were determined against Escherichia coli under solar irradiation for 4 h. It was observed that the samples treated under alkaline conditions have higher antimicrobial activity than the untreated samples.

  17. Antifungal proteins: More than antimicrobials?

    PubMed Central

    Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Marx, Florentine

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) are widely distributed in nature. In higher eukaryotes, AMPs provide the host with an important defence mechanism against invading pathogens. AMPs of lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes may support successful competition for nutrients with other microorganisms of the same ecological niche. AMPs show a vast variety in structure, function, antimicrobial spectrum and mechanism of action. Most interestingly, there is growing evidence that AMPs also fulfil important biological functions other than antimicrobial activity. The present review focuses on the mechanistic function of small, cationic, cysteine-rich AMPs of mammals, insects, plants and fungi with antifungal activity and specifically aims at summarizing current knowledge concerning additional biological properties which opens novel aspects for their future use in medicine, agriculture and biotechnology. PMID:23412850

  18. Structure, function and controls in microbial division.

    PubMed

    Vicente, M; Errington, J

    1996-04-01

    Several crucial genes required for bacterial division lie close together in a region called the dcw cluster. Within the cluster, gene expression is subject to complex transcriptional regulation, which serves to adjust the cell cycle in response to growth rate. The pivotally important FtsZ protein, which is needed to initiate division, is now known to interact with many other components of the division machinery in Escherichia coli. Some biochemical properties of FtsZ, and of another division protein called FtsA, suggest that they are similar to the eukaryotic proteins tubulin and actin respectively. Cell division needs to be closely co-ordinated with chromosome partitioning. The mechanism of partitioning is poorly understood, though several genes involved in this process, including several muk genes, have been identified. The min genes may participate in both septum positioning and chromosome partitioning. Coupled transcription and translation of membrane-associated proteins might also be important for partitioning. In the event of a failure in the normal partitioning process, Bacillus subtilis, at least, has a mechanism for removing a bisected nucleoid from the division septum.

  19. Combination Antimicrobial Nanocomposite Materials for Neutralization of Biological Threat Agents (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Kathe, A.A., Varadarajan, P.V., Nachane, R.P., and R.H. Balasubramanya. 2007. Silver-protein (core-shell) nanoparticle production using spent mushroom ... production of nanometric structures and inspiration for a burgeoning branch of materials science (6-9). For example, peptides based on the silaffin... products offer effective antimicrobial activity and demonstrate the facile integration of biomolecules into devices and instruments. These novel

  20. Weapons Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spring 2007...production capability to include multiple sources and surge capacity. Action is required to ensure that a qualified and technically capable workforce is

  1. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome

    DOEpatents

    Sorek, Rotem; Rubin, Edward M.

    2013-08-20

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their expression products from various microbial genomes that were found using this method. The products of such genes can be used as antimicrobial agents or as tools for molecular biology.

  2. Establishing an antimicrobial stewardship program.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew M; Stewart, Thomas E; Shandling, Maureen; McIntaggart, Scott; Liles, W Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals are faced with increasing challenges of antibiotic-resistant organisms and rising antimicrobial costs despite widespread attention to infection prevention and control measures. Government, professional organizations and accreditation bodies are all signalling an urgent need for the establishment of programs in hospitals to address antibiotic misuse. Although variations of such "antimicrobial stewardship programs" have been functioning in Canada for some time, a formal approach using change management and quality improvement principles has largely been lacking. We describe how we have established such a program in a teaching hospital, modelled on John Kotter's eight steps of leading change.

  3. Antimicrobial therapy for skin infections.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, Jan V

    2007-06-01

    The most common skin infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes), or the normal skin flora. An antistaphylococcal oral antibiotic is the preferred treatment for nonbullous and bullous impetigo, and a therapeutic agent that is effective against both S aureus and streptococci is appropriate for most cases of cellulitis. For furuncles, carbuncles, cutaneous abscesses, and inflamed epidermal cysts, the most important therapy is incision and drainage, and in most cases there is no need for antimicrobial therapy. Patients with venous ulcers and atopic eczema do not benefit from systemic antimicrobial therapy unless obvious infection is present, as indicated by clinical features such as fever, cellulitis, and lymphangitis.

  4. 4 CFR 200.7 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 200.7 Section 200.7 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.7 Fees. A fee will not be charged for searching, reviewing, or making corrections to records. A fee for copying will be assessed at the same rate...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2007 - Goodwill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Goodwill. 32.2007 Section 32.2007... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2007 Goodwill. (a) This... identifiable property acquired and such amount should be identified as “goodwill”. Such amounts included...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2007 - Goodwill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Goodwill. 32.2007 Section 32.2007... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2007 Goodwill. (a) This... identifiable property acquired and such amount should be identified as “goodwill”. Such amounts included...

  7. 38 CFR 200.7 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperating agencies. 200.7 Section 200.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.7 Cooperating agencies. (a) Federal agencies...

  8. 38 CFR 200.7 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperating agencies. 200.7 Section 200.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.7 Cooperating agencies. (a) Federal agencies...

  9. 38 CFR 200.7 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperating agencies. 200.7 Section 200.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.7 Cooperating agencies. (a) Federal agencies...

  10. MSTD 2007 Publications and Patents

    SciTech Connect

    King, W E

    2008-04-01

    The Materials Science and Technology Division (MSTD) supports the central scientific and technological missions of the Laboratory, and at the same time, executes world-class, fundamental research and novel technological development over a wide range of disciplines. Our organization is driven by the institutional needs in nuclear weapons stockpile science, high-energy-density science, nuclear reactor science, and energy and environment science and technology. We maintain expertise and capabilities in many diverse areas, including actinide science, electron microscopy, laser-materials interactions, materials theory, simulation and modeling, materials synthesis and processing, materials science under extreme conditions, ultrafast materials science, metallurgy, nanoscience and technology, nuclear fuels and energy security, optical materials science, and surface science. MSTD scientists play leadership roles in the scientific community in these key and emerging areas.

  11. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous

  12. The History of Metals and Ceramics Division

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The division was formed in 1946 at the suggestion of Dr. Eugene P. Wigner to attack the problem of the distortion of graphite in the early reactors due to exposure to reactor neutrons, and the consequent radiation damage. It was called the Metallurgy Division and assembled the metallurgical and solid state physics activities of the time which were not directly related to nuclear weapons production. William A. Johnson, a Westinghouse employee, was named Division Director in 1946. In 1949 he was replaced by John H Frye Jr. when the Division consisted of 45 people. He was director during most of what is called the Reactor Project Years until 1973 and his retirement. During this period the Division evolved into three organizational areas: basic research, applied research in nuclear reactor materials, and reactor programs directly related to a specific reactor(s) being designed or built. The Division (Metals and Ceramics) consisted of 204 staff members in 1973 when James R. Weir, Jr., became Director. This was the period of the oil embargo, the formation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by combining the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) with the Office of Coal Research, and subsequent formation of the Department of Energy (DOE). The diversification process continued when James O. Stiegler became Director in 1984, partially as a result of the pressure of legislation encouraging the national laboratories to work with U.S. industries on their problems. During that time the Division staff grew from 265 to 330. Douglas F. Craig became Director in 1992.

  13. Energy Technology Division research summary - 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-31

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization, or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book.

  14. Homeland Security Department: FY2007 Appropriations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-10

    oil well drilling in Alaska’s National Wildlife Refuge ( ANWR ). Division D contained provisions that would have distributed the revenues from the ANWR ...After a contentious floor debate concerning the attachment of the ANWR provisions to the Defense Appropriations Bill, both Divisions C and D were

  15. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    PubMed

    Ajali, U; Chukwurah, B K C

    2004-11-01

    The folk herbal uses of Securidaca longipedunculata in the treatment of diarrhea, boils, gonorrhea, and cough prompted phytochemical analyses and antimicrobial activity screening of extracts of the root. Some flavonoids isolated showed activity against many micro-organisms. These flavonoids were isolated using chromatographic methods.

  17. Antimicrobial polymers with metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Palza, Humberto

    2015-01-19

    Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms.

  18. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  19. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Coast, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. Consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. This paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. Strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. The adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. Approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:11953791

  20. Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Palza, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms. PMID:25607734

  1. Helical Antimicrobial Sulfono- {gamma} -AApeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yaqiong; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Bai, Ge; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Chuanhai; Cai, Jianfeng

    2015-06-11

    Host-defense peptides (HDPs) such as magainin 2 have emerged as potential therapeutic agents combating antibiotic resistance. Inspired by their structures and mechanism of action, herein we report the fi rst example of antimicrobial helical sulfono- γ - AApeptide foldamers. The lead molecule displays broad-spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Time-kill studies and fl uorescence microscopy suggest that sulfono- γ -AApeptides eradicate bacteria by taking a mode of action analogous to that of HDPs. Clear structure - function relationships exist in the studied sequences. Longer sequences, presumably adopting more-de fi ned helical structures, are more potent than shorter ones. Interestingly, the sequence with less helical propensity in solution could be more selective than the stronger helix-forming sequences. Moreover, this class of antimicrobial agents are resistant to proteolytic degradation. These results may lead to the development of a new class of antimicrobial foldamers combating emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  2. An Antimicrobial Susceptibility Management System

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, James J.; O'Donnell, Edward D.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized system is described which is used to store, manipulate and retrieve antimicrobial susceptibility data in the clinical microbiology lab. Features include facilitated input of susceptibility data, rapid generation of reports, realtime access to data, and enhanced retrieval of information for Infection Control.

  3. Investigational Antimicrobial Agents of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel β-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Bryum argenteum.

    PubMed

    Sabovljevic, Aneta; Sokovic, Marina; Sabovljevic, Marko; Grubisic, Dragoljub

    2006-02-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Bryum argenteum ethanol extracts was evaluated by microdilution method against four bacterial (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Staphilococcus aureus) and four fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium ochrochloron, Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophyes). All the investigated ethanol extracts have been proved to be active against all bacteria and fungi tested.

  5. Trends in antibiotic susceptibility of bloodstream pathogens in hospitalized patients in France, 1996 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Lamy, Brigitte; Pina, Patrick; Allouch, Pierre Yves

    2010-03-01

    Nationwide surveys of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from bloodstream infections are required to fit empiric therapy to recent trends and detect emerging resistance. We report the results of a French national prospective survey based on the College of Bacteriology-Virology and Hygiene study group network performed each October during the 1996 to 2007 period, with focus on Enterobacteriaceae (7708 isolates) and Staphylococcus aureus (2271 isolates). The most relevant antimicrobial susceptibilities trends were i) a decrease in fluoroquinolones susceptibility among Enterobacteriaceae (96-90%, P < 0.0001) and Escherichia coli isolates (98-89%, P < 0.0001), respectively, ii) the slight but significant decrease in cefotaxime susceptibility among E. coli (P = 0.016), and iii) the significant increase in gentamicin susceptibility among S. aureus strains (P = 0.016). This survey reports antibiotic susceptibility of bloodstream pathogens in France. The empiric use of fluoroquinolones in severe infections should be cautiously monitored by thorough clinical and microbiologic follow-up.

