Science.gov

Sample records for 2009a 2009b 2009c

  1. IAU Resolution 2009 B5 - Commission 50 Draft Action Plan - Presentation and Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. F.

    2015-03-01

    IAU Resolution 2009 B5 calls on IAU members to protect the public's right to an unpolluted night sky as well as the astronomical quality of the sky around major research observatories. The multi-pronged approach of Commission 50 includes working with the lighting industry for appropriate products from the solid state revolution, arming astronomers with training and materials for presentation, selective endorsement of key protection issues, cooperation with several other IAU commissions for education and outreach, and provision of clear quantitative priorities for outdoor lighting standards.

  2. Implementation of IAU Resolution 2009 B5, "in Defence of the night sky and the right to starlight"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Richard F.; Walker, Constance Elaine

    2015-08-01

    IAU Resolution 2009 B5 calls on IAU members to protect the public`s right to an unpolluted night sky as well as the astronomical quality of the sky around major research observatories. The approach of Commission 50 - astronomical site protection - includes working with the lighting industry for appropriate products from rapidly evolving solid state technology, arming astronomers with training and materials for presentation, selective endorsement of key protection issues, cooperation with other IAU commissions for education and outreach with particular current attention to the International Year of Light, and provision of clear quantitative priorities for outdoor lighting standards. In 2012, these priorities were defined as full cut-off shielding, spectral management to minimize output shortward of 500 nm, and zone- and time-appropriate lighting levels. Revisiting the specifics of these priorities will be a topic for current discussion.

  3. Religion in Families, 1999-2009: A Relational Spirituality Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Annette

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the role of religion, for better and worse, in marital and parent-child relationships according to peer-reviewed studies from 1999 to 2009. A conceptual framework of relational spirituality is used (a) to organize the breadth of findings into the 3 stages of formation, maintenance, and transformation of family relationships…

  4. Laboratory Characterization of Adobe (Scottsdale)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Testing and Materials. 2009a. Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. Designation C 597-97. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for ... Testing and Materials. _____. 2009b. Standard test method for laboratory determination of water (moisture) content of soil and rock by mass...Designation D 2216-98. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials. _____. 2009c. Standard test method for preparing

  5. National Rivers and Streams Assessment 2008-2009: A Collaborative Survey

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Rivers and Streams Assessment 2008–2009: A Collaborative Survey (NRSA) presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s rivers and streams. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys design...

  6. Perspectives from Spanish infectious diseases professionals on 2009 A (H1N1) influenza: the third half.

    PubMed

    Paño-Pardo, J R; Martín-Quirós, A; Romero-Gómez, M; Maldonado, J; Martín-Vega, A; Rico-Nieto, A; Mora-Rillo, M; Grill, F; García-Rodríguez, J; Arribas, J R; Carratalá, J; Rodríguez-Baño, J

    2011-06-01

    The first influenza pandemic in more than 40 years was declared in 2009. We aimed to evaluate the beliefs of Spanish infectious diseases professionals regarding several aspects of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza once the epidemic waned. An online survey was designed and distributed among members of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC). The survey considered hospital organization and preparedness planning and conduct, as well as the opinion of the infectious diseases professionals regarding several key issues. Between 7 March and 22 March 2010, 303 responses, corresponding to 12.8% of the SEIMC membership, were received. Of the respondents, 48.2% were microbiologists and 42.3% were clinicians dealing with infectious diseases. Forty-one per cent of respondents did not believe that 2009 A (H1N1) influenza had a more severe presentation than other seasonal influenzas. Only 5% fully agreed that 2009 A (H1N1) influenza had a more severe presentation. Influenza planning was available in 69.7% of represented institutions before the arrival of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza, and was considered to be useful, to different extents, by most professionals. In most institutions (88.3%), a multidisciplinary team was created to coordinate local pandemic influenza actions. The most successful protocols were those provided by regional healthcare authorities, followed by those from the CDC. The most problematic issues regarding 2009 A (H1N1) influenza were the management of patients in the emergency room and the vaccination and awareness of healthcare professionals (HCPs) regarding infection control. Microbiological diagnosis and the availability of antivirals were the least problematic areas. Although the majority of surveyed infectious diseases professionals did not believe that 2009 A (H1N1) influenza had an especially severe presentation, most of them agreed with the way that this epidemic was managed in their institutions.

  7. Modelling the spatial-temporal progression of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Raimund; Chowell, Gerardo; Mulet, Pep; Villada, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    A spatial-temporal transmission model of 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza across Chile, a country that spans a large latitudinal range, is developed to characterize the spatial variation in peak timing of that pandemic as a function of local transmission rates, spatial connectivity assumptions for Chilean regions, and the putative location of introduction of the novel virus into the country. Specifically, a metapopulation SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-removed) compartmental model that tracks the transmission dynamics of influenza in 15 Chilean regions is calibrated. The model incorporates population mobility among neighboring regions and indirect mobility to and from other regions via the metropolitan central region ('hub region'). The stability of the disease-free equilibrium of this model is analyzed and compared with the corresponding stability in each region, concluding that stability may occur even with some regions having basic reproduction numbers above 1. The transmission model is used along with epidemiological data to explore potential factors that could have driven the spatial-temporal progression of the pandemic. Simulations and sensitivity analyses indicate that this relatively simple model is sufficient to characterize the south-north gradient in peak timing observed during the pandemic, and suggest that south Chile observed the initial spread of the pandemic virus, which is in line with a retrospective epidemiological study. The 'hub region' in our model significantly enhanced population mixing in a short time scale.

  8. Characterisation of the major dust storm that traversed over eastern Australia in September 2009; a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deckker, Patrick; Munday, Chris I.; Brocks, Jochen; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Allison, Gwen E.; Hope, Janet; Norman, Marc; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Tapper, Nigel J.; van der Kaars, Sander

    2014-12-01

    In September 2009, a major dust storm passed over the southeast coast of Australia and covered the large city of Sydney that is located on the eastern coast of Australia. It was referred to as the 'Red Dawn' event. Along its course across the state of New South Wales, the dust plume passed over Canberra, the capital of Australia located some 300 km from Sydney. In this study we identified the sources of the dust and tracked the progression of the dust storm using satellite imagery. We also examined the meteorological conditions that led to the formation of the dust plume. We also investigated the microbial and lipid composition, grain-size distribution, pollen content and geochemical composition of several samples of the dust that fell in Canberra (called 'Canberra dust'), with particular attention paid to the ratio of some rare earth elements as well as strontium and neodymium isotopes. This was done to identify a geochemical and palynological 'fingerprint' of this dust to determine the source of the material. Collectively, the meteorological and fingerprinting analyses identified the principal location of dust entrainment as between the large playa Lakes Gairdner and Torrens in arid South Australia, some 1600 km away from Canberra. We also determined through Sr isotope analyses and other elements measured in the dust that fell in Canberra and the township of Eden, located south of Sydney, that the dust changed composition slightly over a few hours, being the consequence of local dust entrainment along the path of the dust plume across South Australia and New South Wales. In addition, we present a scenario which explains dust transport away from the direction of the major dust plume. Those investigations carried out on the Canberra dust are compared with a previously documented event when dust was also sampled in Canberra in 2002. The origin and composition of the 2002 dust plume was clearly different from that which occurred in 2009, as demonstrated by the

  9. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  10. In vitro antiviral activity of favipiravir (T-705) against drug-resistant influenza and 2009 A(H1N1) viruses.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Katrina; Mishin, Vasiliy P; Deyde, Varough M; Furuta, Yousuke; Klimov, Alexander I; Gubareva, Larisa V

    2010-06-01

    Favipiravir (T-705) has previously been shown to have a potent antiviral effect against influenza virus and some other RNA viruses in both cell culture and in animal models. Currently, favipiravir is undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. In this study, favipiravir was evaluated in vitro for its ability to inhibit the replication of a representative panel of seasonal influenza viruses, the 2009 A(H1N1) strains, and animal viruses with pandemic (pdm) potential (swine triple reassortants, H2N2, H4N2, avian H7N2, and avian H5N1), including viruses which are resistant to the currently licensed anti-influenza drugs. All viruses were tested in a plaque reduction assay with MDCK cells, and a subset was also tested in both yield reduction and focus inhibition (FI) assays. For the majority of viruses tested, favipiravir significantly inhibited plaque formation at 3.2 muM (0.5 microg/ml) (50% effective concentrations [EC(50)s] of 0.19 to 22.48 muM and 0.03 to 3.53 microg/ml), and for all viruses, with the exception of a single dually resistant 2009 A(H1N1) virus, complete inhibition of plaque formation was seen at 3.2 muM (0.5 microg/ml). Due to the 2009 pandemic and increased drug resistance in circulating seasonal influenza viruses, there is an urgent need for new drugs which target influenza. This study demonstrates that favipiravir inhibits in vitro replication of a wide range of influenza viruses, including those resistant to currently available drugs.

  11. The influence of climatic conditions on the transmission dynamics of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of demographic factors, climatic conditions, school cycles, and connectivity patterns in shaping the spatio-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza is not clearly understood. Here we analyzed the spatial, age and temporal evolution of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile, a southern hemisphere country covering a long and narrow strip comprising latitudes 17°S to 56°S. Methods We analyzed the dissemination patterns of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic across 15 regions of Chile based on daily hospitalizations for severe acute respiratory disease and laboratory confirmed A/H1N1 influenza infection from 01-May to 31-December, 2009. We explored the association between timing of pandemic onset and peak pandemic activity and several geographical and demographic indicators, school vacations, climatic factors, and international passengers. We also estimated the reproduction number (R) based on the growth rate of the exponential pandemic phase by date of symptoms onset, estimated using maximum likelihood methods. Results While earlier pandemic onset was associated with larger population size, there was no association with connectivity, demographic, school or climatic factors. In contrast, there was a latitudinal gradient in peak pandemic timing, representing a 16-39-day lag in disease activity from the southern regions relative to the northernmost region (P < 0.001). Geographical differences in latitude of Chilean regions, maximum temperature and specific humidity explained 68.5% of the variability in peak timing (P = 0.01). In addition, there was a decreasing gradient in reproduction number from south to north Chile (P < 0.0001). The regional mean R estimates were 1.6-2.0, 1.3-1.5, and 1.2-1.3 for southern, central and northern regions, respectively, which were not affected by the winter vacation period. Conclusions There was a lag in the period of most intense 2009 pandemic influenza activity following a South to North traveling pattern across regions

  12. A spatial-temporal transmission model and early intervention policies of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonggul; Jung, Eunok

    2015-09-07

    We developed a spatial-temporal model of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), which is located in the north-west of South Korea and is the second-most complex metropolitan area worldwide. This multi-patch influenza model consists of a SEIAR influenza transmission model and flow model between two districts. This model is based on the daily confirmed cases of A/H1N1 influenza collected by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention from April 27 to September 15, 2009 and the daily commuting data from 33 districts of SMA reported in the 2010 Population and Housing Census (PHC). We analyzed the spread patterns of 2009 influenza in the SMA by the reproductive numbers and geographic information systems. During the early period of novel influenza pandemics, when pharmaceutical interventions are lacking, non-pharmaceutical public health interventions will be the most critical strategies for impeding the spread of influenza and delaying an epidemic. Using the spatial-temporal model developed herein, we also investigated the impact of non-pharmaceutical public health interventions, isolation and/or commuting restrictions, on the incidence reduction in various scenarios. Our model provides scientific evidence for predicting the spread of disease and preparedness for a future pandemic.

  13. Screening of Random Peptide Library of Hemagglutinin from Pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Virus Reveals Unexpected Antigenically Important Regions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanghui; Han, Lu; Lin, Zhanglin

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic structure of the membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) from the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus was dissected with a high-throughput screening method using complex antisera. The approach involves generating yeast cell libraries displaying a pool of random peptides of controllable lengths on the cell surface, followed by one round of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) against antisera from mouse, goat and human, respectively. The amino acid residue frequency appearing in the antigenic peptides at both the primary sequence and structural level was determined and used to identify “hot spots” or antigenically important regions. Unexpectedly, different antigenic structures were seen for different antisera. Moreover, five antigenic regions were identified, of which all but one are located in the conserved HA stem region that is responsible for membrane fusion. Our findings are corroborated by several recent studies on cross-neutralizing H1 subtype antibodies that recognize the HA stem region. The antigenic peptides identified may provide clues for creating peptide vaccines with better accessibility to memory B cells and better induction of cross-neutralizing antibodies than the whole HA protein. The scheme used in this study enables a direct mapping of the antigenic regions of viral proteins recognized by antisera, and may be useful for dissecting the antigenic structures of other viral proteins. PMID:21437206

  14. Recombinant soluble, multimeric HA and NA exhibit distinctive types of protection against pandemic swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Berend Jan; Bodewes, Rogier; de Vries, Robert P; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Bartelink, Willem; van Amerongen, Geert; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rottier, Peter J M

    2010-10-01

    The emergence and subsequent swift and global spread of the swine-origin influenza virus A(H1N1) in 2009 once again emphasizes the strong need for effective vaccines that can be developed rapidly and applied safely. With this aim, we produced soluble, multimeric forms of the 2009 A(H1N1) HA (sHA(3)) and NA (sNA(4)) surface glycoproteins using a virus-free mammalian expression system and evaluated their efficacy as vaccines in ferrets. Immunization twice with 3.75-microg doses of these antigens elicited strong antibody responses, which were adjuvant dependent. Interestingly, coadministration of both antigens strongly enhanced the HA-specific but not the NA-specific responses. Distinct patterns of protection were observed upon challenge inoculation with the homologous H1N1 virus. Whereas vaccination with sHA(3) dramatically reduced virus replication (e.g., by lowering pulmonary titers by about 5 log(10) units), immunization with sNA(4) markedly decreased the clinical effects of infection, such as body weight loss and lung pathology. Clearly, optimal protection was achieved by the combination of the two antigens. Our observations demonstrate the great vaccine potential of multimeric HA and NA ectodomains, as these can be easily, rapidly, flexibly, and safely produced in high quantities. In particular, our study underscores the underrated importance of NA in influenza vaccination, which we found to profoundly and specifically contribute to protection by HA. Its inclusion in a vaccine is likely to reduce the HA dose required and to broaden the protective immunity.

  15. Kinetics of lung lesion development and pro-inflammatory cytokine response in pigs with vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease induced by challenge with pandemic (2009) A/H1N1 influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this report was to characterize the enhanced clinical disease and lung lesions observed in pigs vaccinated with inactivated H1N2 swine delta-cluster influenza A virus and challenged with pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 human influenza virus. Eighty-four, six-week-old, crossbred pigs were rand...

  16. 2009 C. H. McCloy Lecture. Seeing Is Believing: Observing Physical Activity and Its Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Direct (systematic) observation has been a mainstay of my research for over three decades. I believe it is an important tool for assessing physical activity, because it can simultaneously provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. It is particularly useful for those interested in using ecological and…

  17. Drug packaging in 2009: a few advances.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    Once again, in 2009, most of the packaging that Prescrire analysed did not meet our quality criteria. Labelling information was too often ambiguous or clumsily expressed. The quality of dosing devices and the safety of multidose bottles were not guaranteed. Patient information leaflets were more legible on the whole, but once again rather uninformative. All of these shortcomings put patients at risk. European measures concerning drug labelling have finally been transposed into French law, and have led to some improvements: the international nonproprietary name (INN) is more frequently displayed on primary packaging. The use of Braille on boxes and access to Braille package leaflets are increasing. The improved legibility of the labelling of ampoules containing certain dangerous injectable drugs, as recommended by the French drug regulatory agency (Afssaps), has become more widespread. In practice, healthcare professionals need to take action on packaging issues: by choosing the best packaging, reporting potential sources of confusion and error and informing patients.

  18. 2009: A Colliding-Wind Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahed, R.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Zorec, J.; Eversberg, T.; Chené, A. N.; Alves, F.; Arnold, W.; Bergmann, T.; Corcoran, M. F.; Correia Viegas, N. G.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fernando, A.; Frémat, Y.; Gouveia Carreira, L. F.; Hunger, T.; Knapen, J. H.; Leadbeater, R.; Marques Dias, F.; Martayan, C.; Morel, T.; Pittard, J. M.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Rauw, G.; Reinecke, N.; Ribeiro, J.; Romeo, N.; Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; dos Santos, E. M.; Schanne, L.; Stahl, O.; Stober, Ba.; Stober, Be.; Vollmann, K.; Williams, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results from two optical spectroscopic campaigns on colliding-wind binaries (CWB) which both occurred in 2009. The first one was on WR 140 (WC7pd + O5.5fc), the archetype of CWB, which experienced periastron passage of its highly elliptical 8-year orbit in January. The WR 140 campaign consisted of a unique and constructive collaboration between amateur and professional astronomers and took place at half a dozen locations, including Teide Observatory, Observatoire de Haute Provence, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic and at several small private observatories. The second campaign was on a selection of 5 short-period WR + O binaries not yet studied for colliding-wind effects: WR 12 (WN8h), WR 21 (WN5o + O7 V), WR 30 (WC6 + O7.5 V), WR 31 (WN4o + O8), and WR 47 (WN6o + O5). The campaign took place at Leoncito Observatory, Argentina, during 1 month. We provide updated values of most of these systems for the orbital parameters, new estimates for the WR and O star masses and new constraints on the mass-loss rates and colliding wind geometry.

  19. Session 21.8 - Challenges and Solutions to Light Pollution, RFI and Implementing IAU Resolution 2009 B5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The closing session included a panel on the challenge of raising cultural awareness of the negative effects of light pollution and RFI, and a discussion about the means to implement the IAU Resolution on the Right to Starlight. The strongest arguments to the public are that light pollution wastes precious energy and adds greenhouse gases, and that artificial light at night can be damaging to human health and to the natural environment. As astronomers, our community is concerned that the world is blinding itself to the electromagnetic radiation connecting us to the Universe. An outcome of successful advocacy would be to create demand for commercial products that minimize blue light and upward radiation. Implementation of the resolution on the Right to Starlight has multiple aspects. The IAU, through its site protection commission, should provide a clear technical description of "astronomy friendly" lighting and specifications for protection of the near zones around optical observatories. In addition, the commission should provide reference materials for astronomers giving public presentations, provide a forum for those seeking stronger local or national regulation, seek IAU approval for endorsement of protected status of sites and regions, and support the process of gaining UNESCO World Heritage Status for observatories and their regions.

  20. Kinetics of lung lesion development and pro-inflammatory cytokine response in pigs with vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease induced by challenge with pandemic (2009) A/H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Gauger, P C; Vincent, A L; Loving, C L; Henningson, J N; Lager, K M; Janke, B H; Kehrli, M E; Roth, J A

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this report was to characterize the enhanced clinical disease and lung lesions observed in pigs vaccinated with inactivated H1N2 swine δ-cluster influenza A virus and challenged with pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 human influenza virus. Eighty-four, 6-week-old, cross-bred pigs were randomly allocated into 3 groups of 28 pigs to represent vaccinated/challenged (V/C), non-vaccinated/challenged (NV/C), and non-vaccinated/non-challenged (NV/NC) control groups. Pigs were intratracheally inoculated with pH1N1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 5, and 21 days post inoculation (dpi). Macroscopically, V/C pigs demonstrated greater percentages of pneumonia compared to NV/C pigs. Histologically, V/C pigs demonstrated severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis accompanied by interlobular and alveolar edema and hemorrhage at 1 and 2 dpi. The magnitude of peribronchiolar lymphocytic cuffing was greater in V/C pigs by 5 dpi. Microscopic lung lesion scores were significantly higher in the V/C pigs at 2 and 5 dpi compared to NV/C and NV/NC pigs. Elevated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at all time points in V/C pigs compared to NV/C pigs. These data suggest H1 inactivated vaccines followed by heterologous challenge resulted in potentiated clinical signs and enhanced pulmonary lesions and correlated with an elevated proinflammatory cytokine response in the lung. The lung alterations and host immune response are consistent with the vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) clinical outcome observed reproducibly in this swine model.

  1. More on Evolution and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewsbury, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on the critiques of Tryon (2009a, this issue) and Cunningham (2009, this issue). These critiques provide an interesting contrast: one favoring greater reductionism and one favoring less. I consider each in turn. Tryon (2009a) again has addressed the issue of mechanisms in these pages (cf. Tryon, 2009b). The concepts of function and…

  2. Assessment of the selectivity of OPC-2009, a new β2-adrenoceptor stimulant, by the use of the blood-perfused trachea in situ and of the isolated blood-perfused papillary muscle of the dog

    PubMed Central

    Himori, N.; Taira, N.

    1977-01-01

    1 The potency and selectivity of 5-(1-hydroxy-2-isopropylamino)butyl-8-hydroxy carbostyril hydrochloride hemihydrate (OPC-2009), a new β2-adrenoceptor stimulant, was compared with those of isoprenaline, trimetoquinol and salbutamol by the use of blood-perfused tracheal preparations in situ and of blood-perfused papillary muscle preparations of the dog. All drugs were injected intra-arterially. 2 All the four drugs decreased tracheal intraluminal pressure (tracheal relaxation) and increased tracheal blood flow in a dose-dependent manner. The four drugs produced a dose-dependent increase in developed tension of papillary muscles. In both preparations the duration of action of isoprenaline and salbutamol was short, whereas that of OPC-2009 and trimetoquinol was long. These effects were antagonized by propranolol. 3 Dose-response curves to the four drugs for tracheal relaxation were almost parallel. OPC-2009 was 2.4 times more potent, and trimetoquinol and salbutamol were 2.2 and 6.2 times less potent than isoprenaline in causing tracheal relaxation. 4 Dose-response curves to the four drugs for tracheal vasodilatation were also parallel. OPC-2009, trimetoquinol and salbutamol were 3.9, 6.7 and 23 times less potent than isoprenaline. 5 Slopes of the dose-response curves to the four drugs for increased developed tension were not parallel; that of OPC-2009 was the least steep, whereas that of isoprenaline was the steepest. Trimetoquinol, salbutamol and OPC-2009 were about 18, 570 and 2400 times less potent than isoprenaline. 6 Selectivity calculated from relative potencies indicate that OPC-2009 was about 6000 times, salbutamol about 92 times and trimetoquinol about 8.2 times more selective than isoprenaline for tracheal smooth muscle as compared to ventricular muscle. 7 The high potency and selectivity of OPC-2009 for tracheal smooth muscle and its long duration of action suggest its potential usefulness for treatment of bronchial asthma. 8 The present results are also

  3. College Search Factors that Impact College Matriculation for African American Students: Implications for Policy and Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Brandi Nicole

    2010-01-01

    College access is a top educational priority in the United States as millions of federal and state dollars are funneled into programs to ensure college access for all students, minorities and low-income students in particular (U.S. Department of Education, 2009a; U.S. Department of Education, 2009b). Over 80% of high school students and their…

  4. Increasing Students' Involvement in Technology-Supported Mathematics Lesson Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prodromou, Theodosia; Lavicza, Zsolt; Koren, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to report on a pilot or proof of concept study with experienced Hungarian teachers who introduced mathematical concepts through a sequence of lessons utilising a pedagogical framework (Lavicza, Hohenwarter, Jones, Lu and Dawes, 2009a and Lavicza, Hohenwarter and Lu 2009b) for general technology integration. Our aim was to examine…

  5. A Response to Commentary on Faust, Bridges, and Ahern's (2009) "Methods for the Identification of Sexually Abused Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, David C.; Bridges, Ana J.; Faust, David

    2012-01-01

    Our series of three chapters (Faust, Bridges, & Ahern, 2009a, 2009b; Bridges, Faust, & Ahern, 2009) on the methodology of identifying sexually abused children elicited a number of comments, both supportive and critical. The criticisms appear related to three primary issues or apparent misconceptions of our work, perhaps due in part to incomplete…

  6. 75 FR 32295 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... D3454-05 (ASTM International 2009a). Radium-226. D2460-07 (ASTM International 2009b). Radium-226. D5174... Method for Radium-226 in Water. ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428... Method for Alpha-Particle-Emitting Isotopes of Radium in Water. ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor...

  7. Bilingual College Writers' Collaborative Writing of Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquinca, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Numerous researchers have studied bilingual students' performance on word problems given that reading and writing these requires that they draw on linguistic and mathematical knowledge (Barwell, 2009a, 2009b). Some researchers have studied how bilinguals write word problems in the second language, but few have considered how bilinguals use their…

  8. Incorporating Biological, Chemical and Toxicological Knowledge into Predictive Models of Toxicity: Letter to the Editor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thomas et al. (2012) recently published an evaluation of statistical models for classifying in vivo toxicity endpoints from ToxRefDB (Knudsen et al. 2009; Martin et al. 2009a and 2009b) using ToxCast in vitro bioactivity data (Judson et al. 2010) and chemical structure descriptor...

  9. The Future Starts Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panza, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    The fishbone diagram developed by Mariano Bernardez (2009a, 2009b) in the introductory article to this issue of "Performance Improvement Quarterly" depicts the origins and interrelationships of the models and approaches of many fields and researchers that have contributed to human performance technology (HPT) as it is used today. We can…

  10. Olgierd (Olek) Cecil Zienkiewicz (1921-2009): A Biographical Tribute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, D.; Owen, J.; Wood, Richard D.

    2010-06-01

    In this tribute the authors present a personal and academic biography of O. C. Zienkiewicz.(1921-2009) who is recognized as having been one of the pioneers of the Finite Element Method. O. C. Zienkiewicz co-authored the first text book on the method which was largely responsible for the introduction of the concept to a worldwide audience. His contribution to the computational mechanics community encompasses structural, geotechnical and fluid flow analysis as well as numerous fundamental finite element developments. This paper presents these achievements within the context of his life and includes personal recollections by the authors who were his colleagues.

  11. John N. Brady (1952-2009): a Generous Spirit

    PubMed Central

    Enquist, Lynn W.

    2009-01-01

    John N. Brady, Chief of the Virus Tumor Biology Section of the Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Institutes of Health, died of cancer on 27 April 2009. John was a stellar member of the virology community. He was a longtime Journal of Virology reviewer and a member of the editorial board. He will be missed. Fatah Kashanchi of the George Washington University Medical Center has written John's memorial. Fatah worked with John at the NIH and published more than 30 papers with him. Fatah thanks all the people who contributed to John's obituary, including Kuan-Teh Jeang, Lou Laimins, Mary Loeken, Renaud Mehieux, Paul Lambert, Graziella Piras, Scott Gitlin, Paul Lindholm, Nadia Rosenthal, Sergi Nekhai, Brian Wigdahl, David Price, Susan J. Marriott, Cynthia Masison, Jurgen Dittmer, Eric Verdin, Bassel E. Sawaya, and John's longtime assistants Janet Duvall Grimm and Michael Radonovich, who gave immense support to all the individuals who went through John's lab. PMID:19474098

  12. AASHE Digest 2009. A Review of Campus Sustainability News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Andrea, Comp.; Sweeney, Seann, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This paper includes over 1,250 stories that catalog a broadening and deepening commitment to campus sustainability by colleges and universities in the U.S. and Canada. The 380-page report categorizes stories from nearly 600 higher education institutions into 24 chapters, spanning education and research, campus operations, and administration and…

  13. Galileo and Darwin 2009: A Universe for life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego, F.

    2008-06-01

    The year 2009 offers a unique opportunity to celebrate some of the greatest achievements of humankind to unravel the secrets of nature. It will be 400 years since Galileo extended the human senses by opening a wider window to the Universe; it will be 200 years since Charles Darwin's birth and 150 years since the publication of The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. It will also mark the 40th anniversary of the first human steps on the lunar landscapes discovered by Galileo.

  14. Towards Year 2009, a 25 000 person rehearsal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro Gossman, Julieta; Espinosa, M.

    2008-05-01

    In this presentations we will talk about the way we planned and achieved successfully a 25 000 people observation in Mexico City downtown taking advantage of a lunar eclipse. We shall guide people so they think about their own activities. We shall mention the way we planned the event, carried out found raising and advertisement. We shall describe the way we handled people mainly during the observations with one hundred telescopes and parallel activities. These included: a public lecture enhanced with dance and hands-on demonstrations, workshops for children, workshops on the night sky, talking to an astronomer, how to handle a telescope and a picture exhibit as well as music till midnight. We shall also mentioned written materials for that particular event and for Year 2009, some of which were specially crafted for teachers. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Galileo y el telescopio, 400 anios de ciencia Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238-2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros I Correo del Maestro, Núm. 133, p. 15-26, Anios 12, Junio 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros II Correo del Maestro, Núm. 134, p. 17-26, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros III Correo del Maestro, Num. 135, p. 10-18, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Experimentos sobre la caida de los cuerpos El Correo del Maestro, anio 12 Numero 142, p. 5-18, 2008. Mariana Espinosa, Julieta Fierro y Silvia Torres Fiesta de estrellas El Correo del Maestro, aceptado para su publicacion.

  15. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  16. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, Roger G.; Comer, Patrick; Cress, Jill; Warner, Harumi

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with support from NatureServe, has modeled the potential distribution of 419 terrestrial ecosystems for the conterminous United States using a comprehensive biophysical stratification approach that identifies distinct biophysical environments and associates them with known vegetation distributions (Sayre and others, 2009). This standardized ecosystem mapping effort used an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe (Comer and others, 2003). The ecosystem mapping methodology was developed for South America (Sayre and others, 2008) and is now being implemented globally (Sayre and others, 2007). The biophysical stratification approach is based on mapping the major structural components of ecosystems (land surface forms, topographic moisture potential, surficial lithology, isobioclimates and biogeographic regions) and then spatially combining them to produce a set of unique biophysical environments. These physically distinct areas are considered as the fundamental structural units ('building blocks') of ecosystems, and are subsequently aggregated and labeled using the NatureServe classification. The structural footprints were developed from the geospatial union of several base layers including biogeographic regions, isobioclimates (Cress and others, 2009a), land surface forms (Cress and others, 2009b), topographic moisture potential (Cress and others, 2009c), and surficial lithology (Cress and others, in press). Among the 49,168 unique structural footprint classes that resulted from the union, 13,482 classes met a minimum pixel count threshold (20,000 pixels) and were aggregated into 419 NatureServe ecosystems using a semiautomated labeling process based on rule-set formulations for attribution of each ecosystem. The resulting ecosystems are those that are expected to occur based on the combination of the bioclimate, biogeography, and geomorphology. Where land use by humans has not altered land cover, natural vegetation

  17. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2010-09-29

    west of the Columbia River. The Wooded Island events recorded this quarter were a continuation of the swarm events observed during the 2009 and 2010 fiscal years and reported in previous quarterly and annual reports (Rohay et al; 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2010a, and 2010b). All events were considered minor (coda-length magnitude [Mc] less than 1.0) with a maximum depth estimated at 1.7 km. Based upon this quarters activity it is likely that the Wooded Island swarm has subsided. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will continue to monitor for activity at this location.

  18. Developing Wide-Spectrum Antiproteotoxicity Agents to Treat ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    phenotypes in C. elegans and mouse models of ALS. Progress Report Wang, Jiou 5 Overview: In this Aim, we hypothesize that increased HSF -1...2009a; Wang et al., 2009b). In a related finding, a reduction in HSF -1 activity dramatically precipitated neuronal toxicity in TDP-43 transgenic C...Fiesel et al., 2010; Sephton et al., 2010; Wu et al., 2010). Previously, we made an observation of genetic interaction between TDP-43 and HSF -1

  19. Reliability beyond Theory and into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    The critical reactions of Bentler (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9100-1), Green and Yang (2009a, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9098-4 ; 2009b, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9099-3), and Revelle and Zinbarg (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9102-z) to Sijtsma's (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0) paper on Cronbach's alpha are addressed. The dissemination of…

  20. Assessing the State of Procurement Knowledge Production: Implications for the Federal Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-31

    graduation from the Acquisition and Contract Management MBA Program at the NPS in December 2011, Capt Haile will report to the Electronic Systems Center as a...Office (GAO) has constantly identified systemic weaknesses in key areas of federal procurement (GAO, 2005). These weaknesses include the poor use of...procurement knowledge management systems (GAO, 2009b), the poor use of award fee contracts (GAO, 2009a), lack of training and understaffed acquisition

  1. The new July meteor shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladek, Przemyslaw; Wisniewski, Mariusz

    2012-12-01

    Conference, Oostmalle, Belgium, 15-18 September 2005, pages 135-138. IMO. SonotaCo (2009a). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 37:2, 55-62. SonotaCo (2009b). "SonotaCo Network simultaneously observed meteor data sets SNM2007A". http://sonotaco.jp/doc/SNM/. SonotaCo (2009c). "SonotaCo Network simultaneously observed meteor data sets SNM2008A". http://sonotaco.jp/doc/SNM/. SonotaCo (2010). "SonotaCo Network simultaneously observed meteor data sets SNM2009B". http://sonotaco.jp/doc/SNM/. Ueda M. (2012). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 40:2, 59-64. Segon D., Andreic Z., Korlevic K., Gural P., Novoselnik F., Vida D., and Skokic I. (2012). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 40:6, 195-200. Wisniewski M., Kedzierski P., Mularczyk K., and Zloczewski K. (2003). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 31:1, 33-34.

  2. Winning the War on Drugs in Mexico? Toward an Integrated Approach to the Illegal Drug Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    html?page=docu mentos-pdf 91 Estados Unidos Mexicanos Presidencia de la República. (2009a). Solicitud de información pública número de folio...Presidencia de la República. (2009b). Solicitud de información pública número de folio 0210000033109. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from https...2009a). Solicitud de información pública número de folio 0001700015009. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from https://www.infomex.org.mx/gobiernofederal

  3. Segregation by Poverty in Secondary Schools in England 2006-2009: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shou Chen; Gorard, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This research note shows that secondary school segregation by poverty in England has recently started declining again. By comparing the long-term pattern of school compositions with an economic indicator, it is possible to link this decline to the recession, but only if a further, and contentious, assumption is made about what happened in the…

  4. Pathfinder, Volume 7, Number 3, May/June 2009. A Historic Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    with the agency’s standard Digital A mapping camera like this one captured images of the lunar surface that NIMA, now NGA, converted into the first... lunar globe. 14 Pa th fin de r › › M ay /J un e 20 09 Terrain Elevation Data, DTED®, protocols. With the completion of all related tasks in 2004...quickly discover the kind of camera used in conjunction with NASA to capture surface images of the moon that NIMA converted into the first lunar globe

  5. State Education Agencies & Learning Supports: Enhancing School Improvement, Spring 2009. A Policy and Practice Analysis Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the focus on school improvement at a state education agency moves from mostly a compliance approach to playing a greater role in capacity building, the agency's leadership needs to rethink student and learning supports. That is the focus of this report. Given that almost half of the chief state school officers have assumed their position in the…

  6. Trachoma surveillance in Australia, 2009. A report by the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kristie S; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Taylor, Hugh

    2010-12-01

    Trachoma is highly prevalent in remote Indigenous communities in Australia. The National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit was established in 2006 as a result of a Federal Government initiative to provide comprehensive surveillance data from regional and remote Indigenous communities considered by the jurisdictional population health staff to be 'At Risk' for endemic trachoma, defined as a trachoma prevalence of 5% or more. This report details the findings from the 2009 trachoma screening program together with trends in trachoma prevalence and screening coverage since 2006. Aboriginal children aged 1-9 years resident in At Risk communities were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified trachoma grading criteria. In the Northern Territory, screening was conducted by staff from the Healthy School Age Kids program and the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. In South Australia, screening was conducted by the Eye Health and Chronic Disease Specialist Support Program and a team of visiting ophthalmologists and optometrists. In Western Australia, screening was conducted by staff from State Government population health units and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. In the Northern Territory, 53 of 86 At Risk communities were screened and data were reported for 2283 children. In South Australia, 12 of 72 At Risk communities were screened and data were reported for 149 children. In Western Australia, 68 of 74 At Risk communities were screened and data were reported for 1684 children. The prevalence of active trachoma ranged from 1%-44% in the Northern Territory, 0%-57% in South Australia and 13%-15% in Western Australia. Trend analysis across all three jurisdictions combined found that neither the prevalence of trachoma nor community screening coverage changed significantly between 2006 and 2009. When trend analysis was "done by jurisdiction, there was a significant decrease in trachoma prevalence and a significant increase in community screening coverage only for Western Australia over the same 4 year period. The implementation of the and Environmental improvement (SAFE) strategy has been variable. Surgery referral processes for trichiasis were reported as available in all screened communities in the Northern Territory and South Australia but only in 35% of screened communities in Western Australia. Antibiotics were distributed according to Communicable Diseases Network Australia guidelines in 89% of communities where treatment was indicated. Facial cleanliness programs and resources were reported as poorly implemented in South Australia and Western Australia while minimal data were reported for environmental conditions in all jurisdictions. No significant change was found in bacterial resistance to azithromycin from 2007 to 2009. Significant gaps remain in community screening coverage and in the full implementation of the SAFE strategy. However, the parallel increase in community screening coverage and decrease in trachoma prevalence in Western Australia suggests that the SAFE strategy might have had an effect in reducing trachoma prevalence in that jurisdiction.

  7. Temporal trends in vascular trauma in Ontario, 1991-2009: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Altoijry, Abdulmajeed; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Johnston, K. Wayne; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lindsay, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vascular injuries add substantial complexity to trauma care, yet Canadian epidemiologic data on such injuries are not readily available. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to examine temporal trends in the rate of hospital admissions for vascular injuries from 1991 to 2009 in Ontario. Methods: Individuals of any age admitted to hospital because of vascular trauma in Ontario were included. Details of vascular injury and patient demographic characteristics were recorded, hospital admission rates estimated and analyses stratified by sex, age, mechanism of injury, economic status and geographic location. Time-series analysis was used to examine trends in hospital admission rates. Results: Of the 8252 hospital admissions for vascular trauma, 4287 (52.0%) involved injuries to the upper limb and 1819 (22.0%) were due to transport-related causes. Overall, the annual rate declined significantly over time, from 3.3 per 100 000 in 1991 to 2.7 per 100 000 in 2009 (p < 0.01). The subgroups with the highest rates were young men, patients with a low economic status and those living in a rural location. Declines occurred in both sexes and in all age groups except those 65 years and older. The rates of vascular injury to the neck, thorax, upper limbs and lower limbs declined over time, but not the rate of abdominal vascular injury. Although the rate of non-transport-related vascular injuries declined, the rate of transport-related vascular injuries did not change significantly over time. Decreases in annual rates occurred in both low- and high-economic status groups and in urban populations but not in rural populations. Interpretation: Overall, the annual rate of hospital admissions for vascular trauma declined significantly in Ontario over the study period. Our findings have important implications for public health and the development of injury-prevention strategies, particularly for population subgroups at high risk of vascular injury. PMID:27398379

  8. The landscape in 2009: a conversation with Bruce C. Vladeck, by Birnbaum Michael.

    PubMed

    Vladeck, Bruce C

    2009-06-01

    Michael Birnbaum interviews Bruce C. Vladeck about the landscape for national health reform in 2009. Vladeck, who worked under President Clinton directing Medicare and Medicaid as administrator of the Health Care Financing Administration, discusses some of the challenges and opportunities facing the Obama administration. By comparing the current political and economic environments with those he faced while working in the Clinton administration, Vladeck argues that this time around America might be ready for pragmatic reforms leading toward universal coverage. He explores the future of employer-based coverage; problems and solutions for America's aging workforce; poor customer service in Medicare; the "Medicaid Stigma"; the promise of immigration; and the trade-offs between access, quality, and cost in the American system. Finally, Vladeck offers a silver lining to the current economic catastrophe. As he sees it, common sense and results may be taking the place of ideology in policy making and policy analysis: "The intellectual hegemony of neoclassical economics has been blown out of the water."

  9. Pattern of homicidal deaths autopsied at Penang Hospital, Malaysia, 2007-2009: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bhupinder, S; Kumara, T K; Syed, A M

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the homicide pattern in Penang Island, Malaysia over a three-year period (2007-2009). 65 homicide autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Penang Hospital over the study period. The homicide rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.09/1000 population, the highest being in the Indian ethnic group. The majority (37%) of victims were in the 20-39 years age group. The male: female ratio was 3:1. The majority of deaths were caused by blunt instruments (46%), followed by stab/slash wounds (25%) and asphyxiation (12%). 63% of homicides occurred in areas served by the police stations at Jalan Patani (23.1%), Sg. Nibong (16.9%), Central (12.3%) and Bayan Lepas (10.9%). 56 (86%) victims were brought in dead to the hospital, while 9 (14%) died after admission. Most (39%) incidences occurred in the morning. The methods of homicide were different from Kuala Lumpur, another highly urbanised area of Malaysia.

