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Sample records for 2009a 2009b 2009c

  1. IAU Resolution 2009 B5 - Commission 50 Draft Action Plan - Presentation and Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. F.

    2015-03-01

    IAU Resolution 2009 B5 calls on IAU members to protect the public's right to an unpolluted night sky as well as the astronomical quality of the sky around major research observatories. The multi-pronged approach of Commission 50 includes working with the lighting industry for appropriate products from the solid state revolution, arming astronomers with training and materials for presentation, selective endorsement of key protection issues, cooperation with several other IAU commissions for education and outreach, and provision of clear quantitative priorities for outdoor lighting standards.

  2. Implementation of IAU Resolution 2009 B5, "in Defence of the night sky and the right to starlight"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Richard F.; Walker, Constance Elaine

    2015-08-01

    IAU Resolution 2009 B5 calls on IAU members to protect the public`s right to an unpolluted night sky as well as the astronomical quality of the sky around major research observatories. The approach of Commission 50 - astronomical site protection - includes working with the lighting industry for appropriate products from rapidly evolving solid state technology, arming astronomers with training and materials for presentation, selective endorsement of key protection issues, cooperation with other IAU commissions for education and outreach with particular current attention to the International Year of Light, and provision of clear quantitative priorities for outdoor lighting standards. In 2012, these priorities were defined as full cut-off shielding, spectral management to minimize output shortward of 500 nm, and zone- and time-appropriate lighting levels. Revisiting the specifics of these priorities will be a topic for current discussion.

  3. Religion in families 1999 to 2009: A relational spirituality framework

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the role of religion, for better and worse, in marital and parent-child relationships according to peer reviewed studies from 1999–2009. A conceptual framework labeled “relational spirituality” is used to: (a) organize the breadth of findings into the three stages of the formation, maintenance, and transformation of family relationships, and (b) illustrate three in-depth sets of mechanisms to delve into unique ways religion may shape family bonds. Topics include union formation, fertility, spousal roles, marital satisfaction and conflict, divorce, domestic violence, infidelity, pregnancy, parenting children, parenting adolescents, and coping with family distress. Conclusions emphasize moving beyond markers of general religiousness and identifying specific spiritual beliefs and practices that could prevent or intensify problems in traditional and nontraditional families. PMID:22102761

  4. National Rivers and Streams Assessment 2008-2009: A Collaborative Survey

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Rivers and Streams Assessment 2008–2009: A Collaborative Survey (NRSA) presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s rivers and streams. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys design...

  5. French Experience of 2009 A/H1N1v Influenza in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Dubar, Grégory; Azria, Elie; Tesnière, Antoine; Dupont, Hervé; Le Ray, Camille; Baugnon, Thomas; Matheron, Sophie; Luton, Dominique; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Launay, Odile; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Mignon, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Background The first reports on the pandemic influenza 2009 A/H1N1v from the USA, Mexico, and Australia indicated that this disease was associated with a high mortality in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the characteristics of severe critically ill and non-severe pregnant women with 2009 A/H1N1v-related illness in France. Methodology/Principal Findings A national registry was created to screen pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed 2009 A/H1N1v influenza. Three hundred and fifteen patients from 46 French hospitals were included: 40 patients were admitted to intensive care units (severe outcomes), 111 were hospitalized in obstetric or medical wards (moderate outcomes), and 164 were outpatients (mild outcomes). The 2009 A/H1N1v influenza illness occurred during all pregnancy trimesters, but most women (54%), notably the severe patients (70%), were in the third trimester. Among the severe patients, twenty (50%) underwent mechanical ventilation, and eleven (28%) were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Three women died from A/H1N1v influenza. We found a strong association between the development of a severe outcome and both co-existing illnesses (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–11.8) and a delay in oseltamivir treatment after the onset of symptoms (>3 or 5 days) (adjusted OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.9–12.1 and 61.2, 95% CI; 14.4–261.3, respectively). Among the 140 deliveries after 22 weeks of gestation known to date, 19 neonates (14%) were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, mainly for preterm delivery, and two neonates died. None of these neonates developed 2009 A/H1N1v infection. Conclusions This series confirms the high incidence of complications in pregnant women infected with pandemic A/H1N1v observed in other countries but depicts a lower overall maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity than indicated in the USA or Australia. Moreover, our data demonstrate the benefit of

  6. On the narrow emission line components of the LMC novae 2004 (YY Doradus) and 2009a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena; Munari, Ulisse

    2014-09-01

    We present early decline spectra of the two Large Magellanic Cloud novae: LMC 2004 (YY Dor) and LMC 2009a and discuss their spectral an line profile evolution with special emphasis on the existence and appearance of a sharp component. We show that the narrow component that characterizes the emission lines in the maximum spectra of nova LMC 2004 originates in the ejecta. The He ii 4686 Å narrow emission which appears at the onset of the nebular phase in both novae is somewhat controversial. Our observations suggest that the corresponding line forming region is physically separated from the rest of the ejecta (the broad line region) and environmentally different. However, the lack of late time observations covering the super-soft source (SSS) phase, the post-SSS phase and the quiescence state does not allow to securely establish any non-ejecta origin/contribution as, instead, in the case of U Sco and KT Eri.

  7. Pan-chromatic Observations of the Recurrent Nova LMC 2009a (LMC 1971b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Beardmore, A. P.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Walter, F. M.; Krautter, J.; Melandri, A.; Ness, J.-U.; O'Brien, T. J.; Orio, M.; Schwarz, G. J.; Shara, M. M.; Starrfield, S.

    2016-02-01

    Nova LMC 2009a is confirmed as a recurrent nova (RN) from positional coincidence with nova LMC 1971b. The observational data set is one of the most comprehensive for any Galactic or extragalactic RN: optical and near-IR photometry from outburst until over 6 years later; optical spectra for the first 6 months, and Swift satellite ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray observations from 9 days to almost 1 year post-outburst. We find MV = -8.4 ± 0.8r ± 0.7s and expansion velocities between 1000 and 4000 km s-1. Coronal line emission before day 9 indicates shocks in the ejecta. Strengthening of He iiλ4686 preceded the emergence of the super-soft source (SSS) in X-rays at ˜63-70 days, which was initially very variable. Periodic modulations, P = 1.2 days, most probably orbital in nature, were evident in the UV and optical from day 43. Subsequently, the SSS shows an oscillation with the same period but with a delay of 0.28P. The progenitor system has been identified; the secondary is most likely a sub-giant feeding a luminous accretion disk. Properties of the SSS infer a white dwarf (WD) mass 1.1 M⊙ ≲ MWD ≲ 1.3 M⊙. If the accretion occurs at a constant rate, {\\dot{M}}{{acc}}≃ {3.6}-2.5+4.7× {10}-7 {M}⊙ yr-1 is needed, consistent with nova models for an inter-eruption interval of 38 years, low outburst amplitude, progenitor position in the color-magnitude diagram, and spectral energy distribution at quiescence. We note striking similarities between LMC 2009a and the Galactic nova KT Eri, suggesting that KT Eri is a candidate RN.

  8. Measured voluntary avoidance behaviour during the 2009 A/H1N1 epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Bayham, Jude; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Gunn, Quentin; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2015-01-01

    Managing infectious disease is among the foremost challenges for public health policy. Interpersonal contacts play a critical role in infectious disease transmission, and recent advances in epidemiological theory suggest a central role for adaptive human behaviour with respect to changing contact patterns. However, theoretical studies cannot answer the following question: are individual responses to disease of sufficient magnitude to shape epidemiological dynamics and infectious disease risk? We provide empirical evidence that Americans voluntarily reduced their time spent in public places during the 2009 A/H1N1 swine flu, and that these behavioural shifts were of a magnitude capable of reducing the total number of cases. We simulate 10 years of epidemics (2003–2012) based on mixing patterns derived from individual time-use data to show that the mixing patterns in 2009 yield the lowest number of total infections relative to if the epidemic had occurred in any of the other nine years. The World Health Organization and other public health bodies have emphasized an important role for ‘distancing’ or non-pharmaceutical interventions. Our empirical results suggest that neglect for voluntary avoidance behaviour in epidemic models may overestimate the public health benefits of public social distancing policies. PMID:26511046

  9. Measured voluntary avoidance behaviour during the 2009 A/H1N1 epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bayham, Jude; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Gunn, Quentin; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-11-01

    Managing infectious disease is among the foremost challenges for public health policy. Interpersonal contacts play a critical role in infectious disease transmission, and recent advances in epidemiological theory suggest a central role for adaptive human behaviour with respect to changing contact patterns. However, theoretical studies cannot answer the following question: are individual responses to disease of sufficient magnitude to shape epidemiological dynamics and infectious disease risk? We provide empirical evidence that Americans voluntarily reduced their time spent in public places during the 2009 A/H1N1 swine flu, and that these behavioural shifts were of a magnitude capable of reducing the total number of cases. We simulate 10 years of epidemics (2003-2012) based on mixing patterns derived from individual time-use data to show that the mixing patterns in 2009 yield the lowest number of total infections relative to if the epidemic had occurred in any of the other nine years. The World Health Organization and other public health bodies have emphasized an important role for 'distancing' or non-pharmaceutical interventions. Our empirical results suggest that neglect for voluntary avoidance behaviour in epidemic models may overestimate the public health benefits of public social distancing policies. PMID:26511046

  10. Infectious Progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus Replicated in and Released from Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Feiyuan; Liu, Xingmu; Zhao, Conghui; Chen, Xueling; Kelvin, David J; Gu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Various reports have indicated that a number of viruses could infect neutrophils, but the multiplication of viruses in neutrophils was abortive. Based on our previous finding that avian influenza viral RNA and proteins were present in the nucleus of infected human neutrophils in vivo, we investigated the possibility of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viral synthesis in infected neutrophils and possible release of infectious progeny from host cells. In this study we found that human neutrophils in vitro without detectable level of sialic acid expression could be infected by this virus strain. We also show that the infected neutrophils can not only synthesize 2009 A (H1N1) viral mRNA and proteins, but also produce infectious progeny. These findings suggest that infectious progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus could be replicated in and released from human neutrophils with possible clinical implications. PMID:26639836

  11. Infectious Progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus Replicated in and Released from Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Feiyuan; Liu, Xingmu; Zhao, Conghui; Chen, Xueling; Kelvin, David J; Gu, Jiang

    2015-12-07

    Various reports have indicated that a number of viruses could infect neutrophils, but the multiplication of viruses in neutrophils was abortive. Based on our previous finding that avian influenza viral RNA and proteins were present in the nucleus of infected human neutrophils in vivo, we investigated the possibility of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viral synthesis in infected neutrophils and possible release of infectious progeny from host cells. In this study we found that human neutrophils in vitro without detectable level of sialic acid expression could be infected by this virus strain. We also show that the infected neutrophils can not only synthesize 2009 A (H1N1) viral mRNA and proteins, but also produce infectious progeny. These findings suggest that infectious progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus could be replicated in and released from human neutrophils with possible clinical implications.

  12. Infectious Progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus Replicated in and Released from Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Feiyuan; Liu, Xingmu; Zhao, Conghui; Chen, Xueling; Kelvin, David J.; Gu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Various reports have indicated that a number of viruses could infect neutrophils, but the multiplication of viruses in neutrophils was abortive. Based on our previous finding that avian influenza viral RNA and proteins were present in the nucleus of infected human neutrophils in vivo, we investigated the possibility of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viral synthesis in infected neutrophils and possible release of infectious progeny from host cells. In this study we found that human neutrophils in vitro without detectable level of sialic acid expression could be infected by this virus strain. We also show that the infected neutrophils can not only synthesize 2009 A (H1N1) viral mRNA and proteins, but also produce infectious progeny. These findings suggest that infectious progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus could be replicated in and released from human neutrophils with possible clinical implications. PMID:26639836

  13. Social capital and immunization against the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic in the American States.

    PubMed

    Rönnerstrand, B

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the association between contextual social capital and immunization coverage rates. A cross-sectional, ecologic study design was used. Three different estimations of contextual social capital in American states have been used. Data on immunization coverage rates at state level comes from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Correlation coefficients were calculated to investigate the bivariate association between the independent variable social capital and the dependent variable 2009 A(H1N1) immunization coverage rates. A multivariate OLS regression model was used to investigate the association between contextual social capital and immunization, under control for state-level health care spending per capita, state population, population per square mile, and median age in the American States. Results show that Social capital was strongly correlated with 2009 A(H1N1) immunization acceptance among American States. In a multivariate regression analysis, the association remains strong and significant also when controlling state-level confounders. In conclusion, social capital, at least in a U.S. context, is shown to be associated with the state-level uptake of vaccination against the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic.

  14. Infant Respiratory Outcomes Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Maternal 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Deshayne B.; Wilson, Kumanan; Ducharme, Robin; Hawken, Steven; Sprague, Ann E.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Graeme; Wen, Shi Wu; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infants are at high risk for influenza illness, but are ineligible for vaccination before 6 months. Transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus has been demonstrated for 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccines; however, clinical effectiveness is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination during pregnancy and rates of infant influenza and pneumonia. Methods We linked a population-based birth cohort to administrative databases to measure rates of influenza and pneumonia diagnosed during ambulatory physician visits, hospitalizations and emergency department visits during one year of follow-up. We estimated incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Poisson regression, comparing infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women (vaccine-exposed infants) with unexposed infants, adjusted for confounding using high-dimensional propensity scores. Results Among 117,335 infants in the study, 36,033 (31%) were born to A/H1N1-vaccinated women. Crude rates of influenza during the pandemic (per 100,000 infant-days) for vaccine-exposed and unexposed infants were similar (2.19, 95% CI: 1.27–3.76 and 3.60, 95% CI: 2.51–5.14, respectively), as were crude rates of influenza and pneumonia combined. We did not observe any significant differences in rates of study outcomes between study groups during the second wave of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, nor during any post-pandemic time period. Conclusion We observed no difference in rates of study outcomes among infants born to A/H1N1-vaccinated mothers relative to unexposed infants born during the second A/H1N1 pandemic wave; however, due to late availability of the pandemic vaccine, the available follow-up time during the pandemic time period was very limited. PMID:27486858

  15. Modelling the spatial-temporal progression of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Raimund; Chowell, Gerardo; Mulet, Pep; Villada, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    A spatial-temporal transmission model of 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza across Chile, a country that spans a large latitudinal range, is developed to characterize the spatial variation in peak timing of that pandemic as a function of local transmission rates, spatial connectivity assumptions for Chilean regions, and the putative location of introduction of the novel virus into the country. Specifically, a metapopulation SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-removed) compartmental model that tracks the transmission dynamics of influenza in 15 Chilean regions is calibrated. The model incorporates population mobility among neighboring regions and indirect mobility to and from other regions via the metropolitan central region ('hub region'). The stability of the disease-free equilibrium of this model is analyzed and compared with the corresponding stability in each region, concluding that stability may occur even with some regions having basic reproduction numbers above 1. The transmission model is used along with epidemiological data to explore potential factors that could have driven the spatial-temporal progression of the pandemic. Simulations and sensitivity analyses indicate that this relatively simple model is sufficient to characterize the south-north gradient in peak timing observed during the pandemic, and suggest that south Chile observed the initial spread of the pandemic virus, which is in line with a retrospective epidemiological study. The 'hub region' in our model significantly enhanced population mixing in a short time scale.

  16. Changes in heterosubtypic antibody responses during the first year of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Freidl, Gudrun S.; van den Ham, Henk-Jan; Boni, Maciej F.; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Seropositivity to avian influenza (AI) via low-level antibody titers has been reported in the general population and poultry-exposed individuals, raising the question whether these findings reflect true infection with AI or cross-reactivity. Here we investigated serological profiles against human and avian influenza viruses in the general population using a protein microarray platform. We hypothesized that higher antibody diversity across recent H1 and H3 influenza viruses would be associated with heterosubtypic reactivity to older pandemic- and AI viruses. We found significant heterogeneity in antibody profiles. Increased antibody diversity to seasonal influenza viruses was associated with low-level heterosubtypic antibodies to H9 and H7, but not to H5 AI virus. Individuals exposed to the recent 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic showed higher heterosubtypic reactivity. We show that there is a complex interplay between prior exposures to seasonal and recent pandemic influenza viruses and the development of heterosubtypic antibody reactivity to animal influenza viruses. PMID:26853924

  17. Modelling the spatial-temporal progression of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Raimund; Chowell, Gerardo; Mulet, Pep; Villada, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    A spatial-temporal transmission model of 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza across Chile, a country that spans a large latitudinal range, is developed to characterize the spatial variation in peak timing of that pandemic as a function of local transmission rates, spatial connectivity assumptions for Chilean regions, and the putative location of introduction of the novel virus into the country. Specifically, a metapopulation SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-removed) compartmental model that tracks the transmission dynamics of influenza in 15 Chilean regions is calibrated. The model incorporates population mobility among neighboring regions and indirect mobility to and from other regions via the metropolitan central region ('hub region'). The stability of the disease-free equilibrium of this model is analyzed and compared with the corresponding stability in each region, concluding that stability may occur even with some regions having basic reproduction numbers above 1. The transmission model is used along with epidemiological data to explore potential factors that could have driven the spatial-temporal progression of the pandemic. Simulations and sensitivity analyses indicate that this relatively simple model is sufficient to characterize the south-north gradient in peak timing observed during the pandemic, and suggest that south Chile observed the initial spread of the pandemic virus, which is in line with a retrospective epidemiological study. The 'hub region' in our model significantly enhanced population mixing in a short time scale. PMID:26776260

  18. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period. PMID:22834485

  19. Characterisation of the major dust storm that traversed over eastern Australia in September 2009; a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deckker, Patrick; Munday, Chris I.; Brocks, Jochen; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Allison, Gwen E.; Hope, Janet; Norman, Marc; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Tapper, Nigel J.; van der Kaars, Sander

    2014-12-01

    In September 2009, a major dust storm passed over the southeast coast of Australia and covered the large city of Sydney that is located on the eastern coast of Australia. It was referred to as the 'Red Dawn' event. Along its course across the state of New South Wales, the dust plume passed over Canberra, the capital of Australia located some 300 km from Sydney. In this study we identified the sources of the dust and tracked the progression of the dust storm using satellite imagery. We also examined the meteorological conditions that led to the formation of the dust plume. We also investigated the microbial and lipid composition, grain-size distribution, pollen content and geochemical composition of several samples of the dust that fell in Canberra (called 'Canberra dust'), with particular attention paid to the ratio of some rare earth elements as well as strontium and neodymium isotopes. This was done to identify a geochemical and palynological 'fingerprint' of this dust to determine the source of the material. Collectively, the meteorological and fingerprinting analyses identified the principal location of dust entrainment as between the large playa Lakes Gairdner and Torrens in arid South Australia, some 1600 km away from Canberra. We also determined through Sr isotope analyses and other elements measured in the dust that fell in Canberra and the township of Eden, located south of Sydney, that the dust changed composition slightly over a few hours, being the consequence of local dust entrainment along the path of the dust plume across South Australia and New South Wales. In addition, we present a scenario which explains dust transport away from the direction of the major dust plume. Those investigations carried out on the Canberra dust are compared with a previously documented event when dust was also sampled in Canberra in 2002. The origin and composition of the 2002 dust plume was clearly different from that which occurred in 2009, as demonstrated by the

  20. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V.; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. Methods We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. Results The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6–2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3–1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Conclusions Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school

  1. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  2. Impact of antiviral treatment and hospital admission delay on risk of death associated with 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing our understanding of the factors affecting the severity of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in different regions of the world could lead to improved clinical practice and mitigation strategies for future influenza pandemics. Even though a number of studies have shed light into the risk factors associated with severe outcomes of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza infections in different populations (e.g., [1-5]), analyses of the determinants of mortality risk spanning multiple pandemic waves and geographic regions are scarce. Between-country differences in the mortality burden of the 2009 pandemic could be linked to differences in influenza case management, underlying population health, or intrinsic differences in disease transmission [6]. Additional studies elucidating the determinants of disease severity globally are warranted to guide prevention efforts in future influenza pandemics. In Mexico, the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic was characterized by a three-wave pattern occurring in the spring, summer, and fall of 2009 with substantial geographical heterogeneity [7]. A recent study suggests that Mexico experienced high excess mortality burden during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic relative to other countries [6]. However, an assessment of potential factors that contributed to the relatively high pandemic death toll in Mexico are lacking. Here, we fill this gap by analyzing a large series of laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases, hospitalizations, and deaths monitored by the Mexican Social Security medical system during April 1 through December 31, 2009 in Mexico. In particular, we quantify the association between disease severity, hospital admission delays, and neuraminidase inhibitor use by demographic characteristics, pandemic wave, and geographic regions of Mexico. Methods We analyzed a large series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 influenza cases from a prospective surveillance system maintained by the Mexican Social Security system

  3. In vitro antiviral activity of favipiravir (T-705) against drug-resistant influenza and 2009 A(H1N1) viruses.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Katrina; Mishin, Vasiliy P; Deyde, Varough M; Furuta, Yousuke; Klimov, Alexander I; Gubareva, Larisa V

    2010-06-01

    Favipiravir (T-705) has previously been shown to have a potent antiviral effect against influenza virus and some other RNA viruses in both cell culture and in animal models. Currently, favipiravir is undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. In this study, favipiravir was evaluated in vitro for its ability to inhibit the replication of a representative panel of seasonal influenza viruses, the 2009 A(H1N1) strains, and animal viruses with pandemic (pdm) potential (swine triple reassortants, H2N2, H4N2, avian H7N2, and avian H5N1), including viruses which are resistant to the currently licensed anti-influenza drugs. All viruses were tested in a plaque reduction assay with MDCK cells, and a subset was also tested in both yield reduction and focus inhibition (FI) assays. For the majority of viruses tested, favipiravir significantly inhibited plaque formation at 3.2 muM (0.5 microg/ml) (50% effective concentrations [EC(50)s] of 0.19 to 22.48 muM and 0.03 to 3.53 microg/ml), and for all viruses, with the exception of a single dually resistant 2009 A(H1N1) virus, complete inhibition of plaque formation was seen at 3.2 muM (0.5 microg/ml). Due to the 2009 pandemic and increased drug resistance in circulating seasonal influenza viruses, there is an urgent need for new drugs which target influenza. This study demonstrates that favipiravir inhibits in vitro replication of a wide range of influenza viruses, including those resistant to currently available drugs.

  4. The influence of climatic conditions on the transmission dynamics of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of demographic factors, climatic conditions, school cycles, and connectivity patterns in shaping the spatio-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza is not clearly understood. Here we analyzed the spatial, age and temporal evolution of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Chile, a southern hemisphere country covering a long and narrow strip comprising latitudes 17°S to 56°S. Methods We analyzed the dissemination patterns of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic across 15 regions of Chile based on daily hospitalizations for severe acute respiratory disease and laboratory confirmed A/H1N1 influenza infection from 01-May to 31-December, 2009. We explored the association between timing of pandemic onset and peak pandemic activity and several geographical and demographic indicators, school vacations, climatic factors, and international passengers. We also estimated the reproduction number (R) based on the growth rate of the exponential pandemic phase by date of symptoms onset, estimated using maximum likelihood methods. Results While earlier pandemic onset was associated with larger population size, there was no association with connectivity, demographic, school or climatic factors. In contrast, there was a latitudinal gradient in peak pandemic timing, representing a 16-39-day lag in disease activity from the southern regions relative to the northernmost region (P < 0.001). Geographical differences in latitude of Chilean regions, maximum temperature and specific humidity explained 68.5% of the variability in peak timing (P = 0.01). In addition, there was a decreasing gradient in reproduction number from south to north Chile (P < 0.0001). The regional mean R estimates were 1.6-2.0, 1.3-1.5, and 1.2-1.3 for southern, central and northern regions, respectively, which were not affected by the winter vacation period. Conclusions There was a lag in the period of most intense 2009 pandemic influenza activity following a South to North traveling pattern across regions

  5. A spatial-temporal transmission model and early intervention policies of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonggul; Jung, Eunok

    2015-09-01

    We developed a spatial-temporal model of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), which is located in the north-west of South Korea and is the second-most complex metropolitan area worldwide. This multi-patch influenza model consists of a SEIAR influenza transmission model and flow model between two districts. This model is based on the daily confirmed cases of A/H1N1 influenza collected by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention from April 27 to September 15, 2009 and the daily commuting data from 33 districts of SMA reported in the 2010 Population and Housing Census (PHC). We analyzed the spread patterns of 2009 influenza in the SMA by the reproductive numbers and geographic information systems. During the early period of novel influenza pandemics, when pharmaceutical interventions are lacking, non-pharmaceutical public health interventions will be the most critical strategies for impeding the spread of influenza and delaying an epidemic. Using the spatial-temporal model developed herein, we also investigated the impact of non-pharmaceutical public health interventions, isolation and/or commuting restrictions, on the incidence reduction in various scenarios. Our model provides scientific evidence for predicting the spread of disease and preparedness for a future pandemic.

  6. Screening of random peptide library of hemagglutinin from pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus reveals unexpected antigenically important regions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanghui; Han, Lu; Lin, Zhanglin

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic structure of the membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) from the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus was dissected with a high-throughput screening method using complex antisera. The approach involves generating yeast cell libraries displaying a pool of random peptides of controllable lengths on the cell surface, followed by one round of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) against antisera from mouse, goat and human, respectively. The amino acid residue frequency appearing in the antigenic peptides at both the primary sequence and structural level was determined and used to identify "hot spots" or antigenically important regions. Unexpectedly, different antigenic structures were seen for different antisera. Moreover, five antigenic regions were identified, of which all but one are located in the conserved HA stem region that is responsible for membrane fusion. Our findings are corroborated by several recent studies on cross-neutralizing H1 subtype antibodies that recognize the HA stem region. The antigenic peptides identified may provide clues for creating peptide vaccines with better accessibility to memory B cells and better induction of cross-neutralizing antibodies than the whole HA protein. The scheme used in this study enables a direct mapping of the antigenic regions of viral proteins recognized by antisera, and may be useful for dissecting the antigenic structures of other viral proteins. PMID:21437206

  7. Effect of vaccines and antivirals during the major 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic wave in Norway--and the influence of vaccination timing.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben de; Iversen, Bjørn G; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of mass vaccination with adjuvanted vaccines (eventually 40% population coverage) and antivirals during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Norway, we fitted an age-structured SEIR model using data on vaccinations and sales of antivirals in 2009/10 in Norway to Norwegian ILI surveillance data from 5 October 2009 to 4 January 2010. We estimate a clinical attack rate of approximately 30% (28.7-29.8%), with highest disease rates among children 0-14 years (43-44%). Vaccination started in week 43 and came too late to have a strong influence on the pandemic in Norway. Our results indicate that the countermeasures prevented approximately 11-12% of potential cases relative to an unmitigated pandemic. Vaccination was found responsible for roughly 3 in 4 of the avoided infections. An estimated 50% reduction in the clinical attack rate would have resulted from vaccination alone, had the campaign started 6 weeks earlier. Had vaccination been prioritized for children first, the intervention should have commenced approximately 5 weeks earlier in order to achieve the same 50% reduction. In comparison, we estimate that a non-adjuvanted vaccination program should have started 8 weeks earlier to lower the clinical attack rate by 50%. In conclusion, vaccination timing was a critical factor in relation to the spread of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza. Our results also corroborate the central role of children for the transmission of A(H1N1) pandemic influenza. PMID:22253862

  8. Recombinant soluble, multimeric HA and NA exhibit distinctive types of protection against pandemic swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Berend Jan; Bodewes, Rogier; de Vries, Robert P; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Bartelink, Willem; van Amerongen, Geert; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rottier, Peter J M

    2010-10-01

    The emergence and subsequent swift and global spread of the swine-origin influenza virus A(H1N1) in 2009 once again emphasizes the strong need for effective vaccines that can be developed rapidly and applied safely. With this aim, we produced soluble, multimeric forms of the 2009 A(H1N1) HA (sHA(3)) and NA (sNA(4)) surface glycoproteins using a virus-free mammalian expression system and evaluated their efficacy as vaccines in ferrets. Immunization twice with 3.75-microg doses of these antigens elicited strong antibody responses, which were adjuvant dependent. Interestingly, coadministration of both antigens strongly enhanced the HA-specific but not the NA-specific responses. Distinct patterns of protection were observed upon challenge inoculation with the homologous H1N1 virus. Whereas vaccination with sHA(3) dramatically reduced virus replication (e.g., by lowering pulmonary titers by about 5 log(10) units), immunization with sNA(4) markedly decreased the clinical effects of infection, such as body weight loss and lung pathology. Clearly, optimal protection was achieved by the combination of the two antigens. Our observations demonstrate the great vaccine potential of multimeric HA and NA ectodomains, as these can be easily, rapidly, flexibly, and safely produced in high quantities. In particular, our study underscores the underrated importance of NA in influenza vaccination, which we found to profoundly and specifically contribute to protection by HA. Its inclusion in a vaccine is likely to reduce the HA dose required and to broaden the protective immunity.

  9. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  10. More on Evolution and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewsbury, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on the critiques of Tryon (2009a, this issue) and Cunningham (2009, this issue). These critiques provide an interesting contrast: one favoring greater reductionism and one favoring less. I consider each in turn. Tryon (2009a) again has addressed the issue of mechanisms in these pages (cf. Tryon, 2009b). The concepts of function and…

  11. AASHE Digest 2009. A Review of Campus Sustainability News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Andrea, Comp.; Sweeney, Seann, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This paper includes over 1,250 stories that catalog a broadening and deepening commitment to campus sustainability by colleges and universities in the U.S. and Canada. The 380-page report categorizes stories from nearly 600 higher education institutions into 24 chapters, spanning education and research, campus operations, and administration and…

  12. Galileo and Darwin 2009: A Universe for life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego, F.

    2008-06-01

    The year 2009 offers a unique opportunity to celebrate some of the greatest achievements of humankind to unravel the secrets of nature. It will be 400 years since Galileo extended the human senses by opening a wider window to the Universe; it will be 200 years since Charles Darwin's birth and 150 years since the publication of The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. It will also mark the 40th anniversary of the first human steps on the lunar landscapes discovered by Galileo.

  13. John N. Brady (1952-2009): a Generous Spirit

    PubMed Central

    Enquist, Lynn W.

    2009-01-01

    John N. Brady, Chief of the Virus Tumor Biology Section of the Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Institutes of Health, died of cancer on 27 April 2009. John was a stellar member of the virology community. He was a longtime Journal of Virology reviewer and a member of the editorial board. He will be missed. Fatah Kashanchi of the George Washington University Medical Center has written John's memorial. Fatah worked with John at the NIH and published more than 30 papers with him. Fatah thanks all the people who contributed to John's obituary, including Kuan-Teh Jeang, Lou Laimins, Mary Loeken, Renaud Mehieux, Paul Lambert, Graziella Piras, Scott Gitlin, Paul Lindholm, Nadia Rosenthal, Sergi Nekhai, Brian Wigdahl, David Price, Susan J. Marriott, Cynthia Masison, Jurgen Dittmer, Eric Verdin, Bassel E. Sawaya, and John's longtime assistants Janet Duvall Grimm and Michael Radonovich, who gave immense support to all the individuals who went through John's lab. PMID:19474098

  14. Towards Year 2009, a 25 000 person rehearsal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro Gossman, Julieta; Espinosa, M.

    2008-05-01

    In this presentations we will talk about the way we planned and achieved successfully a 25 000 people observation in Mexico City downtown taking advantage of a lunar eclipse. We shall guide people so they think about their own activities. We shall mention the way we planned the event, carried out found raising and advertisement. We shall describe the way we handled people mainly during the observations with one hundred telescopes and parallel activities. These included: a public lecture enhanced with dance and hands-on demonstrations, workshops for children, workshops on the night sky, talking to an astronomer, how to handle a telescope and a picture exhibit as well as music till midnight. We shall also mentioned written materials for that particular event and for Year 2009, some of which were specially crafted for teachers. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Galileo y el telescopio, 400 anios de ciencia Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238-2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros I Correo del Maestro, Núm. 133, p. 15-26, Anios 12, Junio 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros II Correo del Maestro, Núm. 134, p. 17-26, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros III Correo del Maestro, Num. 135, p. 10-18, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Experimentos sobre la caida de los cuerpos El Correo del Maestro, anio 12 Numero 142, p. 5-18, 2008. Mariana Espinosa, Julieta Fierro y Silvia Torres Fiesta de estrellas El Correo del Maestro, aceptado para su publicacion.

  15. Increasing Students' Involvement in Technology-Supported Mathematics Lesson Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prodromou, Theodosia; Lavicza, Zsolt; Koren, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to report on a pilot or proof of concept study with experienced Hungarian teachers who introduced mathematical concepts through a sequence of lessons utilising a pedagogical framework (Lavicza, Hohenwarter, Jones, Lu and Dawes, 2009a and Lavicza, Hohenwarter and Lu 2009b) for general technology integration. Our aim was to examine…

  16. Lesson Study as Practice: An Indonesian Elementary School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suratno, Tatang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the "practice architectures"; and "ecologies of practice" of LS (lesson study) in an Indonesian private elementary school. It aims at drawing on LS as a form of professional learning from the perspective of contemporary practice theory (Kemmis, Wilkinson, Hardy, & Edwards-Groves, 2009; Kemmis, 2009a, 2009b). This case study…

  17. The Future Starts Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panza, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    The fishbone diagram developed by Mariano Bernardez (2009a, 2009b) in the introductory article to this issue of "Performance Improvement Quarterly" depicts the origins and interrelationships of the models and approaches of many fields and researchers that have contributed to human performance technology (HPT) as it is used today. We can…

  18. A Response to Commentary on Faust, Bridges, and Ahern's (2009) "Methods for the Identification of Sexually Abused Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, David C.; Bridges, Ana J.; Faust, David

    2012-01-01

    Our series of three chapters (Faust, Bridges, & Ahern, 2009a, 2009b; Bridges, Faust, & Ahern, 2009) on the methodology of identifying sexually abused children elicited a number of comments, both supportive and critical. The criticisms appear related to three primary issues or apparent misconceptions of our work, perhaps due in part to incomplete…

  19. Improving Instructional Assistant Effectiveness in Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Kimberly Beth

    2010-01-01

    As of 2007, 718,119 instructional assistants were employed in the United States (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009b). Of those instructional assistants, 373,466 were classified as full-time special education instructional assistants (Data Accountability Center, 2009a). As the employment of instructional assistants continues to grow,…

  20. Incorporating Biological, Chemical and Toxicological Knowledge into Predictive Models of Toxicity: Letter to the Editor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thomas et al. (2012) recently published an evaluation of statistical models for classifying in vivo toxicity endpoints from ToxRefDB (Knudsen et al. 2009; Martin et al. 2009a and 2009b) using ToxCast in vitro bioactivity data (Judson et al. 2010) and chemical structure descriptor...

  1. Bilingual College Writers' Collaborative Writing of Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquinca, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Numerous researchers have studied bilingual students' performance on word problems given that reading and writing these requires that they draw on linguistic and mathematical knowledge (Barwell, 2009a, 2009b). Some researchers have studied how bilinguals write word problems in the second language, but few have considered how bilinguals use their…

  2. Does Student Sorting Invalidate Value-Added Models of Teacher Effectiveness? An Extended Analysis of the Rothstein Critique. Working Paper 2009-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Betts, Julian R.

    2009-01-01

    Value-added modeling continues to gain traction as a tool for measuring teacher performance. However, recent research (Rothstein, 2009a, 2009b) questions the validity of the value-added approach by showing that it does not mitigate student teacher sorting bias (its presumed primary benefit). Our study explores this critique in more detail.…

  3. 78 FR 35507 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration... Lagoon in Baja California, Mexico, which is one of the important breeding grounds for Pacific gray whales... band and thus reduce the communication space of animals (e.g., Clark et al. 2009a, 2009b) and...

  4. 77 FR 25829 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or... Lagoon in Baja California, Mexico, which is one of the important breeding grounds for Pacific gray whales... band and thus reduce the communication space of animals (e.g., Clark et al. 2009a, 2009b) and...

  5. College Search Factors that Impact College Matriculation for African American Students: Implications for Policy and Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Brandi Nicole

    2010-01-01

    College access is a top educational priority in the United States as millions of federal and state dollars are funneled into programs to ensure college access for all students, minorities and low-income students in particular (U.S. Department of Education, 2009a; U.S. Department of Education, 2009b). Over 80% of high school students and their…

  6. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  7. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, Roger G.; Comer, Patrick; Cress, Jill; Warner, Harumi

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with support from NatureServe, has modeled the potential distribution of 419 terrestrial ecosystems for the conterminous United States using a comprehensive biophysical stratification approach that identifies distinct biophysical environments and associates them with known vegetation distributions (Sayre and others, 2009). This standardized ecosystem mapping effort used an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe (Comer and others, 2003). The ecosystem mapping methodology was developed for South America (Sayre and others, 2008) and is now being implemented globally (Sayre and others, 2007). The biophysical stratification approach is based on mapping the major structural components of ecosystems (land surface forms, topographic moisture potential, surficial lithology, isobioclimates and biogeographic regions) and then spatially combining them to produce a set of unique biophysical environments. These physically distinct areas are considered as the fundamental structural units ('building blocks') of ecosystems, and are subsequently aggregated and labeled using the NatureServe classification. The structural footprints were developed from the geospatial union of several base layers including biogeographic regions, isobioclimates (Cress and others, 2009a), land surface forms (Cress and others, 2009b), topographic moisture potential (Cress and others, 2009c), and surficial lithology (Cress and others, in press). Among the 49,168 unique structural footprint classes that resulted from the union, 13,482 classes met a minimum pixel count threshold (20,000 pixels) and were aggregated into 419 NatureServe ecosystems using a semiautomated labeling process based on rule-set formulations for attribution of each ecosystem. The resulting ecosystems are those that are expected to occur based on the combination of the bioclimate, biogeography, and geomorphology. Where land use by humans has not altered land cover, natural vegetation

  8. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2010-09-29

    west of the Columbia River. The Wooded Island events recorded this quarter were a continuation of the swarm events observed during the 2009 and 2010 fiscal years and reported in previous quarterly and annual reports (Rohay et al; 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2010a, and 2010b). All events were considered minor (coda-length magnitude [Mc] less than 1.0) with a maximum depth estimated at 1.7 km. Based upon this quarters activity it is likely that the Wooded Island swarm has subsided. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will continue to monitor for activity at this location.

  9. Reliability beyond Theory and into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    The critical reactions of Bentler (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9100-1), Green and Yang (2009a, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9098-4 ; 2009b, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9099-3), and Revelle and Zinbarg (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9102-z) to Sijtsma's (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0) paper on Cronbach's alpha are addressed. The dissemination of…

  10. The new July meteor shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladek, Przemyslaw; Wisniewski, Mariusz

    2012-12-01

    Conference, Oostmalle, Belgium, 15-18 September 2005, pages 135-138. IMO. SonotaCo (2009a). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 37:2, 55-62. SonotaCo (2009b). "SonotaCo Network simultaneously observed meteor data sets SNM2007A". http://sonotaco.jp/doc/SNM/. SonotaCo (2009c). "SonotaCo Network simultaneously observed meteor data sets SNM2008A". http://sonotaco.jp/doc/SNM/. SonotaCo (2010). "SonotaCo Network simultaneously observed meteor data sets SNM2009B". http://sonotaco.jp/doc/SNM/. Ueda M. (2012). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 40:2, 59-64. Segon D., Andreic Z., Korlevic K., Gural P., Novoselnik F., Vida D., and Skokic I. (2012). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 40:6, 195-200. Wisniewski M., Kedzierski P., Mularczyk K., and Zloczewski K. (2003). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 31:1, 33-34.

  11. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  12. How catchment characteristics determine hydrological sensitivity to climate change in a mountainous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köplin, Nina; Viviroli, Daniel; Schädler, Bruno; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    The anticipated climate change in Switzerland will result in changing precipitation patterns and increasing temperatures during the first half of the 21st century (OcCC 2007). These changes will have an impact on the hydrological systems, too, in particular in mountainous regions. The objective of our study is to determine those catchments that exhibit sensitivity towards a change in climate, and to identify specific catchment characteristics causing this sensitivity. Both issues will be addressed in the framework of the joint research project 'Climate Change in Switzerland - Hydrology' (CCHydro) which was initiated by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). In the present study, the hydrological modelling system PREVAH (Precipitation-Runoff-EVAporation-HRU related model, Viviroli et al. 2009a) is used to examine mesoscale catchments in Switzerland. It is a semi-distributed and conceptual yet process-oriented model run on the basis of hourly meteorological input, and at a spatial resolution of 500 x 500 m2. This spatial and temporal resolution is a necessary prerequisite to meet the high degree of heterogeneity of mountainous environments. Where measured discharge is available, catchments were successfully calibrated both for standard and flood conditions using an iterative search algorithm designed to maximize objectivity of the calibration procedure (Viviroli et al. 2009b). The parameter values thus obtained were transferred to ungauged catchments subsequently. For this, a regionalisation scheme was used (Viviroli et al. 2009c) to arrive at a comprehensive set of model parameters for the entire area of Switzerland. A total of 17 Regional Climate Models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES-project (Hewitt & Griggs 2004) were interpolated to meteorological station locations at the Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science (IAC) at ETH Zurich (Bosshard et al. 2009) using the Delta Approach (Prudhomme et al. 2002). The Delta Change Signal was calculated for the

  13. Fifteen-Years-Old Students of Seven East Asian Cities in PISA 2009: A Secondary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background: In PISA 2009, seven East Asian countries rank high among the 65 participating countries, but some of the differences among the seven countries are small to be of substantive meaning. Aims: This paper is an attempt to fine tune the comparisons for better understanding of the situation in East Asian. Sample: Data of the seven East Asian…

  14. Brucellosis outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon in 2009: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaar, L; Chaaya, M; Ghosn, N; Mahfoud, Z

    2014-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with brucellosis infection in an outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon during summer 2009. Cases of brucellosis reported to the Ministry of Public Health were identified, and for each case 2 controls were matched by sex, age and residence. Sociodemographic data, exposure to animals and animal products, knowledge about brucellosis, symptoms and history of past brucellosis infections were collected. Consumption of raw cheese was a significant risk factor for contracting brucellosis (matched OR = 29.5), whereas wearing gloves when in contact with animals and animal products and self-preparing dairy products were protective factors (OR = 0.08 and 0.13 respectively). Low and inaccurate knowledge about brucellosis was prevalent among subjects, with a common misconception about human-human transmission. Ensuring animal vaccination, educating people on correct ways of milk pasteurization and handling meat products, and elevating food safety monitoring threshold are key elements in controlling brucellosis. PMID:24952122

  15. The 5th World Environmental Education Congress, 2009: A Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob; Sauve, Lucie; Briere, Laurence; Niblett, Blair; Root, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This paper contextualizes the 5th World Environmental Education Congress, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the Congress theme "Earth Our Common Home," and relates this theorizing to the research project that was woven through the Congress. We provide a rationale for engaging in this research project, as an invitation for Congress…

  16. Blepharitis in the United States 2009: a survey-based perspective on prevalence and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lemp, Michael A; Nichols, Kelly K

    2009-04-01

    ABSTRACT Like dry eye disease 15 years ago, blepharitis today is a poorly defined condition about which there is considerable misunderstanding. For a variety of reasons, there is little good data on either the prevalence of blepharitis or how eyecare practitioners currently treat it. The work reported herein consists of two recent studies: a telephone survey of a representative sample of the adult US population (n = 5,000) whose purpose was to discover the frequency of common ocular surface symptoms associated with blepharitis; and a study that queried a selected group of ophthalmologists (n = 120) and a similarly selected group of optometrists (n = 84) about the frequency of blepharitis in their practices, the existence comorbid conditions, and their management strategies. This data suggests that blepharitis symptoms are very common in the US population, with younger individuals reporting more, and more frequent, symptoms than older people, contrary to clinical dogma. Ophthalmologists and optometrists report that blepharitis is commonly seen in clinical practice in 37% and 47% of their patients, respectively, and it is widely agreed that meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the most common cause of evaporative dry eye disease. In addition, management paradigms are shifting away from more traditional management with antibiotic ointment and warm compress therapy to prescription therapy for anterior and posterior blepharitis.