  6. Trends in antimicrobial resistance in equine bacterial isolates: 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Johns, I C; Adams, E-L

    2015-03-28

    This study aimed to identify changing antimicrobial resistance patterns in isolates commonly obtained from equine clinical submissions. Laboratory records from 1999 to 2012 were searched for equine samples from which Escherichia coli or Streptococcus species was isolated. Susceptibility to enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, gentamicin, penicillin G, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMPS) and tetracyclines was noted. Isolates were divided into those identified between 1999 and 2004 (Early) and between 2007 and 2012 (Late). The proportion of isolates resistant to each antimicrobial and multiple drug-resistant (MDR) isolates (≥3 antimicrobial classes) was compared between time periods. There were 464 isolates identified (242 Early; 222 Late). A significant increase in the percentage of E coli isolates resistant to ceftiofur (7.3-22.7 per cent, P=0.002), gentamicin (28.5-53.9 per cent, P<0.001), tetracyclines (48.4-74.2 per cent, P=0.002) and MDR (26.6-49.4 per cent, P=0.007) was identified. There was a significant increase over time in the percentage of all streptococcal species resistant to enrofloxacin, ranging from 0 per cent (Early) up to 63 per cent (Late) depending on species. For Streptococcus zooepidemicus, resistance over time to tetracyclines and MDR increased. There was also a decrease in the proportion of S zooepidemicus resistant to TMPS over time. An increase in resistance over time of common equine pathogens to a number of commonly used antimicrobials supports the responsible use of antimicrobials.

  7. Access to effective antimicrobials: a worldwide challenge.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Matsoso, Precious; Pant, Suraj; Brower, Charles; Røttingen, John-Arne; Klugman, Keith; Davies, Sally

    2016-01-09

    Recent years have seen substantial improvements in life expectancy and access to antimicrobials, especially in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, but increasing pathogen resistance to antimicrobials threatens to roll back this progress. Resistant organisms in health-care and community settings pose a threat to survival rates from serious infections, including neonatal sepsis and health-care-associated infections, and limit the potential health benefits from surgeries, transplants, and cancer treatment. The challenge of simultaneously expanding appropriate access to antimicrobials, while restricting inappropriate access, particularly to expensive, newer generation antimicrobials, is unique in global health and requires new approaches to financing and delivering health care and a one-health perspective on the connections between pathogen transmission in animals and humans. Here, we describe the importance of effective antimicrobials. We assess the disease burden caused by limited access to antimicrobials, attributable to resistance to antimicrobials, and the potential effect of vaccines in restricting the need for antibiotics.

  8. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter in broiler flocks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haruna, M; Sasaki, Y; Murakami, M; Ikeda, A; Kusukawa, M; Tsujiyama, Y; Ito, K; Asai, T; Yamada, Y

    2012-06-01

    Campylobacter was isolated from 67 (47.2%) of 142 broiler flocks between September 2009 and February 2010. The prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks was significantly lower during January and February than it was from September to December. Campylobacter colonization was more common in flocks that were not provided with a disinfected water supply, which was consistent with the findings of a previous study. The prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. was investigated, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of eight antimicrobial agents were determined for 122 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 46 Campylobacter coli isolates from broiler flocks between 2007 and 2010. In this study, 29.5% (36/122) of C. jejuni isolates and 41.3% (19/46) of C. coli isolates were resistant to enrofloxacin (ERFX), whereas all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. Furthermore, the ERFX-resistant isolates were tested for susceptibility to other classes of antimicrobial agents, and 55.6% (20/36) of ERFX-resistant C. jejuni isolates and 47.4% (9/19) of ERFX-resistant C. coli isolates were resistant to at least one of aminobenzyl penicillin, dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline. To avoid an impact of antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. on the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for human campylobacteriosis, prudent use of antimicrobial agents is a requisite. The use of antimicrobial agents should be accompanied by various approaches such as prevention of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks with the aim of lowering the occurrence of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  10. Bacterial cell division proteins as antibiotic targets.

    PubMed

    den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Andreu, José M; Monasterio, Octavio

    2014-08-01

    Proteins involved in bacterial cell division often do not have a counterpart in eukaryotic cells and they are essential for the survival of the bacteria. The genetic accessibility of many bacterial species in combination with the Green Fluorescence Protein revolution to study localization of proteins and the availability of crystal structures has increased our knowledge on bacterial cell division considerably in this century. Consequently, bacterial cell division proteins are more and more recognized as potential new antibiotic targets. An international effort to find small molecules that inhibit the cell division initiating protein FtsZ has yielded many compounds of which some are promising as leads for preclinical use. The essential transglycosylase activity of peptidoglycan synthases has recently become accessible to inhibitor screening. Enzymatic assays for and structural information on essential integral membrane proteins such as MraY and FtsW involved in lipid II (the peptidoglycan building block precursor) biosynthesis have put these proteins on the list of potential new targets. This review summarises and discusses the results and approaches to the development of lead compounds that inhibit bacterial cell division.

  11. Energy Technology Division research summary -- 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Research funded primarily by the NRC is directed toward assessing the roles of cyclic fatigue, intergranular stress corrosion cracking, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking on failures in light water reactor (LWR) piping systems, pressure vessels, and various core components. In support of the fast reactor program, the Division has responsibility for fuel-performance modeling and irradiation testing. The Division has major responsibilities in several design areas of the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The Division supports the DOE in ensuring safe shipment of nuclear materials by providing extensive review of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs). Finally, in the nuclear area they are investigating the safe disposal of spent fuel and waste. In work funded by DOE`s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the high-temperature superconductivity program continues to be a major focal point for industrial interactions. Coatings and lubricants developed in the division`s Tribology Section are intended for use in transportation systems of the future. Continuous fiber ceramic composites are being developed for high-performance heat engines. Nondestructive testing techniques are being developed to evaluate fiber distribution and to detect flaws. A wide variety of coatings for corrosion protection of metal alloys are being studied. These can increase lifetimes significant in a wide variety of coal combustion and gasification environments.

  12. Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY83

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the annual reports of the Nuclear Chemistry Division is to provide a timely summary of research activities pursued by members of the Division during the preceding year. Throughout, details are kept to a minimum; readers desiring additional information are encouraged to read the referenced documents or contact the authors. The Introduction presents an overview of the Division's scientific and technical programs. Next is a section of short articles describing recent upgrades of the Division's major facilities, followed by sections highlighting scientific and technical advances. These are grouped under the following sections: nuclear explosives diagnostics; geochemistry and environmental sciences; safeguards technology and radiation effect; and supporting fundamental science. A brief overview introduces each section. Reports on research supported by a particular program are generally grouped together in the same section. The last section lists the scientific, administrative, and technical staff in the Division, along with visitors, consultants, and postdoctoral fellows. It also contains a list of recent publications and presentations. Some contributions to the annual report are classified and only their abstracts are included in this unclassified portion of the report (UCAR-10062-83/1); the full article appears in the classified portion (UCAR-10062-83/2).

  13. Structural perspectives on antimicrobial chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Leonard T.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2012-01-01

    Chemokines are best known as signaling proteins in the immune system. Recently however, a large number of human chemokines have been shown to exert direct antimicrobial activity. This moonlighting activity appears to be related to the net high positive charge of these immune signaling proteins. Chemokines can be divided into distinct structural elements and some of these have been studied as isolated peptide fragments that can have their own antimicrobial activity. Such peptides often encompass the α-helical region found at the C-terminal end of the parent chemokines, which, similar to other antimicrobial peptides, adopt a well-defined membrane-bound amphipathic structure. Because of their relatively small size, intact chemokines can be studied effectively by NMR spectroscopy to examine their structures in solution. In addition, NMR relaxation experiments of intact chemokines can provide detailed information about the intrinsic dynamic behavior; such analyses have helped for example to understand the activity of TC-1, an antimicrobial variant of CXCL7/NAP-2. With chemokine dimerization and oligomerization influencing their functional properties, the use of NMR diffusion experiments can provide information about monomer-dimer equilibria in solution. Furthermore, NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments can be used to map out the interface between self-associating subunits. Moreover, the unusual case of XCL1/lymphotactin presents a chemokine that can interconvert between two distinct folds in solution, both of which have been elucidated. Finally, recent advances have allowed for the determination of the structures of chemokines in complex with glycosaminoglycans, a process that could interfere with their antimicrobial activity. Taken together, these studies highlight several different structural facets that contribute to the way in which chemokines exert their direct microbicidal actions. PMID:23293636

  14. Section III, Division 5 - Development And Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, Dana K.; Jetter, Robert I; Nestell, James E.; Burchell, Timothy D; Sham, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides commentary on a new division under Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code. This new Division 5 has an issuance date of November 1, 2011 and is part of the 2011 Addenda to the 2010 Edition of the BPV Code. The new Division covers the rules for the design, fabrication, inspection and testing of components for high temperature nuclear reactors. Information is provided on the scope and need for Division 5, the structure of Division 5, where the rules originated, the various changes made in finalizing Division 5, and the future near-term and long-term expectations for Division 5 development.

  15. Home Advantage in Men's and Women's Spanish First and Second Division Water Polo Leagues.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Jaime; Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Pollard, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the home advantage in both men's and women's First and Second Division water polo leagues, to compare the results obtained according to sex of participants and the level of competition, and to test for possible differences in home advantage when considering the interaction between these two factors. The sample comprised four seasons from 2007-2008 to 2010-2011 for a total of 1942 games analyzed. The results showed the existence of home advantage in both men's and women's First and Second Divisions. After controlling for the competitive balance of each league in each season, there was a significant difference between men's and women's leagues, with higher home advantage for men's leagues (58.60% compared with 53.70% for women's leagues). There was also a significant difference between the levels of competition, with greater home advantage for the Second Division (57.95% compared with 54.35% for First Division). No significant differences in home advantage were found when considering the interaction between sex of participants and the level of competition. The results in relation to sex of participants and the level of competition are consistent with previous studies in other sports such as football or handball.

  16. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  17. Biology Division progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.; Cook, J.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Progress Report summarizes the research endeavors of the Biology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the period October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1993. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the Division`s major organizational units. Lists of information to convey the entire scope of the Division`s activities are compiled at the end of the report.

  18. Division V: Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Mercedes T.; Rucinski, Slavek; Bradstreet, David H.; Harmanec, Petr; Kaluzny, Janusz; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Munari, Ulisse; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Olah, Katalin; Pribulla, Theodor; Scarfe, Colin D.; Torres, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    Commission 42 (C42) co-organized, together with Commission 27 (C27) and Division V (Div V) as a whole, a full day of science and business sessions that were held on 24 August 2012. The program included time slots for discussion of business matters related to Div V, C27 and C42, and two sessions of 2 hours each devoted to science talks of interest to both C42 and C27. In addition, we had a joint session between Div IV and Div V motivated by the proposal to reformulate the division structure of the IAU and the possible merger of the two divisions into a new Div G. The current report gives an account of the matters discussed during the business session of C42.

  19. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    CMT is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. It conducts R&D in 3 general areas: development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, materials chemistry of electrified interfaces and molecular sieves, and the theory of materials properties. It also operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at ANL and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1996 are presented.