  10. Blepharitis in the United States 2009: a survey-based perspective on prevalence and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lemp, Michael A; Nichols, Kelly K

    2009-04-01

    ABSTRACT Like dry eye disease 15 years ago, blepharitis today is a poorly defined condition about which there is considerable misunderstanding. For a variety of reasons, there is little good data on either the prevalence of blepharitis or how eyecare practitioners currently treat it. The work reported herein consists of two recent studies: a telephone survey of a representative sample of the adult US population (n = 5,000) whose purpose was to discover the frequency of common ocular surface symptoms associated with blepharitis; and a study that queried a selected group of ophthalmologists (n = 120) and a similarly selected group of optometrists (n = 84) about the frequency of blepharitis in their practices, the existence comorbid conditions, and their management strategies. This data suggests that blepharitis symptoms are very common in the US population, with younger individuals reporting more, and more frequent, symptoms than older people, contrary to clinical dogma. Ophthalmologists and optometrists report that blepharitis is commonly seen in clinical practice in 37% and 47% of their patients, respectively, and it is widely agreed that meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the most common cause of evaporative dry eye disease. In addition, management paradigms are shifting away from more traditional management with antibiotic ointment and warm compress therapy to prescription therapy for anterior and posterior blepharitis.

  11. Dynamics of HPV vaccination initiation in Flanders (Belgium) 2007-2009: a Cox regression model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated dynamic patterns and predictors of HPV vaccination initiation in Flanders (Belgium) by girls aged 12 to 18, between 2007 and 2009, the period immediately after the introduction of the HPV vaccines on the Belgian market. During this period the initiative for vaccination was taken by the girl, her family or the general practitioner/pediatrician/gynecologist. Methods We used a Cox regression model with time constant and time varying predictors to model hazard rates of HPV vaccination initiation. The sample existed of 117,151 female members of the National Alliance of Christian Mutualities, the largest sickness fund in Flanders. Results The study showed that the hazard of HPV vaccination initiation was higher (1) for older girls, (2) for girls with a more favorable socio-economic background, (3) under more generous reimbursement regimes (with this effect being more pronounced for girls with weak socioeconomic backgrounds), (4) for girls that were informed personally about the reimbursement rules. Conclusions When the initiative for HPV vaccination lies with the girls, their families or the physicians (no organized setting) the uptake of the vaccines is affected by both individual and organizational factors. PMID:21672202

  12. The State of Educational Data Mining in 2009: A Review and Future Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S. J. D.; Yacef, Kalina

    2009-01-01

    We review the history and current trends in the field of Educational Data Mining (EDM). We consider the methodological profile of research in the early years of EDM, compared to in 2008 and 2009, and discuss trends and shifts in the research conducted by this community. In particular, we discuss the increased emphasis on prediction, the emergence…

  13. The Florida Education Finance Program from 1981 to 2009: A Historical Review and Equity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Curtis Todd

    2009-01-01

    In 1973, the state of Florida implemented the Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP). The program was developed to distribute available funds to public school districts in a more equitable manner than the Minimum Foundation Plan it replaced. Almost immediately, the Florida Education Finance Program came under attack as less equitable and…

  14. Secure Grid 2009. A DHS-DOE-DOD Joint Exercise, 9 and 10 July 09

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Transmission owned by over 500 independent companies. Generation supplied by over 3000 utilities. 10 Grid Infrastructure Circuit Breakers High Voltage...10M transformer* Substation Remotely located poorly protected. CB = Circuit Breaker (remotely operable) HV Transmission Lines Chain link fence...Utility City Towns Industry 18 EHV Circuit Breakers 19 3 Phase Circuit Breaker Operation +5000v -5000v v1 = +5000 vac +5000v -5000v Power Plant Grid In

  15. Brucellosis outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon in 2009: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaar, L; Chaaya, M; Ghosn, N; Mahfoud, Z

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with brucellosis infection in an outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon during summer 2009. Cases of brucellosis reported to the Ministry of Public Health were identified, and for each case 2 controls were matched by sex, age and residence. Sociodemographic data, exposure to animals and animal products, knowledge about brucellosis, symptoms and history of past brucellosis infections were collected. Consumption of raw cheese was a significant risk factor for contracting brucellosis (matched OR = 29.5), whereas wearing gloves when in contact with animals and animal products and self-preparing dairy products were protective factors (OR = 0.08 and 0.13 respectively). Low and inaccurate knowledge about brucellosis was prevalent among subjects, with a common misconception about human-human transmission. Ensuring animal vaccination, educating people on correct ways of milk pasteurization and handling meat products, and elevating food safety monitoring threshold are key elements in controlling brucellosis.

  16. Experimental Challenge with Two Isolates of 2009 A/H1N1 in Weaned Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species (1). Although the hemagglutinin gene is relate...

  17. Enhanced Pneumonia With Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in the major swine producing regions of North America consist of multiple subtypes of endemic H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (1). Genetic drift and r...

  18. Cellulite and extracorporeal Shockwave therapy (CelluShock-2009) - a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cellulite is a widespread problem involving females' buttocks and thighs based on the female specific anatomy. Given the higher number of fat cells stored in female fatty tissue in contrast to males, and the aging process of connective tissue leads to an imbalance between lipogenesis and lipolysis with subsequent large fat cells bulging the skin. In addition, microcirculatory changes have been suggested, however remain largely unknown in a controlled clinical setting. We hypothesize that the combination of extracorporeal shockwave and a daily gluteal muscle strength program is superior to the gluteal muscle strength program alone in cellulite. Methods/Design Study design: Randomized-controlled trial. IRB approval was granted at Hannover Medical School, Germany on May 22, 2009. For allocation of participants, a 1:1 ratio randomization was performed using opaque envelopes for the concealment of allocation. Reporting: according to CONSORT 2010. Eligible patients were females aged 18 or over and 65 or younger with cellulite with documented cellulite 1°-4° according to the Nürnberger score. Exclusion criteria were suspected or evident pregnancy, no cellulite, no informed consent or age under 18 years or above 65 years. Patients were recruited by advertisements in local regional newspapers and via the Internet. Analysis: Intention-to-treat. Outcome parameters: a) Photonumeric severity scale, b) Nürnberger Score, c) circumference measurements, d) capillary blood flow, e) tissue oxygen saturation, f) postcapillary venous blood flow. Intervention group: Six sessions of extracorporeal focused shock wave for six sessions (2000 impulses, 0,25 mJ/m2 every 1-2 weeks) at both gluteal and thigh regions plus a specific gluteal strength exercise training. Control group: Six sessions of sham extracorporeal focused shock wave for six sessions (2000 impulses, 0,01 mJ/m2 every 1-2 weeks) at both gluteal and thigh regions plus a specific gluteal strength exercise training. Follow-up: 12 weeks. Blinding was achieved for all participants enrolled in the trial, the photograph taking the digital images for the primary outcome measure, the two assessors of the outcome measures, all additional health care providers and for the analyst from the biometrical department. Only one researcher (BJ) was aware of the group assignment performing the randomisation and the extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Discussion This randomised-controlled trial will provide much needed evidence on the clinical effectiveness of focused extracorporal shock wave therapy as an adjunct to gluteal strength training in females suffering cellulite. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00947414 PMID:20977764

  19. Changes in malaria morbidity and mortality in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa (2001- 2009): a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a serious epidemic threat in Mpumalanga Province. In order to appropriately target interventions to achieve substantial reduction in the burden of malaria and ultimately eliminate the disease, there is a need to track progress of malaria control efforts by assessing the time trends and evaluating the impact of current control interventions. This study aimed to assess the changes in the burden of malaria in Mpumalanga Province during the past eight malaria seasons (2001/02 to 2008/09) and whether indoor residual spraying (IRS) and climate variability had an effect on these changes. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective study based on the analysis of secondary malaria surveillance data (cases and deaths) in Mpumalanga Province. Data were extracted from the Integrated Malaria Information System. Time series model (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) was used to assess the association between climate and malaria. Results Within the study period, a total of 35,191 cases and 164 deaths due to malaria were notified in Mpumalanga Province. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of malaria from 385 in 2001/02 to 50 cases per 100,000 population in 2008/09 (P < 0.005). The incidence and case fatality (CFR) rates for the study period were 134 cases per 100,000 and 0.54%, respectively. Mortality due to malaria was lower in infants and children (CFR < 0.5%) and higher in those >65 years, with the mean CFR of 2.1% as compared to the national target of 0.5%. A distinct seasonal transmission pattern was found to be significantly related to changes in rainfall patterns (P = 0.007). A notable decline in malaria case notification was observed following apparent scale-up of IRS coverage from 2006/07 to 2008/09 malaria seasons. Conclusions Mpumalanga Province has achieved the goal of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality by over 70%, partly as a result of scale-up of IRS intervention in combination with other control strategies. These results highlight the need to continue with IRS together with other control strategies until interruption in local malaria transmission is completely achieved. However, the goal to eliminate malaria as a public health problem requires efforts to be directed towards the control of imported malaria cases; development of strategies to interrupt local transmission; and maintaining high quality surveillance and reporting system. PMID:22239855

  20. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2010-12-01

    Recent geophysical studies have provided important constraints on the deep structure and origin of the active intraplate volcanoes in Mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab (e.g., Zhao et al., 2009a), while the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi) are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well (Zhao et al., 2009b). The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate) (Lei et al., 2009a). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle (Lei et al., 2009b; Zhao, 2009). The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab-plume interactions (Zhao, 2009). References Lei, J., D. Zhao, Y. Su, 2009a. Insight into the origin of the Tengchong intraplate volcano and seismotectonics in southwest China from local and teleseismic data. J. Geophys. Res. 114, B05302. Lei, J., D. Zhao, B. Steinberger et al., 2009b. New seismic constraints on the upper mantle structure of the Hainan plume. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 33-50. Zhao, D., 2009. Multiscale seismic tomography and mantle dynamics. Gondwana Res. 15, 297-323. Zhao, D., Z. Wang, N. Umino, A. Hasegawa, 2009a. Mapping the mantle wedge and interplate thrust zone of the northeast Japan arc. Tectonophysics 467, 89-106. Zhao, D., Y. Tian, J. Lei, L. Liu, 2009b. Seismic

  1. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Devary, Joseph L.; Hartshorn, Donald C.

    2010-12-27

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. During FY 2010, the Hanford Seismic Network recorded 873 triggers on the seismometer system, which included 259 seismic events in the southeast Washington area and an additional 324 regional and teleseismic events. There were 210 events determined to be local earthquakes relevant to the Hanford Site. One hundred and fifty-five earthquakes were detected in the vicinity of Wooded Island, located about eight miles north of Richland just west of the Columbia River. The Wooded Island events recorded this fiscal year were a continuation of the swarm events observed during fiscal year 2009 and reported in previous quarterly and annual reports (Rohay et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2010a, 2010b, and 2010c). Most events were considered minor (coda-length magnitude [Mc] less than 1.0) with the largest event recorded on February 4, 2010 (3.0Mc). The estimated depths of the Wooded Island events are shallow (averaging approximately 1.5 km deep) placing the swarm within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Based upon the last two quarters (Q3 and Q4) data, activity at the Wooded Island

  2. Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2010-06-30

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 90 local earthquakes during the second quarter of FY 2010. Eighty-one of these earthquakes were detected in the vicinity of Wooded Island, located about eight miles north of Richland just west of the Columbia River. The Wooded Island events recorded this quarter were a continuation of the swarm events observed during the 2009 and 2010 fiscal years and reported in previous quarterly and annual reports (Rohay et al; 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, and 2010). Most of the events were considered minor (coda-length magnitude [Mc] less than 1.0) with only 1 event in the 2.0-3.0 range; the maximum magnitude event (3.0 Mc) occurred February 4, 2010 at depth 2.4 km. The average depth of the Wooded Island events during the quarter was 1.6 km with a maximum depth estimated at 3.5 km. This placed the Wooded Island events within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The low magnitude of the Wooded Island events has made them undetectable to all but local area residents. The Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer (SMA) network was triggered several times

  3. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2010-03-29

    The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 81 local earthquakes during the first quarter of FY 2010. Sixty-five of these earthquakes were detected in the vicinity of Wooded Island, located about eight miles north of Richland just west of the Columbia River. The Wooded Island events recorded this quarter is a continuation of the swarm events observed during fiscal year 2009 and reported in previous quarterly and annual reports (Rohay et al; 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, and 2009d). Most of the events were considered minor (coda-length magnitude [Mc] less than 1.0) with only 1 event in the 2.0-3.0 range; the maximum magnitude event (2.5 Mc) occurred on December 22 at depth 2.1 km. The average depth of the Wooded Island events during the quarter was 1.4 km with a maximum depth estimated at 3.1 km. This placed the Wooded Island events within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The low magnitude of the Wooded Island events has made them undetectable to all but local area residents. The Hanford SMA network was triggered several times by these events and the SMA recordings are discussed in section 6.0. During the last year some Hanford employees working within a few miles of the swarm area and individuals living directly across the Columbia River from the swarm center have reported feeling many of the larger magnitude events. Strong motion accelerometer (SMA) units installed directly above the swarm area at ground surface measured peak ground accelerations approaching 15% g, the largest values recorded at Hanford. This corresponds to strong shaking of the ground, consistent with what people in the local area have reported. However, the duration and magnitude of these swarm events should not result in any structural damage to facilities. The USGS performed a geophysical survey using satellite

  4. Implementation of a model of bodily fluids regulation.

    PubMed

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie; Thomas, S Randall

    2015-09-01

    The classic model of blood pressure regulation by Guyton et al. (Annu Rev Physiol 34:13-46, 1972a; Ann Biomed Eng 1:254-281, 1972b) set a new standard for quantitative exploration of physiological function and led to important new insights, some of which still remain the focus of debate, such as whether the kidney plays the primary role in the genesis of hypertension (Montani et al. in Exp Physiol 24:41-54, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:382-388, 2009b; Osborn et al. in Exp Physiol 94:389-396, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:388-389, 2009b). Key to the success of this model was the fact that the authors made the computer code (in FORTRAN) freely available and eventually provided a convivial user interface for exploration of model behavior on early microcomputers (Montani et al. in Int J Bio-med Comput 24:41-54, 1989). Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979) developed an offshoot of the Guyton model targeting especially the regulation of body fluids and acid-base balance; their model provides extended renal and respiratory functions and would be a good basis for further extensions. In the interest of providing a simple, useable version of Ikeda et al.'s model and to facilitate further such extensions, we present a practical implementation of the model of Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979), using the ODE solver Berkeley Madonna.

  5. Imported Malaria in Portugal 2000–2009: A Role for Hospital Statistics for Better Estimates and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Sara S.; Baptista, João Luis; Torgal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although eradicated in Portugal, malaria keeps taking its toll on travelers and migrants from endemic countries. Disease notification is mandatory but is compromised by underreporting. Methods. A retrospective study on malaria hospitalizations for 10 consecutive years (2000–2009) was conducted. Data on hospitalizations and notifications were obtained from Central Administration of Health System and Health Protection Agency, respectively. For data selection ICD-9 CM and ICD-10 were used: codes 084*, 647.4, and B50–B54. Variables were gender, age, agent and origin of infection, length of stay (LOS), lethality, and comorbidities. Analysis included description, hypothesis testing, and regression. Results. There were 2003 malaria hospitalizations and 480 notified hospitalized cases, mainly in young male adults. P. falciparum was the main agent of infection acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Lethality was 1.95% and mean LOS was 8.09 days. Older age entailed longer LOS and increased lethality. Discussion. From 2000 to 2009, there were 2003 malaria hospitalizations with decreasing annual incidence, these numbers being remarkably higher than those notified. The national database of diagnosis related groups, reflecting hospitalizations on NHS hospitals, may be an unexplored complementary source for better estimates on imported malaria. PMID:25548715

  6. RISK OF LATE INTRAOCULAR LENS DISLOCATION AFTER CATARACT SURGERY, 1980–2009: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pueringer, Sam L.; Hodge, David O.; Erie, Jay C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the long-term cumulative risk of late posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation after cataract extraction in a population-based cohort. Design Retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study Methods The records of all residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota who had cataract extraction from January 1, 1980 through May 31, 2009 (14,471 cases in 9,577 residents) and were diagnosed with late posterior chamber IOL dislocation in the same period were reviewed. Cases were identified through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Three controls chosen from the cataract surgery cohort were matched to each IOL dislocation case by age, gender, and duration of follow-up. Records were reviewed to confirm case status and ascertain risk factor information. The cumulative risk of IOL dislocation was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Logistic regression models assessed differences between cases and controls. Results We identified 16 cases of late posterior chamber IOL dislocation, 9 with in-the-bag dislocations and 7 with out-of-the bag dislocations. At 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after cataract extraction, the cumulative risk of IOL dislocation was 0.1%, 0.1%. 0.2%, 0.7%, and 1.7%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the risk of late IOL dislocation after extracapsular cataract extraction when compared to phacoemulsification (P=0.21), or between different decades of surgery (P=0.92). Pseudoexfoliation and zonular laxity at surgery were associated significantly with late IOL dislocation (P=0.01). Conclusions The long-term cumulative risk of late IOL dislocation after cataract extraction was low and did not significantly change over our nearly 30-year study period. PMID:21683329

  7. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.49 %…

  8. Influenza vaccination in the Americas: Progress and challenges after the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Ropero-Álvarez, Alba María; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Kurtis, Hannah Jane; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There has been considerable uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Americas compared to other regions. We describe the current influenza vaccination target groups, recent progress in vaccine uptake and in generating evidence on influenza seasonality and vaccine effectiveness for immunization programs. We also discuss persistent challenges, 5 years after the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic. Methods: We compiled and summarized data annually reported by countries to the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) through the WHO/UNICEF joint report form on immunization, information obtained through PAHO's Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement and communications with managers of national Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI). Results: Since 2008, 25 countries/territories in the Americas have introduced new target groups for vaccination or expanded the age ranges of existing target groups. As of 2014, 40 (89%) out of 45 countries/territories have policies established for seasonal influenza vaccination. Currently, 29 (64%) countries/territories target pregnant women for vaccination, the highest priority group according to WHO´s Stategic Advisory Group of Experts and PAHO/WHO's Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine-preventable Diseases, compared to only 7 (16%) in 2008. Among 23 countries reporting coverage data, on average, 75% of adults ≥60 years, 45% of children aged 6–23 months, 32% of children aged 5–2 years, 59% of pregnant women, 78% of healthcare workers, and 90% of individuals with chronic conditions were vaccinated during the 2013–14 Northern Hemisphere or 2014 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccination activities. Difficulties however persist in the estimation of vaccination coverage, especially for pregnant women and persons with chronic conditions. Since 2007, 6 tropical countries have changed their vaccine formulation from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere formulation and the timing of their campaigns to April-May following the review of national evidence. LAC countries have also established an official network dedicated to evaluating influenza vaccines effectiveness and impact. Conclusion: Following the A(H1N1)2009 influenza pandemic, countries of the Americas have continued their efforts to sustain or increase seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among high risk groups, especially among pregnant women. Countries also continued strengthening influenza surveillance, immunization platforms and information systems, indirectly improving preparedness for future pandemics. Influenza vaccination is particularly challenging compared to other vaccines included in EPI schedules, due to the need for annual, optimally timed vaccination, the wide spectrum of target groups, and the limitations of the available vaccines. Countries should continue to monitor influenza vaccination coverage, generate evidence for vaccination programs and implement social communication strategies addressing existing gaps. PMID:27196006

  9. Survey of the States: Economic, Personal Finance & Entrepreneurship Education in Our Nation's Schools in 2009. A Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Economic Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Survey of the States is a bi-annual report that documents the state of economic, personal finance and entrepreneurship education in the fifty states (and the District of Columbia), conducted by the Council for Economic Education and sponsored by State Farm Insurance Companies. This report presents summary findings as well as state-by-state…

  10. Research Trends in Technology-Based Learning from 2000 to 2009: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yu-Chen; Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a content analysis of studies in technology-based learning (TBL) that were published in five Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) journals (i.e. "the British Journal of Educational Technology, Computers & Education, Educational Technology Research & Development, Educational Technology & Society, the Journal of Computer…

  11. Market Perception of Consolidations in the European Defense Industry from 2001 to 2009 a Case of Event Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Marconi Systems, Matra BAe Dynamics (MBD), and formed MBDA. In June 2003 EADS acquired total ownership of Astrium , a space and satellite manufacturer...to create EADS Astrium . In October 2006 EADS acquired BAE’s share in Airbus and became the sole owner of the company. In December 2005 EADS joined...of ASTRIUM from BAE Systems. The first step is to calculate the daily arithmetic returns for both the stock price of EADS and the EURONEXT 100 index

  12. Stability and Change in New York State Regents Mathematics Examinations, 1866-2009: A Socio-Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Robert Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation illuminates relationships between micro-level practices of schools and macro-level structures of society through the socio-historical lens of New York State Regents mathematics examinations, which were administered to public school students throughout the State of New York between 1866 and 2009, inclusive. Fundamental research…

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days) in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD) (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good) were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1) times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly associated with frequent insufficient sleep during adulthood in this population. ACEs could be potential indicators promoting further investigation of sleep insufficiency, along with consideration of FMD and smoking. PMID:23286392

  14. Web 2.0 and Its Use in Higher Education from 2007-2009: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Kalk, Debby; Kinney, Lance; Orr, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature on Web 2.0 uses in higher education from 2007-2009. The goals of this review were (1) to identify what Web 2.0 technologies were used in college level instruction, and (2) to examine any research evidence that Web 2.0 technologies could enhance teaching and learning. Conference proceedings from 2007 to 2009…

  15. Real-time numerical forecast of global epidemic spreading: case study of 2009 A/H1N1pdm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematical and computational models for infectious diseases are increasingly used to support public-health decisions; however, their reliability is currently under debate. Real-time forecasts of epidemic spread using data-driven models have been hindered by the technical challenges posed by parameter estimation and validation. Data gathered for the 2009 H1N1 influenza crisis represent an unprecedented opportunity to validate real-time model predictions and define the main success criteria for different approaches. Methods We used the Global Epidemic and Mobility Model to generate stochastic simulations of epidemic spread worldwide, yielding (among other measures) the incidence and seeding events at a daily resolution for 3,362 subpopulations in 220 countries. Using a Monte Carlo Maximum Likelihood analysis, the model provided an estimate of the seasonal transmission potential during the early phase of the H1N1 pandemic and generated ensemble forecasts for the activity peaks in the northern hemisphere in the fall/winter wave. These results were validated against the real-life surveillance data collected in 48 countries, and their robustness assessed by focusing on 1) the peak timing of the pandemic; 2) the level of spatial resolution allowed by the model; and 3) the clinical attack rate and the effectiveness of the vaccine. In addition, we studied the effect of data incompleteness on the prediction reliability. Results Real-time predictions of the peak timing are found to be in good agreement with the empirical data, showing strong robustness to data that may not be accessible in real time (such as pre-exposure immunity and adherence to vaccination campaigns), but that affect the predictions for the attack rates. The timing and spatial unfolding of the pandemic are critically sensitive to the level of mobility data integrated into the model. Conclusions Our results show that large-scale models can be used to provide valuable real-time forecasts of influenza spreading, but they require high-performance computing. The quality of the forecast depends on the level of data integration, thus stressing the need for high-quality data in population-based models, and of progressive updates of validated available empirical knowledge to inform these models. PMID:23237460

  16. News and Views: Teenage team traces terminal tracks; Outreach after IYA2009 - a school project; School seismometers; Clocking pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    Digital cameras - inspired, of course, by astronomical research - are now ubiquitous. It seems that nothing happens anywhere in the world without it being recorded by a teenager and promptly uploaded to the net. This truism now extends to the edge of the atmosphere: a group of high-school students has recorded a video of the re-entry and disintegration of the Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa, from a plane over the Australian outback. International Year of Astronomy 2009 was a catalyst for astronomical societies and groups worldwide to do a bit more to engage the general public - but in many cases IYA2009 was only the start of a new enthusiasm for astronomy. This is the case for one state secondary school, whose outreach work is going from strength to strength.

  17. Risk factors for acute hepatitis A infection in Korea in 2007 and 2009: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joo Youn; Choi, Bo Youl; Ki, Moran; Jang, Hye Lim; Park, Hee Suk; Son, Hyun Jin; Bae, Si Hyun; Kang, Jin Han; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Jin-Woo; Hong, Young Jin; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Chang-Hwi; Chang, U Im; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Kim, Hong Soo; Park, Kyeong Bae; Hwang, Jae Seok; Heo, Jeong; Kim, In Hee; Kim, Jung Soo; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the Korean population. Participants were recruited from five referral hospitals across the country in 2007 and from 11 hospitals in 2009. Patients with positive anti-HAV IgM antibody tests became the case group, while patients treated for non-contagious diseases at the same hospitals were recruited as controls. A total of 222 and 548 case-control pairs were studied in the 2007 and 2009 surveys, respectively. Data from the surveys were analyzed jointly. In a multivariate analysis, sharing the household with HAV-infected family members (OR, 6.32; 95% CI, 1.4-29.6), contact with other HAV-infected individuals (OR, 4.73; 95% CI, 2.4-9.4), overseas travel in 2007 (OR, 19.93; 95% CI, 2.3-174.4), consumption of raw shellfish (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.8-3.5), drinking bottled water (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4), and occupation that involve handling food (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4) increased the risk of HAV infection. Avoiding contact with HAV-infected individuals and avoiding raw foods eating could help minimize the risk of hepatitis A infection. Immunization must be beneficial to individuals who handle food ingredients occupationally or travel overseas to HAV-endemic areas.

  18. Modulation of Galactic Electrons in the Heliosphere during the Unusual Solar Minimum of 2006-2009: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potgieter, M. S.; Vos, E. E.; Munini, R.; Boezio, M.; Di Felice, V.

    2015-09-01

    The last solar minimum activity period, and the consequent minimum modulation conditions for cosmic rays, was unusual. The highest levels of Galactic protons were recorded at Earth in late 2009 in contrast to expectations. A comprehensive model was used to study the proton modulation for the period from 2006 to 2009 in order to determine what basic processes were responsible for solar modulation during this period and why it differs from proton modulation during previous solar minimum modulation periods. This established model is now applied to studying the solar modulation of electron spectra as observed for 80 MeV-30 GeV by the PAMELA space detector from mid-2006 to the end of 2009. Over this period the heliospheric magnetic field had decreased significantly until the end of 2009 while the waviness of the heliospheric current sheet decreased moderately and the observed electron spectra increased by a factor of ˜1.5 at 1.0 GeV to ˜3.5 at 100 MeV. In order to reproduce the modulation evident from seven consecutive semesters, the diffusion coefficients had to increase moderately while maintaining the basic rigidity dependence. It is confirmed that the main diffusion coefficients are independent of rigidity below ˜0.5 GV, while the drift coefficient had to be reduced below this value. The 2006-2009 solar minimum epoch indeed was different than previously observed minima, at least since the beginning of the space exploration era. This period could be called “diffusion-dominated” as was also found for the modulation of protons.

  19. Efficacy of Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccines Against the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species. Although its hemagglutinin gene is related to North Ameri...

  20. MODULATION OF GALACTIC ELECTRONS IN THE HELIOSPHERE DURING THE UNUSUAL SOLAR MINIMUM OF 2006–2009: A MODELING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Potgieter, M. S.; Vos, E. E.; Munini, R.; Boezio, M.; Felice, V. Di

    2015-09-10

    The last solar minimum activity period, and the consequent minimum modulation conditions for cosmic rays, was unusual. The highest levels of Galactic protons were recorded at Earth in late 2009 in contrast to expectations. A comprehensive model was used to study the proton modulation for the period from 2006 to 2009 in order to determine what basic processes were responsible for solar modulation during this period and why it differs from proton modulation during previous solar minimum modulation periods. This established model is now applied to studying the solar modulation of electron spectra as observed for 80 MeV–30 GeV by the PAMELA space detector from mid-2006 to the end of 2009. Over this period the heliospheric magnetic field had decreased significantly until the end of 2009 while the waviness of the heliospheric current sheet decreased moderately and the observed electron spectra increased by a factor of ∼1.5 at 1.0 GeV to ∼3.5 at 100 MeV. In order to reproduce the modulation evident from seven consecutive semesters, the diffusion coefficients had to increase moderately while maintaining the basic rigidity dependence. It is confirmed that the main diffusion coefficients are independent of rigidity below ∼0.5 GV, while the drift coefficient had to be reduced below this value. The 2006–2009 solar minimum epoch indeed was different than previously observed minima, at least since the beginning of the space exploration era. This period could be called “diffusion-dominated” as was also found for the modulation of protons.

  1. Multi-Decadal Aerosol Variations from 1980 to 2009: A Perspective from Observations and a Global Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Prospero, J. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Remer, L. A.; Yu, H.; Sayer, A. M.; Bian, H.; Geogdzhayev, I. V.; Holben, B. N.; Howell, S. G.; Huebert, B. J.; Hsu, N. C.; Kim, D.; Kucsera, T. L.; Levy, R. C.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Pan, X.; Quinn, P. K.; Schuster, G. L.; Streets, D. G.; Strode, S. A.; Torres, O.; Zhao, X.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol variations and trends over different land and ocean regions during 1980-2009 are analyzed with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model and observations from multiple satellite sensors and ground-based networks. Excluding time periods with large volcanic influences, the tendency of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface concentration over polluted land regions is consistent with the anthropogenic emission changes.The largest reduction occurs over Europe, and regions in North America and Russia also exhibit reductions. On the other hand, East Asia and South Asia show AOD increases, although relatively large amount of natural aerosols in Asia makes the total changes less directly connected to the pollutant emission trends. Over major dust source regions, model analysis indicates that the dust emissions over the Sahara and Sahel respond mainly to the near-surface wind speed, but over Central Asia they are largely influenced by ground wetness. The decreasing dust trend in the tropical North Atlantic is most closely associated with the decrease of Sahel dust emission and increase of precipitation over the tropical North Atlantic, likely driven by the sea surface temperature increase. Despite significant regional trends, the model-calculated global annual average AOD shows little changes over land and ocean in the past three decades, because opposite trends in different regions cancel each other in the global average. This highlights the need for regional-scale aerosol assessment, as the global average value conceals regional changes, and thus is not sufficient for assessing changes in aerosol loading.

  2. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.049% to 0.49%, while other child disabilities in NII increased only 1.65-fold. There was a consistent increase in ASD incidence with advancing birth cohorts born 1992-2004, stabilizing among those born 2005-2009. ASD rates among Israeli Arabs were substantially lower, and increased about 10 years later than the general population. The findings suggest a role for ASD awareness, accessing of the government benefit, or the way the concept of ASD is perceived. PMID:25287899

  3. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000-2009: a register-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Qin, Min; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Houqin; Zhu, Liping

    2012-06-01

    Although Shanghai has good maternal health indicators, it also has a large in-migrating population, which has made control of maternal mortality a major challenge. This study analyzed maternal mortality and causes of death in pregnant women in Shanghai in the ten years from 2000 to 2009, comparing resident and migrant women. All live births were registered and every maternal death audited. The number of live births rose from 84,898 in 2000 to 187,335 in 2009. The number of migrants increased 4.6 times, while the proportion of live births to migrant women increased from 27% to 55%. There were 262 maternal deaths, 55 in Shanghai residents and 207 in migrant women (78.9% of the total). Most deaths in migrant women were due to illegal delivery. Three policy changes focusing on maternal health greatly reduced deaths: low-cost delivery services were established for migrant women in maternity hospitals, five obstetric emergency care and referral centres were created in general hospitals, and training for health professionals and health education for women were instituted. Maternal mortality in Shanghai decreased steadily from 2000 to 2009, reaching 10 per 100,000 live births in 2009. Among Shanghai permanent residents the ratio was below ten in most of those years, while among migrant women it declined sharply from 58 to 12 per 100,000 live births.

  4. Cancer screening in the United States, 2009: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and issues in cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Cokkinides, Vilma; Brawley, Otis W

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a report summarizing its recommendations for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In 2008, the ACS, the American Gastroenterological Association, the American College of Gastroenterology, the Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, and the American College of Radiology issued a joint update of guidelines for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk adults. In this issue, the current ACS guidelines and recent issues are summarized, updates of testing guidelines for early prostate cancer detection and colorectal cancer screening by the United States Preventive Services Task Force are discussed, and the most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the National Health Interview Survey pertaining to participation rates in cancer screening are described.

  5. Rapid research response to the 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza pandemic (Revised)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When novel influenza viruses cause human infections, it is critical to characterize the illnesses, viruses, and immune responses to infection in order to develop diagnostics, treatments, and vaccines. The objective of the study was to collect samples from patients with suspected or confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that could be made available to the scientific community. Respiratory secretions, sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected sequentially (when possible) from patients presenting with suspected or previously confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections. Clinical manifestations and illness outcomes were assessed. Respiratory secretions were tested for the presence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by means of isolation in tissue culture and real time RT-PCR. Sera were tested for the presence and level of HAI and neutralizing antibodies against the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Findings and conclusions Thirty patients with confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were enrolled at Baylor College of Medicine (BCM). Clinical manifestations of illness were consistent with typical influenza. Twenty-eight of 30 had virological confirmation of illness; all recovered fully. Most patients had serum antibody responses or high levels of antibody in convalescent samples. Virus-positive samples were sent to J. Craig Venter Institute for sequencing and sequences were deposited in GenBank. Large volumes of sera collected from 2 convalescent adults were used to standardize antibody assays; aliquots of these sera are available from the repository. Aliquots of serum, PBMCs and stool collected from BCM subjects and subjects enrolled at other study sites are available for use by the scientific community, upon request. PMID:23641940

  6. Trends in health care utilization and costs attributable to hepatocellular carcinoma, 2002–2009: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thein, H.H.; Qiao, Y.; Young, S.K.; Zarin, W.; Yoshida, E.M.; de Oliveira, C.; Earle, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) and the complexity of its diagnosis and treatment are increasing. We estimated trends in net health care utilization, costs of care attributable to hcc in Ontario, and rate ratios of resource use at various stages of care. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study identified hcc patients and non-cancer control subjects, and health care resource utilization between 2002 and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were then used to estimate net health care utilization (hcc patients vs. the matched control subjects) and net costs of care attributable to hcc. Generalized linear models were used to analyze rate ratios of resource use. Results We identified 2832 hcc patients and 2808 matched control subjects. In comparison with the control subjects, hcc patients generally used a greater number of health care services. Overall, the mean net cost of care per 30 patient–days (2013 Canadian dollars) attributable to outpatient visits and hospitalizations was highest in the pre-diagnosis (1 year before diagnosis), initial (1st year after diagnosis), and end-of-life (last 6 months before death, short-term survivors) phases. Mean net homecare costs were highest in the end-of-life phase (long-term survivors). In the end-of-life phase (short-term survivors), mean net costs attributable to outpatient visits and total services significantly increased to $14,220 from $1,547 and to $33,121 from $14,450 (2008–2009 and 2002–2003 respectively). Conclusions In hcc, our study found increasing resource use and net costs of care, particularly in the end-of-life phase among short-term survivors. Our findings offer a basis for resource allocation decisions in the area of cancer prevention and control. PMID:27330357

  7. Making the Most of the "American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009": A Guide for Asset-Building Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Christianne; Schmid, William

    2009-01-01

    To address the economic crisis facing the nation, President Barack Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) into law on February 17, 2009. ARRA provides $787 billion in new funding; of this amount, more than $16 billion can be used to support asset-building programs and services for the individuals and communities most…

  8. Antigenic drift of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus in A ferret model.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Teagan; Carolan, Louise A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lee, Raphael T C; Job, Emma; Reading, Patrick C; Petrie, Stephen; McCaw, James M; McVernon, Jodie; Hurt, Aeron C; Kelso, Anne; Mosse, Jennifer; Barr, Ian G; Laurie, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance data indicate that most circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses have remained antigenically similar since they emerged in humans in 2009. However, antigenic drift is likely to occur in the future in response to increasing population immunity induced by infection or vaccination. In this study, sequential passaging of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by contact transmission through two independent series of suboptimally vaccinated ferrets resulted in selection of variant viruses with an amino acid substitution (N156K, H1 numbering without signal peptide; N159K, H3 numbering without signal peptide; N173K, H1 numbering from first methionine) in a known antigenic site of the viral HA. The N156K HA variant replicated and transmitted efficiently between naïve ferrets and outgrew wildtype virus in vivo in ferrets in the presence and absence of immune pressure. In vitro, in a range of cell culture systems, the N156K variant rapidly adapted, acquiring additional mutations in the viral HA that also potentially affected antigenic properties. The N156K escape mutant was antigenically distinct from wildtype virus as shown by binding of HA-specific antibodies. Glycan binding assays demonstrated the N156K escape mutant had altered receptor binding preferences compared to wildtype virus, which was supported by computational modeling predictions. The N156K substitution, and culture adaptations, have been detected in human A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses with N156K preferentially reported in sequences from original clinical samples rather than cultured isolates. This study demonstrates the ability of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus to undergo rapid antigenic change to evade a low level vaccine response, while remaining fit in a ferret transmission model of immunization and infection. Furthermore, the potential changes in receptor binding properties that accompany antigenic changes highlight the importance of routine characterization of clinical samples in human A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza surveillance.

  9. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    The precise estimation of the global agricultural cropland- extents, areas, geographic locations, crop types, cropping intensities, and their watering methods (irrigated or rainfed; type of irrigation) provides a critical scientific basis for the development of water and food security policies (Thenkabail et al., 2012, 2011, 2010). By year 2100, the global human population is expected to grow to 10.4 billion under median fertility variants or higher under constant or higher fertility variants (Table 1) with over three quarters living in developing countries, in regions that already lack the capacity to produce enough food. With current agricultural practices, the increased demand for food and nutrition would require in about 2 billion hectares of additional cropland, about twice the equivalent to the land area of the United States, and lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas productions (Tillman et al., 2011). For example, during 1960-2010 world population more than doubled from 3 billion to 7 billion. The nutritional demand of the population also grew swiftly during this period from an average of about 2000 calories per day per person in 1960 to nearly 3000 calories per day per person in 2010. The food demand of increased population along with increased nutritional demand during this period (1960-2010) was met by the “green revolution” which more than tripled the food production; even though croplands decreased from about 0.43 ha/capita to 0.26 ha/capita (FAO, 2009). The increase in food production during the green revolution was the result of factors such as: (a) expansion in irrigated areas which increased from 130 Mha in 1960s to 278.4 Mha in year 2000 (Siebert et al., 2006) or 399 Mha when you do not consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2009c) or 467 Mha when you consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a; Thenkabail et al., 2009c); (b) increase in yield and per capita food production (e.g., cereal production

  10. The Chameleon Solid Rocket Propulsion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2010-01-28

    The Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) Chameleon Model presents an addition to the gravitation force and was shown by the author (Robertson, 2009a and 2009b) to present a new means by which one can view other forces in the Universe. The Chameleon Model is basically a density-dependent model and while the idea is not new, this model is novel in that densities in the Universe to include the vacuum of space are viewed as scalar fields. Such an analogy gives the Chameleon scalar field, dark energy/dark matter like characteristics; fitting well within cosmological expansion theories. In respect to this forum, in this paper, it is shown how the Chameleon Model can be used to derive the thrust of a solid rocket motor. This presents a first step toward the development of new propulsion models using density variations verse mass ejection as the mechanism for thrust. Further, through the Chameleon Model connection, these new propulsion models can be tied to dark energy/dark matter toward new space propulsion systems utilizing the vacuum scalar field in a way understandable by engineers, the key toward the development of such systems. This paper provides corrections to the Chameleon rocket model in Robertson (2009b).

  11. Hawaiian forest bird trends: using log-linear models to assess long-term trends is supported by model diagnostics and assumptions (reply to Freed and Cann 2013)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Jeffrey, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Freed and Cann (2013) criticized our use of linear models to assess trends in the status of Hawaiian forest birds through time (Camp et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2010) by questioning our sampling scheme, whether we met model assumptions, and whether we ignored short-term changes in the population time series. In the present paper, we address these concerns and reiterate that our results do not support the position of Freed and Cann (2013) that the forest birds in the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) are declining, or that the federally listed endangered birds are showing signs of imminent collapse. On the contrary, our data indicate that the 21-year long-term trends for native birds in Hakalau Forest NWR are stable to increasing, especially in areas that have received active management.

