Science.gov

Sample records for 2010-2011 refuge-specific hunting

  1. 76 FR 3937 - 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... fragments from deer carcasses, and other birds can pick up lead shot showered over fields and wetlands by..., or below, 19 feet (5.7 m). 16. We allow only Quota Gun Deer Hunt permit holders on the Farm Unit during the Quota Gun Deer Hunt and only for the purposes of deer hunting. We close the refuge to...

  2. 75 FR 18413 - 2009-2010 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations-Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... refuge-specific hunting and sport fishing regulations when we open wildlife refuges to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, or sport fishing. These regulations list the..., Federal Register , we published a proposed rulemaking identifying changes pertaining to migratory...

  3. 76 FR 56053 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service adds one refuge to the list of areas open for hunting and/or sport fishing and increases the activities available at nine other refuges, along with adopting pertinent refuge-specific regulations on other refuges that pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2011-2012...

  4. 76 FR 59304 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 RIN 1018-AX54 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport... September 9, 2011, revising our regulations concerning hunting and sport fishing programs at national... Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR part 32 concerning hunting and sport fishing programs at national wildlife...

  5. 77 FR 58051 - Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations CFR Correction 0 In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1,...

  6. 77 FR 58050 - Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations CFR Correction Sec. 32.37 0 In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as...

  7. 77 FR 58050 - Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations CFR Correction Sec. 32.29 0 In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, parts 18 to 199, revised as...

  8. 75 FR 56359 - 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... screwed to support a hunter (see Sec. 32.2(i)). 12. We prohibit cutting of holes or other manipulation of... in the combined Black Swamp Wildlife Management Area/ Cache River National Wildlife Refuge...

  9. 77 FR 41001 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the... wildlife refuges to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, or sport fishing... 2012-2013 Hunting/Fishing Season Migratory bird Refuge/region State hunting Upland game hunting...

  10. 78 FR 58753 - 2013-2014 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2013-2014 season. DATES: We will accept comments... migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, or sport fishing. These regulations list... Refuge/region (*) State Migratory bird hunting Upland game hunting Big game hunting Sport fishing...

  11. 77 FR 56027 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the... fishing regulations when we open wildlife refuges to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big... migratory game bird hunting, upland game bird hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing to...

  12. 76 FR 39185 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    .... Sport Fishing. * * * * * * * * 10. The interior ponds and lakes on the Panacea Unit are open year- round... and lakes that anglers access from County Road 372 are open year-round for fishing and boating... refuge. 2. We prohibit hunting in the restricted use area of Crab Orchard Lake and areas posted closed...

  13. National wildlife refuge visitor survey results: 2010/2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Dietsch, Alia M.; Don Carolos, Andrew W.; Miller, Holly M.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Solomon, Adam N.

    2012-01-01

    refuges during 2010/2011 and contain the following information: * Synopsis: Brief summary of the survey results. * Introduction: An overview of the Refuge System and the goals of the national surveying effort. * Methods: The procedures for the national surveying effort, including selecting refuges, developing the survey instrument, contacting visitors, and guidance for interpreting the results. * Survey Results: Key findings from the survey, including: - Visitor and trip characteristics - Visitors opinions about refuges - Visitor opinions about alternative transportation - Visitor opinions about climate change * Conclusion * References Individual results for each of the 53 participating refuges are available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/643/ as part of USGS Data Series 643.

  14. Association of Canadian Community Colleges Annual Report, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1972, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is the national and international voice of Canada's colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cegeps, and university colleges. This Annual Report provides the highlights of the Association's activities for 2010-2011. The auditors' report is also included. [For "Association…

  15. Salaries of School Business Officials, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licciardi, Chris; Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    How much were school business officials paid during school year 2010-2011? How do their salaries compare with those of other administrators, with those of classroom teachers, and with increases in the cost of living? In this article, the authors provide school business officials with information to address these and related questions. The data…

  16. Recruiting Trends, 2010-2011. 40th Anniversary Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2010-2011. This year's report is based on nearly 5,800 respondents, of which approximately 4,600 provided useable information, and 3,714 included complete hiring figures used for the projections. Despite the gloomy national labor market situation, the college segment of the market is poised to rebound…

  17. GPS Amplitude Scintillations over Kampala, Uganda, During 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, Andrew O.; Idolor, Raphael; D'Ujanga, Florence M.; Doherty, Patricia H.

    2016-10-01

    This study characterizes equatorial scintillations at L1/L2 GPS frequency over Kampala (0.30°N, 32.50°E, mag. lat. 9.26°S), Uganda, on different time scales during the minimum and ascending phases of solar cycle 24 (2010-2011). Of all the days investigated, 25 October 2011 recorded the highest occurrence of scintillation, and it was attributed to geomagnetic storm occurrence. We used the data of 25 October to generate plots of the elevation angle and S4 index against local time on a satellite- by-satellite basis, with a view to distinguishing satellites links whose signals were impaired by ionospheric irregularities from those impaired by multipath. Conclusively, GPS amplitude scintillations over Kampala occur predominantly during post sunset hours and decay around midnight. Equinoctial months recorded the highest occurrences of scintillations, while June solstice recorded the least. Scintillation occurrences also increase with solar and geomagnetic activity.

  18. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  19. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  20. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  1. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  2. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  3. Profiles of For-Profit and Nonprofit Education Management Organizations: Thirteenth Annual Report, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Gary; Urschel, Jessica L.; Yat Aguilar, Mayra A.; Dailey, Breanna

    2012-01-01

    While past annual "Profiles" reports have focused on either for-profit EMOs (education management organizations) or nonprofit EMOs, this is the first annual "Profiles" report to cover both categories in a single report which allows for easier comparisons. The 2010-2011 school year marked another year of relatively slow growth in the for-profit…

  4. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "Code of Virginia" (Section 22.1-279.3:1) requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2010-2011,…

  5. Children Entering School Ready to Learn: 2010-2011 Maryland Model for School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The report shares what everyone has learned from the 2010-2011 Maryland Model for School Readiness (MMSR) data about the school readiness of Maryland's children: statewide, by subgroups, and for each of Maryland's 24 local jurisdictions. Some of the highlights are: (1) The percentage of Maryland kindergarteners fully ready to start school…

  6. Schools "as" Communities and "for" Communities: Learning from the 2010-2011 New Zealand Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutch, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The author followed five primary (elementary) schools over three years as they responded to and began to recover from the 2010-2011 earthquakes in and around the city of Christchurch in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. The purpose was to capture the stories for the schools themselves, their communities, and for New Zealand's historical…

  7. Plasmodium vivax malaria-associated acute kidney injury, India, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Kute, Vivek B; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Goswami, Jitendra G; Kanodia, Kamal V

    2012-05-01

    Plasmodium vivax is causing increasingly more cases of severe malaria worldwide. Among 25 cases in India during 2010-2011, associated conditions were renal failure, thrombocytopenia, jaundice, severe anemia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, cerebral malaria, hypoglycemia, and death. Further studies are needed to determine why P. vivax malaria is becoming more severe.

  8. Hunting Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank

    Eleven stories describe traditional practices and true adventures of the Tlingit hunters of Southeast Alaska. The stories are accompanied by learning activities and discussion questions for students and are arranged under the headings of bear, mountain goat and deer, and seal and sea lion. Topics include hunting weapons and strategies, bravery,…

  9. Freshening anomalies in the Indonesian throughflow and impacts on the Leeuwin Current during 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Benthuysen, Jessica; Zhang, Ningning; Slawinski, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    During the 2010-2011 La Niña and Ningaloo Niño, excessive precipitations in the Maritime Continent and Indonesian-Australian Basin caused surface waters to freshen by 0.3 practical salinity unit in the southeast Indian Ocean. The low-salinity anomalies are observed to be carried westward by the Indonesian throughflow and the South Equatorial Current and transmitted into the poleward flowing eastern boundary current, the Leeuwin Current, along the Western Australian coast. Low-salinity anomalies contribute to about 30% of the anomalous increase of the southward Leeuwin Current transport during the evolution of the 2010-2011 Ningaloo Niño, resulting in unprecedented warming off the coast of Western Australia. Episodical freshening of the Leeuwin Current has been observed at the Rottnest coastal reference station of Western Australia during extended La Niña conditions over the past several decades; low-salinity anomalies at the station during the 2010-2011 Ningaloo Niño are comparable with strong historical events.