  20. Cell Division and Evolution of Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivier, Nicolas; Arcenegui-Siemens, Xavier; Schliecker, Gudrun

    A tissue is a geometrical, space-filling, random cellular network; it remains in this steady state while individual cells divide. Cell division (fragmentation) is a local, elementary topological transformation which establishes statistical equilibrium of the structure. Statistical equilibrium is characterized by observable relations (Lewis, Aboav) between cell shapes, sizes and those of their neighbours, obtained through maximum entropy and topological correlation extending to nearest neighbours only, i.e. maximal randomness. For a two-dimensional tissue (epithelium), the distribution of cell shapes and that of mother and daughter cells can be obtained from elementary geometrical and physical arguments, except for an exponential factor favouring division of larger cells, and exponential and combinatorial factors encouraging a most symmetric division. The resulting distributions are very narrow, and stationarity severely restricts the range of an adjustable structural parameter

  1. The centrosome and asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric stem cell division is a mechanism widely employed by the cell to maintain tissue homeostasis, resulting in the production of one stem cell and one differentiating cell. However, asymmetric cell division is not limited to stem cells and is widely observed even in unicellular organisms as well as in cells that make up highly complex tissues. In asymmetric cell division, cells must organize their intracellular components along the axis of asymmetry (sometimes in the context of extracellular architecture). Recent studies have described cell asymmetry in many cell types and in many cases such asymmetry involves the centrosome (or spindle pole body in yeast) as the center of cytoskeleton organization. In this review, I summarize recent discoveries in cellular polarity that lead to an asymmetric outcome, with a focus on centrosome function. PMID:19458491

  2. Family division in China's transitional economy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feinian

    2009-03-01

    Using a longitudinal data-set (the China Health and Nutrition Survey) we explored the effect of various economic factors, including household wealth, employment sector, and involvement in a household business on the division of extended families in China's transitional economy. Results from event history analyses suggest that these economic factors act as either a dividing or a unifying force on the extended family. Household wealth reduces the risk of family division, but the effect is weaker for families in which parents have upper secondary education. In addition, an extended family is more likely to divide when married children work in the state sector. Further, the probability of family division is higher in families where daughters-in-law work in the state sector than in those with sons in this sector. Finally, involvement in a household business for married children increases family stability.

  3. The Astrophysics Science Division Annual Report 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, William; Reddy, Francis; Tyler, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The Astrophysics Science Division (ASD) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is one of the largest and most diverse astrophysical organizations in the world, with activities spanning a broad range of topics in theory, observation, and mission and technology development. Scientific research is carried out over the entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays to radio wavelengths as well as particle physics and gravitational radiation. Members of ASD also provide the scientific operations for three orbiting astrophysics missions WMAP, RXTE, and Swift, as well as the Science Support Center for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. A number of key technologies for future missions are also under development in the Division, including X-ray mirrors, and new detectors operating at gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, and radio wavelengths. This report includes the Division's activities during 2008.

  4. Moonlet Wakes in Saturn's Cassini Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, L. J.; Showalter, M. R.

    1997-07-01

    We have detected several features with wavelike characteristics in the Voyager Radio Science (RSS) earth occultation data and Voyager photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data of Saturn's Cassini Division. We identified these structures using a non-linear autoregressive power spectral algorithm called Burg. This method is powerful for detecting short sections of quasiperiodic structure. We successfully used this same technique to identify six previously unseen Pan wakes in the Voyager PPS and Voyager RSS occultation data (Horn, Showalter and Russell, 1996, {/it Icarus} {/bf 124}, 663). Applying the Burg technique to the RSS data we find a number of wavelike structures in the Cassini Division. We see three distinct features that look like moonlet wakes. Two are Cassini Division features detected by Marouf and Tyler (1986, {/it Nature} {/bf 323}, 120) in the Voyager RSS data. Flynn and Cuzzi (1989, {/it Icarus} {/bf 82}, 180) determined that these features were azimuthally symmetric in the Voyager images and were most likely not moonlet wakes. The third wavelike structure resembles an outer moonlet wake. If it is a wake it may correspond to a previously undetected moonlet located in a Cassini Division gap between 118,929 km and 118,966 km. We see at least one wavelike feature in the PPS data. This feature falls close to the outer edge of the Huygens gap in the Cassini Division. It is consistent with an outer moonlet wake. If it is a wake it may correspond to a previously undetected moonlet inside the Huygens gap. Several other wavelike features in the Cassini Division resemble moonlet wakes. We plan to pursue these structures further in the future. This work was performed at JPL/Caltech under contract with NASA.

  5. Division XII: Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus, N. N.; Yamaoka, H.; Gilmore, A. C.; Aksnes, K.; Green, D. W. E.; Marsden, B. G.; Nakano, S.; Lara, Martin; Pitjeva, Elena V.; Sphar, T.; Ticha, J.; Williams, G.

    2015-08-01

    IAU Commission 6 ``Astronomical Telegrams'' had a single business meeting during the Beijing General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Friday, August 24, 2012. The meeting was attended by five C6 members (N. N. Samus; D. W. E. Green; S. Nakano; J. Ticha; and H. Yamaoka). Also present was Prof. F. Genova as a representative of the IAU Division B. She told the audience about the current restructuring of IAU Commissions and Divisions and consequences for the future of C6.

  6. Life Sciences Division annual report, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, B.L.; Cram, L.S.

    1989-04-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Life Sciences Division for the calendar year 1988. Technical reports related to the current status of projects are presented in sufficient detail to permit the informed reader to assess their scope and significance. Summaries useful to the casual reader desiring general information have been prepared by the Group Leaders and appear in each group overview. Investigators on the staff of the Life Sciences Division will be pleased to provide further information.

  7. Website for the Space Science Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, James; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Science Division at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to research in astrophysics, exobiology, advanced life support technologies, and planetary science. These research programs are structured around Astrobiology (the study of life in the universe and the chemical and physical forces and adaptions that influence life's origin, evolution, and destiny), and address some of the most fundamental questions pursued by science. These questions examine the origin of life and our place in the universe. Ames is recognized as a world leader in Astrobiology. In pursuing our mission in Astrobiology, Space Science Division scientists perform pioneering basic research and technology development.

  8. Quantum internet using code division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-xi; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Gao, Feifei; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2013-01-01

    A crucial open problem inS large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels.

  9. Quantum internet using code division multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-Xi; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Gao, Feifei; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2013-07-01

    A crucial open problem inS large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels.

  10. Quantum internet using code division multiple access

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-xi; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Gao, Feifei; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2013-01-01

    A crucial open problem inS large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels. PMID:23860488

  11. Prevalence of mcr-1 in commensal Escherichia coli from French livestock, 2007 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès; Bruneau, Mireille; Houée, Pamela; Deleurme, Karine; Legrandois, Patricia; Poirier, Catherine; Soumet, Christophe; Sanders, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Colistin resistance was investigated in 1,696 isolates collected from 2007 to 2014 within the frame of the French livestock antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme. The mcr-1 gene was detected in all commensal Escherichia coli isolates with a minimum inhibitory concentration to colistin above the 2 mg/L cut-off value (n=23). In poultry, mcr-1 prevalence was 5.9% in turkeys and 1.8% in broilers in 2014. In pigs, investigated in 2013, this prevalence did not exceed 0.5%. These findings support that mcr-1 has spread in French livestock.

  12. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Lilian M.; Hooton, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:27025743

  13. Obituary: Ian R. Bartky, 1934-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Ian Robertson Bartky, a physical chemist who turned to history for his second career, died 18 December 2007 of complications from lung cancer. He was 73. In addition to his scientific career, he will be remembered for his meticulous research on the evolution of time systems, especially for his two books Selling the True Time: Nineteenth Century Timekeeping in America (Stanford University Press, 2000), and One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (Stanford University Press, 2007). Ian was born on 15 March 1934 in Chicago, Illinois. He was the son of Walter Bartky, a Professor of Astronomy at the University of Chicago, and eventually its Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences. The elder Bartky's astronomy textbook, Highlights of Astronomy, published in 1935 and reprinted as late as 1964, includes a considerable discussion of time and standard meridians, which may have influenced Ian, even though his father died in 1958 at the age of 57 when Ian would have been only in his early 20s. Imbued with the love of science from his father, Ian graduated from Illinois Institute of Technology, and went on to obtain his doctorate in physical chemistry from the University of California Berkeley. He mentor was Nobelist William F. Giauque, and Ian always spoke fondly of Giauque's influence in setting rigorous standards that Ian followed when he joined the National Bureau of Standards [NBS] in 1961. Ian spent most of his career there, and it was there that he acquired his professional interest in time, notably when the House Commerce Committee asked him in the mid-1970s to determine whether the dates of Daylight Saving Time should be extended. This resulted in an NBS report in 1976, which concluded that any energy savings would be miniscule. With his usual attention to detail, Ian researched the entire history of the problem, and thus acquired his second great love after science--history. With Elizabeth Harrison he published a well-known article on the issues

  14. ESO PR Highlights in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Another great year went by for ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. From 1 January 2007, with the official joining of the Czech Republic, ESO has 13 member states, and since September, ESO has a new Director General, Tim de Zeeuw (ESO 03/07 and 38/07). Many scientific discoveries were made possible with ESO's telescopes. Arguably, the most important is the discovery of the first Earth-like planet in the habitable zone of a low-mass red dwarf (ESO 22/07). If there is water on this planet, then it should be liquid! ESO PR Highlights 2007 This is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2007. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2007 page. In our own Solar System also, astronomers made stunning breakthroughs with ESO's telescopes, observing the effect of the light from the Sun on an asteroid's rotation (ESO 11/07), describing in unprecedented detail the double asteroid Antiope (ESO 18/07), peering at the rings of Uranus (ESO 37/07), discovering a warm south pole on Neptune (ESO 41/07), showing a widespread and persistent morning drizzle of methane over the western foothills of Titan's major continent (ESO 47/07), and studying in the greatest details the wonderful Comet McNaught (ESO 05/07 and 07/07). In the study of objects slightly more massive than planets, the VLT found that brown dwarfs form in a similar manner to normal stars (ESO 24/07). The VLT made it also possible to measure the age of a fossil star that was clearly born at the dawn of time (ESO 23/07). Other discoveries included reconstructing the site of a flare on a solar-like star (ESO 53/07), catching a star smoking (ESO 34/07), revealing a reservoir of dust around an elderly star (ESO 43/07), uncovering a flat, nearly edge-on disc of silicates in the heart of the magnificent Ant Nebula (ESO 42/07), finding material around a star before it exploded (ESO 31/07), fingerprinting the Milky Way (ESO 15/07), revealing a rich

  15. Effects of new penicillin susceptibility breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae--United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    2008-12-19

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a common cause of pneumonia and meningitis in the United States. Antimicrobial resistance, which can result in pneumococcal infection treatment failure, is identified by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimicrobial that will inhibit pneumococcal growth. Breakpoints are MICs that define infections as susceptible (treatable), intermediate (possibly treatable with higher doses), and resistant (not treatable) to certain antimicrobials. In January 2008, after a reevaluation that included more recent clinical studies, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) published new S. pneumoniae breakpoints for penicillin (the preferred antimicrobial for susceptible S. pneumoniae infections). To assess the potential effects of the new breakpoints on susceptibility categorization, CDC applied them to MICs of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) system at sites in 10 states during 2006-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that the percentage of IPD nonmeningitis S. pneumoniae isolates categorized as susceptible, intermediate, and resistant to penicillin changed from 74.7%, 15.0%, and 10.3% under the former breakpoints to 93.2%, 5.6%, and 1.2%, respectively, under the new breakpoints. Microbiology laboratories should be aware of the new breakpoints to interpret pneumococcal susceptibility accurately, and clinicians should be aware of the breakpoints to prescribe antimicrobials appropriately for pneumococcal infections. State and local health departments also should be aware of the new breakpoints because they might result in a decrease in the number of reported cases of penicillin-resistant pneumococcus.