  17. Segregation by Poverty in Secondary Schools in England 2006-2009: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shou Chen; Gorard, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This research note shows that secondary school segregation by poverty in England has recently started declining again. By comparing the long-term pattern of school compositions with an economic indicator, it is possible to link this decline to the recession, but only if a further, and contentious, assumption is made about what happened in the…

  18. The 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza and the nursing home.

    PubMed

    Gravenstein, Stefan; Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza clinically remain remarkably similar in long-term care populations. Clinicians cannot distinguish clinical influenza, whether seasonal or pandemic H1N1, from other respiratory viral infections in individual patients. Part of the difficulty in the clinical diagnosis relates to fewer clinical features that might help with diagnostic differentiation, such as fever. However, the nursing home provides an epidemiologic context that can prove helpful to clinicians who inquire--by considering illness patterns among others in the facility, both staff and residents. This can lead to more timely diagnosis and treatment in the resident, and prophylaxis--an opportunity to protect the remaining residents and staff. Check out the treatment guidelines posted on the CDC website to be sure to select the best agents, because antiviral resistance patterns have been rapidly changing. PMID:21214077

  19. Brucellosis outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon in 2009: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaar, L; Chaaya, M; Ghosn, N; Mahfoud, Z

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with brucellosis infection in an outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon during summer 2009. Cases of brucellosis reported to the Ministry of Public Health were identified, and for each case 2 controls were matched by sex, age and residence. Sociodemographic data, exposure to animals and animal products, knowledge about brucellosis, symptoms and history of past brucellosis infections were collected. Consumption of raw cheese was a significant risk factor for contracting brucellosis (matched OR = 29.5), whereas wearing gloves when in contact with animals and animal products and self-preparing dairy products were protective factors (OR = 0.08 and 0.13 respectively). Low and inaccurate knowledge about brucellosis was prevalent among subjects, with a common misconception about human-human transmission. Ensuring animal vaccination, educating people on correct ways of milk pasteurization and handling meat products, and elevating food safety monitoring threshold are key elements in controlling brucellosis.

  20. Incidence trends of colorectal cancer in Iran during 2000-2009: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Abdifard, Edris; Amini, Sudabe; Bab, Sattar; Masroor, Nasim; Khachian, Alice; Heidari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: As the third leading cause of death, cancers have a special place in the Iranian health system. Several studies have been done in some regions of the country with few years of follow-ups, but this was the first standardized study to investigate the incidence trends of colorectal cancer in Iran in a one-decade period. Methods: The registered data for colorectal cancer cases in National Cancer Registry System were extracted from the Center for Disease Control & Management of Ministry of Health. The codes from 18 to 21 among cancers were selected for colon and rectum cancers. Incidence rates were directly standardized, using WHO population. The significance of incidence rate trends was tested through Poisson regression. Results: In this study, 36,650 cases of colorectal cancer were observed for 10 years in Iran, which increased from 813 cases in 2000 to 6,210 cases in 2009. Gender ratio of men to women was 1.39. Significant increasing trends of colorectal cancer were observed during the period of the study. The standardized incidence rate increased from 1.6 per 100,000 persons per year in 2000 to 11.3 in 2009 in males (p<0.001), and it increased from 1.6 per 100,000 persons per year in 2000 to 10.9 in 2009 in females (p<0.001). Conclusion: Colorectal cancer has an increasing trend in Iran. The rising trend of colorectal cancer as well as other types of cancers is partially due to improvement in cancer registry systems in the early years of registry. Moreover, westernized lifestyle and an increase in environmental risks could explain this rising trend. PMID:27493926

  1. Temporal trends in vascular trauma in Ontario, 1991-2009: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Altoijry, Abdulmajeed; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Johnston, K. Wayne; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lindsay, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vascular injuries add substantial complexity to trauma care, yet Canadian epidemiologic data on such injuries are not readily available. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to examine temporal trends in the rate of hospital admissions for vascular injuries from 1991 to 2009 in Ontario. Methods: Individuals of any age admitted to hospital because of vascular trauma in Ontario were included. Details of vascular injury and patient demographic characteristics were recorded, hospital admission rates estimated and analyses stratified by sex, age, mechanism of injury, economic status and geographic location. Time-series analysis was used to examine trends in hospital admission rates. Results: Of the 8252 hospital admissions for vascular trauma, 4287 (52.0%) involved injuries to the upper limb and 1819 (22.0%) were due to transport-related causes. Overall, the annual rate declined significantly over time, from 3.3 per 100 000 in 1991 to 2.7 per 100 000 in 2009 (p < 0.01). The subgroups with the highest rates were young men, patients with a low economic status and those living in a rural location. Declines occurred in both sexes and in all age groups except those 65 years and older. The rates of vascular injury to the neck, thorax, upper limbs and lower limbs declined over time, but not the rate of abdominal vascular injury. Although the rate of non-transport-related vascular injuries declined, the rate of transport-related vascular injuries did not change significantly over time. Decreases in annual rates occurred in both low- and high-economic status groups and in urban populations but not in rural populations. Interpretation: Overall, the annual rate of hospital admissions for vascular trauma declined significantly in Ontario over the study period. Our findings have important implications for public health and the development of injury-prevention strategies, particularly for population subgroups at high risk of vascular injury. PMID:27398379

  2. Michael Shaffer, 6th July 1936 to 23rd March 2009: A heartfelt tribute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mr. Michael Shaffer, Retired Pyraloidea Curator, at the Natural History Museum, London, England, passed away on March 23, 2009. He was an acknowledged world expert on Pyraloidea, a group of agriculturally important moths. He was curator of the largest Pyraloidea type collection in the world, and a...

  3. Extent of Sinus Surgery, 2000–2009: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pynnonen, Melissa A.; Davis, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sinus surgery is one of the most frequently performed surgical operations. The objective was to determine if rates of surgery have changed over the last 10 years. Study Design Secondary data analysis of the State Ambulatory Surgery Database of Florida. Methods We calculated population adjusted rates of ambulatory sinus surgery for all adults, 2000–2009. Result There was a substantial decrease in the proportion of patients who had surgery in a hospital setting and a substantial increase in patients who had surgery with image guidance. Population-adjusted rates of sinus surgery increased over the study period, from a mean of 104 cases per 100,000 population in 2000 to 129 per 100,000 in 2009 (p<0.001). Procedure rates also increased, from a mean of 226 per 100,000 in 2000 to 316 per 100,000 in 2009 (p<0.001). Rates of frontal sinus procedures more than doubled, and rates of cases in which all 4 sinuses were treated tripled during the same time period. A greater number of sinus procedures was associated with use of image guidance, and high annual surgical case volume. The strongest predictor was the individual surgeon. Conclusion Rates of sinus surgery increased over the study period, with more patients undergoing surgery and more procedures per surgical case. The strong association of procedural patterns with specific surgeons in sinusitis care highlights the importance of future investigations to examine training, technological, and reimbursement factors that may influence surgeons’ clinical decision-making for this common condition. PMID:23900802

  4. Enhanced Pneumonia With Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in the major swine producing regions of North America consist of multiple subtypes of endemic H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (1). Genetic drift and r...

  5. Experimental Challenge with Two Isolates of 2009 A/H1N1 in Weaned Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species (1). Although the hemagglutinin gene is relate...

  6. [The 1st International Youth Ecologist Forum in China, 2009: a review].

    PubMed

    Xiong, You-cai; Xiong, Jun-lan; Li, Pu-fang; Li, Zhi-hua; Kong, Hai-yan; Wang, Shao-ming

    2011-04-01

    To promote the communication and cooperation between Chinese and overseas youth ecologists, a conference entitled "The 1st International Young Ecologist Forum" was held at Lanzhou University in June 29-30, 2009. This conference was organized by outstanding overseas ecologists and hosted by Lanzhou University. The presentations covered broad areas of ecology, including plant-soil interactions, structure and function of regional ecosystems, ecological security and ecological planning, global change ecology, and environmental sustainability, demonstrating that the development of China ecology is gradually from traditional basic research transforming into applied research. The presentations also reflected in some extent the development characteristics, evolution direction, and distribution pattern of China ecological research. China ecological research has gradually formed four centers, the Northeast, North, Northwest, and Southeast China, and each of them has its definite regional characteristics. Some suggestions about the organization form and future planning of the forum were put forward.

  7. Communicating uncertainty - how Australian television reported H1N1 risk in 2009: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health officials face particular challenges in communicating with the public about emerging infectious diseases of unknown severity such as the 2009 H1N1(swine 'flu) pandemic (pH1N1). Statements intended to create awareness and convey the seriousness of infectious disease threats can draw accusations of scare-mongering, while officials can be accused of complacency if such statements are not made. In these communication contexts, news journalists, often reliant on official sources to understand issues are pivotal in selecting and emphasising aspects of official discourse deemed sufficiently newsworthy to present to the public. This paper presents a case-study of news communication regarding the emergence of pH1N1. Methods We conducted a content analysis of all television news items about pH1N1. We examined news and current affairs items broadcast on 5 free-to-air Sydney television channels between April 25 2009 (the first report) and October 9 (prior to the vaccine release) for statements about [1] the seriousness of the disease [2] how the public could minimise contagion [3] government responses to emerging information. Results pH1N1 was the leading health story for eight of 24 weeks and was in the top 5 for 20 weeks. 353 news items were identified, yielding 3086 statements for analysis, with 63.4% related to the seriousness of the situation, 12.9% providing advice for viewers and 23.6% involving assurances from government. Coverage focused on infection/mortality rates, the spread of the virus, the need for public calm, the vulnerability of particular groups, direct and indirect advice for viewers, and government reassurances about effective management. Conclusions Overall, the reporting of 2009 pH1N1 in Sydney, Australia was generally non-alarmist, while conveying that pH1N1 was potentially serious. Daily infection rate tallies and commentary on changes in the pandemic alert level were seldom contextualised to assist viewers in understanding personal relevance. Suggestions are made about how future reporting of emerging infectious diseases could be enhanced. PMID:21435263

  8. Alcohol Use in the Greek System, 1999–2009: A Decade of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Capone, Christy

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the empirical literature on fraternity and sorority drinking published during the last decade. This body of 69 research studies indicates that both socialization and selection influence alcohol use in the Greek system, as do normative perceptions and the enabling environment of Greek housing. This review also details the individual and chapter-level interventions that have been implemented to address drinking in the Greek system. Limitations of the current survey and intervention literature suggest several promising directions for future research. PMID:20443768

  9. The State of Educational Data Mining in 2009: A Review and Future Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S. J. D.; Yacef, Kalina

    2009-01-01

    We review the history and current trends in the field of Educational Data Mining (EDM). We consider the methodological profile of research in the early years of EDM, compared to in 2008 and 2009, and discuss trends and shifts in the research conducted by this community. In particular, we discuss the increased emphasis on prediction, the emergence…

  10. Pattern of homicidal deaths autopsied at Penang Hospital, Malaysia, 2007-2009: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bhupinder, S; Kumara, T K; Syed, A M

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the homicide pattern in Penang Island, Malaysia over a three-year period (2007-2009). 65 homicide autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Penang Hospital over the study period. The homicide rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.09/1000 population, the highest being in the Indian ethnic group. The majority (37%) of victims were in the 20-39 years age group. The male: female ratio was 3:1. The majority of deaths were caused by blunt instruments (46%), followed by stab/slash wounds (25%) and asphyxiation (12%). 63% of homicides occurred in areas served by the police stations at Jalan Patani (23.1%), Sg. Nibong (16.9%), Central (12.3%) and Bayan Lepas (10.9%). 56 (86%) victims were brought in dead to the hospital, while 9 (14%) died after admission. Most (39%) incidences occurred in the morning. The methods of homicide were different from Kuala Lumpur, another highly urbanised area of Malaysia.

  11. The Florida Education Finance Program from 1981 to 2009: A Historical Review and Equity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Curtis Todd

    2009-01-01

    In 1973, the state of Florida implemented the Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP). The program was developed to distribute available funds to public school districts in a more equitable manner than the Minimum Foundation Plan it replaced. Almost immediately, the Florida Education Finance Program came under attack as less equitable and…

  12. Ethyl methanesulfonate toxicity in Viracept--a comprehensive human risk assessment based on threshold data for genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lutz; Gocke, Elmar; Lavé, Thierry; Pfister, Thomas

    2009-11-12

    Based on a production accident Viracept (nelfinavir mesilate) tablets, an HIV protease inhibitor supplied by Roche outside the US, Canada and Japan was contaminated with relatively high levels of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for at most 3 months in spring of 2007. On the basis of a wide variety of toxicological data including critical experiments for mutation induction under chronic exposure conditions and cross-species exposure scaling experiments to extrapolate to humans, we estimate the added risk of adverse effects (cancer, birth abnormalities, heritable defects) in any individual patient accidentally exposed to EMS via contaminated Viracept tablets in the context of this production accident as essentially zero. Of critical important for this risk assessment are pivotal in vivo genotoxicity studies (MNT, MutaMouse) providing evidence for 'hockey-stick', like dose-response relationships for the risk defining induction of gene mutations and chromosomal damage by EMS [Gocke, E., Müller, L., Pfister, T., Buergin, H., 2009a. Literature review on the genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity of ethyl methanesulfonate. Toxicol. Lett.; Gocke, E., Müller, L., Pfister, T., 2009b. EMS in Viracept-initial ('traditional') assessment of risk to patients based on linear dose response relations. Toxicol. Lett.; Gocke, E., Müller, L., Ballantyne, M., Whitwell, J., Müller, L., 2009c. MNT and MutaMouse studies to definde the in vivo dose-response relations of the genotoxicity of EMS and ENU. Toxicol. Lett.]. As outlined in Gocke and Wall [Gocke, E., Wall, M., 2009. In vivo genotoxicity of EMS: Statistical assessment of the dose response curves. Toxicol. Lett.], several statistical approaches are in support of a threshold model to best fit the data. The presence of clear no effect levels in bone marrow, liver and GI-tract tissue with several dose levels tested below the NOEL permits the calculation of safety factors with considerable confidence. In calculating

  13. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2010-12-01

    Recent geophysical studies have provided important constraints on the deep structure and origin of the active intraplate volcanoes in Mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab (e.g., Zhao et al., 2009a), while the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi) are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well (Zhao et al., 2009b). The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate) (Lei et al., 2009a). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle (Lei et al., 2009b; Zhao, 2009). The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab-plume interactions (Zhao, 2009). References Lei, J., D. Zhao, Y. Su, 2009a. Insight into the origin of the Tengchong intraplate volcano and seismotectonics in southwest China from local and teleseismic data. J. Geophys. Res. 114, B05302. Lei, J., D. Zhao, B. Steinberger et al., 2009b. New seismic constraints on the upper mantle structure of the Hainan plume. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 33-50. Zhao, D., 2009. Multiscale seismic tomography and mantle dynamics. Gondwana Res. 15, 297-323. Zhao, D., Z. Wang, N. Umino, A. Hasegawa, 2009a. Mapping the mantle wedge and interplate thrust zone of the northeast Japan arc. Tectonophysics 467, 89-106. Zhao, D., Y. Tian, J. Lei, L. Liu, 2009b. Seismic

  14. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2010-03-29

    The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 81 local earthquakes during the first quarter of FY 2010. Sixty-five of these earthquakes were detected in the vicinity of Wooded Island, located about eight miles north of Richland just west of the Columbia River. The Wooded Island events recorded this quarter is a continuation of the swarm events observed during fiscal year 2009 and reported in previous quarterly and annual reports (Rohay et al; 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, and 2009d). Most of the events were considered minor (coda-length magnitude [Mc] less than 1.0) with only 1 event in the 2.0-3.0 range; the maximum magnitude event (2.5 Mc) occurred on December 22 at depth 2.1 km. The average depth of the Wooded Island events during the quarter was 1.4 km with a maximum depth estimated at 3.1 km. This placed the Wooded Island events within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The low magnitude of the Wooded Island events has made them undetectable to all but local area residents. The Hanford SMA network was triggered several times by these events and the SMA recordings are discussed in section 6.0. During the last year some Hanford employees working within a few miles of the swarm area and individuals living directly across the Columbia River from the swarm center have reported feeling many of the larger magnitude events. Strong motion accelerometer (SMA) units installed directly above the swarm area at ground surface measured peak ground accelerations approaching 15% g, the largest values recorded at Hanford. This corresponds to strong shaking of the ground, consistent with what people in the local area have reported. However, the duration and magnitude of these swarm events should not result in any structural damage to facilities. The USGS performed a geophysical survey using satellite

  15. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Devary, Joseph L.; Hartshorn, Donald C.

    2010-12-27

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. During FY 2010, the Hanford Seismic Network recorded 873 triggers on the seismometer system, which included 259 seismic events in the southeast Washington area and an additional 324 regional and teleseismic events. There were 210 events determined to be local earthquakes relevant to the Hanford Site. One hundred and fifty-five earthquakes were detected in the vicinity of Wooded Island, located about eight miles north of Richland just west of the Columbia River. The Wooded Island events recorded this fiscal year were a continuation of the swarm events observed during fiscal year 2009 and reported in previous quarterly and annual reports (Rohay et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2010a, 2010b, and 2010c). Most events were considered minor (coda-length magnitude [Mc] less than 1.0) with the largest event recorded on February 4, 2010 (3.0Mc). The estimated depths of the Wooded Island events are shallow (averaging approximately 1.5 km deep) placing the swarm within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Based upon the last two quarters (Q3 and Q4) data, activity at the Wooded Island

  16. Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2010-06-30

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 90 local earthquakes during the second quarter of FY 2010. Eighty-one of these earthquakes were detected in the vicinity of Wooded Island, located about eight miles north of Richland just west of the Columbia River. The Wooded Island events recorded this quarter were a continuation of the swarm events observed during the 2009 and 2010 fiscal years and reported in previous quarterly and annual reports (Rohay et al; 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, and 2010). Most of the events were considered minor (coda-length magnitude [Mc] less than 1.0) with only 1 event in the 2.0-3.0 range; the maximum magnitude event (3.0 Mc) occurred February 4, 2010 at depth 2.4 km. The average depth of the Wooded Island events during the quarter was 1.6 km with a maximum depth estimated at 3.5 km. This placed the Wooded Island events within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The low magnitude of the Wooded Island events has made them undetectable to all but local area residents. The Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer (SMA) network was triggered several times

  17. Implementation of a model of bodily fluids regulation.

    PubMed

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie; Thomas, S Randall

    2015-09-01

    The classic model of blood pressure regulation by Guyton et al. (Annu Rev Physiol 34:13-46, 1972a; Ann Biomed Eng 1:254-281, 1972b) set a new standard for quantitative exploration of physiological function and led to important new insights, some of which still remain the focus of debate, such as whether the kidney plays the primary role in the genesis of hypertension (Montani et al. in Exp Physiol 24:41-54, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:382-388, 2009b; Osborn et al. in Exp Physiol 94:389-396, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:388-389, 2009b). Key to the success of this model was the fact that the authors made the computer code (in FORTRAN) freely available and eventually provided a convivial user interface for exploration of model behavior on early microcomputers (Montani et al. in Int J Bio-med Comput 24:41-54, 1989). Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979) developed an offshoot of the Guyton model targeting especially the regulation of body fluids and acid-base balance; their model provides extended renal and respiratory functions and would be a good basis for further extensions. In the interest of providing a simple, useable version of Ikeda et al.'s model and to facilitate further such extensions, we present a practical implementation of the model of Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979), using the ODE solver Berkeley Madonna.

  18. Implementation of a model of bodily fluids regulation.

    PubMed

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie; Thomas, S Randall

    2015-09-01

    The classic model of blood pressure regulation by Guyton et al. (Annu Rev Physiol 34:13-46, 1972a; Ann Biomed Eng 1:254-281, 1972b) set a new standard for quantitative exploration of physiological function and led to important new insights, some of which still remain the focus of debate, such as whether the kidney plays the primary role in the genesis of hypertension (Montani et al. in Exp Physiol 24:41-54, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:382-388, 2009b; Osborn et al. in Exp Physiol 94:389-396, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:388-389, 2009b). Key to the success of this model was the fact that the authors made the computer code (in FORTRAN) freely available and eventually provided a convivial user interface for exploration of model behavior on early microcomputers (Montani et al. in Int J Bio-med Comput 24:41-54, 1989). Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979) developed an offshoot of the Guyton model targeting especially the regulation of body fluids and acid-base balance; their model provides extended renal and respiratory functions and would be a good basis for further extensions. In the interest of providing a simple, useable version of Ikeda et al.'s model and to facilitate further such extensions, we present a practical implementation of the model of Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979), using the ODE solver Berkeley Madonna. PMID:25935135

  19. Survey of the States: Economic, Personal Finance & Entrepreneurship Education in Our Nation's Schools in 2009. A Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Economic Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Survey of the States is a bi-annual report that documents the state of economic, personal finance and entrepreneurship education in the fifty states (and the District of Columbia), conducted by the Council for Economic Education and sponsored by State Farm Insurance Companies. This report presents summary findings as well as state-by-state…

  20. Trends in health care utilization and costs attributable to hepatocellular carcinoma, 2002–2009: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thein, H.H.; Qiao, Y.; Young, S.K.; Zarin, W.; Yoshida, E.M.; de Oliveira, C.; Earle, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) and the complexity of its diagnosis and treatment are increasing. We estimated trends in net health care utilization, costs of care attributable to hcc in Ontario, and rate ratios of resource use at various stages of care. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study identified hcc patients and non-cancer control subjects, and health care resource utilization between 2002 and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were then used to estimate net health care utilization (hcc patients vs. the matched control subjects) and net costs of care attributable to hcc. Generalized linear models were used to analyze rate ratios of resource use. Results We identified 2832 hcc patients and 2808 matched control subjects. In comparison with the control subjects, hcc patients generally used a greater number of health care services. Overall, the mean net cost of care per 30 patient–days (2013 Canadian dollars) attributable to outpatient visits and hospitalizations was highest in the pre-diagnosis (1 year before diagnosis), initial (1st year after diagnosis), and end-of-life (last 6 months before death, short-term survivors) phases. Mean net homecare costs were highest in the end-of-life phase (long-term survivors). In the end-of-life phase (short-term survivors), mean net costs attributable to outpatient visits and total services significantly increased to $14,220 from $1,547 and to $33,121 from $14,450 (2008–2009 and 2002–2003 respectively). Conclusions In hcc, our study found increasing resource use and net costs of care, particularly in the end-of-life phase among short-term survivors. Our findings offer a basis for resource allocation decisions in the area of cancer prevention and control. PMID:27330357

  1. Direct costs of inequalities in health care utilization in Germany 1994 to 2009: a top-down projection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health are a characteristic of almost all European Welfare States. It has been estimated, that this is associated with annual costs that amount to approximately 9% of total member state GDP. We investigated the influence of inequalities in German health care utilization on direct medical costs. Methods We used longitudinal data from a representative panel study (German Socio-Economic Panel Study) covering 1994 to 2010. The sample consisted of respondents aged 18 years or older. We used additional data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents, conducted between 2003 and 2006, to report utilization for male and female participants aged from 0 to 17 years. We analyzed inequalities in health care using negative binomial regression models and top-down cost estimates. Results Men in the lowest income group (less than 60% of median income) had a 1.3-fold (95% CI: 1.2-1.4) increased number of doctor visits and a 2.2-fold (95% CI: 1.9-2.6) increased number of hospital days per year, when compared with the highest income group; the corresponding differences were 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0-1.1) and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2-1.5) for women. Depending on the underlying scenario used, direct costs for health care due to health inequalities were increased by approximately 2 billion to 25 billion euros per year. The best case scenario (the whole population is as healthy and uses an equivalent amount of resources as the well-off) would have hypothetically reduced the costs of health care by 16 to 25 billion euros per year. Conclusions Our findings indicate that inequalities and inequities in health care utilization exist in Germany, with respect to income position, and are associated with considerable direct costs. Additional research is needed to analyze the indirect costs of health inequalities and to replicate the current findings using different methodologies. PMID:23844804

  2. Imported Malaria in Portugal 2000–2009: A Role for Hospital Statistics for Better Estimates and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Sara S.; Baptista, João Luis; Torgal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although eradicated in Portugal, malaria keeps taking its toll on travelers and migrants from endemic countries. Disease notification is mandatory but is compromised by underreporting. Methods. A retrospective study on malaria hospitalizations for 10 consecutive years (2000–2009) was conducted. Data on hospitalizations and notifications were obtained from Central Administration of Health System and Health Protection Agency, respectively. For data selection ICD-9 CM and ICD-10 were used: codes 084*, 647.4, and B50–B54. Variables were gender, age, agent and origin of infection, length of stay (LOS), lethality, and comorbidities. Analysis included description, hypothesis testing, and regression. Results. There were 2003 malaria hospitalizations and 480 notified hospitalized cases, mainly in young male adults. P. falciparum was the main agent of infection acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Lethality was 1.95% and mean LOS was 8.09 days. Older age entailed longer LOS and increased lethality. Discussion. From 2000 to 2009, there were 2003 malaria hospitalizations with decreasing annual incidence, these numbers being remarkably higher than those notified. The national database of diagnosis related groups, reflecting hospitalizations on NHS hospitals, may be an unexplored complementary source for better estimates on imported malaria. PMID:25548715

  3. Contributions of Indian conservative dentists and endodontists to the Medline database during 1996–2009: A bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poorni, Saravanan; Ramachandran, S; Rooban, T; Kumar, PD Madan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Analysis of publication trends will guide the policy framers, administrators, and dentists to frame future policies and design programs for the development of scientific and technological policies in the field of dentistry. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken to assess the trends in Indian Conservative dentists and endodontists’ Publication in PubMed-Medline database during 1996–2009. Materials and Methods: Using the time limitation of publication date limit of 1st January 1996 to 31st December 2009, all articles where authors’ affiliation had the words Dental AND India were selected. From this collection of articles, the following were noted down: year of publication, number of authors, name of the journal, reach of the journal, status of the journal, specialty of the first, state of origin, and type of research. From this database, the performance of department of conservative dentistry and endodontics was analyzed. Results: The number of articles published by conservative dentists and endodontists was 124. Among them, 63 got published in international journals and 61 in Indian journals. A majority of 33 journals were published in Indian Journal of Dental Research followed by 25 in the Journal of Conservative Dentistry. Out of these articles, 66 were on the basis of original research done by the authors. Nearly 45.2% of the published articles were from the institutes in Tamil Nadu, followed by Karnataka (30.6%), and Maharashtra (8.1%). Although the overall distribution of the publication trends seems to be constant from 1996 to 2006, there seems to be boom in the publication trend since 2007. PMID:21217943

  4. Incidence of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses in England, 1950–2009: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kirkbride, James B.; Errazuriz, Antonia; Croudace, Tim J.; Morgan, Craig; Jackson, Daniel; Boydell, Jane; Murray, Robin M.; Jones, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates in England over a sixty-year period to determine the extent to which rates varied along accepted (age, sex) and less-accepted epidemiological gradients (ethnicity, migration and place of birth and upbringing, time). Objectives To determine variation in incidence of several psychotic disorders as above. Data Sources Published and grey literature searches (MEDLINE, PSycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, ASSIA, HMIC), and identification of unpublished data through bibliographic searches and author communication. Study Eligibility Criteria Published 1950–2009; conducted wholly or partially in England; original data on incidence of non-organic adult-onset psychosis or one or more factor(s) pertaining to incidence. Participants People, 16–64 years, with first -onset psychosis, including non-affective psychoses, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic depression and substance-induced psychosis. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Title, abstract and full-text review by two independent raters to identify suitable citations. Data were extracted to a standardized extraction form. Descriptive appraisals of variation in rates, including tables and forest plots, and where suitable, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions to test specific hypotheses; rate heterogeneity was assessed by the I2-statistic. Results 83 citations met inclusion. Pooled incidence of all psychoses (N = 9) was 31.7 per 100,000 person-years (95%CI: 24.6–40.9), 23.2 (95%CI: 18.3–29.5) for non-affective psychoses (N = 8), 15.2 (95%CI: 11.9–19.5) for schizophrenia (N = 15) and 12.4 (95%CI: 9.0–17.1) for affective psychoses (N = 7). This masked rate heterogeneity (I2: 0.54–0.97), possibly explained by socio-environmental factors; our review confirmed (via meta-regression) the typical age-sex interaction in psychosis risk, including secondary peak onset in women after 45 years. Rates of most disorders were elevated in several ethnic minority groups compared with the white (British) population. For example, for schizophrenia: black Caribbean (pooled RR: 5.6; 95%CI: 3.4–9.2; N = 5), black African (pooled RR: 4.7; 95%CI: 3.3–6.8; N = 5) and South Asian groups in England (pooled RR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.3–4.5; N = 3). We found no evidence to support an overall change in the incidence of psychotic disorder over time, though diagnostic shifts (away from schizophrenia) were reported. Limitations Incidence studies were predominantly cross-sectional, limiting causal inference. Heterogeneity, while evidencing important variation, suggested pooled estimates require interpretation alongside our descriptive systematic results. Conclusions and Implications of Key Findings Incidence of psychotic disorders varied markedly by age, sex, place and migration status/ethnicity. Stable incidence over time, together with a robust socio-environmental epidemiology, provides a platform for developing prediction models for health service planning. PMID:22457710

  5. Mortality Attributable to Seasonal Influenza A and B Infections in Thailand, 2005–2009: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ben S.; Kotirum, Surachai; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Coker, Richard; Teerawattananon, Yot; Meeyai, Aronrag

    2015-01-01

    Influenza epidemiology differs substantially in tropical and temperate zones, but estimates of seasonal influenza mortality in developing countries in the tropics are lacking. We aimed to quantify mortality due to seasonal influenza in Thailand, a tropical middle-income country. Time series of polymerase chain reaction–confirmed influenza infections between 2005 and 2009 were constructed from a sentinel surveillance network. These were combined with influenza-like illness data to derive measures of influenza activity and relationships to mortality by using a Bayesian regression framework. We estimated 6.1 (95% credible interval: 0.5, 12.4) annual deaths per 100,000 population attributable to influenza A and B, predominantly in those aged ≥60 years, with the largest contribution from influenza A(H1N1) in 3 out of 4 years. For A(H3N2), the relationship between influenza activity and mortality varied over time. Influenza was associated with increases in deaths classified as resulting from respiratory disease (posterior probability of positive association, 99.8%), cancer (98.6%), renal disease (98.0%), and liver disease (99.2%). No association with circulatory disease mortality was found. Seasonal influenza infections are associated with substantial mortality in Thailand, but evidence for the strong relationship between influenza activity and circulatory disease mortality reported in temperate countries is lacking. PMID:25899091

  6. Multi-decadal aerosol variations from 1980 to 2009: a perspective from observations and a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Prospero, J. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Remer, L. A.; Yu, H.; Sayer, A. M.; Bian, H.; Geogdzhayev, I. V.; Holben, B. N.; Howell, S. G.; Huebert, B. J.; Hsu, N. C.; Kim, D.; Kucsera, T. L.; Levy, R. C.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Pan, X.; Quinn, P. K.; Schuster, G. L.; Streets, D. G.; Strode, S. A.; Torres, O.; Zhao, X.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerosol variations and trends over different land and ocean regions from 1980 to 2009 are analyzed with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model and observations from multiple satellite sensors and available ground-based networks. Excluding time periods with large volcanic influence, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface concentration over polluted land regions generally vary with anthropogenic emissions, but the magnitude of this association can be dampened by the presence of natural aerosols, especially dust. Over the 30-year period in this study, the largest reduction in aerosol levels occurs over Europe, where AOD has decreased by 40-60% on average and surface sulfate concentrations have declined by a factor of up to 3-4. In contrast, East Asia and South Asia show AOD increases, but the relatively high level of dust aerosols in Asia reduces the correlation between AOD and pollutant emission trends. Over major dust source regions, model analysis indicates that the change of dust emissions over the Sahara and Sahel has been predominantly driven by the change of near-surface wind speed, but over Central Asia it has been largely influenced by the change of the surface wetness. The decreasing dust trend in the North African dust outflow region of the tropical North Atlantic and the receptor sites of Barbados and Miami is closely associated with an increase of the sea surface temperature in the North Atlantic. This temperature increase may drive the decrease of the wind velocity over North Africa, which reduces the dust emission, and the increase of precipitation over the tropical North Atlantic, which enhances dust removal during transport. Despite significant trends over some major continental source regions, the model-calculated global annual average AOD shows little change over land and ocean in the past three decades, because opposite trends in different land regions cancel each other out in the global average, and changes over large open oceans are negligible. This highlights the necessity for regional-scale assessment of aerosols and their climate impacts, as global-scale average values can obscure important regional changes.

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days) in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD) (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good) were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1) times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly associated with frequent insufficient sleep during adulthood in this population. ACEs could be potential indicators promoting further investigation of sleep insufficiency, along with consideration of FMD and smoking. PMID:23286392

  8. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.49 %…

  9. Research Trends in Technology-Based Learning from 2000 to 2009: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yu-Chen; Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a content analysis of studies in technology-based learning (TBL) that were published in five Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) journals (i.e. "the British Journal of Educational Technology, Computers & Education, Educational Technology Research & Development, Educational Technology & Society, the Journal of Computer…

  10. Influenza vaccination in the Americas: Progress and challenges after the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Ropero-Álvarez, Alba María; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Kurtis, Hannah Jane; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There has been considerable uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Americas compared to other regions. We describe the current influenza vaccination target groups, recent progress in vaccine uptake and in generating evidence on influenza seasonality and vaccine effectiveness for immunization programs. We also discuss persistent challenges, 5 years after the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic. Methods: We compiled and summarized data annually reported by countries to the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) through the WHO/UNICEF joint report form on immunization, information obtained through PAHO's Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement and communications with managers of national Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI). Results: Since 2008, 25 countries/territories in the Americas have introduced new target groups for vaccination or expanded the age ranges of existing target groups. As of 2014, 40 (89%) out of 45 countries/territories have policies established for seasonal influenza vaccination. Currently, 29 (64%) countries/territories target pregnant women for vaccination, the highest priority group according to WHO´s Stategic Advisory Group of Experts and PAHO/WHO's Technical Advisory Group on Vaccine-preventable Diseases, compared to only 7 (16%) in 2008. Among 23 countries reporting coverage data, on average, 75% of adults ≥60 years, 45% of children aged 6–23 months, 32% of children aged 5–2 years, 59% of pregnant women, 78% of healthcare workers, and 90% of individuals with chronic conditions were vaccinated during the 2013–14 Northern Hemisphere or 2014 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccination activities. Difficulties however persist in the estimation of vaccination coverage, especially for pregnant women and persons with chronic conditions. Since 2007, 6 tropical countries have changed their vaccine formulation from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere formulation and the timing of their campaigns to April-May following the review of national evidence. LAC countries have also established an official network dedicated to evaluating influenza vaccines effectiveness and impact. Conclusion: Following the A(H1N1)2009 influenza pandemic, countries of the Americas have continued their efforts to sustain or increase seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among high risk groups, especially among pregnant women. Countries also continued strengthening influenza surveillance, immunization platforms and information systems, indirectly improving preparedness for future pandemics. Influenza vaccination is particularly challenging compared to other vaccines included in EPI schedules, due to the need for annual, optimally timed vaccination, the wide spectrum of target groups, and the limitations of the available vaccines. Countries should continue to monitor influenza vaccination coverage, generate evidence for vaccination programs and implement social communication strategies addressing existing gaps. PMID:27196006

  11. Rapid research response to the 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza pandemic (Revised)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When novel influenza viruses cause human infections, it is critical to characterize the illnesses, viruses, and immune responses to infection in order to develop diagnostics, treatments, and vaccines. The objective of the study was to collect samples from patients with suspected or confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that could be made available to the scientific community. Respiratory secretions, sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected sequentially (when possible) from patients presenting with suspected or previously confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infections. Clinical manifestations and illness outcomes were assessed. Respiratory secretions were tested for the presence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by means of isolation in tissue culture and real time RT-PCR. Sera were tested for the presence and level of HAI and neutralizing antibodies against the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Findings and conclusions Thirty patients with confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were enrolled at Baylor College of Medicine (BCM). Clinical manifestations of illness were consistent with typical influenza. Twenty-eight of 30 had virological confirmation of illness; all recovered fully. Most patients had serum antibody responses or high levels of antibody in convalescent samples. Virus-positive samples were sent to J. Craig Venter Institute for sequencing and sequences were deposited in GenBank. Large volumes of sera collected from 2 convalescent adults were used to standardize antibody assays; aliquots of these sera are available from the repository. Aliquots of serum, PBMCs and stool collected from BCM subjects and subjects enrolled at other study sites are available for use by the scientific community, upon request. PMID:23641940

  12. Stability and Change in New York State Regents Mathematics Examinations, 1866-2009: A Socio-Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Robert Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation illuminates relationships between micro-level practices of schools and macro-level structures of society through the socio-historical lens of New York State Regents mathematics examinations, which were administered to public school students throughout the State of New York between 1866 and 2009, inclusive. Fundamental research…

  13. Risk factors for acute hepatitis A infection in Korea in 2007 and 2009: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joo Youn; Choi, Bo Youl; Ki, Moran; Jang, Hye Lim; Park, Hee Suk; Son, Hyun Jin; Bae, Si Hyun; Kang, Jin Han; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Jin-Woo; Hong, Young Jin; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Chang-Hwi; Chang, U Im; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Kim, Hong Soo; Park, Kyeong Bae; Hwang, Jae Seok; Heo, Jeong; Kim, In Hee; Kim, Jung Soo; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the Korean population. Participants were recruited from five referral hospitals across the country in 2007 and from 11 hospitals in 2009. Patients with positive anti-HAV IgM antibody tests became the case group, while patients treated for non-contagious diseases at the same hospitals were recruited as controls. A total of 222 and 548 case-control pairs were studied in the 2007 and 2009 surveys, respectively. Data from the surveys were analyzed jointly. In a multivariate analysis, sharing the household with HAV-infected family members (OR, 6.32; 95% CI, 1.4-29.6), contact with other HAV-infected individuals (OR, 4.73; 95% CI, 2.4-9.4), overseas travel in 2007 (OR, 19.93; 95% CI, 2.3-174.4), consumption of raw shellfish (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.8-3.5), drinking bottled water (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4), and occupation that involve handling food (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4) increased the risk of HAV infection. Avoiding contact with HAV-infected individuals and avoiding raw foods eating could help minimize the risk of hepatitis A infection. Immunization must be beneficial to individuals who handle food ingredients occupationally or travel overseas to HAV-endemic areas.

  14. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.049% to 0.49%, while other child disabilities in NII increased only 1.65-fold. There was a consistent increase in ASD incidence with advancing birth cohorts born 1992-2004, stabilizing among those born 2005-2009. ASD rates among Israeli Arabs were substantially lower, and increased about 10 years later than the general population. The findings suggest a role for ASD awareness, accessing of the government benefit, or the way the concept of ASD is perceived. PMID:25287899

  15. MODULATION OF GALACTIC ELECTRONS IN THE HELIOSPHERE DURING THE UNUSUAL SOLAR MINIMUM OF 2006–2009: A MODELING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Potgieter, M. S.; Vos, E. E.; Munini, R.; Boezio, M.; Felice, V. Di

    2015-09-10

    The last solar minimum activity period, and the consequent minimum modulation conditions for cosmic rays, was unusual. The highest levels of Galactic protons were recorded at Earth in late 2009 in contrast to expectations. A comprehensive model was used to study the proton modulation for the period from 2006 to 2009 in order to determine what basic processes were responsible for solar modulation during this period and why it differs from proton modulation during previous solar minimum modulation periods. This established model is now applied to studying the solar modulation of electron spectra as observed for 80 MeV–30 GeV by the PAMELA space detector from mid-2006 to the end of 2009. Over this period the heliospheric magnetic field had decreased significantly until the end of 2009 while the waviness of the heliospheric current sheet decreased moderately and the observed electron spectra increased by a factor of ∼1.5 at 1.0 GeV to ∼3.5 at 100 MeV. In order to reproduce the modulation evident from seven consecutive semesters, the diffusion coefficients had to increase moderately while maintaining the basic rigidity dependence. It is confirmed that the main diffusion coefficients are independent of rigidity below ∼0.5 GV, while the drift coefficient had to be reduced below this value. The 2006–2009 solar minimum epoch indeed was different than previously observed minima, at least since the beginning of the space exploration era. This period could be called “diffusion-dominated” as was also found for the modulation of protons.

  16. Real-time numerical forecast of global epidemic spreading: case study of 2009 A/H1N1pdm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematical and computational models for infectious diseases are increasingly used to support public-health decisions; however, their reliability is currently under debate. Real-time forecasts of epidemic spread using data-driven models have been hindered by the technical challenges posed by parameter estimation and validation. Data gathered for the 2009 H1N1 influenza crisis represent an unprecedented opportunity to validate real-time model predictions and define the main success criteria for different approaches. Methods We used the Global Epidemic and Mobility Model to generate stochastic simulations of epidemic spread worldwide, yielding (among other measures) the incidence and seeding events at a daily resolution for 3,362 subpopulations in 220 countries. Using a Monte Carlo Maximum Likelihood analysis, the model provided an estimate of the seasonal transmission potential during the early phase of the H1N1 pandemic and generated ensemble forecasts for the activity peaks in the northern hemisphere in the fall/winter wave. These results were validated against the real-life surveillance data collected in 48 countries, and their robustness assessed by focusing on 1) the peak timing of the pandemic; 2) the level of spatial resolution allowed by the model; and 3) the clinical attack rate and the effectiveness of the vaccine. In addition, we studied the effect of data incompleteness on the prediction reliability. Results Real-time predictions of the peak timing are found to be in good agreement with the empirical data, showing strong robustness to data that may not be accessible in real time (such as pre-exposure immunity and adherence to vaccination campaigns), but that affect the predictions for the attack rates. The timing and spatial unfolding of the pandemic are critically sensitive to the level of mobility data integrated into the model. Conclusions Our results show that large-scale models can be used to provide valuable real-time forecasts of influenza spreading, but they require high-performance computing. The quality of the forecast depends on the level of data integration, thus stressing the need for high-quality data in population-based models, and of progressive updates of validated available empirical knowledge to inform these models. PMID:23237460

  17. Web 2.0 and Its Use in Higher Education from 2007-2009: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Kalk, Debby; Kinney, Lance; Orr, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature on Web 2.0 uses in higher education from 2007-2009. The goals of this review were (1) to identify what Web 2.0 technologies were used in college level instruction, and (2) to examine any research evidence that Web 2.0 technologies could enhance teaching and learning. Conference proceedings from 2007 to 2009…

  18. Efficacy of Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccines Against the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species. Although its hemagglutinin gene is related to North Ameri...