  12. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Scott J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is intended to provide the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its safeguards obligations. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of IAEA safeguards as those safeguards evolve towards a “State-Level approach.” The Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept can facilitate the implementation of these effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards (Bjornard, et al. 2009a, 2009b; IAEA, 1998; Wonder & Hockert, 2011). This report, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, introduces a methodology intended to ensure that the diverse approaches to Safeguards by Design can be effectively integrated and consistently used to cost effectively enhance the application of international safeguards.

  13. Occurrence of Tornadoes Linked to Solar Wind Magnetic Sector Boundaries and High-speed Streams from Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, P.; Muldrew, D. B.; Rusin, V.; Rybansky, M.; Sofko, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    A link between solar wind magnetic sector boundaries (heliospheric current sheet) and upper-level tropospheric vorticity was found by Wilcox et al. (1973). The Wilcox effect was shown to be statistically significant and confirmed by several authors (e.g., Prikryl et al., 2009a). Although possible mechanisms have been proposed to explain it, the controversy has not been resolved. We present new statistical results showing a significant increase in tornado activity near magnetic sector boundary crossings (SBCs) by the Earth. SBCs usually occur just prior to, or near the arrival of corotating interaction regions at the leading edge of high-speed streams from coronal holes, which often recur for several solar rotations. Hence the superposed epoch (SPE) analysis of tornado occurrence (keyed by times of SBCs) reveals, in addition to the principal peak in number of tornadoes near the zero epoch day, peaks separated by approximately 27, 13.5, 9 or 7 days. The results are supported by SPE analysis of the 530.3-nm solar corona emission line intensity (the green corona) and solar wind plasma parameters. To explain these results, we argue in favor of the mechanism involving aurorally generated atmospheric gravity waves possibly amplified by interaction with wind shears in the troposphere. Over-reflecting (reflection coefficient >1) gravity waves could provide a lift of moist unstable air, thus initiating convection and the release of latent heat that provides the energy for storms (Prikryl et al., 2009b). References Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 1-30, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-1-2009, 2009a. Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 31-57, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-31-2009, 2009b. Wilcox et al., J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 581-588, 1973.

  14. Historical and Conceptual Foundations: As Published in "Distances et Savoirs (D&S-7/2009. A la croisee des recherches, pages 537 to 550)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes Section I, "Historical and Conceptual Foundations," of the 2007 "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007a). Of the eight chapters, two are dedicated to historical perspectives of distance education. Another is centered on research. Five other chapters are focused on distance education theory/theorists. [This article…

  15. Development of Methodology to Classify Historical Panchromatic Aerial Photography. Analysis of Landscape Features on Point Au Fer Island, Louisiana - from 1956 to 2009: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    in a mangrove forest of southwestern Florida, USA. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 1:173-186. Carmel, Y., and R. Kadmon. 1998. Computerized...Research Center, Report to the Coastal Wetlands, Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries ...1949. The muskrat in the Louisiana coastal marshes. New Orleans, LA: Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries . Patrick, W. H., Jr. 1994. From

  16. Compliance to oseltamivir among two populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom affected by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, November 2009--a waste water epidemiology study.

    PubMed

    Singer, Andrew C; Järhult, Josef D; Grabic, Roman; Khan, Ghazanfar A; Fedorova, Ganna; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Bowes, Michael J; Olsen, Björn; Söderström, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite) was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP) catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3-4 and 120-154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45-60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people) can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan.

  17. The unusual persistence of an ozone hole over a southern mid-latitude station during the Antarctic spring 2009: a multi-instrument study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, E. A.; Salvador, J.; Orte, F.; D'Elia, R.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Kuttippurath, J.; Pazmiño, A.; Goutail, F.; Casiccia, C.; Zamorano, F.; Paes Leme, N.; Quel, E. J.

    2012-10-01

    Record-low ozone column densities (with a minimum of 212 DU) persisted over three weeks at the Río Gallegos NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) station (51.5° S, 69.3° W) in November 2009. Total ozone remained two standard deviations below the climatological mean for five consecutive days during this period. The statistical analysis of 30 years of satellite data from the Multi Sensor Reanalysis (MSR) database for Río Gallegos revealed that such a long-lasting low-ozone episode is a rare occurrence. The event is examined using height-resolved ozone lidar measurements at Río Gallegos, and observations from satellite and ground-based instruments. The computed relative difference between the measured total ozone and the climatological monthly mean shows reductions varying between 10 and 30% with an average decrease of 25%. The mean absolute difference of total ozone column with respect to climatological monthly mean ozone column is around 75 DU. Extreme values of the UV index (UVI) were measured at the ground for this period, with the daily maximum UVI of around 13 on 15 and 28 November. The high-resolution MIMOSA-CHIM (Modélisation Isentrope du transport Méso-échelle de l'Ozone Stratosphérique par Advection) model was used to interpret the ozone depletion event. An ozone decrease of about 2 ppmv was observed in mid-November at the 550 K isentropic level (~22 km). The position of Río Gallegos relative to the polar vortex was classified using equivalent latitude maps. During the second week of November, the vortex was over the station at all isentropic levels, but after 20 November and until the end of the month, only the 10 lower levels in the stratosphere were affected by vortex overpasses with ozone poor air masses. A rapid recovery of the ozone column density was observed later, due to an ozone rich filament moving over Río Gallegos between 18 and 24 km in the first two weeks of December 2009.

  18. Reconstructing a spatially heterogeneous epidemic: Characterising the geographic spread of 2009 A/H1N1pdm infection in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrell, Paul J.; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard G.; Gay, Nigel J.; de Angelis, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how the geographic distribution of and movements within a population influence the spatial spread of infections is crucial for the design of interventions to curb transmission. Existing knowledge is typically based on results from simulation studies whereas analyses of real data remain sparse. The main difficulty in quantifying the spatial pattern of disease spread is the paucity of available data together with the challenge of incorporating optimally the limited information into models of disease transmission. To address this challenge the role of routine migration on the spatial pattern of infection during the epidemic of 2009 pandemic influenza in England is investigated here through two modelling approaches: parallel-region models, where epidemics in different regions are assumed to occur in isolation with shared characteristics; and meta-region models where inter-region transmission is expressed as a function of the commuter flux between regions. Results highlight that the significantly less computationally demanding parallel-region approach is sufficiently flexible to capture the underlying dynamics. This suggests that inter-region movement is either inaccurately characterized by the available commuting data or insignificant once its initial impact on transmission has subsided.

  19. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  20. Global Flow Instability and Control IV Held in Crete, Greece on September 28-October 2, 2009: A Synthesis of Presentations and Discussions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    non-uniform, stationary rotation / non- Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 8 stationary rotation , mass...Cayley spectral transformation as a means of rotating the basin of convergence of the Arnoldi algorithm. Instead of doing the inversion of the large...pair of counter rotating streamwise vortices embedded in uniform shear flow. Consistently with earlier work by the same group, the main present finding

  1. Policies, Administration, and Management: As published in "Distances et Savoirs" (D & S--7/2009. A La Croisee des Recherches, pages 627 to 641)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Melody M.; Vidal, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The chapters in Part IV of "Handbook of Distance Education" (2007), "Policies, Administration, and Management," focus on the ways in which policies encourage or hamper the integration of distance education into mainstream educational institutions. The authors provide insights and perspectives into the key policies, roles, structures, processes,…

  2. Paracoccus leucadendri Mazzeo & Franco in Mazzeo, Franco & Russo, 2009, a junior synonym of Paracoccus hakeae (Williams, 1985) comb. nov.
    (Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian W; Kinnee, Scott A; Franco, José C; Mazzeo, Gaetana

    2016-03-24

    Two mealybug species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) feeding on Proteaceae in U.S.A. (California), Portugal and Australia were studied: Paracoccus leucadendri Mazzeo & Franco in Mazzeo, Franco & Russo, 2009, described from Portugal, and Phenacoccus hakeae Williams, 1985, described from Australia. A comparative morphological analysis was made of relevant paratypes and additional specimens from Australia, California and Portugal, and the variability of the morphological characters in the populations in each country was documented. Molecular analysis of the COI gene of specimens from Australia and California showed them to be identical, and comparative morphological analysis among specimens from Australia, California and Portugal revealed no differences either; therefore Paracoccus leucadendri is placed as a junior synonym of Phenacoccus hakeae. A comparison of the COI sequences with those of species of Paracoccus, Phenacoccus and other mealybug genera revealed that Phenacoccus hakeae does not belong in Phenacoccus. Even though its COI shows no close match to any other species its morphology fits within the generic concept of Paracoccus, and we transfer it to that genus under the new combination Paracoccus hakeae (Williams, 1985) as a holding option until a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the group is carried out.

  3. Geographical spread of influenza incidence in Spain during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic wave and the two succeeding influenza seasons.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Barroso, D; Martinez-Beneito, M A; Flores, V; Amorós, R; Delgado, C; Botella, P; Zurriaga, O; Larrauri, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence in Spain during the 2009 pandemic and the following two influenza seasons 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 using a Bayesian Poisson mixed regression model; and implement this model of geographical analysis in the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System to obtain maps of influenza incidence for every week. In the pandemic wave the maps showed influenza activity spreading from west to east. The 2010-2011 influenza epidemic wave plotted a north-west/south-east pattern of spread. During the 2011-2012 season the spread of influenza was geographically heterogeneous. The most important source of variability in the model is the temporal term. The model of spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence is a supplementary tool of influenza surveillance in Spain.

  4. Unnatural Deaths in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009: A Retrospective Study of Forensic Autopsy Cases at the Shanghai Public Security Bureau

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun-Yi; Ma, Kai-Jun; Li, Bei-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Shanghai is the most developed city in China and has a soaring population. This study uses forensic epidemiology to determine the relationship between unnatural deaths and the development in Shanghai, based on recently released forensic autopsy cases from the 2000s at the Shanghai Public Security Bureau (SPSB). There were 5425 accidental deaths, 2696 homicides, 429 suicides, 186 natural deaths, and 1399 deaths of undetermined cause. There was a male-to-female ratio of 2.02:1, and the average age was 40.9±18.7 years. Traffic accidents (84.2%) were the number one cause of accidental deaths, which decreased during the study period. Sharp force injury (50.6%) was the leading cause of homicides, different from Western countries, where firearms are the leading cause. Hanging (24.5%) was the leading cause of suicides, whereas drug and chemical intoxication was the leading cause in the previous decade; pesticide ingestion decreased in the 2000s. In addition to traffic accidents, manual strangulation was the leading cause of death in childhood fatalities. Children under age 2 were vulnerable to homicides. In the 2000s, there were a large number of drug overdoses, and illegal medical practices and subway-related deaths first appeared in Shanghai. A new type of terrorist attack that involved injecting people with syringes in public places was reflected in the SPSB archives. The forensic epidemiology and changes in unnatural deaths in this decade reflected their relationship with the law, policy and changes in Shanghai. Illegal medical practices, subway-related deaths and terrorist attacks were closely related to the development in Shanghai. Identifying the risks of unnatural deaths will improve public health. PMID:26110435

  5. The Severity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in the United States, from April to July 2009: A Bayesian Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Presanis, Anne M.; De Angelis, Daniela; Hagy, Angela; Reed, Carrie; Riley, Steven; Cooper, Ben S.; Finelli, Lyn; Biedrzycki, Paul; Lipsitch, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate measures of the severity of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (pH1N1) are needed to assess the likely impact of an anticipated resurgence in the autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Severity has been difficult to measure because jurisdictions with large numbers of deaths and other severe outcomes have had too many cases to assess the total number with confidence. Also, detection of severe cases may be more likely, resulting in overestimation of the severity of an average case. We sought to estimate the probabilities that symptomatic infection would lead to hospitalization, ICU admission, and death by combining data from multiple sources. Methods and Findings We used complementary data from two US cities: Milwaukee attempted to identify cases of medically attended infection whether or not they required hospitalization, while New York City focused on the identification of hospitalizations, intensive care admission or mechanical ventilation (hereafter, ICU), and deaths. New York data were used to estimate numerators for ICU and death, and two sources of data—medically attended cases in Milwaukee or self-reported influenza-like illness (ILI) in New York—were used to estimate ratios of symptomatic cases to hospitalizations. Combining these data with estimates of the fraction detected for each level of severity, we estimated the proportion of symptomatic patients who died (symptomatic case-fatality ratio, sCFR), required ICU (sCIR), and required hospitalization (sCHR), overall and by age category. Evidence, prior information, and associated uncertainty were analyzed in a Bayesian evidence synthesis framework. Using medically attended cases and estimates of the proportion of symptomatic cases medically attended, we estimated an sCFR of 0.048% (95% credible interval [CI] 0.026%–0.096%), sCIR of 0.239% (0.134%–0.458%), and sCHR of 1.44% (0.83%–2.64%). Using self-reported ILI, we obtained estimates approximately 7–9× lower. sCFR and sCIR appear to be highest in persons aged 18 y and older, and lowest in children aged 5–17 y. sCHR appears to be lowest in persons aged 5–17; our data were too sparse to allow us to determine the group in which it was the highest. Conclusions These estimates suggest that an autumn–winter pandemic wave of pH1N1 with comparable severity per case could lead to a number of deaths in the range from considerably below that associated with seasonal influenza to slightly higher, but with the greatest impact in children aged 0–4 and adults 18–64. These estimates of impact depend on assumptions about total incidence of infection and would be larger if incidence of symptomatic infection were higher or shifted toward adults, if viral virulence increased, or if suboptimal treatment resulted from stress on the health care system; numbers would decrease if the total proportion of the population symptomatically infected were lower than assumed. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19997612

  6. Child and youth practice area publications in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy in 2008 and 2009: a content analysis, methodology overview, and summary.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2010-01-01

    In this review, 39 articles published in the American journal of occupational therapy in 2008 and 2009 that were categorized in the practice area of children and youth were examined using content analysis. The most frequent type of research published was basic research, which accounted for 38.5% (n=15) of the 39 studies published on the topic. Instrument development and testing and effectiveness studies were the next two most frequently noted research approaches, accounting for 25.6% (n=10) and 20.5% (n=8) of the studies, respectively. Among the 8 effectiveness studies, the level of evidence distribution was as follows: Level I, 3; Level III, 2; Level IV, 1; and Level V, 2. Quantitative studies were the predominant research paradigm used with 76.9% (n=30) of the studies.

  7. Mumps orchitis in the post-vaccine era (1967-2009): a single-center series of 67 patients and review of clinical outcome and trends.

    PubMed

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Boronat, Mauro; Ojeda, Antonio; García-Delgado, Yaiza; Angel-Moreno, Alfonso; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Bellini, Raquel; Francès, Adela; Nóvoa, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2010-03-01

    Since the introduction of the mumps vaccine, the age of appearance of mumps infection has shifted from children to adolescents and young adults, groups with a higher incidence of disease complications and sequelae. During the years 2000-2001, the Gran Canaria Island was part of an epidemic of mumps. In that period, our institution attended 67 cases of serologically confirmed acute mumps orchitis, the most serious complication of mumps infection in young postpubertal males. We conducted a descriptive and prospective study of this cohort and extensively reviewed the literature from 1967 (the year the first mumps vaccine was introduced) to 2009. Fifty-six patients were admitted because of general impairment and were treated with alpha-interferon. Sixty-six patients presented parotitis previous to orchitis (interval from parotitis to orchitis, 4.9 d). Orchitis was unilateral in 89.5% and bilateral in 10.4% of cases. More than 98% of patients had orchitis-associated fever. Nine patients had clinical and biochemical data showing acute mumps meningitis, and 11 had subclinical pancreatitis. The mean duration of symptoms was 4.6 days (range, 1-9). During the acute phase, more than 41% of the evaluated testes had a volume >25 mL. Acute hormonal disturbances were highly prevalent. These included decreased levels of testosterone and inhibin B with low or normal levels of gonadotropins in 35% of subjects, and, to our knowledge not previously reported, an atypical hormonal pattern consisting of low levels of free testosterone and inhibin B, along with increased measures of luteinizing hormone but low or normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels (11% of cases). During the follow-up period (mean, 331 d) a high incidence of sperm disturbance was found.

  8. Dramatic changes in the dissolved 230Th concentration of seawater in Canada Basin between 1995 and 2009: a transient Arctic circulation signal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Roger; Soon, Maureen

    2010-05-01

    A dissolved 230Th profile measured in the Arctic Ocean in 1983 under permanent ice cover (Alpha Ridge; 85°50'N, 108°50'W) documented concentrations substantially higher than in any other ocean basins, reflecting very low particle flux and scavenging intensity (Bacon et al., 1989). In contrast, similar measurements closer to the ice edge conducted in Canada Basin in 1995 (72°32'N, 143°50'W, 3500 m) found much lower concentrations, reflecting higher rates of particle flux and particle scavenging (Edmonds et al, 1998). In November 2007, we measured dissolved 230Th at two Canada Basin stations (KC2000; 71°44'N, 135°30'W, 1925m; KC2700; 72°28'N, 136°56'W, 2490m) and compared these profiles to that obtained in 1995. While the earlier 230Th profile displayed a linear increase in concentration with depth, as predicted by a simple reversible absorption model which neglects water mass transport, the 2007 profile obtained at KC2700 documented very large deviations from linearity, with a prominent maximum centered within the Atlantic Water. The profile taken closer to the shelf (KC2000) did not show this feature. These observations suggested that the prominent maximum in 230Th concentration at KC2700 could have been produced by entrainment of water from the permanently ice-covered Arctic interior into the warm Atlantic Water which is slowly penetrating into the eastern sector of Canada Basin and as such could provide information on the path of Atlantic Water intrusion. New data obtained from the same area in September 2009 during the Canadian IPY-GEOTRACES program documents the evolution of this signal. Reference: Bacon et al. (1989), Earth and Planet. Sci. Letters, 95, 15-22. Edmonds et al. (1998), Science, 280, 405-407.

  9. Standardized Testing Moratorium and Task Force Brief 2009. A Brief to the Minister of Education from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) seeks to foster a constructive discussion on the issue of standardized testing. To that end, the Federation urges the BC Ministry of Education to adopt a two-year moratorium on all standardized tests, including the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) and the Grade 10, 11, and 12 provincial…

  10. Reconstructing a spatially heterogeneous epidemic: Characterising the geographic spread of 2009 A/H1N1pdm infection in England

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, Paul J.; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard G.; Gay, Nigel J.; De Angelis, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the geographic distribution of and movements within a population influence the spatial spread of infections is crucial for the design of interventions to curb transmission. Existing knowledge is typically based on results from simulation studies whereas analyses of real data remain sparse. The main difficulty in quantifying the spatial pattern of disease spread is the paucity of available data together with the challenge of incorporating optimally the limited information into models of disease transmission. To address this challenge the role of routine migration on the spatial pattern of infection during the epidemic of 2009 pandemic influenza in England is investigated here through two modelling approaches: parallel-region models, where epidemics in different regions are assumed to occur in isolation with shared characteristics; and meta-region models where inter-region transmission is expressed as a function of the commuter flux between regions. Results highlight that the significantly less computationally demanding parallel-region approach is sufficiently flexible to capture the underlying dynamics. This suggests that inter-region movement is either inaccurately characterized by the available commuting data or insignificant once its initial impact on transmission has subsided. PMID:27404957

  11. Impact of Particle Generation Method on the Apparent Hygroscopicity of Insoluble Mineral Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Ryan; Moore, Meagan J.; Petters, Markus D.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Laskin, Alexander; Roberts, Greg C.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2010-07-28

    Atmospheric mineral dust particles represent a major component of tropospheric aerosol mass and provide a reactive surface for heterogeneous reactions with trace atmospheric gases (Dentener et al. 1996).Heterogeneous processes alter the chemical balance of the atmosphere and also modify the physicochemical properties of mineral dust particles (Bauer et al. 2004). Organic and inorganic vapors can react with or partition to dust particles and alter their chemical composition (Al-Hosney et al. 2005; Laskin et al. 2005a, 2005b; Liu et al. 2008; Sullivan et al. 2007, 2009a; Sullivan and Prather 2007; Usher et al. 2003). Calcite (CaCO3) is one of the most reactive components of mineral dust, readily reacting with acidic gases. The fraction of CaCO3 in total dust mineralogy displays large variations between desert regions and other regions of the world as well as between individual mineral particles (Claquin et al. 1999; Jeong 2008; Laskin et al. 2005b; Sullivan et al. 2007). Through reactions with acidic gases CaCO3 can be converted to soluble hygroscopic products including CaCl2 and Ca(NO3)2, and sparingly soluble, non-hygroscopic products including CaSO4 and CaC2O4 (Krueger et al. 2004; Liu et al. 2008; Sullivan et al. 2009a, 2009b).

  12. The post-spinel transition in Fe3O4-Fe2SiO4 and Fe3O4- FeCr2O4 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodland, Alan; Schollenbruch, Klaus; Frost, Daniel; Langenhorst, Falko

    2010-05-01

    Minerals with spinel structure are important phases in the Earth's mantle. Both magnetite (mt, Fe3O4) and chromite (chr, FeCr2O4) are known to transform to denser orthorhombic post-spinel phases at pressures≥10 GPa and ≥12.5 GPa, respectively (Schollenbruch et al. 2009a; Chen et al. 2003). On the other hand, Fe2SiO4 decomposes to its constituent oxides, FeO and SiO2 at high P and no post-spinel polymorph appears to be stable (e.g. Ito & Takahashi 1989). An important question is how spinel solid solutions behave at high pressures and temperatures since such compositions are arguably more petrologically relevant. In addition, since h-Fe3O4 is apparently not quenchable, it is difficult to investigate its structure. In contrast, two high-P polymorphs of FeCr2O4-rich compositions have been found in a meteorite (Chen et al. 2003), suggesting that the addition of Cr might allow us to recover the post-spinel phase of Fe3O4-bearing compositions from experiments. Building on recent results for the Fe3O4 end member (Schollenbruch et al. 2009a, 2009b), we have begun a study of the high-pressure behaviour of solid solutions along the Fe3O4 -Fe2SiO4 and Fe3O4- FeCr2O4 joins. Multianvil experiments were performed at 10 and 13 GPa and 1200-1300°C on pre-synthesised spinels with compositions 85mt-15 Fe2SiO4, 50mt-50chr and 80mt-20chr. For the Si-bearing experiments, stishovite was present in the run products. This occurrence, along with observed twinning in the Fe-oxide phase (Schollenbruch et al. 2009a) allows us to conclude that the original spinel had transformed to a high-P polymorph at a pressure and that Si is essentially excluded from this new structure. However, the powder XRD data from the run products could not be indexed either to magnetite (spinel structure) or to any other expected phase, including the known post-spinel structures. Interestingly, these are the same reflections reported by Koch et al. (2004) for an unidentified phase in their high-P (> 9 GPa

  13. Classical T Tauri-like Outflow Activity in the Brown Dwarf Mass Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Randich, S.

    2010-11-01

    Since 2005 we have been analysing the spectra of brown dwarfs (BDs) using the technique of spectro-astrometry and to date have found 5 outflows driven by BDs. Our aim is to obtain an understanding of outflow activity in the BD mass regime and make a comprehensive comparison with low mass protostars, in particular the classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs). Table 1 summarises some results for the sources in our sample. Also see Whelan et al. (2009b) for a complete discussion and comparison with CTTSs. Some noteworthy results include the asymmetry in the ISO-217 bipolar outflow which is revealed in the relative brightness of the two lobes (red-shifted lobe is brighter) and the factor of two difference in radial velocity (the red-shifted lobe is faster). Asymmetries are common in jets from low mass protostars (0.1 Msun to 2 Msun) and the observation of a strong asymmetry at such a low mass supports the idea that BD outflow activity is scaled down from CTTSs. In addition, Whelan et al. (2009a) find a strong contribution to the Hα line emitted by LS-RCrA 1 and evidence of a dust hole in its disk. Using methods previously applied to CTTS Whelan et al. (2009b) estimate the mass outflow rate (Ṁout) for LS-RCrA 1, ISO and ISO-Oph 102 Ṁout to be in the range 10-10 to 10-9 Msun yr-1 which is comparable to measured mass accretion rates.

  14. Evaluating the similarity of complex drinking-water disinfection by-product mixtures: overview of the issues.

    PubMed

    Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Bull, Richard J; Simmons, Jane E; Feder, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of environmental chemical contaminants, which arise as releases from sources such as engineering procedures, degradation processes, and emissions from mobile or stationary sources. When dose-response data are available for the actual environmental mixture to which individuals are exposed (i.e., the mixture of concern), these data provide the best information for dose-response assessment of the mixture. When suitable data on the mixture itself are not available, surrogate data might be used from a sufficiently similar mixture or a group of similar mixtures. Consequently, the determination of whether the mixture of concern is "sufficiently similar" to a tested mixture or a group of tested mixtures is central to the use of whole mixture methods. This article provides an overview for a series of companion articles whose purpose is to develop a set of biostatistical, chemical, and toxicological criteria and approaches for evaluating the similarity of drinking-water disinfection by-product (DBPs) complex mixtures. Together, the five articles in this series serve as a case study whose techniques will be relevant to assessing similarity for other classes of complex mixtures of environmental chemicals. Schenck et al. (2009) describe the chemistry and mutagenicity of a set of DBP mixtures concentrated from five different drinking-water treatment plants. Bull et al. (2009a, 2009b) describe how the variables that impact the formation of DBP affect the chemical composition and, subsequently, the expected toxicity of the mixture. Feder et al. (2009a, 2009b) evaluate the similarity of DBP mixture concentrates by applying two biostatistical approaches, principal components analysis, and a nonparametric "bootstrap" analysis. Important factors for determining sufficient similarity of DBP mixtures found in this research include disinfectant used; source water characteristics, including the concentrations of bromide and total organic carbon

  15. Inferring the composition and concentration of aerosols by combining the AERONET, MPLNET and CALIOP data: comparison with in-situ measurements and utilization to evaluate and improve GCM results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, D.; Ginoux, P. A.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2009-12-01

    We present a method to derive the concentration of aerosol components using the spectral measurements of AOD (aerosol optical depth) and single scattering albedo along with their size distribution and extinction profile available from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) and MPLNET (Micro-pulse Lidar Network) stations as well as the space borne CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar [Ganguly et al., 2009a; 2009b]. The technique involves finding the best combination of aerosol concentration by minimizing differences between measured and calculated spectral variation in AOD and single scattering albedo along with the size distribution of aerosols over specific locations. Lidar data on extinction profile provides the vertical constraint on the distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Relative humidity from NCEP reanalysis is used to compute the hygroscopic growth factors and associated changes in the optical properties of aerosol components at all vertical levels. The technique has been successfully applied over different regions around the world such as North America, Southern Africa and South Asia. The results have been validated using in-situ measurements of aerosol composition available from the first two regions. Finally, we show how these results are being used to evaluate and improve the GFDL-AM2/AM3 climate model simulations. We believe our technique could also be used for the retrieval of air quality by calculating PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. This could improve the existing methods by providing a better relation between surface measurements of PM2.5 concentration and satellite data. References: Ganguly, D., P. Ginoux, V. Ramaswamy, O. Dubovik, J. Welton, E. A. Reid and B. N. Holben (2009a), Inferring the composition and concentration of aerosols by combining AERONET and MPLNET data: comparison with other measurements and utilization to evaluate GCM output, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D16203, doi:10.1029/2009JD011895. Ganguly, D., P

  16. Actin Cytoskeleton-Based Plant Synapse as Gravitransducer in the Transition Zone of the Root Apex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Barlow, Peter; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    The actin cytoskeleton was originally proposed to act as the signal transducer in the plant gravity sensory-motoric circuit. Surprisingly, however, several studies have documented that roots perfom gravisensing and gravitropism more effectively if exposed to diverse anti-F-actin drugs. Our study, using decapped maize root apices, has revealed that depolymerization of F-actin stimulates gravity perception in cells of the transition zone where root gravitropism is initiated (Mancuso et al. 2006). It has been proposed (Balǔka et al. 2005, 2009a) that s the non-growing adhesive end-poles, enriched with F-actin and myosin VIII, and active in endocytic recycling of both PIN transporters and cell wall pectins cross-linked with calcium and boron, act as the gravisensing domains, and that these impinge directly upon the root motoric responses via control of polar auxin transport. This model suggests that mechanical asymmetry at these plant synapses determines vectorial gravity-controlled auxin transport. Due to the gravity-imposed mechanical load upon the protoplast, a tensional stress is also imposed upon the plasma membrane of the physically lower synaptic cell pole. This stress is then relieved by shifting the endocytosis-exocytosis balance towards exocytosis (Balǔka et al. s 2005, 2009a,b). This `Synaptic Auxin Secretion' hypothesis does not conflict with the `Starch Statolith' hypothesis, which is based on amyloplast sedimentation. In fact, the `Synaptic Auxin Secretion' hypothesis has many elements which allow its unification with the Starch-Statolith model (Balǔka et al. 2005, 2009a,b). s References Balǔka F, Volkmann D, Menzel D (2005) Plant synapses: actin-based adhesion s domains for cell-to-cell communication. Trends Plant Sci 10: 106-111 Balǔka F, Schlicht M, s Wan Y-L, Burbach C, Volkmann D (2009a) Intracellular domains and polarity in root apices: from synaptic domains to plant neurobiology. Nova Acta Leopoldina 96: 103-122 Balǔka s F, Mancuso S

  17. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Marini, Kyle; Ghatikar, Girish; Diamond, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Federal agencies are taking many steps to improve the sustainability of their operations, including improving the energy efficiency of their buildings, promoting recycling and reuse of materials, encouraging carpooling and alternative transit schemes, and installing low flow water fixture units are just a few of the common examples. However, an often overlooked means of energy savings is to provide feedback to building users about their energy use through information dashboards connected to a building?s energy information system. An Energy Information System (EIS), broadly defined, is a package of performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems that is used to collect, store, analyze, and display energy information. At a minimum, the EIS provides the whole-building energy-use information (Granderson 2009a). We define a ?dashboard? as a display and visualization tool that utilizes the EIS data and technology to provide critical information to users. This information can lead to actions resulting in energy savings, comfort improvements, efficient operations, and more. The tools to report analyzed information have existed in the information technology as business intelligence (Few 2006). The dashboard is distinguished from the EIS as a whole, which includes additional hardware and software components to collect and storage data, and analysis for resources and energy management (Granderson 2009b). EIS can be used for a variety of uses, including benchmarking, base-lining, anomaly detection, off-hours energy use evaluation, load shape optimization, energy rate analysis, retrofit and retro-commissioning savings (Granderson 2009a). The use of these EIS features depends on the specific users. For example, federal and other building managers may use anomaly detection to identify energy waste in a specific building, or to benchmark energy use in similar buildings to identify energy saving potential and reduce operational cost. There are

  18. Crystal structure of (E)-N'-(4-chloro-benzyl-idene)-4-methyl-benzene-sulfono-hydrazide: a hexa-gonal polymorph.

    PubMed

    Balaji, J; John Francis Xavier, J; Prabu, S; Srinivasan, P

    2014-12-01

    The title compound, C14H13ClN2O2S, crystallized in the enanti-omorphic defining hexa-gonal space group P61 [Flack parameter = -0.02 (7)]. The partially hydrated form of the same compound, crystallizing in the triclinic space group P-1, has been reported previously [Kia et al. (2009b). Acta Cryst. E65, o1119], as has the crystal structure of the bromo derivative, also crystallizing in the space group P-1 [Kia et al. (2009a). Acta Cryst. E65, o821]. The title mol-ecule is non-planar with the planes of the benzene rings being inclined to one another by 76.62 (13)°, and has an E conformation about the C=N bond. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming 61 helical chains running along [001]. The chains are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, C-H⋯π inter-actions and short Cl⋯O [3.015 (3) Å] inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  19. A few problems in the generic nomenclature of insects and amphibians, with recommendations for the publication of new generic nomina in zootaxonomy and comments on taxonomic and nomenclatural databases and websites.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Alain

    2017-02-26

    Dahanukar et al. (2016a) proposed the nomen Walkerana for a new genus of amphibians, but shortly after (2016b) they replaced it by the new nomen Sallywalkerana, believing that their nomen Walkerana was preoccupied by a generic nomen of orthopterans. This was unjustified because the orthopteran nomen 'Walkerella' Otte & Perez-Gelabert, 2009a and its new replacement nomen 'Walkerana' Otte & Perez-Gelabert, 2009b were both nomina nuda. These recent examples of nomenclatural errors in generic nomenclature are just a few among many in recent zootaxonomic publications. This opportunity is taken to make some general methodological recommendations, in several domains (availability, homonymy, synonymy, neonymy, length and palatability of nomina), for the publication of new generic nomina in zootaxonomy. However, the absence of a comprehensive database and website providing all the relevant information necessary to establish the nomenclatural status of all zoological generic and subgeneric nomina is a brake on the efforts that can be made to avoid nomenclatural errors in zoological generic nomenclature. The international community of taxonomists should seek at establishing such a database and website.

  20. Comment on "A petrologic assessment of internal zonation in granitic pegmatites" by David London (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rainer; Davidson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    London (2014) provides an interesting article which presents a study of pegmatite zonation which is of considerable interest to students of pegmatites. However, although there is much to recommend it we take exception to his attempts to dismiss an extensive body of work on the use of melt inclusions to address the critical question of actual melt compositions during the evolution of pegmatites. Volatiles are by definition fugitive, since they are readily lost by degassing, and yet they are clearly critical to the growth of the large crystals which are a defining characteristic of pegmatites (e.g. Bartoli et al., 2014; Bowen, 1956; London, 2008; Lowenstern, 2003). Any research technique which can address the pre-degassing melt compositions should therefore be considered on its merits. Although melt inclusion studies are of relatively recent vintage the problems and possible questions of interpretation have been addressed in considerable detail for at least the last two decades (e.g. Lowenstern, 2003, and references therein) and recently in Audétat and Lowenstern (2014). Likewise, any discussion needs to cover "simple" quartz-feldspar-muscovite pegmatites (e.g. Thomas et al., 2009b), as well as the much less common if more interesting rare-element rich pegmatites (e.g. Thomas et al., 2009a).

  1. Dynamics of G-band bright points derived using two fully automated algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnárová, M.; Utz, D.; Rybák, J.; Hanslmeier, A.

    Small-scale magnetic field concentrations (˜ 1 kG) in the solar photosphere can be identified in the G-band of the solar spectrum as bright points. Study of the G-band bright points (GBPs) dynamics can help us in solving several questions related also to the coronal heating problem. Here a set of 142 G-band speckled images obtained using the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on October 19, 2005 are used to compare identification of the GBPs by two different fully automated identification algorithms: an algorithm developed by Utz et al. (2009a, 2009b) and an algorithm developed according to papers of Berger et al. (1995, 1998). Temporal and spatial tracking of the GBPs identified by both algorithms was performed resulting in distributions of lifetimes, sizes and velocities of the GBPs. The obtained results show that both algorithms give very similar values in the case of lifetime and velocity estimation of the GBPs, but they differ significantly in case of estimation of the GBPs sizes. This difference is caused by the fact that we have applied no additional exclusive criteria on the GBPs identified by the algorithm based on the work of Berger et al. (1995, 1998). Therefore we conclude that in a future study of the GBPs dynamics we will prefer to use the Utz's algorithm to perform identification and tracking of the GBPs in G-band images.

  2. Let's look at leeks! Picture books increase toddlers' willingness to look at, taste and consume unfamiliar vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Philippa; Houston-Price, Carmel; Kennedy, Orla B.

    2013-01-01

    Repeatedly looking at picture books about fruits and vegetables with parents enhances young children's visual preferences toward the foods in the book (Houston-Price et al., 2009a) and influences their willingness to taste these foods (Houston-Price et al., 2009b). This article explores whether the effects of picture book exposure are affected by infants' initial familiarity with and liking for the foods presented. In two experiments parents of 19- to 26-month-old toddlers were asked to read a picture book about a liked, disliked or unfamiliar fruit or vegetable with their child every day for 2 weeks. The impact of the intervention on both infants' visual preferences and their eating behavior was determined by the initial status of the target food, with the strongest effects for foods that were initially unfamiliar. Most strikingly, toddlers consumed more of the unfamiliar vegetable they had seen in their picture book than of a matched control vegetable. Results confirm the potential for picture books to play a positive role in encouraging healthy eating in young children. PMID:24653709

  3. Shifting fundamental frequency in simulated electric-acoustic listening.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher A; Scherrer, Nicole M; Bacon, Sid P

    2010-09-01

    Previous experiments have shown significant improvement in speech intelligibility under both simulated [Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2009a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 1658-1665; Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2010). Hear. Res. 266, 52-59] and real [Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2009b). Ear Hear. 30, 489-493] electric-acoustic stimulation when the target speech in the low-frequency region was replaced with a tone modulated in frequency to track the changes in the target talker's fundamental frequency (F0), and in amplitude with the amplitude envelope of the target speech. The present study examined the effects in simulation of applying these cues to a tone lower in frequency than the mean F0 of the target talker. Results showed that shifting the frequency of the tonal carrier downward by as much as 75 Hz had no negative impact on the benefit to intelligibility due to the tone, and that even a shift of 100 Hz resulted in a significant benefit over simulated electric-only stimulation when the sensation level of the tone was comparable to that of the tones shifted by lesser amounts.

  4. Estimating evolution of δ(13)CH(4) during methanization of municipal solid waste based on chemical reactions, isotope accumulation in products and microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Vavilin, V A

    2012-01-01

    Natural isotopic composition in substrate may be used to reveal the metabolic pathways of substrate transformation by microbial community. In this paper, a change in δ(13)CH(4) during methanization of reconstituted municipal solid waste was described using a mathematical model based on stoichiometric chemical reactions, equation for the (13)C isotope accumulation in products at the low natural C(13)/C(12) ratio and microbial ecology. A set of experimental data used in the model was taken from Qu et al. (2009a). According to the model, during mesophilic municipal solid waste methanization initially hydrogenotrophic and further aceticlastic methanogenesis dominated. At the final stage hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis followed by acetate oxidation dominated again. In spite of rather high measured values of δ(13)C for CO(2) above -21‰, a sharp decrease in δ(13)CH(4) from -20‰ to -60‰ at the final stage was explained by a larger fractionation against (13)C during methanogenesis from H(2)/H(2)CO(3) due to a kinetic isotope effect when hydrogenotrophic methanogens preferentially take down light (12)C. The model also confirmed that in thermophilic conditions a comparatively stable value of δ(13)CH(4) about -60‰ measured earlier (Qu et al. 2009b) was due to a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis during all methanization process of cardboard waste.