  16. The antimicrobial polymer PHMB enters cells and selectively condenses bacterial chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Chindera, Kantaraja; Mahato, Manohar; Kumar Sharma, Ashwani; Horsley, Harry; Kloc-Muniak, Klaudia; Kamaruzzaman, Nor Fadhilah; Kumar, Satish; McFarlane, Alexander; Stach, Jem; Bentin, Thomas; Good, Liam

    2016-01-01

    To combat infection and antimicrobial resistance, it is helpful to elucidate drug mechanism(s) of action. Here we examined how the widely used antimicrobial polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) kills bacteria selectively over host cells. Contrary to the accepted model of microbial membrane disruption by PHMB, we observed cell entry into a range of bacterial species, and treated bacteria displayed cell division arrest and chromosome condensation, suggesting DNA binding as an alternative antimicrobial mechanism. A DNA-level mechanism was confirmed by observations that PHMB formed nanoparticles when mixed with isolated bacterial chromosomal DNA and its effects on growth were suppressed by pairwise combination with the DNA binding ligand Hoechst 33258. PHMB also entered mammalian cells, but was trapped within endosomes and excluded from nuclei. Therefore, PHMB displays differential access to bacterial and mammalian cellular DNA and selectively binds and condenses bacterial chromosomes. Because acquired resistance to PHMB has not been reported, selective chromosome condensation provides an unanticipated paradigm for antimicrobial action that may not succumb to resistance. PMID:26996206

  17. The antimicrobial polymer PHMB enters cells and selectively condenses bacterial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Chindera, Kantaraja; Mahato, Manohar; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Horsley, Harry; Kloc-Muniak, Klaudia; Kamaruzzaman, Nor Fadhilah; Kumar, Satish; McFarlane, Alexander; Stach, Jem; Bentin, Thomas; Good, Liam

    2016-03-21

    To combat infection and antimicrobial resistance, it is helpful to elucidate drug mechanism(s) of action. Here we examined how the widely used antimicrobial polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) kills bacteria selectively over host cells. Contrary to the accepted model of microbial membrane disruption by PHMB, we observed cell entry into a range of bacterial species, and treated bacteria displayed cell division arrest and chromosome condensation, suggesting DNA binding as an alternative antimicrobial mechanism. A DNA-level mechanism was confirmed by observations that PHMB formed nanoparticles when mixed with isolated bacterial chromosomal DNA and its effects on growth were suppressed by pairwise combination with the DNA binding ligand Hoechst 33258. PHMB also entered mammalian cells, but was trapped within endosomes and excluded from nuclei. Therefore, PHMB displays differential access to bacterial and mammalian cellular DNA and selectively binds and condenses bacterial chromosomes. Because acquired resistance to PHMB has not been reported, selective chromosome condensation provides an unanticipated paradigm for antimicrobial action that may not succumb to resistance.

  18. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2007 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2007 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2009-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Desriac, Florie; Jégou, Camille; Balnois, Eric; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs. PMID:24084784

  2. Trial NCT02063698 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division`s research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth`s crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989 a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will in the coming years be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  4. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  5. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division, 1989 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Willard S., Ed.

    This report documents research and development performed by principal investigators under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division during fiscal year 1989. Programs are conducted under contracts and grants awarded on the basis of proposals received in response to a Broad Agency Announcement in the…

  6. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division, 1988 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Willard S., Ed.

    The research and development efforts performed by principal investigators under sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division during 1988 are documented. The title, name and affiliation of the principal investigator, project code, contract number, current end date, technical objective, approach, and progress of…

  7. Trial NCT02028221 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Trial NCT02636582 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Trial NCT01550783 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Trial NCT02780401 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Trial NCT02155777 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Trial NCT02382419 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Trial NCT01935960 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Trial NCT02134925 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Annalisa Gnoleba, MSA | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Mrs. Annalisa Gnoleba is the Public Health Analyst for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute. In this position, Mrs. Gnoleba serves as the analyst for developing and formulating short and long range public health program goals, objectives and policies. |

  16. Trial NCT02568566 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Clinical Trials Node | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Origins of the Sexual Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Lila

    An interactive, biosocial model of early hominids presents evidence that physical sex differences are not the basis for the sexual division of labor as is commonly believed. Production (the deliberate collection and distribution of food) developed among early hominids as a prerequisite for survival. Although the population appears to have had…

  19. Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.J.; Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, A.B.; Cummins, R.L.; Reeves, M.E.; Hylton, T.D.

    1990-07-01

    This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Activities of the Solid State Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, P. H.; Hinton, L. W.

    1994-08-01

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. This research effort was enhanced by new capabilities in atomic-scale materials characterization, new emphasis on the synthesis and processing of materials, and increased partnering with industry and universities. The theoretical effort included a broad range of analytical studies, as well as a new emphasis on numerical simulation stimulated by advances in high-performance computing and by strong interest in related division experimental programs. Superconductivity research continued to advance on a broad front from fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity to the development of new materials and processing techniques. The Neutron Scattering Program was characterized by a strong scientific user program and growing diversity represented by new initiatives in complex fluids and residual stress. The national emphasis on materials synthesis and processing was mirrored in division research programs in thin-film processing, surface modification, and crystal growth. Research on advanced processing techniques such as laser ablation, ion implantation, and plasma processing was complemented by strong programs in the characterization of materials and surfaces including ultrahigh resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic-resolution chemical analysis, synchrotron x-ray research, and scanning tunneling microscopy.

  1. Early Detection Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Shizuko Sei, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Shizuko Sei (formerly Shizuko Aoki) is a medical officer with over 27 years of translational and clinical research experience in the field of cancer and AIDS. After completing her pediatric oncology fellowship at NCI Center for Cancer Research (CCR), she held various positions in the CCR and Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD) before joining the DCP in July 2015. |

  3. Operational Momentum in Multiplication and Division?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Curren; Knops, André

    2014-01-01

    Biases are commonly seen in numerical cognition. The operational momentum (OM) effect shows that responses to addition and subtraction problems are biased in the whole-number direction of the operation. It is not known if this bias exists for other arithmetic operations. To determine whether OM exists in scalar operations, we measured response bias in adults performing symbolic (Arabic digits) and non-symbolic (dots) multiplication and division problems. After seeing two operands, with either a multiplication (×) or division (÷) sign, participants chose among five response choices. Both non-random performance profiles and the significant contribution of both operands in a multiple regression analysis predicting the chosen values, suggest that adults were able to use numerical information to approximate the outcomes in both notations, though they were more accurate on symbolic problems. Performance on non-symbolic problems was influenced by the size of the correct choice relative to alternatives. Reminiscent of the bias in addition and subtraction, we found a significant response bias for non-symbolic problems. Non-symbolic multiplication problems were overestimated and division problems were underestimated. These results indicate that operational momentum is present in non-symbolic multiplication and division. Given the influence of the size of the correct choice relative to alternatives, an interaction between heuristic bias and approximate calculation is possible. PMID:25121951

  4. Trial NCT02314156 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Mark Sherman, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Trial NCT01556243 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Trial NCT01824836 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Trial NCT01382082 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Trial NCT02116530 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Trial NCT01793233 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Trial NCT01346267 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Trial NCT02237183 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Trial NCT02169284 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Trial NCT02002533 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Trial NCT02052908 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Trial NCT02123849 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Trial NCT00983580 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Trial NCT02365480 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Trial NCT02348203 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Trial NCT02169271 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Trial NCT02273362 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Trial NCT02521285 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Trial NCT01950403 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Funded Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Staff Directory | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Division Reports from the 2005 AECT Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association for Educational Communication & Technology held its International Convention in Orlando, Florida, October 18-22, 2005. The convention theme was "Exploring the Vision". Division report highlights include: (1) Reflections on a Convention: A Vision Explored (Wes Miller); (2) Definition and Terminology Committee (Al…

  7. Acoustics Division recent accomplishments and research plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. R.; Morgan, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    The research program currently being implemented by the Acoustics Division of NASA Langley Research Center is described. The scope, focus, and thrusts of the research are discussed and illustrated for each technical area by examples of recent technical accomplishments. Included is a list of publications for the last two calendar years. The organization, staff, and facilities are also briefly described.

  8. Howard Parnes, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Bacterial cell division and the septal ring.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David S

    2004-11-01

    Cell division in bacteria is mediated by the septal ring, a collection of about a dozen (known) proteins that localize to the division site, where they direct assembly of the division septum. The foundation of the septal ring is a polymer of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ. Recently, experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching have revealed that the Z ring is extremely dynamic. FtsZ subunits exchange in and out of the ring on a time scale of seconds even while the overall morphology of the ring appears static. These findings, together with in vitro studies of purified FtsZ, suggest that the rate-limiting step in turnover of FtsZ polymers is GTP hydrolysis. Another component of the septal ring, FtsK, is involved in coordinating chromosome segregation with cell division. Recent studies have revealed that FtsK is a DNA translocase that facilitates decatenation of sister chromosomes by TopIV and resolution of chromosome dimers by the XerCD recombinase. Finally, two murein hydrolases, AmiC and EnvC, have been shown to localize to the septal ring of Escherichia coli, where they play an important role in separation of daughter cells.

  10. Dean's Great Discovery: Multiplication, Division and Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Davies, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Multiplication, division and fractions are "hotspots" for students in the middle years with many students experiencing difficulty with these concepts. Arrays effectively model multiplication and help children develop multiplicative thinking and learn multiplication facts. In this article the authors show how an open-ended array problem…

  11. Trial NCT00917735 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Biometry Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Trial NCT00690924 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Sarah Temkin, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. 2017 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Kara Smigel Croker | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Kara Smigel Croker is the Communications Manager for the National Cancer Institute Division of Cancer Prevention. She coordinates and supports all aspects of communication, including media contacts, writing and editing of reports and responses, divisional websites, and social media. |

  18. Trial NCT02095145 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Trial NCT02326805 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Administrative Resource Center | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  2. Trial NCT01781468 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Academic Achievement of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…

  4. Shizuko Sei, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Chemical Biodynamics Division. Annual report 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Chemical Biodynamics Division of LBL continues to conduct basic research on the dynamics of living cells and on the interaction of radiant energy with organic matter. Many aspects of this basic research are related to problems of environmental and health effects of fossil fuel combustion, solar energy conversion and chemical/ viral carcinogenesis.