  19. Cancer screening in the United States, 2009: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and issues in cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Cokkinides, Vilma; Brawley, Otis W

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a report summarizing its recommendations for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In 2008, the ACS, the American Gastroenterological Association, the American College of Gastroenterology, the Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, and the American College of Radiology issued a joint update of guidelines for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk adults. In this issue, the current ACS guidelines and recent issues are summarized, updates of testing guidelines for early prostate cancer detection and colorectal cancer screening by the United States Preventive Services Task Force are discussed, and the most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the National Health Interview Survey pertaining to participation rates in cancer screening are described.

  20. Multi-Decadal Aerosol Variations from 1980 to 2009: A Perspective from Observations and a Global Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Prospero, J. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Remer, L. A.; Yu, H.; Sayer, A. M.; Bian, H.; Geogdzhayev, I. V.; Holben, B. N.; Howell, S. G.; Huebert, B. J.; Hsu, N. C.; Kim, D.; Kucsera, T. L.; Levy, R. C.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Pan, X.; Quinn, P. K.; Schuster, G. L.; Streets, D. G.; Strode, S. A.; Torres, O.; Zhao, X.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol variations and trends over different land and ocean regions during 1980-2009 are analyzed with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model and observations from multiple satellite sensors and ground-based networks. Excluding time periods with large volcanic influences, the tendency of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface concentration over polluted land regions is consistent with the anthropogenic emission changes.The largest reduction occurs over Europe, and regions in North America and Russia also exhibit reductions. On the other hand, East Asia and South Asia show AOD increases, although relatively large amount of natural aerosols in Asia makes the total changes less directly connected to the pollutant emission trends. Over major dust source regions, model analysis indicates that the dust emissions over the Sahara and Sahel respond mainly to the near-surface wind speed, but over Central Asia they are largely influenced by ground wetness. The decreasing dust trend in the tropical North Atlantic is most closely associated with the decrease of Sahel dust emission and increase of precipitation over the tropical North Atlantic, likely driven by the sea surface temperature increase. Despite significant regional trends, the model-calculated global annual average AOD shows little changes over land and ocean in the past three decades, because opposite trends in different regions cancel each other in the global average. This highlights the need for regional-scale aerosol assessment, as the global average value conceals regional changes, and thus is not sufficient for assessing changes in aerosol loading.

  1. Trends in Esophageal Cancer Survival in United States Adults from 1973 to 2009: A SEER Database Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Njei, Basile; McCarty, Thomas R.; Birk, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in incidence of esophageal cancer (EC) in the United States (U.S.) over the last four decades has been well documented; however, data on trends in long-term survival and impact on modern therapies associated with survival is lacking. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried to identify patients with confirmed EC. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine independent mortality factors. Results Of 93,167 patients diagnosed with EC between 1973 and 2009, 49% had a histologic diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). There was an increase (almost double) in the proportion of patients with adenocarcinoma from the 1970's to 2000's (n = 2,350; 35% to n = 32,212; 61%, p<0.001). Surgery was performed for localized disease in a majority of EC regardless of type (n = 46,683; 89%). Use of surgical treatment increased significantly over the study period (49% to 64%, p<0.001). There was also an increase in overall median survival (6 months versus 10 months, p<0.001) and 5-year survival rate (9% to 22%, p<0.001). Median survival increased consistently for EAC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) until the 1990's. After this period, median survival of EAC continued to increase more rapidly while SCC remained relatively stable. Conclusion A significant survival improvement in esophageal cancer was seen from 1973 to 2009, largely due to earlier detection at a curative stage and greater utilization of treatment modalities (especially surgery). Despite the rising prevalence, patients with EAC have better long-term survival outcomes than those SCC. PMID:26749521

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil, 2005 through 2009: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies and associated risk factors in the urban population of Brazil. Methods The cross sectional study was conducted in all Brazilian macro-regions from 2005 to 2009, as a stratified multistage cluster sample of 19,503 inhabitants aged between 10 and 69 years, representing individuals living in all 26 State capitals and the Federal District. Hepatitis C antibodies were detected by a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. Seropositive individuals were retested by Polymerase Chain Reaction and genotyped. Adjusted prevalence was estimated by macro-regions. Potential risk factors associated with HCV infection were assessed by calculating the crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and p values. Population attributable risk was estimated for multiple factors using a case–control approach. Results The overall weighted prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies was 1.38% (95% CI: 1.12%–1.64%). Prevalence of infection increased in older groups but was similar for both sexes. The multivariate model showed the following to be predictors of HCV infection: age, injected drug use (OR = 6.65), sniffed drug use (OR = 2.59), hospitalization (OR = 1.90), groups socially deprived by the lack of sewage disposal (OR = 2.53), and injection with glass syringe (OR = 1.52, with a borderline p value). The genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b), 2b and 3a were identified. The estimated population attributable risk for the ensemble of risk factors was 40%. Approximately 1.3 million individuals would be expected to be anti-HCV-positive in the country. Conclusions The large estimated absolute numbers of infected individuals reveals the burden of the disease in the near future, giving rise to costs for the health care system and society at large. The known risk factors explain less than 50% of the infected cases, limiting the prevention strategies. Our findings regarding risk behaviors associated with HCV infection showed that there is still room for improving strategies for reducing transmission among drug users and nosocomial infection, as well as a need for specific prevention and control strategies targeting individuals living in poverty. PMID:23374914

  3. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    The precise estimation of the global agricultural cropland- extents, areas, geographic locations, crop types, cropping intensities, and their watering methods (irrigated or rainfed; type of irrigation) provides a critical scientific basis for the development of water and food security policies (Thenkabail et al., 2012, 2011, 2010). By year 2100, the global human population is expected to grow to 10.4 billion under median fertility variants or higher under constant or higher fertility variants (Table 1) with over three quarters living in developing countries, in regions that already lack the capacity to produce enough food. With current agricultural practices, the increased demand for food and nutrition would require in about 2 billion hectares of additional cropland, about twice the equivalent to the land area of the United States, and lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas productions (Tillman et al., 2011). For example, during 1960-2010 world population more than doubled from 3 billion to 7 billion. The nutritional demand of the population also grew swiftly during this period from an average of about 2000 calories per day per person in 1960 to nearly 3000 calories per day per person in 2010. The food demand of increased population along with increased nutritional demand during this period (1960-2010) was met by the “green revolution” which more than tripled the food production; even though croplands decreased from about 0.43 ha/capita to 0.26 ha/capita (FAO, 2009). The increase in food production during the green revolution was the result of factors such as: (a) expansion in irrigated areas which increased from 130 Mha in 1960s to 278.4 Mha in year 2000 (Siebert et al., 2006) or 399 Mha when you do not consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2009c) or 467 Mha when you consider cropping intensity (Thenkabail et al., 2009a; Thenkabail et al., 2009c); (b) increase in yield and per capita food production (e.g., cereal production

  4. The Chameleon Solid Rocket Propulsion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2010-01-28

    The Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) Chameleon Model presents an addition to the gravitation force and was shown by the author (Robertson, 2009a and 2009b) to present a new means by which one can view other forces in the Universe. The Chameleon Model is basically a density-dependent model and while the idea is not new, this model is novel in that densities in the Universe to include the vacuum of space are viewed as scalar fields. Such an analogy gives the Chameleon scalar field, dark energy/dark matter like characteristics; fitting well within cosmological expansion theories. In respect to this forum, in this paper, it is shown how the Chameleon Model can be used to derive the thrust of a solid rocket motor. This presents a first step toward the development of new propulsion models using density variations verse mass ejection as the mechanism for thrust. Further, through the Chameleon Model connection, these new propulsion models can be tied to dark energy/dark matter toward new space propulsion systems utilizing the vacuum scalar field in a way understandable by engineers, the key toward the development of such systems. This paper provides corrections to the Chameleon rocket model in Robertson (2009b).

  5. The Chameleon Solid Rocket Propulsion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2010-01-01

    The Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) Chameleon Model presents an addition to the gravitation force and was shown by the author (Robertson, 2009a and 2009b) to present a new means by which one can view other forces in the Universe. The Chameleon Model is basically a density-dependent model and while the idea is not new, this model is novel in that densities in the Universe to include the vacuum of space are viewed as scalar fields. Such an analogy gives the Chameleon scalar field, dark energy/dark matter like characteristics; fitting well within cosmological expansion theories. In respect to this forum, in this paper, it is shown how the Chameleon Model can be used to derive the thrust of a solid rocket motor. This presents a first step toward the development of new propulsion models using density variations verse mass ejection as the mechanism for thrust. Further, through the Chameleon Model connection, these new propulsion models can be tied to dark energy/dark matter toward new space propulsion systems utilizing the vacuum scalar field in a way understandable by engineers, the key toward the development of such systems. This paper provides corrections to the Chameleon rocket model in Robertson (2009b).

  6. Hawaiian forest bird trends: using log-linear models to assess long-term trends is supported by model diagnostics and assumptions (reply to Freed and Cann 2013)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Jeffrey, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Freed and Cann (2013) criticized our use of linear models to assess trends in the status of Hawaiian forest birds through time (Camp et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2010) by questioning our sampling scheme, whether we met model assumptions, and whether we ignored short-term changes in the population time series. In the present paper, we address these concerns and reiterate that our results do not support the position of Freed and Cann (2013) that the forest birds in the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) are declining, or that the federally listed endangered birds are showing signs of imminent collapse. On the contrary, our data indicate that the 21-year long-term trends for native birds in Hakalau Forest NWR are stable to increasing, especially in areas that have received active management.

  7. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Scott J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is intended to provide the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its safeguards obligations. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of IAEA safeguards as those safeguards evolve towards a “State-Level approach.” The Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept can facilitate the implementation of these effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards (Bjornard, et al. 2009a, 2009b; IAEA, 1998; Wonder & Hockert, 2011). This report, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, introduces a methodology intended to ensure that the diverse approaches to Safeguards by Design can be effectively integrated and consistently used to cost effectively enhance the application of international safeguards.

  8. Occurrence of Tornadoes Linked to Solar Wind Magnetic Sector Boundaries and High-speed Streams from Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, P.; Muldrew, D. B.; Rusin, V.; Rybansky, M.; Sofko, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    A link between solar wind magnetic sector boundaries (heliospheric current sheet) and upper-level tropospheric vorticity was found by Wilcox et al. (1973). The Wilcox effect was shown to be statistically significant and confirmed by several authors (e.g., Prikryl et al., 2009a). Although possible mechanisms have been proposed to explain it, the controversy has not been resolved. We present new statistical results showing a significant increase in tornado activity near magnetic sector boundary crossings (SBCs) by the Earth. SBCs usually occur just prior to, or near the arrival of corotating interaction regions at the leading edge of high-speed streams from coronal holes, which often recur for several solar rotations. Hence the superposed epoch (SPE) analysis of tornado occurrence (keyed by times of SBCs) reveals, in addition to the principal peak in number of tornadoes near the zero epoch day, peaks separated by approximately 27, 13.5, 9 or 7 days. The results are supported by SPE analysis of the 530.3-nm solar corona emission line intensity (the green corona) and solar wind plasma parameters. To explain these results, we argue in favor of the mechanism involving aurorally generated atmospheric gravity waves possibly amplified by interaction with wind shears in the troposphere. Over-reflecting (reflection coefficient >1) gravity waves could provide a lift of moist unstable air, thus initiating convection and the release of latent heat that provides the energy for storms (Prikryl et al., 2009b). References Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 1-30, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-1-2009, 2009a. Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 31-57, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-31-2009, 2009b. Wilcox et al., J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 581-588, 1973.

  9. Unnatural Deaths in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009: A Retrospective Study of Forensic Autopsy Cases at the Shanghai Public Security Bureau

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun-Yi; Ma, Kai-Jun; Li, Bei-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Shanghai is the most developed city in China and has a soaring population. This study uses forensic epidemiology to determine the relationship between unnatural deaths and the development in Shanghai, based on recently released forensic autopsy cases from the 2000s at the Shanghai Public Security Bureau (SPSB). There were 5425 accidental deaths, 2696 homicides, 429 suicides, 186 natural deaths, and 1399 deaths of undetermined cause. There was a male-to-female ratio of 2.02:1, and the average age was 40.9±18.7 years. Traffic accidents (84.2%) were the number one cause of accidental deaths, which decreased during the study period. Sharp force injury (50.6%) was the leading cause of homicides, different from Western countries, where firearms are the leading cause. Hanging (24.5%) was the leading cause of suicides, whereas drug and chemical intoxication was the leading cause in the previous decade; pesticide ingestion decreased in the 2000s. In addition to traffic accidents, manual strangulation was the leading cause of death in childhood fatalities. Children under age 2 were vulnerable to homicides. In the 2000s, there were a large number of drug overdoses, and illegal medical practices and subway-related deaths first appeared in Shanghai. A new type of terrorist attack that involved injecting people with syringes in public places was reflected in the SPSB archives. The forensic epidemiology and changes in unnatural deaths in this decade reflected their relationship with the law, policy and changes in Shanghai. Illegal medical practices, subway-related deaths and terrorist attacks were closely related to the development in Shanghai. Identifying the risks of unnatural deaths will improve public health. PMID:26110435

  10. Making the Most of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: A Guide for Full-Service School Leaders and Community Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughen, Katherine; Stewart, Nichole H.; LaVallee, Robert; Zvara, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    To address the economic crisis facing the country, the President signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) into law on February 17, 2009. The ARRA offers numerous opportunities for full-service school leaders and may provide the necessary funding to prevent significant decreases in operating budgets. One of the largest investments…

  11. The Severity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in the United States, from April to July 2009: A Bayesian Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Presanis, Anne M.; De Angelis, Daniela; Hagy, Angela; Reed, Carrie; Riley, Steven; Cooper, Ben S.; Finelli, Lyn; Biedrzycki, Paul; Lipsitch, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate measures of the severity of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (pH1N1) are needed to assess the likely impact of an anticipated resurgence in the autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Severity has been difficult to measure because jurisdictions with large numbers of deaths and other severe outcomes have had too many cases to assess the total number with confidence. Also, detection of severe cases may be more likely, resulting in overestimation of the severity of an average case. We sought to estimate the probabilities that symptomatic infection would lead to hospitalization, ICU admission, and death by combining data from multiple sources. Methods and Findings We used complementary data from two US cities: Milwaukee attempted to identify cases of medically attended infection whether or not they required hospitalization, while New York City focused on the identification of hospitalizations, intensive care admission or mechanical ventilation (hereafter, ICU), and deaths. New York data were used to estimate numerators for ICU and death, and two sources of data—medically attended cases in Milwaukee or self-reported influenza-like illness (ILI) in New York—were used to estimate ratios of symptomatic cases to hospitalizations. Combining these data with estimates of the fraction detected for each level of severity, we estimated the proportion of symptomatic patients who died (symptomatic case-fatality ratio, sCFR), required ICU (sCIR), and required hospitalization (sCHR), overall and by age category. Evidence, prior information, and associated uncertainty were analyzed in a Bayesian evidence synthesis framework. Using medically attended cases and estimates of the proportion of symptomatic cases medically attended, we estimated an sCFR of 0.048% (95% credible interval [CI] 0.026%–0.096%), sCIR of 0.239% (0.134%–0.458%), and sCHR of 1.44% (0.83%–2.64%). Using self-reported ILI, we obtained estimates approximately 7–9× lower. sCFR and sCIR appear to be highest in persons aged 18 y and older, and lowest in children aged 5–17 y. sCHR appears to be lowest in persons aged 5–17; our data were too sparse to allow us to determine the group in which it was the highest. Conclusions These estimates suggest that an autumn–winter pandemic wave of pH1N1 with comparable severity per case could lead to a number of deaths in the range from considerably below that associated with seasonal influenza to slightly higher, but with the greatest impact in children aged 0–4 and adults 18–64. These estimates of impact depend on assumptions about total incidence of infection and would be larger if incidence of symptomatic infection were higher or shifted toward adults, if viral virulence increased, or if suboptimal treatment resulted from stress on the health care system; numbers would decrease if the total proportion of the population symptomatically infected were lower than assumed. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19997612

  12. Standardized Testing Moratorium and Task Force Brief 2009. A Brief to the Minister of Education from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) seeks to foster a constructive discussion on the issue of standardized testing. To that end, the Federation urges the BC Ministry of Education to adopt a two-year moratorium on all standardized tests, including the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) and the Grade 10, 11, and 12 provincial…

  13. Child and youth practice area publications in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy in 2008 and 2009: a content analysis, methodology overview, and summary.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2010-01-01

    In this review, 39 articles published in the American journal of occupational therapy in 2008 and 2009 that were categorized in the practice area of children and youth were examined using content analysis. The most frequent type of research published was basic research, which accounted for 38.5% (n=15) of the 39 studies published on the topic. Instrument development and testing and effectiveness studies were the next two most frequently noted research approaches, accounting for 25.6% (n=10) and 20.5% (n=8) of the studies, respectively. Among the 8 effectiveness studies, the level of evidence distribution was as follows: Level I, 3; Level III, 2; Level IV, 1; and Level V, 2. Quantitative studies were the predominant research paradigm used with 76.9% (n=30) of the studies.

  14. Properties, evolution and morpho-kinematical modelling of the very fast nova V2672 Oph (Nova Oph 2009), a clone of U Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Bode, M. F.; Saguner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nova Oph 2009 (V2672 Oph) reached maximum brightness V= 11.35 on 2009 August 16.5. With observed t2(V) = 2.3 and t3(V) = 4.2 d decline times, it is one of the fastest known novae, being rivalled only by V1500 Cyg (1975) and V838 Her (1991) among classical novae, and U Sco among the recurrent ones. The line of sight to the nova passes within a few degrees of the Galactic Centre. The reddening of V2672 Oph is E(B-V) = 1.6 ± 0.1, and its distance d˜ 19 kpc places it on the other side of the Galactic Centre at a galactocentric distance larger than the solar one. The lack of an infrared counterpart for the progenitor excludes the donor star from being a cool giant like in RS Oph or T CrB. With close similarity to U Sco, V2672 Oph displayed a photometric plateau phase, a He/N spectrum classification, extreme expansion velocities and triple peaked emission-line profiles during advanced decline. The full width at zero intensity of Hα was 12 000 km s-1 at maximum, and declined linearly in time with a slope very similar to that observed in U Sco. The properties displayed by V2672 Oph lead us to infer a mass of its white dwarf close to the Chandrasekhar limit and a possible final fate as a Type Ia supernova. Morpho-kinematical modelling of the evolution of the Hα profile suggests that the overall structure of the ejecta is that of a prolate system with polar blobs and an equatorial ring. The density in the prolate system appeared to decline faster than that in the other components. V2672 Oph is seen pole-on, with an inclination of 0°± 6° and an expansion velocity of the polar blobs of 4800+900-800 km s-1. On the basis of its remarkable similarity to U Sco, we suspect this nova may be a recurrent. Given the southern declination, the faintness at maximum, the extremely rapid decline and its close proximity to the ecliptic, it is quite possible that previous outbursts of V2672 Oph have been missed.

  15. A proposed definition of symptomatic vasospasm based on treatment of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in Japan: Consensus 2009, a project of the 25th Spasm Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Shirao, Satoshi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Kajiwara, Koji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of unified information on diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vasospasm (CV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) among the hospitals in Japan. Thus, the aim of the study was to define the current practice in this area based on a survey by Japanese neurosurgeons. Methods: A survey on diagnosis and treatment of CV was sent to 414 hospitals each of which performs >100 neurosurgeries annually. Results: Responses were received from 240 hospitals (58.0%). Because accurate criteria for diagnosis of symptomatic vasospasm (SVS) were used in only 33.8% of the hospitals, we proposed a clinical definition of SVS that was approved at the 25th Spasm Symposium (Consensus 2009). This definition is simplified as follows: (1) the presence of neurological worsening; (2) no other identifiable cause of neurological worsening; and (3) confirmation of vasospasm by medical examinations. The results also showed that the Fisher CT scale is used differently for patients with ICH or IVH, with 41.3% of cases with ICH/IVH based on SAH that met Fisher criteria classified into Fisher group 1, 2 or 3, and 46.3% classified into Fisher group 4. There were no major differences in prophylactic therapies of CV and therapy for cerebral ischemia among the hospitals. Endovascular treatment for vasospasm was performed in most hospitals (78.7%); however, the criteria differed among the hospitals: (1) angiographic vasospasm and SVS appeared (37.9%), (2) only when aggressive therapy was ineffective (41.4%). Conclusion: We established a clinical definition of SVS based on the results of this survey (Consensus 2009). PMID:21748027

  16. Time Trend Analysis of Cancer‏ Incidence in Caspian Sea, 2004 – 2009: A Population-based Cancer Registries Study (northern Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Salehiniya, Hamid; Ghobadi Dashdebi, Sakineh; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Enayatrad, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major public health problem in the world. In Iran especially after a transition to a dynamic and urban community, the pattern of cancer has changed significantly. An important change occurred regarding the incidence of cancer at the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, including Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan province. This study was designed it investigate the epidemiology and changes in trend of cancer incidence in the geographic region of the Caspian Sea (North of Iran). Methods: Data were collected from Cancer Registry Center report of Iran health deputy. Trends of incidence were analyzed by joinpoint regression analysis. Results: During the study period year (2004-2009), 33,807 cases of cancer had been recorded in three provinces of Gilan, Mazandran and Golstan. Joinpoint analysis indicated a significant increase in age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) 10.3, 8.5 and 5.2 in Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan, respectively. The most common cancer in these provinces were correspondingly cancer of stomach, breast, skin, colorectal and bladder, respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of cancer tends to be increasing in North of Iran. These findings warrant the epidemiologic studies are helpful in planning preventive programs and recognition of risk factors. PMID:26958329

  17. Paracoccus leucadendri Mazzeo & Franco in Mazzeo, Franco & Russo, 2009, a junior synonym of Paracoccus hakeae (Williams, 1985) comb. nov.
    (Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian W; Kinnee, Scott A; Franco, José C; Mazzeo, Gaetana

    2016-01-01

    Two mealybug species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) feeding on Proteaceae in U.S.A. (California), Portugal and Australia were studied: Paracoccus leucadendri Mazzeo & Franco in Mazzeo, Franco & Russo, 2009, described from Portugal, and Phenacoccus hakeae Williams, 1985, described from Australia. A comparative morphological analysis was made of relevant paratypes and additional specimens from Australia, California and Portugal, and the variability of the morphological characters in the populations in each country was documented. Molecular analysis of the COI gene of specimens from Australia and California showed them to be identical, and comparative morphological analysis among specimens from Australia, California and Portugal revealed no differences either; therefore Paracoccus leucadendri is placed as a junior synonym of Phenacoccus hakeae. A comparison of the COI sequences with those of species of Paracoccus, Phenacoccus and other mealybug genera revealed that Phenacoccus hakeae does not belong in Phenacoccus. Even though its COI shows no close match to any other species its morphology fits within the generic concept of Paracoccus, and we transfer it to that genus under the new combination Paracoccus hakeae (Williams, 1985) as a holding option until a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the group is carried out. PMID:27394513

  18. Paracoccus leucadendri Mazzeo & Franco in Mazzeo, Franco & Russo, 2009, a junior synonym of Paracoccus hakeae (Williams, 1985) comb. nov.
    (Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian W; Kinnee, Scott A; Franco, José C; Mazzeo, Gaetana

    2016-03-24

    Two mealybug species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) feeding on Proteaceae in U.S.A. (California), Portugal and Australia were studied: Paracoccus leucadendri Mazzeo & Franco in Mazzeo, Franco & Russo, 2009, described from Portugal, and Phenacoccus hakeae Williams, 1985, described from Australia. A comparative morphological analysis was made of relevant paratypes and additional specimens from Australia, California and Portugal, and the variability of the morphological characters in the populations in each country was documented. Molecular analysis of the COI gene of specimens from Australia and California showed them to be identical, and comparative morphological analysis among specimens from Australia, California and Portugal revealed no differences either; therefore Paracoccus leucadendri is placed as a junior synonym of Phenacoccus hakeae. A comparison of the COI sequences with those of species of Paracoccus, Phenacoccus and other mealybug genera revealed that Phenacoccus hakeae does not belong in Phenacoccus. Even though its COI shows no close match to any other species its morphology fits within the generic concept of Paracoccus, and we transfer it to that genus under the new combination Paracoccus hakeae (Williams, 1985) as a holding option until a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the group is carried out.

  19. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  20. Changes to the near-surface waters in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean from 1993-2009: A basin in transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. M.; Allen, S. E.; McLaughlin, F. A.; Woodgate, R. A.; Carmack, E. C.

    2011-10-01

    Increased sea ice melt and decreased surface albedo have changed the near-surface water mass structure of the Canada Basin. From 1993-2009, the near-surface temperature maximum (NSTM) and remnant of the previous winter's mixed layer (rWML) warmed by about 1.5°C and 0.5°C and freshened by about 4 and 2 practical salinity units, respectively. Results from a 1-D model suggest rWML warming can be explained by heat diffusion from both the NSTM and Pacific Summer Water (PSW). The same model predicts salinization of the rWML, whereas freshening was observed. This suggests that changes to the rWML are from both diffusion and the accumulation of freshwater. The rWML's salinity was associated with distance from the center of the Beaufort Gyre; the rWML at stations inside the gyre was on average 1.9 salinity units fresher than at stations outside. In addition, the salinity of PSW in the Canada Basin - defined by its local temperature maximum - freshened from about 30-32 in 1993 to 28-32 in 2008. Order of magnitude calculations suggest that neither changes in PSW source waters nor changes in advection pathways of PSW explain this freshening. Our model suggests that salt diffused from PSW to the freshening rWML; this diffusion increased (and freshened the PSW salinity range) as the rWML freshened. These results show that surface effects through warming and ice melt are felt to at least the depth of PSW. Observations from 2009 show the appearance of a third temperature maximum from an as yet unknown source.

  1. Compliance to oseltamivir among two populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom affected by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, November 2009--a waste water epidemiology study.

    PubMed

    Singer, Andrew C; Järhult, Josef D; Grabic, Roman; Khan, Ghazanfar A; Fedorova, Ganna; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Bowes, Michael J; Olsen, Björn; Söderström, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite) was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP) catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3-4 and 120-154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45-60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people) can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan.

  2. Historical and Conceptual Foundations: As Published in "Distances et Savoirs (D&S-7/2009. A la croisee des recherches, pages 537 to 550)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes Section I, "Historical and Conceptual Foundations," of the 2007 "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007a). Of the eight chapters, two are dedicated to historical perspectives of distance education. Another is centered on research. Five other chapters are focused on distance education theory/theorists. [This article…

  3. Reconstructing a spatially heterogeneous epidemic: Characterising the geographic spread of 2009 A/H1N1pdm infection in England.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Paul J; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard G; Gay, Nigel J; De Angelis, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the geographic distribution of and movements within a population influence the spatial spread of infections is crucial for the design of interventions to curb transmission. Existing knowledge is typically based on results from simulation studies whereas analyses of real data remain sparse. The main difficulty in quantifying the spatial pattern of disease spread is the paucity of available data together with the challenge of incorporating optimally the limited information into models of disease transmission. To address this challenge the role of routine migration on the spatial pattern of infection during the epidemic of 2009 pandemic influenza in England is investigated here through two modelling approaches: parallel-region models, where epidemics in different regions are assumed to occur in isolation with shared characteristics; and meta-region models where inter-region transmission is expressed as a function of the commuter flux between regions. Results highlight that the significantly less computationally demanding parallel-region approach is sufficiently flexible to capture the underlying dynamics. This suggests that inter-region movement is either inaccurately characterized by the available commuting data or insignificant once its initial impact on transmission has subsided. PMID:27404957

  4. Reconstructing a spatially heterogeneous epidemic: Characterising the geographic spread of 2009 A/H1N1pdm infection in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrell, Paul J.; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard G.; Gay, Nigel J.; de Angelis, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how the geographic distribution of and movements within a population influence the spatial spread of infections is crucial for the design of interventions to curb transmission. Existing knowledge is typically based on results from simulation studies whereas analyses of real data remain sparse. The main difficulty in quantifying the spatial pattern of disease spread is the paucity of available data together with the challenge of incorporating optimally the limited information into models of disease transmission. To address this challenge the role of routine migration on the spatial pattern of infection during the epidemic of 2009 pandemic influenza in England is investigated here through two modelling approaches: parallel-region models, where epidemics in different regions are assumed to occur in isolation with shared characteristics; and meta-region models where inter-region transmission is expressed as a function of the commuter flux between regions. Results highlight that the significantly less computationally demanding parallel-region approach is sufficiently flexible to capture the underlying dynamics. This suggests that inter-region movement is either inaccurately characterized by the available commuting data or insignificant once its initial impact on transmission has subsided.

  5. Reconstructing a spatially heterogeneous epidemic: Characterising the geographic spread of 2009 A/H1N1pdm infection in England

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, Paul J.; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard G.; Gay, Nigel J.; De Angelis, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the geographic distribution of and movements within a population influence the spatial spread of infections is crucial for the design of interventions to curb transmission. Existing knowledge is typically based on results from simulation studies whereas analyses of real data remain sparse. The main difficulty in quantifying the spatial pattern of disease spread is the paucity of available data together with the challenge of incorporating optimally the limited information into models of disease transmission. To address this challenge the role of routine migration on the spatial pattern of infection during the epidemic of 2009 pandemic influenza in England is investigated here through two modelling approaches: parallel-region models, where epidemics in different regions are assumed to occur in isolation with shared characteristics; and meta-region models where inter-region transmission is expressed as a function of the commuter flux between regions. Results highlight that the significantly less computationally demanding parallel-region approach is sufficiently flexible to capture the underlying dynamics. This suggests that inter-region movement is either inaccurately characterized by the available commuting data or insignificant once its initial impact on transmission has subsided. PMID:27404957

  6. Policies, Administration, and Management: As published in "Distances et Savoirs" (D & S--7/2009. A La Croisee des Recherches, pages 627 to 641)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Melody M.; Vidal, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The chapters in Part IV of "Handbook of Distance Education" (2007), "Policies, Administration, and Management," focus on the ways in which policies encourage or hamper the integration of distance education into mainstream educational institutions. The authors provide insights and perspectives into the key policies, roles, structures, processes,…

  7. Management of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in patients with hematologic diseases: a prospective experience at an Italian center.

    PubMed

    Girmenia, Corrado; Mercanti, Caterina; Federico, Vincenzo; Rea, Massimiliano; De Vellis, Annalisa; Valle, Veronica; Micozzi, Alessandra; Latagliata, Roberto; Breccia, Massimo; Morano, Salvatore Giacomo; Brunetti, Gregorio Antonio; Sali, Michela; Delogu, Giovanni; Foà, Robin; Alimena, Giuliana; Gentile, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Data derived from epidemiologic surveillance adopted at our center in hematologic and stem cell transplant patients during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1)v pandemic are reported. Of the 52 patients with influenza-like disease we observed, 37 underwent a real-time PCR evaluation and 21 had a confirmed diagnosis. Of the RT-PCR-confirmed cases, 23.8% were children (age <18 years) and 9.5% were >65 years; 47.6% presented with a pulmonary infiltrate and 33.3% with respiratory failure. Pulmonary involvement was observed more frequently in patients with comorbidities. All patients received a course of oseltamivir therapy starting an average of 1 day (range <1-2) after the onset of symptoms. No patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. The viral disease had a generally favorable outcome despite the high frequency of pulmonary involvement. A prompt clinical evaluation with an early antiviral and supportive therapy may have played a beneficial role in the outcome. PMID:21411983

  8. Unnatural deaths in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009: a retrospective study of forensic autopsy cases at the Shanghai Public Security Bureau.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Fang, You-Xin; Lin, Jun-Yi; Ma, Kai-Jun; Li, Bei-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Shanghai is the most developed city in China and has a soaring population. This study uses forensic epidemiology to determine the relationship between unnatural deaths and the development in Shanghai, based on recently released forensic autopsy cases from the 2000s at the Shanghai Public Security Bureau (SPSB). There were 5425 accidental deaths, 2696 homicides, 429 suicides, 186 natural deaths, and 1399 deaths of undetermined cause. There was a male-to-female ratio of 2.02:1, and the average age was 40.9±18.7 years. Traffic accidents (84.2%) were the number one cause of accidental deaths, which decreased during the study period. Sharp force injury (50.6%) was the leading cause of homicides, different from Western countries, where firearms are the leading cause. Hanging (24.5%) was the leading cause of suicides, whereas drug and chemical intoxication was the leading cause in the previous decade; pesticide ingestion decreased in the 2000s. In addition to traffic accidents, manual strangulation was the leading cause of death in childhood fatalities. Children under age 2 were vulnerable to homicides. In the 2000s, there were a large number of drug overdoses, and illegal medical practices and subway-related deaths first appeared in Shanghai. A new type of terrorist attack that involved injecting people with syringes in public places was reflected in the SPSB archives. The forensic epidemiology and changes in unnatural deaths in this decade reflected their relationship with the law, policy and changes in Shanghai. Illegal medical practices, subway-related deaths and terrorist attacks were closely related to the development in Shanghai. Identifying the risks of unnatural deaths will improve public health. PMID:26110435

  9. Classical T Tauri-like Outflow Activity in the Brown Dwarf Mass Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Randich, S.

    2010-11-01

    Since 2005 we have been analysing the spectra of brown dwarfs (BDs) using the technique of spectro-astrometry and to date have found 5 outflows driven by BDs. Our aim is to obtain an understanding of outflow activity in the BD mass regime and make a comprehensive comparison with low mass protostars, in particular the classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs). Table 1 summarises some results for the sources in our sample. Also see Whelan et al. (2009b) for a complete discussion and comparison with CTTSs. Some noteworthy results include the asymmetry in the ISO-217 bipolar outflow which is revealed in the relative brightness of the two lobes (red-shifted lobe is brighter) and the factor of two difference in radial velocity (the red-shifted lobe is faster). Asymmetries are common in jets from low mass protostars (0.1 Msun to 2 Msun) and the observation of a strong asymmetry at such a low mass supports the idea that BD outflow activity is scaled down from CTTSs. In addition, Whelan et al. (2009a) find a strong contribution to the Hα line emitted by LS-RCrA 1 and evidence of a dust hole in its disk. Using methods previously applied to CTTS Whelan et al. (2009b) estimate the mass outflow rate (Ṁout) for LS-RCrA 1, ISO and ISO-Oph 102 Ṁout to be in the range 10-10 to 10-9 Msun yr-1 which is comparable to measured mass accretion rates.

  10. Identify Fractional Urban Signals for Better Understading Urban Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Jia, G.; He, Y.; Xu, R.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization has ultimately changed the surface properties, and further resulted in biogeochemical cycle variation and climate change at global and regional scales, especially modify the local climate in a short period over mega-city area. Climate model simulation and urbanization process analysis for economic development and environment change was limited by the accuracy of land cover products based on threshold method used in land use/cover schemes possibly due to neglecting some mixed urban surface information below specific threshold. This study tried to compare urban land cover from different research facilities with reference data from Landsat TM images to conduct systematic evaluation of these products, and to analyze deviation induced by scaling effects based on fraction cover approach, in order to better understand the implications of land surface parameters deviation on regional climate analysis. Positive linear relationship was found between spatial scale and urban area deviation based on the combination analysis of fraction cover approach and threshold method, and the deviation trends became slow with spatial scale increase. Coarse resolution land cover productions couldn't well catch the urbanization process that reflected by reference data over Beijing from 1990-2009, especially over urban fringe area that main urban expansion was detected possibly due to these information neglected by threshold method, which also resulted in deviation between land cover products and real conditions. Meanwhile, overlapping interpolation method used in climate models also brought deviation for surface parameters derivation during nest simulation work, and it'll further modify the process of land atmospheric interaction over regional scal, which should be considered in climate model simulation. Comparison of urban expansion from multi-sources in Beijing, including: (a) ESA GlobCover datasets from 2005-2009, (b) MODIS land cover datasets from 2001-2009, (c) NLCD land use

  11. Evaluating the similarity of complex drinking-water disinfection by-product mixtures: overview of the issues.

    PubMed

    Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Bull, Richard J; Simmons, Jane E; Feder, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of environmental chemical contaminants, which arise as releases from sources such as engineering procedures, degradation processes, and emissions from mobile or stationary sources. When dose-response data are available for the actual environmental mixture to which individuals are exposed (i.e., the mixture of concern), these data provide the best information for dose-response assessment of the mixture. When suitable data on the mixture itself are not available, surrogate data might be used from a sufficiently similar mixture or a group of similar mixtures. Consequently, the determination of whether the mixture of concern is "sufficiently similar" to a tested mixture or a group of tested mixtures is central to the use of whole mixture methods. This article provides an overview for a series of companion articles whose purpose is to develop a set of biostatistical, chemical, and toxicological criteria and approaches for evaluating the similarity of drinking-water disinfection by-product (DBPs) complex mixtures. Together, the five articles in this series serve as a case study whose techniques will be relevant to assessing similarity for other classes of complex mixtures of environmental chemicals. Schenck et al. (2009) describe the chemistry and mutagenicity of a set of DBP mixtures concentrated from five different drinking-water treatment plants. Bull et al. (2009a, 2009b) describe how the variables that impact the formation of DBP affect the chemical composition and, subsequently, the expected toxicity of the mixture. Feder et al. (2009a, 2009b) evaluate the similarity of DBP mixture concentrates by applying two biostatistical approaches, principal components analysis, and a nonparametric "bootstrap" analysis. Important factors for determining sufficient similarity of DBP mixtures found in this research include disinfectant used; source water characteristics, including the concentrations of bromide and total organic carbon

  12. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of Weichselian sandur sediments from NE Germany - a comparison of results using medium aliquots, small aliquots and single grains of quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthgens, Christopher; Krbetschek, Matthias; Böse, Margot

    2010-05-01

    Samples of fluvioglacial sands have been taken from outwash plains (sandur) with an unambiguous connection to the main ice marginal positions of the Weichselian glaciation in NE Germany. Previous studies (Lüthgens et al., 2009a/b) have shown that sandur sediments are prone to incomplete resetting of the OSL signal, as the depositional environment in such ice proximal positions was characterized by high sedimentation rates, short transport distances, and probably very cloudy meltwaters. With respect to the fact that the OSL signal derived from single aliquots is always an averaged signal consisting of the individual luminescence signals from individual grains, it is suggested to reduce the size of the aliquots for the dating of sediments probably affected by incomplete bleaching (Duller, 2008). As only a small proportion of grains is emitting a luminescence signal at all, the reduction of the number of grains per aliquot has the effect that the measured OSL signal is composed of fewer individual signals emitted from individual grains. However, by comparing results from medium and small aliquots for incompletely bleached samples, Lüthgens et al. (2009b) have shown that the reduction of aliquot size does not necessarily result in a reduction of equivalent dose for all samples. In order to further evaluate the effects of the luminescence characteristics of individual grains on the averaged signal of multiple grain aliquots and in order to obtain reliable and precise ages from ice proximal sandur sediments, 4mm (medium) aliquots, 2mm (small) aliquots and single grains of quartz have been measured using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating techniques based on the single aliquot regenerative dose protocol (SAR). First results from these comparative studies will be presented at the meeting. References: Duller, G.A.T., 2008. Single-grain optical dating of Quaternary sediments: why aliquot size matters in luminescence dating. Boreas 37, 589-612. Lüthgens, C., B

  13. Hydrogeophysical monitoring of water infiltration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Ivan; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Non-invasive subsurface monitoring is growing in the last years. Techniques like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be useful in soil water content monitoring (e.g., Vereecken et al., 2006). Some problems remain (e.g. spatial resolution), but the scale is consistent with many applications and hydrological models. The research has to to provide even more quantitative tools, without remaining in the qualitative realm. This is a very crucial step in the way to provide data useful for hydrological modeling. In this work a controlled field infiltration experiment has been done in August 2009 in the experimental site of Grugliasco, close to the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Torino, Italy. The infiltration has been monitored in time lapse by ERT, GPR, and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). The sandy soil characteristics of the site has been already described in another experiment [Cassiani et al. 2009a].The ERT was èperformed in dipole-dipole configuration, while the GPR had 100 MHz and 500 MHz antennas in WARR configuration. The TDR gages had different lengths. The amount of water which was sprinkled was also monitored in time.Irrigation intensity has been always smaller than infiltration capacity, in order not toh ave any surface ponding. Spectral induced polarization has been used to infer constitutive parameters from soil samples [Cassiani et al. 2009b]. 2D Richards equation model (Manzini and Ferraris, 2004) has been then calibrated with the measurements. References. Cassiani, G., S. Ferraris, M. Giustiniani, R. Deiana and C.Strobbia, 2009a, Time-lapse surface-to-surface GPR measurements to monitor a controlled infiltration experiment, in press, Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 50, 2 Marzo 2009, pp. 209-226. Cassiani, G., A. Kemna, A.Villa, and E. Zimmermann, 2009b, Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination in sediments with low clay content

  14. Actin Cytoskeleton-Based Plant Synapse as Gravitransducer in the Transition Zone of the Root Apex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Barlow, Peter; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    The actin cytoskeleton was originally proposed to act as the signal transducer in the plant gravity sensory-motoric circuit. Surprisingly, however, several studies have documented that roots perfom gravisensing and gravitropism more effectively if exposed to diverse anti-F-actin drugs. Our study, using decapped maize root apices, has revealed that depolymerization of F-actin stimulates gravity perception in cells of the transition zone where root gravitropism is initiated (Mancuso et al. 2006). It has been proposed (Balǔka et al. 2005, 2009a) that s the non-growing adhesive end-poles, enriched with F-actin and myosin VIII, and active in endocytic recycling of both PIN transporters and cell wall pectins cross-linked with calcium and boron, act as the gravisensing domains, and that these impinge directly upon the root motoric responses via control of polar auxin transport. This model suggests that mechanical asymmetry at these plant synapses determines vectorial gravity-controlled auxin transport. Due to the gravity-imposed mechanical load upon the protoplast, a tensional stress is also imposed upon the plasma membrane of the physically lower synaptic cell pole. This stress is then relieved by shifting the endocytosis-exocytosis balance towards exocytosis (Balǔka et al. s 2005, 2009a,b). This `Synaptic Auxin Secretion' hypothesis does not conflict with the `Starch Statolith' hypothesis, which is based on amyloplast sedimentation. In fact, the `Synaptic Auxin Secretion' hypothesis has many elements which allow its unification with the Starch-Statolith model (Balǔka et al. 2005, 2009a,b). s References Balǔka F, Volkmann D, Menzel D (2005) Plant synapses: actin-based adhesion s domains for cell-to-cell communication. Trends Plant Sci 10: 106-111 Balǔka F, Schlicht M, s Wan Y-L, Burbach C, Volkmann D (2009a) Intracellular domains and polarity in root apices: from synaptic domains to plant neurobiology. Nova Acta Leopoldina 96: 103-122 Balǔka s F, Mancuso S

  15. ["My first encounter with German urology (1937)". Stefan Wesolowski (1908-2009) - a source in the archives of the German Society for Urology from the oldest corresponding member and promoter of Polish-German relationships].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Krischel, M; Zajaczkowski, T; Rathert, P

    2010-10-01

    A source in the archives of the German Society of Urology gives us a vivid insight into the situation in Berlin during the 1930s from the perspective of a young Polish doctor, and presents the situation at one of the leading urology institutions of the time in Germany. Furthermore, we learn about the social situation in hospitals as well as the discourse and networking taking place in the scientific community at that time.