  5. Association between population prevalence of smoking and incidence of meningococcal disease in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009: a population-based time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Gunnstein; Sadarangani, Manish; Omar, Omar; Yu, Ly-Mee; Mølbak, Kåre; Howitz, Michael; Olcén, Per; Haglund, Margaretha; van der Ende, Arie; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the prevalence of smoking in the population and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) among children under 5 years of age. Design Retrospective, longitudinal, observational study. Poisson regression controlled for confounding factors. Setting Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009. Population Total population of approximately 35 million people in these four countries. Data sources Data were collected from the Ministries of Health, National Statistics Bureaus and other relevant national institutes. Results In Norway, there was a significant positive relationship between the annual prevalence of daily smokers among individuals aged 25–49 years and the incidence of IMD in children under 5 years of age, unadjusted (RR=1.04–1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, p<0.001) and after adjustment for time of year (quarter), incidence of influenza-like illness and household crowding (RR=1.05–1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09, p<0.001). Depending on age group, the risk of IMD increased by 5.2–6.9% per 1% increase in smoking prevalence among individuals aged 25–49 years in adjusted analyses. Using limited datasets from the three other countries, unadjusted analysis showed positive associations between IMD in children related to older smokers in Sweden and the Netherlands and negative associations related to younger smokers in Sweden. However, there were no demonstrable associations between incidence of IMD and prevalence of smoking, after adjustment for the same confounding variables. Conclusions The reduced incidence of IMD in Norway between 1975 and 2009 may partly be explained by the reduced prevalence of smoking during this period. High-quality surveillance data are required to confirm this in other countries. Strong efforts to reduce smoking in the whole population including targeted campaigns to reduce smoking among adults may have a role to play in the prevention of IMD in children. PMID:24513866

  6. Assessing secondary attack rates among household contacts at the beginning of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Ontario, Canada, April-June 2009: A prospective, observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding transmission dynamics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in various exposure settings and determining whether transmissibility differed from seasonal influenza viruses was a priority for decision making on mitigation strategies at the beginning of the pandemic. The objective of this study was to estimate household secondary attack rates for pandemic influenza in a susceptible population where control measures had yet to be implemented. Methods All Ontario local health units were invited to participate; seven health units volunteered. For all laboratory-confirmed cases reported between April 24 and June 18, 2009, participating health units performed contact tracing to detect secondary cases among household contacts. In total, 87 cases and 266 household contacts were included in this study. Secondary cases were defined as any household member with new onset of acute respiratory illness (fever or two or more respiratory symptoms) or influenza-like illness (fever plus one additional respiratory symptom). Attack rates were estimated using both case definitions. Results Secondary attack rates were estimated at 10.3% (95% CI 6.8-14.7) for secondary cases with influenza-like illness and 20.2% (95% CI 15.4-25.6) for secondary cases with acute respiratory illness. For both case definitions, attack rates were significantly higher in children under 16 years than adults (25.4% and 42.4% compared to 7.6% and 17.2%). The median time between symptom onset in the primary case and the secondary case was estimated at 3.0 days. Conclusions Secondary attack rates for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were comparable to seasonal influenza estimates suggesting similarities in transmission. High secondary attack rates in children provide additional support for increased susceptibility to infection. PMID:21492445

  7. Racial Inequities in Receipt of Influenza Vaccination Among Nursing Home Residents in the United States, 2008–2009: A Pattern of Low Overall Coverage in Facilities in Which Most Residents are Black

    PubMed Central

    Bardenheier, Barbara; Wortley, Pascale; Shefer, Abigail; McCauley, Mary Mason; Gravenstein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Nationwide among nursing home residents, receipt of the influenza vaccine is 8 to 9 percentage points lower among blacks than among whites. The objective of this study was to determine if the national inequity in vaccination is because of the characteristics of facilities and/or residents. Design Cross-sectional study with multilevel modeling. Setting and Participants States in which 1% or more of nursing home residents were black and the difference in influenza vaccination coverage between white and black nursing home residents was 1 percentage point or higher (n = 39 states and the District of Columbia). Data on residents (n = 2,359,321) were obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service’s Minimum Data Set for October 1, 2008, through March 31, 2009. Measurements Residents’ influenza vaccination status (vaccinated, refused vaccine, or not offered vaccination). Results States with higher overall influenza vaccination coverage among nursing home residents had smaller racial inequities. In nursing homes with higher proportions of black residents, vaccination coverage was lower for both blacks and whites. The most dramatic inequities existed between whites in nursing homes with 0% blacks (L1) and blacks in nursing homes with 50% or more blacks (L5) in states with overall racial inequities of 10 percentage points or more. In these states, more black nursing home residents lived in nursing homes with 50% or more blacks (L5); in general, the same homes with low overall coverage. Conclusion Inequities in influenza vaccination coverage among nursing home residents are largely because of low vaccination coverage in nursing homes with a high proportion of black residents. Findings indicate that implementation of culturally appropriate interventions to increase vaccination in facilities with larger proportions of black residents may reduce the racial gap in influenza vaccination as well as increase overall state-level vaccination. PMID:22420974

  8. Narcolepsy, 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic influenza, and pandemic influenza vaccinations: what is known and unknown about the neurological disorder, the role for autoimmunity, and vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Schur, Peter H; MacDonald, Noni E; Steinman, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The vaccine safety surveillance system effectively detected a very rare adverse event, narcolepsy, in subjects receiving AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the European inactivation/purification protocol. The reports of increased cases of narcolepsy in non-vaccinated subjects infected with wild A(H1N1) pandemic influenza virus suggest a role for the viral antigen(s) in disease development. However, additional investigations are needed to better understand what factor(s) in wild influenza infection trigger(s) narcolepsy in susceptible hosts. An estimated 31 million doses of European AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine were used in more than 47 countries. The Canadian AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine was used with high coverage in Canada where an estimated 12 million doses were administered. As no similar narcolepsy association has been reported to date with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the Canadian inactivation/purification protocol, this suggests that the AS03 adjuvant alone may not be responsible for the narcolepsy association. To date, no narcolepsy association has been reported with the MF59®-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine. This review article provides a brief background on narcolepsy, outlines the different types of vaccine preparations including the ones for influenza, reviews the accumulated evidence for the safety of adjuvants, and explores the association between autoimmune diseases and natural infections. It concludes by assimilating the historical observations and recent clinical studies to formulate a feasible hypothesis on why vaccine-associated narcolepsy may not be solely linked to the AS03 adjuvant but more likely be linked to how the specific influenza antigen component of the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine was prepared. Careful and long-term epidemiological studies of subjects who developed narcolepsy in association with AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine prepared with the European inactivation/purification protocol are needed.

  9. Enhanced Pneumonia and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Pigs Challenged with Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Virus Following Vaccination with an Inactivated delta-Cluster H1N2 Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endemic strains of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in North America consist of the subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. These circulating strains contain the triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) cassette resulting from incorporation of genes from swine, avian, and human IAV’s. Genetic drift and reassortm...

  10. Evaluating area-level spatial clustering of Salmonella Enteritidis infections and their socioeconomic determinants in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, Canada (2007 – 2009): a retrospective population-based ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been only a few region-level ecological studies conducted in Canada investigating enteric infections in humans. Our study objectives were to 1) assess the spatial clustering of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections in the Greater Toronto Area, and 2) identify underlying area-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that might explain the clustering of infections. Methods Retrospective data on S. Enteritidis infections from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from Ontario’s reportable disease surveillance database and were grouped at the forward sortation area (FSA) - level. A spatial scan statistic was employed to identify FSA-level spatial clusters of high infection rates. Negative binomial regression was used to identify FSA-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and SES indicators obtained from the 2006 Census of Canada. Global Moran’s I statistic was used to evaluate the final model for residual spatial clustering. Results A spatial cluster that included nine neighbouring FSAs was identified in downtown Toronto. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between S. Enteritidis infection rates and FSA-level average number of children at home per census family. Areas with high and areas with low average median family income had higher infection rates than FSAs with medium average median family income. Areas with a high proportion of visible minority population had lower infection rates than FSAs with a medium proportion of visible minority population. The Moran’s I statistic was not significant, indicating that no residual spatial autocorrelation was present after accounting for the SES variables in the final model. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that FSAs with high and low average median family income, medium proportion of visible minority population, and high average number of children at home per census family had the highest S. Enteritidis infection rates. These areas should be targeted when designing disease control and prevention programs. Future studies are needed in areas with high S. Enteritidis infection rates to identify sources of environmental contamination of the local food supply, to assess food safety practices at local food markets, retail stores, and restaurants, and to identify novel individual-level risk factors. PMID:24237666

  11. Collaborative research: Dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves and their effects on current layers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-04-18

    The project has accomplished the following achievements including the goals outlined in the original proposal. Generation and measurements of Debye-scale electron holes in laboratory: We have generated by beam injections electron solitary waves in the LAPD experiments. The measurements were made possible by the fabrication of the state-of-the-art microprobes at UCLA to measure Debye-scale electric fields [Chiang et al., 2011]. We obtained a result that challenged the state of knowledge about electron hole generation. We found that the electron holes were not due to two-stream instability, but generated by a current-driven instability that also generated whistler-mode waves [Lefebvre et al., 2011, 2010b]. Most of the grant supported a young research scientist Bertrand Lefebvre who led the dissemination of the laboratory experimental results. In addition to two publications, our work relevant to the laboratory experiments on electron holes has resulted in 7 invited talks [Chen, 2007, 2009; Pickett et al., 2009a; Lefebvre et al., 2010a; Pickett et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2011c, b] (including those given by the co-I Jolene Pickett) and 2 contributed talks [Lefebvre et al., 2009b, a]. Discovery of elecctron phase-space-hole structure in the reconnection electron layer: Our theoretical analyses and simulations under this project led to the discovery of an inversion electric field layer whose phase-space signature is an electron hole within the electron diffusion layer in 2D anti-parallel reconnection [Chen et al., 2011a]. We carried out particle tracing studies to understand the electron orbits that result in the phase-space hole structure. Most importantly, we showed that the current density in the electron layer is limited in collisionless reconnection with negligible guide field by the cyclotron turning of meandering electrons. Comparison of electrostatic solitary waves in current layers observed by Cluster and in LAPD: We compared the ESWs observed in a supersubstorm

  12. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews

  13. Pollution and Climate Effects on Tree-Ring Nitrogen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.; Smirnoff, A.

    2009-04-01

    Georgian Bay reflect deposition of NOx emissions from cars and coal-power plants, with higher proportions from coal burning in Georgian Bay (Savard et al., 2009b). This interpretation is conceivable because recent monitoring indicates that coal-power plant NOx emissions play an important role in the annual N budget in Ontario, but they are negligible on the Quebec side. CONCLUSION Interpretations of long tree-ring N isotopic series in terms of effects generated by airborne N-species have been previously advocated. Here we further propose that the contrasted isotopic trends obtained for wood samples from two regions reflect different regional anthropogenic N deposition combined with variations of climatic conditions. This research suggests that nitrogen tree-ring series may record both regional climatic conditions and anthropogenic perturbations of the N cycle. REFERENCES Savard, M.M., Bégin,C., Marion, J., Aznar, J.-C., Smirnoff, A., 2009a. Changes of Air Quality in an urban region as inferred from tree-ring width and stable isotopes. Chapter 9 in "Relating Atmospheric Source Apportionment to Vegetation Effects: Establishing Cause Effect Relationships" (A. Legge ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam; doi: 10.1016/S1474-8177(08)00209x. Savard, M.M., Bégin, C., Smirnoff, A., Marion, J., Rioux-Paquette, E., 2009b. Tree-ring nitrogen isotopes reflect climatic effects and anthropogenic NOx emissions. Env. Sci. Tech (doi: 10.1021/es802437k).

  14. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Centralia, Kansas, in 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2010-10-19

    in the injection test area (Argonne 2009a). The KDHE (2008a) has requested that sitewide monitoring continue at Centralia until a final remedy has been selected (as part of a Corrective Action Study [CAS] evaluation) and implemented for this site. In response to this request, twice-yearly sampling of 10 monitoring wells and 6 piezometers (Figure 1.1) previously approved by the KDHE for monitoring of the groundwater at Centralia (KDHE 2005a,b) was continued in 2008. The sampling events under this extension of the two-year (2005-2007) monitoring program occurred in March and September 2008 (Argonne 2008b, 2009b). Additional piezometers specifically installed to evaluate the progress of the IM pilot test (PMP1-PMP9; Figure 1.2) were also sampled in 2008; the results of these analyses were reported and discussed separately (Argonne 2009a). On the basis of results of the 2005-2008 sitewide monitoring and the 2008 IM pilot test monitoring, the CCC/USDA recommended a revised sampling program to address both of the continuing monitoring objectives until a CAS for Centralia is developed (Section 4.2 in Argonne 2009b). The elements of this interim monitoring plan are as follows: (1) Annual sampling of twelve previously established (before the pilot test) monitoring points (locations identified in Figure 1.3) and the five outlying pilot test monitoring points (PMP4, PMP5, PMP6, PMP7, PMP9; Figure 1.4); and (2) Sampling twice yearly at the five pilot test monitoring points inside the injection area (PMP1-PMP3, PMP8, MW02; Figure 1.4). With the approval of the KDHE (2009), groundwater sampling for analyses of VOCs and selected other geochemical parameters was conducted at Centralia under the interim monitoring program outlined above in April and October 2009. This report documents the findings of the 2009 monitoring events.

  15. Synchrotron-based redox behavior of chromium during weathering of ultramafic rocks in New-Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillot, Dr.; Fandeur, Dr.; Fritsch, Dr.; Morin, Dr.; Olivi, Dr.; Webb, Dr.; Hazemann, Dr.; Ambrosi, Dr.; Brown, Jr., Dr.

    2009-04-01

    In New-Caledonia, deep weathering of ultramafic rocks (peridotites) has lead to the development of thick lateritic regoliths where Ni, Cr, Co and Mn can exhibit concentration up to several wt%. Such a large occurrence of these potentially toxic elements can represent serious risks for the environmental quality of this ‘' biodiversity hotspot'' and actual risk assessment relies on our capacity at characterizing the natural cycling of these elements. The present study reports the results of a detailed XANES analysis on the redox chemistry of Cr along a 64 meters depth lateritic regolith developed in the ultramafic rocks of the Koniambo outcrops located on the western coast of New Caledonia. In a first step, bulk XAS data at both the Cr and Mn K-edges have been used to evidence a remarkable correlation between the occurrence of Mn(III,IV)-oxides (mainly asbolane) and that of Cr(VI), at the scale of the studied regolith (Fandeur et al., 2009a). Since Cr mainly occurs as Cr(III)-bearing silicates in the ultramafic bedrock, such a correlation strongly suggests an oxidation of the fraction of Cr(III) released upon the weathering of these silicates to Cr(VI) by the Mn(III,IV)-oxides, as already demonstrated in laboratory studies (Oze et al., 2008). In a second step, µ-XANES mapping of the Cr redox at the boundary between Mn(III,IV)-oxides and Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides (mainly goethite) allowed to depict the actual behavior of Cr(VI) after oxidation. Results indicate an association of Cr(VI) with both Mn-oxides and Fe-oxyhydroxides which suggests that, after oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) by the Mn(III,IV)-oxides, part of oxidized chromium is desorbed from these Mn-oxides and transported to the surrounding Fe-oxyhydroxides where it accumulates through sorption reactions (Fandeur et al., 2009b). Such a redox-sorption pathway has been confirmed by reacting aqueous Cr(III) with birnessite alone or with a mixture of birnessite and goethite during time-resolved laboratory

  16. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Miriam L; de Wit, Cynthia A; Molander, Sverker; Scheringer, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Lohmann, Rainer; Arvidsson, Rickard; Bergman, Åke; Hauschild, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Persson, Linn; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Vighi, Marco; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social

  17. Can the default-mode network be described with one spatial-covariance network?

    PubMed

    Habeck, Christian; Steffener, Jason; Rakitin, Brian; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-08-15

    The default-mode network (DMN) has become a well accepted concept in cognitive and clinical neuroscience over the last decade, and perusal of the recent literature attests to a stimulating research field of cognitive and diagnostic applications (for example, (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010; Koch et al., 2010; Sheline et al., 2009a; Sheline et al., 2009b; Uddin et al., 2008; Uddin et al., 2009; Weng et al., 2009; Yan et al., 2009)). However, a formal definition of what exactly constitutes a functional brain network is difficult to come by. In recent contributions, some researchers argue that the DMN is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems (Buckner et al., 2008) and have explored modular components of the DMN that have different functional specialization and could to some extent be identified separately (Fox et al., 2005; Uddin et al., 2009). Such conception of modularity seems to imply an opposite construct of a 'unified whole', but it is difficult to locate proponents of the idea of a DMN who are supplying constraints that can be brought to bear on data in rigorous tests. Our aim in this paper is to present a principled way of deriving a single covariance pattern as the neural substrate of the DMN, test to what extent its behavior tracks the coupling strength between critical seed regions, and investigate to what extent our stricter concept of a network is consistent with the already established findings about the DMN in the literature. We show that our approach leads to a functional covariance pattern whose pattern scores are a good proxy for the integrity of the connections between a medioprefrontal, posterior cingulate and parietal seed regions. Our derived DMN network thus has potential for diagnostic applications that are simpler to perform than computation of pairwise correlational strengths or seed maps.

  18. The Characteristics and Experiences of Successful Undergraduate Latina Students Who Persist in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Carrie

    Females and underrepresented ethnic minorities earn a small percentage of engineering and computer science bachelor's degrees awarded in the United States, earn an even smaller proportion of master's and doctoral degrees, and are underrepresented in the engineering workforce (Engineering Workforce Commission, [2006], as cited in National Science Foundation, 2012; United States Department of Education, [2006], as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009a; United States Department of Education, [2006], as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009b). Considerable research has examined the perceptions, culture, curriculum, and pedagogy in engineering that inhibits the achievement of women and underrepresented ethnic minorities. This action research study used a qualitative approach to examine the characteristics and experiences of Latina students who pursued a bachelor's degree in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering at Arizona State University (ASU) as part of the 2008 first-time full-time freshman cohort. The researcher conducted two semi-structured individual interviews with seven undergraduate Latina students who successfully persisted to their fourth (senior) year in engineering. The researcher aimed to understand what characteristics made these students successful and how their experiences affected their persistence in an engineering major. The data collected showed that the Latina participants were motivated to persist in their engineering degree program due to their parents' expectations for success and high academic achievement; their desire to overcome the discrimination, stereotyping, and naysayers that they encountered; and their aspiration to become a role model for their family and other students interested in pursuing engineering. From the data collected, the researcher provided suggestions to implement and adapt educational activities and support systems within the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering to improve the retention and graduation rates

  19. General Relativistic Radiation Pressure Supported Stars as Quasar Central Engines in an Universe Which is Recycling Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2011-11-01

    Hoyle & Folwler (1963a,b) suggested that quasars may contain Radiation Pressure Supported Stars (RPSS), which are quasi-Newtonian (surface redshitf z ≪ 1) and supermassive. This proposal however did not work and one of the reasons was that such quasi-Newtonian PRSSs are unstable to gravitational contraction to become extremely general relativistic RPSSs. And since trapped surfaces are not allowed, (Mitra 2009a) these relativistic RPSSs are bound to hover around their instantaneous "Schwarzschild Radius" Rs = 2GM/c2. In view of the fact that they have z ≫ 1, they appear as "Black Holes" (BH) to distant observers. However since, they are always radiating, in a strict sense, they are always contracting. During such extreme compatification, RPSSs are likely to acquire extremely large magnetic field due to magnetic flux freezing, and hence they have strong magnetosphere around them by which they may arrest the accretion disk surrounding them at "Alfven Radius", Ra ≫ Rs. In contrast, for an accreting Schwarzschild black hole, one expects the inner edge of the accretion disk to be at Ri = 3Rs. Consequently, such ultramagnetized RPSSs have been nick named as Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Objects" (MECOs). Microlensing studies of several quasar structures have shown that indeed Ri ˜ 35Rs rather that R1 = 3Rs, and which confirms that quasars harbor MECOs rather than true black holes (Schild et al. 2006, 2008, Lovegrove et al. 2011). Further the recent proof that the true BHs have M = 0 confirms that the BH candidates are not true BHs (Mitra 2004a,b; 2009b). Here we highlight the facts (i) outflows from quasars and (ii) their ability to recycle cosmic matter for having new stars and galaxies are best understood by realizing that they contain MECOs rather than true BHs.

  20. Understanding processing speed weaknesses among pedophilic child molesters: response style vs. neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Yana; Eastvold, Angela D; Strassberg, Donald S; Franchow, Emilie I

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that pedophilic (PED) child molesters exhibit slower performance speed and greater performance accuracy when compared to nonpedophilic (N-PED) child molesters or other criminal and noncriminal controls. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences reflect a slow/deliberate response style among PEDS (as we have previously hypothesized; Eastvold, Suchy, & Strassberg, 2011; Suchy, Whittaker, Strassberg, & Eastvold, 2009a, 2009b), or a fundamental neuropathological weakness in processing speed. Data came from a larger study examining neurocognition among sex offenders. Processing speed in three different domains (motor speed, visual-perceptual speed, and visual-motor integration) was examined in 20 phallometrically identified PEDs, 20 N-PEDs, and 20 nonsexual offenders, using both clinical (Finger Tapping, Symbol Search, Digit Symbol Coding) and experimental measures (Inspection Time Task [ITT]). The ITT assessed speed of visual-perceptual processing independent of response speed. On clinical measures, PEDs exhibited slower visual perception [F(2, 57) = 5.24, p = .008] and visual-motor integration [F(2, 57) = 5.02, p = .010] than the other groups, with no differences for simple motor speed. On the ITT, PEDs performed less accurately than the other groups [F(2, 57) = 3.95, p = .025], clearly indicating that slow processing speed cannot be explained by a deliberate response style. Group differences persisted after controlling for other potential confounds (age, estimate IQ, working memory, ethnicity, and substance use). PEDs' slower performance is due to a fundamental neurocognitive weakness, rather than a slow/deliberate response style. These results are consistent with Cantor et al.'s (2008) work identifying white matter abnormalities among PEDs and provide further support for a neurodevelopmental etiology of pedophilia.

  1. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami - an application of the revised Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) Model in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Dall'Osso, Fillippo; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.

    2010-05-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009a, b) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience. Last, we propose the wider application of the PTVA-3 Model as a tool for building vulnerability assessment. Dall'Osso, D., Gonella, M., Gabbianelli, G., Withycombe, G. and Dominey-Howes, D. (2009a). A revised (PTVA) model for assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 1557-1565. Dall'Osso, D

  2. 40 CFR 63.11525 - What are my compliance dates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart by June 22, 2009. (b) If you start up a new affected source on or before December 23, 2008, you..., 2008. (c) If you start up a new affected source after December 23, 2008, you must achieve...

  3. Model development based on a landscape oriented catchment unit concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas Gaudry, María.; Gutknecht, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    regional hydrological modelling using PRMS/MMS in the drainage basin of the river Bröl, Germany. Hydrological Processes 9, 424-436. Merz, R., Blöschl, G. (2009a): process controls on the statistical flood moments - a data based analysis. Hydrological Processes 23, 675-696. Merz, R., Blöschl, G. (2009b): A regional analysis of event runoff coefficients with respect to climate and catchment characteristics in Austria. Water Resources Research, Vol. 45, W01404, doi:10.1029/2008WR007163, 2009. Reszler, C. Komma, J., Blöschl, G., Gutknecht, D. (2008): Dominante Prozesse und Ereignistypen zur Plausibilisierung flächendetaillierter Niederschlag-Abflussmodelle. Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung 52, 120-131 Samuel, J.M., Sivapalan, M., Struthers, I. (2008): Diagnostic analysis of water balance variability: A comparative modeling study of catchments in Perth, Newcastle, and Darwin, Australia. Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W06403, doi.10.1029/2007WR006694, 2008. Schmocker_Fackel, P., Scherrer, S. (2007): Identifying runoff processes on the plot and catchment scale. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11, 891-906

  4. Distortions of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Presence of Electric Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanushenko, Anna; Rempel, Matthias; Cheung, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Solar coronal loops possess several peculiar properties, which have been a subject of intensive research for a long time. These in particular include the lack of apparent expansion of coronal loops and the increased pressure scale height in loops compared to the diffuse background. Previously, Malanushenko & Schrijver (2013) proposed that these could be explained by the fact that magnetic flux tubes expand with height in a highly anisotropic manner. They used potential field models to demonstrate that flux tubes that have circular cross section at the photosphere, in the corona turn into a highly elongates structures, more resembling thick ribbons. Such ribbons, viewed along the expanding edge, would appear as thin, crisp structures of a constant cross-section with an increased pressure scale height, and when viewed along the non-expanding side, would appear as faint, wide and underdense features. This may also introduce a selection bias,when a set of loops is collected for a further study, towards those viewed along the expanding edge.However, some of the past studies have indicated that strong electric currents flowing in a given flux tube may result in the tube maintaining a relatively constant cross-sectional shape along its length. Given that Malanushenko & Schrijver (2013) focused on a potential, or current-free, field model of an active region, the extend to which their analysis could be applied to the real solar fields, was unclear.In the present study, we use a magnetic field created by MURaM, a highly realistic state-of-the-art radiative MHD code (Vogler et al, 2005; Rempel et al, 2009b). MURaM was shown to reproduce a wide variety of observed features of the solar corona (e.g., Hansteen et al, 2010; Cheung et al. 2007, 2008; Rempel 2009a,b). We analyze the distortions of magnetic flux tubes in a MURaM simulation of an active region corona. We quantify such distortions and correlate them with a number of relevant parameters of flux tubes, with a

  5. Validation of the large-scale Lagrangian cirrus model CLaMS-Ice by in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anja; Rolf, Christian; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Dreiling, Volker; Zöger, Martin; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds are an element of uncertainty in the climate system and have received increasing attention since the last IPCC reports. The interaction of varying freezing meachanisms, sedimentation rates, temperature and updraft velocity fluctuations and other factors that lead to the formation of those clouds is still not fully understood. During the ML-Cirrus campaign 2014 (Germany), the new cirrus cloud model CLaMS-Ice (see Rolf et al., EGU 2015) has been used for flight planning to direct the research aircraft HALO into interesting cirrus cloud regions. Now, after the campaign, we use our in-situ aircraft measurements to validate and improve this model - with the long-term goal to enable it to simulate cirrus cloud cover globally, with reasonable computing times and sufficient accuracy. CLaMS-Ice consists of a two-moment bulk model established by Spichtinger and Gierens (2009a, 2009b), which simulates cirrus clouds along trajectories that the Lagrangian model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002 and Konopka et al. 2007) derived from ECMWF data. The model output covers temperature, pressure, relative humidity, ice water content (IWC), and ice crystal numbers (Nice). These parameters were measured on board of HALO by the following instruments: temperature and pressure by BAHAMAS, total and gas phase water by the hygrometers FISH and SHARC (see Meyer et al 2014, submitted to ACP), and Nice as well as ice crystal size distributions by the cloud spectrometer NIXE-CAPS (see also Krämer et al., EGU 2015). Comparisons of the model results with the measurements yield that cirrus clouds can be successfully simulated by CLaMS-Ice. However, there are sections in which the model's relative humidity and Nice deviate considerably from the measured values. This can be traced back to e.g. the initialization of total water from ECMWF data. The simulations are therefore reinitiated with the total water content measured by FISH. Other possible sources of uncertainties are investigated, as

  6. Equilibrium 2H/1H fractionation in organic molecules: III. Cyclic ketones and hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L.; Nielsen, Robert J.; Goddard, William A.

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative interpretation of stable hydrogen isotope ratios (2H/1H) in organic compounds is greatly aided by knowledge of the relevant equilibrium fractionation factors (ɛeq). Previous efforts have combined experimental measurements and hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to accurately predict equilibrium fractionations in linear (acyclic) organic molecules (Wang et al., 2009a,b), but the calibration produced by that study is not applicable to cyclic compounds. Here we report experimental measurements of equilibrium 2H/1H fractionation in six cyclic ketones, and use those data to evaluate DFT calculations of fractionation in diverse monocyclic and polycyclic compounds commonly found in sedimentary organic matter and petroleum. At 25, 50, and 75 °C, the experimentally measured ɛeq values for secondary and tertiary Hα in isotopic equilibrium with water are in the ranges of -130‰ to -150‰ and +10‰ to -40‰ respectively. Measured data are similar to DFT calculations of ɛeq for axial Hα but not equatorial Hα. In tertiary Cα positions with methyl substituents, this can be understood as a result of the methyl group forcing Hα atoms into a dominantly axial position. For secondary Cα positions containing both axial and equatorial Hα atoms, we propose that axial Hα exchanges with water significantly faster than the equatorial Hα does, due to the hyperconjugation-stabilized transition state. Interconversion of axial and equatorial positions via ring flipping is much faster than isotopic exchange at either position, and as a result the steady-state isotopic composition of both H's is strongly weighted toward that of axial Hα. Based on comparison with measured ɛeq values, a total uncertainty of 10-30‰ remains for theoretical ɛeq values. Using DFT, we systematically estimated the ɛeq values for individual H positions in various cyclic structures. By summing over all individual H positions, the molecular equilibrium fractionation was

  7. Analysis of the application of the generalized monod kinetics model to describe the human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Compañ, V; Aguilella-Arzo, M; Del Castillo, L F; Hernández, S I; Gonzalez-Meijome, J M

    2016-07-26

    This work is an analysis of the application of the generalized Monod kinetics model describing human corneal oxygen consumption during soft contact lens wear to models previously used by Chhabra et al. (J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2009a;90:202-209, Optom Vis Sci 2009b;86:454-466) and Larrea and Büchler (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:1076-1080). We use oxygen tension from in vivo estimations provided by Bonanno [Bonanno et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43:371-376, and Bonanno et al 2009]. We consider four hydrogel and six silicone hydrogel lenses. The cornea is considered a single homogeneous layer, with constant oxygen permeability regardless of the type of lens worn. Our calculations yield different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max , whith differents oxygen tensions (high and low pc ) at the cornea-tears interface. Surprisingly, for both models, we observe an increase in oxygen consumption near an oxygen tension of 105 mmHg until a maximum is reached, then decreasing for higher levels of oxygen pressure. That is, when lowering the pressure of oxygen, the parameter Qc,max initially increases depending on the intensity of the change in pressure. Which, it could be related with the variation of the pH. Furthermore, it is also noted that to greater reductions in pressure, this parameter decreases, possibly due to changes in the concentration of glucose related to the anaerobic respiration. The averaged in vivo human corneal oxygen consumption rate of 1.47 × 10(-4) cm(3) of O2 /cm(3) tissue s, with Monod kinetics model, considering all the lenses studied, is smaller than the average oxygen consumption rate value obtained using the Larrea and Büchler model. The impact that these calculations have on the oxygen partial pressure available at different depths in the corneal tissue is presented and discussed, taking into consideration previous models used in this study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl

  8. Pig producers' perceptions of the Influenza Pandemic H1N1/09 outbreak and its effect on their biosecurity practices in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, Marta; Taylor, Melanie; Holyoake, Patricia; Dhand, Navneet

    2012-10-01

    The Influenza Pandemic (H1N1/09) virus was first reported in humans in Mexico in April 2009 and a pandemic level was declared on 11th of June 2009 by the World Health Organization (Chan, 2009; WHO, 2009a). Public misconceptions about the transmission of H1N1/09 were caused by the inadequate naming of the disease as 'swine influenza'. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the height of the outbreak in the Australian human population and before the virus was reported in the first piggery in Australia in July 2009 (OIE, 2009b; Holyoake et al., 2011). The aims of this study were to evaluate pig producers' perceptions about the virus and the outbreak financial impact and influence on on-farm biosecurity practices. A questionnaire was designed and posted to Australian Pork Limited (APL) members (n=460), obtaining responses from 182 producers (39.6%). Pig producers had good general knowledge on potential transmission pathways for H1N1/09 between people, with direct or close contact with a sick person perceived as the most likely pathways. Changes on biosecurity practices, such as asking visitors if they had recently been overseas (27.8%) and not allowing any visitor to inspect their pigs (18.3%), were reported among respondents. In addition, approximately 40% of producers asked their employees to notify flu like symptoms, consulted a veterinarian on H1N1/09 and visited websites to seek information on H1N1/09. A higher adoption of these practices was observed among large (>100 sows) than small herds. Only 2.9% of respondents reported a reduction in pig sales during the outbreak. However, approximately one third of producers reported being financially and emotionally stressed, 38.2% were distressed about the health of their pigs and 16.7% about their own health. The most important sources of information were APL (93%), veterinarians (89%) and the state Department of Primary Industries (DPI) (75%). The first two considered the most trusted sources of information

  9. Summary of impact markers and potential impact mechanisms for the YDB impact event at 12.9 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Schultz, P. H.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J.; Kennett, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Until the announcements of a possible impact event (Firestone et al. 2007; Kennett et al., 2009a; 2009b) at the beginning of the Younger Dryas (YD) around 12.9 ka, the KT impact layer (KTB) that resulted from the Chicxulub impact at 65 mya was the only geological boundary layer known to contain coeval peaks in various impact markers, including diamonds. Here, we compare impact markers from the KTB, YD boundary layer (YDB), and the 1908 Tunguska airburst layer (TAL). First order markers, related to impact and biomass burning, include: magnetic spherules, carbon spherules, nanodiamonds (cubic and lonsdaleite), iridium anomalies, charcoal, fullerenes (with high 3He to 4He ratio), grape-like soot, and widespread extinctions. Observations and analytical data for the YDB are consistent with all of the KTB markers, while the last three markers are unknown or inconclusive for the Tunguska layer. Selected markers for cratering events, e.g, Chicxulub, are: a visible crater, shocked minerals, impact breccia, and microtektites. None of these are known for the YD event or Tunguska. The discussion here is limited to possible origins of the impact markers and not with impact consequences (climate change, extinctions, etc.). Several origins may account for impact materials in the YDB: (1) An extraordinary accretion of micrometeorites (Pinter and Ishman, 2008). However, this is inconsistent with YDB carbon spherule compositions, including the large concentrations of nanodiamonds found embedded in those carbon spherules. (2) Oblique impact(s) into the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This model is consistent with the lack of a visible crater and apparent lack of cratering markers (above), and yet also provides for shock production of the many cubic nanodiamonds and lonsdaleite found in the YDB. (3) Impact-induced aerial burst. e.g, Boslough and Crawford (2007); Shuvalov (2008). The lack of high shock pressures in an aerial detonation does not necessarily preclude the formation of cubic and

  10. Volcanism and related Environmental changes linked to Late Maastrichtian High Stress and KT Mass Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gerta; Adatte, Thierry

    2010-05-01

    Near the end of the Maastrichtian Earth was hit by a confluence of catastrophes ranging from impacts to some of the most devastating volcanic eruptions coupled with major changes in climate, sea level and ocean chemistry that ultimately led to the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) mass extinction. For three decades this mass extinction has been commonly attributed to the sole kill-effect of the Chicxulub impact on Yucatan. Multi-disciplinary evidence (paleontologic, stratigraphic, sedimentologic geochemical) from the Yucatan impact crater to sections in Mexico and Texas revealed that this impact predates the KTB and caused no mass extinction. Recent studies reveal that the most devastating Deccan volcanic eruptions in India occurred near the end of the Maastrichtian and ended coincident with the KT mass extinction (Keller et al., 2008). Examination of biotic stress in the marine realm leading up to the KT mass extinction reveals times of environmental stresses associated with volcanism, greenhouse warming, mesotrophic basins and shallow marginal settings from the Tethys Ocean to the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans (Keller and Abramovich, 2009). Biotic stress conditions vary with the degree of environmental change and range from intraspecies size reduction, to loss of diversity and ultimately mass extinction. No significant biotic stress was observed in assemblages before and after the Chicxulub impact identified by a layer of impact spherules in late Maastrichtian sediments of zone CF1 predating the KTB in Mexico and Texas (Keller et al., 2009b,c). Maximum biotic stress leading to the KT mass extinction is associated with Deccan volcanism in India near the end of the Maastrichtian. This suggests that the mass extinction was likely a direct cause of Deccan volcanism, although the presence of a major Ir anomaly at the KTB does not rule out the possibility of a second major bolide impact exacerbating already catastrophic conditions. Keller, G., Adatte, T., Gardin, S

  11. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle

  12. New species of ice nucleating fungi in soil and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Janine; Hill, Tom; Franc, Gary; Poeschl, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    , D.G., et al. (2009) Biogeosciences, 6, 721-737 3. Pouleur, S., et al. (1992) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 2960-2964 4. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009a) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9281-9297 5. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009b) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9263-9280 6. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., et al. (2012) Biogeosciences, 9, 1125-1136

  13. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    ., (2006b): "Ekspedicija Velebita 2005", Velebiten 43, pp. 2-21, SO PDS Velebit, Zagreb. Bla\\vsković, I. (1998): The two stages of structural formation of the coastal belt of the External Dinarides, Geologica Croatica, vol 51/1, Zagreb. Bockovac, Ž. (1999): Jama Amfora. Speleo'zin, 12, 7, pp. 14-15, Karlovac. Garašić, M.(1986): Hydrogeology and Morphogenesis of the Caves in Croatin Karst. Ph.D. Thesis, 1-161, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Geology, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(1989): New conception of the morphogenesis and hydrogeology of the speleological objects in karst area in Croatia (Yugoslavia). 10. International Congress of Speleology, Procceedings, vol.1, pp. 234-236, s1.8, Budapest, Hungary. Garašić, M.(1991): Morphological and Hydrogeological Classification of Speleological structures (Caves and Pits) in the Croatian Karst area. Geolo\\vski vjesnik, vol.44, pp. 289-300, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(1995): Speleogeneza u okviru hidrogeologije krša i procesa karstifikacije. 1. Hrvatski geolo\\vski kongres, Opatija, Zbornik radova, Proceedings, 177-182, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(2009a): Izvješće o speleolo\\vskom istraživanju, fotografskom i topografskom snimanju, te hidrogeolo\\vskim opservacijama u novootvorenoj jami (kaverni) u tunelu "Sveti Ilija" (servisna tunelska cijev), na stacionaži km 1+193, na trasi spojne ceste Zagvozd - Ba\\vska voda u Dalmaciji. University of Zagreb. pp. 1-39, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(2009b): Izvješće o speleolo\\vskom istraživanju, fotografskom i topografskom snimanju, te hidrogeolo\\vskim opservacijama u novootvorenoj jami (kaverni) u tunelu "Sveti Ilija" (servisna tunelska cijev), na stacionaži km 1+415, na trasi spojne ceste Zagvozd - Ba\\vska voda u Dalmaciji. University of Zagreb. pp. 1-43, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(2009c): Izvješće o speleolo\\vskom istraživanju, fotografskom i topografskom snimanju, te hidrogeolo\\vskim opservacijama u novootvorenoj jami (kaverni) u tunelu "Sveti Ilija" (servisna tunelska cijev), na stacionaži km

  14. 40 CFR 63.11545 - What are my compliance dates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicable provisions of this subpart no later than June 27, 2011. (b) If you start up a new affected source... than June 25, 2009. (c) If you start up a new affected source after June 25, 2009, you must...

  15. 40 CFR 63.11580 - What are my compliance dates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... later than December 30, 2010. (b) If you start up a new affected source on or before December 30, 2009, you must achieve compliance with this subpart no later than December 30, 2009. (c) If you start up...

  16. Editorial: Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX): Direct Sampling of the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.

    2012-02-01

    This special supplement issue of the Astrophysical Journal comprises six coordinated papers that provide the first detailed analyses of the direct sampling of interstellar neutral atoms by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Interstellar atoms are the detritus of older stars—their stellar winds, novae, and supernovae—spread across the galaxy, which fill the vast interstellar space between the stars. The very local interstellar medium around the Sun is filled with both ionized and neutral atoms with approximately equal numbers, and occasional ionization, charge exchange, and recombination makes them a single interacting material over large distances. IBEX (McComas et al. 2009a) is a NASA Small Explorer mission with the sole, focused science objective to discover the global interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium; this objective has primarily been achieved by taking the first global energetic neutral atom (ENA) images, which provide detailed ENA fluxes and energy spectra over all look directions in space. IBEX was launched 2008 October 19 and subsequently maneuvered into a high-altitude, highly elliptical (~15,000 × 300,000 km), roughly week-long orbit. The payload comprises two very high sensitivity, single-pixel ENA cameras: IBEX-Hi (Funsten et al. 2009a), which measures ENAs from ~300 eV to 6 keV, and IBEX-Lo (Fuselier et al. 2009a), which measures ENAs from ~10 eV to 2 keV. The initial IBEX ENA results were published together in a special issue of Science magazine (McComas et al. 2009b; Funsten et al. 2009b; Fuselier et al. 2009b; Schwadron et al. 2009). Since then there have been numerous additional studies of the IBEX ENA observations of the heliosphere, as well as ENAs from the Moon and Earth's magnetosphere (see recent review by McComas et al. 2011 and references therein). Prior to IBEX, the only interstellar neutral atoms to be directly sampled were He, observed by the Ulysses spacecraft a decade ago (Witte et al. 1996

  17. Shallow Orographic Convection contribution to the water resources in Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godart, Angélique; Anquetin, Sandrine; Leblois, Etienne; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2010-05-01

    convection yields up to 20% of the total rainfall and in some locations can reach 40%. This result encourages the deployment of a specific observation device to better document this type of convection during the HyMeX campaign. References Anquetin S, Miniscloux F, Creutin JD and Cosma S (2003) Numerical simulation of orographic rainbands, J.Geophys.Res.,108:CIP.11 1-13 Godart, A, S.Anquetin, E.Leblois, 2009-a: Rainfall regime associated with banded convection in mountainous area, Meteorology and Atmospheric physics, 103, 25-34, doi: 10.1007/s00703-008-0326-3 Godart, A., E. Leblois, S. Anquetin, and N. Freychet, 2009-b: Analysis of relationship between orographic rainfall and atmospheric properties using factorial discriminant analysis and neural network. J. of Applied Meteo. and Climatology, in press, doi: 10.1175/2009JAMC2217.1 Gysi H (1998) Orographic influence on the distribution of accumulated rainfall with different wind directions, Atmos. Res., 47-48:615-633 Miniscloux F, Creutin JD, Anquetin S, 2001: Geostatistical analysis of orographic rainbands, J.Appl.Meteor, 40:1835-1854 Molinié, G., E. Yates, P. Bois, B. Boudevillain, S. Anquetin and J.-D. Creutin, 2010: A statistical Analysis of extreme rainfalls in a Mountainous Mediterranean region, submitted to J. of Hydrometeorology

  18. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Centralia, Kansas, in 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-03-16

    reductive dechlorination in the injection test area (Argonne 2009a). The KDHE (2008a) requested that sitewide monitoring continue until a final remedy is selected (as part of a Corrective Action Study [CAS] evaluation) and implemented. In response to this request, the established sampling across the site and additional sampling in the IM pilot test area continued in 2008 (Argonne 2008b, 2009a,b). On the basis of results of the 2005-2008 sitewide monitoring and the 2008 IM pilot test monitoring, the CCC/USDA recommended a revised sampling program for both the wider site and the IM pilot test area (Section 4.2 in Argonne 2009b). The elements of this interim monitoring plan are as follows: (1) Annual sampling of twelve monitoring points across the site (Figure 1.1) and five outlying IM pilot test monitoring points (PMP4, PMP5, PMP6, PMP7, PMP9; Figure 1.2); and (2) Twice yearly sampling of five IM pilot test monitoring points inside the injection area (PMP1-PMP3, PMP8, MW02; Figure 1.2). With the approval of the KDHE (2009), the initial groundwater sampling for VOCs and geochemical analyses under the interim monitoring plan outlined above was conducted in 2009 (Argonne 2010). The present report documents the findings of the 2010 monitoring events, conducted on April 5 and September 19-21, 2010.