  6. 7 CFR 29.16 - Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Division. 29.16 Section 29.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  7. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  8. Background Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints. |

  9. Thursday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    TimeAgenda8:30 am - 8:50 amRegistration - Networking8:50 am - 8:55 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group |

  10. Advanced concepts and missions division publications, 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This report is part of a series of annual papers on Advanced Concepts and Missions Division (ACMD) publications. It contains a bibliography and corresponding abstract of all papers presented or published by personnel of ACMD during the calendar year 1971. Also included are abstracts of final reports ACMD contracted studies perfomed during this time period.

  11. Nutritional Science Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Trial NCT01849250 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Trial NCT01141231 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Trial NCT01503632 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. 2014 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  17. Trial NCT01661764 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Trial NCT02112188 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Eva Szabo, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Keypad Geometry and Divisibility of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Frances; Keynes, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors show how students can form familiar geometric figures on the calculator keypad and generate numbers that are all divisible by a common number. Students are intrigued by the results and want to know "why it works". The activities can be presented and students given an extended amount of time to think about…

  1. Trial NCT01238172 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Trial NCT01391689 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Trial NCT02581137 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Trial NCT01594502 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Active Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Trial NCT01968798 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Trial NCT01169259 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. News Archives | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. 2016 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. 2013 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. 2015 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. King County Division of Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the King County Division of Parks and Recreation (Seattle, Washington) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

  14. Leslie Ford, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Trial NCT01728571 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Trial NCT00392561 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Easy come-easy go divisible cash

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Tsiounis, Y.; Frankel, Y.

    1996-10-16

    Recently, there has been an interest in making electronic cash protocols more practical for electronic commerce by developing e-cash which is divisible (e.g., a coin which can be spent incrementally but total purchases are limited to the monetary value of the coin). In Crypto`95, T. Okamoto presented the first practical divisible, untraceable, off-line e-cash scheme, which requires only O(log N) computations for each of the withdrawal, payment and deposit procedures, where N = (total coin value)/(smallest divisible unit). However, Okamoto`s set-up procedure is quite inefficient (on the order of 4,000 multi-exponentiations and depending on the size of the RSA modulus). The authors formalize the notion of range-bounded commitment, originally used in Okamoto`s account establishment protocol, and present a very efficient instantiation which allows one to construct the first truly efficient divisible e-cash system. The scheme only requires the equivalent of one (1) exponentiation for set-up, less than 2 exponentiations for withdrawal and around 20 for payment, while the size of the coin remains about 300 Bytes. Hence, the withdrawal protocol is 3 orders of magnitude faster than Okamoto`s, while the rest of the system remains equally efficient, allowing for implementation in smart-cards. Similar to Okamoto`s, the scheme is based on proofs whose cryptographic security assumptions are theoretically clarified.

  18. Trial NCT02743364 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Trial NCT00641147 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Trial NCT00153816 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Trial NCT01606124 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Cancer Biomarkers Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Durable and Rechargeable Antimicrobial Textiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    manufacturing. Precision Fabrics has been ISO -registered to 9001 since 1993 and upgraded to 9001 -2008 in October 2009. Medetech anticipates working with PFG for...antimicrobial textiles have the potential to significantly improve the quality of infection control with soldiers and military healthcare personnel through... management of odor issues and textile related infections. The treated fabrics will provide long-lasting and rechargeable protection against bacteria

  4. Universal rules for division plane selection in plants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sabine

    2012-04-01

    Coordinated cell divisions and cell expansion are the key processes that command growth in all organisms. The orientation of cell divisions and the direction of cell expansion are critical for normal development. Symmetric divisions contribute to proliferation and growth, while asymmetric divisions initiate pattern formation and differentiation. In plants these processes are of particular importance since their cells are encased in cellulosic walls that determine their shape and lock their position within tissues and organs. Several recent studies have analyzed the relationship between cell shape and patterns of symmetric cell division in diverse organisms and employed biophysical and mathematical considerations to develop computer simulations that have allowed accurate prediction of cell division patterns. From these studies, a picture emerges that diverse biological systems follow simple universal rules of geometry to select their division planes and that the microtubule cytoskeleton takes a major part in sensing the geometric information and translates this information into a specific division outcome. In plant cells, the division plane is selected before mitosis, and spatial information of the division plane is preserved throughout division by the presence of reference molecules at a distinct region of the plasma membrane, the cortical division zone. The recruitment of these division zone markers occurs multiple times by several mechanisms, suggesting that the cortical division zone is a highly dynamic region.

  5. Energy Technology Division research summary 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-21

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book. This Overview highlights some major trends. Research related to the operational safety of commercial light water nuclear

  6. [Division of regulatory cellular systems (Lvov)].

    PubMed

    Kusen', S I

    1995-01-01

    Two departments of the A. V. Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine were founded in 1969 in Lviv. These were: the Department of Biochemistry of Cell Differentiation headed by Professor S. I. Kusen and Department of Regulation of Cellular Synthesis of Low Molecular Weight Compounds headed by Professor G. M. Shavlovsky. The Lviv Division of the A. V. Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine with Professor S. I. Kusen as its chief, was founded in 1974 on the basis of these departments and the Laboratory of Modelling of Regulatory Cellular Systems headed by Professor M. P. Derkach. The above mentioned laboratory which was not the structural unit obtained the status of Structural Laboratory of Cellular Biophysics in 1982 and was headed by O. A. Goida, Candidate of biological sciences. From 1983 the Laboratory of Correcting Therapy of Malignant Tumors and Hemoblastoses at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Chief--S. V. Ivasivka, Candidate of medical sciences) was included in the structure of the Division. That Laboratory was soon transformed into the Department of Carbohydrate Metabolism Regulation headed by Professor I. D. Holovatsky. In 1988 this Department was renamed into the Department of Glycoprotein Biochemistry and headed by M. D. Lutsik, Doctor of biological sciences. In 1982 one more Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics was founded at the Department of Regulation of Cellular Synthesis of Low Molecular Weight Compounds, in 1988 it was transformed into the Department of Biochemical Genetics (Chief--Professor A. A. Sibirny). In 1989 the Laboratory of Anion Transport was taken from A. V. Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine to Lviv Division of this Institute. This laboratory was headed by Professor M. M. Veliky. One more reorganization in the Division structure took place in 1994. The Department of

  7. Probabilistic Model of Microbial Cell Growth, Division, and Mortality ▿

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Joseph; Normand, Mark D.; Corradini, Maria G.; Peleg, Micha

    2010-01-01

    After a short time interval of length δt during microbial growth, an individual cell can be found to be divided with probability Pd(t)δt, dead with probability Pm(t)δt, or alive but undivided with the probability 1 − [Pd(t) + Pm(t)]δt, where t is time, Pd(t) expresses the probability of division for an individual cell per unit of time, and Pm(t) expresses the probability of mortality per unit of time. These probabilities may change with the state of the population and the habitat's properties and are therefore functions of time. This scenario translates into a model that is presented in stochastic and deterministic versions. The first, a stochastic process model, monitors the fates of individual cells and determines cell numbers. It is particularly suitable for small populations such as those that may exist in the case of casual contamination of a food by a pathogen. The second, which can be regarded as a large-population limit of the stochastic model, is a continuous mathematical expression that describes the population's size as a function of time. It is suitable for large microbial populations such as those present in unprocessed foods. Exponential or logistic growth with or without lag, inactivation with or without a “shoulder,” and transitions between growth and inactivation are all manifestations of the underlying probability structure of the model. With temperature-dependent parameters, the model can be used to simulate nonisothermal growth and inactivation patterns. The same concept applies to other factors that promote or inhibit microorganisms, such as pH and the presence of antimicrobials, etc. With Pd(t) and Pm(t) in the form of logistic functions, the model can simulate all commonly observed growth/mortality patterns. Estimates of the changing probability parameters can be obtained with both the stochastic and deterministic versions of the model, as demonstrated with simulated data. PMID:19915038

  8. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  9. Antimicrobial hydrogels for the treatment of infection

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Ana Salomé; Schneider, Joel P.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of microbial infections, especially those associated with impaired wound healing and biomedical implant failure has spurred the development of new materials having antimicrobial activity. Hydrogels are a class of highly hydrated material finding use in diverse medical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, as wound fillers and as implant coatings, to name a few. The biocompatible nature of many gels make them a convenient starting platform to develop selectively active antimicrobial materials. Hydrogels with antimicrobial properties can be obtained through the encapsulation or covalent immobilization of known antimicrobial agents, or the material itself can be designed to possess inherent antimicrobial activity. In this review we present an overview of antimicrobial hydrogels that have recently been developed and when possible provide a discussion relevant to their mechanism of action. PMID:24122459

  10. Antimicrobial mechanisms of fish leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Aja M; Barreda, Daniel R

    2011-12-01

    Early activation and coordination of innate defenses are critical for effective responses against infiltrating pathogens. Rapid engagement of immune cells provides a critical first line of defense soon after pathogen infiltration. Activation leads to a well-orchestrated set of events that sees the induction and regulation of intracellular and extracellular antimicrobial defenses. An array of regulatory mediators, highly toxic soluble molecules, degradative enzymes and antimicrobial peptides provides maximal protection against a wide range of pathogens while limiting endogenous damage to host tissues. In this review we highlight recent advances in our understanding of innate cellular antimicrobial responses of teleost fish and discuss their implications to cell survival, immunomodulation and death. The evolutionary conservation of these responses is a testament to their effectiveness against pathogen infiltration and their commitment to effective maintenance of host homeostasis. Importantly, recent developments in teleost fish systems have identified novel host defense strategies that may be unique to this lower vertebrate group or may point to previously unknown innate mechanisms that also play a significant role in higher vertebrate host immunity.

  11. Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Marjorie Murphy

    1999-01-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and “leads” which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations. PMID:10515903

  12. Antimicrobial proteins of murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, P S; Eisenhauer, P B; Harwig, S S; van den Barselaar, M T; van Furth, R; Lehrer, R I

    1993-01-01

    Three murine microbicidal proteins (MUMPs) were purified from cells of the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 that had been activated by gamma interferon. Similar proteins were also present in nonactivated RAW264.7 cells, in cells of the murine macrophage cell line J774A.1, and in resident and activated murine peritoneal macrophages. MUMP-1, MUMP-2, and MUMP-3 killed Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. MUMP-1 resembled an H1 histone but was unusual because its N-terminal residue (serine) was not N acetylated. Although MUMP-2 was N terminally blocked, its high lysine/arginine ratio and its reactivity with an antibody to H1 histones suggested that it also belonged to the H1 histone family. MUMP-3 was identical to histone H2B in 30 of 30 amino-terminal residues. Although the antimicrobial properties of histones have been recognized for decades, this is the first evidence that such proteins may endow the lysosomal apparatus of macrophages with nonoxidative antimicrobial potential. Other MUMPs, including some with a more restricted antimicrobial spectrum and one that appeared to be induced in RAW264.7 cells after gamma interferon stimulation, were noted but remain to be characterized. Images PMID:8514411

  13. Antimicrobial Peptides Under Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Greber, Katarzyna E; Dawgul, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Today microbial drug resistance has become a serious problem not only within inpatient setting but also within outpatient setting. Repeated intake and unnecessary usage of antibiotics as well as the transfer of resistance genes are the most important factors that make the microorganisms resistant to conventional antibiotics. A large number of antimicrobials successfully used for prophylaxis and therapeutic purposes have now become ineffective [1, 2]. Therefore, new molecules are being studied to be used in the treatment of various diseases. Some of these molecules are structural compounds based on a combination of peptides, for example, naturally occurring endogenous peptide antibiotics and their synthetic analogues or molecules designed de novo using QSAR (quantitative structureproperty relationships)-based methods [3]. Trying to exploit numerous advantages of antimicrobial peptides such as high potency and selectivity, broad range of targets, potentially low toxicity and low accumulation in tissues, pharmaceutical industry aims to develop them as commercially available drugs and appropriate clinical trials are being conducted [4]. In this paper we define clinical trials steps and describe current status of several antimicrobial peptides under clinical development as well as briefly depict peptide drug formulation.