  16. Enhanced Pneumonia and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Pigs Challenged with Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Virus Following Vaccination with an Inactivated delta-Cluster H1N2 Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endemic strains of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in North America consist of the subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. These circulating strains contain the triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) cassette resulting from incorporation of genes from swine, avian, and human IAV’s. Genetic drift and reassortm...

  17. In remembrance of Eugene Ladislas Kanabrocki (18 April 1922 * 23 April 2009): a 'General' in the battle of penetrating the normal range and in revealing its relation to the cosmos.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Sothern, R B; Scheving, L A; Best, W R

    2009-01-01

    Col. Eugene L. (Gene) Kanabrocki, PhD, commanding officer of the 361st Medical Laboratory of the U.S. Army Reserve, together with Col. Lawrence E. (Larry) Scheving, Professor at the University of Arkansas, initiated in May 1969 a linked cross-sectional (hybrid) study at Fort Sam Houston, TX, to examine the oscillatory (circadian) nature of many physiological variables in a group of 13 army men, 22-28 years of age, anticipating that such data would serve, as indeed they did, as time-specified reference values in future investigations of health and aging. In the initial study, 36 variables were examined around the clock in observations at 3-hour intervals. In subsequent 24-hour profiles, mapped in May of 1971 (mostly on new, young subjects, and not officially part of the Aging Project), 1979, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2003, additional subjects and variables were included. The follow-up studies were conducted at the Hines VA Medical Center in Hines, Illinois. Of the original 13 subjects, four were measured in all 6 studies and another four in 5 of the 6 studies. Three of the eight became diabetic (Type II) and three had vascular circulatory problems. Presently, a bank of circadian data for 187 medically relevant variables of blood (plasma or serum), saliva, urine, vital signs and other variables on the same subjects covers a span of 34 years. Dr. Robert B. Sothern (RBS), of the University of Minnesota, USA, the major analyst of Gene's investigations, in addition to being an add-on subject as he was in three studies, set up the half-hourly monitoring of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in the 2003 study that yielded the data suggesting that the standard deviations (SD) of systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP and HR are infl uenced by a magnetic storm. Since the standard deviation rather than the amplitude of a vascular spectral component was affected, we may be dealing with a stochastic rather than frequency window-dependent resonance with a magnetic storm. Gene and RBS also found (p< 0.08) an about-decadal signature of solar activity in long-acting natriuretic peptide (LANP), vessel dilator (VSDL), insulin, LH, prolactin, T3 uptake and, most importantly, in melatonin (p=0.004), noted solely to constitute a stimulus for follow-up studies, even when resonance occurs in an anticipated Horrebow-Schwabe circadecadal window gauged by relative sunspot (Wolf) numbers and involves many endocrine variables, as anticipated on the basis of independent evidence in melatonin and cortisol. The wealth of circadian information collected in these studies by Gene constitutes a treasure trove of unique advances in the battle of the normal range, with solid contributions also by Prof. Germaine Cornélissen of the University of Minnesota, USA, and by Prof. Ramon C. Hermida of the University of Vigo, Spain. PMID:19997684

  18. A new 33-s period in the SSS X-ray light curve of the nova LMC 2009a and confirmation of the 35 s modulation in KT Eri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, J.-U.; Kuulkers, E.; Henze, M.; Schwarz, G.; Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Dobrotka, A.; Piro, A. L.; Starrfield, S.

    2014-05-01

    In addition to four known systems with super soft source (SSS) X-ray emission ( We have searched for similar oscillations in all XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of all objects containing SSS emission, that is persistent SSS and novae during their SSS phase. ...

  19. Narcolepsy, 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic influenza, and pandemic influenza vaccinations: what is known and unknown about the neurological disorder, the role for autoimmunity, and vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Schur, Peter H; MacDonald, Noni E; Steinman, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The vaccine safety surveillance system effectively detected a very rare adverse event, narcolepsy, in subjects receiving AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the European inactivation/purification protocol. The reports of increased cases of narcolepsy in non-vaccinated subjects infected with wild A(H1N1) pandemic influenza virus suggest a role for the viral antigen(s) in disease development. However, additional investigations are needed to better understand what factor(s) in wild influenza infection trigger(s) narcolepsy in susceptible hosts. An estimated 31 million doses of European AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine were used in more than 47 countries. The Canadian AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine was used with high coverage in Canada where an estimated 12 million doses were administered. As no similar narcolepsy association has been reported to date with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the Canadian inactivation/purification protocol, this suggests that the AS03 adjuvant alone may not be responsible for the narcolepsy association. To date, no narcolepsy association has been reported with the MF59®-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine. This review article provides a brief background on narcolepsy, outlines the different types of vaccine preparations including the ones for influenza, reviews the accumulated evidence for the safety of adjuvants, and explores the association between autoimmune diseases and natural infections. It concludes by assimilating the historical observations and recent clinical studies to formulate a feasible hypothesis on why vaccine-associated narcolepsy may not be solely linked to the AS03 adjuvant but more likely be linked to how the specific influenza antigen component of the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine was prepared. Careful and long-term epidemiological studies of subjects who developed narcolepsy in association with AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine prepared with the European inactivation/purification protocol are needed.

  20. Implications of Globalization for Distance Education in the United States: As published in "Distances et Savoirs" (D & S-7/2009. A la croisee des recherches, pages 699 to 712)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boubsil, Ouanessa; Carabajal, Kayleigh; Vidal, Martine

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the current practice associated with American-model higher education (AHE) overseas with particular focus on expanding distance education. The review identifies specific areas of weakness in the practice of AHE overseas.

  1. Shifting fundamental frequency in simulated electric-acoustic listening

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher A.; Scherrer, Nicole M.; Bacon, Sid P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown significant improvement in speech intelligibility under both simulated [Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2009a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 1658–1665; Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2010). Hear. Res. 266, 52–59] and real [Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2009b). Ear Hear. 30, 489–493] electric-acoustic stimulation when the target speech in the low-frequency region was replaced with a tone modulated in frequency to track the changes in the target talker’s fundamental frequency (F0), and in amplitude with the amplitude envelope of the target speech. The present study examined the effects in simulation of applying these cues to a tone lower in frequency than the mean F0 of the target talker. Results showed that shifting the frequency of the tonal carrier downward by as much as 75 Hz had no negative impact on the benefit to intelligibility due to the tone, and that even a shift of 100 Hz resulted in a significant benefit over simulated electric-only stimulation when the sensation level of the tone was comparable to that of the tones shifted by lesser amounts. PMID:20815462

  2. Comment on "A petrologic assessment of internal zonation in granitic pegmatites" by David London (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rainer; Davidson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    London (2014) provides an interesting article which presents a study of pegmatite zonation which is of considerable interest to students of pegmatites. However, although there is much to recommend it we take exception to his attempts to dismiss an extensive body of work on the use of melt inclusions to address the critical question of actual melt compositions during the evolution of pegmatites. Volatiles are by definition fugitive, since they are readily lost by degassing, and yet they are clearly critical to the growth of the large crystals which are a defining characteristic of pegmatites (e.g. Bartoli et al., 2014; Bowen, 1956; London, 2008; Lowenstern, 2003). Any research technique which can address the pre-degassing melt compositions should therefore be considered on its merits. Although melt inclusion studies are of relatively recent vintage the problems and possible questions of interpretation have been addressed in considerable detail for at least the last two decades (e.g. Lowenstern, 2003, and references therein) and recently in Audétat and Lowenstern (2014). Likewise, any discussion needs to cover "simple" quartz-feldspar-muscovite pegmatites (e.g. Thomas et al., 2009b), as well as the much less common if more interesting rare-element rich pegmatites (e.g. Thomas et al., 2009a).

  3. Identity-based motivation: Implications for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Oyserman, Daphna; Destin, Mesmin

    2010-01-01

    Children want to succeed academically and attend college, but their actual attainment often lags behind; some groups (e.g., boys, low-income children) are particularly likely to experience this gap. Social structural factors matter, influencing this gap in part by affecting children's perceptions of what is possible for them and people like them in the future. Interventions that focus on this macro-micro interface can boost children's attainment. We articulate the processes underlying these effects using an integrative culturally sensitive framework entitled identity-based motivation (IBM, Oyserman, 2007, 2009a, 2009b). The IBM model assumes that identities are dynamically constructed in context. People interpret situations and difficulties in ways that are congruent with currently active identities and prefer identity-congruent to identity-incongruent actions. When action feels identity-congruent, experienced difficulty highlights that the behavior is important and meaningful. When action feels identity-incongruent, the same difficulty suggests that the behavior is pointless and “not for people like me.” PMID:21516204

  4. Validating a low cost approach for predicting human responses to emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Sharples, Sarah; Clarke, David; Cobb, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for predicting human responses to emergency situations. The approach was developed for ergonomists working in emergency response preparedness. It involves presenting participants with a description of a hypothetical emergency scenario before asking them to describe how they would respond. This study builds upon previous investigations (Lawson et al., 2009a, 2009b; Lawson, 2011) which demonstrated significant associations between the predicted behaviour and that reported in a reference study of behaviour in real fires. This further work aimed to evaluate in greater detail the validity, reliability, resources and ethics of the approach. The results demonstrated significant relationships between the predicted behaviours and those from the reference study for both frequencies (r(s) = 0.572, N = 51, p < 0.001) and sequences (r(s) = 0.344, N = 40, p < 0.05) of behaviour. The approach is shown to be replicable and requires low resources. It does not present any notable risk of physical injury.

  5. Let's look at leeks! Picture books increase toddlers' willingness to look at, taste and consume unfamiliar vegetables.

    PubMed

    Heath, Philippa; Houston-Price, Carmel; Kennedy, Orla B

    2014-01-01

    Repeatedly looking at picture books about fruits and vegetables with parents enhances young children's visual preferences toward the foods in the book (Houston-Price et al., 2009a) and influences their willingness to taste these foods (Houston-Price et al., 2009b). This article explores whether the effects of picture book exposure are affected by infants' initial familiarity with and liking for the foods presented. In two experiments parents of 19- to 26-month-old toddlers were asked to read a picture book about a liked, disliked or unfamiliar fruit or vegetable with their child every day for 2 weeks. The impact of the intervention on both infants' visual preferences and their eating behavior was determined by the initial status of the target food, with the strongest effects for foods that were initially unfamiliar. Most strikingly, toddlers consumed more of the unfamiliar vegetable they had seen in their picture book than of a matched control vegetable. Results confirm the potential for picture books to play a positive role in encouraging healthy eating in young children.

  6. Electrical resistivity tomography study of Taal volcano hydrothermal system, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikos, I.; Vargemezis, G.; Zlotnicki, J.; Puertollano, J. R.; Alanis, P. B.; Pigtain, R. C.; Villacorte, E. U.; Malipot, G. A.; Sasai, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Taal volcano (311 m in altitude) is located in The Philippines (14°N, 121°E) and since 1572 has erupted 33 times, causing more than 2,000 casualties during the most violent eruptions. In March 2010, the shallow structures in areas where present-day surface activity takes place were investigated by DC resistivity surveys. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) lines were performed above the two identified hydrothermal areas located on the northern flank of the volcano and in the Main Crater, respectively. Due to rough topography, deep valleys, and dense vegetation, most measurements were collected using a remote method based on a laboratory-made equipment. This allowed retrieval of information down to a depth of 250 m. ERTs results detail the outlines of the two geothermal fields defined by previous self-potential, CO2 soil degassing, ground temperature, and magnetic mapping (Harada et al. Japan Acad Sci 81:261-266, 2005; Zlotnicki et al. Bull Volcanol 71:29-49, 2009a, Phys Chem Earth 34:294-408, 2009b). Hydrothermal fluids originate mainly from inside the northern part of the Main Crater at a depth greater than the bottom of the Crater Lake, and flow upward to the ground surface. Furthermore, water from the Main Crater Lake infiltrates inside the surrounding geological formations. The hydrothermal fluids, outlined by gas releases and high temperatures, cross the crater rim and interact with the northern geothermal field located outside the Main Crater.

  7. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Marini, Kyle; Ghatikar, Girish; Diamond, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Federal agencies are taking many steps to improve the sustainability of their operations, including improving the energy efficiency of their buildings, promoting recycling and reuse of materials, encouraging carpooling and alternative transit schemes, and installing low flow water fixture units are just a few of the common examples. However, an often overlooked means of energy savings is to provide feedback to building users about their energy use through information dashboards connected to a building?s energy information system. An Energy Information System (EIS), broadly defined, is a package of performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems that is used to collect, store, analyze, and display energy information. At a minimum, the EIS provides the whole-building energy-use information (Granderson 2009a). We define a ?dashboard? as a display and visualization tool that utilizes the EIS data and technology to provide critical information to users. This information can lead to actions resulting in energy savings, comfort improvements, efficient operations, and more. The tools to report analyzed information have existed in the information technology as business intelligence (Few 2006). The dashboard is distinguished from the EIS as a whole, which includes additional hardware and software components to collect and storage data, and analysis for resources and energy management (Granderson 2009b). EIS can be used for a variety of uses, including benchmarking, base-lining, anomaly detection, off-hours energy use evaluation, load shape optimization, energy rate analysis, retrofit and retro-commissioning savings (Granderson 2009a). The use of these EIS features depends on the specific users. For example, federal and other building managers may use anomaly detection to identify energy waste in a specific building, or to benchmark energy use in similar buildings to identify energy saving potential and reduce operational cost. There are

  8. Collaborative research: Dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves and their effects on current layers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-04-18

    The project has accomplished the following achievements including the goals outlined in the original proposal. Generation and measurements of Debye-scale electron holes in laboratory: We have generated by beam injections electron solitary waves in the LAPD experiments. The measurements were made possible by the fabrication of the state-of-the-art microprobes at UCLA to measure Debye-scale electric fields [Chiang et al., 2011]. We obtained a result that challenged the state of knowledge about electron hole generation. We found that the electron holes were not due to two-stream instability, but generated by a current-driven instability that also generated whistler-mode waves [Lefebvre et al., 2011, 2010b]. Most of the grant supported a young research scientist Bertrand Lefebvre who led the dissemination of the laboratory experimental results. In addition to two publications, our work relevant to the laboratory experiments on electron holes has resulted in 7 invited talks [Chen, 2007, 2009; Pickett et al., 2009a; Lefebvre et al., 2010a; Pickett et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2011c, b] (including those given by the co-I Jolene Pickett) and 2 contributed talks [Lefebvre et al., 2009b, a]. Discovery of elecctron phase-space-hole structure in the reconnection electron layer: Our theoretical analyses and simulations under this project led to the discovery of an inversion electric field layer whose phase-space signature is an electron hole within the electron diffusion layer in 2D anti-parallel reconnection [Chen et al., 2011a]. We carried out particle tracing studies to understand the electron orbits that result in the phase-space hole structure. Most importantly, we showed that the current density in the electron layer is limited in collisionless reconnection with negligible guide field by the cyclotron turning of meandering electrons. Comparison of electrostatic solitary waves in current layers observed by Cluster and in LAPD: We compared the ESWs observed in a supersubstorm

  9. Can the pattern of foraminiferal intratest trace element variations be explained by Ca dilution during biomineralization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathorne, Ed

    2010-05-01

    reservoir to varying degrees and potentially cause the positive TE correlations seen across the test wall. Sinclair and Risk (2006) used this dilution model to successfully explain some TE correlations in coral skeletons. This model can be effectively adapted to foraminifera as it accounts for recent observations of foraminiferal calcification including the transport of seawater by liquid endocytosis to the calcification site and an elevated pH at the site of calcification (Bentov et al., 2009; de Nooijer et al., 2009a, 2009b). This model therefore provides a powerful tool with which to integrate constraints from experimental observation with those from micro-analytical measurements to improve the accuracy, precision and scale of the palaeoceanographic application of foraminiferal geochemistry. Bentov and Erez (2006) Geochem. Geophys. Gepsyst. 7, Q01P08. Bentov et al. (2009) PNAS 106, 21500. de Nooijer et al. (2009a) Biogeosciences 6, 2669. de Nooijer et al. (2009b) PNAS 106, 15374. Hathorne et al. (2009) Paleoceanography 24, PA4204. Sinclair and Risk (2006) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 3855.

  10. Pollution and Climate Effects on Tree-Ring Nitrogen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.; Smirnoff, A.

    2009-04-01

    Georgian Bay reflect deposition of NOx emissions from cars and coal-power plants, with higher proportions from coal burning in Georgian Bay (Savard et al., 2009b). This interpretation is conceivable because recent monitoring indicates that coal-power plant NOx emissions play an important role in the annual N budget in Ontario, but they are negligible on the Quebec side. CONCLUSION Interpretations of long tree-ring N isotopic series in terms of effects generated by airborne N-species have been previously advocated. Here we further propose that the contrasted isotopic trends obtained for wood samples from two regions reflect different regional anthropogenic N deposition combined with variations of climatic conditions. This research suggests that nitrogen tree-ring series may record both regional climatic conditions and anthropogenic perturbations of the N cycle. REFERENCES Savard, M.M., Bégin,C., Marion, J., Aznar, J.-C., Smirnoff, A., 2009a. Changes of Air Quality in an urban region as inferred from tree-ring width and stable isotopes. Chapter 9 in "Relating Atmospheric Source Apportionment to Vegetation Effects: Establishing Cause Effect Relationships" (A. Legge ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam; doi: 10.1016/S1474-8177(08)00209x. Savard, M.M., Bégin, C., Smirnoff, A., Marion, J., Rioux-Paquette, E., 2009b. Tree-ring nitrogen isotopes reflect climatic effects and anthropogenic NOx emissions. Env. Sci. Tech (doi: 10.1021/es802437k).

  11. Monitoring of initial patterns and structures in an artificial catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang; Gerwin, Werner; Biemelt, Detlef; Fischer, Anton

    2010-05-01

    To combine process-oriented research on initial development of ecosystems with interactions and co-development of spatial patterns and structures the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre (SFB/TRR) 38 (www.tu-cottbus.de/sfb_trr) was established as an initiative of three universities (BTU Cottbus, TU Munich and ETH Zurich). The objective of the SFB/TRR 38 is to enhance our understanding of structure genesis in ecosystems and of process dynamics as well as their interactions during the initial development phase. The aim is to integrate these feedback mechanisms in the analysis of water and element budgets at the catchment scale and to implement them into models. To allow the clear definition of starting conditions at ´point zeró and to be able to integrate spatially distributed processes and patterns to larger units, an artificial catchment was constructed in the mining area of Lusatia/Germany as the main research site (Gerwin et al. 2009a). With an area of about 6 ha, this catchment ´Chicken Creeḱ is to our knowledge the largest artificial catchment worldwide. It was constructed as a 2-4 m layer of post-glacial sandy to loamy sediments overlying a 1-2 m layer of Tertiary clay that forms a shallow pan and seals the whole catchment at the base. No further measures of restoration like planting, amelioration or fertilization were carried out to allow natural succession and undisturbed development. Due to the artificial construction, boundary conditions of this site are clearly defined including well documented inner structures as compared to natural catchments. It is assumed that the interaction of patterns and processes during initial development will proceed from simpler to more complex states of the systems and that different stages along this phase can be identified at the catchment level. Changes within the catchment are intensively monitored since 2005, when construction finished (Gerwin et al. 2009b), including intensive on-site measurements and micro

  12. Estimating Density Gradients and Drivers from 3D Ionospheric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta-Barua, S.; Bust, G. S.; Curtis, N.; Reynolds, A.; Crowley, G.

    2009-12-01

    The transition regions at the edges of the ionospheric storm-enhanced density (SED) are important for a detailed understanding of the mid-latitude physical processes occurring during major magnetic storms. At the boundary, the density gradients are evidence of the drivers that link the larger processes of the SED, with its connection to the plasmasphere and prompt-penetration electric fields, to the smaller irregularities that result in scintillations. For this reason, we present our estimates of both the plasma variation with horizontal and vertical spatial scale of 10 - 100 km and the plasma motion within and along the edges of the SED. To estimate the density gradients, we use Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D), a mature data assimilation algorithm that has been developed over several years and applied to investigations of polar cap patches and space weather storms [Bust and Crowley, 2007; Bust et al., 2007]. We use the density specification produced by IDA4D with a new tool for deducing ionospheric drivers from 3D time-evolving electron density maps, called Estimating Model Parameters from Ionospheric Reverse Engineering (EMPIRE). The EMPIRE technique has been tested on simulated data from TIMEGCM-ASPEN and on IDA4D-based density estimates with ongoing validation from Arecibo ISR measurements [Datta-Barua et al., 2009a; 2009b]. We investigate the SED that formed during the geomagnetic super storm of November 20, 2003. We run IDA4D at low-resolution continent-wide, and then re-run it at high (~10 km horizontal and ~5-20 km vertical) resolution locally along the boundary of the SED, where density gradients are expected to be highest. We input the high-resolution estimates of electron density to EMPIRE to estimate the ExB drifts and field-aligned plasma velocities along the boundaries of the SED. We expect that these drivers contribute to the density structuring observed along the SED during the storm. Bust, G. S. and G. Crowley (2007

  13. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Centralia, Kansas, in 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2010-10-19

    in the injection test area (Argonne 2009a). The KDHE (2008a) has requested that sitewide monitoring continue at Centralia until a final remedy has been selected (as part of a Corrective Action Study [CAS] evaluation) and implemented for this site. In response to this request, twice-yearly sampling of 10 monitoring wells and 6 piezometers (Figure 1.1) previously approved by the KDHE for monitoring of the groundwater at Centralia (KDHE 2005a,b) was continued in 2008. The sampling events under this extension of the two-year (2005-2007) monitoring program occurred in March and September 2008 (Argonne 2008b, 2009b). Additional piezometers specifically installed to evaluate the progress of the IM pilot test (PMP1-PMP9; Figure 1.2) were also sampled in 2008; the results of these analyses were reported and discussed separately (Argonne 2009a). On the basis of results of the 2005-2008 sitewide monitoring and the 2008 IM pilot test monitoring, the CCC/USDA recommended a revised sampling program to address both of the continuing monitoring objectives until a CAS for Centralia is developed (Section 4.2 in Argonne 2009b). The elements of this interim monitoring plan are as follows: (1) Annual sampling of twelve previously established (before the pilot test) monitoring points (locations identified in Figure 1.3) and the five outlying pilot test monitoring points (PMP4, PMP5, PMP6, PMP7, PMP9; Figure 1.4); and (2) Sampling twice yearly at the five pilot test monitoring points inside the injection area (PMP1-PMP3, PMP8, MW02; Figure 1.4). With the approval of the KDHE (2009), groundwater sampling for analyses of VOCs and selected other geochemical parameters was conducted at Centralia under the interim monitoring program outlined above in April and October 2009. This report documents the findings of the 2009 monitoring events.

  14. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews

  15. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Miriam L; de Wit, Cynthia A; Molander, Sverker; Scheringer, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Lohmann, Rainer; Arvidsson, Rickard; Bergman, Åke; Hauschild, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Persson, Linn; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Vighi, Marco; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social

  16. The Characteristics and Experiences of Successful Undergraduate Latina Students Who Persist in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Carrie

    Females and underrepresented ethnic minorities earn a small percentage of engineering and computer science bachelor's degrees awarded in the United States, earn an even smaller proportion of master's and doctoral degrees, and are underrepresented in the engineering workforce (Engineering Workforce Commission, [2006], as cited in National Science Foundation, 2012; United States Department of Education, [2006], as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009a; United States Department of Education, [2006], as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009b). Considerable research has examined the perceptions, culture, curriculum, and pedagogy in engineering that inhibits the achievement of women and underrepresented ethnic minorities. This action research study used a qualitative approach to examine the characteristics and experiences of Latina students who pursued a bachelor's degree in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering at Arizona State University (ASU) as part of the 2008 first-time full-time freshman cohort. The researcher conducted two semi-structured individual interviews with seven undergraduate Latina students who successfully persisted to their fourth (senior) year in engineering. The researcher aimed to understand what characteristics made these students successful and how their experiences affected their persistence in an engineering major. The data collected showed that the Latina participants were motivated to persist in their engineering degree program due to their parents' expectations for success and high academic achievement; their desire to overcome the discrimination, stereotyping, and naysayers that they encountered; and their aspiration to become a role model for their family and other students interested in pursuing engineering. From the data collected, the researcher provided suggestions to implement and adapt educational activities and support systems within the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering to improve the retention and graduation rates

  17. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Miriam L; de Wit, Cynthia A; Molander, Sverker; Scheringer, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Lohmann, Rainer; Arvidsson, Rickard; Bergman, Åke; Hauschild, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Persson, Linn; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Vighi, Marco; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social

  18. New Caledonia as a New Site on Ultramafic Rocks for the French Critical Zone Exploration Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillot, F.; Dublet, G.; Fandeur, D.; Fonteneau, L.; Fritsch, E.; Morin, G.; Ambrosi, J.; Olivi, L.; Cognigni, A.; Hazemann, J.; Proux, O.; Webb, S.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    One of the main geological features of New Caledonia is the large occurrence of peridotites (mainly harzburgite) that were obducted during regional tectonic events at the Late Eocene (Cluzel et al., 2001). Tropical weathering of these ultramafic rocks lead to the development of very thick lateritic regoliths (up to 80 m depth) where Ni, Cr and Co concentration can reach several wt%, which render them very interesting for ore mining (New Caledonia is the third Ni producer in the world). However, these high levels of potentially toxic elements also represent an environmental hazard for New Caledonia (classified as a ''biodiversity hotspot'' ; Myers, 2000), which emphasizes the strong need for a better characterization of the natural cycling of Ni, Cr and Co during initial geological events and more recent weathering processes. Results of studies initiated few years ago on that topic suggest that both endogenous (i.e. oceanic serpentinization, low-grade metamorphism and hydrothermalism upon obduction) and supergene (i.e. meteoritic weathering) processes controlled the distribution and crystal-chemistry of Ni, Cr and Co that can now be observed in the freely-drained lateritic regoliths (Fandeur et al., 2009a; 2009b; Fritsch et al., 2011; Dublet et al., 2011). Remaining questions concern the actual quantification of major and trace elements fluxes towards the coastal environment during these events and the estimation of the impact of these migrations on both terrestrial and coastal biodiversity. These issues will be addressed thanks to the installation of a long-term ''catchment-scale'' observatory in New Caledonia that will bring new insights on the biogeochemical behavior of major and trace elements upon weathering of ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions. Due to the specific geology of the chosen site, this observatory will complement the French CZEN that already includes carbonaceous, acidic and mafic geological settings.

  19. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami - an application of the revised Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) Model in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Dall'Osso, Fillippo; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.

    2010-05-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009a, b) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience. Last, we propose the wider application of the PTVA-3 Model as a tool for building vulnerability assessment. Dall'Osso, D., Gonella, M., Gabbianelli, G., Withycombe, G. and Dominey-Howes, D. (2009a). A revised (PTVA) model for assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 1557-1565. Dall'Osso, D

  20. 42 CFR 495.362 - Retroactive approval of FFP with an effective date of February 18, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.362... acquisition must not be before February 18, 2009. (b) The acquisition must be reasonable, useful,...

  1. 42 CFR 495.362 - Retroactive approval of FFP with an effective date of February 18, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.362... acquisition must not be before February 18, 2009. (b) The acquisition must be reasonable, useful,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.11525 - What are my compliance dates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart by June 22, 2009. (b) If you start up a new affected source on or before December 23, 2008, you..., 2008. (c) If you start up a new affected source after December 23, 2008, you must achieve...

  3. New species of ice nucleating fungi in soil and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Janine; Hill, Tom; Franc, Gary; Poeschl, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    , D.G., et al. (2009) Biogeosciences, 6, 721-737 3. Pouleur, S., et al. (1992) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 2960-2964 4. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009a) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9281-9297 5. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009b) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9263-9280 6. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., et al. (2012) Biogeosciences, 9, 1125-1136

  4. ECETOC Florence workshop on risk assessment of endocrine substances, including the potency concept.

    PubMed

    Fegert, Ivana

    2013-12-16

    The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) and the Biocidal Products Regulation (EC Regulation 528/2012) only support the marketing and use of chemicals if they do not cause endocrine disruption in humans or wildlife species. Also, substances with endocrine properties are subject to authorization under the European regulation on the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH; 1907/2006). Therefore, the regulatory consequences of identifying a substance as an endocrine disrupting chemical are severe. In contrast to that, basic scientific criteria, necessary to define endocrine disrupting properties, are not described in any of these legislative documents. Thus, the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) established a task force to provide scientific criteria for the identification and assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties that may be used within the context of these three legislative texts (ECETOC, 2009a). In 2009, ECETOC introduced a scientific framework as a possible concept for identifying endocrine disrupting properties within a regulatory context (ECETOC, 2009b; Bars et al., 2011a,b). The proposed scientific criteria integrated, in a weight of evidence approach, information from regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies by combining evidence for adverse effects detected in apical whole-organism studies with an understanding of the mode of action (MoA) of endocrine toxicity. However, since not all chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties are of equal hazard, an adequate concept should also be able to differentiate between chemicals with endocrine properties of low concern from those of higher concern (for regulatory purposes). For this purpose, the task force refined this part of their concept. Following an investigation of the key factors at a second workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists, the

  5. On the behavior of mud floc size distribution: model calibration and model behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietta, Francesca; Chassagne, Claire; Verney, Romaric; Winterwerp, Johan C.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we study a population balance equation (PBE) where flocs are distributed into classes according to their mass. Each class i contains i primary particles with mass m p and size L p. All differently sized flocs can aggregate, binary breakup into two equally sized flocs is used, and the floc's fractal dimension is d 0 = 2, independently of their size. The collision efficiency is kept constant, and the collision frequency derived by Saffman and Turner (J Fluid Mech 1:16-30, 1956) is used. For the breakup rate, the formulation by Winterwerp (J Hydraul Eng Res 36(3):309-326, 1998), which accounts for the porosity of flocs, is used. We show that the mean floc size computed with the PBE varies with the shear rate as the Kolmogorov microscale, as observed both in laboratory and in situ. Moreover, the equilibrium mean floc size varies linearly with a global parameter P which is proportional to the ratio between the rates of aggregation and breakup. The ratio between the parameters of aggregation and breakup can therefore be estimated analytically from the observed equilibrium floc size. The parameter for aggregation can be calibrated from the temporal evolution of the mean floc size. We calibrate the PBE model using mixing jar flocculation experiments, see Mietta et al. (J Colloid Interface Sci 336(1):134-141, 2009a, Ocean Dyn 59:751-763, 2009b) for details. We show that this model can reproduce the experimental data fairly accurately. The collision efficiency α and the ratio between parameters for aggregation and breakup α and E are shown to decrease linearly with increasing absolute value of the ζ-potential, both for mud and kaolinite suspensions. Suspensions at high pH and different dissolved salt type and concentration have been used. We show that the temporal evolution of the floc size distribution computed with this PBE is very similar to that computed with the PBE developed by Verney et al. (Cont Shelf Res, 2010) where classes are distributed

  6. Distortions of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Presence of Electric Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanushenko, Anna; Rempel, Matthias; Cheung, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Solar coronal loops possess several peculiar properties, which have been a subject of intensive research for a long time. These in particular include the lack of apparent expansion of coronal loops and the increased pressure scale height in loops compared to the diffuse background. Previously, Malanushenko & Schrijver (2013) proposed that these could be explained by the fact that magnetic flux tubes expand with height in a highly anisotropic manner. They used potential field models to demonstrate that flux tubes that have circular cross section at the photosphere, in the corona turn into a highly elongates structures, more resembling thick ribbons. Such ribbons, viewed along the expanding edge, would appear as thin, crisp structures of a constant cross-section with an increased pressure scale height, and when viewed along the non-expanding side, would appear as faint, wide and underdense features. This may also introduce a selection bias,when a set of loops is collected for a further study, towards those viewed along the expanding edge.However, some of the past studies have indicated that strong electric currents flowing in a given flux tube may result in the tube maintaining a relatively constant cross-sectional shape along its length. Given that Malanushenko & Schrijver (2013) focused on a potential, or current-free, field model of an active region, the extend to which their analysis could be applied to the real solar fields, was unclear.In the present study, we use a magnetic field created by MURaM, a highly realistic state-of-the-art radiative MHD code (Vogler et al, 2005; Rempel et al, 2009b). MURaM was shown to reproduce a wide variety of observed features of the solar corona (e.g., Hansteen et al, 2010; Cheung et al. 2007, 2008; Rempel 2009a,b). We analyze the distortions of magnetic flux tubes in a MURaM simulation of an active region corona. We quantify such distortions and correlate them with a number of relevant parameters of flux tubes, with a

  7. Source-Type Identification Analysis Using Regional Seismic Moment Tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, A.; Dreger, D. S.; Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    Waveform inversion to determine the seismic moment tensor is a standard approach in determining the source mechanism of natural and manmade seismicity, and may be used to identify, or discriminate different types of seismic sources. The successful applications of the regional moment tensor method at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the 2006 and 2009 North Korean nuclear tests (Ford et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2010) show that the method is robust and capable for source-type discrimination at regional distances. The well-separated populations of explosions, earthquakes and collapses on a Hudson et al., (1989) source-type diagram enables source-type discrimination; however the question remains whether or not the separation of events is universal in other regions, where we have limited station coverage and knowledge of Earth structure. Ford et al., (2012) have shown that combining regional waveform data and P-wave first motions removes the CLVD-isotropic tradeoff and uniquely discriminating the 2009 North Korean test as an explosion. Therefore, including additional constraints from regional and teleseismic P-wave first motions enables source-type discrimination at regions with limited station coverage. We present moment tensor analysis of earthquakes and explosions (M6) from Lop Nor and Semipalatinsk test sites for station paths crossing Kazakhstan and Western China. We also present analyses of smaller events from industrial sites. In these sparse coverage situations we combine regional long-period waveforms, and high-frequency P-wave polarity from the same stations, as well as from teleseismic arrays to constrain the source type. Discrimination capability with respect to velocity model and station coverage is examined, and additionally we investigate the velocity model dependence of vanishing free-surface traction effects on seismic moment tensor inversion of shallow sources and recovery of explosive scalar moment. Our synthetic data tests indicate that biases in scalar

  8. Validation of the large-scale Lagrangian cirrus model CLaMS-Ice by in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anja; Rolf, Christian; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Dreiling, Volker; Zöger, Martin; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds are an element of uncertainty in the climate system and have received increasing attention since the last IPCC reports. The interaction of varying freezing meachanisms, sedimentation rates, temperature and updraft velocity fluctuations and other factors that lead to the formation of those clouds is still not fully understood. During the ML-Cirrus campaign 2014 (Germany), the new cirrus cloud model CLaMS-Ice (see Rolf et al., EGU 2015) has been used for flight planning to direct the research aircraft HALO into interesting cirrus cloud regions. Now, after the campaign, we use our in-situ aircraft measurements to validate and improve this model - with the long-term goal to enable it to simulate cirrus cloud cover globally, with reasonable computing times and sufficient accuracy. CLaMS-Ice consists of a two-moment bulk model established by Spichtinger and Gierens (2009a, 2009b), which simulates cirrus clouds along trajectories that the Lagrangian model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002 and Konopka et al. 2007) derived from ECMWF data. The model output covers temperature, pressure, relative humidity, ice water content (IWC), and ice crystal numbers (Nice). These parameters were measured on board of HALO by the following instruments: temperature and pressure by BAHAMAS, total and gas phase water by the hygrometers FISH and SHARC (see Meyer et al 2014, submitted to ACP), and Nice as well as ice crystal size distributions by the cloud spectrometer NIXE-CAPS (see also Krämer et al., EGU 2015). Comparisons of the model results with the measurements yield that cirrus clouds can be successfully simulated by CLaMS-Ice. However, there are sections in which the model's relative humidity and Nice deviate considerably from the measured values. This can be traced back to e.g. the initialization of total water from ECMWF data. The simulations are therefore reinitiated with the total water content measured by FISH. Other possible sources of uncertainties are investigated, as

  9. Equilibrium 2H/1H fractionation in organic molecules: III. Cyclic ketones and hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L.; Nielsen, Robert J.; Goddard, William A.

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative interpretation of stable hydrogen isotope ratios (2H/1H) in organic compounds is greatly aided by knowledge of the relevant equilibrium fractionation factors (ɛeq). Previous efforts have combined experimental measurements and hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to accurately predict equilibrium fractionations in linear (acyclic) organic molecules (Wang et al., 2009a,b), but the calibration produced by that study is not applicable to cyclic compounds. Here we report experimental measurements of equilibrium 2H/1H fractionation in six cyclic ketones, and use those data to evaluate DFT calculations of fractionation in diverse monocyclic and polycyclic compounds commonly found in sedimentary organic matter and petroleum. At 25, 50, and 75 °C, the experimentally measured ɛeq values for secondary and tertiary Hα in isotopic equilibrium with water are in the ranges of -130‰ to -150‰ and +10‰ to -40‰ respectively. Measured data are similar to DFT calculations of ɛeq for axial Hα but not equatorial Hα. In tertiary Cα positions with methyl substituents, this can be understood as a result of the methyl group forcing Hα atoms into a dominantly axial position. For secondary Cα positions containing both axial and equatorial Hα atoms, we propose that axial Hα exchanges with water significantly faster than the equatorial Hα does, due to the hyperconjugation-stabilized transition state. Interconversion of axial and equatorial positions via ring flipping is much faster than isotopic exchange at either position, and as a result the steady-state isotopic composition of both H's is strongly weighted toward that of axial Hα. Based on comparison with measured ɛeq values, a total uncertainty of 10-30‰ remains for theoretical ɛeq values. Using DFT, we systematically estimated the ɛeq values for individual H positions in various cyclic structures. By summing over all individual H positions, the molecular equilibrium fractionation was

  10. Slow slip events in the Kii Peninsula and Shikoku, Japan detected by strain changes at the integrated observatories of Geological Survey of Japan, AIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaba, S.; Ohtani, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Matsumoto, N.; Koizumi, N.

    2009-12-01

    In 2006, Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) started constructing integrated observatories in and around Shikoku and Kii Peninsula, Japan for research on the Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. Two observatories were constructed at Kii Peninsula in June 2007, and ten were completed in January 2009. Each observatory has three wells where water temperature, water level (pressure) and ground motion are observed. At one of the three wells, crustal strain is also observed by a multi-component borehole strain meter. According to Automatic Tremor Monitoring System (ATMOS) of Hiroshima University, 11 tremor activities have occurred in the Kii Peninsula since June 2007. We detected strain changes related to these tremor activities. The changes can be explained by short-term slow slip events (SSEs) occurring at several segments of the plate boundary, whose locations are consistent with the tremor activities (e.g. Itaba et al., 2009a). We analyzed these SSEs with the forward method in consideration of locations of the tremors. On the other hand, the observation suggested the existence of SSEs before or without the tremors (e.g. Fukuda and Sagiya, 2008; Itaba et al., 2009b). Therefore, it is important to detect SSEs just by strain changes. We tried to decide the fault planes for SSEs only using the strain data of the observatories of AIST. Since it is difficult to detect strain changes related to SSEs at two or more observatories of AIST, we decided the fault plain by a grid-search method. As a result, the fault plains for SSEs were consistent with the locations of the tremors. References Fukuda, M. and T. Sagiya, Slow strain changes recorded at Shingu borehole station in the southeastern Kii peninsula, The 7th General Assembly of Asian Seismological Commission and The 2008 Fall meeting of Seismological Society of Japan, Tsukuba, 2008. Itaba, S., N. Koizumi, N. Matsumoto and R. Ohtani, Continuous Observation of

  11. Summary of impact markers and potential impact mechanisms for the YDB impact event at 12.9 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Schultz, P. H.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J.; Kennett, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Until the announcements of a possible impact event (Firestone et al. 2007; Kennett et al., 2009a; 2009b) at the beginning of the Younger Dryas (YD) around 12.9 ka, the KT impact layer (KTB) that resulted from the Chicxulub impact at 65 mya was the only geological boundary layer known to contain coeval peaks in various impact markers, including diamonds. Here, we compare impact markers from the KTB, YD boundary layer (YDB), and the 1908 Tunguska airburst layer (TAL). First order markers, related to impact and biomass burning, include: magnetic spherules, carbon spherules, nanodiamonds (cubic and lonsdaleite), iridium anomalies, charcoal, fullerenes (with high 3He to 4He ratio), grape-like soot, and widespread extinctions. Observations and analytical data for the YDB are consistent with all of the KTB markers, while the last three markers are unknown or inconclusive for the Tunguska layer. Selected markers for cratering events, e.g, Chicxulub, are: a visible crater, shocked minerals, impact breccia, and microtektites. None of these are known for the YD event or Tunguska. The discussion here is limited to possible origins of the impact markers and not with impact consequences (climate change, extinctions, etc.). Several origins may account for impact materials in the YDB: (1) An extraordinary accretion of micrometeorites (Pinter and Ishman, 2008). However, this is inconsistent with YDB carbon spherule compositions, including the large concentrations of nanodiamonds found embedded in those carbon spherules. (2) Oblique impact(s) into the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This model is consistent with the lack of a visible crater and apparent lack of cratering markers (above), and yet also provides for shock production of the many cubic nanodiamonds and lonsdaleite found in the YDB. (3) Impact-induced aerial burst. e.g, Boslough and Crawford (2007); Shuvalov (2008). The lack of high shock pressures in an aerial detonation does not necessarily preclude the formation of cubic and

  12. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle

  13. ECETOC Florence workshop on risk assessment of endocrine substances, including the potency concept.

    PubMed

    Fegert, Ivana

    2013-12-16

    The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) and the Biocidal Products Regulation (EC Regulation 528/2012) only support the marketing and use of chemicals if they do not cause endocrine disruption in humans or wildlife species. Also, substances with endocrine properties are subject to authorization under the European regulation on the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH; 1907/2006). Therefore, the regulatory consequences of identifying a substance as an endocrine disrupting chemical are severe. In contrast to that, basic scientific criteria, necessary to define endocrine disrupting properties, are not described in any of these legislative documents. Thus, the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) established a task force to provide scientific criteria for the identification and assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties that may be used within the context of these three legislative texts (ECETOC, 2009a). In 2009, ECETOC introduced a scientific framework as a possible concept for identifying endocrine disrupting properties within a regulatory context (ECETOC, 2009b; Bars et al., 2011a,b). The proposed scientific criteria integrated, in a weight of evidence approach, information from regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies by combining evidence for adverse effects detected in apical whole-organism studies with an understanding of the mode of action (MoA) of endocrine toxicity. However, since not all chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties are of equal hazard, an adequate concept should also be able to differentiate between chemicals with endocrine properties of low concern from those of higher concern (for regulatory purposes). For this purpose, the task force refined this part of their concept. Following an investigation of the key factors at a second workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists, the

  14. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    ., (2006b): "Ekspedicija Velebita 2005", Velebiten 43, pp. 2-21, SO PDS Velebit, Zagreb. Bla\\vsković, I. (1998): The two stages of structural formation of the coastal belt of the External Dinarides, Geologica Croatica, vol 51/1, Zagreb. Bockovac, Ž. (1999): Jama Amfora. Speleo'zin, 12, 7, pp. 14-15, Karlovac. Garašić, M.(1986): Hydrogeology and Morphogenesis of the Caves in Croatin Karst. Ph.D. Thesis, 1-161, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Geology, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(1989): New conception of the morphogenesis and hydrogeology of the speleological objects in karst area in Croatia (Yugoslavia). 10. International Congress of Speleology, Procceedings, vol.1, pp. 234-236, s1.8, Budapest, Hungary. Garašić, M.(1991): Morphological and Hydrogeological Classification of Speleological structures (Caves and Pits) in the Croatian Karst area. Geolo\\vski vjesnik, vol.44, pp. 289-300, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(1995): Speleogeneza u okviru hidrogeologije krša i procesa karstifikacije. 1. Hrvatski geolo\\vski kongres, Opatija, Zbornik radova, Proceedings, 177-182, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(2009a): Izvješće o speleolo\\vskom istraživanju, fotografskom i topografskom snimanju, te hidrogeolo\\vskim opservacijama u novootvorenoj jami (kaverni) u tunelu "Sveti Ilija" (servisna tunelska cijev), na stacionaži km 1+193, na trasi spojne ceste Zagvozd - Ba\\vska voda u Dalmaciji. University of Zagreb. pp. 1-39, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(2009b): Izvješće o speleolo\\vskom istraživanju, fotografskom i topografskom snimanju, te hidrogeolo\\vskim opservacijama u novootvorenoj jami (kaverni) u tunelu "Sveti Ilija" (servisna tunelska cijev), na stacionaži km 1+415, na trasi spojne ceste Zagvozd - Ba\\vska voda u Dalmaciji. University of Zagreb. pp. 1-43, Zagreb. Garašić, M.(2009c): Izvješće o speleolo\\vskom istraživanju, fotografskom i topografskom snimanju, te hidrogeolo\\vskim opservacijama u novootvorenoj jami (kaverni) u tunelu "Sveti Ilija" (servisna tunelska cijev), na stacionaži km

  15. 40 CFR 63.11545 - What are my compliance dates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicable provisions of this subpart no later than June 27, 2011. (b) If you start up a new affected source... than June 25, 2009. (c) If you start up a new affected source after June 25, 2009, you must...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11580 - What are my compliance dates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... later than December 30, 2010. (b) If you start up a new affected source on or before December 30, 2009, you must achieve compliance with this subpart no later than December 30, 2009. (c) If you start up...