  19. The high hydraulic conductivity of three wooded tropical peat swamps in northeast Peru: measurements and implications for hydrological function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Thomas J.; Baird, Andy J.; Lawson, Ian T.; Roucoux, Katherine H.; Baker, Timothy R.; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice; Ríos, Marcos

    2013-04-01

    peatland edge for domed peatlands, if subjected to a drought lasting 30 days. For a drought lasting 90 days and with a peatland model that incorporates a lower drainable porosity, this zone could extend for up to 72.5 m into the peatland. However, under current climatic conditions, even with high K, peatlands would be unable to shed the large amount of water entering the system via rainfall through subsurface flow alone. We conclude that most of the water leaves these peatlands via overland flow and/or evapotranspiration. References: Baird et al. (2004) Hydrological Processes 18, 275-291; Lähteenoja et al. (2009a) Global Change Biology 15, 2311-2320; Lähteenoja et al. (2009b) Catena 79, 140-145; Lähteenoja et al. (2011) Journal of Geophysical Research 116, G02025; Page et al. (2011) Global Change Biology 17, 798-818.

  20. Age models for peat deposits on the basis of coupled lead-210 and radiocarbon data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; de Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Sensuła, Barbara; Michczyński, Adam; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Palowski, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The study presents three examples of age-model construction based on the results of 210Pb and 14C dating methods applied to peat deposits. The three sites are ombrotrophic peat bogs: the Misten (Belgium), Slowinskie Bloto (N Poland) and Puscizna Mala (S Poland). All sites have been subjected to multiproxy studies aimed at reconstructing paleoenvironment and human activity, covering the last 1500, 1300 and 1800 years, respectively (De Vleeschouwer et al. 2009A, 2009B, in prep., Fialkiewicz-Koziel, ongoing PhD). A detailed comparison between 210Pb and post-bomb 14C results in the Misten bog has also been carried out by Piotrowska et al. (2009). In all cores, the 210Pb activity was calculated using 210Po and 208Po activities after acid-extraction from bulk samples, subsequent deposition on silver discs and measurements by alpha spectrometry. Unsupported 210Pb was detected until 35cm in Slowinskie Bloto, 15cm in the Misten and 19cm in Puscizna Mala. Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was then applied to compute ages of each 1-cm core interval. For the Misten and Slowinskie Bloto, radiocarbon measurements were performed on selected aboveground plant macrofossils, mainly Sphagnum spp. or Calluna vulgaris, Erica tetralix, and Andromeda polyfolia. Radiocarbon ages were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) after acid-alkali-acid wash, combustion, purification of carbon dioxide and graphitisation. For Puscizna Mala bulk samples were dated after chemical preparation of benzene for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or CO2 for gas proportional counting (GPC). Radiocarbon calibration was undertaken using the Intcal04 calibration curve and OxCal 4 software. As a priori information the 210Pb-derived ages were used in a P_Sequence model (Bronk Ramsey, 2008). A number of dates characterized by low agreement with stratigraphical order had to be considered as outliers and rejected from the final age model. For building a continuous age models a non-linear approach

  1. Behavior of major and trace elements upon weathering of peridotites in New Caledonia : A possible site on ultramafic rocks for the Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN) ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillot, Farid; Fandeur, D.; Fritsch, E.; Morin, G.; Ambrosi, J. P.; Olivi, L.; Cognigni, A.; Hazemann, J. L.; Proux, O.; Webb, S.; Brown, G. E., Jr.

    2010-05-01

    ). However, these high concentration of potentially toxic elements can represent a serious hazard for the environmental quality of the Caledonian ecosystem which is a '' biodiversity hotspot' (Myers, 2000), which emphasize the strong need for characterizing the natural cycling of these elements upon weathering of ultramafic rocks. To reach this goal, we have studied the mineralogical distribution, crystal-chemistry and mass balance modelling of major (Si, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn) and trace elements (Ni, Cr and Co) in the freely-drained weathering profile developed in the serpentinized harzburgites of Mt Koniambo (West Coast of New Caledonia). Results show that both hydrothermal and meteoric processes contributed to the vertical differentiation of this freely drained weathering profiles in serpentinized ultramafic rocks. Finally, they also emphasize the importance of both redox reactions and interactions with Mn- and Fe-oxyhydroxydes (Fandeur et al., 2009a; 2009b) to explain the opposite behavior observed between very mobile Ni and almost immobile Cr (Fandeur et al., 2010). These results bring new insights on the geochemical behavior of trace elements upon weathering of ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions leading to the formation of supergene ore deposits. They also emphasize the interest of such a weathering site on ultramafic rocks under tropical climate to complemente the reference sites of the Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN). References Cluzel D., Aitchinson J.C. and Picard C. (2001) Tectonic accretion and underplating of mafic terranes in the Late Eocene intraoceanic fore-arc of New-Caledonia (Southwest Pacific): geodynamic implications. Tectonophysics, 340, 23-59. Coleman, R.G. (1977) Ophiolites: Ancient oceanic lithosphere?: Berlin, Germany, Springer-Verlag, 229p. Fandeur D., Juillot F., Morin G., Olivi L., Cognigni A., Fialin M., Coufignal F., Ambrosi J.P., Guyot F. and Fritsch E. (2009a). Synchrotron-based speciation of chromium in an Oxisol from New

  2. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... centimeters (cm) (5 inches (in)) in length, with dark gray, inconspicuously black-streaked upperparts (BLI... pounds) (BLI 2009b, p. 1; UNEP-WCMC 2009, p. 1). The Jun n grebe has a pointed head, with dark feathers... its slender gray bill, red iris, and dull yellow- orange colored feet. Immature birds are darker...

  3. Emotion-Induced Trade-Offs in Spatiotemporal Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Bruno R.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that emotion facilitates human vision in order to promote adaptive responses to a potential threat in the environment. Surprisingly, we recently found that emotion in some cases impairs the perception of elementary visual features (Bocanegra & Zeelenberg, 2009b). Here, we demonstrate that emotion improves fast temporal…

  4. Emergence of the Green’s Functions from Noise and Passive Acoustic Remote Sensing of Ocean Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    environments, Acta Acustica united with Acustica , 95, no. 6, p. 963–974 (2009b) [published, refereed] O. A. Godin, Emergence of deterministic Green’s...Godin, Emergence of acoustic Green’s functions from time averages of ambient noise, Acta Acustica united with Acustica (2010) [in press, refereed

  5. An Investigation of the Effects of Authentic Science Experiences among Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Providing equitable learning opportunities for all students has been a persistent issue for some time. This is evident by the science achievement gap that still exists between male and female students as well as between White and many non-White student populations (NCES, 2007, 2009, 2009b) and an underrepresentation of female, African-American,…

  6. Effects of Adapted Instruction on the Acquisition of Letter-Sound Correspondences by Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Complex Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedek Wood, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Reading is one of the most critical skills taught in schools (Heller, Fredrick, Tumlin, & Brineman, 2002). Individuals who acquire literacy skills are more likely to experience success in school, and to obtain and maintain employment (Adams, 1990; Light & McNaughton, 2009b; Slavin, Karweit, & Madden, 1989). It is therefore an…

  7. High-Level Aftereffects to Global Scene Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michelle R.; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation is ubiquitous in the human visual system, allowing recalibration to the statistical regularities of its input. Previous work has shown that global scene properties such as openness and mean depth are informative dimensions of natural scene variation useful for human and machine scene categorization (Greene & Oliva, 2009b; Oliva…

  8. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  9. A Comparison of Approaches to Detect Deception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-30

    wave amplitude (Furedy, Heslegrave, & Scher, 1992), and functional MRI indices (Kozel et al., 2009). Cardiovascular measures are often used in...Microsoft Excel (2003), and MATLAB (Mathworks, Inc., vers. R2009B). Approaches to Detect Deception 11 Self Report Instruments Background...hedonism (pleasure and sensuous gratification), stimulation ( excitement , novelty and challenge), self-direction (independent thought and action choosing

  10. 75 FR 47701 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA): Travel Promotion Fee and Fee for Use of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Authorization (ESTA): Travel Promotion Fee and Fee for Use of the System AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... promotion fee for an approved ESTA statutorily set by the Travel Promotion Act and a $4.00 operational fee... Contents I. Public Comments II. Background A. Travel Promotion Act of 2009 B. Operational Fee Amount C....

  11. Are There Shared Environmental Influences on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? Reply to Wood, Buitelaar, Rijsdijk, Asherson, and Kunsti (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    A recent large-scale meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies indicated that shared environmental influences make important contributions to most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology (Burt, 2009b). The sole exception to this robust pattern of results was observed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which appeared to be…

  12. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  13. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  14. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  15. Recent Ocean Literacy Research in United States Public Schools: Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plankis, Brian J.; Marrero, Meghan E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research conducted on adults in the United States indicates low ocean literacy (Ocean Project, 2009b, 1999), but there is a dearth of peer-reviewed research on K-12 students' ocean literacy. This paper presents two research studies that examined the ocean and environmental literacy of 464 K-12 students in five states. Like the majority of…

  16. 40 CFR 63.11525 - What are my compliance dates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my compliance dates? 63.11525... Facilities Applicability and Compliance Dates § 63.11525 What are my compliance dates? (a) If you own or... subpart by June 22, 2009. (b) If you start up a new affected source on or before December 23, 2008,...

  17. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 2. Potential Effectiveness of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students' beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those…

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Literacy Self-Efficacy and Literacy Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostock, Louise; Boon, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The impetus for the study reported in this paper was Queensland's poor performance on 2008's NAPLAN testing, the Queensland Education Performance Review (Department of Education and Training, [DET]2009b) that followed and the subsequent adoption of pre-registration tests for aspiring Primary and Early Childhood teachers (Queensland College of…

  19. A Family Quality of Life Study of Families with Children with Disabilities in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranges, Phaedra E.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that families of children with disabilities are at risk for a lower quality of life than families of typically developing children, as the impact that a child with a disability has on a family's quality of life (FQOL) is both substantial and complex (Zuna, Selig, Summers, & Turnbull, 2009b; Zuna, Summers, Turnbull, Hu &…

  20. Allophilia: Moving beyond Tolerance in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittinsky, Todd L.

    2009-01-01

    Allophilia refers to an individual's feelings of affection, engagement, kinship, comfort, and enthusiasm toward members of a group seen as "different" and "other" (Pittinsky, Rosenthal, & Montoya, 2009b). The term allophilia is derived from the ancient Greek words for "liking" or "love" and the "other". The concept of allophilia mitigates the…

  1. Advances in the Acquisition of Secure Systems Based on Open Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    are complex, subtle, and difficult to comprehend and track—it is easy to become confused or make mistakes. The challenge is multiplied when dealing... FLOSS Research and Development ( FLOSS ). Alspaugh, T. A., Asuncion, H. U., & Scacchi, W. (2009b, August 31–September 4). Intellectual property

  2. Geology and Stratigraphy of Four Candidate Pyroclastic Deposits on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinauer, Julia; Hiesinger, Harald; Bauch, Karin; Preusker, Frank

    2016-04-01

    the floor of Lermontov. Because of the hilly terrain, multiple volcanic processes might have led to the formation of these structures. Crater counts for Lermontov yielded absolute model ages between 3.79 (+0.03/-0.03) Ga and 4.01 (+0.02/-0.03) Ga and for Glinka between 3.20 (+0.15/-0.39) Ga and 4.00 (+0.04/-0.07) Ga. [1] Solomon, S.C. et al. (2008) Science 321, 59-62. [2] Blewett, D.T. et al. (2009a) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 285, 263-271. [3] Blewett, D.T. et al. (2009b) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 40 (abstract 1793). [4] Head, J.W. et al. (2008) Science 321, 69-72. [5] Head, J.W. et al. (2009) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 285, 227-242. [6] Kerber, L. et al. (2009) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 285, 263-271. [7] Kerber, L. et al. (2011) Planet. Space Sci., 59, 1895-1909. [8] Murchie, S.L. et al. (2008) Science 321, 73-76. [9] Robinson, M.S. et al. (2008) Science 321, 66-69. [10] Head, J.W. et al. (2011) Science 333, 1853-1856. [11] Preusker, F. et al. (2011) Planet. Space Sci. 59, 1910-1917.

  3. Benthic substrate classification map: Gulf Islands National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James; Twichell, Dave; Rose, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 hurricane season was devastating for the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Hurricane Katrina caused significant degradation of the barrier islands that compose the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS). Because of the ability of coastal barrier islands to help mitigate hurricane damage to the mainland, restoring these habitats prior to the onset of future storms will help protect the islands themselves and the surrounding habitats. During Hurricane Katrina, coastal barrier islands reduced storm surge by approximately 10 percent and moderated wave heights (Wamsley and others, 2009). Islands protected the mainland by preventing ocean waves from maintaining their size as they approached the mainland. In addition to storm protection, it is advantageous to restore these islands to preserve the cultural heritage present there (for example, Fort Massachusetts) and because of the influence that these islands have on marine ecology. For example, these islands help maintain a salinity regime favorable to oysters in the Mississippi Sound and provide critical habitats for many migratory birds and endangered species such as sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, and Dermochelys coriacea), Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2009a). As land manager for the GUIS, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with the State of Mississippi and the Mobile District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide a set of recommendations to the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) that will guide restoration planning. The final set of recommendations includes directly renourishing both West Ship Island (to protect Fort Massachusetts) and East Ship Island (to restore the French Warehouse archaeological site); filling Camille Cut to recreate a continuous Ship Island; and restoring natural regional sediment transport processes by placing sand in the littoral zone just east of Petit Bois

  4. Modelling Infragravity Waves and Currents across a Fringing Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongeren, A. R.; Duong Minh, T.; Lowe, R.; Roelvink, J.; Ranasinghe, R.; Symonds, G.

    2010-12-01

    The majority of the world’s coastlines contain submerged reef structures of various types, i.e. tropical coral reefs, relic temperate limestone platforms, and other submerged rock formations. Relatively little research has been conducted to study nearshore hydrodynamic processes that occur in reef environments. A good understanding of these processes is important because waves and wave-induced currents drive sediment transport, nutrient dynamics, and dispersal of larval coral and fish. Through the development of improved hydrodynamic models, the impact of environmental changes and human impacts on reefs may be accurately assessed. However, predictive models have historically been developed and tested using sandy coast environments. There are some important differences with reefs: wave breaking over the reef results in onshore flows with a higher bed friction coefficient, as well as set-up. Recent field studies (e.g., Lowe et al. JPO, 2009a) have shown the transformation of swell energy on reefs, and numerical model studies (Symonds and Black, JCR 2001, Ranasinghe et al., Coastal Eng. 2006, Lowe et al. J. Geoph. Res. 2009b) have shown that the spatial pattern of mean wave heights and mean currents can be qualitatively reproduced. However, the bulk of the measured variability is often in the infragravity frequency band (Pequignet et al. Geoph. Res. Lett., 2009 and Lowe et al., in prep.). The recently developed open-source model XBeach (Roelvink et al, Coastal Eng. 2009) is specifically designed to model these wave motions and associated sediment transport and has been successfully applied to sandy coasts (McCall et al., Coastal Eng. 2010). The objective of this paper is to apply XBeach to simulate infragravity forcing at Ningaloo Reef, a large fringing coral reef located along the northwest coastline of Western Australia. A field experiment at Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia) conducted in June 2009 by Lowe et al (in prep.) specifically aimed at measuring

  5. Results from VIRTIS on board Venus Express after the end of the mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; VIRTIS Venus Express Team

    After more than 8 years since the orbit insertion, the Venus Express mission is now at its end of mission operations. VIRTIS aboard the Venus Express spacecraft has addressed a significant amount of scientific results from the surface up to the upper atmosphere, in terms of mapping, composition, structure and dynamics. The VIRTIS instrument consists of two channels: VIRTIS-M, an imaging spectrometer with moderate spectral resolution in the range from 0.25 to 5.2 mu m and VIRTIS-H, a high spectral resolution spectrometer in the range from 2 to 5 mu m co-aligned with the field of view of -M \\citep{Piccioni2007a,Drossart2007a}. The resolution of VIRTIS-M is 2 nm from 0.25 to 1 mu m, and 10 nm from 1 to 5.2 mu m. The resolution of VIRTIS-H is about 2 nm. The atmosphere above the clouds has been observed both on day and night sides, in solar reflection and thermal emission in nadir geometry \\citep{Ignatiev2009, Cottini2012, Peralta2012, Peralta2009}. Limb observations provided O2\\citep{Piccioni2009, Garcia2009a, Gerard2013, Migliorini2013a, Gerard2008, Gerard2009}, OH \\citep{Piccioni2008,Gerard2010,Soret2010,Soret2012}, NO \\citep{Garcia2009b}, CO2 \\citep{Drossart2007b,Lopez-Valverde2011} and CO \\citep{Gilli2009,Gilli2015,Gilli2011} emissions, through nightglow and fluorescence observations. Spectroscopy of the 4-5 mu m range gave access to the cloud structure in the 60-95 km altitude levels \\citep{Irwin2008a,Grassi2014, Grassi2008,Grassi2010,Luz2011}. The deeper atmospheric windows, limited by CO2 and H2O bands were accessible only in thermal emission on the night side. The sounded levels at 1.7 and 2.3 mu m were limited respectively to 30-20 km altitude \\citep{Barstow2012,Bezard2009,Marcq2008a,Satoh2009,Tsang2009, Tsang2010,Tsang2008,Wilson2008,Wilson2009}, while at shorter wavelengths (1.18, 1.10, 1.01, 0.9 and 0.85 mu m), the hot surface of Venus was seen through the scattering clouds \\citep{Mueller2009,Helbert2008,Arnold2008a,Smrekar2010,Mueller2012

  6. Novel Algorithms Enabling Rapid, Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

    2012-12-01

    ://alomax.net/pub_list.html): Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2012), Tsunami early warning within 5 minutes, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 169, nnn-nnn, doi: 10.1007/s00024-012-0512-6. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2011), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration and P-wave dominant period: the importance of length and depth of faulting, Geophys. J. Int., 185, 283-291, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04916.x. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2009b), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L09306, doi:10.1029/2009GL037223. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2009a), Mwpd: A Duration-Amplitude Procedure for Rapid Determination of Earthquake Magnitude and Tsunamigenic Potential from P Waveforms, Geophys. J. Int.,176, 200-214, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03974.x

  7. Aerosol Inflluence on Ice Nucleation via the Immersion Mode in Mixed-Phase Arctic Stratiform Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Hashino, T.; Tripoli, G. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2009-12-01

    Mixed-phase stratiform clouds are commonly observed at high latitudes (e.g. Shupe et al., 2006; de Boer et al., 2009a). Herman and Goody (1976), as well as Curry et al. (1996) present summaries of Arctic cloud climatologies that show low altitude stratus frequencies of up to 70% during transitional seasons. In addition to their frequent occurrence, these clouds have significant impacts on the near-surface atmospheric radiative budget, with estimates of wintertime reductions in net surface cooling of 40-50 Wm-2 (Curry et al., 1996) due predominantly to liquid in the mixed-phase layer. Both observational and modeling studies (e.g. Harrington et al., 1999; Jiang et al., 2000; Shupe et al., 2008; Klein et al., 2008) show a strong connection between the amount of ice present and the lifetime of the liquid portion of the cloud layer. This is thought to occur via the Bergeron-Findeissen mechanism (Pruppacher and Klett, 1997) in which ice grows at the expense of liquid due to its lower saturation vapor pressure. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which ice is nucleated within these mixed-phase layers are not yet fully understood, and therefore an accurate depiction of this process for mixed-phase stratiform clouds has not yet been characterized. The nucleation mechanisms that are active in a given environment are sensitive to aerosol properties. Insoluble particles are typically good nuclei for ice particle formation, while soluble particles are typically better at nucleating water droplets. Aerosol observations from the Arctic often show mixed aerosol particles that feature both soluble and insoluble mass (Leaitch et al., 1984). Soluble mass fractions for these particles have been shown to be high, with estimates of 60-80% and are often made up of sulfates (Zhou et al., 2001; Bigg and Leck, 2001). It is believed that a significant portion of this sulfate mass comes from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the Arctic Ocean and subsequent atmospheric oxidation. Since these

  8. From paper to Facebook, travelling trough the natural hazards divulgation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Llasat, Maria-Carmen

    2010-05-01

    In a society so greatly influenced by the media as ours, and with new global meteorological risks such as climate change, scientists should work together with the media to make their research known to the general public, as, in its turn, to use the media as source of information. Press articles can be used as indicator to obtain an indirect estimation of the natural risks in order to built data bases on this matter (Llasat et al, 2009a). The media, and particularly the press, can also be used to estimate the social perception of natural risks and climate change (Tábara, 2008): usually the press reflects the dominant patterns and beliefs in a particular society, and, in its turn, has a strong influence on the collective construction of the risk perception, independently of the multiple individual perceptions and experiences of the same event or risk. Usually press focuses more on the vulnerability to risks and less on the actual danger, and it is necessary to assess in each case all the situational factors involved in the publication of a news item, since the spatial and temporal location of the event need to be taken into account too (Llasat-Botija et al., 2007). Then, when public perception and the natural risk evolution are analyzed through the press information, it is necessary to distinguish between the different factors that could be involved in it and their potential changes. Particularly, a change in the socio-cultural paradigm approach and in the mass media strategy should be taken into account. These changes in the communication strategy have also to be taken into account when we consider the different tools used for sensibilization and education in front of natural risks. Starting from conferences, seminars or demonstrations (Malamud, 2008), web pages (Llasat-Botija et al, 2008), educative dossiers and videos, in the recent years new tools in internet are increasing in importance. This is the case of social networks, blogs, you-tube, distribution lists

  9. Fractal aggregates in reduced gravity experiments and numerical simulations to characterize cometary material properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Hadamcik, Edith; Botet, Robert; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    to determine cometary dust properties useful to interpret observations and to prepare on-going missions. Cometary primordial aggregation Recent in situ studies have unveiled surface features hinting at a pervasive internal layered structure on 9P/Tempel 1 [9]. Assuming reduced gravity aggregation of cometesimals and taking into account sintering processes, quantitative internal properties of the nucleus can be obtained [10]. At large dissipation of the kinetic energy during impact, possible fractal structure disappears and is replaced by a density, cohesive strength and porosity layering of the material. The cohesive strength of the nuclei obtained (¡104 N.m-2 ) compares well with values deduced from disruption events observations and laboratory impact experiments. During an impact, if the ejected material is lost, the internal structure of the nucleus can be erased. This suggests that either the structures observed are not primordial (e.g. cryovolcanism resurfacing [11]) or that secondary mechanisms, such as the re-accretion of fragments after destructive collision, have occurred during the accretion process [12]. Support from LPI, LATMOS/IPSL, CNES for PROGRA2 and CNES and ESA for the micro-gravity flights are acknowledged. [1] Levasseur-Regourd et al, PSS 2009 [2] Levasseur-Regourd and Hadamcik, JQSRT 2003; [3] Levasseur-Regourd et al., ESA-SP 2001; [4] Blum et al., ASR 2002; [5] Renard et al., AO 2002; [6] Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 2006; [7] Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 2007; [8] Lasue et al., Icarus (2009a) ; [9] Thomas et al., Icarus 2007 ; [10] Lasue et al., Icarus (2009b) ; [11] Belton et al., Icarus (2008); [12] Blum and Wurm, Annu. Rev. Astro. Astrophys. (2008)

  10. Classification of magnitude 7 earthquakes which occurred after 1885 in Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.; Nishiyama, A.

    2010-12-01

    Tokyo Metropolitan area is situated in tectonically complex region; both the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are subducting from east and south, respectively, beneath the Kanto region. As a result, various types of earthquakes occur in this region; i.e., shallow crustal earthquakes, intraplate (slab) earthquakes within PHS, within PAC, and interplate earthquakes between continental plate and PHS, and between PHS and PAC. Among these, the largest earthquakes are Kanto earthquakes (M~8) occurring between the continental plate and PHS. The average recurrence interval is estimated to be 200 - 400 years (Earthq. Res. Comm., 2004), and hence, urgency of the next Kanto earthquake is thought to be low considering the lapse time (~87 yrs.) from the most recent Kanto earthquake in 1923. However, urgency of the other types of earthquakes with M~7 is high; Earthq. Res. Comm. (2004) calculated the probability of occurrence during the next 30 years as 70 %, based on the facts that five M~7 earthquakes (i.e., the 1894 Meiji-Tokyo, 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu, 1922 Uraga channel and 1987 Chiba-Ken Toho-Oki earthquakes) occurred since 1885. However, types of earthquakes are not well known especially for the 1894 Meiji-Tokyo and 1895 Ibaragi-Ken-Nanbu earthquakes due to low quality of data. Thus, it is important to classify these earthquakes into above-described intraplate or interplate earthquakes and to estimate their occurrence frequency. Ishibe et al. (2009a, 2009b) compiled previous studies and data for these five earthquakes. In this study, we report the preliminary result of focal depth and mechanism for the 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu earthquakes. The epicenter of the 1895 Ibaraki-Ken-Nanbu earthquake (M 7.2; Utsu, 1979) is discussed by various studies (e.g., Usami, 1973; Ishibashi, 1975; Katsumata, 1975; Utsu, 1979). However, few studies have discussed the hypocentral depth. The hypocentral depth is estimated to be 75 ~ 85 km using S-P time at Tokyo

  11. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  12. The impact of land use on biological activity of agriculture soils. An State-of-the-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    desiccation, mechanical destruction, soil compaction, reduce pore volume, and disruption of access to food resources (Cerdà et al., 2009b). Furthermore, it can lead to a loss in soil fertility and reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganism (Caravaca et al., 2002). Nevertheless, some organic fertilizers, such as manure, waste water and sewage sludge, promote the activities of soil microbial communities (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2011; Balota et al., 2013; Macci et al., 2013). On the other hand, land use influences soil microbial processes by changing the quantity and quality of plant residues entering the soil and their spatial distribution, thorough changes in nutrients and inputs (García-Orenes et al., 2009; 2012). The abuse of pesticides can drastically modify the function and structure of microbial communities, altering the terrestrial ecosystems, which has important implication for soil quality (Pampulha et al., 2006). Soil quality is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystem (Paz-Ferreiro & Fu, 2013; Vasconcellos et al., 2013). This paper will review the State-of-the-Art of the scientific knowledge on the impact of land use on the biological activity in agriculture soils Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Balota, E. L., Yada, I.F., Amaral, H., Nakatani, A.S., Dick, R.P., Coyne, M.S. 2013. Long-term land use influences soil microbial biomass p and s, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities, and mineralization in a brazilian oxisol. Land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2242 Caravaca F, Masciandaro G, Ceccanti B. 2002. Land use in relation to soil chemical and biochemical properties in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Soil and Tillage Research 68: 23-30. Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A

  13. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    the basis of multimodel (Eppelbaum and Yakubov, 2004), informational (Eppelbaum, 2014), or wavelet (Eppelbaum et al., 2011, 2014; Eppelbaum, 2015c) approaches. In Israel, a lot of positive results were derived from magnetic method employment with application of the abovementioned procedures at numerous archaeological sites (e.g., Eppelbaum, 2000; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2003; 2003a; Eppelbaum et al., 2006, 2010; Eppelbaum, 2010a, 2011a, 2014, 2015a). Similar effective techniques were developed for the interpretation of microgravity anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2009b, 2011b, 2015b), temperature anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2009a, 2013a), self-potential anomalies (Eppelbaum et al., 2003b; 2004), induced polarization anomalies (Khesin et al., 1997; Eppelbaum, 2000), piezoelectric anomalies (Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012), Very Low Frequency (VLF) anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2000; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2012). The theoretical analysis indicates that for all aforementioned geophysical methods a common interpretation methodology may be applied . The main peculiarities of the developed non-conventional system for analysis of potential and quasi-potential geophysical fields are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Elements of the developed system of geophysical fields processing and interpretation under complicated environments (on the basis of Khesin et al., 1996, Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001, 2004; Eppelbaum and Yakubov, 2004; Eppelbaum et al., 2006; Eppelbaum, 2009a, 2009b; Eppelbaum, 2010a, 2010b; Eppelbaum et al., 2010, 2011; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011; Eppelbaum, 2011a, 2011b; Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012; Eppelbaum, 2013a, 2013b, 2014; Eppelbaum and Kutasov, 2014; Eppelbaum et al., 2014; Eppelbaum, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c) Time Terrain Informational, Inverse problem solution Integrated variation correction multimodel and in conditions of: 3-D integrated FIELD correction using and wavelet ruggedarbitrary approximation modeling correlation

  14. Using Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Inpatient Aggression: Reliability and Validity of START Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Wilson, Catherine M.; Brink, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & S. L. Desmarais, 2009; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & C. Middleton, 2004) is a relatively new structured professional judgment guide for the assessment and management of short-term risks associated…

  15. 78 FR 47041 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... approximately $106 billion; the smallest market capitalization was approximately $2.1 billion (Apollo Group Inc... identical to strike price intervals adopted by CBOE for the CBOE Volatility Index.\\12\\ \\11\\ See ISE Rule... Rule 2009(c)(4). \\12\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63155 (October 21, 2010), 75 FR...

  16. 78 FR 66798 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Instituting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... approximately $106 billion; the smallest market capitalization was approximately $2.1 billion (Apollo Group Inc... actively traded SPY options on ISE during September 2013 on any given day, and there are now 12 options... Index (``VIX'').\\12\\ \\11\\ See ISE Rule 2009(c)(3). The term ``reasonably related to the current...

  17. Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2011-01-01

    An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

  18. The Opportunity Illusion: Subsidized Housing and Failing Schools in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program has funded the bulk of subsidized development nationwide, enabling the construction of over 100,000 units targeted to lower income households in California alone (California Tax Credit Allocation Committee 2009c). Yet, by not encouraging the siting of projects in racially…

  19. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-05-25

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, in 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). The results of that investigation indicated that carbon tetrachloride contamination is present in groundwater at low to moderate levels in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation also indicated that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began periodic groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the direction of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. Through 2010, sampling was conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b, 2010) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Long

  20. Geochemical Origin of Biological Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2013-04-01

    Conference and abstract in OLEB, 2008, 39 (3-4) 223. BASSEZ M.P. 2009 Prebiotic synthesis under hydothermal conditions, C. R. Chimie, Académie des Sciences, Paris 12 (6-7) : 801-807. BASSEZ M.P. 2012 A model for a geochemical origin of life in preparation BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2009a Organic analysis of peridotite rocks from Ashadze and Logatchev hydrothermal sites, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10(7): 2986-2998. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2009b Organic analysis of peridotite rocks from the MAR, AGU fall meeting, P43C-1441, San Francisco, 14-18/12/2009. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y. 2010a Prebiotic organic globules, Nature Precedings: Posted 21 Jul http://hdl:10101/npre.2010.4694.1. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2010b Organic analysis of peridotite rocks, First chemical steps towards the Origin of Life colloquium, Turin 16-17/09/2010. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2011a A search for prebiotic molecular signatures inside rocks, Geobiology in Space exploration workshop, P sans n°, Marrakech 07-14/02/2011. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2011b Detection of molecular biosignatures inside rocks, Origins 2011 ISSOL and Bioastronomy conference, P2-17, Montpellier, 04-08/07/2011. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., 2011c Organic microstructures, Origins 2011 ISSOL and Bioastronomy conference, P2-34, Montpellier, 04-08/07/2011. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y. KOBAYASHI K. 2011d Prebiotic organic microstructures, Nature Precedings: Posted 14 Nov. http://hdl.handle.net/10101/npre.2011.4694.2 BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., KOBAYASHI K. 2012a Prebiotic organic microstructures, Origin of Life Gordon Research Conference P4, Galveston, 08-13/01/2012. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., KOBAYASHI K. 2012b Prebiotic organic microstructures, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 42 (4) : 307-316.

  1. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    (October 2013freshly tilled) and after ploughing and mechanically compacting the soil with a sheet metal (November 2013 consolidated surface). Our results indicate that by using cover crop strips, runoff and sediment losses were approximately 50 % and 12 % respectively lower than the measured values in bare consolidated and freshly tilled soil. The formation of microrelief steps after the first simulation also helped to reduce soil losses and runoff. Ploughed and compacted soil management showed the highest cumulative runoff and soil losses values (28 mm and 15 kg). Evident tracer selectivity from small particle size soil textures (clays) was observed as there was an enrichment of these particles in the collected sediment. These features contribute to explain the effects of the management and the vegetation on the sediment distribution in the hillslopes and must be taken into account when performing tracing studies as well as when using cover crop strips to mitigate offsite contamination by agrochemicals. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Clemente Trujillo, Manuel Redondo and Azahara Ramos for their full help and support during the fieldwork. This study was supported by the Project P08-AGR-03925 (Andalusian Government), AGL2009-12936-C03-01 (Ministry of Science and Innovation), RESEL (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment) and FEDER fund. The program JAE of the National Spanish Research Centre which provided grant support for the PhD project of the corresponding author is also thanked. References: Beaufoy, G. 2001. EU policies for olive farming. Unsustainable on all counts. BirdLife Internacional-WWF, Brussels. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A, Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009a. Soil management effects on runoff, erosion and soil properties in an olive grove of Southern Spain. Soil & Tillage Research 102: 5-13. Gómez, J.A., Guzmán, M.G., Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009b. The influence of cover crops and tillage on water and sediment yield, and on

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite Beddown and Deployment Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Freight Train at 50 feet; Ambulance Siren at 100 feet Inside Boiler Room or Printing press plant Garbage Disposal in Home at 3 feet Inside...NASA, 2007; USAF, 2006a, 2009b) Groundwater in the Floridan aquifer is highly mineralized. A treatment plant owned and operated by the City...Final Environmental Assessment 22 Several invasive exotic plant species are also found on the station, particularly in disturbed areas such as

  3. Innovating Command and Control Training Using Virtualization Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    from the 2009 edition of the Social Software Hype Cycle produced by Gartner (2009b). Gartner publishes annual hype cycles on a number of technologies...to assist IT professionals develop strategies. All hype cycles use a common framework to present the maturation of technologies starting at a...of Enlightenment, and finally reach the Plateau of Productivity. This Hype Cycle on social software shows a flood of technologies at the front of the

  4. Testing Coordinate Frame Transformations NOVAS vs SOFA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    2 International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Fortran modules is independent of SOFA although both software libraries include...code that is similar to two .3 The document SOFA Tools for Earth Attitude (IAU 2009b), also known as the “SOFA Cookbook,” contains several Fortran...out in both NOVAS and SOFA. NU2000A and iau2000a (Fortran and C, respectively), which evaluate the full 1,365-term IAU 2000A nutation series in

  5. A Baseline Analysis of In-Transit Shipping Time into and Through the Fifth Fleet Area of Operation With Respect to the Supply Chain Last Nautical Mile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Hercules (From USN, 2002) .................................................................12 Figure 5. C-40 Clipper (From USN, 2001...25,000 lbs. of cargo (USN, 2009b). 12 Figure 4. C-130 Hercules (From USN, 2002) Figure 5. C-40 Clipper (From USN, 2001) 13 Intermediate...2007a, 15 January). The U.S. Navy -- C-40A Clipper logistics aircraft. Retrieved from http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=1100&tid=600

  6. Comment on "Deep structure, recent deformation and analog modeling of the Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge: Implications for the 1755 Lisbon earthquake", by Gutscher et al. 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.

    2010-04-01

    Gutscher et al. (2009b) address a very interesting and unsolved problem, which is the continuation of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary to the E of the Gorringe Bank. This comment comprises three parts: (1) short introduction to the geologic setting; (2) comment on the analogue modelling, the relationship of the setup with the prototype, and the relationship of the experimental results with the prototype; (3) short discussion of proposed subduction to the E.

  7. Benthic Ecology from Space: Optics and Net Primary Production in Seagrass and Benthic Algae Across the Great Bahama Bank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    photosynthetic quotient (O2:CO2) was 1.2, following the procedure outlined in Dierssen et al. (2009b). Seagrass leaves were assumed to comprise 0.05 g FW cm–2 of...in bottom reflectance. Measured RB from grapestone covered with dense algal biofilm was low in magnitude indicat- ing considerable pigment ...submerged vegeta- tion canopies for biomass estimation. Int J Remote Sens 14:621–627 Behrenfeld MJ, Falkowski PG (1997) Photosynthetic rates derived from

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Expansion and Consolidation of the Base Exchange at Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, Prince George’s County, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    fine sand, silt, and clay of marine origin estimated to be up to 80 feet in thickness. Other Coastal Plain deposits underlie the Calvert Formation...that upland deposits of non-hydric soils are predominant within the swale and suggest that the existing wetland areas were more a result of the...Contracts (Andrews AFB 2009), the Asbestos Management Program Plan (AFDW 2008), and the Lead-based Paint Management Plan (AFDW 2009b), which collectively

  9. Multiwavelength observations of the Type IIb supernova 2009mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, S. R.; Bayless, A. J.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Prichard, T.; Prieto, J. L.; Immler, S.; Brown, P. J.; Breeveld, A. A.; De Pasquale, M.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Hamuy, M.; Holland, S. T.; Taddia, F.; Roming, P. W. A.

    2012-08-01

    We present Swift Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations, and visual wavelength spectroscopy of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2009mg, discovered in the Sb galaxy ESO 121-G26. The observational properties of SN 2009mg are compared to the prototype Type IIb SNe 1993J and 2008ax, with which we find many similarities. However, minor differences are discernible including SN 2009mg not exhibiting an initial fast decline or u-band upturn as observed in the comparison objects, and its rise to maximum is somewhat slower leading to slightly broader light curves. The late-time temporal index of SN 2009mg, determined from 40 d post-explosion, is consistent with the decay rate of SN 1993J, but inconsistent with the decay of 56Co. This suggests leakage of γ-rays out of the ejecta and a stellar mass on the small side of the mass distribution. Our XRT non-detection provides an upper limit on the mass-loss rate of the progenitor of ?. Modelling of the SN light curve indicates a kinetic energy of ?, an ejecta mass of ? and a 56Ni mass of 0.10 ± 0.01 M⊙. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Programmes GS-2009B-Q-9, GS-2009B-Q-40 and GS-2009B-Q-67).