  14. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    John W. Firor, a former Director of the High Altitude Observatory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and a founder of the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society, died of Alzheimer's disease in Pullman, Washington on November 5, 2007, he was 80. He was born in Athens Georgia on October 18, 1927, where his father was a professor of agricultural economics. John had an unusually diverse scientific career. His interest in physics and astrophysics began while serving in the army, during which time he was assigned to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he guarded highly radioactive materials (many have heard him describe how informal the protections were compared to later times). After his service he returned to college and graduated in physics from Georgia Tech in 1949. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1954, writing his thesis on cosmic rays under John Simpson. John Firor would later remark that: "If you needed cosmic rays to actually do anything, you are sunk." That thought, partly in jest, may help explain his motivation for moving to so many new scientific and management pursuits. John moved from cosmic ray physics to radio astronomy (particularly of the Sun) when he began work at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, where he remained until 1961. During this time, he met Walter Orr Roberts, then the Director of the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) in Boulder, Colorado. HAO was then affiliated with the University of Colorado. In 1959, a movement began to upgrade the atmospheric sciences in the United States by establishing a National Center, where the largest, most important atmospheric research problems could be addressed. Roberts became the first Director of NCAR, as well as the first president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the consortium of universities that was commissioned to manage and staff the new Center. HAO became a

  15. Wavelike Features in Saturn's Cassini Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, L. J.; Showalter, M. R.

    1998-09-01

    Saturn's Cassini Division contains a collection of wavelike features on a variety of spatial scales. We have detected a number of such features in the Voyager Radio Science (RSS) earth occultation data and Voyager Photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data of Saturn's Cassini Division. We used the same non-linear power spectral algorithm (Burg) that we successfully used to identify six previously unseen Pan wakes in the Voyager RSS and PPS occultation data (Horn, Showalter and Russell, 1996) and to characterize the spatial scales of irregular structure in Saturn's B ring (Horn and Cuzzi, 1996). Some of the features we detected have characteristics which are similar to moonlet wakes. From our fit of an outer moonlet wake in the RSS data we determined a possible location for a previously undetected satellite. However, the Voyager cameras never imaged this radial/longitudinal sector of the Cassini Division with sufficient resolution to detect a small moon. Other features are not fit well by moonlet wake or satellite wave models. One such feature resides around 118,500 km in the RSS data. If this feature represents an inner moonlet wake then a corresponding outer moonlet wake should also be present in the Cassini Division. No outer moonlet wake was detected in the RSS data over the appropriate set of radial distances. Two other such structures include the Cassini Division features detected by Marouf and Tyler (1986) in the RSS data and also detected in our analysis. Flynn and Cuzzi (1989) determined that these features were azimuthally symmetric in the Voyager images and were most likely not moonlet wakes. Some other mechanism may be responsible for these features. This work was performed at JPL/Caltech under contract with NASA.

  16. Physical Description of Mitotic Spindle Orientation During Cell Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Dalmaroni, Andrea; Théry, Manuel; Racine, Victor; Bornens, Michel; Jülicher, Frank

    2009-03-01

    During cell division, the duplicated chromosomes are physically separated by the action of the mitotic spindle. The spindle is a dynamic structure of the cytoskeleton, which consists of two microtubule asters. Its orientation defines the axis along which the cell divides. Recent experiments show that the spindle orientation depends on the spatial distribution of cell adhesion sites. Here we show that the experimentally observed spindle orientation can be understood as the result of the action of cortical force generators acting on the spindle. We assume that the local activity of force generators is controlled by the spatial distribution of cell adhesion sites determined by the particular geometry of the adhesive substrate. We develop a simple physical description of the spindle mechanics, which allows us to calculate the torque acting on the spindle, as well as the energy profile and the angular distribution of spindle orientation. Our model accounts for the preferred spindle orientation, as well as the full shape of the angular distributions of spindle orientation observed in a large variety of pattern geometries. M. Th'ery, A. Jim'enez-Dalmaroni, et al., Nature 447, 493 (2007).

  17. Antimicrobial polymer films for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concilio, S.; Piotto, S.; Sessa, L.; Iannelli, P.; Porta, A.; Calabrese, E. C.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2012-07-01

    New antimicrobial polymeric systems were realized introducing new antimicrobial azo compounds in PP and LDPE matrices. The polymeric materials containing different percentage of azo compounds were mold-casted and the obtained film were tested in vitro against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and fungi. These results hold promise for the fabrication of bacteria-resistant polymer films by means of simple melt processing with antimicrobial azo-dyes.

  18. Antimicrobial technology in orthopedic and spinal implants.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam Em; Haglin, Jack; Perera, Sudheesha; Brea, Bielinsky A; Ruttiman, Roy; Garcia, Dioscaris R; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-06-18

    Infections can hinder orthopedic implant function and retention. Current implant-based antimicrobial strategies largely utilize coating-based approaches in order to reduce biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion. Several emerging antimicrobial technologies that integrate a multidisciplinary combination of drug delivery systems, material science, immunology, and polymer chemistry are in development and early clinical use. This review outlines orthopedic implant antimicrobial technology, its current applications and supporting evidence, and clinically promising future directions.

  19. Insect inducible antimicrobial peptides and their applications.

    PubMed

    Ezzati-Tabrizi, Reyhaneh; Farrokhi, Naser; Talaei-Hassanloui, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseininaveh, Vahid

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found as important components of the innate immune system (host defense) of all invertebrates. These peptides can be constitutively expressed or induced in response to microbial infections. Indeed, they vary in their amino acid sequences, potency and antimicrobial activity spectra. The smaller AMPs act greatly by disrupting the structure or function of microbial cell membranes. Here, the insect innate immune system with emphasis on inducible antimicrobial peptide properties against microbial invaders has been discussed.

  20. Antimicrobial technology in orthopedic and spinal implants

    PubMed Central

    Eltorai, Adam EM; Haglin, Jack; Perera, Sudheesha; Brea, Bielinsky A; Ruttiman, Roy; Garcia, Dioscaris R; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-01-01

    Infections can hinder orthopedic implant function and retention. Current implant-based antimicrobial strategies largely utilize coating-based approaches in order to reduce biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion. Several emerging antimicrobial technologies that integrate a multidisciplinary combination of drug delivery systems, material science, immunology, and polymer chemistry are in development and early clinical use. This review outlines orthopedic implant antimicrobial technology, its current applications and supporting evidence, and clinically promising future directions. PMID:27335811

  1. Evaluation of the Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Chicken Carcasses in 2007 and 2013 from Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koga, Vanessa L; Rodrigues, Gabriela R; Scandorieiro, Sara; Vespero, Eliana C; Oba, Alexandre; de Brito, Benito G; de Brito, Kelly C T; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K T

    2015-06-01

    The frequent use of antimicrobials in commercial poultry production has raised concerns regarding the potential impact of antimicrobials on human health due to selection for resistant bacteria. Several studies have reported similarities between extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains isolated from birds and humans, indicating that these contaminant bacteria in poultry may be linked to human disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors among E. coli strains isolated from commercial chicken carcasses in Paraná, Brazil, in 2007 and 2013. A total of 84 E. coli strains were isolated from chicken carcasses in 2007, and 121 E. coli strains were isolated in 2013. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect virulence genes (hlyF, iss, ompT, iron, and iutA) and to determine phylogenetic classification. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using 15 antimicrobials. The strains were also confirmed as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli with phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that our strains harbored virulence genes characteristic of ExPEC, with the iutA gene being the most prevalent. The phylogenetic groups D and B1 were the most prevalent among the strains isolated in 2007 and 2013, respectively. There was an increase in the frequency of resistance to a majority of antimicrobials tested. An important finding in this study was the large number of ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from chicken carcasses in 2013, primarily for the group 2 cefotaximase (CTX-M) enzyme. ESBL production confers broad-spectrum resistance and is a health risk because ESBL genes are transferable from food-producing animals to humans via poultry meat. These findings suggest that our strains harbored virulence and resistance genes, which are often associated with plasmids that can facilitate their transmission between bacteria derived from different hosts

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

    2003-12-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

  3. Antimicrobial peptides: clinical relevance and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro da Silva, Fabiano; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira César

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules that provide protection against environmental pathogens, acting against a large number of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, yeast, virus and others. Two major groups of antimicrobial peptides are found in humans: cathelicidins and defensins. Recently, several studies have furnished information that besides their role in infection diseases, antimicrobial peptides play a role in diseases as diverse as inflammatory disorders, autoimmunity and cancer. Here, we discuss the role of antimicrobial peptides and vitamin D have in such complex diseases and propose their use should be more explored in the diagnosis and treatment of such conditions.

  4. The Potential of Antimicrobial Peptides as Biocides

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides constitute a diverse class of naturally occurring antimicrobial molecules which have activity against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides are exciting leads in the development of novel biocidal agents at a time when classical antibiotics are under intense pressure from emerging resistance, and the global industry in antibiotic research and development stagnates. This review will examine the potential of antimicrobial peptides, both natural and synthetic, as novel biocidal agents in the battle against multi-drug resistant pathogen infections. PMID:22072905

  5. Antimicrobial use in food and companion animals.

    PubMed

    Prescott, John F

    2008-12-01

    The vast literature on antimicrobial drug use in animals has expanded considerably recently as the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis in human medicine leads to questions about all usage of antimicrobial drugs, including long-term usage in intensively managed food animals for growth promotion and disease prevention. Attention is also increasingly focusing on antimicrobial use and on bacterial resistance in companion animals, which are in intimate contact with the human population. They may share resistant bacteria with their owners, amplify resistant bacteria acquired from their owners, and act as a reservoir for human infection. Considerable effort is being made to describe the basis of AMR in bacterial pathogens of animals. Documentation of many aspects of use of antimicrobials in animals is, however, generally less developed and only a few countries can describe quantities of drugs used in animals to kg levels annually. In recent years, many national veterinary associations have produced 'prudent use guidelines' to try to improve antimicrobial drug use and decrease resistance, but the impact of guidelines is unknown. Within the evolving global movement for 'antimicrobial stewardship', there is considerable scope to improve many aspects of antimicrobial use in animals, including infection control and reduction of use, with a view to reducing resistance and its spread, and to preserving antimicrobial drugs for the future.