  10. Emergency department visits for motor vehicle traffic injuries: United States, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Albert, Michael; McCaig, Linda F

    2015-01-01

    Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2010-2011. In 2010-2011, the emergency department (ED) visit rate for motor vehicle traffic injuries was highest among persons aged 16-24 years. The rates declined with age after 16-24, with rates for those aged 0-15 similar to those 65 and over. The overall ED visit rate for motor vehicle traffic injuries was higher among non-Hispanic black persons compared with non-Hispanic white and Hispanic persons. Imaging services were ordered or provided at 70.2% of ED visits for motor vehicle traffic injuries, which was higher than for other injury-related ED visits (55.9%). About one-half of ED visits for motor vehicle traffic injuries had a primary diagnosis of sprains and strains of the neck and back, contusion with intact skin surface, or spinal disorders. In spite of improvements in motor vehicle safety in recent years, motor vehicle crashes remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States (1-3). Motor vehicle-related deaths and injuries also result in substantial economic and societal costs related to medical care and lost productivity (4). This report describes the rates and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits for motor vehicle traffic injuries during 2010-2011 based on nationally representative data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS).

  11. 75 FR 66193 - Post-9/11 GI Bill 2010-2011 Tuition and Fee In-State Maximums

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... AFFAIRS Post-9/11 GI Bill 2010-2011 Tuition and Fee In-State Maximums AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to advise the public of the Post-9/11 GI Bill tuition and fee in-State maximum rates for the 2010- 2011 academic year. The Post-9/11...

  12. French 2010-2011 measles outbreak in adults: report from a Parisian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Caseris, M; Houhou, N; Longuet, P; Rioux, C; Lepeule, R; Choquet, C; Yazdanpanah, Y; Yeni, P; Joly, V

    2014-04-01

    We reviewed 80 adult cases of measles seen in a Parisian hospital during the French 2010-2011 outbreak. Fifty per cent had at least one complication: pneumonia and hepatitis were the most frequent. Forty per cent of hospitalized cases did not have any complications, suggesting clinically poor tolerance of measles in adults. The outcome was always favourable. Subjects were younger, were more often French nationals and had a higher socio-economic status than the overall population. This report suggests that immunity resulting from natural disease in patients from an area where the disease is endemic is protective in the long term.

  13. Response and recovery lessons from the 2010-2011 earthquake sequence in Canterbury, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierepiekarz, Mark; Johnston, David; Berryman, Kelvin; Hare, John; Gomberg, Joan S.; Williams, Robert A.; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts and opportunities that result when low-probability moderate earthquakes strike an urban area similar to many throughout the US were vividly conveyed in a one-day workshop in which social and Earth scientists, public officials, engineers, and an emergency manager shared their experiences of the earthquake sequence that struck the city of Christchurch and surrounding Canterbury region of New Zealand in 2010-2011. Without question, the earthquake sequence has had unprecedented impacts in all spheres on New Zealand society, locally to nationally--10% of the country's population was directly impacted and losses total 8-10% of their GDP. The following paragraphs present a few lessons from Christchurch.

  14. An evaluation of dental information sessions provided to childcare educators in NSW in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Noller, Jennifer M

    2013-12-01

    Childcare services provide ideal settings to promote good oral health and help reduce tooth decay in young children. This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the dental information session component of the NSW Little Smiles Program provided by public oral health service professionals to childcare educators in NSW in 2010-2011. The evaluation sought to determine if a face-to-face information session provided to childcare educators by oral health professionals: (i) can improve the confidence of childcare educators to reach national quality standards that relate to oral health; and (ii) is an appropriate model to use. In 2010-2011, 163 dental information sessions were provided to 1716 participants from over 526 childcare centres across NSW. Results showed that a dental information session can improve the confidence of childcare educators to assist their service to reach the required national quality standards for oral hygiene and diet-related oral health issues. Further evaluation is required to determine if oral health can be embedded in the daily practice of childcare services and other options need to be explored to deliver the sessions in a more cost-effective way.

  15. Impact of the 2010-2011 la NIÑA Phenomenon in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ortiz, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The 2010-2011 ENSO phenomenon affected four million Colombians, ˜9% of the total population, and caused economic losses of approximately US $7.8 billion. We analyzed the spatial patterns of effects on the population, using global (Moran's I index) and local (LISA) spatial autocorrelation indicators, and multiple regression analyses (OLS and ML spatial error model). The spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed two regional clusters in the lower Magdalena River Valley (Caribbean plains) and lower Atrato Valley (Pacific lowlands). The regression analyses showed the importance of the spatial component as well as the variables related to hazard exposure and social vulnerability. Municipalities in regional clusters show: (1) a high degree of flooding, as they are located on the Magdalena and Atrato River floodplains, and (2) high social vulnerability, suggested by low values of the ICV (national living conditions index).

  16. Analysis Of Lapan-Tubsat Anomaly During Periode Of 2010-2011 Using SIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neflia, Neflia; Ahmad, Nizam

    2016-07-01

    LAPAN-TUBSAT is the first Indonesia micro-satellite that was launched on January 10, 2007. During periode of 2010 -2011, LAPAN-TUBSAT was reported experienced anomaly called single event latch up (SEL). The anomaly events is believed correlated with the particle distribution in the space during the anomaly. Using SIAS (Satellite Anomaly Information System), we tried to locate the satellite position during the anomaly time and analyze the possible source of the anomaly. During these periode of times, there were 84 cases of anomaly. 20 cases occured in south pole, 21 cases in north pole, 4 cases in SAA, 16 case in Atlantic ocean, 4 cases in hindia ocean and 20 cases in other locations. About 43 cases of these anomaly occured during quite high particle flux distribution. This result showed that particle fluxes is not the only cause of anomaly. Further analyze needed to find the other causes of anomaly.

  17. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-08-09

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women's rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31-49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18-15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts.

  18. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women’s rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31–49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18–15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts. PMID:27517954

  19. Lightning activity in Saturn's Great White Spot of 2010/2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Georg; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Pagaran, Joseph A.

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation we will summarize the main findings about Saturn's Great White Spot of 2010/2011 gained by analyzing data from the Cassini RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science) instrument in combination with images from the Cassini cameras. Great White Spots (GWS) are planetary-scale disturbances in Saturn's atmosphere that usually happen once per Saturn year (29.5 Earth years). The last GWS of 2010/2011 occurred earlier than expected, and the Cassini RPWS instrument measured radio emissions caused by lightning discharges thereby identifying the GWS as a giant thunderstorm. Lightning radio emissions were measured for almost 9 months, from 5 December 2010 until 28 August 2011, with typical flash rates of more than 10 per second. Many images of the GWS were taken with the Cassini ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and by Earth-based telescopes which captured the storm's birth, evolution and demise. The GWS developed an elongated eastward tail due to Saturn's zonal winds, and this tail wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. RPWS data indicated that the storm's head was the main center of lightning activity, but the region of active thunderstorm cells also extented eastward into the tail. This was confirmed by the first optical observation of lightning flashes on Saturn's dayside located eastward of the head. The head region periodically spawned anticyclonic vortices, and the optical flashes appeared in the cyclonic gaps between them where the atmosphere looked clear down to the level of deep clouds. The largest anticyclonic vortex in the tail drifted with a rate that was 2 deg/day slower than the head. Hence, after about half a year one caught up with the other, and it came to a head-vortex collision in mid-June 2011. This led to a significant decrease of lightning and convective activity, which became intermittent and finally ended in late August 2011.