  10. Are there shared environmental influences on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Reply to Wood, Buitelaar, Rijsdijk, Asherson, and Kuntsi [corrected] (2010).

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2010-05-01

    A recent large-scale meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies indicated that shared environmental influences make important contributions to most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology (Burt, 2009b). The sole exception to this robust pattern of results was observed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which appeared to be largely genetic (and particularly nonadditive genetic) in origin, with no observable influence of the shared environment. The central thesis of Wood, Buitelaar, Rijsdijk, Asherson, and Kuntsi [corrected] (2010) is that, contrary to these findings, shared environmental influences are important for ADHD. As evidence for this thesis, Wood et al. presented a summary of prior twin studies, followed by a discussion of 4 methodological issues that may account for my findings in Burt (2009b). I argue that, although the methodological concerns raised by Wood et al. are very important, they do not undermine my earlier results (Burt, 2009b). I close with a discussion of 2 issues that may allow for some shared environmental influences on ADHD.

  11. Methodology of Detailed Geophysical Examination of the Areas of World Recognized Religious and Cultural Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2010-05-01

    It is obvious that noninvasive geophysical methods are the main interpreting tools at the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts. Usually in these areas any excavations, drilling and infrastructure activity are forbidden or very strongly limited. According to field experience and results of numerous modeling (Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000, 2009a, 2009b; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2001, 2003; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2006a, 2006b, 2007, 2010, Itkis et al., 2003; Neishtadt et al., 2006), a set of applied geophysical methods may include the following types of surveys: (1) magnetic, (3) GPR (ground penetration radar), (3) gravity, (4) electromagnetic VLF (very low frequency), (5) ER (electric resistivity), (6) SP (self-potential), (7) IP (induced polarization), (8) SE (seismoelectric), and (9) NST (near-surface temperature). As it was shown in (Eppelbaum, 2005), interpretation ambiguity may be sufficiently reduced not only by integrated analysis of several geophysical methods, but also by the way of multilevel observations of geophysical fields. Magnetic, gravity and VLF measurements may be performed at different levels over the earth's surface (0.1 - 3 m), ER, SP and SE observations may be obtained with different depth of electrodes grounding (0.1 - 1 m), and NST sensor may be located at a depth of 0.8 - 2.5 m. GPR method usually allows measuring electromagnetic fields at various frequencies (with corresponding changing of the investigation depth and other parameters). Influence of some typical noise factors to geophysical investigations at archaeological sites was investigated in (Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001). In many cases various constructions and walls are in the nearest vicinity of the examined artifacts. These constructions can be also utilized for carrying out geophysical measurements (magnetic, gravity and VLF) at different levels. Application of the modern ROV (remote operated vehicles) with registration of magnetic and VLF fields at

  12. Is 2-D turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Y. Chigirinskaya, Unified multifractal atmospheric dynamics tested in the tropics: part II, vertical scaling and Generalized Scale Invariance, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 1(1994), pp. 115-123. M. Lilley, S. Lovejoy, K. Strawbridge and D. Schertzer, 23/9 dimensional anisotropic scaling of passive admixtures using lidar aerosol data, Phys. Rev. E 70(2004), pp. 036307-036301-036307. S. Lovejoy et al., Atmospheric complexity or scale by scale simplicity? , Geophys. Resear. Lett. 36(2009a), pp. L01801, doi:01810.01029/02008GL035863. S. Lovejoy, A.F. Tuck, S.J. Hovde and D. Schertzer, Is isotropic turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?, Geophys. Res. Lett. L14802, doi:10.1029/2007GL029359.(2007). S. Lovejoy, A.F. Tuck, D. Schertzer and S.J. Hovde, Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9(2009b), pp. 3871-3920. G.D. Nastrom and K.S. Gage, A first look at wave number spectra from GASP data, Tellus 35(1983), p. 383. G.D. Nastrom and K.S. Gage, A climatology of atmospheric wavenumber spectra of wind and temperature by commercial aircraft, J. Atmos. Sci. 42(1985), pp. 950-960. D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, The dimension and intermittency of atmospheric dynamics. In: B. Launder, Editor, Turbulent Shear Flow 4, Springer-Verlag (1985), pp. 7-33. D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, Physical modeling and Analysis of Rain and Clouds by Anisotropic Scaling of Multiplicative Processes, Journal of Geophysical Research 92(1987), pp. 9693-9714. J. Stolle, S. Lovejoy and D. Schertzer, The stochastic cascade structure of deterministic numerical models of the atmosphere, Nonlin. Proc. in Geophys. 16(2009), pp. 1-15. G.I. Taylor, Statistical theory of turbulence, Proc. Roy. Soc. I-IV, A151(1935), pp. 421-478. T. Tsuda et al., MST radar observations of a saturated gravity wave spectrum, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 46(1989), p. 2440. T.E. Van Zandt, A universal spectrum of buoyancy waves in the atmosphere, Geophysical Research

  13. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    -Italy). Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 41 (1), 37-40. Bachmann, G.H. and Aref, M.A.M., 2005. A seismite in Triassic gypsum deposits (Grabfeld Formation, Ladinian), Southwest Germany. Sedimentary Geology 180, 75-89. De Zanche, V. and Farabegoli, E. 1988. Anisian paleogeographic evolution in the Central-Western Southern Alps. Memoirs Scientifique Geologique 40, 399-411. Demathieu, G.R. 1985. Trace fossil assemblages in Middle Triassic marginal marine deposits, eastern border of the Massif Central, France. Societe Economie Paléontologie et Mineralogie, Special Publications, 35, 53-66. Diedrich, C. 2005. Actuopalaeontological trackway experiments with Iguana on intertidal flat carbonates of the Arabian Gulf - a comparison to fossil Rhynchosauroides tracks of Triassic carbonate tidal flat megatracksites in the European Germanic Basin. Senckenbergiana maritime, 35 (2), 203-220. Diedrich, C. 2008a. Millions of reptile tracks - Early to Middle Triassic carbonate tidal flat migration bridges of Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 259, 410-423. Diedrich, C. 2008b. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - with emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea. Global and Planetary Change, 65 (2009), 27-55. Diedrich, C. 2009a. The vertebrates of the Anisian/Ladinian boundary (Middle Triassic) from Bissendorf (NW Germany) and their contribution to the anatomy, palaeoecology, and palaeobiogeography of the Germanic Basin reptiles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 273 (2009), 1-16. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Die Saurierspuren-Grabung im basalen Mittleren Muschelkalk (Anis, Mitteltrias) von Bernburg (Sachsen-Anhalt). Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband 2009, 1-62. Diedrich, 2010a. Palaeoecology of Placodus gigas (Reptilia) and other placodontids - macroalgae feeder of the Middle Triassic in the Germanic Basin of Central Europe and

  14. Field Evaluation of Ultra-High Pressure Water Systems for Runway Rubber Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    21 4.5.3 Post-rubber removal pavement surface effects measurements ............................ 21 4.5.4 Data analysis procedure... materials when in contact with each other. Figure 3 illustrates the adhesional and hysteresis friction components. 2.2 Tire- pavement friction...an indication of pavement macrotexture (ASTM E 2157(American Society for Testing and Materials International 2009c)). The CT meter has integrated

  15. Approaches Towards the Identification of Patterns in Violent Events, Baghdad, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Gianfranco Piras May 2009 C on st ru ct io n E n gi n ee ri n g R es ea rc h L ab or at or y Approved for public release; distribution is... GIS operations. Julia Koschinsky provided logistical support. The report and its findings are those of the authors alone, and should not be attributed...news sources. While precise geocoding was not possible, there was sufficient information in the reports to associate each event with a neighborhood. A

  16. Combat Resource Management (11bm) Applied Research Project (ARP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2009 c© Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le...temps critiques représentent des défis significatifs pour les futurs systèmes de commandement et contrôle embarqués. En plus d’autres

  17. Integrated Coupling of Surface and Subsurface Flow with HYDRUS-2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Anne; Šimůnek, Jirka; Wöhling, Thomas; Schütze, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Describing interactions between surface and subsurface flow processes is important to adequately define water flow in natural systems. Since overland flow generation is highly influenced by rainfall and infiltration, both highly spatially heterogeneous processes, overland flow is unsteady and varies spatially. The prediction of overland flow needs to include an appropriate description of the interactions between the surface and subsurface flow. Coupling surface and subsurface water flow is a challenging task. Different approaches have been developed during the last few years, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. A new approach by Weill et al. (2009) to couple overland flow and subsurface flow based on a generalized Richards equation was implemented into the well-known subsurface flow model HYDRUS-2D (Šimůnek et al., 2011). This approach utilizes the one-dimensional diffusion wave equation to model overland flow. The diffusion wave model is integrated in HYDRUS-2D by replacing the terms of the Richards equation in a pre-defined runoff layer by terms defining the diffusion wave equation. Using this approach, pressure and flux continuity along the interface between both flow domains is provided. This direct coupling approach provides a strong coupling of both systems based on the definition of a single global system matrix to numerically solve the coupled flow problem. The advantage of the direct coupling approach, compared to the loosely coupled approach, is supposed to be a higher robustness, when many convergence problems can be avoided (Takizawa et al., 2014). The HYDRUS-2D implementation was verified using a) different test cases, including a direct comparison with the results of Weill et al. (2009), b) an analytical solution of the kinematic wave equation, and c) the results of a benchmark test of Maxwell et al. (2014), that included several known coupled surface subsurface flow models. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis evaluating the effects

  18. Physical Properties of Main-belt Comet 176P/LINEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Ishiguro, Masateru; Lacerda, Pedro; Jewitt, David

    2011-07-01

    Astrofisica de Canarias (programs W/2009A/23 and I/2009B/11).

  19. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    effectively, identified by the existing network of monitoring points and have not changed significantly during the CCC/USDA investigation program. The carbon tetrachloride distribution within the plume has continued to evolve, however, with relatively constant or apparently decreasing contaminant levels at most sampling locations. In response to these findings, the KDHE requested that the CCC/USDA develop a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water at Everest, to facilitate continued tracking of the carbon tetrachloride plume at this site (KDHE 2009a). A recommendation for annual sampling (for analyses of VOCs) of 16 existing groundwater monitoring points within and near the identified contaminant migration pathway and surface water sampling at 5 locations along the intermittent creek west (downgradient) of the identified plume was presented by the CCC/USDA (Appendix A) and approved by the KDHE (2009b) for implementation. The monitoring wells will be sampled according to the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities will be consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. This report summarizes the results of sampling and monitoring activities conducted at the Everest site since completion of the April 2008 groundwater sampling event (Argonne 2008). The investigations performed during the current review period (May 2008 to October 2009) were as follows: (1) With one exception, the KDHE-approved groundwater and surface water monitoring points were sampled on April 24-27, 2009. In this event, well PT1 was inadvertently sampled instead of the adjacent well MW04. This investigation represents the first groundwater and surface water sampling event performed under the current plan for annual monitoring approved by the KDHE. (2) Ongoing monitoring of the groundwater levels at Everest is performed with KDHE

  20. New species of ice nucleating fungi in soil and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Franc, Gray D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    -8°C. The IN seem not be bound to cells because they can be easily washed off the mycelium. They pass through a 0.1 µm filter and can be inactivated by 60°C treatment. Ongoing investigations of various soil and air samples indicate that diverse ice nucleation active fungi from more than one phylum are not only present in air and soil but can also be abundant components of the cultivable community. A recently discovered group of IN fungi in soil was also found to possess easily suspendable IN smaller than 300 kDa. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium may ramify topsoils and release cell-free IN into it. If some of these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces this contribution will accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties. Thanks for collaboration and support to M.O. Andreae, B. Baumgartner, I. Germann-Müller, T. Godwill, L.E. Hanson, A.T. Kunert, J. Meeks, T. Pooya, S. Lelieveld, J. Odhiambo Obuya, C. Ruzene-Nespoli, and D. Sebazungu. The Max Planck Society (MPG), Ice Nuclei research UnIT (INUIT), the German Research Foundation (PO1013/5-1), and the National Science Foundation (NSF, grant 0841542) are acknowledged for financial support. 1. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., et al. (2009) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 106, 12814-12819 2. Després, V. R., et al. (2012) Tellus B, 64, 15598 3. Georgakopoulos, D.G., et al. (2009) Biogeosciences, 6, 721-737 4. Pouleur, S., et al. (1992) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 2960-2964 5. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009a) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9281-9297 6. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009b) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9263-9280 7. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., et al. (2012) Biogeosciences, 9, 1125-1136 8. Huffman A. J. et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151-6164

  1. Special Issue: Assessing Meaning Making and Self-Authorship--Theory, Research, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.; King, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors identify milestones in the journey toward self-authorship based on the theoretical work of Kegan (1982, 1994) and Baxter Magolda (2001b, 2008, 2009a), as well as the empirical findings from Baxter Magolda's longitudinal study (2001b, 2009a) and the qualitative longitudinal portion of the Wabash National Study of…

  2. Thermal tides on a hot Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, P.-G.; Hsieh, H.-F.

    2011-07-01

    Following the linear analysis laid out by Gu & Ogilvie 2009 (hereafter GO09), we investigate the dynamical response of a non-synchronized hot Jupiter to stellar irradiation. Besides the internal and Rossby waves considered by GO09, we study the Kelvin waves excited by the diurnal Fourier harmonic of the prograde stellar irradiation. We also present a 2-dimensional plot of internal waves excited by the semi-diurnal component of the stellar irradiation and postulate that thermal bulges may arise in a hot Jupiter. Whether our postulation is valid and is consistent with the recent results from Arras & Socrates (2009b) requires further investigation.

  3. The New Guard: A Service-Equivalent Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-07

    14 . ABSTRACT Th1s thesis proposes that the National Guard is a service-equivalent force and requires expanded authorities to develop capabilities for...supersedes; old edition number, etc. 14 . ABSTRACT. A brief (approximately 200 words) factual summary of the most signi ficant information. 15...or 1/igh- Yie/d £tplosil·e (CBRN£) lncidem. CJCSI 3125.0 I 8 . (Wa.,hington, DC: Joint Chief!> of S tall. August 19. 2009). B- 14 . While aJI these

  4. H 2O chemisorption and H 2 oxidation on yttria-stabilized zirconia: Density functional theory and temperature-programmed desorption studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorski, Alexandr; Yurkiv, Vitaliy; Starukhin, Dzmitry; Volpp, Hans-Robert

    The mechanism of H 2O dissociation as well as the adsorption and oxidation reaction of H 2 on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), commonly used as part of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes, was investigated employing temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). In agreement with theory the experimental results show that interaction of gaseous H 2O with YSZ results in dissociative adsorption leading to strongly bound OH surface species. In the interaction of gaseous H 2 with an oxygen-enriched YSZ surface (YSZ + O) similar OH surface species are formed as reaction intermediates in the H 2 oxidation. Our experiments showed that in both the H 2O/YSZ and the H 2/YSZ + O heterogeneous reaction systems noticeable amounts of H 2O are "dissolved" in the bulk as interstitial hydrogen and hydroxyl species. The experimental H 2O desorption data is used to access the accuracy of the H 2/H 2O/YSZ adsorption/desorption and surface reaction kinetics data, employed in previous modeling studies of the electrochemical H 2 oxidation on Ni-pattern/YSZ model anodes by Vogler et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc., 156 (2009) B663] and Goodwin et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc., 156 (2009) B1004]. Finally a refined experimentally validated H 2/H 2O/YSZ adsorption/desorption and surface reaction kinetics data set is presented.

  5. C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises, des urgences et de leurs consequences)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    May 2009 C3I for Crisis, Emergency and Consequence Management (C3I pour la gestion des crises , des urgences et de leurs conséquences) Research and...consequence management. ES - 2 RTO-MP-IST-086 C3I pour la gestion des crises , des urgences et de leurs conséquences (RTO-MP-IST-086...contre-terrorisme, de sécurité nationale/publique et de réponse collective face aux situations d’urgence (à la fois gestion des crises et gestion de leurs

  6. Expression of stem cell pluripotency factors during regeneration in newts.

    PubMed

    Maki, Nobuyasu; Suetsugu-Maki, Rinako; Tarui, Hiroshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we present data indicating that mammalian stem cell pluripotency-inducing factors are expressed during lens and limb regeneration in newts. The apparent expression even in intact tissues and the ensued regulation during regeneration raises the possibility that these factors might regulate tissue-specific reprogramming and regeneration. Furthermore, these factors should enable us to understand the similarities and differences between animal regeneration in the newt and stem cell strategies in mammals. Developmental Dynamics 238:1613-1616, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Final Environmental Assessment (EA) Addressing the Repair of Runway 05/23 at Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    David Lowe and Mr. Sean McCain of e²M held on 16 June 2009, regarding landfill capacity and acceptable waste streams at the Graham Road Landfill. 16...June 2009. e²M 2009c e²M. 2009. Record of Communication between Lt. Ben Lowry and Capt. Darren Tabor regarding specific actions included in the...deployment of aircraft. 14 July 2009. e²M 2009d e²M. 2009. Record of Communication between Lt. Ben Lowry and Capt. Darren Tabor regarding specific

  8. Bush Canal Floodgate Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -0 9 -9 Bush Canal Floodgate Study Tate O. McAlpin, Rutherford C. Berger, and Amena M. Henville July 2009 C oa st...al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at or y Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-09-9 July 2009 Bush Canal ...LA 70118-3651 Under Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request (MIPR) W42HEM60734548, “H&H Modeling of Bush Canal /Morganza to the Gulf” ERDC/CHL

  9. Demonstration of Electronic Capacitor-Based Water Treatment System for Application at Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    ER D C / CE R L TR -0 9 -2 0 Demonstration of Electronic Capacitor-Based Water Treatment System for Application at Military Installations...Alfred D. Beitelman, M. Michael Pitts Jr. PhD, Rodrigo F. V. Romo, and Carolyn B. Pitts July 2009 C on st ru ct io n E n gi n ee ri n g R...In addition, Oscar Rueda of Davis Monthan AFB, and Bill Stein and Sam Montanez of Fort Huachuca provided excellent base coordination. The Deputy

  10. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    Soil Erosion is a natural process that shapes the Earth. Due to the impact of agriculture, soil erosion rates increase, landforms show gullies and rills, and soils are depleted. In the Mediterranean, wheat, olive and vineyards were the main agriculture products, but new plantations are being found in sloping terrain due to the drip-irrigation. This new strategy results in the removal of the traditional terraces in order to make suitable for mechanization the agriculture plantation. Citrus is a clear example of the impact of the new chemical agriculture with a high investment in herbicides, pesticides, mechanisation, land levelling and drip computer controlled irrigation systems. The new plantation of citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean, but also in California, Florida, China and Brazil. Chile, Argentina, and South Africa are other producers that are moving to an industrial production of citrus. This paper shows how the citrus plantations are found as one of the most aggressive plantation due to the increase in soil erosion, and how we can apply successful control strategies. The research into the high erosion rates of citrus orchard built on the slopes are mainly found in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012) and in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) Most of the research done devoted to the measurements of the soil losses but also some research is done related to the soil properties (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and the impact of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel in order to reduce the soil losses. There are 116 million tonnes of citrus produced yearly, and this affects a large surface of the best land. The citrus orchards are moving from flood irrigated to drip

  11. 75 FR 38081 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Fold-Away Truck, Relius Tray-Shelf Utility Cart, Economical Steel Cart, Solid Platform Dolly and Flush Platform Dolly are all outside the scope of the antidumping duty order; December 3, 2009. A-570-901:...

  12. 48 CFR 252.236-7013 - Requirement for competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and manufacturers. 252.236-7013 Section 252....236-7013 Requirement for competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and... for American Steel Producers, Fabricators, and Manufacturers (JAN 2009) (a) Definition....

  13. 48 CFR 252.236-7013 - Requirement for competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and manufacturers. 252.236-7013 Section 252....236-7013 Requirement for competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and... for American Steel Producers, Fabricators, and Manufacturers (JUN 2013JAN 2009) (a)...

  14. 48 CFR 252.236-7013 - Requirement for competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and manufacturers. 252.236-7013 Section 252....236-7013 Requirement for competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and... FOR AMERICAN STEEL PRODUCERS, FABRICATORS, AND MANUFACTURERS (JAN 2009) (a) Definition....

  15. 48 CFR 252.236-7013 - Requirement for competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and manufacturers. 252.236-7013 Section 252....236-7013 Requirement for competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and... FOR AMERICAN STEEL PRODUCERS, FABRICATORS, AND MANUFACTURERS (JAN 2009) (a) Definition....

  16. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2 Human Papillomavirus In June 2006, a quadrivalent HPV vaccine was licensed for use in the United States ... worldwide. 7,8 In October 2009, a bivalent HPV vaccine that provides protection against types 16 and 18 ...

  17. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current polic...

  18. 75 FR 66792 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... February 25, 2008 (73 FR 10064). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 10, 2009. A notice was published in the Federal Register on January 27, 2010 (75 FR 4422). Patricia A....

  19. High-level aftereffects to global scene properties.

    PubMed

    Greene, Michelle R; Oliva, Aude

    2010-12-01

    Adaptation is ubiquitous in the human visual system, allowing recalibration to the statistical regularities of its input. Previous work has shown that global scene properties such as openness and mean depth are informative dimensions of natural scene variation useful for human and machine scene categorization (Greene & Oliva, 2009b; Oliva & Torralba, 2001). A visual system that rapidly categorizes scenes using such statistical regularities should be continuously updated, and therefore is prone to adaptation along these dimensions. Using a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, we show aftereffects to several global scene properties (magnitude 8-21%). In addition, aftereffects were preserved when the test image was presented 10 degrees away from the adapted location, suggesting that the origin of these aftereffects is not solely due to low-level adaptation. We show systematic modulation of observers' basic-level scene categorization performances after adapting to a global property, suggesting a strong representational role of global properties in rapid scene categorization.

  20. Protein Expression Profile of an Environmentally Important Bacterial Strain: the Chromate Response of Arthrobacter Species Strain FB24

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, Kristene L.; Turse, Joshua E.; Nakatsu, C. H.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-05-03

    The global proteomic response of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 to different levels of chromate stress was evaluated with both two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) [Henne et al. 2009b]. Proteome coverage of 22% and 71% was obtained with 2-DGE and LC/LC-MS/MS, respectively. The strong response of strain FB24 to chromate suggests a condition of sulfur limitation, which could be driven by competition for the sulfate transporter by the structurally similar chromate ion. Additionally, the involvement of genes hypothesized to be directly involved in chromate resistance in strain FB24 was supported at the protein level.

  1. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  2. Manipulation of colony environment modulates honey bee aggression and brain gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2013-01-01

    The social environment plays an essential role in shaping behavior for most animals. Social effects on behavior are often linked to changes in brain gene expression (Robinson et al., 2008). In the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), social modulation of individual aggression allows colonies to adjust the intensity with which they defend their hive in response to predation threat (Alaux & Robinson, 2007, Couvillon et al., 2008, Hunt et al., 2003). Previous research has demonstrated social effects on both aggression and aggression-related brain gene expression in honey bees, caused by alarm pheromone and unknown factors related to colony genotype (Alaux et al., 2009b). For example, some bees from less aggressive genetic stock reared in colonies with genetic predispositions toward increased aggression show both increased aggression and more aggressive-like brain gene expression profiles (Alaux et al., 2009b, Guzmán-Novoa et al., 2004). We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a colony environment influenced by high levels of predation threat results in increased aggression and aggressive-like gene expression patterns in individual bees. We assessed gene expression using four marker genes. Experimentally induced predation threats modified behavior, but the effect was opposite of our predictions: disturbed colonies showed decreased aggression. Disturbed colonies also decreased foraging activity, suggesting that they did not habituate to threats; other explanations for this finding are discussed. Bees in disturbed colonies also showed changes in brain gene expression, some of which paralleled behavioral findings. These results demonstrate that bee aggression, and associated molecular processes, are subject to complex social influences. PMID:24034579

  3. The ROMS IAS Data Assimilation and Prediction System: Quantifying Uncertainty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    circulation environments (Di Lorenzo et al., 2007; Haidvogel et al., 2008; Muccino et al., 2008; Powell et al., 2008, 2009; Broquet et al., 2009a,b,c...oceanography, Tokyo 13-17 March, 1995. WMO.TD 651, 273-278. Di Lorenzo , E., A.M. Moore, H.G. Arango, B.D. Cornuelle, A.J. Miller, B...B.S. Powell, J. Zavala -Garay and A.T. Weaver, 2009a: The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 4-dimensional variational data assimilation systems

  4. News and views from the 8th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Virology.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Elena; Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    The 8th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Virology (SIV) took place in Orvieto, Italy from the 21st to the 23rd of September 2008. The meeting covered different areas of Virology and the scientific sessions focused on: general virology and viral genetics; viral oncology, virus-host interaction and pathogenesis; emerging viruses and zoonotic, foodborne and environmental pathways of transmission; viral immunology and vaccines; viral biotechnologies and gene therapy; medical virology and antiviral therapy. The meeting had an attendance of about 160 virologists from all Italy. In this edition, a satellite workshop on "Viral biotechnologies" was organized in order to promote the role of virologists in the biotechnological research and teaching fields. A summary of the plenary lectures and oral selected presentations is reported. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 797-799, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Towards a Measurement of the Half-Life of {sup 60}Fe for Stellar and Early Solar System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ostdiek, K.; Anderson, T.; Bauder, W.; Bowers, M.; Collon, P.; Dressler, R.; Greene, J.; Kutschera, W.; Lu, W.; Paul, M.

    2015-10-15

    Radioisotopes, produced in stars and ejected into the Interstellar Medium, are important for constraining stellar and early Solar System (ESS) models. In particular, the half-life of the radioisotope, Fe-60, can have an impact on calculations for the timing for ESS events, the distance to nearby Supernovae, and the brightness of individual, non-steady-state Fe gamma ray sources in the Galaxy. A half-life measurement has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame and measurements of the Fe-60/Fe-56 concentration of our samples using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has begun. This result will be coupled with an activity measurement of the isomeric decay in Co-60, which is the decay product of Fe. Preliminary half-life estimates of (2.53 +/- 0.24) x 10(6) years seem to confirm the recent measurement by Rugel et al. (2009). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Embryogenesis and laboratory maintenance of the foam-nesting túngara frogs, genus Engystomops (= Physalaemus).

    PubMed

    Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Venegas-Ferrín, Michael; Almeida-Reinoso, Diego; Lee, Chanjae; Bond, Jennifer; Ryan, Michael J; Wallingford, John B; Del Pino, Eugenia M

    2009-06-01

    The vast majority of embryological research on amphibians focuses on just a single genus of frogs, Xenopus. To attain a more comprehensive understanding of amphibian development, experimentation on non-model frogs will be essential. Here, we report on the early development, rearing, and embryological analysis of túngara frogs (genus Engystomops, also called Physalaemus). The frogs Engystomops pustulosus, Engystomops coloradorum, and Engystomops randi construct floating foam-nests with small eggs. We define a table of 23 stages for the developmental period in the foam-nest. Embryos were immunostained against Lim1, neural, and somite-specific proteins and the expression pattern of RetinoBlastoma Binding Protein 6 (RBBP6) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Due to their brief life-cycle, frogs belonging to the genus Engystomops are attractive for comparative and genetic studies of development. Developmental Dynamics 238:1444-1454, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Muscular dystrophy candidate gene FRG1 is critical for muscle development.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Meredith L; Wuebbles, Ryan D; Jones, Peter L

    2009-06-01

    The leading candidate gene responsible for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is FRG1 (FSHD region gene 1). However, the correlation of altered FRG1 expression levels with disease pathology has remained controversial and the precise function of FRG1 is unknown. Here, we carried out a detailed analysis of the normal expression patterns and effects of FRG1 misexpression during vertebrate embryonic development using Xenopus laevis. We show that frg1 is expressed in and essential for the development of the tadpole musculature. FRG1 morpholino injection disrupted myotome organization and led to inhibited myotome growth, while elevated FRG1 led to abnormal epaxial and hypaxial muscle formation. Thus, maintenance of normal FRG1 levels is critical for proper muscle development, supportive of FSHD disease models whereby misregulation of FRG1 plays a causal role underlying the pathology exhibited in FSHD patients. Developmental Dynamics 238:1502-1512, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    , Germany) - a porcupine and hyena den and contribution to their palaeobiogeography. - The Open Palaeontological Journal, 2008 (1): 33-41. Diedrich, C. 2008b. The rediscovered holotypes of the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) and the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) and taphonomic discussion to the Zoolithen Cave hyena den at Geilenreuth (Bavaria, South-Germany). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society London, 154, 822-831. Diedrich, C. 2008c. Late Pleistocene hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) from Upper Rhine valley open air sites and the contribution to skull shape variability. Cranium, 25-2: (in press), Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009a. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Bilstein Caves (Sauerland Karst) and contribution to the steppe lion taphonomy, palaeobiology and sexual dimorphism. Annales de Paléontologie, 95 (2009) 117-138, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in Northern Germany. Quaternary Research 71 (3): 361-374, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2010a. Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the Balve Cave (NW Germany) - a hyena den and Middle Palaeolithic human site. - International Journal of Osteoarchaeology (acepted). Diedrich, C. 2010b. Ein Skelett einer kranken Löwin Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) und andere männliche Löwenreste aus Neumark-Nord. - Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderbad (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Keppler Cave (Sauerland Karst, NW Germany). Cranium 26, Amsterdam (in press). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Specialized horse killers in Europe - foetal horse remains in the Late Pleistocene Srbsko Chlum-Komín Cave hyena den in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic) and actualistic comparisons to modern African spotted hyenas as zebra hunters

  9. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    Change ed S Solomon, D Qin, M Manning, Z Chen, M Marquis, K B Averyt, M Tignor and H L Miller (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) Wentz F J, Ricciardulli L, Hilburn K and Mears C 2007 How much more rain will global warming bring? Science 317 233-35 Wild M 2009a Global dimming and brightening: a review J. Geophys. Res. 114 D00D16 Wild M 2009b How well do IPCC-AR4/CMIP3 climate models simulate global dimming/brightening and twentieth- century daytime and nighttime warming? J. Geophys. Res. 114 D00D11 Wild M, Grieser J and Schär C 2008 Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle Geophys. Res. Lett. 35 L17706 Wild M, Ohmura A, Gilgen H and Rosenfeld D 2004 On the consistency of trends in radiation and temperature records and implications for the global hydrological cycle Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 L11201 Wild M et al 2005 From dimming to brightening: decadal changes in surface solar radiation Science 308 847-50 Yang F, Kumar A, Schlesinger M E and Wang W 2003 Intensity of hydrological cycles in warmer climates J. Climate 16 2419-23 Zhang X et al 2007 Detection of human influence on twentieth-century precipitation trends Nature 448 461-5

  10. An Educator's Guide to the Development of Advanced Practice Competencies in Clinical Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jonathan B.; Gray, Susan W.; Miehls, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The 2008 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards identified 10 core competencies that all social work graduates should master. MSW programs found themselves with a need to identify knowledge, values, and skill statements that reflected what concentration-year students were expected to know and be able to do. In 2009 a group of educators…

  11. What is an Effective Learner? A Comparison of Further Education Students' Views with a Theoretical Construction of Effective Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Hilary; Webber, John

    2013-01-01

    Following an investigation of students' views of one further education college's teaching and learning model (McQueen and Webber 2009), a second project, reported here, sought to review students' ideas about what constitutes an effective learner. For this project a set of 36 statements was constructed based on theoretical models and research about…

  12. Postsecondary Pathways and Persistence for STEM versus Non-STEM Majors: Among College Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Christiano, Elizabeth R. A.; Yu, Jennifer W.; Blackorby, Jose; Shattuck, Paul; Newman, Lynn A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about postsecondary pathways and persistence among college students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, 2001-2009, a nationally representative sample of students in special education with an ASD who progressed from high school to postsecondary…

  13. "Elections" or "Selections"? Blogging and Twittering the Nigerian 2007 General Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifukor, Presley

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the linguistic construction of textual messages in the use of blogs and Twitter in the Nigerian 2007 electoral cycle comprising the April 2007 general elections and rerun elections in April, May, and August 2009. A qualitative approach of discourse analysis is used to present a variety of discursive acts that blogging and…

  14. Training Programme for Secondary School Principals: Evaluating its Effectiveness and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Disraeli M.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the evaluation of the training programme for secondary school principals conducted in the period between 2006 and 2009. A mixed method approach was used to conduct the summative evaluation with 28 graduate participants. For the impact evaluation, 15 of the graduates were interviewed three years after the programme was…

  15. Facilitated Networking and Group Formation in an Online Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasso, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 and 2009, a series of online professional development communities for groups of teacher-leaders in digital pedagogy was run. In each of the first two iterations, there was an early dropout of individuals who felt they "did not belong". Contributing to this sense of isolation was the immediate emergence of online networks in the…

  16. Enterprise Analysis of Strategic Airlift to Obtain Competitive Advantage Through Fuel Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    delivered while minimizing the total mileage driven. This Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) with pickup and delivery expands upon the TSP and more...Kachitvichyanukul, V. (2009). A particle swarm optimization for the vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pickup and delivery . Computers...Value Focused Thinking VRP Vehicle Routing Problem 1 ENTERPRISE ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC AIRLIFT TO OBTAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH FUEL

  17. Use Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Technology acceptance is posited to be influenced by a variety of factors, including individual differences, social influences, beliefs, attitudes and situational influences (Agarwal, 2000; Teo, 2009a). A majority of the conceptualisations of technology acceptance have drawn on theories and models from social psychology, notably the theory of…

  18. Implementing Project Based Survey Research Skills to Grade Six ELP Students with "The Survey Toolkit" and "TinkerPlots"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    "Survey Toolkit Collecting Information, Analyzing Data and Writing Reports" (Walsh, 2009a) is discussed as a survey research curriculum used by the author's sixth grade students. The report describes the implementation of "The Survey Toolkit" curriculum and "TinkerPlots"[R] software to provide instruction to students learning a project based…

  19. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost reduction. 970.5215-4... and Operating Contracts 970.5215-4 Cost reduction. As prescribed in 970.1504-5(c), insert the following clause: Cost Reduction (AUG 2009) (a) General. It is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) intent...

  20. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost reduction. 970.5215-4... and Operating Contracts 970.5215-4 Cost reduction. As prescribed in 970.1504-5(c), insert the following clause: Cost Reduction (AUG 2009) (a) General. It is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) intent...

  1. 77 FR 13608 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... continued HIV epidemic in our country, CDC launched Act Against AIDS (AAA) in 2009, a 5-year, multifaceted... goals of AAA are to increase HIV/AIDS awareness and reduce HIV incidence in the United States. Each AAA... populations. As part of the overarching AAA campaign, CDC requests OMB approval to collect information...

  2. Implementation of an Evidence-Based Seizure Algorithm in Intellectual Disability Nursing: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auberry, Kathy; Cullen, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Based on the results of the Surrogate Decision-Making Self Efficacy Scale (Lopez, 2009a), this study sought to determine whether nurses working in the field of intellectual disability (ID) experience increased confidence when they implemented the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses (AANN) Seizure Algorithm during telephone triage. The…

  3. The Use of a Computer-Based Reading Rate Development Program on Pre-University Intermediate Level ESL Learners' Reading Speeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupt, John

    2015-01-01

    Improving L2 learners reading fluency has been identified by leading L2 reading researchers as an important aspect of L2 reading instruction (Grabe, 2004, 2009; Nation, 2009). A number of studies have been conducted on the use of paper-based fluency development methods on ESL and EFL students reading speeds and showed positive results (Al-Homoud…

  4. 48 CFR 952.209-72 - Organizational conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Organizational conflicts....209-72 Organizational conflicts of interest. As prescribed at 909.507-2, insert the following clause: Organizational Conflicts of Interest (AUG 2009) (a) Purpose. The purpose of this clause is to ensure that...

  5. 48 CFR 952.209-72 - Organizational conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Organizational conflicts....209-72 Organizational conflicts of interest. As prescribed at 909.507-2, insert the following clause: Organizational Conflicts of Interest (AUG 2009) (a) Purpose. The purpose of this clause is to ensure that...

  6. 48 CFR 952.209-72 - Organizational conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Organizational conflicts....209-72 Organizational conflicts of interest. As prescribed at 909.507-2, insert the following clause: Organizational Conflicts of Interest (AUG 2009) (a) Purpose. The purpose of this clause is to ensure that...

  7. "Do I Do This in My Own Time?" Using Induction Week to Maximize Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a project undertaken to address a potential problem in getting new students to engage with their academic life. In September 2009, a new course design was introduced into the BA (Hons) Education program at the University of Wales, Newport. The course team was keen to ensure this new development did not lead to a fragmentation…

  8. Screencasts and Standards: Connecting an Introductory Journalism Research Course with Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuban, Adam J.; Mulligan, Laura MacLeod

    2014-01-01

    Academic literature suggests that today's college students are not as information literate as educators might expect, despite their generation being frequently described as "digital natives" or "Millennials" (Becker, 2009). A faculty survey at Pima Community College in Tucson, AZ, revealed that students' actual…

  9. 76 FR 43725 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. This Second Amendment to the Consent Decree amends the Consent Decree entered by the Court on March 20, 2006 as well as the First Amendment to the Consent Decree...), 7604(a) Notice is hereby given that on July 13, 2009, a proposed Second Amendment Consent Decree...

  10. 77 FR 26238 - Fisheries of the United States; National Standard 1 Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... fishery conservation and management contained in Section 301 of the Magnuson Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. Since the guidelines were last updated in 2009, a number of issues regarding the... INFORMATION: Background Section 301(a) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...

  11. 48 CFR 252.217-7010 - Performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance. 252.217-7010 Section 252.217-7010 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... 2009) (a) Upon the award of a job order, the Contractor shall promptly start the work specified...

  12. Developing Teachers' Capacity for EcoJustice Education and Community-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Ethan; Martusewicz, Rebecca; Voelker, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a group of teachers, community activists, and university professors came together in a Summer Institute on EcoJustice Education and Community-Based Learning held by the Southeast Michigan Stewardship Coalitions at Eastern Michigan University (EMU). A series of workshops were organized to help participants examine the…

  13. 76 FR 44800 - Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... [TD 9539] RIN 1545-BI09 Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3) AGENCY: Internal... dates of applicability, see Sec. 1.280C- 4(c). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Selig, (202) 622... research credit under section 280C(c)(3). On July 16, 2009, a notice of proposed rulemaking...

  14. Developing a Peace and Conflict Resolution Curriculum for Quaker Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockett, Eloise

    2012-01-01

    In 2008-2009, a team of educators from George Fox University, in collaboration with a committee of teachers and administrators from selected Quaker secondary schools in western Kenya, developed the first draft of a peace and conflict resolution curriculum for Kenyan form one (ninth grade) students. This case study offers a model for developing a…

  15. College Students' Perceived and Personal Mental Health Stigma: The Influence on Help-Seeking Attitudes and Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompeo, Alyson

    2014-01-01

    Despite being vulnerable to mental health problems, college students are a population that is especially influenced by perceptions of peer mental health stigmatization (Quinn, Wilson, MacIntyre, & Tinklin, 2009), a known barrier to seeking mental health services (Corrigan, 2004a; Komiya, Good, & Sherrod, 2000; Vogel, Wade, & Haake,…

  16. Building Capacity through an Early Education Leadership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffin, Stacie G.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, the early childhood education (ECE) field is paying limited attention to leadership development (Goffin & Janke, 2013; Goffin & Means, 2009). A recent survey of ECE leadership development programs suggests that the field does not fully recognize the potential of leadership to serve as a change catalyst, although there is evidence…

  17. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the summer of 2009, a new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was implicated in severe disease outbreaks in farm-raised catfish in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. These outbreaks mostly afflicted large fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods. Given the rapid onset and biosecurity ...