  6. Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Management of Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Pulia, Michael S; Redwood, Robert; Sharp, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis represents a unique clinical dilemma with regard to antimicrobial stewardship. The standard approach to suspected sepsis in the emergency department centers on fluid resuscitation and timely broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The lack of gold standard diagnostics and evolving definitions for sepsis introduce a significant degree of diagnostic uncertainty that may raise the potential for inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing. Intervention bundles that combine traditional quality improvement strategies with emerging electronic health record-based clinical decision support tools and rapid molecular diagnostics represent the most promising approach to enhancing antimicrobial stewardship in the management of suspected sepsis in the emergency department.

  7. Office of the Chief Financial Officer Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Jeffrey

    2007-12-18

    opportunities to improve. A third, and most important assessment on funds control was also conducted that proved very useful in making sure that our financial processes are sound and of the highest ethical standards. In June of 2007 the Procurement Department was awarded the DOE's FY2006 Secretarial Small Business Award for the advancement of small business contracts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The award was presented in Washington, D.C. Procurement also distinguished itself by passing the tri-ennial Procurement Evaluation and Re-engineering Team (PERT) Review of its systems and processes. We continue to reduce costs through the Supply Chain Initiative saving the Laboratory {approx}$6M to date and have placed over 11,000 orders with over seven vendors using the eBuy system. Our wall-to-wall inventory, which was completed in March of 2007, reported a result of 99+% for item count and 99.51% by value. This was a remarkable achievement that required the hard work of every Division and the Property Department working together. Training continues to be a major initiative for the OCFO and in 2007 we rolled out financial training programs specifically tailored to meet the needs of the scientific divisions. FY2008 presents several opportunities to enhance and improve our service to the scientific community. With the awarding of the HELIOS and JBEI programs, we will be developing new financial paradigms to provide senior management flexibility in decision making. Last year we heard the Laboratory community loud and clear when they expressed their frustration with our current travel system. As we head into the new fiscal year, a cross-functional travel team has identified a new model for how we provide travel services. We will be implementing the Oracle PeopleSoft Travel Reimbursement system by July of 2008. The new system will be more user-friendly and provide better information to the divisions and travel operations. We will also continue to review the travel

  8. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    PubMed Central

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43

  9. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  10. Picture the Future: 2007 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the annual report of the Association for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) for 2007. In 2007, ACNJ made the future better for children by: (1) Successfully advocating for an expansion of high-quality preschool through increased funding in the FY 2008 state budget and inclusion of a major preschool expansion in the new school…

  11. Alley Receives 2007 Roger Revelle Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Alley, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Richard B. Alley was awarded the 2007 Roger Revelle Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 12 December 2007 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for ``outstanding contributions in atmospheric sciences, atmosphere-ocean coupling, atmosphere-land coupling, biogeochemical cycles, climate, or related aspects of the Earth system.''

  12. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced

    The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference
    Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OH
    April 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!

    The Annual Toxicology and Risk Ass...

  13. "Bionic Woman" (2007): Gender, Disability and Cyborgs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Margaret M.; Bates, Benjamin R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a representation of overlapping categories of gender, disability and cyborgs in "Bionic Woman" (2007). The television show "Bionic Woman" (2007) is a popular culture representation that uniquely brings together these categories. Three themes emerged from an analysis of blogger discourse surrounding the show. The themes reveal…

  14. Update on pleural diseases - 2007

    PubMed Central

    Bishay, Ayman; Raoof, Suhail; Esan, Adebayo; Sung, Arthur; Wali, Siraj; Lee, Leonard Y.; George, Liziamma; Saleh, Anthony; Baumann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New information is available on pleural diseases. The authors selected articles to make recommendations on diagnostic and treatment aspects of pleural diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven articles published in the English language between 2004 and 2007 were chosen. The basis of selection of the articles was the impact on daily practice, change in prior thinking of a disease process or specific treatment modality, as well as proper design and execution of the study. 5-amino-laevulinic acid with fluorescent light combined with white light may allow further diagnostic yield in undiagnosed pleural disease. FDG-PET may allow prognostication of patients with pleural tumors. Utilizing ultrasound by trained Emergency Department physicians is a rapid and effective technique to evaluate non-traumatic pleural effusions in symptomatic patients. Serum osteopontin levels may distinguish patients exposed to asbestos with benign disease from those with pleural mesothelioma. Administration of streptokinase in patients with empyema does not need for surgical drainage, length of hospital stay, or mortality as compared to conventional treatment with chest tube drainage and intravenous antibiotics. Silver nitrate may be an alternative agent to talc for producing pleurodesis. Routine use of graded talc (50% particles greater than 25 microns) is recommended to reduce the morbidity associated with talc pleurodesis. Study design does not permit us to conclude that aspiration of spontaneous pneumothorax is as effective as chest tube drainage. Pleural catheter may prove to be an important palliative modality in treating debilitated patients or patients with trapped lung who show symptomatic improvement with drainage; however, at the present time, these catheters cannot be considered a first line treatment option for patients with malignant pleural effusion. One of the studies reviewed showed no significant difference in tract metastasis in patients with malignant mesothelioma

  15. Year four pupils' understanding of division of whole numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Faridah Mohamed; Pa, Nik Azis Nik

    2014-07-01

    Based on the theory of radical constructivism, this study investigated Year Four pupils' understandings of division by identifying their schemes of the division of whole numbers and how they used them in solving related problematic situations. Data incorporating both verbal and non-verbal behaviors were gathered from seven pupils based on the five clinical interview sessions involving imagining division, representing division, describing process and product of division, interpreting division statement, and solving division problem tasks. Four schemes that were identified are partitioning scheme, measuring scheme, repeated subtraction scheme, and inverse of multiplication scheme. Findings revealed that the measuring scheme was the dominant scheme for the division of whole numbers and the pupils only used the repeated and the inverse of multiplication schemes when they were asked to relate the subtraction or multiplication process with the division process. Further, the pupils were observed to use the long division algorithm in some situations, but there were indications that they used them with little understandings. It is suggested that more remains to be learnt about the nature of pupils' understanding of the division of whole numbers and how schemes of the division of whole numbers are formed and modified. Also, in order to provide appropriate guidance, mathematics teachers need to have some knowledge about pupils' available schemes of the division of whole numbers, no matter how primitive they might seem to the teachers.

  16. Is Formative Measurement Really Measurement? Reply to Bollen (2007) and Bagozzi (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B.

    2007-01-01

    R. D. Howell, E. Breivik, and J. B. Wilcox (2007) examined the use of formative measurement models in theory testing in the social sciences. K. A. Bollen (2007) and R. P. Bagozzi (2007) have provided comments on this work. In this article, the authors reply to the commentators and suggest that the conclusions reached in the original article and…

  17. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets.

  18. Engineering Research Division publication report, calendar year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.K.; Livingston, P.L.; Rae, D.C.

    1980-06-01

    Each year the Engineering Research Division of the Electronics Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has issued an internal report listing all formal publications produced by the Division during the calendar year. Abstracts of 1980 reports are presented.

  19. 7. Contextual view of Fairbanks Company, looking north along Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Contextual view of Fairbanks Company, looking north along Division Street, showing relationship of factory to surrounding buildings and railroad - Fairbanks Company, 202 Division Street, Rome, Floyd County, GA

  20. Obituary: Earle B. Mayfield (1923-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Gary

    2011-12-01

    Earle B. Mayfield passed away peacefully in his sleep 28 May 2007 in Los Osos, near San Luis Obispo. He retired there to grow orchids, make wine and teach part-time at California Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly SLO). He was born in Oklahoma City in 1923. After his discharge from the Coast Guard he went to UCLA where he graduated in physics in 1950. He married Peggy Masterson in 1952 after they met while they both worked at the China Lake Test Station. He obtained a Ph.D. in physics in 1959 from the University of Utah. He is survived by his wife, seven children and 14 grandchildren. In 1960 Mayfield joined The Aerospace Corporation where he became a strong proponent of expanding the Corporation's activities in solar research. In 1966, with Mayfield's support, observations of supergranulation were obtained from Thule, Greenland, that spanned nearly 62 hours of continuous coverage: the longest continuous solar observations at that time. He was instrumental in the effort to design and construct an advanced 24-inch aperture vacuum solar telescope. The resulting diffraction limited image had an un-vignetted field-of-view of about 0.8 Re. An auxiliary 11-inch vacuum telescope was available for full-disk observations. Both telescopes were F/20 with reflecting surfaces having proprietary overcoated silver. At the Coude focus was a vacuum spectroheliograph. It was determined that a peninsula jutting out into the Upper Van Norman Reservoir provided superior seeing conditions that was the site of an U.S. Air Force Air Weather Service station. This became the San Fernando Observatory, which was dedicated in February 1969 just before an ad hoc meeting of the Solar Physics Division in Pasadena. Mayfield was its first director. In 1971, under Mayfield's direction, Aerospace developed the first digital video magnetograph supported by a NASA grant. This provided real-time magnetograms of solar active regions. In 1973, James Underwood came to Aerospace and the

  1. Integrated mode converter for mode division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Galacho, Diego; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Le Roux, Xavier; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Perez, Juan Gonzalo; Vivien, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The ever growing demands of bandwidth in optical communication systems are making traditional Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) based systems to reach its limit. In order to cope with future bandwidth demand is necessary to use new levels of orthogonality, such as the waveguide mode or the polarization state. Mode Division Multiplexing (MDM) has recently attracted attention as a possible solution to increase aggregate bandwidth. In this work we discuss the proposition a of mode converter that can cover the whole C-Band of optical communications. The Mode Converter is based on two Multimode Interference (MMI) couplers and a phase shifter. Insertion loss (IL) below 0.2 dB and Extinction ratio (ER) higher than 20 dB in a broad bandwidth range of 1.5 μm to 1.6 μm have been estimated. The total length of the device is less than 30 μm.

  2. Small GTPases as regulators of cell division.

    PubMed

    Militello, Rodrigo; Colombo, María I

    2013-09-01

    The superfamily of small GTPases serves as a signal transducer to regulate a diverse array of cellular functions. The members of this superfamily are structurally and functionally classified into at least 5 groups (Ras, Rho/Rac, Rab, Arf, and Ran) and they are involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, and nuclear transport. It is widely reported that members of the Rab family participate in the control of intracellular membrane trafficking through the interaction with specific effector molecules. However, many Rabs and other small GTPases have also been shown to function in cell division. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about Rab proteins regulating different stages of the cell cycle, such as the congregation and segregation of chromosomes (during metaphase) and the final stage of cell division known as cytokinesis, in which a cell is cleaved originating 2 daughter cells.

  3. Chemical Technology Division. Annual technical report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J.J.; Myles, K.M.; Green, D.W.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1996-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1995 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (3) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (4) processes for separating and recovering selected elements from waste streams, concentrating low-level radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; (5) electrometallurgical treatment of different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (6) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems.