  20. The Scientist Scavenger Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphew, Valerie N.; Key, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Using a well-planned scavenger hunt, students' awareness of the significance of minorities and women in science is enhanced. Provides a sample scavenger hunt and resource list as well as activities for extension. (ZWH)

  1. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus) occurs when a shingles outbreak affects the facial nerve near one of your ears. In addition to the painful shingles rash, Ramsay Hunt syndrome can cause facial paralysis ...

  2. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  3. Puzzles and Hunts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissblum, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    A company designs and delivers treasure and scavenger hunts for corporate and institutional clients. Groups are divided into teams that must solve puzzles for directions or clues. The hunts build creativity, teamwork, communication skills, and an appreciation of others' strengths. An insert includes a four-puzzle mini-treasure hunt. (TD)

  4. Iron deficiency increases blood cadmium levels in adolescents surveyed in KNHANES 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Suk Hwan; Kim, Nam-Soo; Ham, Jung-O; Kim, Yangho

    2014-06-01

    Discrepancies have been reported in the relationships between iron and cadmium concentrations. The distribution of blood cadmium concentrations was assessed in a representative sample of Korean adolescents participating in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2011, and the association between blood cadmium and iron concentrations was determined. This study was based on data from KNHANES, in which a rolling sampling design was used to perform a complex, stratified, multistage probability cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Serum ferritin was categorized as low (<15.0 μg/L), low normal (15.0-<30.0 μg/L for girls, 15.0-<50.0 μg/L for boys), or normal (≥30.0 μg/L for girls, ≥50.0 μg/L for boys), and the association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium concentrations was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. The geometric mean (GM) of blood cadmium was significantly higher among both boys and girls in the low than in the normal ferritin group. After controlling for covariates, multiple regression analysis showed that blood cadmium concentration was inversely correlated with serum ferritin concentration in both boys and girls. In conclusion, iron deficiency is associated with increased blood cadmium concentrations in a representative sample of Korean adolescents, as evaluated in KNHANES.

  5. Multi-scale auroral observations in Apatity: winter 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelov, B. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Borovkov, L. P.; Yurov, V. E.

    2012-03-01

    Routine observations of the aurora are conducted in Apatity by a set of five cameras: (i) all-sky TV camera Watec WAT-902K (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon lens YV2.2 × 1.4A-SA2; (ii) two monochromatic cameras Guppy F-044B NIR (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon HF25HA-1B (1:1.4/25 mm) lens for 18° field of view and glass filter 558 nm; (iii) two color cameras Guppy F-044C NIR (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon DF6HA-1B (1:1.2/6 mm) lens for 67° field of view. The observational complex is aimed at investigating spatial structure of the aurora, its scaling properties, and vertical distribution in the rayed forms. The cameras were installed on the main building of the Apatity division of the Polar Geophysical Institute and at the Apatity stratospheric range. The distance between these sites is nearly 4 km, so the identical monochromatic cameras can be used as a stereoscopic system. All cameras are accessible and operated remotely via Internet. For 2010-2011 winter season the equipment was upgraded by special blocks of GPS-time triggering, temperature control and motorized pan-tilt rotation mounts. This paper presents the equipment, samples of observed events and the web-site with access to available data previews.

  6. Multi-scale auroral observations in Apatity: winter 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelov, B. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Borovkov, L. P.; Yurov, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    Routine observations of the aurora are conducted in Apatity by a set of five cameras: (i) all-sky TV camera Watec WAT-902K (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon lens YV2.2 × 1.4A-SA2; (ii) two monochromatic cameras Guppy F-044B NIR (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon HF25HA-1B (1:1.4/25 mm) lens for 18° field of view and glass filter 558 nm; (iii) two color cameras Guppy F-044C NIR (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon DF6HA-1B (1:1.2/6 mm) lens for 67° field of view. The observational complex is aimed at investigating spatial structure of the aurora, its scaling properties, and vertical distribution in the rayed forms. The cameras were installed on the main building of the Apatity division of the Polar Geophysical Institute and at the Apatity stratospheric range. The distance between these sites is nearly 4 km, so the identical monochromatic cameras can be used as a stereoscopic system. All cameras are accessible and operated remotely via Internet. For 2010-2011 winter season the equipment was upgraded by special blocks of GPS-time triggering, temperature control and motorized pan-tilt rotation mounts. This paper presents the equipment, samples of observed events and the web-site with access to available data previews.

  7. 76 FR 46282 - Gainful Employment Reporting Date for the 2010-2011 Award Year and Continued Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Gainful Employment Reporting Date for the 2010-2011 Award Year and Continued Collection of Gainful Employment Information for Prior Award Years AGENCY: Federal Student Aid, Department of Education....

  8. The Vestiges of Brown: An Analysis of the Placements of African American Principals in Florida Public Schools (2010-2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Leo, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the relationship between a school's percentage of African American students enrolled and the placement of an African American principal for all of Florida's K-12 traditional public schools during the academic year 2010-2011. This study also sought to determine if this relationship was moderated…

  9. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): the 2010-2011 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, R.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Serrano, I.; Villaseñor, A.; Galeano, J.

    2012-04-01

    As an example of the recent advances introduced in seismic monitoring of Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) during recent years, we describe the instrumental network deployed during the 2010-2011 survey by the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR). The period of operation extended from December 19, 2010 to March 5, 2011. We deployed a wireless seismic network composed by four three-component seismic stations. These stations are based on 24-bit SL04 SARA dataloggers sampling at 100 sps. They use a PC with embedded linux and SEISLOG data acquisition software. We use two types of three-component seismometers: short-period Mark L4C with natural frequency of 1 Hz and medium-period Lennartz3D/5s with natural frequency of 0.2 Hz. The network was designed for an optimum spatial coverage of the northern half of Deception, where a magma chamber has been reported. Station locations include the vicinity of the Spanish base "Gabriel de Castilla" (GdC), Obsidianas Beach, a zone near the craters from the 1970 eruptions, and the Chilean Shelter located south of Pendulum Cove. Continuous data from the local seismic network are received in real-time in the base by wifi transmission. We used Ubiquiti Networks Nanostation2 antennas with 2.4 GHz, dual-polarity, 10 dBi gain, and 54 Mbps transmission rate. They have shown a great robustness and speed for real-time applications. To prioritize data acquisition when the battery level is low, we have designed a circuit that allows independent power management for the seismic station and wireless transmission system. The reception antenna located at GdC is connected to a computer running SEISCOMP. This software supports several transmission protocols and manages the visualization and recording of seismic data, including the generation of summary plots to show the seismic activity. These twelve data channels are stored in miniseed format and displayed in real time, which allows for a rapid evaluation of

  10. After the flood: consistency in DOM response to the 2010/2011 Australian floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutova, Y.; Baker, A.; Bridgeman, J.; Henderson, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010/2011 floods in Eastern Australia were one of the worst on record, causing more than one billion AUD of damages and killing 35 people. This field campaign, monitoring raw water DOM concentration and character on three contrasting rivers across the region captured the late recession curve (October 2011- September 2012). DOM was characterized using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra with PARAFAC analysis; δ 13C-DOC; and molecular size using liquid chromatography with organic carbon, UV254 and nitrogen detection (LC-OCD) to identify DOC fractions: biopolymers, humic substance (HS), building blocks (BB), low molecular weight acids, and low molecular weight neutrals. Despite the difference in catchment and climatic zones, similar trends were observed in all three rivers, where DOC concentrations gradually decreased in river streams over a year from 8-11 mgCL-1 to 3-4 mgCL-1, followed by similar changes of HS, BB and fluorescent terrestrially delivered DOM components (C1-C3). In Allyn and Patterson rivers the proportion of HS, fluorescent terrestrially delivered DOM components (C1, C2) in DOC have decreased, in contrast to Logan River, where the ratio of HS/DOC was highly variable and showed no particular trends. The proportion of other DOC components remained almost the same. Molecular weight of the HS declined from 700 gmol-1 to 610 gmol-1 in all sites. δ 13C-DOC increased during monitoring, this could be linked to general decrease of DOM proportion delivered from C4 type plants after the flood. Overall, although DOC concentration decreased over the year post flood at all sites, most importantly the composition of DOM changed, with major changes occurring in proportion of humic-like and fluorescent terrestrially delivered DOM. Therefore it is important to monitor DOM character to be able to assess the impact of climate change and extreme weather events on the DOM transport and transformation.