  18. Religious Music and Public Schools: A Harbinger of Litigation to Come?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Debate continues over the place of religious expression, including music, in public schools. In "Nurre v. Whitehead" (2009), a high school senior in Washington sued the superintendent for denying the wind ensemble that she was part of the opportunity to perform an instrumental version of "Ave Maria" at her commencement ceremony due to its…

  19. Wikis: A Knowledge Platform for Collaborative Learning in ESL Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Cynthia S.; Belknap, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Wikis provide an effective technological tool to meet the pedagogical goals outlined in the new TESOL Technology Standards (Healey et al.,2009). A wiki, a cross between a website and a word document, is an interactive webpage that allows students to read, generate, and publish content online in an environment of collaboration. The flexibility and…

  20. Improving Low-Achieving Schools: Building State Capacity to Support School Improvement through Race to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Joshua; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2017-01-01

    Improving low-achieving schools is a critical challenge facing urban education. Recent national policy shifts have pressed states to take an expanded role in school improvement efforts. In 2009, a federal grant competition called Race to the Top (RttT) compelled states to improve their capacity to implement ambitious education reform agendas.…

  1. Information Portals: The Next Generation Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, DeeAnn

    2010-01-01

    Libraries today face an increasing challenge: to provide relevant information to diverse populations with differing needs while competing with Web search engines like Google. In 2009, a large group of libraries, including the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, joined with Innovative Interfaces as development partners to design a new type of…

  2. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  3. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  4. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  5. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act-Balance... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7000 Buy American Act—Balance of... Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As...

  8. Challenges of the Administrative Consultation Wiki Research Project as a Learning and Competences Development Method for MPA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Polonca; Stare, Janez

    2015-01-01

    Administrative Consultation Wiki (ACW) is a project run under the auspices of the Faculty of Administration and the Ministry of Public Administration in Slovenia since 2009. A crucial component thereof is the involvement of students of Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree programs to offer them an opportunity to develop competences in…

  9. Study Abroad as Professional Development for FSL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Meike

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, a group of over 80 FSL teachers from British Columbia (BC) participated in a two-week sojourn at the "Centre d'Approches vivantes des Langues et des Medias" (CAVILAM) in Vichy, France, as part of an initiative to address the critical shortage of qualified French language teachers in the province. After almost four decades…

  10. Detection of Lassa virus, Mali.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Lopez, Job E; Sogoba, Nafomon; Traore', Sékou F; Raffel, Sandra J; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Ebihara, Hideki; Branco, Luis; Garry, Robert F; Schwan, Tom G; Feldmann, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    To determine whether Lassa virus was circulating in southern Mali, we tested samples from small mammals from 3 villages, including Soromba, where in 2009 a British citizen probably contracted a lethal Lassa virus infection. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of Lassa virus from an area previously unknown for Lassa fever.

  11. 46 CFR 39.1005 - Incorporation by reference-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....2009(a). (2) (i) Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF), 29 Queen Anne's Gate, London SWIH 9BU, England. (1) International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals, Fifth Edition, 2006... (reaffirmed December 1987)(“API 2000”), IBR approved for § 39.2011(b). (2) (d) ASTM International (ASTM),...

  12. 46 CFR 39.1005 - Incorporation by reference-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....2009(a). (2) (i) Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF), 29 Queen Anne's Gate, London SWIH 9BU, England. (1) International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals, Fifth Edition, 2006... (reaffirmed December 1987)(“API 2000”), IBR approved for § 39.2011(b). (2) (d) ASTM International (ASTM),...

  13. 77 FR 62214 - Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-25100] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Travel Management Supplemental... Travel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement (ENF TM FEIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The... cross country travel. In 2009 a complaint was filed with the Eastern District Federal Court (Court...

  14. Improving Geometric and Trigonometric Knowledge and Skill for High School Mathematics Teachers: A Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science…

  15. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared…

  16. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...

  17. 77 FR 4688 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... the NSLP and/or School Breakfast Program to establish, by school year (SY) 2008-2009, a system to... agencies and FNS timelier access to data elements important for the direct certification rate calculation... breakfast and lunch programs. 7 CFR Part 272 Alaska, Civil rights, Claims, Food stamps, Grant...

  18. Boundary Changing without Acrimony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnell, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009, a rapid-growth school district on the Texas Gulf Coast shifted its paradigm of rezoning. Even though half of the Katy Independent School District (Katy ISD) was affected, it achieved a genuine ownership for boundary changes that would affect more than 11,500 students at five schools. Katy ISD accomplished this by seeking…

  19. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: An Updated Report of the Bar Passing Percentages of Years 2005-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Garrison, P.; Green, T.; Palasota, A.

    2010-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics gives the passing percentages of the Bar examination for the Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) for the calendar years of 2005-2009. A Five Year Analysis is given for the entire period, followed by Annual Analysis of the same data. This report is meant to serve as a continual update of the…

  20. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of Bar Passing Percentages of Years 2005-2009--Updated May 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Garrison, P.; Green, T.

    2010-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics gives the passing percentages of the Bar examination for the Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) for the calendar years of 2005-2009. A Five Year Analysis is given for the entire period, followed by Annual Analyses. This report is meant to serve as a continual update of the progress of the Law…

  1. Leasing Retirees: Smart Business or Gaming the System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, a high school principal in a large Arizona school district met individually with 18 of his most senior teachers to inform them that they would not have a job the following year. Why didn't tenure protect them from wholesale dismissal? The answer is they all had one thing in common: they were retirees who had been leased or hired…

  2. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  3. 7 CFR 251.6 - Distribution plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution plan. 251.6 Section 251.6 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.6 Distribution plan. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 62474, Nov. 30, 2009. (a) Contents of the plan....

  4. 7 CFR 210.13 - Facilities management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities management. 210.13 Section 210.13... Participation § 210.13 Facilities management. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 66216, Dec. 15, 2009. (a..., the added text is set forth as follows: § 210.13 Facilities management. (c) Food safety program....

  5. 9 CFR 201.100 - Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records to be furnished poultry... PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.100 Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 63277, Dec. 3, 2009. (a)...

  6. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  7. Challenging the Premises of International Policy Reviews: An Introduction to the Review Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Laessoe, Jeppe; Blum, Nicole; Chambers, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a think tank called the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI) announced the results of a study entitled Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education. Intended for a policy audience, the study offered a glimpse into the status of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and an early…

  8. Assessing High Impact Practices Using NVivo: An Automated Approach to Analyzing Student Reflections for Program Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, Jennifer; Filer, Kimberly; Lyon, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Critical reflection allows students to synthesize their learning and deepen their understanding of an experience (Ash & Clayton, 2009). A recommended reflection method is for students to write essays about their experiences. However, on a large scale, such reflection essays become difficult to analyze in a meaningful way. At Roanoke College,…

  9. To Stay a Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    and children standing by, that he would gladly go back and do it again. He is not alone. As of July 2009, a total of 913 soldiers, sailors, airmen... resil - ience when he or she needs it most. It is difficult to completely explain the shortcomings that evolved in regard to the care of some of the

  10. Comparative virulence of wild-type H1N1pdm09 influenza A isolates in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) influenza A virus (IAV) reached pandemic status and was soon after detected in pigs worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the HA protein can affect pathogenicity and antigenicity of H1N1pdm09 in swine. We compared...

  11. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-23

    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  12. Fatigue Risk Management in Aviation Maintenance: Current Best Practices and Potential Future Countermeasures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Civil Aviation Publication CAS -----------Circadian Alertness Simulator CASA --------Civil Aviation Safety Authority (Australia) CASR ---------Civil...of Australia ( CASA , 2009a), and agencies in the road and rail transport industries (Australian National Transport Commission, 2004; Gertler...factors leading to fatigue can include social and family commitments, commute time, second jobs, and medi- cal conditions that may reduce the quality

  13. 48 CFR 552.219-75 - GSA Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the GSA Office of Small Business Utilization (E), Washington, DC 20405, (202) 501-1021, for further... Mentor-ProtéGé Program (SEP 2009) (a) Prime contractors, including small businesses, are encouraged to... subcontracting plan, or that are eligible small businesses; (2) Protégés are subcontractors to the...

  14. 48 CFR 852.219-71 - VA mentor-protégé program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Protégé Program (DEC 2009) (a) Large businesses are encouraged to participate in the VA Mentor-Protégé... small businesses and veteran-owned small businesses to enhance the small businesses' capabilities and..., which are service-disabled veteran-owned small business concerns or veteran-owned small...

  15. 48 CFR 952.209-72 - Organizational conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational conflicts....209-72 Organizational conflicts of interest. As prescribed at 48 CFR 909.507-2, insert the following clause: Organizational Conflicts of Interest (AUG 2009) (a) Purpose. The purpose of this clause is...

  16. Biotech Potatoes: Are We Prepared for the Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the introduction of the first genetically modified (GM)/biotech crops in the mid-1990s, the agriculture industry has seen a steady increase in the acreage of biotech crops planted and harvested each year. In 2009, a record 14 million farmers in 25 countries planted 330 million acres of biotech...

  17. An Analysis of Persistence and Motivation in Public Research Institutions for Doctoral Completers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Marvette D.

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral student attrition is an issue of great concern among leaders in higher education (Gardner, 2009a). In response to concern for high attrition rates in doctoral programs, several studies (Lovitts, 2001; National Science Foundation, 2004; Nettles & Millett, 2006) investigated this issue aimed at gaining data to address this concern.…

  18. Is Learning Styles-Based Instruction Effective? A Comprehensive Analysis of Recent Research on Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In an influential publication in 2009, a group of cognitive psychologists revealed that there was a lack of empirical evidence supporting the concept of learning styles-based instruction and provided guidelines for the type of research design necessary to verify the learning styles hypothesis. This article examined the literature since 2009 to…

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mass Distribution of Infrared Dark Clouds (Gomez+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, L.; Wyrowski, F.; Shculler, F.; Menten, K. M.; Ballesteros-Paredes, J.

    2014-01-01

    Six southern hemisphere clouds with high extinction were observed on 2007-08-25/28 with the LABOCA (Large APEX BOlometer CAmera) instrument on the APEX 12m telescope, at a frequency of 345GHz and a bandwidth of 610GHz (for the instrument, see Siringo et al. 2009A&A...497..945S). (2 data files).

  20. Exploring the "Learning Careers" of Irish Undergraduate Sociology Students through the Establishment of an Undergraduate Sociology Student Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Patricia; Power, Martin J.; Barnes, Cliona; Haynes, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, a faculty-reviewed student undergraduate journal titled "Socheolas: The Limerick Student Journal of Sociology" was officially launched. The journal, now in its fourth volume, is produced, edited, and managed by a small team from within the Department of Sociology at the University of Limerick in Ireland. The objective of this…

  1. Faculty Observables and Self-Reported Responsiveness to Academic Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrus, Robert T., Jr.; Jones, Adam T.; Sackley, William H.; Walker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2009, a mid-sized public institution in the southeast had a faculty-driven honor policy characterized by little education about the policy and no tracking of repeat offenders. An updated code, implemented in August of 2009, required that students sign an honor pledge, created a formal student honor board, and developed a process to track…

  2. 40 CFR 86.1930 - What special provisions apply from 2005 through 2009?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Manufacturer-Run In-Use Testing Program for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines § 86.1930 What special provisions apply from 2005 through 2009? (a) We may direct you to test engines under this subpart...

  3. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009) (a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal...

  4. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  5. 7 CFR 980.117 - Import regulations; onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import regulations; onions. 980.117 Section 980.117... § 980.117 Import regulations; onions. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 65394, Dec. 10, 2009. (a) Findings and determinations with respect to onions. (1) Under section 8e of the Agricultural...

  6. 75 FR 25271 - Office of Refugee Resettlement; Urgent Single Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Refugee Resettlement; Urgent Single Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International (SOTI) AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF... Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Services for Survivors of Torture Program. In FY 2009, a total of 3,667...

  7. 48 CFR 552.228-5 - Government as Additional Insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government as Additional....228-5 Government as Additional Insured. As prescribed in 528.310, insert the following clause: Government as Additional Insured (MAY 2009) (a) This clause supplements the requirements set forth in...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.245-70 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government property. 1552... Government property. As prescribed in 1545.107(a), insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Government Property (SEP 2009) (a) The contractor shall not fabricate or acquire, on behalf of the...

  9. 48 CFR 552.246-71 - Source Inspection by Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Government. 552.246-71 Section 552.246-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....246-71 Source Inspection by Government. As prescribed in 546.302-71, insert the following clause: Source Inspection by Government (JUNE 1, 2009) (a) Inspection by Government personnel. (1) Supplies to...

  10. 48 CFR 552.228-5 - Government as Additional Insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government as Additional....228-5 Government as Additional Insured. As prescribed in 528.310, insert the following clause: Government as Additional Insured (MAY 2009) (a) This clause supplements the requirements set forth in...

  11. 48 CFR 552.228-5 - Government as Additional Insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government as Additional....228-5 Government as Additional Insured. As prescribed in 528.310, insert the following clause: Government as Additional Insured (MAY 2009) (a) This clause supplements the requirements set forth in...

  12. 48 CFR 552.246-71 - Source Inspection by Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Government. 552.246-71 Section 552.246-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....246-71 Source Inspection by Government. As prescribed in 546.302-71, insert the following clause: Source Inspection by Government (JUNE 1, 2009) (a) Inspection by Government personnel. (1) Supplies to...

  13. 48 CFR 552.228-5 - Government as Additional Insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government as Additional....228-5 Government as Additional Insured. As prescribed in 528.310, insert the following clause: Government as Additional Insured (MAY 2009) (a) This clause supplements the requirements set forth in...

  14. 48 CFR 552.246-71 - Source Inspection by Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Government. 552.246-71 Section 552.246-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....246-71 Source Inspection by Government. As prescribed in 546.302-71, insert the following clause: Source Inspection by Government (JUN 2009) (a) Inspection by Government personnel. (1) Supplies to...

  15. 48 CFR 552.246-71 - Source Inspection by Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Government. 552.246-71 Section 552.246-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....246-71 Source Inspection by Government. As prescribed in 546.302-71, insert the following clause: Source Inspection by Government (JUNE 1, 2009) (a) Inspection by Government personnel. (1) Supplies to...

  16. Collaborative exploration between NIAS genebank and USDA ARS for the collection of genetic resources of fruit and nut species in Hokkaido and the Northern Tohoku Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 7 to 25 September 2009 a collaborative exploration between NIAS Genebank and USDA ARS to collect genetic resources in Hokkaido and the Northern Tohoku region was performed. The investigated areas were mainly upper deciduous forest and subalpine conifer forest zones. The vegetation was mainly fo...

  17. A Decision Model for Steady-State Choice in Concurrent Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Darren R.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2010-01-01

    Grace and McLean (2006) proposed a decision model for acquisition of choice in concurrent chains which assumes that after reinforcement in a terminal link, subjects make a discrimination whether the preceding reinforcer delay was short or long relative to a criterion. Their model was subsequently extended by Christensen and Grace (2008, 2009a,…

  18. Clarence Edwards Middle School: Success through Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts 2020, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Just a few years ago, Boston's Clarence Edwards Middle School was on the verge of being shut down. By 2009, a renaissance at the Edwards made it one of the highest performing and most desired middle schools in Boston, dramatically narrowing and even eliminating academic achievement gaps while delivering a far more well-rounded education to its…

  19. Indicators of Faculty and Staff Perceptions of Campus Safety: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfolk, Willie A.

    2013-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of a critical increase in campus crime between 1999 and 2009, a period during which overall crime in the United States declined. Further the research explored the perceptions of campus safety among faculty and staff at an institution where campus safety initiatives are nationally ranked as exemplary and incidents of…

  20. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-06

    September 7, 2009. A positive development is that Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai... Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from...heartland of Bamiyan province. Other significant candidates are shown below. 24 Mulrine

  1. Uneven Reassembly of Tense, Telicity and Discourse Features in L2 Acquisition of the Chinese "shì…de" Cleft Construction by Adult English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Ziyin; Yuan, Boping

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an empirical study investigating L2 acquisition of the Mandarin Chinese "shì…de" cleft construction by adult English-speaking learners within the framework of the Feature Reassembly Hypothesis (Lardiere, 2009). A Sentence Completion task, an interpretation task, two Acceptability Judgement tasks, and a felicity…

  2. Binding Phenomena within a Reductionist Theory of Grammatical Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the implications of binding phenomena for the development of a reductionist theory of grammatical dependencies. The starting point is the analysis of binding and control in Hornstein (2001, 2009). A number of revisions are made to this framework in order to develop a simpler and empirically more successful account of…

  3. Hybrid Pedagogies for Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In the pseudo-documentary "The Age of Stupid" (Armstrong 2009), a historian from 2055 scans the remnants of civilization and asks why, in the early twenty-first century, people did not save themselves when they had the chance. The film serves as a motif for issues raised in this article. Why do people continue to believe that education plays an…

  4. Validating the Future Career Autobiography as a Measure of Narrative Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfuss, Mark C.; Di Fabio, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the Future Career Autobiography (FCA; Rehfuss, 2009), a qualitative instrument designed to capture change or stability in individuals' life and occupational narratives across time as a result of narrative career interventions. Italian female entrepreneurs (N = 82) were randomly assigned into either an…

  5. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

  6. Pedagogical Engagements: Feminist Resistance to the Militarization of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armato, Michael; Fuller, Laurie; Matthews, Nancy A.; Meiners, Erica R.

    2013-01-01

    According to the authors, in 2008 and 2009 a coalition of faculty, anchored by Women's Studies, challenged a proposal to bring United States Army Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) courses onto their urban public university campus. This proposal, initially approved by the faculty governance advisory committee on academic affairs, was…

  7. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  8. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  9. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  10. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  11. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  12. Lessons Learned from a Disabilities Accessible Study Abroad Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twill, Sarah E.; Guzzo, Gaetano R.

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a two-week study abroad program was specifically designed and executed to include students with disabilities. Recruitment efforts resulted in 11 student participants, six of who were identified as having a disability by the University's Office of Disability Services. Students participated in a two-course academic program;…

  13. Calculus structure on the Lie conformal algebra complex and the variational complex

    SciTech Connect

    De Sole, Alberto; Hekmati, Pedram; Kac, Victor G.

    2011-05-15

    We construct a calculus structure on the Lie conformal algebra cochain complex. By restricting to degree one chains, we recover the structure of a g-complex introduced in [A. De Sole and V. G. Kac, Commun. Math. Phys. 292, 667 (2009)]. A special case of this construction is the variational calculus, for which we provide explicit formulas.

  14. Well-Being and Outdoor Pedagogies in Primary Schooling. The Nexus of Well-Being and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stan, Ina

    2009-01-01

    Society today is inundated by a multitude of messages regarding the risks and dangers that affect youngsters, with media constantly talking about "cotton wool" kids (see Furedi, 1997, 2001, 2006) and an "obesity epidemic" (see Wright and Harwood, 2009). A social panic has been created by the media, which ignores the positive…

  15. 76 FR 34212 - Notice of Availability of a Final General Conformity Determination and Record of Decision for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability of a Final General Conformity Determination... Impact Report (EIS/EIR), including the Corps' draft general conformity determination (Section 3.2 and... included draft general conformity determination until October 29, 2009. A general conformity...

  16. Management of Circadian Desynchrony (Jetlag and Shiftlag) in CF Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    1170 Arendt J, Skene DJ (2005) Melatonin as a chronobiotic. Sleep Medicine Reviews 9: 25-39 Baehr EK, Fogg LF, Eastman CI (1999) Intermittent...study. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 282: R454-R463 Smith MR, Fogg LF, Eastman CI (2009) A compromise circadian phase position for

  17. 48 CFR 52.215-22 - Limitations on Pass-Through Charges-Identification of Subcontract Effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on Pass... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-22 Limitations on Pass-Through Charges... Pass-Through Charges—Identification of Subcontract Effort (OCT 2009) (a) Definitions. Added...

  18. 48 CFR 52.215-23 - Limitations on Pass-Through Charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on Pass... Clauses 52.215-23 Limitations on Pass-Through Charges. As prescribed in 15.408(n)(2), use the following clause: Limitations on Pass-Through Charges (OCT 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause—...

  19. 75 FR 159 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Paint Hazard Reduction Act Notice is hereby given that on December 28, 2009, a proposed Consent Decree...'') under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, 42 U.S.C. 4851 et seq. (``Lead Hazard... residential lead paint notification requirements. The Defendants will submit an on-going operations...

  20. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla in 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    plants from a single infected shoot. However, it was considered weakly pathogenic and the authors recommended it be used with herbicides in an...2009a, 2012) and in combination with herbicides (Netherland and Shearer 1996, Shearer and Nelson 2002, Nelson and Shearer 2009). The isolation of another

  1. Emergent Issues in Enterprise Education: The Educator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Charlotte; Matlay, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that important issues are emerging among enterprise educators in higher education institutions (HEIs). This paper examines four key areas of debate. The first of these is the assessment of entrepreneurship ideas and related activities (Pittaway and Cope, 2007). Penaluna and Penaluna (2008, 2009a, b), for example, focus on…

  2. Lesson Study as Practice: An Indonesian Elementary School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suratno, Tatang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the "practice architectures"; and "ecologies of practice" of LS (lesson study) in an Indonesian private elementary school. It aims at drawing on LS as a form of professional learning from the perspective of contemporary practice theory (Kemmis, Wilkinson, Hardy, & Edwards-Groves, 2009; Kemmis, 2009a,…

  3. Are Liberal Studies Teachers Ready to Prepare Human Rights Respecting Students? A Portrait of Teachers' Attitudes towards Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan Wing; Lo, Yan Lam

    2012-01-01

    As in most countries, human rights education (HRE) in Hong Kong has never been high on the educational agenda. In 2009, a compulsory subject, Liberal Studies (LS), which could be used as a platform for HRE, was introduced. The Hong Kong Institute of Education launched a research and development project which, as one of its objectives, studied LS…

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  5. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  9. Recruitment Strategies Aiming to Attract Females into Undergraduate Engineering Programs: Examining Their Role and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howenstine, Julie Anne

    2013-01-01

    By 2009, the percentage of women who graduated with general undergraduate degrees had increased to almost 58% of all students who completed 4-year degree programs (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009a). These percentages, however, have not been reflected in the enrollment rates of females into undergraduate engineering programs. In…

  10. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  12. Emergence and impact of two tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in tomato in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from tomato in ...

  13. Detection and characterization of tomato viruses: A case study of emerging tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) emerged in solanaceous vegetables in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from t...

  14. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Chilean commercial turkeys with genetic and serologic comparisons to U.S. H1N1 avian influenza vaccine isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus has caused acute respiratory disease in humans, first in Mexico and then spreading around the world. The resulting pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) virus was isolated in swine in Canada in June, 2009, and later in turkey breeders in Chile, ...

  15. One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR for Pandemic Influenza A Virus (H1N1) 2009 Matrix Gene Detection in Swine Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the spring of 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus began to spread among humans worldwide. The genomic features of the new pandemic H1N1 were immediately identified: it contained gene segments with ancestors in North American and Eurasian swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages providing the virus a...

  16. One Step Real-Time RT-PCR for 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Matrix Gene Detection and Quantitation in Clinical Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the spring of 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus began to spread among humans worldwide. The genomic features of the new pandemic H1N1 were immediately identified: it contained gene segments with ancestors in North American and Eurasian swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages providing the virus a...

  17. One Step Real-Time RT-PCR for 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Matrix Gene Detection in Swine Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In the spring of 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus began to spread among humans worldwide (1). Because the virus is now circulating widely in the human population, swine herds are at increased risk of becoming infected. In order to investigate the potential outbreak of the new pande...

  18. A Set of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine-Origin Pandemic H1N1 Differentiate Swine H1N1 and Human Seasonal H1N1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) emerged in North America and caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The new pandemic strain is a triple reassortant influenza virus of swine origin containing genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. It is genetically ...

  19. Low-dimensional clustering reveals new influenza strains before they become dominant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiankui; Deem, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Influenza A virus has been circulating in the human population and has caused three pandemics in the last century (1918 H1N1, 1957 H2N2, 1968 H3N2). The newly appeared 2009 A(H1N1) has been classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the fourth pandemic virus strain. We here consider an approach for early detection of new dominant strains. We first construct a network model and apply it to the evolution of the 2009 A(H1N1) virus. By clustering the sequence data, we found two main clusters. We then define a metric to detect the emergence of dominant strains. We show on historical H3N2 data that this method is able to find a cluster around an incipient dominant strain before it becomes dominant. For example, for H3N2 as of 30 March 2009, we see the cluster for the new A/BritishColumbia/RV1222/2009 strain. Turning to H1N1 and the 2009 A(H1N1), we do not see evidence for antigenically novel 2009 A(H1N1) strains as of August 2009. This strain detection tool combines a projection operator with a density estimation.

  20. Acetyl-CoA Carbuxylase herbicide tolerance in bermudagrass.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of newly planted bermudagrass (Cynodon spp. L.) varieties by undesirable offtype bermudagrass genotypes is an ever increasing concern for turf managers because selective control options are limited. In 2009, a sethoxydim tolerant bermudagrass genotype (93-175) was identified during her...

  1. Experimental Inoculation of Pigs with Pandemic H1N1 2009 Virus and HI Cross-Reactivity with Contemporary Swine Influenza Virus Antisera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March-April 2009, a novel A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America. The gene constellation of the virus was demonstrated to be a combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before been identified in swine or other species...

  2. Research Updates: Experimental Evaluation of 2009 Pandemic A/H1N1 in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March 2009, a novel pandemic A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America (2). The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before be...

  3. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  4. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... limitations. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 62696, Dec. 1, 2009. (a) No pilot may take off an... authorized by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may authorize an airplane to take off and no pilot... expected to adhere to the airplane unless the pilot has completed all applicable training as required...

  5. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 74 FR 62696, Dec. 1, 2009. (a) No pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow... authorize an airplane to take off and no pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the airplane unless the pilot has...

  6. On Ecological Reflections: The Tensions of Cultivating Ecojustice and Youth Environmentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    I respond to Zeyer and Roth's (2009) "A Mirror of Society" by elaborating on how the idea of interpretive repertoires is grounded by education philosophy and sociology. Vernacular languages are carried forward collectively from individuals who lived during a particular period of time, inculcated as root metaphors, which frame our…

  7. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of the Bar Passing Percentages of Years 2005-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Garrison, P.; Green, T.; Palasota, A.

    2010-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics gives the passing percentages of the Bar examination for the Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) for the calendar years of 2005-2009. A Five Year Analysis is given for the entire period, followed by a Three Year Analysis of years 2005-2007, 2006-2008, and 2007-2009. In addition, an Annual Analysis…

  8. An Analysis of Water Safety Behaviors among Migrant and Economically/Educationally Disadvantaged Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sbarbaro, Victor S.; Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer…

  9. 48 CFR 352.270-5 - Care of laboratory animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vertebrate animals. No award involving the use of animals shall be made unless OLAW approves the Assurance... that involve live vertebrate animals that an Assurance and verification of IACUC approval are required... the following clause: Care of Live Vertebrate Animals (October 2009) (a) Before...

  10. Illicit Drugs and the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in the 1970s, the range of chemicals recognized as contributing to widespread contamination of the environment began to be extended to pharmaceuticals, with the topic beginning to attract broader scientific attention around the mid-1990s (Daughton 2009a). Occurring gen...

  11. Experimentally Induced Increases in Early Gesture Lead to Increases in Spoken Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Raudenbush, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Differences in vocabulary that children bring with them to school can be traced back to the gestures they produced at the age of 1;2, which, in turn, can be traced back to the gestures their parents produced at the same age (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009a). We ask here whether child gesture can be experimentally increased and, if so, whether the…

  12. 26 CFR 20.2032-1T - Alternate valuation (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the value of the interest, as of the date of the decedent's death, and (ii) the value of the property..., was entitled to receive certain property worth $50,000 upon the death of A, who was entitled to the income for life. At the time of the decedent's death, on or after May 1, 2009, A was 47 years and...

  13. An Altar in Honor of the Anatomical Gift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooloos, Jan G.M.; Bolt, Sophie; van der Straaten, Joop; Ruiter, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    On All Saints Day 2009 a monument for body donors was unveiled by the Department of Anatomy, at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (RUNMC). Although body donation to medical science contributes substantially to the quality of medical education, the ceremony was only the first time that the RUNMC publicly reciprocated the anatomical…

  14. 10 CFR 824.4 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 824.4 Section 824.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY VIOLATIONS § 824.4 Civil penalties. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 66033, Dec. 14, 2009. (a)...

  15. Swine influenza - need for global surveillance and improved vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses (IAV) circulating in pigs and other non-human mammals has been chronically underfunded and virtually nonexistent in many areas of the world. In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged and demonstrated in a very public forum the paucity of data on influenz...

  16. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    affect- ing service utilization for depression in a white collar population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiat- ric Epidemiology, 26, 230...Sayer, N. A, Friedemann-Sanchez, G., Spoont, M., Murdoch, M., Parker , L. E., Chiros, C., & Rosen- heck, R. (2009). A qualitative study of

  17. A Consequence Analysis Method for Out of Area Field Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Voort, 2010-1 Martijn van der Voort, Reinier Sterkenburg, Ruud van Amelsfort, The development of Risk-NL v5.0 and its applications, 34th DDESB...Martijn van der Voort, Ruud van Amelsfort, Rolf van Wees, Ans van Doormaal, A description of Risk-NL v5.0, TNO-DV 2009 A315, December 2009, Restricted

  18. 48 CFR 1852.219-79 - Mentor requirements and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the semiannual report template found on the Web site at http://www.osbp.nasa.gov. (d) The mentor will... following clause: Mentor Requirements and Evaluation (MAY 2009) (a) The purpose of the NASA Mentor-Protégé Program is for a NASA prime contractor to provide developmental assistance to certain...

  19. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  20. National surveillance for swine influenza virus in the United States, 2009-present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Objectives. In April 2009, a National surveillance plan for swine influenza virus in swine was implemented in the United States. Initial focus of the surveillance was to detect the presence and distribution of viruses (especially the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, A(H1N1)pdm09) that ar...

  1. Are There More Gifted People Than Would Be Expected in a Normal Distribution? An Investigation of the Overabundance Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Godwin, Lindsey R.; Smith, Kyle V.

    2013-01-01

    Among some gifted education researchers, advocates, and practitioners, it is sometimes believed that there is a larger number of gifted people in the general population than would be predicted from a normal distribution (e.g., Gallagher, 2008; N. M. Robinson, Zigler, & Gallagher, 2000; Silverman, 1995, 2009), a belief that we termed the…

  2. 48 CFR 52.225-2 - Buy American Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act....225-2 Buy American Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(a)(2), insert the following provision: Buy American Act Certificate (FEB 2009) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except...

  3. Installation of Impact Plates to Continuously Measure Bed Load: Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008 and 2009, a series of bed load impact plates was installed across a channel spanning weir on the Elwha River, Washington. This is the first permanent installation of its kind in North America and one of the largest anywhere. The purpose of this system is to measure coarse bed load during and...

  4. Emerging Trends Reflected in the State Phase 1: Race to the Top Applications. Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness. An Emerging Trends Report from Learning Point Associates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Point Associates, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, a significant amount of funding has been targeted to improve state and local education systems. The Race to the Top Fund in particular is providing $4.35 billion in competitive grants for states. The U.S. Department of Education designated two phases for the Race to the Top grant…

  5. State Legislation: Emerging Trends Reflected in the State Phase 1 Race to The Top Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Point Associates, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, a significant amount of funding has been targeted to improve state and local education systems. The Race to the Top Fund in particular is providing $4.35 billion in competitive grants for states. The U.S. Department of Education designated two phases for the Race to the Top grant…

  6. Minding the Gap: The Barriers and Facilitators of Getting Evidence into Policy When Using a Knowledge-Brokering Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Garth; Connolly, John; Halliday, Wendy; Love, Anne-Marie; Higgins, Michael; MacGregor, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Transferring knowledge into action is challenging. Ward et al. (2009a) developed a framework for bridging this gap. This article describes what helps and hinders getting knowledge into action when using this approach in the field of mental health. Four areas of Scotland were selected which had used resources to inform local planning and…

  7. Test Review: C. K. Conners. Conners Early Childhood Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Colby P.; Wedeking, Travis; Galindo, Addy M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the Conners Early Childhood (Conners EC; Conners, 2009), a behavior and development rating scale intended to assess children in early childhood, specifically defined as ages 2 to 6 years. Using multiple informants across multiple settings, the Conners EC is administered for the purpose of early identification of disorders or…

  8. 48 CFR 252.235-7004 - Protection of Human Subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of Human... of Provisions And Clauses 252.235-7004 Protection of Human Subjects. As prescribed in 235.072(e), use the following clause: Protection of Human Subjects (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  9. 48 CFR 252.235-7004 - Protection of Human Subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of Human... of Provisions And Clauses 252.235-7004 Protection of Human Subjects. As prescribed in 235.072(e), use the following clause: Protection of Human Subjects (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  10. Mental Health Screening and Follow-up Care in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Sheridan, Marian; McGuire, Leslie; Olfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased interest in screening adolescents for mental health problems and suicide risk, little is known regarding the extent to which youth are identified and connected with appropriate services. Method: Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 4,509 ninth-grade students were offered screening. We reviewed the records of the 2,488…

  11. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Henrik; Poutvaara, Panu; Tuomala, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In their reply to our comment, Garcia-Mainar and Montuenga-Gomez [Garcia-Mainar, I., & Montuenga-Gomez, V. M. (2009). A response to the comment on education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers. "Economics of Education Review"] did not address our fundamental criticism that they have not provided the information…

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7008 - Restriction on Acquisition of Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) Alloy means a metal consisting of a mixture of a basic metallic element and one or more metallic, or non-metallic, alloying elements. (i) For alloys named by a single metallic element (e.g., titanium alloy), it means that the alloy contains 50...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7008 - Restriction on Acquisition of Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) Alloy means a metal consisting of a mixture of a basic metallic element and one or more metallic, or non-metallic, alloying elements. (i) For alloys named by a single metallic element (e.g., titanium alloy), it means that the alloy contains 50...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7008 - Restriction on Acquisition of Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) Alloy means a metal consisting of a mixture of a basic metallic element and one or more metallic, or non-metallic, alloying elements. (i) For alloys named by a single metallic element (e.g., titanium alloy), it means that the alloy contains 50...

  15. 48 CFR 339.101 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Language in HHS Contracts, dated January 30, 2009. A copy of the approved waiver shall be forwarded to the... Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 352.239-71, Standard for Encryption Language, in solicitations... computers, mobile devices, or portable media to store or process HHS sensitive information that the...

  16. 48 CFR 339.101 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Language in HHS Contracts, dated January 30, 2009. A copy of the approved waiver shall be forwarded to the... Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 352.239-71, Standard for Encryption Language, in solicitations... computers, mobile devices, or portable media to store or process HHS sensitive information that the...

  17. 48 CFR 339.101 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Language in HHS Contracts, dated January 30, 2009. A copy of the approved waiver shall be forwarded to the... Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 352.239-71, Standard for Encryption Language, in solicitations... computers, mobile devices, or portable media to store or process HHS sensitive information that the...

  18. 48 CFR 339.101 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Language in HHS Contracts, dated January 30, 2009. A copy of the approved waiver shall be forwarded to the... Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 352.239-71, Standard for Encryption Language, in solicitations... computers, mobile devices, or portable media to store or process HHS sensitive information that the...

  19. Use of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions to Reduce Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) in Pennsylvania Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeffrey R.; Short, Vanessa L.; Wu, Henry M.; Waller, Kirsten; Mead, Paul; Kahn, Emily; Bahn, Beth A; Dale, Jon W.; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Walton, Sabrina E.; Urdaneta, Veronica; Ostroff, Stephen; Averhoff, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Background: School-based recommendations for nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were issued in response to the threat of 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1). The implementation and effectiveness of these recommendations has not been assessed. Methods: In November 2009, a Web-based survey of all Pennsylvania public schools was conducted to assess…

  20. 48 CFR 952.251-70 - Contractor employee travel discounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Employee Travel Discounts (AUG 2009) (a) The Contractor shall take advantage of travel discounts offered to Federal Contractor employee travelers by AMTRAK, hotels, motels, or car rental companies, when use of such... Federal contractor employees. (e) Car rentals. The Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC)...

  1. 48 CFR 952.251-70 - Contractor employee travel discounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Employee Travel Discounts (AUG 2009) (a) The Contractor shall take advantage of travel discounts offered to Federal Contractor employee travelers by AMTRAK, hotels, motels, or car rental companies, when use of such... Federal contractor employees. (e) Car rentals. The Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC)...

  2. 48 CFR 952.251-70 - Contractor employee travel discounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Employee Travel Discounts (AUG 2009) (a) The Contractor shall take advantage of travel discounts offered to Federal Contractor employee travelers by AMTRAK, hotels, motels, or car rental companies, when use of such... Federal contractor employees. (e) Car rentals. The Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC)...

  3. 48 CFR 952.251-70 - Contractor employee travel discounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Employee Travel Discounts (AUG 2009) (a) The Contractor shall take advantage of travel discounts offered to Federal Contractor employee travelers by AMTRAK, hotels, motels, or car rental companies, when use of such... Federal contractor employees. (e) Car rentals. The Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC)...

  4. An Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus and its novel symbiotic fungus Fusarium sp. pose a serious threat to the Israeli avocado industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus Einchoff was first recorded in Israel in 2009. A novel unnamed symbiotic species within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex, carried in the mandibular mycangia of the beetle, is responsible for the typical wilt symptoms inflicted on avocado (Perse...

  5. Academics as Part-Time Marketers in University Offshore Programs: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, David; Ewan, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Australian universities maintain almost 900 offshore programs delivered to more than 100 000 students, primarily in the nations of Singapore, Malaysia, China, and Hong Kong (Universities Australia, 2009; IDP, 2009a). Although offshore students comprise an estimated 30 per cent of international student enrolments at Australian universities (IDP,…

  6. Clearing the Path: Delivering Financial Aid to Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick Cardelle, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Low- and middle-income students at public, two-year institutions too often do not apply for college financial aid (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008; Kantrowitz, 2009a, 2011). This research first examines national data to identify what the risk factors are for not applying and compares those risk factors for students at…

  7. Measurement Invariance of an Instrument Assessing Sustainability of School-Based Universal Behavior Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McIntosh, Kent; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index: School Teams (SUBSIST; McIntosh, Doolittle, Vincent, Horner, & Ervin, 2009), a measure of school and district contextual factors that promote the sustainability of school practices, demonstrated measurement invariance…

  8. Numbers of Doctorates Awarded Continue to Grow in 2009; Indicators of Employment Outcomes Mixed. InfoBrief. NSF 11-305

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiegener, Mark K.

    2010-01-01

    This InfoBrief uses data collected from the 2009 Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) to report on trends in the numbers of individuals who earn research doctoral degrees from U.S. academic institutions. Postgraduation plans of new doctorate recipients are examined from 2004 to 2009, a period that includes the recent economic decline. The following…

  9. Exploring the Impact of Career Mentoring on High School Dropout: A Qualitative Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffington Ameir, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    According to Department of Education reports on public high school dropout rates for 2009, a national average of 44.3% of dropouts left their secondary school education in the 11th and 12th grades. The majority of school dropouts attributed the reason for dropping out of school to boredom. High social and economic costs associated with dropping…

  10. NEMS - National Energy Modeling System: An Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2009 a summary description of NEMS and each of its components. NEMS is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of energy markets for the midterm period through 2030. The NEMS is used to produce the Annual Energy Outlook.

  11. 76 FR 70972 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... actively exploring ways to continue to reduce halibut mortality. In 2009, a halibut mortality experiment... from the DMR for that fishery due to improved condition of the halibut observed during the experiment. Proposed Action NMFS received an application from the AKSC to conduct a new halibut mortality experiment...

  12. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.250-3 SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification. As prescribed in 50.206(b)(1), insert the following provision: Safety Act Block Designation/Certification (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions....

  13. "Play to Learn": A Case-Study of Parent/Carer and Child Engagement with a Physical Activity Website Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Helen; Fleming, Scott

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Sport Wales produced guidance for practitioners delivering the new Foundation Phase curriculum for children aged three to seven years. A focus was on physical development and in 2009 a resource entitled "Play to Learn" was developed supported by a website launched in 2011. The present study addresses (non-)engagement with the…

  14. Quantification of Skeletal and Dental Changes Associated with the Forsus (trademark) Appliance: A Comparison of Treatment Effects Observed During and Following Peak Growth Velocity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    without mandibular advancement and an increase in vertical dimension were found (Flores and Barnett 2009). A study on Class II treatment with the...skeletal and dentoalveolar changes between each time point (Johnston 1996). This analysis uses cephalometric superimposition to measure physical...of initial, pre-Forsus™, post- Forsus™, and final cephalometric radiographs were completed for each patient, allowing the measurement of observed

  15. Nebraska School Facilities: Educational Adequacy of Class III School District Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, John M., Sr.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, a replication of the Pool study was conducted. This study, however, focused on the school systems classified as Class III districts. Nebraska has 252 Class III districts. Compared with Class II (21), Class IV (1), and Class V(1) districts, the Class III districts offer a wide array of school settings, from urban to extremely rural, and…

  16. Teacher Learning through National Board Candidacy: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzicker, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Since 1987, nearly 82,000 teachers nationwide have become National Board certified (National Board for Professional Teaching Standards [NBPTS], 2009a). National Board certification is a voluntary process that recognizes teachers who demonstrate accomplished teaching practice as defined by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards…

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43 Section 52... Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). As prescribed...—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts) (SEP 2009) (a) This clause applies to...