  17. Editorial: Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX): Direct Sampling of the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.

    2012-02-01

    This special supplement issue of the Astrophysical Journal comprises six coordinated papers that provide the first detailed analyses of the direct sampling of interstellar neutral atoms by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Interstellar atoms are the detritus of older stars—their stellar winds, novae, and supernovae—spread across the galaxy, which fill the vast interstellar space between the stars. The very local interstellar medium around the Sun is filled with both ionized and neutral atoms with approximately equal numbers, and occasional ionization, charge exchange, and recombination makes them a single interacting material over large distances. IBEX (McComas et al. 2009a) is a NASA Small Explorer mission with the sole, focused science objective to discover the global interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium; this objective has primarily been achieved by taking the first global energetic neutral atom (ENA) images, which provide detailed ENA fluxes and energy spectra over all look directions in space. IBEX was launched 2008 October 19 and subsequently maneuvered into a high-altitude, highly elliptical (~15,000 × 300,000 km), roughly week-long orbit. The payload comprises two very high sensitivity, single-pixel ENA cameras: IBEX-Hi (Funsten et al. 2009a), which measures ENAs from ~300 eV to 6 keV, and IBEX-Lo (Fuselier et al. 2009a), which measures ENAs from ~10 eV to 2 keV. The initial IBEX ENA results were published together in a special issue of Science magazine (McComas et al. 2009b; Funsten et al. 2009b; Fuselier et al. 2009b; Schwadron et al. 2009). Since then there have been numerous additional studies of the IBEX ENA observations of the heliosphere, as well as ENAs from the Moon and Earth's magnetosphere (see recent review by McComas et al. 2011 and references therein). Prior to IBEX, the only interstellar neutral atoms to be directly sampled were He, observed by the Ulysses spacecraft a decade ago (Witte et al. 1996

  18. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Centralia, Kansas, in 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-03-16

    reductive dechlorination in the injection test area (Argonne 2009a). The KDHE (2008a) requested that sitewide monitoring continue until a final remedy is selected (as part of a Corrective Action Study [CAS] evaluation) and implemented. In response to this request, the established sampling across the site and additional sampling in the IM pilot test area continued in 2008 (Argonne 2008b, 2009a,b). On the basis of results of the 2005-2008 sitewide monitoring and the 2008 IM pilot test monitoring, the CCC/USDA recommended a revised sampling program for both the wider site and the IM pilot test area (Section 4.2 in Argonne 2009b). The elements of this interim monitoring plan are as follows: (1) Annual sampling of twelve monitoring points across the site (Figure 1.1) and five outlying IM pilot test monitoring points (PMP4, PMP5, PMP6, PMP7, PMP9; Figure 1.2); and (2) Twice yearly sampling of five IM pilot test monitoring points inside the injection area (PMP1-PMP3, PMP8, MW02; Figure 1.2). With the approval of the KDHE (2009), the initial groundwater sampling for VOCs and geochemical analyses under the interim monitoring plan outlined above was conducted in 2009 (Argonne 2010). The present report documents the findings of the 2010 monitoring events, conducted on April 5 and September 19-21, 2010.

  19. Age models for peat deposits on the basis of coupled lead-210 and radiocarbon data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; de Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Sensuła, Barbara; Michczyński, Adam; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Palowski, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The study presents three examples of age-model construction based on the results of 210Pb and 14C dating methods applied to peat deposits. The three sites are ombrotrophic peat bogs: the Misten (Belgium), Slowinskie Bloto (N Poland) and Puscizna Mala (S Poland). All sites have been subjected to multiproxy studies aimed at reconstructing paleoenvironment and human activity, covering the last 1500, 1300 and 1800 years, respectively (De Vleeschouwer et al. 2009A, 2009B, in prep., Fialkiewicz-Koziel, ongoing PhD). A detailed comparison between 210Pb and post-bomb 14C results in the Misten bog has also been carried out by Piotrowska et al. (2009). In all cores, the 210Pb activity was calculated using 210Po and 208Po activities after acid-extraction from bulk samples, subsequent deposition on silver discs and measurements by alpha spectrometry. Unsupported 210Pb was detected until 35cm in Slowinskie Bloto, 15cm in the Misten and 19cm in Puscizna Mala. Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was then applied to compute ages of each 1-cm core interval. For the Misten and Slowinskie Bloto, radiocarbon measurements were performed on selected aboveground plant macrofossils, mainly Sphagnum spp. or Calluna vulgaris, Erica tetralix, and Andromeda polyfolia. Radiocarbon ages were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) after acid-alkali-acid wash, combustion, purification of carbon dioxide and graphitisation. For Puscizna Mala bulk samples were dated after chemical preparation of benzene for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or CO2 for gas proportional counting (GPC). Radiocarbon calibration was undertaken using the Intcal04 calibration curve and OxCal 4 software. As a priori information the 210Pb-derived ages were used in a P_Sequence model (Bronk Ramsey, 2008). A number of dates characterized by low agreement with stratigraphical order had to be considered as outliers and rejected from the final age model. For building a continuous age models a non-linear approach

  20. The impact of land use on biological activity of agriculture soils. An State-of-the-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    desiccation, mechanical destruction, soil compaction, reduce pore volume, and disruption of access to food resources (Cerdà et al., 2009b). Furthermore, it can lead to a loss in soil fertility and reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganism (Caravaca et al., 2002). Nevertheless, some organic fertilizers, such as manure, waste water and sewage sludge, promote the activities of soil microbial communities (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2011; Balota et al., 2013; Macci et al., 2013). On the other hand, land use influences soil microbial processes by changing the quantity and quality of plant residues entering the soil and their spatial distribution, thorough changes in nutrients and inputs (García-Orenes et al., 2009; 2012). The abuse of pesticides can drastically modify the function and structure of microbial communities, altering the terrestrial ecosystems, which has important implication for soil quality (Pampulha et al., 2006). Soil quality is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystem (Paz-Ferreiro & Fu, 2013; Vasconcellos et al., 2013). This paper will review the State-of-the-Art of the scientific knowledge on the impact of land use on the biological activity in agriculture soils Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Balota, E. L., Yada, I.F., Amaral, H., Nakatani, A.S., Dick, R.P., Coyne, M.S. 2013. Long-term land use influences soil microbial biomass p and s, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities, and mineralization in a brazilian oxisol. Land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2242 Caravaca F, Masciandaro G, Ceccanti B. 2002. Land use in relation to soil chemical and biochemical properties in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Soil and Tillage Research 68: 23-30. Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A

  1. Behavior of major and trace elements upon weathering of peridotites in New Caledonia : A possible site on ultramafic rocks for the Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN) ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillot, Farid; Fandeur, D.; Fritsch, E.; Morin, G.; Ambrosi, J. P.; Olivi, L.; Cognigni, A.; Hazemann, J. L.; Proux, O.; Webb, S.; Brown, G. E., Jr.

    2010-05-01

    ). However, these high concentration of potentially toxic elements can represent a serious hazard for the environmental quality of the Caledonian ecosystem which is a '' biodiversity hotspot' (Myers, 2000), which emphasize the strong need for characterizing the natural cycling of these elements upon weathering of ultramafic rocks. To reach this goal, we have studied the mineralogical distribution, crystal-chemistry and mass balance modelling of major (Si, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn) and trace elements (Ni, Cr and Co) in the freely-drained weathering profile developed in the serpentinized harzburgites of Mt Koniambo (West Coast of New Caledonia). Results show that both hydrothermal and meteoric processes contributed to the vertical differentiation of this freely drained weathering profiles in serpentinized ultramafic rocks. Finally, they also emphasize the importance of both redox reactions and interactions with Mn- and Fe-oxyhydroxydes (Fandeur et al., 2009a; 2009b) to explain the opposite behavior observed between very mobile Ni and almost immobile Cr (Fandeur et al., 2010). These results bring new insights on the geochemical behavior of trace elements upon weathering of ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions leading to the formation of supergene ore deposits. They also emphasize the interest of such a weathering site on ultramafic rocks under tropical climate to complemente the reference sites of the Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN). References Cluzel D., Aitchinson J.C. and Picard C. (2001) Tectonic accretion and underplating of mafic terranes in the Late Eocene intraoceanic fore-arc of New-Caledonia (Southwest Pacific): geodynamic implications. Tectonophysics, 340, 23-59. Coleman, R.G. (1977) Ophiolites: Ancient oceanic lithosphere?: Berlin, Germany, Springer-Verlag, 229p. Fandeur D., Juillot F., Morin G., Olivi L., Cognigni A., Fialin M., Coufignal F., Ambrosi J.P., Guyot F. and Fritsch E. (2009a). Synchrotron-based speciation of chromium in an Oxisol from New

  2. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  3. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  4. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  5. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  6. 40 CFR 63.11525 - What are my compliance dates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my compliance dates? 63.11525... Facilities Applicability and Compliance Dates § 63.11525 What are my compliance dates? (a) If you own or... subpart by June 22, 2009. (b) If you start up a new affected source on or before December 23, 2008,...

  7. 76 FR 41712 - Approval, Disapproval, and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Utah; Revisions to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... NSR regulations in 40 CFR parts 51 and 52 (67 FR 80186). These revisions are commonly referred to as... partially approve and partially disapprove the revisions submitted by the Utah DEQ. 74 FR 667 (January 7..., can be found in our proposed rule. 74 FR 667 (January 7, 2009). B. What comments did we receive on...

  8. Effects of Adapted Instruction on the Acquisition of Letter-Sound Correspondences by Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Complex Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedek Wood, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Reading is one of the most critical skills taught in schools (Heller, Fredrick, Tumlin, & Brineman, 2002). Individuals who acquire literacy skills are more likely to experience success in school, and to obtain and maintain employment (Adams, 1990; Light & McNaughton, 2009b; Slavin, Karweit, & Madden, 1989). It is therefore an…

  9. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... claimant bears the burden of proof to ensure that OWCP has the evidence needed to establish the claim. OWCP... on August 18, 2009. (b) That the injured person, at the time he or she incurred the injury or disease... injury or disease occurred and that the employee's death was causally related to that injury or...

  10. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... claimant bears the burden of proof to ensure that OWCP has the evidence needed to establish the claim. OWCP... on August 18, 2009. (b) That the injured person, at the time he or she incurred the injury or disease... injury or disease occurred and that the employee's death was causally related to that injury or...

  11. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... claimant bears the burden of proof to ensure that OWCP has the evidence needed to establish the claim. OWCP... on August 18, 2009. (b) That the injured person, at the time he or she incurred the injury or disease... injury or disease occurred and that the employee's death was causally related to that injury or...

  12. 78 FR 32558 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... earlier expedited methods approval action (74 FR 38348, August 3, 2009) (USEPA 2009b). Both EPA Methods... Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures. 74 FR 38348. August 3, 2009. USEPA. 2013. EPA Method 524.4...). 1997b. Standard Method 2320 B-97. Alkalinity. Titration Method. Approved by Standard Methods...

  13. 75 FR 32295 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ..., 2009, Federal Register notice (74 FR 57908) (USEPA 2009b). The corrected tables are titled: Alternative... methods approval process in an April 10, 2007, Federal Register notice (72 FR 17902) (USEPA 2007) and..., Federal Register notice (73 FR 31616) (USEPA 2008) and added appendix A to 40 CFR part 141, subpart...

  14. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 2. Potential Effectiveness of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students' beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions.…

  15. 75 FR 3791 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Availability and Solicitation of Applications, 74 FR 32545 (July 8, 2009). B. Round One In response to the... demand for broadband services. \\7\\ Notice of Funds Availability and Solicitation of Applications, 74 FR... for Information (RFI), 74 FR 58940 (Nov. 16, 2009). 3. Project Categories For this round of...

  16. Are There Shared Environmental Influences on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? Reply to Wood, Buitelaar, Rijsdijk, Asherson, and Kunsti (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    A recent large-scale meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies indicated that shared environmental influences make important contributions to most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology (Burt, 2009b). The sole exception to this robust pattern of results was observed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which appeared to be…

  17. A Family Quality of Life Study of Families with Children with Disabilities in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranges, Phaedra E.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that families of children with disabilities are at risk for a lower quality of life than families of typically developing children, as the impact that a child with a disability has on a family's quality of life (FQOL) is both substantial and complex (Zuna, Selig, Summers, & Turnbull, 2009b; Zuna, Summers, Turnbull, Hu & Xu,…

  18. Recent Ocean Literacy Research in United States Public Schools: Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plankis, Brian J.; Marrero, Meghan E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research conducted on adults in the United States indicates low ocean literacy (Ocean Project, 2009b, 1999), but there is a dearth of peer-reviewed research on K-12 students' ocean literacy. This paper presents two research studies that examined the ocean and environmental literacy of 464 K-12 students in five states. Like the majority of…

  19. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  20. 7 CFR 91.37 - Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... costs other than the commodity inspection fees referred to in 7 CFR 52.42 through 52.46, 52.48 through....00 per hour in fiscal year 2008, and $67.00 per hour in fiscal year 2009. (b) Printed updated schedules of the laboratory testing fees for processed fruits and vegetables (7 CFR part 93), poultry...

  1. Emotion-Induced Trade-Offs in Spatiotemporal Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Bruno R.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that emotion facilitates human vision in order to promote adaptive responses to a potential threat in the environment. Surprisingly, we recently found that emotion in some cases impairs the perception of elementary visual features (Bocanegra & Zeelenberg, 2009b). Here, we demonstrate that emotion improves fast temporal…

  2. 75 FR 6883 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ... 1987 Rule until 2008. In 2008, the Department significantly revised these regulations at 73 FR 77110... in September 2009, 74 FR 45906, Sep. 4, 2009. B. Overview of Comments Received The Department... to domestic workers as determined by DOL. See 32 FR 4571, Mar. 28, 1967. The preamble to the 1979...

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Literacy Self-Efficacy and Literacy Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostock, Louise; Boon, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The impetus for the study reported in this paper was Queensland's poor performance on 2008's NAPLAN testing, the Queensland Education Performance Review (Department of Education and Training, [DET]2009b) that followed and the subsequent adoption of pre-registration tests for aspiring Primary and Early Childhood teachers (Queensland College of…

  4. The Availability and Use of 21st Century Technology Tools in South Carolina Secondary Public School Library Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuRant, Kathleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of South Carolina secondary school library media specialists to prepare students to meet the "AASL Standards for the 21st Century Learner" (American Association of School Librarians, 2009b) by investigating the availability of 21st century technology tools, the confidence level of media…

  5. An Investigation of the Effects of Authentic Science Experiences among Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Providing equitable learning opportunities for all students has been a persistent issue for some time. This is evident by the science achievement gap that still exists between male and female students as well as between White and many non-White student populations (NCES, 2007, 2009, 2009b) and an underrepresentation of female, African-American,…

  6. 77 FR 64920 - Revisions to Reliability Standard for Transmission Vegetation Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... software should be filed in native applications or print-to-PDF format and not a scanned format. Mail/Hand.... v. FERC, 564 F.3d 1342 (DC Cir. 2009). B. Reliability Standard FAC-003-1 8. Currently-effective.... \\13\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 71...

  7. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  8. Results from VIRTIS on board Venus Express after the end of the mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; VIRTIS Venus Express team

    After more than 8 years since the orbit insertion, the Venus Express mission is now at its end of mission operations. VIRTIS aboard the Venus Express spacecraft has addressed a significant amount of scientific results from the surface up to the upper atmosphere, in terms of mapping, composition, structure and dynamics. The VIRTIS instrument consists of two channels: VIRTIS-M, an imaging spectrometer with moderate spectral resolution in the range from 0.25 to 5.2 mu m and VIRTIS-H, a high spectral resolution spectrometer in the range from 2 to 5 mu m co-aligned with the field of view of –M \\citep{Piccioni2007a,Drossart2007a}. The resolution of VIRTIS-M is 2 nm from 0.25 to 1 mu m, and 10 nm from 1 to 5.2 mu m. The resolution of VIRTIS-H is about 2 nm. The atmosphere above the clouds has been observed both on day and night sides, in solar reflection and thermal emission in nadir geometry \\citep{Ignatiev2009, Cottini2012, Peralta2012, Peralta2009}. Limb observations provided O2\\citep{Piccioni2009, Garcia2009a, Gerard2013, Migliorini2013a, Gerard2008, Gerard2009}, OH \\citep{Piccioni2008,Gerard2010,Soret2010,Soret2012}, NO \\citep{Garcia2009b}, CO2 \\citep{Drossart2007b,Lopez-Valverde2011} and CO \\citep{Gilli2009,Gilli2015,Gilli2011} emissions, through nightglow and fluorescence observations. Spectroscopy of the 4-5 mu m range gave access to the cloud structure in the 60-95 km altitude levels \\citep{Irwin2008a,Grassi2014, Grassi2008,Grassi2010,Luz2011}. The deeper atmospheric windows, limited by CO2 and H2O bands were accessible only in thermal emission on the night side. The sounded levels at 1.7 and 2.3 mu m were limited respectively to 30-20 km altitude \\citep{Barstow2012,Bezard2009,Marcq2008a,Satoh2009,Tsang2009, Tsang2010,Tsang2008,Wilson2008,Wilson2009}, while at shorter wavelengths (1.18, 1.10, 1.01, 0.9 and 0.85 mu m), the hot surface of Venus was seen through the scattering clouds \\citep{Mueller2009,Helbert2008,Arnold2008a,Smrekar2010,Mueller2012

  9. From paper to Facebook, travelling trough the natural hazards divulgation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Llasat, Maria-Carmen

    2010-05-01

    In a society so greatly influenced by the media as ours, and with new global meteorological risks such as climate change, scientists should work together with the media to make their research known to the general public, as, in its turn, to use the media as source of information. Press articles can be used as indicator to obtain an indirect estimation of the natural risks in order to built data bases on this matter (Llasat et al, 2009a). The media, and particularly the press, can also be used to estimate the social perception of natural risks and climate change (Tábara, 2008): usually the press reflects the dominant patterns and beliefs in a particular society, and, in its turn, has a strong influence on the collective construction of the risk perception, independently of the multiple individual perceptions and experiences of the same event or risk. Usually press focuses more on the vulnerability to risks and less on the actual danger, and it is necessary to assess in each case all the situational factors involved in the publication of a news item, since the spatial and temporal location of the event need to be taken into account too (Llasat-Botija et al., 2007). Then, when public perception and the natural risk evolution are analyzed through the press information, it is necessary to distinguish between the different factors that could be involved in it and their potential changes. Particularly, a change in the socio-cultural paradigm approach and in the mass media strategy should be taken into account. These changes in the communication strategy have also to be taken into account when we consider the different tools used for sensibilization and education in front of natural risks. Starting from conferences, seminars or demonstrations (Malamud, 2008), web pages (Llasat-Botija et al, 2008), educative dossiers and videos, in the recent years new tools in internet are increasing in importance. This is the case of social networks, blogs, you-tube, distribution lists

  10. Geology and Stratigraphy of Four Candidate Pyroclastic Deposits on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinauer, Julia; Hiesinger, Harald; Bauch, Karin; Preusker, Frank

    2016-04-01

    the floor of Lermontov. Because of the hilly terrain, multiple volcanic processes might have led to the formation of these structures. Crater counts for Lermontov yielded absolute model ages between 3.79 (+0.03/-0.03) Ga and 4.01 (+0.02/-0.03) Ga and for Glinka between 3.20 (+0.15/-0.39) Ga and 4.00 (+0.04/-0.07) Ga. [1] Solomon, S.C. et al. (2008) Science 321, 59-62. [2] Blewett, D.T. et al. (2009a) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 285, 263-271. [3] Blewett, D.T. et al. (2009b) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 40 (abstract 1793). [4] Head, J.W. et al. (2008) Science 321, 69-72. [5] Head, J.W. et al. (2009) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 285, 227-242. [6] Kerber, L. et al. (2009) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 285, 263-271. [7] Kerber, L. et al. (2011) Planet. Space Sci., 59, 1895-1909. [8] Murchie, S.L. et al. (2008) Science 321, 73-76. [9] Robinson, M.S. et al. (2008) Science 321, 66-69. [10] Head, J.W. et al. (2011) Science 333, 1853-1856. [11] Preusker, F. et al. (2011) Planet. Space Sci. 59, 1910-1917.

  11. Fractal aggregates in reduced gravity experiments and numerical simulations to characterize cometary material properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Hadamcik, Edith; Botet, Robert; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    to determine cometary dust properties useful to interpret observations and to prepare on-going missions. Cometary primordial aggregation Recent in situ studies have unveiled surface features hinting at a pervasive internal layered structure on 9P/Tempel 1 [9]. Assuming reduced gravity aggregation of cometesimals and taking into account sintering processes, quantitative internal properties of the nucleus can be obtained [10]. At large dissipation of the kinetic energy during impact, possible fractal structure disappears and is replaced by a density, cohesive strength and porosity layering of the material. The cohesive strength of the nuclei obtained (¡104 N.m-2 ) compares well with values deduced from disruption events observations and laboratory impact experiments. During an impact, if the ejected material is lost, the internal structure of the nucleus can be erased. This suggests that either the structures observed are not primordial (e.g. cryovolcanism resurfacing [11]) or that secondary mechanisms, such as the re-accretion of fragments after destructive collision, have occurred during the accretion process [12]. Support from LPI, LATMOS/IPSL, CNES for PROGRA2 and CNES and ESA for the micro-gravity flights are acknowledged. [1] Levasseur-Regourd et al, PSS 2009 [2] Levasseur-Regourd and Hadamcik, JQSRT 2003; [3] Levasseur-Regourd et al., ESA-SP 2001; [4] Blum et al., ASR 2002; [5] Renard et al., AO 2002; [6] Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 2006; [7] Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 2007; [8] Lasue et al., Icarus (2009a) ; [9] Thomas et al., Icarus 2007 ; [10] Lasue et al., Icarus (2009b) ; [11] Belton et al., Icarus (2008); [12] Blum and Wurm, Annu. Rev. Astro. Astrophys. (2008)

  12. Methodology of Detailed Geophysical Examination of the Areas of World Recognized Religious and Cultural Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2010-05-01

    It is obvious that noninvasive geophysical methods are the main interpreting tools at the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts. Usually in these areas any excavations, drilling and infrastructure activity are forbidden or very strongly limited. According to field experience and results of numerous modeling (Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000, 2009a, 2009b; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2001, 2003; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2006a, 2006b, 2007, 2010, Itkis et al., 2003; Neishtadt et al., 2006), a set of applied geophysical methods may include the following types of surveys: (1) magnetic, (3) GPR (ground penetration radar), (3) gravity, (4) electromagnetic VLF (very low frequency), (5) ER (electric resistivity), (6) SP (self-potential), (7) IP (induced polarization), (8) SE (seismoelectric), and (9) NST (near-surface temperature). As it was shown in (Eppelbaum, 2005), interpretation ambiguity may be sufficiently reduced not only by integrated analysis of several geophysical methods, but also by the way of multilevel observations of geophysical fields. Magnetic, gravity and VLF measurements may be performed at different levels over the earth's surface (0.1 - 3 m), ER, SP and SE observations may be obtained with different depth of electrodes grounding (0.1 - 1 m), and NST sensor may be located at a depth of 0.8 - 2.5 m. GPR method usually allows measuring electromagnetic fields at various frequencies (with corresponding changing of the investigation depth and other parameters). Influence of some typical noise factors to geophysical investigations at archaeological sites was investigated in (Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001). In many cases various constructions and walls are in the nearest vicinity of the examined artifacts. These constructions can be also utilized for carrying out geophysical measurements (magnetic, gravity and VLF) at different levels. Application of the modern ROV (remote operated vehicles) with registration of magnetic and VLF fields at

  13. Aerosol Inflluence on Ice Nucleation via the Immersion Mode in Mixed-Phase Arctic Stratiform Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Hashino, T.; Tripoli, G. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2009-12-01

    Mixed-phase stratiform clouds are commonly observed at high latitudes (e.g. Shupe et al., 2006; de Boer et al., 2009a). Herman and Goody (1976), as well as Curry et al. (1996) present summaries of Arctic cloud climatologies that show low altitude stratus frequencies of up to 70% during transitional seasons. In addition to their frequent occurrence, these clouds have significant impacts on the near-surface atmospheric radiative budget, with estimates of wintertime reductions in net surface cooling of 40-50 Wm-2 (Curry et al., 1996) due predominantly to liquid in the mixed-phase layer. Both observational and modeling studies (e.g. Harrington et al., 1999; Jiang et al., 2000; Shupe et al., 2008; Klein et al., 2008) show a strong connection between the amount of ice present and the lifetime of the liquid portion of the cloud layer. This is thought to occur via the Bergeron-Findeissen mechanism (Pruppacher and Klett, 1997) in which ice grows at the expense of liquid due to its lower saturation vapor pressure. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which ice is nucleated within these mixed-phase layers are not yet fully understood, and therefore an accurate depiction of this process for mixed-phase stratiform clouds has not yet been characterized. The nucleation mechanisms that are active in a given environment are sensitive to aerosol properties. Insoluble particles are typically good nuclei for ice particle formation, while soluble particles are typically better at nucleating water droplets. Aerosol observations from the Arctic often show mixed aerosol particles that feature both soluble and insoluble mass (Leaitch et al., 1984). Soluble mass fractions for these particles have been shown to be high, with estimates of 60-80% and are often made up of sulfates (Zhou et al., 2001; Bigg and Leck, 2001). It is believed that a significant portion of this sulfate mass comes from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the Arctic Ocean and subsequent atmospheric oxidation. Since these

  14. Benthic substrate classification map: Gulf Islands National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James; Twichell, Dave; Rose, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 hurricane season was devastating for the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Hurricane Katrina caused significant degradation of the barrier islands that compose the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS). Because of the ability of coastal barrier islands to help mitigate hurricane damage to the mainland, restoring these habitats prior to the onset of future storms will help protect the islands themselves and the surrounding habitats. During Hurricane Katrina, coastal barrier islands reduced storm surge by approximately 10 percent and moderated wave heights (Wamsley and others, 2009). Islands protected the mainland by preventing ocean waves from maintaining their size as they approached the mainland. In addition to storm protection, it is advantageous to restore these islands to preserve the cultural heritage present there (for example, Fort Massachusetts) and because of the influence that these islands have on marine ecology. For example, these islands help maintain a salinity regime favorable to oysters in the Mississippi Sound and provide critical habitats for many migratory birds and endangered species such as sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, and Dermochelys coriacea), Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2009a). As land manager for the GUIS, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with the State of Mississippi and the Mobile District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide a set of recommendations to the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) that will guide restoration planning. The final set of recommendations includes directly renourishing both West Ship Island (to protect Fort Massachusetts) and East Ship Island (to restore the French Warehouse archaeological site); filling Camille Cut to recreate a continuous Ship Island; and restoring natural regional sediment transport processes by placing sand in the littoral zone just east of Petit Bois

  15. Effect of artificial recharge by treated wastewater on the quality of the Korba coastal aquifer (Cape Bon, Tunisia): insights from Boron isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, L.; Casanova, J.; Mekni, A.; Gaaloul, N.; Guerrot, C.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean coastal aquifers are highly stressed, partly because of intensive agricultural activities in semi-arid or arid context. Water quality of groundwater is often degraded by different processes: salt water intrusion, diffuse pollution... In this context, the Korba aquifer on the eastern coast of Cape Bon (Tunisia) undergoes overexploitation. Since the 60's, reversal of hydraulic gradient and saline intrusion were studied (Ennabli, 1980; Kouzana et al. 2009a , 2009b; Kouzana et al., 2010) and the groundwater hydrogeological functioning was modeled (Kerrou et al., 2010; Panicoti et al. 2001a, 2001b; Zghibi et al., 2011). Crucial for local agriculture, aquifer management led to the implementation of artificial recharge with treated wastewaters at the end of 2008. Since then, groundwater quality was monitored to trace the effectiveness of artificial recharge, based on boron isotopes, to better determine the different system components. Samples were taken from recharge control piezometers and in farmers' wells. Cation exchange was demonstrated to be one of the main processes controlling the groundwater quality. Sodium, potassium and boron were clearly in deficit compared to a mixing line with seawater, whereas calcium, strontium and bicarbonates were in excess. Treated wastewaters were concentrated in chloride and sodium and sometimes more than in wells, equivalent to a mixing of 6 to 14 % with sea water. The 2009 isotopic signatures in wells were clearly distributed on a mixing line between a nitrate-polluted and salinized pole especially constituted by abandoned wells and which had already reached equilibrium governed by cation exchange or sorption processes, and fresh groundwater. This mixing line explained the intermediate composition of a less salinized groundwater pole of intensively pumped wells. In 2010, in a context of low rainwater inputs, a general decrease of δ11B in the same wells may indicate mixing with deeper groundwaters and a continuous

  16. Novel Algorithms Enabling Rapid, Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

    2012-12-01

    ://alomax.net/pub_list.html): Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2012), Tsunami early warning within 5 minutes, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 169, nnn-nnn, doi: 10.1007/s00024-012-0512-6. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2011), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration and P-wave dominant period: the importance of length and depth of faulting, Geophys. J. Int., 185, 283-291, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04916.x. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2009b), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L09306, doi:10.1029/2009GL037223. Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2009a), Mwpd: A Duration-Amplitude Procedure for Rapid Determination of Earthquake Magnitude and Tsunamigenic Potential from P Waveforms, Geophys. J. Int.,176, 200-214, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03974.x

  17. The International Deep Planet Survey. I. The frequency of wide-orbit massive planets around A-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigan, A.; Patience, J.; Marois, C.; Bonavita, M.; De Rosa, R. J.; Macintosh, B.; Song, I.; Doyon, R.; Zuckerman, B.; Lafrenière, D.; Barman, T.

    2012-08-01

    atseparations between the ranges probed by existing RV and AO observations. Finally, we report the discovery of three new close M-star companions to HIP 104365 and HIP 42334. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO programs 081.C-0519, 083.C-0706, 084.C-0605, 087.C-0559, 088.C-0477, and at the Gemini North observatory, Gemini programs GN-2007B-Q-59, GN-2008A-Q-77, GN-2008B-Q-64, GN-2009A-Q-80, GN-2009B-Q-93.Table A.1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables 1, 3, and A.1 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A9

  18. Distribution and evolution of scalloped terrain in the southern hemisphere, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Michael; Hiesinger, Harald; Reiss, Dennis; Hauber, Ernst; Neukum, Gerhard

    2010-04-01

    Scalloped depressions are a unique martian surface morphology found in the northern and southern hemisphere latitude-dependent dust and ice-rich surface mantles. These features exhibit a distinct asymmetric north-south slope profile, characterized by steep pole-facing scarps, flat floors and gentle equator-facing slopes. We examined High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images of the southern hemisphere to determine their longitudinal distribution, which revealed that a majority of scalloped terrain is located in the region of the southern wall of the Hellas Basin and northern Malea Planum. A detailed map of this area was produced where scallops were found to contour the southern wall of the basin, and where the ice-rich mantle was seen to be thickest. Scalloped terrain is concentrated along the topographic highs near the Amphitrites and Peneus Paterae and areal extent and depth decreases with increasing depth into the basin. We also examined existing hypothesis for the formation and evolution of scalloped depressions using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images and data from the Thermal Emission Imaging System-Infrared (THEMIS-IR) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). Our approach provides regional context for the development of scalloped terrains within the southern hemisphere, and offers detailed evidence of scallop depressions forming around small cracks, presumably caused by thermal contraction. Morphometric measurements show that scalloped depressions can be as much as 40 m deep, with typical depths of between 10 and 20 m. Our observations of scallop formation and development in the southern hemisphere support a solar-insolation model proposed by previous researchers (e.g. [Morgenstern, A., Hauber, E., Reiss, D., van Gasselt, S., Grosse, G., Schirrmeister, L., 2007. J. Geophys. Res. 112, CiteID E06010; Lefort, A., Russell, P.S., Thomas, N., McEwen, A.S., Dundas, C.M., Kirk, R.L., 2009a. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E04005; Lefort, A

  19. Modelling Infragravity Waves and Currents across a Fringing Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongeren, A. R.; Duong Minh, T.; Lowe, R.; Roelvink, J.; Ranasinghe, R.; Symonds, G.

    2010-12-01

    The majority of the world’s coastlines contain submerged reef structures of various types, i.e. tropical coral reefs, relic temperate limestone platforms, and other submerged rock formations. Relatively little research has been conducted to study nearshore hydrodynamic processes that occur in reef environments. A good understanding of these processes is important because waves and wave-induced currents drive sediment transport, nutrient dynamics, and dispersal of larval coral and fish. Through the development of improved hydrodynamic models, the impact of environmental changes and human impacts on reefs may be accurately assessed. However, predictive models have historically been developed and tested using sandy coast environments. There are some important differences with reefs: wave breaking over the reef results in onshore flows with a higher bed friction coefficient, as well as set-up. Recent field studies (e.g., Lowe et al. JPO, 2009a) have shown the transformation of swell energy on reefs, and numerical model studies (Symonds and Black, JCR 2001, Ranasinghe et al., Coastal Eng. 2006, Lowe et al. J. Geoph. Res. 2009b) have shown that the spatial pattern of mean wave heights and mean currents can be qualitatively reproduced. However, the bulk of the measured variability is often in the infragravity frequency band (Pequignet et al. Geoph. Res. Lett., 2009 and Lowe et al., in prep.). The recently developed open-source model XBeach (Roelvink et al, Coastal Eng. 2009) is specifically designed to model these wave motions and associated sediment transport and has been successfully applied to sandy coasts (McCall et al., Coastal Eng. 2010). The objective of this paper is to apply XBeach to simulate infragravity forcing at Ningaloo Reef, a large fringing coral reef located along the northwest coastline of Western Australia. A field experiment at Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia) conducted in June 2009 by Lowe et al (in prep.) specifically aimed at measuring

  20. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  1. The impact of land use on biological activity of agriculture soils. An State-of-the-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    desiccation, mechanical destruction, soil compaction, reduce pore volume, and disruption of access to food resources (Cerdà et al., 2009b). Furthermore, it can lead to a loss in soil fertility and reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganism (Caravaca et al., 2002). Nevertheless, some organic fertilizers, such as manure, waste water and sewage sludge, promote the activities of soil microbial communities (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2011; Balota et al., 2013; Macci et al., 2013). On the other hand, land use influences soil microbial processes by changing the quantity and quality of plant residues entering the soil and their spatial distribution, thorough changes in nutrients and inputs (García-Orenes et al., 2009; 2012). The abuse of pesticides can drastically modify the function and structure of microbial communities, altering the terrestrial ecosystems, which has important implication for soil quality (Pampulha et al., 2006). Soil quality is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystem (Paz-Ferreiro & Fu, 2013; Vasconcellos et al., 2013). This paper will review the State-of-the-Art of the scientific knowledge on the impact of land use on the biological activity in agriculture soils Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Balota, E. L., Yada, I.F., Amaral, H., Nakatani, A.S., Dick, R.P., Coyne, M.S. 2013. Long-term land use influences soil microbial biomass p and s, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities, and mineralization in a brazilian oxisol. Land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2242 Caravaca F, Masciandaro G, Ceccanti B. 2002. Land use in relation to soil chemical and biochemical properties in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Soil and Tillage Research 68: 23-30. Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A

  2. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    the basis of multimodel (Eppelbaum and Yakubov, 2004), informational (Eppelbaum, 2014), or wavelet (Eppelbaum et al., 2011, 2014; Eppelbaum, 2015c) approaches. In Israel, a lot of positive results were derived from magnetic method employment with application of the abovementioned procedures at numerous archaeological sites (e.g., Eppelbaum, 2000; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2003; 2003a; Eppelbaum et al., 2006, 2010; Eppelbaum, 2010a, 2011a, 2014, 2015a). Similar effective techniques were developed for the interpretation of microgravity anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2009b, 2011b, 2015b), temperature anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2009a, 2013a), self-potential anomalies (Eppelbaum et al., 2003b; 2004), induced polarization anomalies (Khesin et al., 1997; Eppelbaum, 2000), piezoelectric anomalies (Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012), Very Low Frequency (VLF) anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2000; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2012). The theoretical analysis indicates that for all aforementioned geophysical methods a common interpretation methodology may be applied . The main peculiarities of the developed non-conventional system for analysis of potential and quasi-potential geophysical fields are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Elements of the developed system of geophysical fields processing and interpretation under complicated environments (on the basis of Khesin et al., 1996, Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001, 2004; Eppelbaum and Yakubov, 2004; Eppelbaum et al., 2006; Eppelbaum, 2009a, 2009b; Eppelbaum, 2010a, 2010b; Eppelbaum et al., 2010, 2011; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011; Eppelbaum, 2011a, 2011b; Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012; Eppelbaum, 2013a, 2013b, 2014; Eppelbaum and Kutasov, 2014; Eppelbaum et al., 2014; Eppelbaum, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c) Time Terrain Informational, Inverse problem solution Integrated variation correction multimodel and in conditions of: 3-D integrated FIELD correction using and wavelet ruggedarbitrary approximation modeling correlation

  3. Using Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Inpatient Aggression: Reliability and Validity of START Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Wilson, Catherine M.; Brink, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & S. L. Desmarais, 2009; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & C. Middleton, 2004) is a relatively new structured professional judgment guide for the assessment and management of short-term risks associated with…

  4. 75 FR 66404 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... No. 61152 (Dec. 10, 2009), 74 FR 66699 (Dec. 16, 2009). C2 seeks to simplify Rule 6.12 to allow for 3... algorithm. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site ( http://www.cboe... to select a base matching algorithm and subsequently overlay certain priorities over the...

  5. 78 FR 4051 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...-16059 (74 FR 55763, October 29, 2009). (c) Applicability This AD applies to The Boeing Company Model 747... Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 747-100,...

  6. The Opportunity Illusion: Subsidized Housing and Failing Schools in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program has funded the bulk of subsidized development nationwide, enabling the construction of over 100,000 units targeted to lower income households in California alone (California Tax Credit Allocation Committee 2009c). Yet, by not encouraging the siting of projects in racially…

  7. 77 FR 64442 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... 39-15963 (74 FR 34213, July 15, 2009). (c) Applicability This AD applies to PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD... the specified products, which was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2012 (77 FR 42225). That earlier NPRM (77 FR 42225, July 18, 2012) proposed to require actions intended to address...

  8. 46 CFR 39.2007 - Tankship liquid overfill protection-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... collection system, it must meet the requirements of 46 CFR 39.2009(c). (f) If a rupture disk is installed on a cargo tank fitted with a vapor collection system, it must meet the requirements of 46 CFR 39.2009... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tankship liquid overfill protection-T/ALL....

  9. 46 CFR 39.2007 - Tankship liquid overfill protection-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... collection system, it must meet the requirements of 46 CFR 39.2009(c). (f) If a rupture disk is installed on a cargo tank fitted with a vapor collection system, it must meet the requirements of 46 CFR 39.2009... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tankship liquid overfill protection-T/ALL....