  11. Reflections on Communicating Science during the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence of 2010-2011, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wein, A. M.; Berryman, K. R.; Jolly, G. E.; Brackley, H. L.; Gledhill, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence began with the 4th September 2010 Darfield earthquake (Mw 7.1). Perhaps because there were no deaths, the mood of the city and the government was that high standards of earthquake engineering in New Zealand protected us, and there was a confident attitude to response and recovery. The demand for science and engineering information was of interest but not seen as crucial to policy, business or the public. The 22nd February 2011 Christchurch earthquake (Mw 6.2) changed all that; there was a significant death toll and many injuries. There was widespread collapse of older unreinforced and two relatively modern multi-storey buildings, and major disruption to infrastructure. The contrast in the interest and relevance of the science could not have been greater compared to 5 months previously. Magnitude 5+ aftershocks over a 20 month period resulted in confusion, stress, an inability to define a recovery trajectory, major concerns about whether insurers and reinsurers would continue to provide cover, very high levels of media interest from New Zealand and around the world, and high levels of political risk. As the aftershocks continued there was widespread speculation as to what the future held. During the sequence, the science and engineering sector sought to coordinate and offer timely and integrated advice. However, other than GeoNet, the national geophysical monitoring network, there were few resources devoted to communication, with the result that it was almost always reactive. With hindsight we have identified the need to resource information gathering and synthesis, execute strategic assessments of stakeholder needs, undertake proactive communication, and develop specific information packages for the diversity of users. Overall this means substantially increased resources. Planning is now underway for the science sector to adopt the New Zealand standardised CIMS (Coordinated Incident Management System) structure for

  12. 2010-2011 Performance of the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasch, A. N.; DeWinter, J. L.; Haderman, M. D.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Szykman, J.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Zahn, P. H.; Dye, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program provides maps of real time hourly Air Quality Index (AQI) conditions and daily AQI forecasts nationwide (http://www.airnow.gov). The public uses these maps to make health-based decisions. The usefulness of the AirNow air quality maps depends on the accuracy and spatial coverage of air quality measurements. Currently, the maps use only ground-based measurements, which have significant gaps in coverage in some parts of the United States. As a result, contoured AQI levels have high uncertainty in regions far from monitors. To improve the usefulness of air quality maps, scientists at EPA, Dalhousie University, and Sonoma Technology, Inc. have been working in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to incorporate satellite-estimated surface PM2.5 concentrations into the maps via the AirNow Satellite Data Processor (ASDP). These satellite estimates are derived using NASA/NOAA satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals and GEOS-Chem modeled ratios of surface PM2.5 concentrations to AOD. GEOS-Chem is a three-dimensional chemical transport model for atmospheric composition driven by meteorological input from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GOES). The ASDP can fuse multiple PM2.5 concentration data sets to generate AQI maps with improved spatial coverage. The goal of ASDP is to provide more detailed AQI information in monitor-sparse locations and augment monitor-dense locations with more information. We will present a statistical analysis for 2010-2011 of the ASDP predictions of PM2.5 focusing on performance at validation sites. In addition, we will present several case studies evaluating the ASDP's performance for multiple regions and seasons, focusing specifically on days when large spatial gradients in AQI and wildfire smoke impact were observed.

  13. Bedbug complaints among public housing residents-New York City, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Gounder, Prabhu; Ralph, Nancy; Maroko, Andrew; Thorpe, Lorna

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated population-level risk factors for having a bedbug infestation. We describe characteristics associated with bedbug complaints among New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) residents. Unique households receiving bedbug extermination services in response to a complaint during January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011 were identified from NYCHA's central facilities work order database. We examined associations between household characteristics and having a bedbug complaint using a generalized estimating equation Poisson regression model, accounting for clustering by housing development. Of the 176,327 NYCHA households, 11,660 (6.6 %) registered a bedbug complaint during 2010-2011. Bedbug complaints were independently associated with households having five or more children versus no children (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.0), five or more adults versus one adult (PR = 1.6), a head of household (HOH) with impaired mobility (PR = 1.3), a household member receiving public assistance (PR = 1.2), a household income below poverty level (PR = 1.1), and a female HOH (PR = 1.1). Infestations were less likely to be reported by households with employed members (PR = 0.9), and an HOH aged 30-44 years (PR = 0.9) or 45-61 years (PR = 0.9), compared with an HOH aged 18-29 years. These results indicate that bedbug control efforts in public housing should be targeted toward households with low income and high occupancy.

  14. MRSA and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. retail meats, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beilei; Mukherjee, Sampa; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Davis, Johnnie A; Tran, Thu Thuy T; Yang, Qianru; Abbott, Jason W; Ayers, Sherry L; Young, Shenia R; Crarey, Emily T; Womack, Niketta A; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been detected in retail meats, although large-scale studies are scarce. We conducted a one-year survey in 2010-2011 within the framework of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Among 3520 retail meats collected from eight U.S. states, 982 (27.9%) contained S. aureus and 66 (1.9%) were positive for MRSA. Approximately 10.4% (107/1032) of S. aureus isolates, including 37.2% (29/78) of MRSA, were multidrug-resistant (MDRSA). Turkey had the highest MRSA prevalence (3.5%), followed by pork (1.9%), beef (1.7%), and chicken (0.3%). Whole-genome sequencing was performed for all 66 non-redundant MRSA. Among five multilocus sequence types identified, ST8 (72.7%) and ST5 (22.7%) were most common and livestock-associated MRSA ST398 was assigned to one pork isolate. Eleven spa types were represented, predominately t008 (43.9%) and t2031 (22.7%). All four types of meats harbored t008, whereas t2031 was recovered from turkey only. The majority of MRSA (84.8%) possessed SCCmec IV and 62.1% harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that all ST8 MRSA belonged to the predominant human epidemic clone USA300, and others included USA100 and USA200. We conclude that a diverse MRSA population was present in U.S. retail meats, albeit at low prevalence.

  15. Convection in the Greenland Sea in winter 2010-2011: Comparison between model and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nummelin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Dense water formation and the associated deep convection feeding the meridional overturning circulation is one crucial component in the earth's climate system. Furthermore, since convection is a sub-grid scale process in ocean and climate models, it needs to be parametrized. Although a number of different turbulence parametrization have been introduced trough the years these are rarely developed for deep convection. Traditionally convection in the Greenland Sea has been considered to be an important contributor to the Greenland-Scotland Ridge overflow waters, which form the main part of the abyssal limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. However, this view has changed and presently there are indications that it is of minor importance. Two possible forms of convection have been identified in the Greenland Sea, plume convection and mixed layer deepening. Plume convection occurs if the initial stratification, cold upper layer, allows the thermobaric effect to become important. The convection is, however, driven by extensive buoyancy loss and all the other forcing mechanisms are secondary. This study uses observations from three Argo buoys and results from 1-D turbulence model (GOTM) runs to examine the convection in the Greenland Sea during the winter 2010-2011. Two different modelling approaches are tested. The first approach follows the float paths (Lagrangian approach) while the second stays at one (median) position (Eulerian approach). The model is forced with NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim surface fluxes. The resulting convection is in agreement with the mixed layer deepening scenario. Furthermore, all the traditional second order turbulence closures are found to perform relatively well in these conditions, most likely because non-local fluxes and thermobaric effects were insignificant. The different atmospheric forcings introduce most of the uncertainties, while the Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches are found to produce rather similar results.