  4. Divisive normalization in channelized Hotelling observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Mou, Xuanqin

    2010-02-01

    Channelized Hotelling observers have been evaluated in signal detection in medical images. However, these model observers fall short of overestimate of detection performance compared with human observers. Here, we present a modified channelized Hotelling observer with divisive normalization mechanism. In this model, images first traverse a series of Gabor filters of different orientations, phases and spatial frequencies. Then, the channels outputs pass through a nonlinear process and pool in several channels. Finally, these channels responses are normalized through a divisive operation. Human performances of nodule detection in chest radiography are evaluated by 2AFC experiments. The same detection tasks are performed by the model observers. The results show that the modified channelized Hotelling observer can well predict the human performances.

  5. Obituary: Thomas Robert Metcalf, 1961-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leka, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). During this time Tom continued work on interpreting solar magnetic fields, specifically the pioneering use of the Na-D2 spectral line to map the solar chromospheric magnetic field. In 2005, Tom joined the growing solar group at NorthWest Research Associates' (NWRA) division in Boulder, Colorado. Tom was an integral part of efforts comparing algorithms for magnetic field data analysis and coronal diagnostics afforded by the spectacular new data from Hinode. Of note were his work on 180∘ disambiguation algorithms for vector magnetic-field data and non-linear force-free extrapolation methods for modeling the coronal magnetic field. Tom's professional interests were so wide and varied that colleagues who survive him are continually uncovering projects to try to bring to closure. Every meeting brings new heartfelt condolences and shy inquiries, "...if you don't mind, Tom had some data for me . . . could you . . . ???" He developed a navigation package using Hewlett-Packard calculators, still used by many sailors. Tom's IfA-vintage hurricane-tracking website still sees visitation spikes when major storms threaten. At the time of his death, Tom had 77 publications with easily over one hundred colleagues, including his father. Tom represented NWRA/Colorado Research Associates at the recently formed "Boulder Solar Alliance"; through it, a new National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates program was funded, and many Boulder-area research groups, including NWRA, hosted students in its 2007 inaugural summer. Tom was routinely teased as a "closet granola-head" by friends and family; as he moved inland his interests switched to mountain bike riding, rock climbing, and year-round skiing. Tom would eagerly join in any new adventure that sounded interesting. He was an avid bike commuter who relished the challenge of learning to ride in snow and ice. He

  6. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  7. NRL Radar Division C++ Coding Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-05

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...when writing C++ code. It is primarily addressed to all those involved in the production of C++ code for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Radar Division...Radar (FlexDAR) backend software. It was originally derived from the CERN C++ Coding Standard Specification, Version 1.1, dated 5 January 2000, but

  8. Unpacking the Division Interpretation of a Fraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Rebecca C.; Lewis, Priscilla Eide

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges in learning fractions is understanding how and why a fraction can have multiple interpretations. As presented in one textbook, a fraction is "a symbol, such as 2/3, 5/1, or 8/5, used to name a part of a whole, a part of a set, a location on a number line, or a division of whole numbers" (Charles et al. 2012, p.…

  9. Information Technology Division Technical Paper Abstracts 1995,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Information Technology Division (ITD), one of the largest research and development collectives at the Naval Research Laboratory. The abstracts are organized into sections that represent the six branches with ITD: the Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Communications Systems, the Center for High Assurance Computer Systems, Transmission Technology, Advanced Information Technology , and the Center for Computational Science. Within each section, a list of branch papers published in 1993 and 1994 has also been included; abstracts

  10. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Summaries of the highlights of programs in the Earth Sciences Division are presented under four headings; Geosciences, Geothermal Energy Development, Nuclear Waste Isolation, and Marine Sciences. Utilizing both basic and applied research in a wide spectrum of topics, these programs are providing results that will be of value in helping to secure the nation's energy future. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each project for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  11. JTF CapMed Warrior Transition Division

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-25

    Injured Population  To understand the complexity of Warrior Care 2 2011 MHS Conference Warrior Transition Division Mission Provide coordination and...integration of non- medical and medical services to ensure optimal Warrior care throughout the NCR JOA 3 2011 MHS Conference Understanding the Definition of...hostile-related injury or illness requiring long-term care that will require a Medical Evaluation Board (MEB) or Physical Evaluation Board (PEB) to

  12. The Divisive Threat of Immigration in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Europe , immigrant children consistently underperformed in reading. This disparity suggests that immigrant children will have lower literacy rates, less...OF IMMIGRATION IN EUROPE by Andrew J. Sheehan Lars W. Lilleby December 2012 Thesis Advisor: Gordon McCormick Second Reader: Anna...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Divisive Threat of Immigration in Europe 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lars W. Lilleby

  13. Eva Szabo, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Eva Szabo is Chief of the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group at the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention. She graduated from Yale University with a BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, received her MD from Duke University, and completed her internal medicine residency at Bellevue-NYU Medical Center. After completing her medical oncology fellowship at the National Cancer Institute, Dr. |

  14. The Office of the Materials Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, amanda J.

    2004-01-01

    I was assigned to the Materials Division, which consists of the following branches; the Advanced Metallics Branch/5120-RMM, Ceramics Branch/5130-RMC, Polymers Branch/5150-RMP, and the Durability and Protective Coatings Branch/5160-RMD. Mrs. Pamela Spinosi is my assigned mentor. She was assisted by Ms.Raysa Rodriguez/5100-RM and Mrs.Denise Prestien/5100-RM, who are both employed by InDyne, Inc. My primary assignment this past summer was working directly with Ms. Rodriguez, assisting her with setting up the Integrated Financial Management Program (IFMP) 5130-RMC/Branch procedures and logs. These duties consisted of creating various spreadsheets for each individual branch member, which were updated daily. It was not hard to familiarize myself with these duties since this is my second summer working with Ms Rodriguez at NASA Glenn Research Center. RMC ordering laboratory, supplies and equipment for the Basic Materials Laboratory (Building 106) using the IF'MP/Purchase Card (P-card), a NASA-wide software program. I entered into the IFMP/Travel and Requisitions System, new Travel Authorizations for the 5130-RMC Civil Servant Branch Members. I also entered and completed Travel Vouchers for the 5130-RMC Ceramics Branch. I assisted in the Division Office creating new Emergency Contact list for the Materials Division. I worked with Dr. Hugh Gray, the Division Chief, and Dr. Ajay Misra, the 5130-RMC Branch Chief, on priority action items, with a close deadline, for a large NASA Proposal. Another project was working closely with Ms. Rodriguez in organizing and preparing for Dr. Ajay K. Misra's SESCDP (two year detail). This consisted of organizing files, file folders, personal information, and recording all data material onto CD's and printing all presentations for display in binders. I attended numerous Branch meetings, and observed many changes in the Branch Management organization.

  15. Changing Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles among Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates in Italy, 2003 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Carannante, Anna; Renna, Giovanna; Dal Conte, Ivano; Ghisetti, Valeria; Matteelli, Alberto; Prignano, Grazia; Impara, Giampaolo; Cusini, Marco; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Vocale, Caterina; Antonetti, Raffaele; Gaino, Marina; Busetti, Marina; Latino, Maria Agnese; Mencacci, Antonella; Bonanno, Carmen; Cava, Maria Carmela; Giraldi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates displaying resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major public health concern and a serious issue related to the occurrence of further untreatable gonorrhea infections. A retrospective analysis on 1,430 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, collected from 2003 through 2012, for antimicrobial susceptibility by Etest and molecular characterization by Neisseria gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was carried out in Italy. Azithromycin-resistant gonococci decreased from 14% in 2007 to 2.2% in 2012. Similarly, isolates with high MICs to cefixime (>0.125 mg/liter) decreased from 11% in 2008 to 3.3% in 2012. The ciprofloxacin resistance rate remains quite stable, following an increasing trend up to 64% in 2012. The percentage of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) significantly declined from 77% in 2003 to 7% in 2012. A total of 81 multidrug-resistant (MDR) gonococci were identified, showing 11 different antimicrobial resistance patterns. These were isolated from men who have sex with men (MSM) and from heterosexual patients. Two sequence types (STs), ST661 and ST1407, were the most common. Genogroup 1407, which included cefixime-, ciprofloxacin-, and azithromycin-resistant isolates, was found. In conclusion, a change in the antimicrobial resistance profiles among gonococci was identified in Italy together with a percentage of MDR isolates. PMID:25070110

  16. Regulation of cell division in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant's essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  17. Vacuole Partitioning during Meiotic Division in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Roeder, A. D.; Shaw, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the partitioning of the yeast vacuole during meiotic division. In pulse-chase experiments, vacuoles labeled with the lumenal ade2 fluorophore or the membrane-specific dye FM 4-64 were not inherited by haploid spores. Instead, these fluorescent markers were excluded from spores and trapped between the spore cell walls and the ascus. Serial optical sections using a confocal microscope confirmed that spores did not inherit detectable amounts of fluorescently labeled vacuoles. Moreover, indirect immunofluorescence studies established that an endogenous vacuolar membrane protein, alkaline phosphatase, and a soluable vacuolar protease, carboxypeptidase Y, were also detected outside spores after meiotic division. Spores that did not inherit ade2- or FM 4-64-labeled vacuoles did generate an organelle that could be visualized by subsequent staining with vacuole-specific fluorophores. These data contrast with genetic evidence that a soluble vacuolar protease is inherited by spores. When the partitioning of both types of markers was examined in sporulating cultures, the vacuolar protease activity was inherited by spores while fluorescently labeled vacuoles were largely excluded from spores. Our results indicate that the majority of the diploid vacuole, both soluble contents and membrane-bound components, are excluded from spores formed during meiotic division. PMID:8889511

  18. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1994 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from waste streams, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium for medical applications; (6) electrometallurgical treatment of the many different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, and impurities in scrap copper and steel; and the geochemical processes involved in mineral/fluid interfaces and water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  19. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  20. DIVISION IN THE DINOFLAGELLATE GYRODINIUM COHNII (SCHILLER)

    PubMed Central

    Kubai, Donna F.; Ris, Hans

    1969-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are of interest because their chromosomes resemble the nucleoplasm of prokaryotes both chemically and ultrastructurally. We have studied nuclear division in the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium cohnii (Schiller), using cells obtained from cultures undergoing phasic growth. Electron micrographs of serial sections were used to prepare three-dimensional reconstructions of nuclei and chromosomes at various stages of nuclear division. During division, a complex process of invagination of the intact nuclear envelope takes place at one side of the nucleus and results in the formation of parallel cylindrical cytoplasmic channels through the nucleus. These invaginations contain bundles of microtubules, and each of the bundles comes to lie in the cytoplasm of a cylindrical channel. Nuclear constriction occurs perpendicular to these channels without displacement of the microtubules. There are no associations between chromosomes and the cytoplasmic microtubules. In dividing cells most chromosomes become V-shaped, and the apices of the V's make contact with the membrane surrounding cytoplasmic channels. It is proposed that the membrane surrounding cytoplasmic channels in the dividing nucleus may be involved in the separation of daughter chromosomes. Thus, dinoflagellates may resemble prokaryotes in the manner of genophore separation as well as in genophore chemistry and ultrastructure. PMID:5761923