  10. Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2011-01-01

    An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

  11. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-05-25

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, in 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). The results of that investigation indicated that carbon tetrachloride contamination is present in groundwater at low to moderate levels in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation also indicated that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began periodic groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the direction of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. Through 2010, sampling was conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b, 2010) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Long

  12. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    (October 2013freshly tilled) and after ploughing and mechanically compacting the soil with a sheet metal (November 2013 consolidated surface). Our results indicate that by using cover crop strips, runoff and sediment losses were approximately 50 % and 12 % respectively lower than the measured values in bare consolidated and freshly tilled soil. The formation of microrelief steps after the first simulation also helped to reduce soil losses and runoff. Ploughed and compacted soil management showed the highest cumulative runoff and soil losses values (28 mm and 15 kg). Evident tracer selectivity from small particle size soil textures (clays) was observed as there was an enrichment of these particles in the collected sediment. These features contribute to explain the effects of the management and the vegetation on the sediment distribution in the hillslopes and must be taken into account when performing tracing studies as well as when using cover crop strips to mitigate offsite contamination by agrochemicals. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Clemente Trujillo, Manuel Redondo and Azahara Ramos for their full help and support during the fieldwork. This study was supported by the Project P08-AGR-03925 (Andalusian Government), AGL2009-12936-C03-01 (Ministry of Science and Innovation), RESEL (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment) and FEDER fund. The program JAE of the National Spanish Research Centre which provided grant support for the PhD project of the corresponding author is also thanked. References: Beaufoy, G. 2001. EU policies for olive farming. Unsustainable on all counts. BirdLife Internacional-WWF, Brussels. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A, Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009a. Soil management effects on runoff, erosion and soil properties in an olive grove of Southern Spain. Soil & Tillage Research 102: 5-13. Gómez, J.A., Guzmán, M.G., Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009b. The influence of cover crops and tillage on water and sediment yield, and on

  13. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    (October 2013freshly tilled) and after ploughing and mechanically compacting the soil with a sheet metal (November 2013 consolidated surface). Our results indicate that by using cover crop strips, runoff and sediment losses were approximately 50 % and 12 % respectively lower than the measured values in bare consolidated and freshly tilled soil. The formation of microrelief steps after the first simulation also helped to reduce soil losses and runoff. Ploughed and compacted soil management showed the highest cumulative runoff and soil losses values (28 mm and 15 kg). Evident tracer selectivity from small particle size soil textures (clays) was observed as there was an enrichment of these particles in the collected sediment. These features contribute to explain the effects of the management and the vegetation on the sediment distribution in the hillslopes and must be taken into account when performing tracing studies as well as when using cover crop strips to mitigate offsite contamination by agrochemicals. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Clemente Trujillo, Manuel Redondo and Azahara Ramos for their full help and support during the fieldwork. This study was supported by the Project P08-AGR-03925 (Andalusian Government), AGL2009-12936-C03-01 (Ministry of Science and Innovation), RESEL (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment) and FEDER fund. The program JAE of the National Spanish Research Centre which provided grant support for the PhD project of the corresponding author is also thanked. References: Beaufoy, G. 2001. EU policies for olive farming. Unsustainable on all counts. BirdLife Internacional-WWF, Brussels. Gómez, J.A., Sobrinho, T.A, Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009a. Soil management effects on runoff, erosion and soil properties in an olive grove of Southern Spain. Soil & Tillage Research 102: 5-13. Gómez, J.A., Guzmán, M.G., Giráldez, J.V., Fereres, E. 2009b. The influence of cover crops and tillage on water and sediment yield, and on

  14. Geochemical Origin of Biological Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2013-04-01

    Conference and abstract in OLEB, 2008, 39 (3-4) 223. BASSEZ M.P. 2009 Prebiotic synthesis under hydothermal conditions, C. R. Chimie, Académie des Sciences, Paris 12 (6-7) : 801-807. BASSEZ M.P. 2012 A model for a geochemical origin of life in preparation BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2009a Organic analysis of peridotite rocks from Ashadze and Logatchev hydrothermal sites, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10(7): 2986-2998. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2009b Organic analysis of peridotite rocks from the MAR, AGU fall meeting, P43C-1441, San Francisco, 14-18/12/2009. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y. 2010a Prebiotic organic globules, Nature Precedings: Posted 21 Jul http://hdl:10101/npre.2010.4694.1. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2010b Organic analysis of peridotite rocks, First chemical steps towards the Origin of Life colloquium, Turin 16-17/09/2010. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2011a A search for prebiotic molecular signatures inside rocks, Geobiology in Space exploration workshop, P sans n°, Marrakech 07-14/02/2011. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., OHKOUCHI N. 2011b Detection of molecular biosignatures inside rocks, Origins 2011 ISSOL and Bioastronomy conference, P2-17, Montpellier, 04-08/07/2011. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., 2011c Organic microstructures, Origins 2011 ISSOL and Bioastronomy conference, P2-34, Montpellier, 04-08/07/2011. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y. KOBAYASHI K. 2011d Prebiotic organic microstructures, Nature Precedings: Posted 14 Nov. http://hdl.handle.net/10101/npre.2011.4694.2 BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., KOBAYASHI K. 2012a Prebiotic organic microstructures, Origin of Life Gordon Research Conference P4, Galveston, 08-13/01/2012. BASSEZ M.P., TAKANO Y., KOBAYASHI K. 2012b Prebiotic organic microstructures, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 42 (4) : 307-316.

  15. Is 2-D turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Y. Chigirinskaya, Unified multifractal atmospheric dynamics tested in the tropics: part II, vertical scaling and Generalized Scale Invariance, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 1(1994), pp. 115-123. M. Lilley, S. Lovejoy, K. Strawbridge and D. Schertzer, 23/9 dimensional anisotropic scaling of passive admixtures using lidar aerosol data, Phys. Rev. E 70(2004), pp. 036307-036301-036307. S. Lovejoy et al., Atmospheric complexity or scale by scale simplicity? , Geophys. Resear. Lett. 36(2009a), pp. L01801, doi:01810.01029/02008GL035863. S. Lovejoy, A.F. Tuck, S.J. Hovde and D. Schertzer, Is isotropic turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?, Geophys. Res. Lett. L14802, doi:10.1029/2007GL029359.(2007). S. Lovejoy, A.F. Tuck, D. Schertzer and S.J. Hovde, Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9(2009b), pp. 3871-3920. G.D. Nastrom and K.S. Gage, A first look at wave number spectra from GASP data, Tellus 35(1983), p. 383. G.D. Nastrom and K.S. Gage, A climatology of atmospheric wavenumber spectra of wind and temperature by commercial aircraft, J. Atmos. Sci. 42(1985), pp. 950-960. D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, The dimension and intermittency of atmospheric dynamics. In: B. Launder, Editor, Turbulent Shear Flow 4, Springer-Verlag (1985), pp. 7-33. D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, Physical modeling and Analysis of Rain and Clouds by Anisotropic Scaling of Multiplicative Processes, Journal of Geophysical Research 92(1987), pp. 9693-9714. J. Stolle, S. Lovejoy and D. Schertzer, The stochastic cascade structure of deterministic numerical models of the atmosphere, Nonlin. Proc. in Geophys. 16(2009), pp. 1-15. G.I. Taylor, Statistical theory of turbulence, Proc. Roy. Soc. I-IV, A151(1935), pp. 421-478. T. Tsuda et al., MST radar observations of a saturated gravity wave spectrum, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 46(1989), p. 2440. T.E. Van Zandt, A universal spectrum of buoyancy waves in the atmosphere, Geophysical Research

  16. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    the basis of multimodel (Eppelbaum and Yakubov, 2004), informational (Eppelbaum, 2014), or wavelet (Eppelbaum et al., 2011, 2014; Eppelbaum, 2015c) approaches. In Israel, a lot of positive results were derived from magnetic method employment with application of the abovementioned procedures at numerous archaeological sites (e.g., Eppelbaum, 2000; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2003; 2003a; Eppelbaum et al., 2006, 2010; Eppelbaum, 2010a, 2011a, 2014, 2015a). Similar effective techniques were developed for the interpretation of microgravity anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2009b, 2011b, 2015b), temperature anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2009a, 2013a), self-potential anomalies (Eppelbaum et al., 2003b; 2004), induced polarization anomalies (Khesin et al., 1997; Eppelbaum, 2000), piezoelectric anomalies (Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012), Very Low Frequency (VLF) anomalies (Eppelbaum, 2000; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2012). The theoretical analysis indicates that for all aforementioned geophysical methods a common interpretation methodology may be applied . The main peculiarities of the developed non-conventional system for analysis of potential and quasi-potential geophysical fields are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Elements of the developed system of geophysical fields processing and interpretation under complicated environments (on the basis of Khesin et al., 1996, Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001, 2004; Eppelbaum and Yakubov, 2004; Eppelbaum et al., 2006; Eppelbaum, 2009a, 2009b; Eppelbaum, 2010a, 2010b; Eppelbaum et al., 2010, 2011; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011; Eppelbaum, 2011a, 2011b; Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012; Eppelbaum, 2013a, 2013b, 2014; Eppelbaum and Kutasov, 2014; Eppelbaum et al., 2014; Eppelbaum, 2015a, 2015b, 2015c) Time Terrain Informational, Inverse problem solution Integrated variation correction multimodel and in conditions of: 3-D integrated FIELD correction using and wavelet ruggedarbitrary approximation modeling correlation

  17. Methodology of Detailed Geophysical Examination of the Areas of World Recognized Religious and Cultural Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2010-05-01

    It is obvious that noninvasive geophysical methods are the main interpreting tools at the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts. Usually in these areas any excavations, drilling and infrastructure activity are forbidden or very strongly limited. According to field experience and results of numerous modeling (Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000, 2009a, 2009b; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2001, 2003; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2006a, 2006b, 2007, 2010, Itkis et al., 2003; Neishtadt et al., 2006), a set of applied geophysical methods may include the following types of surveys: (1) magnetic, (3) GPR (ground penetration radar), (3) gravity, (4) electromagnetic VLF (very low frequency), (5) ER (electric resistivity), (6) SP (self-potential), (7) IP (induced polarization), (8) SE (seismoelectric), and (9) NST (near-surface temperature). As it was shown in (Eppelbaum, 2005), interpretation ambiguity may be sufficiently reduced not only by integrated analysis of several geophysical methods, but also by the way of multilevel observations of geophysical fields. Magnetic, gravity and VLF measurements may be performed at different levels over the earth's surface (0.1 - 3 m), ER, SP and SE observations may be obtained with different depth of electrodes grounding (0.1 - 1 m), and NST sensor may be located at a depth of 0.8 - 2.5 m. GPR method usually allows measuring electromagnetic fields at various frequencies (with corresponding changing of the investigation depth and other parameters). Influence of some typical noise factors to geophysical investigations at archaeological sites was investigated in (Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001). In many cases various constructions and walls are in the nearest vicinity of the examined artifacts. These constructions can be also utilized for carrying out geophysical measurements (magnetic, gravity and VLF) at different levels. Application of the modern ROV (remote operated vehicles) with registration of magnetic and VLF fields at

  18. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    -Italy). Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 41 (1), 37-40. Bachmann, G.H. and Aref, M.A.M., 2005. A seismite in Triassic gypsum deposits (Grabfeld Formation, Ladinian), Southwest Germany. Sedimentary Geology 180, 75-89. De Zanche, V. and Farabegoli, E. 1988. Anisian paleogeographic evolution in the Central-Western Southern Alps. Memoirs Scientifique Geologique 40, 399-411. Demathieu, G.R. 1985. Trace fossil assemblages in Middle Triassic marginal marine deposits, eastern border of the Massif Central, France. Societe Economie Paléontologie et Mineralogie, Special Publications, 35, 53-66. Diedrich, C. 2005. Actuopalaeontological trackway experiments with Iguana on intertidal flat carbonates of the Arabian Gulf - a comparison to fossil Rhynchosauroides tracks of Triassic carbonate tidal flat megatracksites in the European Germanic Basin. Senckenbergiana maritime, 35 (2), 203-220. Diedrich, C. 2008a. Millions of reptile tracks - Early to Middle Triassic carbonate tidal flat migration bridges of Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 259, 410-423. Diedrich, C. 2008b. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - with emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea. Global and Planetary Change, 65 (2009), 27-55. Diedrich, C. 2009a. The vertebrates of the Anisian/Ladinian boundary (Middle Triassic) from Bissendorf (NW Germany) and their contribution to the anatomy, palaeoecology, and palaeobiogeography of the Germanic Basin reptiles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 273 (2009), 1-16. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Die Saurierspuren-Grabung im basalen Mittleren Muschelkalk (Anis, Mitteltrias) von Bernburg (Sachsen-Anhalt). Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband 2009, 1-62. Diedrich, 2010a. Palaeoecology of Placodus gigas (Reptilia) and other placodontids - macroalgae feeder of the Middle Triassic in the Germanic Basin of Central Europe and

  19. The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    Not only the Sahel (Haregeweyn et al., 2013), the deforested land (Borelli et al., 2013) the chinese Plateau are affected by intense soil erosion rates (Zhao et al., 2013). Soil erosion affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter. Example of the research carried out on citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012), and they confirm the non sustainable soil losses measured. The land management in citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012). The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful. There is a need to find new plants or residues to protect the soils on citrus orchards. Agriculture produces a high amount of residues. The pruning can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Due to the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen) the straw is being a residue instead of a resource. The Valencia region is the largest producer of citrus in Europe, and the largest exporter in the world. This citrus production region is located in the eastern cost of Spain where we can find the rice production area of the l'Albufera Lagoon paddy fields, the third largest production region in Spain. This means, a rice production region surrounded by the huge citrus production region. There, the rice straw is not used

  20. New species of ice nucleating fungi in soil and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Franc, Gray D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    -8°C. The IN seem not be bound to cells because they can be easily washed off the mycelium. They pass through a 0.1 µm filter and can be inactivated by 60°C treatment. Ongoing investigations of various soil and air samples indicate that diverse ice nucleation active fungi from more than one phylum are not only present in air and soil but can also be abundant components of the cultivable community. A recently discovered group of IN fungi in soil was also found to possess easily suspendable IN smaller than 300 kDa. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium may ramify topsoils and release cell-free IN into it. If some of these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces this contribution will accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties. Thanks for collaboration and support to M.O. Andreae, B. Baumgartner, I. Germann-Müller, T. Godwill, L.E. Hanson, A.T. Kunert, J. Meeks, T. Pooya, S. Lelieveld, J. Odhiambo Obuya, C. Ruzene-Nespoli, and D. Sebazungu. The Max Planck Society (MPG), Ice Nuclei research UnIT (INUIT), the German Research Foundation (PO1013/5-1), and the National Science Foundation (NSF, grant 0841542) are acknowledged for financial support. 1. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., et al. (2009) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 106, 12814-12819 2. Després, V. R., et al. (2012) Tellus B, 64, 15598 3. Georgakopoulos, D.G., et al. (2009) Biogeosciences, 6, 721-737 4. Pouleur, S., et al. (1992) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 2960-2964 5. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009a) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9281-9297 6. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009b) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9263-9280 7. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., et al. (2012) Biogeosciences, 9, 1125-1136 8. Huffman A. J. et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151-6164

  1. The barley straw residues avoid high erosion rates in persimmon plantations. Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    the bare control plots to 47 gr in the straw covered plots, which resulted in a low erosion rate when the soil is covered with straw (0.23 Mg ha-1 y-1), but extremely high when the soil is not covered (5.07 Mg ha-1 y-1). The results show also a delayed runoff generation due to the effect of the straw. From ponding to surface runoff the bare plots last 198 seconds, but under straw covered soils the time is 506 seconds. Moreover, when runoff is found on the soil surface the time to reach the plot outlet is much delayed under the straw cover, as range from 156 seconds on the bare plots to 406 to the straw covered plots. The management of the agriculture soils in many parts of the Planet is triggering land degradation (Borelli et al., 2013; Haregeweyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The most intense soil erosion rates use to affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and in Eastern Spain it was found that citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter, and this is also found in China (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012). The worse land managements found in many of the citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and we can confirm here that the new Persimmon plantations are triggering the same effect and it is necessary to develop new strategies to reduce the soil losses. The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful, but also it is well know the effect of the litter it is a key cover to avoid soil erosion. Meginnis (1935) was one of the pioneers on the research of the cover of litter to avoid

  2. Integrated Coupling of Surface and Subsurface Flow with HYDRUS-2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Anne; Šimůnek, Jirka; Wöhling, Thomas; Schütze, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Describing interactions between surface and subsurface flow processes is important to adequately define water flow in natural systems. Since overland flow generation is highly influenced by rainfall and infiltration, both highly spatially heterogeneous processes, overland flow is unsteady and varies spatially. The prediction of overland flow needs to include an appropriate description of the interactions between the surface and subsurface flow. Coupling surface and subsurface water flow is a challenging task. Different approaches have been developed during the last few years, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. A new approach by Weill et al. (2009) to couple overland flow and subsurface flow based on a generalized Richards equation was implemented into the well-known subsurface flow model HYDRUS-2D (Šimůnek et al., 2011). This approach utilizes the one-dimensional diffusion wave equation to model overland flow. The diffusion wave model is integrated in HYDRUS-2D by replacing the terms of the Richards equation in a pre-defined runoff layer by terms defining the diffusion wave equation. Using this approach, pressure and flux continuity along the interface between both flow domains is provided. This direct coupling approach provides a strong coupling of both systems based on the definition of a single global system matrix to numerically solve the coupled flow problem. The advantage of the direct coupling approach, compared to the loosely coupled approach, is supposed to be a higher robustness, when many convergence problems can be avoided (Takizawa et al., 2014). The HYDRUS-2D implementation was verified using a) different test cases, including a direct comparison with the results of Weill et al. (2009), b) an analytical solution of the kinematic wave equation, and c) the results of a benchmark test of Maxwell et al. (2014), that included several known coupled surface subsurface flow models. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis evaluating the effects

  3. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    effectively, identified by the existing network of monitoring points and have not changed significantly during the CCC/USDA investigation program. The carbon tetrachloride distribution within the plume has continued to evolve, however, with relatively constant or apparently decreasing contaminant levels at most sampling locations. In response to these findings, the KDHE requested that the CCC/USDA develop a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water at Everest, to facilitate continued tracking of the carbon tetrachloride plume at this site (KDHE 2009a). A recommendation for annual sampling (for analyses of VOCs) of 16 existing groundwater monitoring points within and near the identified contaminant migration pathway and surface water sampling at 5 locations along the intermittent creek west (downgradient) of the identified plume was presented by the CCC/USDA (Appendix A) and approved by the KDHE (2009b) for implementation. The monitoring wells will be sampled according to the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities will be consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. This report summarizes the results of sampling and monitoring activities conducted at the Everest site since completion of the April 2008 groundwater sampling event (Argonne 2008). The investigations performed during the current review period (May 2008 to October 2009) were as follows: (1) With one exception, the KDHE-approved groundwater and surface water monitoring points were sampled on April 24-27, 2009. In this event, well PT1 was inadvertently sampled instead of the adjacent well MW04. This investigation represents the first groundwater and surface water sampling event performed under the current plan for annual monitoring approved by the KDHE. (2) Ongoing monitoring of the groundwater levels at Everest is performed with KDHE

  4. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    Soil Erosion is a natural process that shapes the Earth. Due to the impact of agriculture, soil erosion rates increase, landforms show gullies and rills, and soils are depleted. In the Mediterranean, wheat, olive and vineyards were the main agriculture products, but new plantations are being found in sloping terrain due to the drip-irrigation. This new strategy results in the removal of the traditional terraces in order to make suitable for mechanization the agriculture plantation. Citrus is a clear example of the impact of the new chemical agriculture with a high investment in herbicides, pesticides, mechanisation, land levelling and drip computer controlled irrigation systems. The new plantation of citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean, but also in California, Florida, China and Brazil. Chile, Argentina, and South Africa are other producers that are moving to an industrial production of citrus. This paper shows how the citrus plantations are found as one of the most aggressive plantation due to the increase in soil erosion, and how we can apply successful control strategies. The research into the high erosion rates of citrus orchard built on the slopes are mainly found in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012) and in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) Most of the research done devoted to the measurements of the soil losses but also some research is done related to the soil properties (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and the impact of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel in order to reduce the soil losses. There are 116 million tonnes of citrus produced yearly, and this affects a large surface of the best land. The citrus orchards are moving from flood irrigated to drip

  5. Physical Properties of Main-belt Comet 176P/LINEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Ishiguro, Masateru; Lacerda, Pedro; Jewitt, David

    2011-07-01

    Astrofisica de Canarias (programs W/2009A/23 and I/2009B/11).

  6. Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, with new records and taxonomic notes on Ectrichodiinae from Brazil, and with keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Baena, Manuel; Grillo, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005 is considered a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, 1924. Ectrichodiella minima (Valdés, 1910) and E. rafaeli (Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005), new. comb. are redescribed. Taxonomic notes on Brontostoma alboannulatum (Stål, 1860), B. discus (Burmeister, 1835), B. nanus Carpintero, 1980, B. rubrovenosum (Stål, 1860), and B. trux (Stål, 1859) are given. Brontostoma diringshofeni Gil-Santana & Baena, 2009, B. nanus, and Racelda robusta Bérenger & Gil-Santana, 2005 are recorded from Brazil for the first time. Keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World are presented.

  7. Thermal tides on a hot Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, P.-G.; Hsieh, H.-F.

    2011-07-01

    Following the linear analysis laid out by Gu & Ogilvie 2009 (hereafter GO09), we investigate the dynamical response of a non-synchronized hot Jupiter to stellar irradiation. Besides the internal and Rossby waves considered by GO09, we study the Kelvin waves excited by the diurnal Fourier harmonic of the prograde stellar irradiation. We also present a 2-dimensional plot of internal waves excited by the semi-diurnal component of the stellar irradiation and postulate that thermal bulges may arise in a hot Jupiter. Whether our postulation is valid and is consistent with the recent results from Arras & Socrates (2009b) requires further investigation.

  8. Type-Ia SN 2016coj - limits on progenitors from pre-explosion HST images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedmann, Matan; Maoz, Dan

    2016-07-01

    We have analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images of the site of the Type-Ia SN2016coj (ATEL#9095, #9193) in NGC 4125 in five filters taken on several pre-explosion epochs: F336W from 2009 (~U band, 6600 s total), F439W from 2009 (~B band, 2100 s total), F555W from 1999 (~V band, 1400 s total), F702W from 1997 (~R band, 1000 s total) and F814W (~I band, 2000 s total).

  9. 75 FR 11441 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Amendment 10 was published on July 14, 2009 (74 FR 33986), with a comment period ending on September 14, 2009. A proposed rule for Amendment 10 was published on September 3, 2009 (74 FR 45597), with a comment... June 26, 2009; a notice of availability was published on July 2, 2009 (74 FR 31733). In...

  10. Special Issue: Assessing Meaning Making and Self-Authorship--Theory, Research, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.; King, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors identify milestones in the journey toward self-authorship based on the theoretical work of Kegan (1982, 1994) and Baxter Magolda (2001b, 2008, 2009a), as well as the empirical findings from Baxter Magolda's longitudinal study (2001b, 2009a) and the qualitative longitudinal portion of the Wabash National Study of…

  11. Expression of stem cell pluripotency factors during regeneration in newts.

    PubMed

    Maki, Nobuyasu; Suetsugu-Maki, Rinako; Tarui, Hiroshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we present data indicating that mammalian stem cell pluripotency-inducing factors are expressed during lens and limb regeneration in newts. The apparent expression even in intact tissues and the ensued regulation during regeneration raises the possibility that these factors might regulate tissue-specific reprogramming and regeneration. Furthermore, these factors should enable us to understand the similarities and differences between animal regeneration in the newt and stem cell strategies in mammals. Developmental Dynamics 238:1613-1616, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Historical perspectives on malaria: the Rockefeller antimalaria strategy in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Darwin H

    2009-10-01

    Malaria, a serious disease for all of human history, was not effectively handled until methods for control of its insect vector, the Anopheles mosquito, were developed at the beginning of the 20th century. The Rockefeller Foundation's antimalaria program spread vector-control strategies throughout the world, and its adoption of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane during World War II created an especially powerful and effective malaria control strategy. However, insect resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and restrictions on dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane use due to its long-term environmental effects are factors in the persistence of malaria as a serious health problem. Mt Sinai J Med 76:468-473, 2009. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  13. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    Soil Erosion is a natural process that shapes the Earth. Due to the impact of agriculture, soil erosion rates increase, landforms show gullies and rills, and soils are depleted. In the Mediterranean, wheat, olive and vineyards were the main agriculture products, but new plantations are being found in sloping terrain due to the drip-irrigation. This new strategy results in the removal of the traditional terraces in order to make suitable for mechanization the agriculture plantation. Citrus is a clear example of the impact of the new chemical agriculture with a high investment in herbicides, pesticides, mechanisation, land levelling and drip computer controlled irrigation systems. The new plantation of citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean, but also in California, Florida, China and Brazil. Chile, Argentina, and South Africa are other producers that are moving to an industrial production of citrus. This paper shows how the citrus plantations are found as one of the most aggressive plantation due to the increase in soil erosion, and how we can apply successful control strategies. The research into the high erosion rates of citrus orchard built on the slopes are mainly found in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012) and in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) Most of the research done devoted to the measurements of the soil losses but also some research is done related to the soil properties (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and the impact of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel in order to reduce the soil losses. There are 116 million tonnes of citrus produced yearly, and this affects a large surface of the best land. The citrus orchards are moving from flood irrigated to drip

  14. 77 FR 6549 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... November 19, 2009, a final rule was published at 74 FR 59914, which amended the Defense Federal Acquisition... Materials Handling Equipment); 6020 (Fiber Optic Cable Assemblies and Harnesses); 7110 (Office...

  15. 75 FR 31423 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ....'' The original NFE Certificate (No. 84- 00012) was issued on June 11, 1984 (49 FR 24581, June 14, 1984), and last amended on September 16, 2009 (74 FR 48520, September 23, 2009). A summary of the...

  16. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current polic...

  17. 75 FR 3252 - Ford Motor Company, Dearborn Truck Plant, Dearborn, MI; Notice of Negative Determination on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... October 20, 2009 (74 FR 53766). The investigation resulted in a negative determination based on the... Negative Determination on Reconsideration By application dated September 18, 2009, a petitioner requested administrative reconsideration of the Department's negative determination regarding eligibility to apply...

  18. 75 FR 66792 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... February 25, 2008 (73 FR 10064). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 10, 2009. A notice was published in the Federal Register on January 27, 2010 (75 FR 4422). Patricia A....

  19. 48 CFR 252.236-7013 - Requirement for competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and manufacturers. 252.236-7013 Section 252....236-7013 Requirement for competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and... for American Steel Producers, Fabricators, and Manufacturers (JAN 2009) (a) Definition....

  20. 48 CFR 252.236-7013 - Requirement for competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and manufacturers. 252.236-7013 Section 252....236-7013 Requirement for competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and... FOR AMERICAN STEEL PRODUCERS, FABRICATORS, AND MANUFACTURERS (JAN 2009) (a) Definition....

  1. 48 CFR 252.236-7013 - Requirement for competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and manufacturers. 252.236-7013 Section 252....236-7013 Requirement for competition opportunity for American steel producers, fabricators, and... for American Steel Producers, Fabricators, and Manufacturers (JUN 2013JAN 2009) (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 252.236-7013 - Requirement for competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and manufacturers. 252.236-7013 Section 252....236-7013 Requirement for competition opportunity for american steel producers, fabricators, and... FOR AMERICAN STEEL PRODUCERS, FABRICATORS, AND MANUFACTURERS (JAN 2009) (a) Definition....

  3. Hylaperdina squamosa, a new species of Neotropical Lycoperdininae (Coleoptera, Endomychidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arriaga-Varela, Emmanuel; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2016-01-01

    Endomychidae or Handsome Fungus Beetles are a moderately large family of mycophagous beetles distributed worldwide but with the highest diversity in the tropics (Shockley et al. 2009a, b). The concept of the family (e.g. Lawrence & Newton 1995; Tomaszewska 2000, 2010; Shockley et al. 2009a) has recently been restricted by an elevation of former subfamilies Eupsilobiinae, Mycetaeinae and Anamorphinae to the level of independent families in the newly recognized superfamily Coccinelloidea (Robertson et al. 2015). PMID:27615952

  4. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Market Price Forecast Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This study presents BPA's market price forecasts for the Final Proposal, which are based on AURORA modeling. AURORA calculates the variable cost of the marginal resource in a competitively priced energy market. In competitive market pricing, the marginal cost of production is equivalent to the market-clearing price. Market-clearing prices are important factors for informing BPA's power rates. AURORA was used as the primary tool for (a) estimating the forward price for the IOU REP Settlement benefits calculation for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009, (b) estimating the uncertainty surrounding DSI payments and IOU REP Settlements benefits, (c) informing the secondary revenue forecast and (d) providing a price input used for the risk analysis. For information about the calculation of the secondary revenues, uncertainty regarding the IOU REP Settlement benefits and DSI payment uncertainty, and the risk run, see Risk Analysis Study WP-07-FS-BPA-04.

  5. Protein Expression Profile of an Environmentally Important Bacterial Strain: the Chromate Response of Arthrobacter Species Strain FB24

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, Kristene L.; Turse, Joshua E.; Nakatsu, C. H.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-05-03

    The global proteomic response of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 to different levels of chromate stress was evaluated with both two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) [Henne et al. 2009b]. Proteome coverage of 22% and 71% was obtained with 2-DGE and LC/LC-MS/MS, respectively. The strong response of strain FB24 to chromate suggests a condition of sulfur limitation, which could be driven by competition for the sulfate transporter by the structurally similar chromate ion. Additionally, the involvement of genes hypothesized to be directly involved in chromate resistance in strain FB24 was supported at the protein level.

  6. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  7. Manipulation of colony environment modulates honey bee aggression and brain gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2013-01-01

    The social environment plays an essential role in shaping behavior for most animals. Social effects on behavior are often linked to changes in brain gene expression (Robinson et al., 2008). In the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), social modulation of individual aggression allows colonies to adjust the intensity with which they defend their hive in response to predation threat (Alaux & Robinson, 2007, Couvillon et al., 2008, Hunt et al., 2003). Previous research has demonstrated social effects on both aggression and aggression-related brain gene expression in honey bees, caused by alarm pheromone and unknown factors related to colony genotype (Alaux et al., 2009b). For example, some bees from less aggressive genetic stock reared in colonies with genetic predispositions toward increased aggression show both increased aggression and more aggressive-like brain gene expression profiles (Alaux et al., 2009b, Guzmán-Novoa et al., 2004). We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a colony environment influenced by high levels of predation threat results in increased aggression and aggressive-like gene expression patterns in individual bees. We assessed gene expression using four marker genes. Experimentally induced predation threats modified behavior, but the effect was opposite of our predictions: disturbed colonies showed decreased aggression. Disturbed colonies also decreased foraging activity, suggesting that they did not habituate to threats; other explanations for this finding are discussed. Bees in disturbed colonies also showed changes in brain gene expression, some of which paralleled behavioral findings. These results demonstrate that bee aggression, and associated molecular processes, are subject to complex social influences. PMID:24034579

  8. Embryogenesis and laboratory maintenance of the foam-nesting túngara frogs, genus Engystomops (= Physalaemus).

    PubMed

    Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Venegas-Ferrín, Michael; Almeida-Reinoso, Diego; Lee, Chanjae; Bond, Jennifer; Ryan, Michael J; Wallingford, John B; Del Pino, Eugenia M

    2009-06-01

    The vast majority of embryological research on amphibians focuses on just a single genus of frogs, Xenopus. To attain a more comprehensive understanding of amphibian development, experimentation on non-model frogs will be essential. Here, we report on the early development, rearing, and embryological analysis of túngara frogs (genus Engystomops, also called Physalaemus). The frogs Engystomops pustulosus, Engystomops coloradorum, and Engystomops randi construct floating foam-nests with small eggs. We define a table of 23 stages for the developmental period in the foam-nest. Embryos were immunostained against Lim1, neural, and somite-specific proteins and the expression pattern of RetinoBlastoma Binding Protein 6 (RBBP6) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Due to their brief life-cycle, frogs belonging to the genus Engystomops are attractive for comparative and genetic studies of development. Developmental Dynamics 238:1444-1454, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Finite Time Extinction for Stochastic Sign Fast Diffusion and Self-Organized Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gess, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We prove finite time extinction for stochastic sign fast diffusion equations driven by linear multiplicative space-time noise, corresponding to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for self-organized criticality. This solves a problem posed and left open in several works: (Barbu, Methods Appl Sci 36:1726-1733, 2013; Röckner and Wang, J Lond Math Soc (2) 87:545-560, 2013; Barbu et al. J Math Anal Appl 389:147-164, 2012; Barbu and Röckner, Comm Math Phys 311:539-555, 2012; Barbu et al., Comm Math Phys 285:901-923, 2009, C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(1-2):81-84, 2009). The highly singular-degenerate nature of the drift in interplay with the stochastic perturbation causes the need for new methods in the analysis of mass diffusion, and several new estimates and techniques are introduced.

  10. The bushmeat trade: increased opportunities for transmission of zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Karesh, William B; Noble, Eric

    2009-10-01

    Bushmeat is a term that refers to the use of wild animals, ranging from cane rats to gorillas, for food. The term typically refers to the practice in forests of Africa. The bushmeat trade is an example of an anthropogenic factor that provides opportunities for the transmission of diseases from wildlife to humans. The expansion of the bushmeat trade over the past 2 decades has provided a venue for the emergence of zoonotic diseases by providing an increased opportunity for the transmission of organisms known to cause disease and organisms with an unknown impact on humans. Because the bushmeat trade is embedded in a complex cultural, political, and economic context, efforts to prevent the emergence of zoonoses require a multidisciplinary approach. Mt Sinai J Med 76:429-434, 2009. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  11. Towards a Measurement of the Half-Life of {sup 60}Fe for Stellar and Early Solar System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ostdiek, K.; Anderson, T.; Bauder, W.; Bowers, M.; Collon, P.; Dressler, R.; Greene, J.; Kutschera, W.; Lu, W.; Paul, M.

    2015-10-15

    Radioisotopes, produced in stars and ejected into the Interstellar Medium, are important for constraining stellar and early Solar System (ESS) models. In particular, the half-life of the radioisotope, Fe-60, can have an impact on calculations for the timing for ESS events, the distance to nearby Supernovae, and the brightness of individual, non-steady-state Fe gamma ray sources in the Galaxy. A half-life measurement has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame and measurements of the Fe-60/Fe-56 concentration of our samples using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has begun. This result will be coupled with an activity measurement of the isomeric decay in Co-60, which is the decay product of Fe. Preliminary half-life estimates of (2.53 +/- 0.24) x 10(6) years seem to confirm the recent measurement by Rugel et al. (2009). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. News and views from the 8th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Virology.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Elena; Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    The 8th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Virology (SIV) took place in Orvieto, Italy from the 21st to the 23rd of September 2008. The meeting covered different areas of Virology and the scientific sessions focused on: general virology and viral genetics; viral oncology, virus-host interaction and pathogenesis; emerging viruses and zoonotic, foodborne and environmental pathways of transmission; viral immunology and vaccines; viral biotechnologies and gene therapy; medical virology and antiviral therapy. The meeting had an attendance of about 160 virologists from all Italy. In this edition, a satellite workshop on "Viral biotechnologies" was organized in order to promote the role of virologists in the biotechnological research and teaching fields. A summary of the plenary lectures and oral selected presentations is reported. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 797-799, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Xenopus pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Esther J; Bilogan, Cassandra K; Mukhi, Sandeep; Brown, Donald D; Horb, Marko E

    2009-06-01

    Understanding how the pancreas develops is vital to finding new treatments for a range of pancreatic diseases, including diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Xenopus is a relatively new model organism for the elucidation of pancreas development, and has already made contributions to the field. Recent studies have shown benefits of using Xenopus for understanding both early patterning and lineage specification aspects of pancreas organogenesis. This review focuses specifically on Xenopus pancreas development, and covers events from the end of gastrulation, when regional specification of the endoderm is occurring, right through metamorphosis, when the mature pancreas is fully formed. We have attempted to cover pancreas development in Xenopus comprehensively enough to assist newcomers to the field and also to enable those studying pancreas development in other model organisms to better place the results from Xenopus research into the context of the field in general and their studies specifically. Developmental Dynamics 238:1271-1286, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Discovery of a Super-Luminous Supernova, PTF12dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quimby, R. M.; Arcavi, I.; Sternberg, A.; Ben-Ami, S.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Graham, M.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Perley, D.; Cao, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (Law et al., 2009a>; Rau et al., 2009a>) reports the discovery of an optical transient, PTF12dam. The source is located at RA = 14:24:46.20, Dec. = +46:13:48.3 (J2000), which is offset from a r=19.15 mag galaxy detected by the SDSS.

  15. Discovery of a Luminous Supernova, PTF11rks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quimby, R. M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Yaron, O.; Horesh, A.; Mooley, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (Law et al., 2009a>; Rau et al., 2009a>) reports the discovery of an optical transient, PTF11rks. The source is located at RA = 01:39:45.51, Dec. = +29:55:27.0 (J2000), which is offset from a faint (r~20.9 mag) galaxy detected by the SDSS.

  16. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    , Germany) - a porcupine and hyena den and contribution to their palaeobiogeography. - The Open Palaeontological Journal, 2008 (1): 33-41. Diedrich, C. 2008b. The rediscovered holotypes of the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) and the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) and taphonomic discussion to the Zoolithen Cave hyena den at Geilenreuth (Bavaria, South-Germany). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society London, 154, 822-831. Diedrich, C. 2008c. Late Pleistocene hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) from Upper Rhine valley open air sites and the contribution to skull shape variability. Cranium, 25-2: (in press), Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009a. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Bilstein Caves (Sauerland Karst) and contribution to the steppe lion taphonomy, palaeobiology and sexual dimorphism. Annales de Paléontologie, 95 (2009) 117-138, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in Northern Germany. Quaternary Research 71 (3): 361-374, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2010a. Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the Balve Cave (NW Germany) - a hyena den and Middle Palaeolithic human site. - International Journal of Osteoarchaeology (acepted). Diedrich, C. 2010b. Ein Skelett einer kranken Löwin Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) und andere männliche Löwenreste aus Neumark-Nord. - Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderbad (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Keppler Cave (Sauerland Karst, NW Germany). Cranium 26, Amsterdam (in press). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Specialized horse killers in Europe - foetal horse remains in the Late Pleistocene Srbsko Chlum-Komín Cave hyena den in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic) and actualistic comparisons to modern African spotted hyenas as zebra hunters

  17. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    Change ed S Solomon, D Qin, M Manning, Z Chen, M Marquis, K B Averyt, M Tignor and H L Miller (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) Wentz F J, Ricciardulli L, Hilburn K and Mears C 2007 How much more rain will global warming bring? Science 317 233-35 Wild M 2009a Global dimming and brightening: a review J. Geophys. Res. 114 D00D16 Wild M 2009b How well do IPCC-AR4/CMIP3 climate models simulate global dimming/brightening and twentieth- century daytime and nighttime warming? J. Geophys. Res. 114 D00D11 Wild M, Grieser J and Schär C 2008 Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle Geophys. Res. Lett. 35 L17706 Wild M, Ohmura A, Gilgen H and Rosenfeld D 2004 On the consistency of trends in radiation and temperature records and implications for the global hydrological cycle Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 L11201 Wild M et al 2005 From dimming to brightening: decadal changes in surface solar radiation Science 308 847-50 Yang F, Kumar A, Schlesinger M E and Wang W 2003 Intensity of hydrological cycles in warmer climates J. Climate 16 2419-23 Zhang X et al 2007 Detection of human influence on twentieth-century precipitation trends Nature 448 461-5

  18. MATLAB tools for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam imagery; applications at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Antolik, Loren

    2010-01-01

    Webcams are now standard tools for volcano monitoring and are used at observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Kamchatka, Hawai'i, Italy, and Japan, among other locations. Webcam images allow invaluable documentation of activity and provide a powerful comparative tool for interpreting other monitoring datastreams, such as seismicity and deformation. Automated image processing can improve the time efficiency and rigor of Webcam image interpretation, and potentially extract more information on eruptive activity. For instance, Lovick and others (2008) provided a suite of processing tools that performed such tasks as noise reduction, eliminating uninteresting images from an image collection, and detecting incandescence, with an application to dome activity at Mount St. Helens during 2007. In this paper, we present two very simple automated approaches for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam images at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The techniques are implemented in MATLAB (version 2009b, Copyright: The Mathworks, Inc.) to take advantage of the ease of matrix operations. Incandescence is a useful indictor of the location and extent of active lava flows and also a potentially powerful proxy for activity levels at open vents. We apply our techniques to a period covering both summit and east rift zone activity at Kilauea during 2008?2009 and compare the results to complementary datasets (seismicity, tilt) to demonstrate their integrative potential. A great strength of this study is the demonstrated success of these tools in an operational setting at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) over the course of more than a year. Although applied only to Webcam images here, the techniques could be applied to any type of sequential images, such as time-lapse photography. We expect that these tools are applicable to many other volcano monitoring scenarios, and the two MATLAB scripts, as they are implemented at HVO, are included in the appendixes

  19. An Investigation of the Effects of Authentic Science Experiences Among Urban High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Angela

    Providing equitable learning opportunities for all students has been a persistent issue for some time. This is evident by the science achievement gap that still exists between male and female students as well as between White and many non-White student populations (NCES, 2007, 2009, 2009b) and an underrepresentation of female, African-American, Hispanic, and Native Americans in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related careers (NCES, 2009b). In addition to gender and ethnicity, socioeconomic status and linguistic differences are also factors that can marginalize students in the science classroom. One factor attributed to the achievement gap and low participation in STEM career is equitable access to resources including textbooks, laboratory equipment, qualified science teachers, and type of instruction. Extensive literature supports authentic science as one way of improving science learning. However, the majority of students do not have access to this type of resource. Additionally, extensive literature posits that culturally relevant pedagogy is one way of improving education. This study examines students' participation in an authentic science experience and argues that this is one way of providing culturally relevant pedagogy in science classrooms. The purpose of this study was to better understand how marginalized students were affected by their participation in an authentic science experience, within the context of an algae biofuel project. Accordingly, an interpretivist approach was taken. Data were collected from pre/post surveys and tests, semi-structured interviews, student journals, and classroom observations. Data analysis used a mixed methods approach. The data from this study were analyzed to better understand whether students perceived the experience to be one of authentic science, as well as how students science identities, perceptions about who can do science, attitudes toward science, and learning of science practices

  20. Study Abroad as Professional Development for FSL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Meike

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, a group of over 80 FSL teachers from British Columbia (BC) participated in a two-week sojourn at the "Centre d'Approches vivantes des Langues et des Medias" (CAVILAM) in Vichy, France, as part of an initiative to address the critical shortage of qualified French language teachers in the province. After almost four decades of study…

  1. Measurement Invariance of an Instrument Assessing Sustainability of School-Based Universal Behavior Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McIntosh, Kent; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index: School Teams (SUBSIST; McIntosh, Doolittle, Vincent, Horner, & Ervin, 2009), a measure of school and district contextual factors that promote the sustainability of school practices, demonstrated measurement invariance…

  2. Measurement Invariance of an Instrument Assessing Sustainability of School-Based Universal Behavior Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McIntosh, Kent; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which the School-Wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index: School Teams (SUBSIST; McIntosh, Doolittle, Vincent, Horner, & Ervin, 2009), a measure of school and district contextual factors that promote the sustainability of school practices, demonstrated measurement invariance across…

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As...