  16. Polar Stratospheric Cloud formation and denitrification during the Arctic winter 2009/2010 and 2010/2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosrawi, Farahnaz; Urban, Joachim; Pitts, Michael C.; Kirner, Oliver; Braesicke, Peter; Santee, Michelle L.; Manney, Gloria L.; Murtagh, Donal

    2015-04-01

    The sedimentation of HNO3 containing polar stratospheric cloud particles leads to a permanent removal of HNO3 from the stratosphere. The so-called denitrification is an effect that plays an important role in stratospheric ozone depletion. The Arctic winter 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 were both quite unique. The Arctic winter 2010/2011 was one of the coldest winters on record leading to the strongest depletion of ozone measured in the Arctic. Though the Arctic winter 2009/2010 was rather warm in the climatological sense it was distinguished by an exceptionally cold stratosphere from mid December 2009 to mid January 2010 leading to prolonged PSC formation and significant denitrification. Model simulations and space-borne observations are used to investigate PSC formation and denitrification during these two winters. Model simulations were performed with the atmospheric chemistry-climate model ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) and compared to observations by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations Satellite (CALIPSO) and the Odin Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (Odin/SMR) as well as with observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder on Aura (Aura/MLS). While PSCs were present during the Arctic winter 2010/2011 over nearly four months, from mid December to end of March, they were not as persistent as the ones that occurred during the shorter (one month) cold period during the Arctic winter 2009/2010. Although the PSC season during the Arctic winter 2009/2010 was much shorter than in 2010/2011, denitrification during the Arctic winter 2009/2010 was similar in magnitude than during 2010/2011.

  17. Snow Depth with GPS: Case Study from Minnesota 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, A. L.; Slater, A. G.; Larson, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    Although originally designed to enable accurate positioning and time transfer, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has also proved useful for remote sensing applications. In this study, GPS signals are used to measure snow depth via GPS interferometric reflectometry (GPS-IR). In GPS-IR, a GPS antenna receives the desired direct signal as well as an indirect signal which reflects off of the ground or snow surface. These two signals interfere, and the composite signal recorded by the GPS receiver can be post-processed to yield the distance between the antenna and the reflecting surface, that is, distance to the snow surface. We present the results of a new snow depth product for the state of Minnesota over the winter of 2010-2011. Although single-station examples of GPS snow depth measurements can be found in the literature, this is one of the first studies to compute GPS snow depth over a large regional-scale network. We chose Minnesota because the state Department of Transportation runs a network of continuously operating reference stations (CORS) with many desired characteristics: freely available data, good GPS station distribution with good proximity to COOP weather stations, GPS stations located adjacent to farm fields with few sky obstructions, and receiver models known to have sufficient data quality for GPS-IR. GPS-IR with CORS has many advantages over traditional snow depth measurements. First, because we leverage existing CORS, no new equipment installations are required and data are freely available via the Internet. Second, GPS-IR with CORS measures a large area, approximately 100 m2 around the station and 20 m2 per satellite. We present snow depth results for over 30 GPS stations distributed across the state. We compare the GPS-IR snow depth product to COOP observations and SNODAS modeled estimates. GPS-IR snow depth is one of the few independent data sources available for assessment of SNODAS. Ideally snow depth via GPS-IR will be available for

  18. Botanical Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Livingston, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…

  19. Hunting for Ecological Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Joel B.; Greenwood, David A.; Ryan, Jessica L.; Greenwood, Eli A.

    2013-01-01

    Considering (a) the many potential connections between hunting, culture, and environmental thought, (b) how much hunters have contributed to the conservation movement and to the protection of a viable land base, and (c) renewed interest in hunting as part of the wider movement toward eating local, non-industrialized food, we seek to bring hunting…

  20. National wildlife refuge visitor survey 2010/2011: Individual refuge results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Dietsch, Alia M.; Don Carlos, Andrew W.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Solomon, Adam N.; Miller, Holly M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System (Refuge System), established in 1903 and managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), is the leading network of protected lands and waters in the world dedicated to the conservation of fish, wildlife and their habitats. There are 556 national wildlife refuges and 38 wetland management districts nationwide, encompassing more than 150 million acres. The Refuge System attracts more than 45 million visitors annually, including 25 million people per year to observe and photograph wildlife, over 9 million to hunt and fish, and more than 10 million to participate in educational and interpretation programs. Understanding visitors and characterizing their experiences on national wildlife refuges are critical elements of managing these lands and meeting the goals of the Refuge System. The Service collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on national wildlife refuges. The survey was conducted to better understand visitor needs and experiences and to design programs and facilities that respond to those needs. The survey results will inform Service performance planning, budget, and communications goals. Results will also inform Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCPs), Visitor Services, and Transportation Planning processes. This data series consists of 53 separate data files. Each file describes the results of the survey for an individual refuge and contains the following information: * Introduction: An overview of the Refuge System and the goals of the national surveying effort. * Methods: The procedures for the national surveying effort, including selecting refuges, developing the survey instrument, contacting visitors, and guidance for interpreting the results. * Refuge Description: A brief description of the refuge location, acreage, purpose, recreational activities, and visitation statistics, including a map (where available) and refuge website link

  1. The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence: Environmental effects, seismic triggering thresholds and geologic legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Mark C.; Hughes, Matthew W.; Bradley, Brendon A.; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Reid, Catherine; Morgenroth, Justin; Horton, Travis; Duffy, Brendan; Pettinga, Jarg R.

    2016-03-01

    Seismic shaking and tectonic deformation during strong earthquakes can trigger widespread environmental effects. The severity and extent of a given effect relates to the characteristics of the causative earthquake and the intrinsic properties of the affected media. Documentation of earthquake environmental effects in well-instrumented, historical earthquakes can enable seismologic triggering thresholds to be estimated across a spectrum of geologic, topographic and hydrologic site conditions, and implemented into seismic hazard assessments, geotechnical engineering designs, palaeoseismic interpretations, and forecasts of the impacts of future earthquakes. The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES), including the moment magnitude (Mw) 7.1 Darfield earthquake and Mw 6.2, 6.0, 5.9, and 5.8 aftershocks, occurred on a suite of previously unidentified, primarily blind, active faults in the eastern South Island of New Zealand. The CES is one of Earth's best recorded historical earthquake sequences. The location of the CES proximal to and beneath a major urban centre enabled rapid and detailed collection of vast amounts of field, geospatial, geotechnical, hydrologic, biologic, and seismologic data, and allowed incremental and cumulative environmental responses to seismic forcing to be documented throughout a protracted earthquake sequence. The CES caused multiple instances of tectonic surface deformation (≥ 3 events), surface manifestations of liquefaction (≥ 11 events), lateral spreading (≥ 6 events), rockfall (≥ 6 events), cliff collapse (≥ 3 events), subsidence (≥ 4 events), and hydrological (10s of events) and biological shifts (≥ 3 events). The terrestrial area affected by strong shaking (e.g. peak ground acceleration (PGA) ≥ 0.1-0.3 g), and the maximum distances between earthquake rupture and environmental response (Rrup), both generally increased with increased earthquake Mw, but were also influenced by earthquake location and source

  2. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza hospitalizations in Navarre, Spain, 2010-2011: cohort and case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jesús; Martínez-Artola, Víctor; Salcedo, Esther; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Cenoz, Manuel García; Guevara, Marcela; Alvarez, Nerea; Irisarri, Fátima; Morán, Julio; Barricarte, Aurelio

    2012-01-05

    We evaluated the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations. Using healthcare databases we defined the target population for vaccination in Navarre, Spain, consisting of 217,320 people with major chronic conditions or aged 60 years and older. All hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) were swabbed for influenza testing. A total of 269 patients with ILI were hospitalized and 61 of them were found positive for influenza virus: 58 for A(H1N1)2009 and 3 for B virus. The incidence rates of hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were compared by vaccination status. In the Cox regression model adjusted for sex, age, children in the household, urban/rural residence, comorbidity, pandemic vaccination, pneumococcal vaccination, outpatient visits and hospitalization in the previous year, the seasonal vaccine effectiveness was 58% (95% CI: 16-79%). The nested test-negative case-control analysis gave an adjusted estimate of 59% (95% CI: 4-83%). These results suggest a moderate effect of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing hospitalization in a risk population. The close estimates obtained in the cohort and the test-negative case-control analyses suggest good control of biases.