  18. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43 Section 52... Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). As prescribed...—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts) (SEP 2009) (a) This clause applies to...

  19. State Library Conferences as Professional Development Venues: Unbalanced Support for the AASL-Defined Roles of the School Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreillon, Judi; Cahill, Maria; McKee, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) released new guidelines for school library programs in the summer of 2009. Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Programs (AASL 2009a), hereafter referred to as EL, spells out the five roles that school librarians must practice to empower library users. The purpose of this…

  20. Interpretive Analysis of New Teacher Education Curriculum Reform Introduced in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huma, Afshan

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is among those South Asian countries that are still striving for a successful education policy to be in place for achieving the goals of quantity and quality. For more than 66 years there have been many interventions and initiatives to reform current practices in public educational institutions. In 2009 a similar initiative was taken by…

  1. MATLAB tools for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam imagery; applications at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Antolik, Loren

    2010-01-01

    Webcams are now standard tools for volcano monitoring and are used at observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Kamchatka, Hawai'i, Italy, and Japan, among other locations. Webcam images allow invaluable documentation of activity and provide a powerful comparative tool for interpreting other monitoring datastreams, such as seismicity and deformation. Automated image processing can improve the time efficiency and rigor of Webcam image interpretation, and potentially extract more information on eruptive activity. For instance, Lovick and others (2008) provided a suite of processing tools that performed such tasks as noise reduction, eliminating uninteresting images from an image collection, and detecting incandescence, with an application to dome activity at Mount St. Helens during 2007. In this paper, we present two very simple automated approaches for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam images at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The techniques are implemented in MATLAB (version 2009b, Copyright: The Mathworks, Inc.) to take advantage of the ease of matrix operations. Incandescence is a useful indictor of the location and extent of active lava flows and also a potentially powerful proxy for activity levels at open vents. We apply our techniques to a period covering both summit and east rift zone activity at Kilauea during 2008?2009 and compare the results to complementary datasets (seismicity, tilt) to demonstrate their integrative potential. A great strength of this study is the demonstrated success of these tools in an operational setting at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) over the course of more than a year. Although applied only to Webcam images here, the techniques could be applied to any type of sequential images, such as time-lapse photography. We expect that these tools are applicable to many other volcano monitoring scenarios, and the two MATLAB scripts, as they are implemented at HVO, are included in the appendixes

  2. An Investigation of the Effects of Authentic Science Experiences Among Urban High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Angela

    Providing equitable learning opportunities for all students has been a persistent issue for some time. This is evident by the science achievement gap that still exists between male and female students as well as between White and many non-White student populations (NCES, 2007, 2009, 2009b) and an underrepresentation of female, African-American, Hispanic, and Native Americans in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related careers (NCES, 2009b). In addition to gender and ethnicity, socioeconomic status and linguistic differences are also factors that can marginalize students in the science classroom. One factor attributed to the achievement gap and low participation in STEM career is equitable access to resources including textbooks, laboratory equipment, qualified science teachers, and type of instruction. Extensive literature supports authentic science as one way of improving science learning. However, the majority of students do not have access to this type of resource. Additionally, extensive literature posits that culturally relevant pedagogy is one way of improving education. This study examines students' participation in an authentic science experience and argues that this is one way of providing culturally relevant pedagogy in science classrooms. The purpose of this study was to better understand how marginalized students were affected by their participation in an authentic science experience, within the context of an algae biofuel project. Accordingly, an interpretivist approach was taken. Data were collected from pre/post surveys and tests, semi-structured interviews, student journals, and classroom observations. Data analysis used a mixed methods approach. The data from this study were analyzed to better understand whether students perceived the experience to be one of authentic science, as well as how students science identities, perceptions about who can do science, attitudes toward science, and learning of science practices

  3. Assessing the Association Between Asthma and Air Quality in the Presence of Wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, L. J.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Lopiano, K. K.; Crosson, W. L.; Gotway, C. A.; DuClos, C.; Jordan, M.; Estes, M. G.; Luvall, J. C.; Estes, S. M.; Xu, X.; Holt, N. M.; Leary, E.

    2012-12-01

    Asthma hospital/emergency room (patient) data are used as the foundation for creating a health outcome indicator of human response to environmental air quality. Daily U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) fine particulates (PM2.5) ground data and the U.S. National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) data were acquired and processed for years of 2007 and 2008. Figure 1 shows the PM2.5 annual mean composite of all the 2007 B-spline daily surfaces. Initial models for predicting the number of weekly asthma cases within a Florida county has focused on environmental variables. Weekly maximums of PM2.5, relative humidity, and the proportions of the county with smoke and fire were the environmental variables included in the model. Cosine and sine functions of time were used to account for seasonality in asthma cases. Counties were considered to be random effects, thereby adjusting for differences in socio-demographics and other factors. The 2007 predictions for Miami-Dade county when using B-splines PM2.5 are displayed in Figures 2.; PM2.5 annual mean composite of all the 2007 daily surfaces developed using Al-Hamdan et al (2009) B-spline fitting algorithm ; Predicted and observed weekly asthma cases presenting to hospitals or emergency rooms in Miami-Dade county in Florida during 2007

  4. Receptors for the Neuropeptides, Myoinhibitory Peptide and SIFamide, in Control of the Salivary Glands of the Blacklegged Tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Šimo, Ladislav; Koči, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

    2013-01-01

    Tick salivary glands are important organs that enable the hematophagous feeding of the tick. We previously described the innervation of the salivary gland acini types II and III by a pair of protocerebral salivary gland neurons that produce both myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide (Šimo et al., 2009b). In this study we identified authentic receptors expressed in the salivary glands for these neuropeptides. Homology-based searches for these receptors in the Ixodes scapularis genome sequence were followed by gene cloning and functional expression of the receptors. Both receptors were activated by low nanomolar concentrations of their respective ligands. The temporal expression patterns of the two ligands and their respective receptors suggest that the SIFamide signaling system pre-exists in unfed salivary glands, while the MIP system is activated upon initiation of feeding. Immunoreactivity for the SIFamide receptor in the salivary gland was detected in acini types II and III, surrounding the acinar valve and extending to the basal region of the acinar lumen. The location of the SIFamide receptor in the salivary glands suggests three potential target cell types and their probable functions: myoepithelial cells that may function in the contraction of the acini and/or the control of the valve; large, basally located dopaminergic granular cells for regulation of paracrine dopamine; and neck cells that may be involved in the control of the acinar duct and its valve. PMID:23357681

  5. An improved determination of the lithium depletion boundary age of Blanco 1 and a first look on the effects of magnetic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Aaron J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; James, David J.

    2014-11-10

    The lithium depletion boundary (LDB) is a robust method for accurately determining the ages of young clusters, but most pre-main-sequence models used to derive LDB ages do not include the effects of magnetic activity on stellar properties. In light of this, we present results from our spectroscopic study of the very-low-mass members of the southern open cluster Blanco 1 using the Gemini-North Telescope, program IDs: GN-2009B-Q-53 and GN-2010B-Q-96. We obtained Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph spectra at intermediate resolution for cluster candidate members with I ≈ 13-20 mag. From our sample of 43 spectra, we find 14 probable cluster members by considering proximity to the cluster sequence in an I/I – K {sub s} color-magnitude diagram, agreement with the cluster's systemic radial velocity, and magnetic activity as a youth indicator. We systematically analyze the Hα and Li features and update the LDB age of Blanco 1 to be 126{sub −14}{sup +13} Myr. Our new LDB age for Blanco 1 shows remarkable coevality with the benchmark Pleiades open cluster. Using available empirical activity corrections, we investigate the effects of magnetic activity on the LDB age of Blanco 1. Accounting for activity, we infer a corrected LDB age of 114{sub −10}{sup +9} Myr. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for magnetic activity on LDB inferred stellar ages, suggesting the need to reinvestigate previous LDB age determinations.

  6. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different heterogeneous ice nucleation spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Morales Betancourt, Ricardo; Barahona, Donifan; ...

    2016-03-03

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of the nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the adjoint of a cirrus formation parameterization (Barahona and Nenes, 2009b) to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are donemore » with a theoretically derived spectrum, an empirical lab-based spectrum and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon particles and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never deconstructed as done here.« less

  7. Testing IGRF-11 candidate models against CHAMP data and quasi-definitive observatory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulliat, A.; Thébault, E.

    2010-10-01

    As part of the evaluation of IGRF-11 candidate models, we compared candidate models and actual measurements. We first carried out a residual analysis between main field candidates and CHAMP data, which were pre-processed and corrected for the secular variation and the lithospheric, external and oceanic fields. For epoch 2005.0, one model (D) is abnormally far from the testing dataset, while four models (A, B, F, G) have the smallest data residuals. For 2010.0, three models (B, F, G) have smaller data residuals than other models. These results, although biased toward models relying on datasets close to the testing datasets (B, F), usefully complement the results of intercomparisons between models. We next tested secular variation candidate models for 2010-2015 against annual differences of (a) definitive monthly means in 2007 and 2008 at 86 observatories, and (b) quasi-definitive monthly means from January to October 2009 at nine observatories where this new type of data was produced. Quasi-definitive data are found to significantly improve the discriminating effect of the test, favoring models obtained at epochs close to the end of 2009 (B, F) and penalizing some extrapolated models (G). They also enable a truly independent validation of the candidate models.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer MIR AGN survey. I. (Lacy+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, M.; Ridgway, S. E.; Gates, E. L.; Nielsen, D. M.; Petric, A. O.; Sajina, A.; Urrutia, T.; Cox Drews, S.; Harrison, C.; Seymour, N.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2013-10-01

    A wide range of optical facilities and instruments were used for spectroscopic follow-up of our AGN candidates. Most of the bright samples were followed up with 3-5m telescopes and longslit spectroscopy (Hale with COSMIC, SOAR with Goodman, and Shane with Kast), whereas the fainter samples were followed up with multifiber and/or 6-8m class telescopes (Blanco with Hydra, MMT with Hectospec, and Gemini-South with GMOS (program GS-2008B-C4)). We also obtained spectra of some of the bright candidates with a successful poor weather (scheduling band 4) program at Gemini-South (program GS-2008B-Q86). Some objects had spectra available in archives from the SDSS, 2dF, (Colless et al. 2001, Cat. VII/250) or 6dF (Jones et al. 2009, Cat. VII/259) surveys and some have redshifts and classifications in the literature, all found using the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). Table 2 gives details of the spectroscopic observations or literature references as appropriate. For some high-redshift candidates with ambiguous or low signal-to-noise optical spectra, we were able to obtain near-infrared spectra with the IRTF using SpeX (2007 June), Gemini with NIRI (program GN2009B-C-8), and Triplespec (2008 July and 2011 July) on Palomar. (5 data files).

  9. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sb-doped GeSe2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Fen; Lu, Shun-Bin; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shi-Xun; Nie, Qiu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Sb-doped GeSe2 chalcogenide thin films are prepared by the magnetron co-sputtering method. The linear optical properties of as-deposited films are derived by analyzing transmission spectra. The refractive index rises and the optical band gap decreases from 2.08 eV to 1.41 eV with increasing the Sb content. X-ray photoelectron spectra further confirm the formation of a covalent Sb-Se bond. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin films are investigated under femtosecond laser excitation at 800 nm. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical properties are enhanced with increasing the concentration of Sb. The nonlinear refraction indices of these thin films are measured to be on the order of 10-18 m2/W with a positive sign and the nonlinear absorption coefficients are obtained to be on the order of 10-10 m/W. These excellent properties indicate that Sb-doped Ge-Se films have a good prospect in the applications of nonlinear optical devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377061), the Young Leaders of Academic Climbing Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. pd2013092), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B217), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  10. Response to ``Comment on `Resolving the 180° Ambiguity in Solar Vector Magnetic Field Data: Evaluating the Effects of Noise, Spatial Resolution, and Method Assumptions' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, Graham; Gary, G. Allen; Crouch, A. D.; Liu, Y.

    2012-02-01

    We address points recently discussed in Georgoulis (2011, Solar Phys., doi:10.1007/s11207-011-9819-1) in reference to Leka et al. (2009, Solar Phys. 260, 83). Most importantly, we find that the results of Georgoulis (2011) a conclusion of Leka et al. (2009) that limited spatial resolution and the presence of unresolved magnetic structures can challenge ambiguity-resolution algorithms. Moreover, the findings of both Metcalf et al. (2006, Solar Phys. 237, 267) and Leka et al. (2009b) are confirmed in Georgoulis (2011): a method’s performance can be diminished when the observed field fails to conform to that method’s assumptions. The implication of boundaries in models of solar magnetic structures is discussed; we confirm that the distribution of the field components in the model used in Leka et al. (2009) is closer to what is observed on the Sun than what is proposed in Georgoulis (2011). It is also shown that method does matter with regards to simulating limited spatial resolution and avoiding an inadvertent introduction of bias. Finally, the assignment of categories to data-analysis algorithms is revisited; we argue that assignments are only useful and elucidating when used appropriately.

  11. Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, Trevor; Riley, Steven; Barr, Ian G.; Broor, Shobha; Chadha, Mandeep; Cox, Nancy J.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Gunasekaran, C. Palani; Hurt, Aeron C.; Kelso, Anne; Klimov, Alexander; Lewis, Nicola S.; Li, Xiyan; McCauley, John W.; Odagiri, Takato; Potdar, Varsha; Rambaut, Andrew; Shu, Yuelong; Skepner, Eugene; Smith, Derek J.; Suchard, Marc A.; Tashiro, Masato; Wang, Dayan; Xu, Xiyan; Lemey, Philippe; Russell, Colin A.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 (up to 2009), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata viruses differ substantially from those of A/H3N2 viruses, on the basis of analyses of 9,604 haemagglutinin sequences of human seasonal influenza viruses from 2000 to 2012. Whereas genetic variants of A/H3N2 viruses did not persist locally between epidemics and were reseeded from East and Southeast Asia, genetic variants of A/H1N1 and B viruses persisted across several seasons and exhibited complex global dynamics with East and Southeast Asia playing a limited role in disseminating new variants. The less frequent global movement of influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses coincided with slower rates of antigenic evolution, lower ages of infection, and smaller, less frequent epidemics compared to A/H3N2 viruses. Detailed epidemic models support differences in age of infection, combined with the less frequent travel of children, as probable drivers of the differences in the patterns of global circulation, suggesting a complex interaction between virus evolution, epidemiology, and human behaviour.

  12. Language, gay pornography, and audience reception.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L

    2011-01-01

    Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative.

  13. A balloon experiment using CALET prototype (bCALET-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niita, Tae; Torii, Shoji; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Ueyama, Yoshitaka; Akaike, Yosui; Tamura, Tadahisa; Yoshida, Kenji; Katayose, Yusaku; Shimizu, Yuki; Fuke, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) is a high energy cosmic-ray detector to be installed on International Space Station in 2015 to carry out accurate measurements of high energy electrons and gamma-rays. For verification of the detector performance, we carried out balloon experiments using CALET prototype detectors in May 2006 (bCALET-1) and in August 2009 (bCALET-2). In this paper we mainly report about the second experiment using bCALET-2. bCALET-2 is a calorimetric instrument composed of a 3.58 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 13.4 radiation length thick bismuth-germanium-oxide calorimeter (TASC). The concept of the structure is similar to that of CALET, but the number of sensors and the thickness of materials were optimized for the balloon experiment. The observation was carried out at the Taiki Aerospace Research Field of JAXA in Hokkaido, and the detector was flown successfully for 2.5 h at a level altitude of 35 km. The observed events were analyzed by methods developed through Monte Carlo simulations, and the energy spectra of electrons and atmospheric gamma-rays in the energy range of 1-30 GeV were obtained and compared to the results of previous experiments.

  14. Oral health of adults with serious mental illnesses: a review.

    PubMed

    Matevosyan, Naira Roland

    2010-12-01

    (A) To assess the prevalence of suboptimal oral health in adults with SMI in studies published in 1971-2009; (B) To describe approaches that promote oral health among adults with SMI. A total of 57 randomized, quasi-randomized, cross-section, and cohort studies from samples of 38-4,769 mental health consumers are identified through database, journal, and Internet searches (Cochrane, FASTSTATS, PUBMED, WHO.int). Selected studies are inclusive for the sample, reported statistical power, and external validity. Oral health adverse outcomes (xerostomia, sialorrhoea, dental caries, extracted teeth, malocclusion, periodontal disease, edentulous, oral cancer) are considered as measurable outcomes. This review suggests a substantial prevalence of suboptimal oral health (61%) among individuals with serious mental illnesses. The following outcomes are mostly met: xerostomia, gross caries, decayed teeth, and periodontal disease. Poor oral hygiene, higher intake of carbonates, poor perception of oral health self-needs, length of psychotropic treatment, and less access to dental care determine suboptimal oral health among this population. Further replication of this research should generate gender-wise ethnic cohorts, including detailed observations of environmental factors, and medical problems that contribute to suboptimal oral health. This review highlights the importance of bridging dental health education to psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

  15. Emotion-induced trade-offs in spatiotemporal vision.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2011-05-01

    It is generally assumed that emotion facilitates human vision in order to promote adaptive responses to a potential threat in the environment. Surprisingly, we recently found that emotion in some cases impairs the perception of elementary visual features (Bocanegra & Zeelenberg, 2009b). Here, we demonstrate that emotion improves fast temporal vision at the expense of fine-grained spatial vision. We tested participants' threshold resolution with Landolt circles containing a small spatial or brief temporal discontinuity. The prior presentation of a fearful face cue, compared with a neutral face cue, impaired spatial resolution but improved temporal resolution. In addition, we show that these benefits and deficits were triggered selectively by the global configural properties of the faces, which were transmitted only through low spatial frequencies. Critically, the common locus of these opposite effects suggests a trade-off between magno- and parvocellular-type visual channels, which contradicts the common assumption that emotion invariably improves vision. We show that, rather than being a general "boost" for all visual features, affective neural circuits sacrifice the slower processing of small details for a coarser but faster visual signal.

  16. Grammaticality is inferred from global similarity: A reply to Kinder (2010).

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Randall K; Mewhort, D J K

    2011-02-01

    Jamieson and Mewhort (2009b) proposed an account of performance in the artificial-grammar judgement-of-grammaticality task based on Hintzman's (1986) model of retrieval, Minerva 2. In the account, each letter is represented by a unique vector of random elements, and each exemplar is represented by concatenating its constituent letter vectors. Although successful in simulating several experiments, Kinder (2010) showed that the model fails for three selected experiments. We track the model's failure to a constraint introduced by concatenating letter vectors to construct the exemplar representation. To fix the problem, we use a holographic representation. Holographic representation not only provides the flexibility missing with the concatenation scheme but also acknowledges variability in what subjects notice when they inspect training exemplars. Armed with holographic representations, we show that the model successfully captures the three problematic data sets. We argue for retrospective accounts, like the present one, that acknowledge subjects' skill in drawing unexpected inferences based on memory of studied items against prospective accounts that require subjects to learn statistical regularities in the training set in anticipation of an undefined classification test.

  17. The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    Not only the Sahel (Haregeweyn et al., 2013), the deforested land (Borelli et al., 2013) the chinese Plateau are affected by intense soil erosion rates (Zhao et al., 2013). Soil erosion affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter. Example of the research carried out on citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012), and they confirm the non sustainable soil losses measured. The land management in citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012). The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful. There is a need to find new plants or residues to protect the soils on citrus orchards. Agriculture produces a high amount of residues. The pruning can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Due to the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen) the straw is being a residue instead of a resource. The Valencia region is the largest producer of citrus in Europe, and the largest exporter in the world. This citrus production region is located in the eastern cost of Spain where we can find the rice production area of the l'Albufera Lagoon paddy fields, the third largest production region in Spain. This means, a rice production region surrounded by the huge citrus production region. There, the rice straw is not used

  18. The barley straw residues avoid high erosion rates in persimmon plantations. Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    the bare control plots to 47 gr in the straw covered plots, which resulted in a low erosion rate when the soil is covered with straw (0.23 Mg ha-1 y-1), but extremely high when the soil is not covered (5.07 Mg ha-1 y-1). The results show also a delayed runoff generation due to the effect of the straw. From ponding to surface runoff the bare plots last 198 seconds, but under straw covered soils the time is 506 seconds. Moreover, when runoff is found on the soil surface the time to reach the plot outlet is much delayed under the straw cover, as range from 156 seconds on the bare plots to 406 to the straw covered plots. The management of the agriculture soils in many parts of the Planet is triggering land degradation (Borelli et al., 2013; Haregeweyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The most intense soil erosion rates use to affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and in Eastern Spain it was found that citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter, and this is also found in China (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012). The worse land managements found in many of the citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and we can confirm here that the new Persimmon plantations are triggering the same effect and it is necessary to develop new strategies to reduce the soil losses. The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful, but also it is well know the effect of the litter it is a key cover to avoid soil erosion. Meginnis (1935) was one of the pioneers on the research of the cover of litter to avoid

  19. Rangel Rule Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Carter, John R. [R-TX-31

    2009-01-28

    03/31/2009 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. Carter. Petition No: 111-2. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 3/31/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Ways and Means from consideration of H.R.735. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-2: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. What Should Be Classified? A Framework with Application to the Global Force Management Data Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    For More Information Visit RAND at www.rand.org Explore the RAND National Defense Research Institute View document details Support RAND Purchase...For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND permissions page (http://www.rand.org/publications/ permissions.html...reports/2004-annual- report.pdf ———, Report to the President 2008, Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, January 12, 2009a. As of

  1. Retrospective Study: Sleep, Mental Disorders, and TBI in Deployed Military Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-06

    Beckham, Youssef, & Elbogen, 2014; McKenzie et al., 2010; Seal et al., 2011; Wojcik, Akhtar, & Hassell, 2009). A population study of the U.S...Forces Health Surveillance Center, 2012). However, McKenzie et al (2010) found substance use disorders the most frequently diagnosed mental disorder in...Auerbach, Erbes, Polusny, Rath, & Sponheim, 2010; McKenzie et al., 2010; Thomas et al., 2010). Age, rank, and exposure to combat are risk factors for mood

  2. Adversarial Risk Analysis for Dynamic Network Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-20

    Industry Conference, the Conference on Algorithmic Decision Making (sponsored by DIMACS at Rutgers), Pennsylvania State University, the Army Conference on...kinds of decision processes that normal people regularly employ. 5 Bibliography Arce, D. and T. Sandler (2007). Terrorist Signalling and the Value of...game-theorist Gintis, 2009). A second issue is that it does not take account of all the information that is available (cf. Arce and Sandler , 2007

  3. Lessons from U.S. Allies in Security Cooperation with Third Countries: The Cases of Australia, France, and the United Kingdom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Her Majesty’s Stationery Office IDG International Deployment Group IHEDN Institute of Higher National Defence Studies ISC international security...Ch. 4, 2009a. 11 International Institute for Strategic Studies , “East Asia and Australasia,” The Military Balance 2010, February 3, 2010, pp. 395... Institute for Strategic Studies , 2010. a Delivery of a fifth aircraft is expected on October 31, 2011. b These are being phased out in favor of the J

  4. Formulation of an RP-1 Pyrolysis Surrogate from Shock Tube Measurements of Fuel and Ethylene Time Histories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    2 from [Huber 2009a] Composition, mole fraction Fluid RP-1 surrogate RP- 2 surrogate -methyldecalin 0.354 0.354 5 -methylnonane 0.150...ss S ec tio n [m 2 / m ol ] 1200800400 Temperature [K] 1-Butene Propene Ethylene 5 Fig. 3 HPST mixing tank complete evaporation check...also vary with temperature, and this is shown in Fig. 8. 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 E th yl en e Y ie ld 1600140012001000 Temperature [K] Dodecane

  5. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  6. Geophysical Imaging for Investigating the Delivery and Distribution of Amendments in the Heterogeneous Subsurface of the F.E. Warren AFB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    project. This page left blank intentionally. 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Engineered in situ treatment processes, such as in situ bioremediation ...to develop conceptual amendment delivery models for in situ bioremediation and is based on the premise that geophysical imaging of amendment...remedial action (RA) involving hydraulic fracturing and in situ bioremediation was conducted at SS7 in 2009. A particular benefit of using SS7 as a

  7. Creating a Patient Navigation Model to Address Cervical Cancer Disparities in a Rural Hispanic Farmworker Community

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Rivera, Maria I.; Proctor, Sara K.; Arroyo, Gloria; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Luque, John S.; Rivera, Marlene; Martinez-Tyson, Dinorah; Meade, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary This report describes the implementation of a pilot patient navigation (PN) program created to address cervical cancer disparities in a predominantly Hispanic agricultural community. Since November 2009, a patient navigator has provided services to patients of Catholic Mobile Medical Services (CMMS). The PN program has resulted in the need for additional clinic sessions to accommodate the demand for preventive care at CMMS. PMID:23698685

  8. The Challenge of Heterogeneously Licensed Systems in Open Architecture Software Ecosystems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Systems in Open Architecture Software Ecosystems Walt Scacchi —Walt Scacchi is a senior research scientist and research faculty member at the...systems (HLSs) (German & Hassan, 2009; Alspaugh & Scacchi , 2008; Alspaugh, Asuncion & Scacchi , 2009a, May) by examining the role of component licenses in...Tools, Copyright 2005-2008 Novell, Inc. 14. libcurl. Copyright (c) 1996-2008, Daniel Stenberg < daniel @haxx.se>. 15. PostgreSQL Database Management

  9. Keep Terrorists Out of America Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Boehner, John A. [R-OH-8

    2009-05-07

    11/18/2009 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. Hoekstra. Petition No: 111-7. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 11/18/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Armed Services from consideration of H.R.2294. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-7: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. To amend the Clean Air Act to provide that greenhouse gases are not subject to the Act, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Blackburn, Marsha [R-TN-7

    2009-01-09

    07/23/2009 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mrs. Blackburn. Petition No: 111-5. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 7/23/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Energy and Commerce from consideration of H.R.391. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-5: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Myiasis by screw worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a wild maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae), in Brasília, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cansi, E R; Bonorino, R; Ataíde, H S; Pujol-Luz, J R

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009, a wild maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, was captured in an area of cerrado in Brasília, DF, Brazil, with screw worm maggots in external wounds. Fifty larvae were bred in the laboratory and eight adults of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) emerged 10 days after pupation. This is the first report of a myiasis by C. hominivorax in a free-living maned wolf in Brazil.

  12. Environmental Impact Statement Addressing Campus Development at Fort George Meade, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    southeast, forming a wedge. Precambrian to early Cambrian igneous and metamorphic crystalline rocks underlie the sediments, and Final EIS for Campus...installation; however, Rock Avenue composes the main industrial corridor. Adequate landscaping and comprehensive use of shaded trees along streets is...Passer domesticus), rock dove (Columba livia), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), and song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) (DOD 2009a, U.S. Army 2007

  13. Fitness to practise for student nurses: principles, standards and procedures.

    PubMed

    David, Timothy I; Lee-Woolf, Elizabeth

    Since 2009, all schools of nursing have been required to establish a fitness to practise committee to consider any pre-registration student health or character issues (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2008). In 2009, fitness to practice standards were published (NMC, 2009a). This article outlines how fitness to practise procedures apply to nursing and midwifery students in the U.K. and explains the key differences between how they are applied to trainees and to registered nurses.

  14. Cascades on clique-based graphs.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Adam; Gleeson, James P

    2013-06-01

    We present an analytical approach to determining the expected cascade size in a broad range of dynamical models on the class of highly clustered random graphs introduced by Gleeson [J. P. Gleeson, Phys. Rev. E 80, 036107 (2009)]. A condition for the existence of global cascades is also derived. Applications of this approach include analyses of percolation, and Watts's model. We show how our techniques can be used to study the effects of in-group bias in cascades on social networks.

  15. Cold Atoms, Statistical Physics and Quantum Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-22

    to be the development of robust theoretical techniques for the simulations of ultra-cold Bose gases and other quantum phenomena, such theoretical...finite-temperature effects in atom-chip interferometry of Bose -Einstein condensates, R. G. Scott, et al., Physical Review A, 063624 (2009). A copy of...March 2009. Mr Hodder was supported through a University of Otago Scholarship. He initially developed a simple single-site Hubbard model, which can be

  16. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    In mid-September 2009, a 22-year-old critically ill Soldier was medically evacuated from a treatment facility in southern Afghanistan to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany. Despite the efforts of the team at Landstuhl, this patient died and became the US military's first known victim of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). CCHF is caused by a virus, which bears the same name. Because a vaccine is lacking, as well as an effective antiviral treatment, prevention is key.

  17. X-ray Grating Observations of Recent Recurrent Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orio, Marina; Behar, Ehud; Gallagher, J.; Bianchini, A.; Chiosi, E.; Luna, J.; Nelson, T.; Rauch, T.

    2013-01-01

    Two recurrent novae (RNe) that do not host red giants were observed in outburst at the beginning of 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first nova was LMC 2009a, and the second one was U Scorpii. Nova LMC 2009a was a relatively slow RN, and it was quite luminous both at optical and X-ray wavelengths. U Sco is the fastest nova ever recorded. Its supersoft X-ray phase started a couple of weeks after optical maximum and lasted for about a month, while for Nova LMC 2009a this phase started four months after maximum and lasted for 5 months. For both novae, the first X-ray spectrum taken while the luminous supersoft X-ray source was beginning to emerge is remarkably similar with broad and prominent emission lines of nitrogen and carbon accounting for at least 30% of the X-ray flux. Blue-shifted absorption and red-shifted emission form apparent P-Cyg profiles. We attribute the emission features to the ejecta and show evidence that they are largely due to collisional ionization. In the case of U Sco the absorption lines were embedded in the emission features after the first observation. We find evidence that in U Scorpii we were observing the Thomson reflected spectrum at a distance of ~= 3 R⊙ from the white dwarf rather than the atmosphere itself. For both novae, the peak temperature was remarkably high, probably close to 900,000 K for U Sco, and about 600,000 K for Nova LMC 2009a. We suggest that these two objects represent different stages of RNe secular evolution.

  18. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the treatment of many human dis- eases. The therapeutic potential of RNAs, including ribozymes , short hairpin RNA, small interfering RNA (siRNA...Gewirth and Sullenger 2007; Yan and Levy 2009). A major challenge that remains is the systemic delivery of these moieties (siRNA, ribozyme , etc.) to...pieces of pRNA in pRNA hexamer nanoparticles could provide six positions to conjugate therapeutic molecules such as siRNAs, ribozymes , therapeutic RNA

  19. Directing the Secretary of the Treasury to transmit to the House of Representatives all information in his possession relating to specific communications with American International Group, Inc. (AIG).

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. LaTourette, Steven C. [R-OH-14

    2009-03-17

    04/23/2009 Placed on the House Calendar, Calendar No. 45. (All Actions) Notes: On 5/7/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Rules from consideration of H.Res.359 a resolution providing for consideration of H.Res.251. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-3: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Turn on the Pumps Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Nunes, Devin [R-CA-21

    2009-06-26

    12/02/2009 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. Nunes. Petition No: 111-8. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 12/2/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Natural Resources from consideration of H.R.3105. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-8: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Emergent Intelligent Behavior through Integrated Investigation of Embodied Natural Language, Reasoning, Learning, Computer Vision, and Robotic Manipulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-11

    Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition . Jun. 2008, pp. 1-8. J. Shi and J. Malik, "Normalized cuts...reasoning for single image structure recovery. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition , June 2009. A. K. Mackworth...contours to detect and localize junctions in natural images. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition , pages

  2. Amending the Rules of the House of Representatives to require that legislation and conference reports be available on the Internet for 72 hours before consideration by the House, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Baird, Brian [D-WA-3

    2009-06-17

    09/23/2009 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. Walden. Petition No: 111-6. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 9/23/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Rules from the consideration of H.Res.554. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-6: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. School Administrators' Use of the National School Lunch Program to Address the Needs of Students Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddis, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    According to a 2007 U.S. Census report, 43% of children in America younger than six are classified as low income (U.S. Census Bureau, 2007). The USDA (2008a, 2009a) indicated 17.1% of school-aged children are classified as overweight; an additional 15% are at risk of becoming overweight; and approximately 17.2 million children are living in…

  4. SURVIAC Bulletin: RPG Encounter Modeling, Vol 27, Issue 1, 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    ict in Afghanistan popularized the use of the RPG against helicopters . Th is trend has continued to the present day where recent US confl icts in...Survivability Summary Report” submitted to Congress in October 2009, a substantial number of helicopters encountering RPGs in these confl icts were lost...determine the susceptibility of targets to the RPG threat. Assessing the susceptibility of helicopters and ground vehicles to these threats has its

  5. Building Security in the Persian Gulf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    3 For example, Obama, 2009a: “And going forward, the United States will pursue principled and sustained engagement with all of the nations in the...but I think potentially a lot of other countries that are going to say we need to take further steps. (Obama, 2009d). 7 This point also begs the...American vernacular, “ going postal”) with no political purpose to advance. Nihilists are different from anarchists: The latter have in mind the

  6. Well, what about intraspecific variation? Taxonomic and phylogenetic characters in the genus Synoeca de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, James M; Andena, Sergio R; Noll, Fernando B; Wenzel, John W

    2013-01-01

    Cely and Sarmiento (2011) took issue with the cladistic analysis of relationships among species of the genus Synoeca by Andena et al. (2009a), and presented a reanalysis. They claimed that intraspecific variation in the genus is meaningful, and proper consideration yields a conclusion different from that of Andena et al. Both their critique and reanalysis are vitiated by numerous errors, as is shown in the present paper.

  7. Neuroergonomics Deep Dive Literature Review, Volume 2: Neuroergonomics and Performance: Prediction, Assessment, and Facilitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Monaco, A.P. (2009). A whole-genome scan and fine-mapping linkage study of auditory-visual synesthesia reveals evidence of linkage to chromosomes...2q24, 5q33, 6p12, and 12p12. American Journal of Human Genetics, 84 (2), 279-85. Synesthesia is characterized by anomalous sensory perception and...inheritance was likely to be more complex. These authors thus conducted a whole-genome linkage scan for auditory-visual synesthesia . Significant

  8. Electronic State Decomposition of Energetic Materials and Model Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-17

    tetrazine1,4-dioxde ( DATO ), is investigated. Although these molecules are based on N -oxides of a tetrazine aromatic heterocyclic ring, their...nitramines, furazan, tetrazines, tetrazine-N oxides, terazoles, PETN, RDX,HMX,CL-20,DAATO,ACTO, DATO ,conical intersections Elliot R Bernstein Colorado State...Tetrazine-N-Oxide Based High Nitrogen Content Energetic Materials from Excited Electronic States," J. Chem. Phys. 131, 194304 (2009). A

  9. Does the Army Need a Homeland Security Skill Identifier?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, & High-Yield Explosive CGSC Command and General Staff College CT Counterterrorism DA Department of the...omitted from most illustrations of the interrelationship of HD and CS as it applies to HS. However, “Domestic CT operations 6 are considered part of...homeland security under the lead of Department of Homeland Security” (Department of Defense 2009a, xx) and “ CT is one of the core tasks of the US

  10. Systems Biology Approaches for Discovering Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Vidal, M. (2008). High-quality bi- nary protein interaction map of the yeast interactome network. Science 322, 104–110. 89. Yu, X., Ivanic , J...Nature 417, 399–403. 92. Ivanic , J., Wallqvist, A., and Reifman, J. (2008). Probing the extent of randomness in protein interaction networks. PLoS...Comput. Biol. 4, e1000114. 93. Yu, X., Ivanic , J., Wallqvist, A., and Reifman, J. (2009). A novel scoring approach for protein co-purification data reveals

  11. Diagnosis of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) and Seasonal Influenza Using Rapid Influenza Antigen Tests, San Antonio, Texas, April-June 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    CDC Atlanta US. CDC protocol of realtime RTPCR for influenza A(H1N1) revision 1. 30 April 2009. Available at: http://www.who.int/ csr / resources...2009; 325:483–7. 24. Munster VJ, de Wit E, van den Brand JM, et al. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Virus in Fer

  12. Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Berman, Howard L. [D-CA-28

    2009-04-30

    07/01/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-195. (PDF) (All Actions) Notes: On 7/15/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Rules from the consideration of H.Res.460 a resolution providing for consideration of H.R.2194. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-4: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Total dissolved gas and water temperature in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, water year 2009: Quality-assurance data and comparison to water-quality standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Bragg, Heather M.; and Johnston, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    For the eight monitoring stations in water year 2009, a total of 99.2 percent of the TDG data were received in real time by the USGS satellite downlink and were within 1-percent saturation of the expected value on the basis of calibration data, replicate quality-control measurements in the river, and comparison to ambient river conditions at adjacent sites. Data received from the individual stations ranged from 97.0 to 100.0 percent complete.

  14. A Review of Equation of State Models, Chemical Equilibrium Calculations and CERV Code Requirements for SHS Detonation Modelling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Beattie - Bridgeman Virial expansion The above equations are suitable for moderate pressures and are usually based on either empirical constants...CR 2010-013 October 2009 A Review of Equation of State Models, Chemical Equilibrium Calculations and CERV Code Requirements for SHS Detonation...Defence R&D Canada. A Review of Equation of State Models, Chemical Equilibrium Calculations and CERV Code Requirements for SHS Detonation

  15. 48 CFR 1852.219-77 - NASA Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA Mentor-ProtégÃ... and Clauses 1852.219-77 NASA Mentor-Protégé Program. As prescribed in 1819.7215, insert the following clause: NASA Mentor-Protégé Program (MAY 2009) (a) Prime contractors are encouraged to participate in...

  16. Loglines. September-October 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    said he has received questions about whether certain products contain asbestos , whether an air filter is hazardous, and what hazardous materials...September - October 2013 A front loader deposits trash into the compactor unit at a solid waste transfer station in Kirkuk, Iraq, in November 2009. A new...a programmable process for mapping the location of mineral deposits within the United States. “It gives us another method for researching the

  17. Simulating Conditional Deterministic Predictability within Ocean Frontogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-26

    water into the euphotic zone along fronts (Thomas et al., 2008). The potential frontogenesis impact on the ocean (McWilliams et al., 2009a,b; Zhong...mixed layers are found in the frontal zone with filaments of small MLD. The shallow MLD features have corresponding features in the model SST, though...effect. The resultant ageostrophic secondary circulation is fronto- getic with subduction on the dense side of the front and upwelling with shallow mixed

  18. Case-Based Plan Recognition Using Action Sequence Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Kumaran, 2007), and probabilistic approaches (e.g., Bui, 2003; Charniak & Goldman, 1991, 1993; Geib & Goldman, 2009; Goldman, Geib & Miller, 1999...Sixteenth UK Workshop on Case-Based Reasoning. Cambridge, UK: Springer. Geib , C. W., & Goldman, R. P. (2009). A probabilistic plan recognition...and practice. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. Goldman, R.P., Geib , C.W., & Miller, C.A. (1999). A new model of plan recognition. Proceedings of the

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for Construction and Operation of a Water Treatment Building at Cavalier Air Force Station, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Kentucky bluegrass (USAF, 2009a). Tree species include aspen, burr oak, and other woody de- ciduous species. The North Dakota Department of Agriculture... shrub maintenance. Unimproved grounds total approximately 115 acres and include management of grassland and the prevention and suppres- sion of ...regularly mowed. There are no trees or shrubs on the site. Grass species currently at the installation include June grass, quack grass, and

  20. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, a 37-unit apartment complex located in Boulder, Colorado, underwent an energy retrofit to comply with Boulder SmartRegs Ordinance, a mandate that requires all rental properties to meet certain energy efficiency standards by 2018. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, worked with city planners and building owners to evaluate this program and recently completed a case study evaluating the effectiveness of a collection of retrofit measures.