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act-Balance... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7000 Buy American Act—Balance of... Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available...

  5. An Altar in Honor of the Anatomical Gift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooloos, Jan G.M.; Bolt, Sophie; van der Straaten, Joop; Ruiter, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    On All Saints Day 2009 a monument for body donors was unveiled by the Department of Anatomy, at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (RUNMC). Although body donation to medical science contributes substantially to the quality of medical education, the ceremony was only the first time that the RUNMC publicly reciprocated the anatomical…

  6. "Play to Learn": A Case-Study of Parent/Carer and Child Engagement with a Physical Activity Website Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Helen; Fleming, Scott

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Sport Wales produced guidance for practitioners delivering the new Foundation Phase curriculum for children aged three to seven years. A focus was on physical development and in 2009 a resource entitled "Play to Learn" was developed supported by a website launched in 2011. The present study addresses (non-)engagement with the…

  7. Numbers of Doctorates Awarded Continue to Grow in 2009; Indicators of Employment Outcomes Mixed. InfoBrief. NSF 11-305

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiegener, Mark K.

    2010-01-01

    This InfoBrief uses data collected from the 2009 Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) to report on trends in the numbers of individuals who earn research doctoral degrees from U.S. academic institutions. Postgraduation plans of new doctorate recipients are examined from 2004 to 2009, a period that includes the recent economic decline. The following…

  8. Building Capacity through an Early Education Leadership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffin, Stacie G.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, the early childhood education (ECE) field is paying limited attention to leadership development (Goffin & Janke, 2013; Goffin & Means, 2009). A recent survey of ECE leadership development programs suggests that the field does not fully recognize the potential of leadership to serve as a change catalyst, although there is evidence…

  9. Screencasts and Standards: Connecting an Introductory Journalism Research Course with Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuban, Adam J.; Mulligan, Laura MacLeod

    2014-01-01

    Academic literature suggests that today's college students are not as information literate as educators might expect, despite their generation being frequently described as "digital natives" or "Millennials" (Becker, 2009). A faculty survey at Pima Community College in Tucson, AZ, revealed that students' actual…

  10. Clearing the Path: Delivering Financial Aid to Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick Cardelle, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Low- and middle-income students at public, two-year institutions too often do not apply for college financial aid (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008; Kantrowitz, 2009a, 2011). This research first examines national data to identify what the risk factors are for not applying and compares those risk factors for students at…

  11. What is an Effective Learner? A Comparison of Further Education Students' Views with a Theoretical Construction of Effective Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Hilary; Webber, John

    2013-01-01

    Following an investigation of students' views of one further education college's teaching and learning model (McQueen and Webber 2009), a second project, reported here, sought to review students' ideas about what constitutes an effective learner. For this project a set of 36 statements was constructed based on theoretical models and…

  12. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  13. 75 FR 8115 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Institute of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... (69 FR 64105). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 28, 2009. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on January 19, 2010 (75 FR 2890... seq. (``the Act''), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (``IEEE'') has filed...

  14. Collaborative exploration between NIAS genebank and USDA ARS for the collection of genetic resources of fruit and nut species in Hokkaido and the Northern Tohoku Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 7 to 25 September 2009 a collaborative exploration between NIAS Genebank and USDA ARS to collect genetic resources in Hokkaido and the Northern Tohoku region was performed. The investigated areas were mainly upper deciduous forest and subalpine conifer forest zones. The vegetation was mainly fo...

  15. 75 FR 38081 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Scope Rulings, 75 FR 14138 (March 24, 2010). This current notice covers all scope rulings and... scope of the antidumping duty order; requested September 2, 2009. A-570-806: Silicon Metal from the People's Republic of China Requestor: Globe Metallurgical Inc.; whether certain silicon metal exported...

  16. Leasing Retirees: Smart Business or Gaming the System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, a high school principal in a large Arizona school district met individually with 18 of his most senior teachers to inform them that they would not have a job the following year. Why didn't tenure protect them from wholesale dismissal? The answer is they all had one thing in common: they were retirees who had been leased or hired…

  17. Are Liberal Studies Teachers Ready to Prepare Human Rights Respecting Students? A Portrait of Teachers' Attitudes towards Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan Wing; Lo, Yan Lam

    2012-01-01

    As in most countries, human rights education (HRE) in Hong Kong has never been high on the educational agenda. In 2009, a compulsory subject, Liberal Studies (LS), which could be used as a platform for HRE, was introduced. The Hong Kong Institute of Education launched a research and development project which, as one of its objectives, studied LS…

  18. 75 FR 25271 - Office of Refugee Resettlement; Urgent Single Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Refugee Resettlement; Urgent Single Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International (SOTI) AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF... Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Services for Survivors of Torture Program. In FY 2009, a total of 3,667...

  19. "Art, Imagination, Storytelling": An Interview with Karl Kroeber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karl Kroeber that was originally published in "English Department Updates" (Fall 2009), a semiannual alumni newsletter of the Columbia University Department of English & Comparative Literature. In this interview, Kroeber, who taught at Columbia for 57 years, discusses the range of courses he taught during…

  20. Religious Music and Public Schools: A Harbinger of Litigation to Come?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Debate continues over the place of religious expression, including music, in public schools. In "Nurre v. Whitehead" (2009), a high school senior in Washington sued the superintendent for denying the wind ensemble that she was part of the opportunity to perform an instrumental version of "Ave Maria" at her commencement ceremony due to its…

  1. Nebraska School Facilities: Educational Adequacy of Class III School District Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, John M., Sr.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, a replication of the Pool study was conducted. This study, however, focused on the school systems classified as Class III districts. Nebraska has 252 Class III districts. Compared with Class II (21), Class IV (1), and Class V(1) districts, the Class III districts offer a wide array of school settings, from urban to extremely rural, and…

  2. Validating the Future Career Autobiography as a Measure of Narrative Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfuss, Mark C.; Di Fabio, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the Future Career Autobiography (FCA; Rehfuss, 2009), a qualitative instrument designed to capture change or stability in individuals' life and occupational narratives across time as a result of narrative career interventions. Italian female entrepreneurs (N = 82) were randomly assigned into either an…

  3. Test Review: C. K. Conners. Conners Early Childhood Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Colby P.; Wedeking, Travis; Galindo, Addy M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the Conners Early Childhood (Conners EC; Conners, 2009), a behavior and development rating scale intended to assess children in early childhood, specifically defined as ages 2 to 6 years. Using multiple informants across multiple settings, the Conners EC is administered for the purpose of early identification of disorders or…

  4. 76 FR 31638 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Global Climate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... 4, 2003 (68 FR 16552). The last notification was filed with the Department on February 26, 2009. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act April 3, 2009 (74 FR... Climate and Energy Project Notice is hereby given that, on April 8, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of...

  5. 75 FR 48308 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; State Broadband Data and Development Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Development (SBDD) Grant Program (NOFA, 74 FR ] 32545, July 8, 2009), a competitive, merit-based matching... schedule to provide broadband-related data in accordance with the mapping project timeline. See 74 FR 32556... rec Dated: August 4, 2010. Gwellnar Banks, Management Analyst, Office of the Chief Information...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1930 - What special provisions apply from 2005 through 2009?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Manufacturer-Run In-Use Testing Program for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines § 86.1930 What special provisions apply from 2005 through 2009? (a) We may direct you to test engines under this subpart...

  7. 75 FR 1082 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (``CERCLA'') Notice is hereby given that on December 22, 2009 a proposed consent decree (``proposed Decree'') in United States v....

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tekedar, Hasan C; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G; Liles, Mark R; Griffin, Matt J; Lawrence, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group.

  9. 75 FR 4423 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Portland Cement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... February 5, 1985 (50 FR 5015). The last notification was filed with the Department on May 18, 2009. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on August 9, 2009 (74 FR... damages under specified circumstances. Specifically, Continental Cement, Hannibal, MO has been added as...

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Rotation Measure synthesis of WSRT obs. (Iacobelli+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobelli, M.; Haverkorn, M.; Katgert, P.

    2012-11-01

    Polarized synchrotron emission as well as polarization angle maps as derived from RM-synthesis (Brentjens & Bruyn, 2005A&A...441.1217B) after an RM-cleaning (Heald et al., 2009A&A...503..409H,) step are shown in the Faraday depth -50rad/m2, +50rad/m2. (3 data files).

  11. Training Programme for Secondary School Principals: Evaluating its Effectiveness and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Disraeli M.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the evaluation of the training programme for secondary school principals conducted in the period between 2006 and 2009. A mixed method approach was used to conduct the summative evaluation with 28 graduate participants. For the impact evaluation, 15 of the graduates were interviewed three years after the programme was…

  12. 76 FR 10558 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... antidumping duty order; requested November 4, 2009. A-570-937/C-570-938: Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts... citric acid and blends of citrate salts are within the scope of the antidumping duty and countervailing... of Scope Rulings, 75 FR 79339 (December 20, 2010). This current notice covers all scope rulings...

  13. 75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... July 24, 2009, 74 FR 36705. The public comment period closed on August 24, 2009. A summary of each...'' under the terms of Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735 (October 4, 1993)) and is therefore not subject to... category 3 are required to have no discharge except in accordance with the bypass provisions of the...

  14. Faculty Observables and Self-Reported Responsiveness to Academic Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrus, Robert T., Jr.; Jones, Adam T.; Sackley, William H.; Walker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2009, a mid-sized public institution in the southeast had a faculty-driven honor policy characterized by little education about the policy and no tracking of repeat offenders. An updated code, implemented in August of 2009, required that students sign an honor pledge, created a formal student honor board, and developed a process to track…

  15. Creating Positive Culture in a New Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Virginia; Stevens, Douglas; Hemmings, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In August 2009, a new urban public high school featuring project-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education opened with a population of African-American, low-income, and special needs students. A planning team comprised of lead teachers and the school principal sought to create a positive school culture with a clear…

  16. 77 FR 18742 - Copyright Office Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... government, including the responsibility to set sound monetary policies and develop a budget derived... undertaken in 2008 and implemented in 2009. See 74 FR 32805 (July 9, 2009). A new fee study was initiated on... offerings at this time, including, for example, additional expedited services and fee options. 77 FR...

  17. Exploración con GEMINI-GMOS del sistema de cúmulos globulares de NGC 5044

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faifer, F. R.; Cellone, S. A.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Bassino, L. P.; Forte, J. C.

    We present preliminary results of the first photometric study of the globular cluster system associated to the elliptical galaxy NGC 5044, the dominant object in the homonymous group. These results are based on data recently (semester 2009A) obtained with the Multi Object Spectrograph GMOS at the Gemini South telescope. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. 75 FR 347 - Information Collection; Notice of Submission to OMB for Its Review and Approval of the Voluntary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... penetration rate of advanced meters and communications technologies, devices and systems; (B) Existing demand... programs. 5. On August 7, 2009, a notice was published in the Federal Register, 74 FR 39,682 (2009) (August... and reporting functions. The objective of the survey is to assess the penetration of advanced...

  19. Rasch Calibration of Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Social Support Scale for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Miyoung; Peterson, Jana J.; Dixon, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID) scales developed by Peterson, Peterson, Lowe, & Nothwehr (2009). A total of 146 participants with intellectual disabilities completed 6 self-efficacy (SE) items and 18 social…

  20. Recruitment Strategies Aiming to Attract Females into Undergraduate Engineering Programs: Examining Their Role and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howenstine, Julie Anne

    2013-01-01

    By 2009, the percentage of women who graduated with general undergraduate degrees had increased to almost 58% of all students who completed 4-year degree programs (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009a). These percentages, however, have not been reflected in the enrollment rates of females into undergraduate engineering programs. In…

  1. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  2. The Use of a Computer-Based Reading Rate Development Program on Pre-University Intermediate Level ESL Learners' Reading Speeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupt, John

    2015-01-01

    Improving L2 learners reading fluency has been identified by leading L2 reading researchers as an important aspect of L2 reading instruction (Grabe, 2004, 2009; Nation, 2009). A number of studies have been conducted on the use of paper-based fluency development methods on ESL and EFL students reading speeds and showed positive results (Al-Homoud…

  3. Exploring the Impact of Career Mentoring on High School Dropout: A Qualitative Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffington Ameir, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    According to Department of Education reports on public high school dropout rates for 2009, a national average of 44.3% of dropouts left their secondary school education in the 11th and 12th grades. The majority of school dropouts attributed the reason for dropping out of school to boredom. High social and economic costs associated with dropping…

  4. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-23

    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  5. Emergent Issues in Enterprise Education: The Educator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Charlotte; Matlay, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that important issues are emerging among enterprise educators in higher education institutions (HEIs). This paper examines four key areas of debate. The first of these is the assessment of entrepreneurship ideas and related activities (Pittaway and Cope, 2007). Penaluna and Penaluna (2008, 2009a, b), for example, focus on…

  6. 77 FR 22762 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; State Broadband Data and Development Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Data and Development (SBDD) Grant Program (NOFA, 74 FR 32545, July 8, 2009), a competitive, merit-based...- related data in accordance with the mapping project timeline.'' See 74 FR 32556 (July 8, 2009). NTIA... activities. After reviewing recent PPRs, NTIA has identified a need to revise its existing PPR format...

  7. 75 FR 11197 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act Of 1993-Information Card...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... 16, 2008 (73 FR 0883) The last notification was filed with the Department on September 25, 2009. A... FR 55257) Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11...--Information Card Foundation Notice is hereby given that, on January 29, 2010, pursuant to section 6(a) of...

  8. An Analysis of Persistence and Motivation in Public Research Institutions for Doctoral Completers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Marvette D.

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral student attrition is an issue of great concern among leaders in higher education (Gardner, 2009a). In response to concern for high attrition rates in doctoral programs, several studies (Lovitts, 2001; National Science Foundation, 2004; Nettles & Millett, 2006) investigated this issue aimed at gaining data to address this concern.…

  9. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  10. A Preservice Teacher's Delivery of Sport Education: Influences, Difficulties and Continued Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deenihan, J. T.; MacPhail, Ann

    2013-01-01

    How preservice teachers (PSTs) learn and deliver Sport Education ("SE") (Siedentop, 1994) is an area researchers believe warrants further investigation (Stran & Curtner-Smith, 2009a). This study explores one PST's experiences delivering SE during a school teaching placement after undertaking a practical "SE" module in his Physical Education…

  11. A Decision Model for Steady-State Choice in Concurrent Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Darren R.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2010-01-01

    Grace and McLean (2006) proposed a decision model for acquisition of choice in concurrent chains which assumes that after reinforcement in a terminal link, subjects make a discrimination whether the preceding reinforcer delay was short or long relative to a criterion. Their model was subsequently extended by Christensen and Grace (2008, 2009a,…

  12. "Elections" or "Selections"? Blogging and Twittering the Nigerian 2007 General Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifukor, Presley

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the linguistic construction of textual messages in the use of blogs and Twitter in the Nigerian 2007 electoral cycle comprising the April 2007 general elections and rerun elections in April, May, and August 2009. A qualitative approach of discourse analysis is used to present a variety of discursive acts that blogging and…

  13. Engineering Curricula: Understanding the Design Space and Exploiting the Opportunities--Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Ryan C.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009 a workshop was held to explore how engineering curricula could be enhanced to better prepare future engineers. The workshop, summarized in this volume, included individuals from industry, academia, government agencies, and professional societies. During the workshop participants addressed the rationale for the scope and sequence of…

  14. NEMS - National Energy Modeling System: An Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2009 a summary description of NEMS and each of its components. NEMS is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of energy markets for the midterm period through 2030. The NEMS is used to produce the Annual Energy Outlook.

  15. Uneven Reassembly of Tense, Telicity and Discourse Features in L2 Acquisition of the Chinese "shì…de" Cleft Construction by Adult English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Ziyin; Yuan, Boping

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an empirical study investigating L2 acquisition of the Mandarin Chinese "shì…de" cleft construction by adult English-speaking learners within the framework of the Feature Reassembly Hypothesis (Lardiere, 2009). A Sentence Completion task, an interpretation task, two Acceptability Judgement tasks, and a felicity…

  16. 9 CFR 201.100 - Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records to be furnished poultry... PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.100 Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 63277, Dec. 3, 2009. (a)...

  17. Clarence Edwards Middle School: Success through Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts 2020, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Just a few years ago, Boston's Clarence Edwards Middle School was on the verge of being shut down. By 2009, a renaissance at the Edwards made it one of the highest performing and most desired middle schools in Boston, dramatically narrowing and even eliminating academic achievement gaps while delivering a far more well-rounded education to its…

  18. 48 CFR 1552.237-71 - Technical direction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.237-71...: Technical Direction (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions. Contracting officer technical representative (COTR), means... specific technical and administrative functions. Task order, as used in this clause, means work...

  19. Information Portals: The Next Generation Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, DeeAnn

    2010-01-01

    Libraries today face an increasing challenge: to provide relevant information to diverse populations with differing needs while competing with Web search engines like Google. In 2009, a large group of libraries, including the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, joined with Innovative Interfaces as development partners to design a new type of…

  20. Use Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Technology acceptance is posited to be influenced by a variety of factors, including individual differences, social influences, beliefs, attitudes and situational influences (Agarwal, 2000; Teo, 2009a). A majority of the conceptualisations of technology acceptance have drawn on theories and models from social psychology, notably the theory of…

  1. Assessing High Impact Practices Using NVivo: An Automated Approach to Analyzing Student Reflections for Program Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, Jennifer; Filer, Kimberly; Lyon, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Critical reflection allows students to synthesize their learning and deepen their understanding of an experience (Ash & Clayton, 2009). A recommended reflection method is for students to write essays about their experiences. However, on a large scale, such reflection essays become difficult to analyze in a meaningful way. At Roanoke College,…

  2. Teacher Learning through National Board Candidacy: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzicker, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Since 1987, nearly 82,000 teachers nationwide have become National Board certified (National Board for Professional Teaching Standards [NBPTS], 2009a). National Board certification is a voluntary process that recognizes teachers who demonstrate accomplished teaching practice as defined by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards…

  3. 75 FR 35089 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... 30, 2000 (65 FR 40693). The last notification was filed with the Department on April 16, 2009. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act on May 22, 2009 (74 FR..., TX; Planning Systems, Reston, VA; Plasma Processes, Inc., Huntsville, AL; Proton...

  4. Teacher Professionalism under the Recent Reform of Performance Pay in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijia; Lai, Manhong; Lo, Leslie Nai-Kwai

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, a reform in teachers' pay, linking remuneration to performance, was implemented in China. The intention was to improve the quality of education by making teachers more diligent and creative and removing the inequality in pay between teachers in different schools. A review of this reform reveals that it has resolved the problem of…

  5. Acetyl-CoA Carbuxylase herbicide tolerance in bermudagrass.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of newly planted bermudagrass (Cynodon spp. L.) varieties by undesirable offtype bermudagrass genotypes is an ever increasing concern for turf managers because selective control options are limited. In 2009, a sethoxydim tolerant bermudagrass genotype (93-175) was identified during her...

  6. Well-Being and Outdoor Pedagogies in Primary Schooling. The Nexus of Well-Being and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stan, Ina

    2009-01-01

    Society today is inundated by a multitude of messages regarding the risks and dangers that affect youngsters, with media constantly talking about "cotton wool" kids (see Furedi, 1997, 2001, 2006) and an "obesity epidemic" (see Wright and Harwood, 2009). A social panic has been created by the media, which ignores the positive…

  7. Wikis: A Knowledge Platform for Collaborative Learning in ESL Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Cynthia S.; Belknap, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Wikis provide an effective technological tool to meet the pedagogical goals outlined in the new TESOL Technology Standards (Healey et al.,2009). A wiki, a cross between a website and a word document, is an interactive webpage that allows students to read, generate, and publish content online in an environment of collaboration. The flexibility and…

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combating Trafficking in....222-50 Combating Trafficking in Persons. As prescribed in 22.1705(a), insert the following clause: Combating Trafficking in Persons (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Coercion means—...

  9. Comparative virulence of wild-type H1N1pdm09 influenza A isolates in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) influenza A virus (IAV) reached pandemic status and was soon after detected in pigs worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the HA protein can affect pathogenicity and antigenicity of H1N1pdm09 in swine. We compared...

  10. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...

  11. Swine influenza - need for global surveillance and improved vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses (IAV) circulating in pigs and other non-human mammals has been chronically underfunded and virtually nonexistent in many areas of the world. In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged and demonstrated in a very public forum the paucity of data on influenz...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  14. Detection and characterization of tomato viruses: A case study of emerging tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) emerged in solanaceous vegetables in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from t...

  15. Emergence and impact of two tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in tomato in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from tomato in ...

  16. Lessons Learned from a Disabilities Accessible Study Abroad Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twill, Sarah E.; Guzzo, Gaetano R.

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a two-week study abroad program was specifically designed and executed to include students with disabilities. Recruitment efforts resulted in 11 student participants, six of who were identified as having a disability by the University's Office of Disability Services. Students participated in a two-course academic program;…

  17. Comments by ABCT's first female president on overcoming the glass ceiling.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2012-12-01

    At the annual convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in New York City in November 2009, a most interesting panel discussion occurred: Overcoming the Glass Ceiling: A Conversation With the Trailblazers. This article is a written version of my oral presentation at this panel discussion in my role as ABCT's first female president.

  18. Indicators of Faculty and Staff Perceptions of Campus Safety: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfolk, Willie A.

    2013-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of a critical increase in campus crime between 1999 and 2009, a period during which overall crime in the United States declined. Further the research explored the perceptions of campus safety among faculty and staff at an institution where campus safety initiatives are nationally ranked as exemplary and incidents of…

  19. 48 CFR 252.242-7004 - Material management and accounting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.242-7004 Material management and accounting system. As prescribed in 242.7204, use the following caluse: Material Management and Accounting System (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) Material management and accounting system (MMAS) means the...

  20. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment.…

  1. 46 CFR 39.2003 - Cargo gauging system-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cargo transfer; (2) Allows the operator to determine the level of liquid in the tank for the full range of liquid levels in the tank; (3) Has an indicator for the level of liquid in the tank that is..., unless the barge complies with 46 CFR 39.2009(a). The high-level indicating device must— (1)...

  2. 46 CFR 39.2003 - Cargo gauging system-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cargo transfer; (2) Allows the operator to determine the level of liquid in the tank for the full range of liquid levels in the tank; (3) Has an indicator for the level of liquid in the tank that is..., unless the barge complies with 46 CFR 39.2009(a). The high-level indicating device must— (1)...

  3. Boundary Changing without Acrimony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnell, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009, a rapid-growth school district on the Texas Gulf Coast shifted its paradigm of rezoning. Even though half of the Katy Independent School District (Katy ISD) was affected, it achieved a genuine ownership for boundary changes that would affect more than 11,500 students at five schools. Katy ISD accomplished this by seeking…

  4. Illicit Drugs and the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in the 1970s, the range of chemicals recognized as contributing to widespread contamination of the environment began to be extended to pharmaceuticals, with the topic beginning to attract broader scientific attention around the mid-1990s (Daughton 2009a). Occurring gen...

  5. 75 FR 69016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Observer Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... in the preamble to the proposed rule (74 FR 50155, September 30, 2009). A summary of the final rule... involving drugs, alcohol, and sexual conduct. NMFS's observer conduct policies established in existing..., alcohol, and sexual conduct. Observer providers will be required to provide NMFS a copy of their...

  6. Differences in STEM Baccalaureate Attainment by Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koledoye, Kimberly; Joyner, Sheila; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the extent to which differences were present in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) baccalaureate attainment of Black students and of Hispanic students at 82 Texas 4-year colleges from 2008 to 2009. A custom download of data files was conducted on the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System in…

  7. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  8. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  9. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  10. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  11. 48 CFR 252.209-7007 - Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Interests for Lead System Integrators. 252.209-7007 Section 252.209-7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for Lead System Integrators. As prescribed in 209.570-4(b), use the following clause: Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1)...

  12. State Library Conferences as Professional Development Venues: Unbalanced Support for the AASL-Defined Roles of the School Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreillon, Judi; Cahill, Maria; McKee, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) released new guidelines for school library programs in the summer of 2009. Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Programs (AASL 2009a), hereafter referred to as EL, spells out the five roles that school librarians must practice to empower library users. The purpose of this…

  13. Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

  14. Implementing Project Based Survey Research Skills to Grade Six ELP Students with "The Survey Toolkit" and "TinkerPlots"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    "Survey Toolkit Collecting Information, Analyzing Data and Writing Reports" (Walsh, 2009a) is discussed as a survey research curriculum used by the author's sixth grade students. The report describes the implementation of "The Survey Toolkit" curriculum and "TinkerPlots"[R] software to provide instruction to students learning a project based…

  15. Hybrid Pedagogies for Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In the pseudo-documentary "The Age of Stupid" (Armstrong 2009), a historian from 2055 scans the remnants of civilization and asks why, in the early twenty-first century, people did not save themselves when they had the chance. The film serves as a motif for issues raised in this article. Why do people continue to believe that education plays an…

  16. 7 CFR 251.6 - Distribution plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Plan submission. A complete plan will be required for Fiscal Year 2001, to be submitted no later than... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution plan. 251.6 Section 251.6 Agriculture... Distribution plan. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 62474, Nov. 30, 2009. (a) Contents of the plan....

  17. Installation of Impact Plates to Continuously Measure Bed Load: Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008 and 2009, a series of bed load impact plates was installed across a channel spanning weir on the Elwha River, Washington. This is the first permanent installation of its kind in North America and one of the largest anywhere. The purpose of this system is to measure coarse bed load during and...

  18. 48 CFR 552.219-75 - GSA Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false GSA Mentor-ProtégÃ... Mentor-ProtéGé Program (SEP 2009) (a) Prime contractors, including small businesses, are encouraged to.... (b) The Program consists of: (1) Mentor firms are large prime contractors with at least one...

  19. Improving Geometric and Trigonometric Knowledge and Skill for High School Mathematics Teachers: A Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science…

  20. 48 CFR 52.225-2 - Buy American Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy American Act....225-2 Buy American Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(a)(2), insert the following provision: Buy American Act Certificate (FEB 2009) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except...

  1. 48 CFR 52.225-2 - Buy American Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy American Act....225-2 Buy American Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(a)(2), insert the following provision: Buy American Act Certificate (FEB 2009) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except...

  2. 48 CFR 52.225-2 - Buy American Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act....225-2 Buy American Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(a)(2), insert the following provision: Buy American Act Certificate (FEB 2009) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except...

  3. 48 CFR 52.225-2 - Buy American Act Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act....225-2 Buy American Act Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(a)(2), insert the following provision: Buy American Act Certificate (FEB 2009) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except...

  4. Binding Phenomena within a Reductionist Theory of Grammatical Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the implications of binding phenomena for the development of a reductionist theory of grammatical dependencies. The starting point is the analysis of binding and control in Hornstein (2001, 2009). A number of revisions are made to this framework in order to develop a simpler and empirically more successful account of…

  5. 76 FR 43725 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), 7604(a) Notice is hereby given that on July 13, 2009, a proposed Second Amendment Consent Decree...

  6. Is Learning Styles-Based Instruction Effective? A Comprehensive Analysis of Recent Research on Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In an influential publication in 2009, a group of cognitive psychologists revealed that there was a lack of empirical evidence supporting the concept of learning styles-based instruction and provided guidelines for the type of research design necessary to verify the learning styles hypothesis. This article examined the literature since 2009 to…

  7. Pedagogical Engagements: Feminist Resistance to the Militarization of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armato, Michael; Fuller, Laurie; Matthews, Nancy A.; Meiners, Erica R.

    2013-01-01

    According to the authors, in 2008 and 2009 a coalition of faculty, anchored by Women's Studies, challenged a proposal to bring United States Army Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) courses onto their urban public university campus. This proposal, initially approved by the faculty governance advisory committee on academic affairs, was…

  8. Exploring the "Learning Careers" of Irish Undergraduate Sociology Students through the Establishment of an Undergraduate Sociology Student Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Patricia; Power, Martin J.; Barnes, Cliona; Haynes, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, a faculty-reviewed student undergraduate journal titled "Socheolas: The Limerick Student Journal of Sociology" was officially launched. The journal, now in its fourth volume, is produced, edited, and managed by a small team from within the Department of Sociology at the University of Limerick in Ireland. The objective of this student…

  9. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost reduction. 970.5215-4... and Operating Contracts 970.5215-4 Cost reduction. As prescribed in 970.1504-5(c), insert the following clause: Cost Reduction (AUG 2009) (a) General. It is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) intent...

  10. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost reduction. 970.5215-4... and Operating Contracts 970.5215-4 Cost reduction. As prescribed in 970.1504-5(c), insert the following clause: Cost Reduction (AUG 2009) (a) General. It is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) intent...

  11. Interpretive Analysis of New Teacher Education Curriculum Reform Introduced in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huma, Afshan

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is among those South Asian countries that are still striving for a successful education policy to be in place for achieving the goals of quantity and quality. For more than 66 years there have been many interventions and initiatives to reform current practices in public educational institutions. In 2009 a similar initiative was taken by…

  12. Developing Teachers' Capacity for EcoJustice Education and Community-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Ethan; Martusewicz, Rebecca; Voelker, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a group of teachers, community activists, and university professors came together in a Summer Institute on EcoJustice Education and Community-Based Learning held by the Southeast Michigan Stewardship Coalitions at Eastern Michigan University (EMU). A series of workshops were organized to help participants examine the…

  13. Insights from Research on Distance Education Learners, Learning, and Learner Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    This article, originally published in "Distances et Savoirs" (D & S--7/2009. "A la Croisee des Recherches," p571-584) reviews the key ideas related to increasing student learning and support described in selected chapters from the second edition of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007). These chapters described research findings…

  14. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  15. Teaching Technological Knowledge: Determining and Supporting Student Learning of Technological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Vicki J.; Compton, Ange D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on findings related to Technological Knowledge from Stage Two of the "Technological Knowledge and Nature of Technology: Implications for teaching and learning" ("TKNoT: Imps") research project undertaken in 2009. A key focus in Stage Two was the trialing of different teaching strategies to determine how…

  16. Experimentally Induced Increases in Early Gesture Lead to Increases in Spoken Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Raudenbush, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Differences in vocabulary that children bring with them to school can be traced back to the gestures they produced at the age of 1;2, which, in turn, can be traced back to the gestures their parents produced at the same age (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009a). We ask here whether child gesture can be experimentally increased and, if so, whether the…

  17. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Henrik; Poutvaara, Panu; Tuomala, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In their reply to our comment, Garcia-Mainar and Montuenga-Gomez [Garcia-Mainar, I., & Montuenga-Gomez, V. M. (2009). A response to the comment on education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers. "Economics of Education Review"] did not address our fundamental criticism that they have not provided the information necessary to replicate…

  18. Developing a Peace and Conflict Resolution Curriculum for Quaker Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockett, Eloise

    2012-01-01

    In 2008-2009, a team of educators from George Fox University, in collaboration with a committee of teachers and administrators from selected Quaker secondary schools in western Kenya, developed the first draft of a peace and conflict resolution curriculum for Kenyan form one (ninth grade) students. This case study offers a model for developing a…

  19. 48 CFR 552.228-5 - Government as Additional Insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government as Additional....228-5 Government as Additional Insured. As prescribed in 528.310, insert the following clause: Government as Additional Insured (MAY 2009) (a) This clause supplements the requirements set forth in...

  20. 48 CFR 552.228-5 - Government as Additional Insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government as Additional....228-5 Government as Additional Insured. As prescribed in 528.310, insert the following clause: Government as Additional Insured (MAY 2009) (a) This clause supplements the requirements set forth in...

  1. 15 CFR 806.16 - Rules and regulations for BE-10, Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-2009. 806.16 Section 806.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade... COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.16 Rules and regulations for BE-10, Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad—2009. A BE-10, Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad will...

  2. 15 CFR 806.16 - Rules and regulations for BE-10, Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad-2009. 806.16 Section 806.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade... COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.16 Rules and regulations for BE-10, Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad—2009. A BE-10, Benchmark Survey of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad will...

  3. 78 FR 42976 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... 28, 1996 (61 FR 33774). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 15, 2009. A... FR 2889). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11.... Also, Foxconn, Taipei Hsien, TAIWAN; and Quanta Computer, Tao Yuan Shine, TAIWAN, have withdrawn...

  4. Are There More Gifted People Than Would Be Expected in a Normal Distribution? An Investigation of the Overabundance Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Godwin, Lindsey R.; Smith, Kyle V.

    2013-01-01

    Among some gifted education researchers, advocates, and practitioners, it is sometimes believed that there is a larger number of gifted people in the general population than would be predicted from a normal distribution (e.g., Gallagher, 2008; N. M. Robinson, Zigler, & Gallagher, 2000; Silverman, 1995, 2009), a belief that we termed the…

  5. Research Updates: Experimental Evaluation of 2009 Pandemic A/H1N1 in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March 2009, a novel pandemic A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America (2). The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before be...

  6. Experimental Inoculation of Pigs with Pandemic H1N1 2009 Virus and HI Cross-Reactivity with Contemporary Swine Influenza Virus Antisera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March-April 2009, a novel A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America. The gene constellation of the virus was demonstrated to be a combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before been identified in swine or other species...

  7. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  8. Use of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions to Reduce Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) in Pennsylvania Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeffrey R.; Short, Vanessa L.; Wu, Henry M.; Waller, Kirsten; Mead, Paul; Kahn, Emily; Bahn, Beth A; Dale, Jon W.; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Walton, Sabrina E.; Urdaneta, Veronica; Ostroff, Stephen; Averhoff, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Background: School-based recommendations for nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were issued in response to the threat of 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1). The implementation and effectiveness of these recommendations has not been assessed. Methods: In November 2009, a Web-based survey of all Pennsylvania public schools was conducted to assess…

  9. Low-dimensional clustering reveals new influenza strains before they become dominant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiankui; Deem, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Influenza A virus has been circulating in the human population and has caused three pandemics in the last century (1918 H1N1, 1957 H2N2, 1968 H3N2). The newly appeared 2009 A(H1N1) has been classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the fourth pandemic virus strain. We here consider an approach for early detection of new dominant strains. We first construct a network model and apply it to the evolution of the 2009 A(H1N1) virus. By clustering the sequence data, we found two main clusters. We then define a metric to detect the emergence of dominant strains. We show on historical H3N2 data that this method is able to find a cluster around an incipient dominant strain before it becomes dominant. For example, for H3N2 as of 30 March 2009, we see the cluster for the new A/BritishColumbia/RV1222/2009 strain. Turning to H1N1 and the 2009 A(H1N1), we do not see evidence for antigenically novel 2009 A(H1N1) strains as of August 2009. This strain detection tool combines a projection operator with a density estimation.

  10. 48 CFR 552.246-71 - Source Inspection by Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Government. 552.246-71 Section 552.246-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....246-71 Source Inspection by Government. As prescribed in 546.302-71, insert the following clause: Source Inspection by Government (JUNE 1, 2009) (a) Inspection by Government personnel. (1) Supplies to...

  11. 48 CFR 1552.245-70 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government property. 1552... Government property. As prescribed in 1545.107(a), insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Government Property (SEP 2009) (a) The contractor shall not fabricate or acquire, on behalf of the...

  12. 48 CFR 552.228-5 - Government as Additional Insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government as Additional....228-5 Government as Additional Insured. As prescribed in 528.310, insert the following clause: Government as Additional Insured (MAY 2009) (a) This clause supplements the requirements set forth in...

  13. 48 CFR 1552.245-70 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government property. 1552... Government property. As prescribed in 1545.107(a), insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Government Property (SEP 2009) (a) The contractor shall not fabricate or acquire, on behalf of the...

  14. 75 FR 14191 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... September 13, 2000 (65 FR 55283). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 1, 2009. A... (74 FR 67903). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on February 16, 2010, pursuant to section...

  15. Comments by ABCT's first female president on overcoming the glass ceiling.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2012-12-01

    At the annual convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in New York City in November 2009, a most interesting panel discussion occurred: Overcoming the Glass Ceiling: A Conversation With the Trailblazers. This article is a written version of my oral presentation at this panel discussion in my role as ABCT's first female president. PMID:23046772

  16. 48 CFR 552.228-5 - Government as Additional Insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government as Additional....228-5 Government as Additional Insured. As prescribed in 528.310, insert the following clause: Government as Additional Insured (MAY 2009) (a) This clause supplements the requirements set forth in...

  17. 48 CFR 552.228-5 - Government as Additional Insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government as Additional....228-5 Government as Additional Insured. As prescribed in 528.310, insert the following clause: Government as Additional Insured (MAY 2009) (a) This clause supplements the requirements set forth in...

  18. 48 CFR 552.246-71 - Source Inspection by Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Government. 552.246-71 Section 552.246-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....246-71 Source Inspection by Government. As prescribed in 546.302-71, insert the following clause: Source Inspection by Government (JUNE 1, 2009) (a) Inspection by Government personnel. (1) Supplies to...

  19. 48 CFR 552.246-71 - Source Inspection by Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Government. 552.246-71 Section 552.246-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....246-71 Source Inspection by Government. As prescribed in 546.302-71, insert the following clause: Source Inspection by Government (JUNE 1, 2009) (a) Inspection by Government personnel. (1) Supplies to...

  20. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

  1. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 74 FR 62696, Dec. 1, 2009. (a) No pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow... follow conditions: (1) Takeoffs may be made with frost adhering to the wings, or stabilizing or control surfaces, if the frost has been polished to make it smooth. (2) Takeoffs may be made with frost under...

  2. An Analysis of Water Safety Behaviors among Migrant and Economically/Educationally Disadvantaged Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sbarbaro, Victor S.; Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer…

  3. 48 CFR 52.222-48 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment..., Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment Certification. As prescribed in 22.1006(e)(1), insert the..., Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment Certification (FEB 2009) (a) The offeror shall check the...

  4. 48 CFR 52.222-48 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment..., Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment Certification. As prescribed in 22.1006(e)(1), insert the..., Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment Certification (FEB 2009) (a) The offeror shall check the...

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-48 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment..., Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment Certification. As prescribed in 22.1006(e)(1), insert the..., Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment Certification (FEB 2009) (a) The offeror shall check the...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-48 - Exemption from Application of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Service Contract Act to Contracts for Maintenance, Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment..., Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment Certification. As prescribed in 22.1006(e)(1), insert the..., Calibration, or Repair of Certain Equipment Certification (FEB 2009) (a) The offeror shall check the...

  7. Challenges of the Administrative Consultation Wiki Research Project as a Learning and Competences Development Method for MPA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Polonca; Stare, Janez

    2015-01-01

    Administrative Consultation Wiki (ACW) is a project run under the auspices of the Faculty of Administration and the Ministry of Public Administration in Slovenia since 2009. A crucial component thereof is the involvement of students of Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree programs to offer them an opportunity to develop competences in…

  8. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  9. Teaching the Nature of Technology: Determining and Supporting Student Learning of the Philosophy of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Vicki J.; Compton, Ange D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on findings related to the Nature of Technology from Stage Two of the "Technological Knowledge and Nature of Technology: Implications for teaching and learning" ("TKNoT: Imps") research project undertaken in 2009. A key focus in Stage Two was the trialing of different teaching strategies to determine how learning related to the…

  10. 75 FR 32911 - Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... and Tubes From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order, 49 FR 19369 (May 7, 1984) (Antidumping Duty Order). On...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 20278 (May 1, 2009). On June 1, 2009, a domestic producer... for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 30052 (June 24, 2009). Yieh Phui submitted a response to Section A...

  11. On Ecological Reflections: The Tensions of Cultivating Ecojustice and Youth Environmentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    I respond to Zeyer and Roth's (2009) "A Mirror of Society" by elaborating on how the idea of interpretive repertoires is grounded by education philosophy and sociology. Vernacular languages are carried forward collectively from individuals who lived during a particular period of time, inculcated as root metaphors, which frame our relationships…

  12. Challenging the Premises of International Policy Reviews: An Introduction to the Review Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Laessoe, Jeppe; Blum, Nicole; Chambers, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a think tank called the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI) announced the results of a study entitled Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education. Intended for a policy audience, the study offered a glimpse into the status of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and an early…

  13. 48 CFR 52.225-10 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials. 52.225-10 Section 52.225-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.225-10 Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials. As prescribed... Materials (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) item,”...

  14. 48 CFR 52.225-10 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials. 52.225-10 Section 52.225-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.225-10 Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials. As prescribed... Materials (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) item,”...

  15. 48 CFR 52.225-10 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials. 52.225-10 Section 52.225-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.225-10 Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials. As prescribed... Materials (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) item,”...

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-10 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials. 52.225-10 Section 52.225-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.225-10 Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials. As prescribed... Materials (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) item,”...

  17. 76 FR 19524 - Privacy Act of 1974; Deletion of System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ..., ``Customer User Provisioning System (CUPS)-VA'', in FR Vol. 74, No 156 dated August 14, 2009. A ``Report of... records entitled ``PROS/KEYS User Permissions Database-VA'' (67VA30), which was first published FR Vol. 52... Customer Registration System (ACRS)-VA'', which was published in FR Vol. 60, No 239 dated December 13,...

  18. 78 FR 5403 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf, and South Atlantic; Aquaculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... operations in the Gulf. A NOI for the FMP was published on September 2, 2004 (69 FR 53682). A notice of availability for the draft PEIS was published on September 12, 2008 (73 FR 53001). On June 26, 2009, a notice of availability was published for the final PEIS (74 FR 30569). The FMP entered into effect...

  19. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: An Updated Report of the Bar Passing Percentages of Years 2005-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Garrison, P.; Green, T.; Palasota, A.

    2010-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics gives the passing percentages of the Bar examination for the Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) for the calendar years of 2005-2009. A Five Year Analysis is given for the entire period, followed by Annual Analysis of the same data. This report is meant to serve as a continual update of the…

  20. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of Bar Passing Percentages of Years 2005-2009--Updated May 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Garrison, P.; Green, T.

    2010-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics gives the passing percentages of the Bar examination for the Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) for the calendar years of 2005-2009. A Five Year Analysis is given for the entire period, followed by Annual Analyses. This report is meant to serve as a continual update of the progress of the Law…

  1. 76 FR 5244 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... 2009. A total of 73 applicants requested $83.0 million, more than three times the amount available in... Ahmad, Regional Administrator, Region 2--New York, Administrator, Region 7--Kansas One Bowling Green.... Missouri, and Nebraska. New York Metropolitan Office, Region 2--New York, One Bowling Green, Room 428,...

  2. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of the Bar Passing Percentages of Years 2005-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Garrison, P.; Green, T.; Palasota, A.