  3. Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil and Curlyleaf Pondweed in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, Montana: Herbicide Small-Plot Evaluations, 2010-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Rapids Reservoir, Montana Herbicide Small-Plot Evaluations, 2010-2011 En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at or y Kurt D. Getsinger, John G. Skogerboe... Herbicide Small-Plot Evaluations, 2010-2011 Kurt D. Getsinger and John G. Skogerboe Environmental Laboratory US Army Engineer Research and Development...evaluate the effectiveness of aquatic herbicides to selectively control the invasive plants. The herbicide endothall (Aquathol® K) was applied to

  4. Wildlife management: Managing the hunt versus the hunting experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitt, William E.; McDonald, Cary D.; Noe, Francis P.

    1989-07-01

    Deer hunter satisfaction is investigated from two perspectives, (1) satisfaction with the hunt/harvest and (2) satisfaction with the overall hunting trip experience. Regression analysis is used to determine what variables best predict satisfaction with the hunt and the hunting experience. Results indicate that animal population variables (number of deer seen, shot at, bagged) are the best determinants of a quality deer hunt, while environmental (outdoors) and social (crowding and hunter behavior) are the best predictors of a quality hunting trip experience. Wildlife managers and researchers need to realize that deer hunters view the hunt/harvest as different from the hunting trip experience and need to manage for both aspects of hunter satisfaction.

  5. Mathenger Hunt: Mathematics Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falba, Christy J.; Weiss, Maria J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity which shows how mathematics is used in real life and helps to establish a need for mathematics in students' futures. Adapted from a scavenger-hunt idea, this activity helps students to discover that almost every career makes use of mathematics. (KR)

  6. A Geospatial Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Adriana E.; Williams, Nikki A.; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Morris, Jennifer N.; Berhane, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of technology such as Global Positioning System (GPS) units and Google Earth for a simple-machine scavenger hunt, you will transform a standard identification activity into an exciting learning experience that motivates students, incorporates practical skills in technology, and enhances students' spatial-thinking skills. In the…

  7. A Geometric Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Julie; Marshall, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Children possess a genuine curiosity for exploring the natural world around them. One third grade teacher capitalized on this inherent trait by leading her students on "A Geometric Scavenger Hunt." The four-lesson inquiry investigation described in this article integrates mathematics and science. Among the students' discoveries was the fact that…

  8. Modelling and estimation of HIV prevalence and number of people living with HIV in India, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Raj, Yujwal; Sahu, Damodar; Pandey, Arvind; Venkatesh, S; Reddy, Dcs; Bakkali, Taoufik; Das, Chinmoyee; Singh, Kh Jitenkumar; Kant, Shashi; Bhattacharya, M; Stover, John; Jha, Ugra Mohan; Kumar, Pradeep; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Chandra, Nalini; Gulati, B K; Mathur, Sharad; Joshi, Deepika; Chavan, L

    2016-12-01

    This paper provides HIV estimation methodology used in India and key HIV estimates for 2010-2011. We used a modified version of the Spectrum tool that included an Estimation and Projection Package as part of its AIDS Impact Module. Inputs related to population size, age-specific pattern of fertility, gender-ratio at birth, age and gender-specific pattern of mortality, and volume and age-gender distribution of net migration were derived from census records, the Sample Registration System and large-scale demographic health surveys. Epidemiological and programmatic data were derived from HIV sentinel surveillance, large-scale epidemiological surveys and the programme management information system. Estimated adult HIV prevalence retained a declining trend in India, following its peak in 2002 at a level of 0.41% (within bounds 0.35-0.47%). By 2010 and 2011, it levelled at estimates of 0.28% (0.24-0.34%) and 0.27% (0.22-0.33%), respectively. The estimated number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) reduced by 8% between 2007 and 2011. While children accounted for approximately 6.3% of total HIV infections in 2007, this proportion increased to about 7% in 2011. With changing priorities and epidemic patterns, the programme has to customise its strategies to effectively address the emerging vulnerabilities and adapt them to suit the requirements of different geographical regions.

  9. Climate Variability Drives Plankton Community Composition Changes: the 2010-2011 El Nino to La Nina Transition Around Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Peter A.; Bonham, Pru; Thomson, Paul; Rochester, Wayne; Doblin, Martina A.; Waite, Anya M.; Richardson, Anthony; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2015-01-01

    The strong La Nina of 2010-2011 provided an opportunity to investigate the ecological impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on coastal plankton communities using the nine national reference stations around Australia. Based on remote sensing and across the entire Australian region 2011 (La Nina) was only modestly different from 2010 (El Nino) with the average temperature declining 0.2 percent surface chlorophyll a up 3 percent and modelled primary production down 14 percent. Other changes included a poleward shift in Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Along the east coast, there was a reduction in salinity, increase in nutrients, Chlorophytes and Prasinophytes (taxa with chlorophyll b, neoxanthin and prasinoxanthin). The southwest region had a rise in the proportion of 19-hexoyloxyfucoxanthin; possibly coccolithophorids in eddies of the Leeuwin Current and along the sub-tropical front. Pennate diatoms increased, Ceratium spp. decreased and Scrippsiella spp. increased in 2011. Zooplankton biomass declined significantly in 2011. There was a reduction in the abundance of Calocalanus pavo and Temora turbinata and increases in Clausocalanus farrani, Oncaea scottodicarloi and Macrosetella gracilis in 2011. The changes in the plankton community during the strong La Nina of 2011 suggest that this climatic oscillation exacerbates the tropicalization of Australia.

  10. The rise and fall of the "marine heat wave" off Western Australia during the summer of 2010/2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Alan F.; Feng, Ming

    2013-02-01

    Record high ocean temperatures were experienced along the Western Australian coast during the austral summer of 2010/2011. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in February 2011 peaked at 3 °C above the long-term monthly means over a wide area from Ningaloo (22°S) to Cape Leeuwin (34°S) along the coast and out to > 200 km offshore. Hourly temperature measurements at a number of mooring sites along the coast revealed that the temperature anomalies were mostly trapped in the surface mixed layer, with peak nearshore temperatures rising to ~ 5 °C above average in the central west coastal region over a week encompassing the end of February and early March, resulting in some devastating fish kills as well as temporary southward range extensions of tropical fish species and megafauna such as whale sharks and manta rays. The elevated temperatures were a result of a combination of a record strength Leeuwin Current, a near-record La Niña event, and anomalously high air-sea heat flux into the ocean even though the SST was high. This heat wave was an unprecedented thermal event in Western Australian waters, superimposed on an underlying long-term temperature rise.

  11. Admission Rate of Patients with Most Common Psychiatric Disorders in Relation to Seasons and Climatic Factors During 2010/2011

    PubMed Central

    Licanin, Ifeta; Fisekovic, Saida; Babić, Sanina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Climate and its impact on human health and mental illness have been in the focus of the research since years in the field. Aim: The aim of the research is to study the admissions rate to the psychiatric clinic in correlation to seasons and climate. Material and method: The research was conducted in a Psychiatric clinic of the Clinical Center in Sarajevo. Randomly selected subjects (aged 5-89 years, 1316 males and 1039 females) N=2355, were interviewed by the Structural Clinical Interview (SCID) which generated DSM-IV. In this retrospective-prospective, clinicalepidemiological study subjects were divided into groups according to type of disorders. Correlation between the impact of seasons and the rate of admissions to a Psychiatric clinic was analyzed. Certain data were taken from Federal Hydrometeorological Institute in Sarajevo of the climatic situation for period of the study. Results and conclusions: Of the total number of subjects who were admitted to the clinic in the period of 2010/2011 the most common diagnoses were F10-F19, F20-F29, F30-F39, F40-F48, and the suicide attempts as the separate entity. It was found correlation between certain seasons and the effects of the certain weather parameters at an increased admission rate of subjects with the certain diseases. PMID:23922518

  12. Changes to Saturn's zonal-mean tropospheric thermal structure after the 2010-2011 northern hemisphere storm

    SciTech Connect

    Achterberg, R. K.; Hesman, B. E.; Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Flasar, F. M.

    2014-05-10

    We use far-infrared (20-200 μm) data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on the Cassini spacecraft to determine the zonal-mean temperature and hydrogen para-fraction in Saturn's upper troposphere from observations taken before and after the large northern hemisphere storm in 2010-2011. During the storm, zonal mean temperatures in the latitude band between approximately 25°N and 45°N (planetographic latitude) increased by about 3 K, while the zonal mean hydrogen para-fraction decreased by about 0.04 over the same latitudes, at pressures greater than about 300 mbar. These changes occurred over the same latitude range as the disturbed cloud band seen in visible images. The observations are consistent with low para-fraction gas being brought up from the level of the water cloud by the strong convective plume associated with the storm, while being heated by condensation of water vapor, and then advected zonally by the winds near the plume tops in the upper troposphere.

  13. Hunting injuries in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Forks, Thomas P

    2002-11-01

    It is clear from the data that hunting injuries in Mississippi mirror those which occur nationwide. The vast majority of these injuries are easily preventable by following common sense hunting safety rules. As with firearm injuries, tree stand injuries are clearly preventable by following common sense rules (Table 1). Most falls are due to poorly constructed or old wooden tree stands that come apart or become detached from the tree thereby causing the hunter to fall. All bolts and fasteners should be inspected and replaced if found to be defective prior to use of the stand. Old, broken or rotten lumber should be replaced. Tree stands should only be placed in healthy, mature trees with strong healthy limbs. Unfortunately, tree stand hunters seldom wear safety harnesses when hunting. These devices, when used properly (worm around the chest under both arms), can greatly decrease morbidity and mortality associated with falls. To minimize trauma, tree stands should be constructed no greater than 20 feet above ground level. Hunters should be cautioned to wear non-slip boots [table| see text] and to apply a non-slip covering to the floor of their tree stands prior to use of the stands. Other safety tips include the removal of all logs, stones or other obstructions from around the base of the tree. As with all hunters, tree stand hunters are advised to carry a compass, whistle, flashlight and cellular phone with them during their hunt. Hunting equipment, including bows and arrows and all firearms should never be carried up to the stand. This equipment should only be lifted or lowered to or from the stand with the use of a haul line. Hunters must remember the 10 commandments of gun safety (Table 2). Every firearm should be treated as if it were loaded. Firearms should not be pointed at anything other than the intended target and the muzzle must be controlled at all times. The action and barrel should be inspected prior to loading ammunition to ensure that they are clear of

  14. Annual Performance Report 2010-2011. Bureau of Indian Education. Submitted February 1, 2012. Revised Clarification, April 17, 2012. APR Template-Part B (4)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    During SY 2010-2011, the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) continued their efforts to improve the validity and reliability of data reporting. BIE data collections are dependent on school level entry (self-reporting) into the Native American Student Information System (NASIS) or into the Bureau's Annual Report from the schools. In addition,…

  15. Design of Value-Added Models for IMPACT and TEAM in DC Public Schools, 2010-2011 School Year. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Hock, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the value-added models that will be used to measure school and teacher effectiveness in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) in the 2010-2011 school year. It updates the earlier technical report, "Measuring Value Added for IMPACT and TEAM in DC Public Schools." The earlier report described the methods used…

  16. The Role of Community Rehabilitation Providers in Employment for Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Results of the 2010-2011 National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domin, Daria; Butterworth, John

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2010-2011 National Survey of Community Rehabilitation Providers, findings are presented on people with all disabilities and people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) who are served in employment and nonwork settings by community rehabilitation providers. Findings suggest little change over the past eight years in…

  17. ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

  18. Phase I Investigations at the Former CCC/USDA Grain Storage Facility in Montgomery City, Missouri, in 2010-2011

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M.

    2012-11-01

    describes the investigative methods used in the 2010-2011 studies and provides a chronological summary of the field events conducted. Section 3 presents a summary of the resulting field and laboratory data. These data, together with information presented in the site-specific Work Plan (Argonne 2010), are interpreted and integrated in Section 4 to (1) develop a preliminary conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework affecting groundwater and potential contaminant migration in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility and (2) serve as a basis for the initial consideration of contaminant levels and potential exposure pathways that might be of concern in the evaluation of risks to human health, public welfare, and the environment. The working conclusions drawn from the 2010-2011 studies are presented, along with recommendations, in Section 5.

  19. Postpartum Mental Health and Breastfeeding Practices: An Analysis Using the 2010-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Wouk, Kathryn; Stuebe, Alison M; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2017-03-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that women with postpartum depression (PPD) are at risk for early breastfeeding cessation, but previous studies have been limited by small samples. The objective of this analysis is to estimate the association between PPD symptoms and breastfeeding using a national, stratified, random sample of U.S. mothers. Methods Data from the 2010-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System were analyzed for New York City and the 29 states for which data were available. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between a pre-pregnancy mental health visit and subsequent breastfeeding initiation as well as PPD and 3-month any and exclusive breastfeeding. To identify state-level variation, we created maps of prevalence and adjusted odds of breastfeeding by PPD and pre-pregnancy mental health status. Results Women reporting a pre-pregnancy mental health visit had 0.61 (95 % CI 0.56, 0.67) times the odds of initiating breastfeeding compared with women who reported no pre-pregnancy visit. At 3 months postpartum, women with PPD symptoms since birth had 0.79 (95 % CI 0.70, 0.88) times the odds of any breastfeeding and reduced odds of exclusive breastfeeding modified by race/ethnicity. We found variation in state-level PPD symptoms and pre-pregnancy mental health prevalence and adjusted odds of breastfeeding. Conclusions for Practice Our results highlight the importance of providing targeted breastfeeding support to women with PPD symptoms, because they are at risk of early breastfeeding cessation. Given the cross-sectional nature of these data, women with early breastfeeding cessation may also be at risk for PPD, requiring screening and treatment.

  20. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections during 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Hawser, Stephen; Hoban, Daryl J; Badal, Robert E; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Biedenbach, Douglas; Hackel, Meredith; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-02-01

    The study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (SMART) surveillance program monitors the epidemiology and trends in antibiotic resistance of intra-abdominal pathogens to currently used therapies. The current report describes such trends during 2010-2011. A total of 25,746 Gram-negative clinical isolates from intra-abdominal infections were collected and classified as hospital-associated (HA) if the hospital length of stay (LOS) at the time of specimen collection was ≥48 hours, community-associated (CA) if LOS at the time of specimen collection was <48 hours, or unknown (no designation given by participating centre). A total of 92 different species were collected of which the most common was Escherichia coli: 39% of all isolates in North America to 55% in Africa. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the second most common pathogen: 11% of all isolates from Europe to 19% of all isolates from Asia. Isolates were from multiple intra-abdominal sources of which 32% were peritoneal fluid, 20% were intra-abdominal abscesses, and 16.5% were gall bladder infections. Isolates were further classified as HA (55% of all isolates), CA (39% of all isolates), or unknown (6% of all isolates). The most active antibiotics tested were imipenem, ertapenem, amikacin, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Resistance rates to all other antibiotics tested were high. Considering the current data set and high-level resistance of intra-abdominal pathogens to various antibiotics, further monitoring of the epidemiology of intra-abdominal infections and their susceptibility to antibiotics through SMART is warranted.