    2010-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics gives the passing percentages of the Bar examination for the Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) for the calendar years of 2005-2009. A Five Year Analysis is given for the entire period, followed by a Three Year Analysis of years 2005-2007, 2006-2008, and 2007-2009. In addition, an Annual Analysis…

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  4. Academics as Part-Time Marketers in University Offshore Programs: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, David; Ewan, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Australian universities maintain almost 900 offshore programs delivered to more than 100 000 students, primarily in the nations of Singapore, Malaysia, China, and Hong Kong (Universities Australia, 2009; IDP, 2009a). Although offshore students comprise an estimated 30 per cent of international student enrolments at Australian universities (IDP,…

  5. 33 CFR 154.2102 - Facility requirements for vessel liquid overfill protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that is fitted with overfill protection, in accordance with 46 CFR 39.2009(a)(1)(iii), must provide a... NEMA WD-6 (incorporated by reference, see 33 CFR 154.106); (2) NFPA 70 (2011), Articles 406.9 and 501.145 (incorporated by reference, see 33 CFR 154.106); and (3) 46 CFR 111.105-9. (b) Each facility...

  6. Mental Health Screening and Follow-up Care in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Sheridan, Marian; McGuire, Leslie; Olfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased interest in screening adolescents for mental health problems and suicide risk, little is known regarding the extent to which youth are identified and connected with appropriate services. Method: Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 4,509 ninth-grade students were offered screening. We reviewed the records of the 2,488…

  7. Simulating the dynamics of a single polymer chain in solution: Lattice Boltzmann vs Brownian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duenweg, Burkhard

    2010-03-01

    Two well--established and complementary methodologies to simulate the dynamics of polymers in solution are (i) Brownian Dynamics (BD), and (ii) Molecular Dynamics coupled dissipatively to a lattice Boltzmann background (MD/LB). The talk gives a brief introduction into both methods, and then presents results of a recent comparative study that applied both methods to the same model of a single chain that moves in a solvent under the influence of thermal noise. Emphasis is put on the question how to map the parameters onto each other, in particular those that are crucial for the dynamics. The agreement of static properties is perfect, as it must be. The dynamic properties agree very well, if for the MD/LB case the effects of finite box size are eliminated by extrapolation. We also find that proper thermalization of all MD/LB degrees of freedom (including the so--called ``kinetic modes'') is necessary. Small deviations between BD and MD/LB remain as a result of the different simulation methodologies. Finally, the computational efficiency of the two methods is compared. For the single--chain system, BD is clearly much faster, while scaling estimates suggest that the opposite is true for semidilute solutions. References: *Tri T. Pham, Ulf D. Schiller, J. Ravi Prakash, and B. D"unweg, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 164114 (2009). *B. D"unweg and A. J. C. Ladd, Adv. Polym. Sci. 221, 89 (2009).

  8. Worksite Tobacco Prevention: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Adoption, Dissemination Strategies, and Aggregated Health-Related Outcomes across Companies.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Verena; Brügger, Adrian; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence based public health requires knowledge about successful dissemination of public health measures. This study analyses (a) the changes in worksite tobacco prevention (TP) in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, between 2007 and 2009; (b1) the results of a multistep versus a "brochure only" dissemination strategy; (b2) the results of a monothematic versus a comprehensive dissemination strategy that aim to get companies to adopt TP measures; and (c) whether worksite TP is associated with health-related outcomes. A longitudinal design with randomized control groups was applied. Data on worksite TP and health-related outcomes were gathered by a written questionnaire (baseline n = 1627; follow-up n = 1452) and analysed using descriptive statistics, nonparametric procedures, and ordinal regression models. TP measures at worksites improved slightly between 2007 and 2009. The multistep dissemination was superior to the "brochure only" condition. No significant differences between the monothematic and the comprehensive dissemination strategies were observed. However, improvements in TP measures at worksites were associated with improvements in health-related outcomes. Although dissemination was approached at a mass scale, little change in the advocated adoption of TP measures was observed, suggesting the need for even more aggressive outreach or an acceptance that these channels do not seem to be sufficiently effective. PMID:26504778

  9. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different heterogeneous ice nucleation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Morales Betancourt, Ricardo; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of the nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the adjoint of a cirrus formation parameterization (Barahona and Nenes, 2009b) to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are done with a theoretically derived spectrum, an empirical lab-based spectrum and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon particles and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never deconstructed as done here.

  10. An improved determination of the lithium depletion boundary age of Blanco 1 and a first look on the effects of magnetic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Aaron J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; James, David J.

    2014-11-10

    The lithium depletion boundary (LDB) is a robust method for accurately determining the ages of young clusters, but most pre-main-sequence models used to derive LDB ages do not include the effects of magnetic activity on stellar properties. In light of this, we present results from our spectroscopic study of the very-low-mass members of the southern open cluster Blanco 1 using the Gemini-North Telescope, program IDs: GN-2009B-Q-53 and GN-2010B-Q-96. We obtained Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph spectra at intermediate resolution for cluster candidate members with I ≈ 13-20 mag. From our sample of 43 spectra, we find 14 probable cluster members by considering proximity to the cluster sequence in an I/I – K {sub s} color-magnitude diagram, agreement with the cluster's systemic radial velocity, and magnetic activity as a youth indicator. We systematically analyze the Hα and Li features and update the LDB age of Blanco 1 to be 126{sub −14}{sup +13} Myr. Our new LDB age for Blanco 1 shows remarkable coevality with the benchmark Pleiades open cluster. Using available empirical activity corrections, we investigate the effects of magnetic activity on the LDB age of Blanco 1. Accounting for activity, we infer a corrected LDB age of 114{sub −10}{sup +9} Myr. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for magnetic activity on LDB inferred stellar ages, suggesting the need to reinvestigate previous LDB age determinations.

  11. Experimentally-induced Increases in Early Gesture Lead to Increases in Spoken Vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Raudenbush, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Differences in vocabulary that children bring with them to school can be traced back to the gestures they produce at 1;2, which, in turn, can be traced back to the gestures their parents produce at the same age (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009b). We ask here whether child gesture can be experimentally increased and, if so, whether the increases lead to increases in spoken vocabulary. Fifteen children aged 1;5 participated in an 8-week at-home intervention study (6 weekly training sessions plus follow-up 2 weeks later) in which all were exposed to object words, but only some were told to point at the named objects. Before each training session and at follow-up, children interacted naturally with caregivers to establish a baseline against which changes in communication were measured. Children who were told to gesture increased the number of gesture meanings they conveyed, not only during training but also during interactions with caregivers. These experimentally-induced increases in gesture led to larger spoken repertoires at follow-up. PMID:26120283

  12. Assessing the Association Between Asthma and Air Quality in the Presence of Wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, L. J.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Lopiano, K. K.; Crosson, W. L.; Gotway, C. A.; DuClos, C.; Jordan, M.; Estes, M. G.; Luvall, J. C.; Estes, S. M.; Xu, X.; Holt, N. M.; Leary, E.

    2012-12-01

    Asthma hospital/emergency room (patient) data are used as the foundation for creating a health outcome indicator of human response to environmental air quality. Daily U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) fine particulates (PM2.5) ground data and the U.S. National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) data were acquired and processed for years of 2007 and 2008. Figure 1 shows the PM2.5 annual mean composite of all the 2007 B-spline daily surfaces. Initial models for predicting the number of weekly asthma cases within a Florida county has focused on environmental variables. Weekly maximums of PM2.5, relative humidity, and the proportions of the county with smoke and fire were the environmental variables included in the model. Cosine and sine functions of time were used to account for seasonality in asthma cases. Counties were considered to be random effects, thereby adjusting for differences in socio-demographics and other factors. The 2007 predictions for Miami-Dade county when using B-splines PM2.5 are displayed in Figures 2.; PM2.5 annual mean composite of all the 2007 daily surfaces developed using Al-Hamdan et al (2009) B-spline fitting algorithm ; Predicted and observed weekly asthma cases presenting to hospitals or emergency rooms in Miami-Dade county in Florida during 2007

  13. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different heterogeneous ice nucleation spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Morales Betancourt, Ricardo; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-03-03

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of the nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the adjoint of a cirrus formation parameterization (Barahona and Nenes, 2009b) to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are donemore » with a theoretically derived spectrum, an empirical lab-based spectrum and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon particles and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never deconstructed as done here.« less

  14. Homogenization of viscoplastic constitutive laws within a phase field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rancourt, Victor; Ammar, Kais; Appolaire, Benoît; Forest, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    The present work provides an original consistent framework for combining different constitutive laws, possibly nonlinear, within diffuse interface models (phase field) by homogenization rather than by mixing the material parameters, such as to offer a greater flexibility. The framework relies on the choice of relevant thermodynamic potentials such that the homogenization schemes are natural choices in the thermodynamic formulation. Thus, it justifies previously proposed classic schemes (Ammar et al., 2009b) and gives clues to explore new schemes (Durga et al., 2013; Mosler et al., 2014) by defining relevant potentials. The proposed framework is illustrated by addressing two issues. First, Reuss and Voigt homogenization schemes are shown to deliver the same kinetics of diffusion-controlled transformations in the pure elastic case in the limit of vanishing diffuse interface width. Second, using the Voigt homogenization scheme, we demonstrate that the influence of viscoplasticity, either isotropic or crystalline, on diffusion-controlled transformations is non-trivial and cannot be inferred from simple qualitative arguments. Depending on the competition between the time scales of diffusion and viscoplasticity, the growth kinetics may exhibit intermediate behaviors between purely chemical and elastic cases. Moreover, it is shown how viscoplasticity can change the morphological stability of growing circular precipitates.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer MIR AGN survey. I. (Lacy+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, M.; Ridgway, S. E.; Gates, E. L.; Nielsen, D. M.; Petric, A. O.; Sajina, A.; Urrutia, T.; Cox Drews, S.; Harrison, C.; Seymour, N.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2013-10-01

    A wide range of optical facilities and instruments were used for spectroscopic follow-up of our AGN candidates. Most of the bright samples were followed up with 3-5m telescopes and longslit spectroscopy (Hale with COSMIC, SOAR with Goodman, and Shane with Kast), whereas the fainter samples were followed up with multifiber and/or 6-8m class telescopes (Blanco with Hydra, MMT with Hectospec, and Gemini-South with GMOS (program GS-2008B-C4)). We also obtained spectra of some of the bright candidates with a successful poor weather (scheduling band 4) program at Gemini-South (program GS-2008B-Q86). Some objects had spectra available in archives from the SDSS, 2dF, (Colless et al. 2001, Cat. VII/250) or 6dF (Jones et al. 2009, Cat. VII/259) surveys and some have redshifts and classifications in the literature, all found using the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). Table 2 gives details of the spectroscopic observations or literature references as appropriate. For some high-redshift candidates with ambiguous or low signal-to-noise optical spectra, we were able to obtain near-infrared spectra with the IRTF using SpeX (2007 June), Gemini with NIRI (program GN2009B-C-8), and Triplespec (2008 July and 2011 July) on Palomar. (5 data files).

  16. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sb-doped GeSe2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Fen; Lu, Shun-Bin; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shi-Xun; Nie, Qiu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Sb-doped GeSe2 chalcogenide thin films are prepared by the magnetron co-sputtering method. The linear optical properties of as-deposited films are derived by analyzing transmission spectra. The refractive index rises and the optical band gap decreases from 2.08 eV to 1.41 eV with increasing the Sb content. X-ray photoelectron spectra further confirm the formation of a covalent Sb-Se bond. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin films are investigated under femtosecond laser excitation at 800 nm. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical properties are enhanced with increasing the concentration of Sb. The nonlinear refraction indices of these thin films are measured to be on the order of 10-18 m2/W with a positive sign and the nonlinear absorption coefficients are obtained to be on the order of 10-10 m/W. These excellent properties indicate that Sb-doped Ge-Se films have a good prospect in the applications of nonlinear optical devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377061), the Young Leaders of Academic Climbing Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. pd2013092), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B217), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  17. Low threshold fiber taper coupled rare earth ion-doped chalcogenide microsphere laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao-Ran; Dai, Shi-Xun; Zhang, Qing-Yuan; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Xun-Si; Zhang, Pei-Qing; Lu, Lai-Wei; Wu, Yue-Hao; Lv, She-Qin

    2015-04-01

    We report the applications of a low-cost and environmentally friendly chalcogenide glass, 75GeS2-15Ga2S3-10CsI, in building active microsphere laser oscillators. A silica fiber taper is used as the coupling mechanism. With an 808-nm laser diode as a pump source, we show that a high-Q (˜ 6×104) laser mode could be obtained from a 75-μm diameter microsphere that is coupled with a 1.77-μm waist-diameter fiber taper. The threshold of the incident pump power is 1.39 mW, which is considerably lower than those of previously reported free-space coupled chalcogenide microsphere lasers. We also note an apparent enhancement in laser power generated from this chalcogenide microsphere laser. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61177087 and 61435009), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B21007) , the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, the Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (South China University of Technology), China (Grant No. 2014-skllmd-01), and the Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2014A610125).

  18. Cosmic-ray Electrons and Atmospheric Gamma-rays in 1-30 GeV observed with Balloon-borne CALET prototype detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niita, Tae; Fuke, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Kenji; Katayose, Yusaku; Torii, Shoji; Akaike, Yosui; Katsuaki Kasahara, ., , prof.; Tamura, Tadahisa; Ueyama, Yoshitaka; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Shimizu, Yuki; Kyutan, Marie; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ito, Daijiro; Karube, Mikihiko; Kondo, Keinosuke

    2012-07-01

    We carried out the balloon experiments using CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) proto-type detectors in May 2006 (bCALET-1) and in August 2009 (bCALET-2) for verification of the detector performance and of the capability of measuring cosmic rays at high altitude. The bCALET-2 instrument for observing electrons and gamma-rays is composed of an imaging calorimeter, consisting of 4096 scintillating fibers and 7 tungsten plates of 3.6 radiation lengths depth in total, and a total absorption calorimeter, consisting of 60 BGO logs of 13.4 radiation lengths depth. The bCALET-2 was launched at the Taiki Aerospace Research Field, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, in Hokkaido, and flew successfully for 2.5 hours at a level altitude of 35 km. We will present energy spectra of the 1ry and 2ry electrons and the atmospheric gamma-rays in the energy range of 1-30 GeV observed by bCALET-2. The results will be compared with our previous observations, bCALET-1 and BETS.

  19. Receptors for the Neuropeptides, Myoinhibitory Peptide and SIFamide, in Control of the Salivary Glands of the Blacklegged Tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Šimo, Ladislav; Koči, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

    2013-01-01

    Tick salivary glands are important organs that enable the hematophagous feeding of the tick. We previously described the innervation of the salivary gland acini types II and III by a pair of protocerebral salivary gland neurons that produce both myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide (Šimo et al., 2009b). In this study we identified authentic receptors expressed in the salivary glands for these neuropeptides. Homology-based searches for these receptors in the Ixodes scapularis genome sequence were followed by gene cloning and functional expression of the receptors. Both receptors were activated by low nanomolar concentrations of their respective ligands. The temporal expression patterns of the two ligands and their respective receptors suggest that the SIFamide signaling system pre-exists in unfed salivary glands, while the MIP system is activated upon initiation of feeding. Immunoreactivity for the SIFamide receptor in the salivary gland was detected in acini types II and III, surrounding the acinar valve and extending to the basal region of the acinar lumen. The location of the SIFamide receptor in the salivary glands suggests three potential target cell types and their probable functions: myoepithelial cells that may function in the contraction of the acini and/or the control of the valve; large, basally located dopaminergic granular cells for regulation of paracrine dopamine; and neck cells that may be involved in the control of the acinar duct and its valve. PMID:23357681

  20. Language, gay pornography, and audience reception.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L

    2011-01-01

    Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative. PMID:21740219

  1. Improving D-glucaric acid production from myo-inositol in E. coli by increasing MIOX stability and myo-inositol transport.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Eric; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-03-01

    D-glucaric acid has been explored for a myriad of potential uses, including biopolymer production and cancer treatment. A biosynthetic route to produce D-glucaric acid from glucose has been constructed in Escherichia coli (Moon et al., 2009b), and analysis of the pathway revealed myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) to be the least active enzyme. To increase pathway productivity, we explored protein fusion tags for increased MIOX solubility and directed evolution for increased MIOX activity. An N-terminal SUMO fusion to MIOX resulted in a 75% increase in D-glucaric acid production from myo-inositol. While our directed evolution efforts did not yield an improved MIOX variant, our screen isolated a 941 bp DNA fragment whose expression led to increased myo-inositol transport and a 65% increase in D-glucaric acid production from myo-inositol. Overall, we report the production of up to 4.85 g/L of D-glucaric acid from 10.8 g/L myo-inositol in recombinant E. coli.

  2. Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, Trevor; Riley, Steven; Barr, Ian G.; Broor, Shobha; Chadha, Mandeep; Cox, Nancy J.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Gunasekaran, C. Palani; Hurt, Aeron C.; Kelso, Anne; Klimov, Alexander; Lewis, Nicola S.; Li, Xiyan; McCauley, John W.; Odagiri, Takato; Potdar, Varsha; Rambaut, Andrew; Shu, Yuelong; Skepner, Eugene; Smith, Derek J.; Suchard, Marc A.; Tashiro, Masato; Wang, Dayan; Xu, Xiyan; Lemey, Philippe; Russell, Colin A.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 (up to 2009), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata viruses differ substantially from those of A/H3N2 viruses, on the basis of analyses of 9,604 haemagglutinin sequences of human seasonal influenza viruses from 2000 to 2012. Whereas genetic variants of A/H3N2 viruses did not persist locally between epidemics and were reseeded from East and Southeast Asia, genetic variants of A/H1N1 and B viruses persisted across several seasons and exhibited complex global dynamics with East and Southeast Asia playing a limited role in disseminating new variants. The less frequent global movement of influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses coincided with slower rates of antigenic evolution, lower ages of infection, and smaller, less frequent epidemics compared to A/H3N2 viruses. Detailed epidemic models support differences in age of infection, combined with the less frequent travel of children, as probable drivers of the differences in the patterns of global circulation, suggesting a complex interaction between virus evolution, epidemiology, and human behaviour.

  3. Worksite Tobacco Prevention: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Adoption, Dissemination Strategies, and Aggregated Health-Related Outcomes across Companies

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Verena; Brügger, Adrian; Bauer, Georg F.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence based public health requires knowledge about successful dissemination of public health measures. This study analyses (a) the changes in worksite tobacco prevention (TP) in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, between 2007 and 2009; (b1) the results of a multistep versus a “brochure only” dissemination strategy; (b2) the results of a monothematic versus a comprehensive dissemination strategy that aim to get companies to adopt TP measures; and (c) whether worksite TP is associated with health-related outcomes. A longitudinal design with randomized control groups was applied. Data on worksite TP and health-related outcomes were gathered by a written questionnaire (baseline n = 1627; follow-up n = 1452) and analysed using descriptive statistics, nonparametric procedures, and ordinal regression models. TP measures at worksites improved slightly between 2007 and 2009. The multistep dissemination was superior to the “brochure only” condition. No significant differences between the monothematic and the comprehensive dissemination strategies were observed. However, improvements in TP measures at worksites were associated with improvements in health-related outcomes. Although dissemination was approached at a mass scale, little change in the advocated adoption of TP measures was observed, suggesting the need for even more aggressive outreach or an acceptance that these channels do not seem to be sufficiently effective. PMID:26504778

  4. Darwinische Kulturtheorie - Evolutionistische und "evolutionistische`` Theorien sozialen Wandels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, Christoph

    Evolutionistische Argumentationen außerhalb der Biologie sind weit verbreitet. Wenn sie vertreten werden, heißt das mitnichten, dass sie notwendigerweise von darwinischen Argumenten geprägt sind. Wenn man Evolution und Kultur aus explizit darwinischer Perspektive zusammen bringt, bedeutet das noch lange nicht unbedingt Soziobiologie. Und es bedeutet sicherlich nicht Sozialdarwinismus. Dieser Beitrag soll einen Überblick der so genannten evolutionären Ansätze bzw. evolutionistischen Ansätze zu menschlichen Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen geben. Es soll gezeigt werden, was in den Ansätzen analytisch zu trennen ist und was synthetisch zusammen gehört. Mein Beitrag ist nicht wissenschaftsgeschichtlich angelegt, sondern systematisch ausgerichtet und hat zwei Schwerpunkte (Antweiler 2008; Antweiler 2009b). Zum einen geht es um kausale Zusammenhänge von organischer Evolution und gesellschaftlichem Wandel. Auf der anderen Seite werden Analogien zwischen biotischer und kultureller Evolution erläutert, die als spezifische Ähnlichkeiten dieser beiden als grundsätzlich verschieden gesehenen Prozesse aufgefasst werden. Dadurch wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob die Evolution von Organismen einerseits und die Transformation von Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen andererseits, spezielle Fälle eines allgemeinen Modells von Evolution darstellen.

  5. Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Trevor; Riley, Steven; Barr, Ian G; Broor, Shobha; Chadha, Mandeep; Cox, Nancy J; Daniels, Rodney S; Gunasekaran, C Palani; Hurt, Aeron C; Kelso, Anne; Klimov, Alexander; Lewis, Nicola S; Li, Xiyan; McCauley, John W; Odagiri, Takato; Potdar, Varsha; Rambaut, Andrew; Shu, Yuelong; Skepner, Eugene; Smith, Derek J; Suchard, Marc A; Tashiro, Masato; Wang, Dayan; Xu, Xiyan; Lemey, Philippe; Russell, Colin A

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 (up to 2009), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata viruses differ substantially from those of A/H3N2 viruses, on the basis of analyses of 9,604 haemagglutinin sequences of human seasonal influenza viruses from 2000 to 2012. Whereas genetic variants of A/H3N2 viruses did not persist locally between epidemics and were reseeded from East and Southeast Asia, genetic variants of A/H1N1 and B viruses persisted across several seasons and exhibited complex global dynamics with East and Southeast Asia playing a limited role in disseminating new variants. The less frequent global movement of influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses coincided with slower rates of antigenic evolution, lower ages of infection, and smaller, less frequent epidemics compared to A/H3N2 viruses. Detailed epidemic models support differences in age of infection, combined with the less frequent travel of children, as probable drivers of the differences in the patterns of global circulation, suggesting a complex interaction between virus evolution, epidemiology, and human behaviour.

  6. The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    Not only the Sahel (Haregeweyn et al., 2013), the deforested land (Borelli et al., 2013) the chinese Plateau are affected by intense soil erosion rates (Zhao et al., 2013). Soil erosion affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter. Example of the research carried out on citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012), and they confirm the non sustainable soil losses measured. The land management in citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012). The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful. There is a need to find new plants or residues to protect the soils on citrus orchards. Agriculture produces a high amount of residues. The pruning can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Due to the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen) the straw is being a residue instead of a resource. The Valencia region is the largest producer of citrus in Europe, and the largest exporter in the world. This citrus production region is located in the eastern cost of Spain where we can find the rice production area of the l'Albufera Lagoon paddy fields, the third largest production region in Spain. This means, a rice production region surrounded by the huge citrus production region. There, the rice straw is not used

  7. The barley straw residues avoid high erosion rates in persimmon plantations. Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    the bare control plots to 47 gr in the straw covered plots, which resulted in a low erosion rate when the soil is covered with straw (0.23 Mg ha-1 y-1), but extremely high when the soil is not covered (5.07 Mg ha-1 y-1). The results show also a delayed runoff generation due to the effect of the straw. From ponding to surface runoff the bare plots last 198 seconds, but under straw covered soils the time is 506 seconds. Moreover, when runoff is found on the soil surface the time to reach the plot outlet is much delayed under the straw cover, as range from 156 seconds on the bare plots to 406 to the straw covered plots. The management of the agriculture soils in many parts of the Planet is triggering land degradation (Borelli et al., 2013; Haregeweyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The most intense soil erosion rates use to affect agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), and in Eastern Spain it was found that citrus orchards are being seeing as one of the crops with the highest erosion rates due to the managements that avoid the catch crops, weeds or litter, and this is also found in China (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) and in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012). The worse land managements found in many of the citrus plantations results in soil degradation too (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and we can confirm here that the new Persimmon plantations are triggering the same effect and it is necessary to develop new strategies to reduce the soil losses. The use of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel has been found successful, but also it is well know the effect of the litter it is a key cover to avoid soil erosion. Meginnis (1935) was one of the pioneers on the research of the cover of litter to avoid

  8. Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder, Colorado (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, a 37-unit apartment complex located in Boulder, Colorado, underwent an energy retrofit to comply with Boulder SmartRegs Ordinance, a mandate that requires all rental properties to meet certain energy efficiency standards by 2018. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, worked with city planners and building owners to evaluate this program and recently completed a case study evaluating the effectiveness of a collection of retrofit measures.

  9. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, a 37-unit apartment complex located in Boulder, Colorado, underwent an energy retrofit to comply with Boulder SmartRegs Ordinance, a mandate that requires all rental properties to meet certain energy efficiency standards by 2018. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, worked with city planners and building owners to evaluate this program and recently completed a case study evaluating the effectiveness of a collection of retrofit measures.

  10. 8 CFR 1212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to section 14 of Public Law 99-396, “Omnibus Territories Act” and 8 CFR 212.1(e). (1) As provided in 8 CFR 212.1(e), until November 28, 2009, a visa is not required of an alien who is a citizen of a country enumerated in 8 CFR 212.1(e)(3) who: (i) Is classifiable as a visitor for business or...

  11. Shared health governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-07-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  12. 8 CFR 1212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pursuant to section 14 of Public Law 99-396, “Omnibus Territories Act” and 8 CFR 212.1(e). (1) As provided in 8 CFR 212.1(e), until November 28, 2009, a visa is not required of an alien who is a citizen of a country enumerated in 8 CFR 212.1(e)(3) who: (i) Is classifiable as a visitor for business or...

  13. Turn on the Pumps Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Nunes, Devin [R-CA-21

    2009-06-26

    12/02/2009 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. Nunes. Petition No: 111-8. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 12/2/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Natural Resources from consideration of H.R.3105. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-8: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  15. Shared health governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-07-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically.

  16. School Administrators' Use of the National School Lunch Program to Address the Needs of Students Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddis, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    According to a 2007 U.S. Census report, 43% of children in America younger than six are classified as low income (U.S. Census Bureau, 2007). The USDA (2008a, 2009a) indicated 17.1% of school-aged children are classified as overweight; an additional 15% are at risk of becoming overweight; and approximately 17.2 million children are living in…

  17. 46 CFR 39.3001 - Operational requirements for vapor control systems during cargo transfer-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... required by 33 CFR 154.325(d). (b) Vapor from a tank vessel may not be transferred to a vessel that does... overfill alarm complying with 46 CFR 39.2007 or 39.2009(a)(2) is set. (f) A cargo tank should remain sealed... vapor from the vessel to be inerted in accordance with 33 CFR 154.2105, the oxygen content in the...

  18. 46 CFR 39.3001 - Operational requirements for vapor control systems during cargo transfer-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... required by 33 CFR 154.325(d). (b) Vapor from a tank vessel may not be transferred to a vessel that does... overfill alarm complying with 46 CFR 39.2007 or 39.2009(a)(2) is set. (f) A cargo tank should remain sealed... vapor from the vessel to be inerted in accordance with 33 CFR 154.2105, the oxygen content in the...

  19. 8 CFR 1212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pursuant to section 14 of Public Law 99-396, “Omnibus Territories Act” and 8 CFR 212.1(e). (1) As provided in 8 CFR 212.1(e), until November 28, 2009, a visa is not required of an alien who is a citizen of a country enumerated in 8 CFR 212.1(e)(3) who: (i) Is classifiable as a visitor for business or...

  20. Theoretical Claims Necessitate Basic Research: Reply to Gawronski, Lebel, Peters, and Banse (2009) and Nosek and Greenwald (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Houwer, Jan; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah; Spruyt, Adriaan; Moors, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    The authors of this reply article note that B. Gawronski, E. P. LeBel, K. R. Peters, and R. Banse (2009) (a) expressed agreement in their comment with the analysis put forward in the target article (J. De Houwer, S. Teige-Mocigemba, A. Spruyt, & A. Moors, 2009) and (b) pointed to a further implication for the way in which the implicitness of a…

  1. No latest title...

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Blackburn, Marsha [R-TN-7

    2009-01-09

    07/23/2009 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mrs. Blackburn. Petition No: 111-5. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 7/23/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Energy and Commerce from consideration of H.R.391. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-5: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Space Weather in the FY 2009 U.S. Federal Budget Request

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2008-03-01

    U.S. President George W. Bush has requested a total of US$147 billion in federal research and development spending for fiscal year (FY) 2009, a 2.7% increase from the FY 2008 budget enacted by Congress, according to documents released 4 February by the U.S. Office of Science and Technology Policy. Within this budget, space weather and solar studies have a strong focus, government officials indicated.

  3. 8 CFR 1212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pursuant to section 14 of Public Law 99-396, “Omnibus Territories Act” and 8 CFR 212.1(e). (1) As provided in 8 CFR 212.1(e), until November 28, 2009, a visa is not required of an alien who is a citizen of a country enumerated in 8 CFR 212.1(e)(3) who: (i) Is classifiable as a visitor for business or...

  4. Philosophy for the rest of cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Nigel; Chemero, Anthony; Turvey, Michael T

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive science has always included multiple methodologies and theoretical commitments. The philosophy of cognitive science should embrace, or at least acknowledge, this diversity. Bechtel's (2009a) proposed philosophy of cognitive science, however, applies only to representationalist and mechanist cognitive science, ignoring the substantial minority of dynamically oriented cognitive scientists. As an example of nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science, we describe strong anticipation as a model for circadian systems (Stepp & Turvey, 2009). We then propose a philosophy of science appropriate to nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science.

  5. Total dissolved gas and water temperature in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, water year 2009: Quality-assurance data and comparison to water-quality standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Bragg, Heather M.; and Johnston, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    For the eight monitoring stations in water year 2009, a total of 99.2 percent of the TDG data were received in real time by the USGS satellite downlink and were within 1-percent saturation of the expected value on the basis of calibration data, replicate quality-control measurements in the river, and comparison to ambient river conditions at adjacent sites. Data received from the individual stations ranged from 97.0 to 100.0 percent complete.

  6. 8 CFR 1212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pursuant to section 14 of Public Law 99-396, “Omnibus Territories Act” and 8 CFR 212.1(e). (1) As provided in 8 CFR 212.1(e), until November 28, 2009, a visa is not required of an alien who is a citizen of a country enumerated in 8 CFR 212.1(e)(3) who: (i) Is classifiable as a visitor for business or...

  7. To amend the Clean Air Act to provide that greenhouse gases are not subject to the Act, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Blackburn, Marsha [R-TN-7

    2009-01-09

    07/23/2009 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mrs. Blackburn. Petition No: 111-5. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 7/23/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Energy and Commerce from consideration of H.R.391. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-5: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multi-color detection of gravitational arcs (Maturi+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturi, M.; Mizera, S.; Seidel, G.

    2014-05-01

    Gravitational arc candidates identified in the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey (CARS, Erben et al., 2009A&A...493.1197E). The objects have been selected with the arcfinder described in Seidel and Bartelmann (2007A&A...472..341S) and the colour selection criteria introduced by in the paper. The arc images are available at http://www.ita.uni-heidelberg.de/~maturi/Public/arcs/ . (1 data file).

  9. Spectral investigation of nematic liquid crystals with high optical anisotropy at THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodorow, U.; Parka, J.; Garbat, K.; Pałka, N.; Czupryński, K.

    2012-04-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) with high optical anisotropy are very desirable for different applications in devices, such as filters, phase shifters, or phase gratings [T. Göbel, P. Meissner, A. Gaebler, M. Koeberle, S. Mueller, and R. Jakoby, Dual-Frequency Switching Liquid Crystal Based Tunable THz Filter, CLEO, Baltimore, MD, 2009; C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83 (2003), pp. 4497-4499; and C.-J. Lin, C.-H. Lin, Y.-T. Li, R.-P. Pan, and C.-L. Pan, Electrically controlled liquid crystal phase grating for terahertz waves, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21 (2009), pp. 730-732]. We present spectral studies of LCs with large optical anisotropy in the range from 0.3 to 3 THz. Nematic LC mixtures which have Δn > 0.30 for visible frequency range, i.e., 1825 (Δn = 0.42 at 633 nm) were measured. Properties of LC materials like birefringence, absorption coefficients, and refractive indices for ordinary and extraordinary polarization in THz range were obtained. Orientation of LC was done by a high electric field. Measurements were performed using a TDS spectra 3000 spectrometer.

  10. A high-resolution linkage map for the Z chromosome in chicken reveals hot spots for recombination.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, P; Strömstedt, L; Tordoir, X; Foglio, M; Heath, S; Lechner, D; Hellström, A R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Lathrop, M; Gut, I G; Andersson, L

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive linkage map for chicken chromosome Z was constructed as the result of a large-scale screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 308 SNPs were assigned to Z based on the genotype distribution among 182 birds representing several populations. A linkage map comprising 210 markers and spanning 200.9 cM was established by analyzing a small Red junglefowl/White Leghorn intercross. There was excellent agreement between the linkage map for Z and a recently released assembly of the chicken genome (May 2006). Almost all SNPs assigned to chromosome Z in the present study are on Z in the new genome assembly. The remaining 12 loci are all found on unassigned contigs that can now be assigned to Z. The average recombination rate was estimated at 2.7 cM/Mb but there was a very uneven distribution of recombination events with both cold and hot spots of recombination. The existence of one of the major hot spots of recombination, located around position 39.4 Mb, was supported by the observed pattern of linkage disequilibrium. Thirteen markers from unassigned contigs were shown to be located on chromosome W. Three of these contigs included genes that have homologues on chromosome Z. The preliminary assignment of three more genes to the gene-poor W chromosome may be important for studies on the mechanism of sex determination and dosage compensation in birds. PMID:17675841

  11. Parallel continuous simulated tempering and its applications in large-scale molecular simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, Tianwu; Yu, Linglin; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Jianpeng

    2014-07-28

    In this paper, we introduce a parallel continuous simulated tempering (PCST) method for enhanced sampling in studying large complex systems. It mainly inherits the continuous simulated tempering (CST) method in our previous studies [C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194112 (2009); C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244101 (2010)], while adopts the spirit of parallel tempering (PT), or replica exchange method, by employing multiple copies with different temperature distributions. Differing from conventional PT methods, despite the large stride of total temperature range, the PCST method requires very few copies of simulations, typically 2–3 copies, yet it is still capable of maintaining a high rate of exchange between neighboring copies. Furthermore, in PCST method, the size of the system does not dramatically affect the number of copy needed because the exchange rate is independent of total potential energy, thus providing an enormous advantage over conventional PT methods in studying very large systems. The sampling efficiency of PCST was tested in two-dimensional Ising model, Lennard-Jones liquid and all-atom folding simulation of a small globular protein trp-cage in explicit solvent. The results demonstrate that the PCST method significantly improves sampling efficiency compared with other methods and it is particularly effective in simulating systems with long relaxation time or correlation time. We expect the PCST method to be a good alternative to parallel tempering methods in simulating large systems such as phase transition and dynamics of macromolecules in explicit solvent.

  12. Correcting for 3D distortion when using backscattered electron detectors in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Jacob M

    2009-01-01

    A variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VPSEM) can produce a topographic surface relief of a physical object under examination, in addition to its two-dimensional (2D) image. This topographic surface relief is especially helpful when dealing with porous rock because it may elucidate the pore-space structure as well as grain shape and size. Whether the image accurately reproduces the physical object depends on the management of the hardware, acquisition, and postprocessing. Two problems become apparent during testing: (a) a topographic surface relief of a precision ball bearing is distorted and does not correspond to the physical dimensions of the actual sphere and (b) an image of a topographic surface relief of a Berea sandstone is geometrically tilted and topographically distorted even after standard corrections are applied. The procedure presented here is to ensure the veracity of the image, and includes: (a) adjusting the brightness and contrast levels originally provided by the manufacturer and (b) tuning the amplifiers of the backscatter detector plates to be equal to each other, and producing zero voltage when VPSEM is idle. This procedure is tested and verified on the said two physical samples. SCANNING 31: 59-64, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Intercostal Artery Supplying Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Demonstration of a Tumor Feeder by C-arm CT and Multidetector Row CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, In Joon; An, Sangbu; Seong, Nak Jong; Son, Kyu Ri; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2011-02-15

    This study was designed to describe tumor feeders from the intercostal artery supplying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on C-arm CT and multidetector row CT. From March 2008 to May 2009, C-arm CT of the intercostal artery was prospectively performed in 24 HCC patients. Two interventional radiologists, who performed C-arm CT, evaluated tumor feeders on C-arm CT and multidetector row CT scans by consensus. In total, 35 intercostal arteries were examined by C-arm CT. All tumor feeders except one showed a sharp upward turn at or near the costochondral junction. On axial C-arm CT images, all tumor feeders were observed as an enhancing dot in the upper intercostal space along the diaphragm. On multidetector CT scans, 17 tumor feeders were observed and 18 were not. Tumor feeders from the intercostal artery are observed as an enhancing dot along the diaphragm on C-arm CT and can be seen on multidetector row CT in approximately half of patients.

  14. Secretome from mesenchymal stem cells induces angiogenesis via Cyr61.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Rosendo; Li, Na; Sarojini, Harshini; An, Jin; Lee, Menq-Jer; Wang, Eugenia

    2009-06-01

    It is well known that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in wound healing and regeneration responses. In this study, we globally profiled the proteome of MSCs to investigate critical factor(s) that may promote wound healing. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) was found to be abundantly present in MSCs. The presence of Cyr61 was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, we showed that Cyr61 is present in the culture medium (secretome) of MSCs. The secretome of MSCs stimulates angiogenic response in vitro, and neovascularization in vivo. Depletion of Cyr61 completely abrogates the angiogenic-inducing capability of the MSC secretome. Importantly, addition of recombinant Cyr61 polypeptides restores the angiogenic activity of Cyr61-depleted secretome. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Cyr61 polypeptide in MSC secretome contributes to the angiogenesis-promoting activity, a key event needed for regeneration and repair of injured tissues. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 563-571, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Parallel continuous simulated tempering and its applications in large-scale molecular simulations

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Tianwu; Yu, Linglin; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Jianpeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a parallel continuous simulated tempering (PCST) method for enhanced sampling in studying large complex systems. It mainly inherits the continuous simulated tempering (CST) method in our previous studies [C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys.141, 194112 (2009); C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys.141, 244101 (2010)], while adopts the spirit of parallel tempering (PT), or replica exchange method, by employing multiple copies with different temperature distributions. Differing from conventional PT methods, despite the large stride of total temperature range, the PCST method requires very few copies of simulations, typically 2–3 copies, yet it is still capable of maintaining a high rate of exchange between neighboring copies. Furthermore, in PCST method, the size of the system does not dramatically affect the number of copy needed because the exchange rate is independent of total potential energy, thus providing an enormous advantage over conventional PT methods in studying very large systems. The sampling efficiency of PCST was tested in two-dimensional Ising model, Lennard-Jones liquid and all-atom folding simulation of a small globular protein trp-cage in explicit solvent. The results demonstrate that the PCST method significantly improves sampling efficiency compared with other methods and it is particularly effective in simulating systems with long relaxation time or correlation time. We expect the PCST method to be a good alternative to parallel tempering methods in simulating large systems such as phase transition and dynamics of macromolecules in explicit solvent. PMID:25084887

  16. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  17. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of chronic rejection during antiviral therapy for posttransplant recurrent hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Inmaculada; Ulloa, Esperanza; Colina, Francisco; Abradelo, Manuel; Jiménez, Carlos; Gimeno, Alberto; Meneu, Juan Carlos; Lumbreras, Carlos; Solís-Herruzo, José Antonio; Moreno, Enrique

    2009-08-01

    Antiviral therapy for recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplantation has been associated with the development of chronic rejection. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, evolution, and risk factors associated with the development of chronic rejection during posttransplant hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy. Seventy-nine patients with posttransplant recurrent hepatitis C who were treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin were prospectively followed. Liver biopsy was performed before antiviral therapy was initiated and when liver tests worsened during therapy. Pretransplant and posttransplant factors were analyzed as potential risk factors for the development of chronic rejection. Seven of 79 patients (9%) developed chronic rejection during antiviral therapy. The mean time from the start of treatment to the development of chronic rejection was 5.8 months (3-12 months). An analysis of factors associated with the development of chronic rejection showed that the use of cyclosporine as immunosuppression therapy (6 of 19 patients who received cyclosporine developed chronic rejection in comparison with only 1 of 57 patients who received tacrolimus; P = 0.0013), achievement of sustained virological response (P = 0.043), and ribavirin discontinuation (P = 0.027) were associated with the development of chronic rejection. In conclusion, the development of chronic rejection during posttransplant pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy is a severe complication. The use of cyclosporine, ribavirin discontinuation, and viral infection elimination seem to be associated with the development of this complication. Liver Transpl 15:948-955, 2009. (c) 2009 AASLD.

  18. Late rectal complications after prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer: incidence and management.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jack; Swanson, David A; Levy, Lawrence B; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Bruno, Teresa L; Frank, Steven J

    2009-05-01

    This review of the literature on late rectal complications after prostate brachytherapy indicated that it is a highly effective treatment modality for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer but can cause chronic radiation proctitis. The most common manifestation of chronic radiation proctitis was anterior rectal wall bleeding, which often occurred within the first 2 years after brachytherapy. It is interesting to note that the rates of late rectal morbidity appear to have declined over time, which may reflect improvements in implantation techniques and imaging. Rectal biopsy as part of the workup to evaluate rectal bleeding can lead to rectal fistula and the need for colostomy, a rare but major complication. The authors recommend 1) screening colonoscopy before brachytherapy for patients who have not had a screening colonoscopy within the preceding 3 years to rule out colorectal malignancies and, thus, facilitate conservative management should rectal bleeding occur; 2) lifestyle modifications during treatment to limit exposure of the rectum to radiation; and 3) conservative management for rectal bleeding that occurs within 2 years after brachytherapy. Cancer 2009. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  19. Parallel continuous simulated tempering and its applications in large-scale molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Tianwu; Yu, Linglin; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Jianpeng

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a parallel continuous simulated tempering (PCST) method for enhanced sampling in studying large complex systems. It mainly inherits the continuous simulated tempering (CST) method in our previous studies [C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194112 (2009); C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244101 (2010)], while adopts the spirit of parallel tempering (PT), or replica exchange method, by employing multiple copies with different temperature distributions. Differing from conventional PT methods, despite the large stride of total temperature range, the PCST method requires very few copies of simulations, typically 2-3 copies, yet it is still capable of maintaining a high rate of exchange between neighboring copies. Furthermore, in PCST method, the size of the system does not dramatically affect the number of copy needed because the exchange rate is independent of total potential energy, thus providing an enormous advantage over conventional PT methods in studying very large systems. The sampling efficiency of PCST was tested in two-dimensional Ising model, Lennard-Jones liquid and all-atom folding simulation of a small globular protein trp-cage in explicit solvent. The results demonstrate that the PCST method significantly improves sampling efficiency compared with other methods and it is particularly effective in simulating systems with long relaxation time or correlation time. We expect the PCST method to be a good alternative to parallel tempering methods in simulating large systems such as phase transition and dynamics of macromolecules in explicit solvent.

  20. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was