  1. Gene hunting in autoinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Steady progress in our understanding of the genetic basis of autoinflammatory diseases has been made over the past 16 years. Since the discovery of the familial Mediterranean fever gene MEFV (also known as marenostrin) in 1997, 18 other genes responsible for monogenic autoinflammatory diseases have been identified to date. The discovery of these genes was made through the utilisation of many genetic mapping techniques, including next generation sequencing platforms. This review article clearly describes the gene hunting approaches, methods of data analysis and the technological platforms used, which has relevance to all those working within the field of gene discovery for Mendelian disorders. PMID:24070009

  2. Changes in self-reported HIV testing during South Africa's 2010/2011 national testing campaign: gains and shortfalls

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Lloyd, Neil; Bor, Jacob; Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives HIV counselling and testing is critical to HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Mass campaigns may be an effective strategy to increase HIV testing in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We assessed the self-reported uptake of HIV testing among individuals who had never previously tested for HIV, particularly those in high-risk populations, during the period of a national, multisector testing campaign in South Africa (April 2010 and June 2011). Design This study was a prospective cohort study. Methods We analyzed data from two waves (2010/2011, n=16,893; 2012, n=18,707) of the National Income Dynamics Study, a nationally representative cohort that enabled prospective identification of first-time testers. We quantified the number of adults (15 years and older) testing for the first time nationally. To assess whether the campaign reached previously underserved populations, we examined changes in HIV testing coverage by age, gender, race and province sub-groups. We also estimated multivariable logistic regression models to identify socio-economic and demographic predictors of first-time testing. Results Overall, the proportion of adults ever tested for HIV increased from 43.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.48, 45.96) to 65.2% (95% CI: 63.28, 67.10) over the study period, with approximately 7.6 million (95% CI: 6,387,910; 8,782,986) first-time testers. Among black South Africans, the country's highest HIV prevalence sub-group, HIV testing coverage improved among poorer and healthier individuals, thus reducing gradients in testing by wealth and health. In contrast, HIV testing coverage remained lower for men, younger individuals and the less educated, indicating persistent if not widening disparities by gender, age and education. Large geographic disparities in coverage also remained as of 2012. Conclusions Mass provision of HIV testing services can be effective in increasing population coverage of HIV testing. The geographic and socio

  3. The Clearing of Ammonia and Deeper Clouds in the Wake of Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Baines, Kevin H.; Fry, Patrick M.

    2015-11-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 produced a planet-encircling wake that slowly transitioned from a region that was mainly dark at 5 microns in February 2011 to a region that was almost entirely bright and remarkably uniform by January 2012 (Momary and Baines, 2014, AAS/DPS Meeting Abstracts). The uniformity and high emission levels suggested that the entire wake region had been cleared not only of the ammonia clouds that the storm had generated, but also of deep aerosols that normally provide significant blocking of the thermal emission from Saturn's warmer deep atmosphere. Measurements of 2.2-cm emission in May 2011 (Jannsen et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 522-535; Laraia et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 641-654) showed that the wake region was becoming "dried out" with respect to ammonia vapor, suggesting that a depletion of NH3 clouds might be occurring. Our analysis of VIMS spectra from December 2012 confirmed a clearing of NH3 particles but showed that two significant cloud layers remained behind: about 5 optical depths (at 2 microns) in a 120-530 mbar layer (needed to match levels of reflected sunlight), and an optically thick cloud near 3.5 bars (needed to limit 5-micron thermal emission). From spectra taken from the same latitude region upstream of the storm in February 2011 we inferred a similar cloud structure, with the main exception being that the deep thermal blocking layer, likely composed of NH4SH particles, was more spatially variable and at a lower effective pressure (2.9 bars vs. 3.5 bars), reducing 5-micron emission by a factor of 2 or more relative to the cleared region in the wake. While the storm head and early wake region displayed strong signatures of ammonia ice, these were not present prior to the storm, and disappeared completely as part of the wake clearing event. The main reason for the high 5-micron brightness of the cleared region is the removal of cloud particles in the region between about 500 mbar and 3.5 bars. Its exceptional horizontal

  4. Shooting and Hunting: Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W., Comp.

    The shooting and hunting manual, part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, explains shooting skills, hunting, and proper gun handling on the range and in the field. This manual should be supplemented and enriched by available references, facilities, and resources. It may be included in the community's educational and…

  5. Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011: Cloud particles containing ammonia and water ices indicate a deep convective origin. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P.

    2013-12-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 was first detected by amateur astronomers in early December 2010 and later found in Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images taken on 5 December, when it took the form of a 1000 km wide bright spot. Within a week the head of the storm grew by a factor of ten in width and within a few months created a wake that encircled the planet. This is the sixth Great Saturn Storm in recorded history, all having appeared in the northern hemisphere, and most near northern summer solstice at intervals of roughly 30 years (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 1991, Nature 353, 397-401). That the most recent storm appeared 10 years early proved fortunate because Cassini was still operating in orbit around Saturn and was able to provide unique observations from which we could learn much more about these rare and enormous events. Besides the dramatic dynamical effects displayed at the visible cloud level by high-resolution imaging observations (Sayanagi et al. 2013, Icarus 223, 460-478), dramatic thermal changes also occurred in the stratosphere above the storm (Fletcher et al. 2011, Science 332, 1413), and radio measurements of lightning (Fischer et al., 2011, Nature 475, 75-77) indicated strong convective activity at deeper levels. Numerical models of Saturn's Giant storms (Hueso and Sanchez-Lavega 2004, Icarus 172, 255-271) suggest that they are fueled by water vapor condensation beginning at the 10-12 bar level, some 250 km below the visible cloud tops. That idea is also supported by our detection of water ice near the cloud tops (Sromovsky et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 402-418). From Cassini VIMS spectral imaging taken in February 2011, we learned that the storm's cloud particles are strong absorbers of sunlight at wavelengths from 2.8 to 3.1 microns. Such absorption is not seen on Saturn outside of storm regions, implying a different kind of cloud formation process as well as different cloud composition inside the storm region. We found compelling evidence

  6. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and... 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations,...

  7. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2012-13... RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds...

  8. [Influence of job-hunting anxiety on job-hunting: from the viewpoint of coping].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yuko; Nagasaku, Minoru; Arai, Kunijiro

    2010-02-01

    The present study developed a job-hunting anxiety scale and investigated the influence of job-hunting anxiety on coping, number of job-hunting applications, and satisfaction with job-hunting. Questionnaires were completed by 306 college students who had started job-hunting. Explorative factor analysis extracted five factors such as "appeal anxiety", "support anxiety", "activity persistence anxiety", "test anxiety", and "a lack of readiness anxiety". Analysis of covariance structures indicated that (a) job-hunting anxiety was negatively related to problem-focused coping, the number of job-hunting applications, and the satisfaction with job-hunting, and (b) problem-focused coping was positively related to the number of job-hunting applications and the satisfaction with job-hunting. These results suggest that reduction of job-hunting anxiety and the use of problem-focused coping facilitated job-hunting.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of three 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults: a double-blind and randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feng-Ji; Yang, Li-Qing; Ai, Xing; Bai, Yun-Hua; Wu, Jiang; Li, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Lu, Min; Li, Li; Wang, Zhao-Yun; Shi, Nian-Min

    2013-08-01

    The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic strain was for the first time included in the 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial in Chinese population to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the 2010-2011 TIV manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and compared it with the counterpart vaccines manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur and Sinovac Biotech. Healthy toddlers (6-36 mo), children (6-12 y) and older adults (≥60 y) with 300 participants in each age group were enrolled to randomly receive two doses (toddlers, 28 d apart) or one dose (children and older adults). The immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. The solicited injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were collected within 7 d after vaccination. All the three TIVs were well-tolerated with 15.1% of participants reporting AEs, most of which were mild. No serious AEs and unusual AEs were reported. Fever and pain were the most common systemic and injection-site AEs, respectively. The three TIVs showed good immunogenicity. The seroprotection rates against both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were more than 87% in toddlers after two doses and more than 95% in children and more than 86% in older adults after one dose. The seroprotection rates against B strain were 68-71% in toddlers after two doses, 70-74% in children and 69-72% in older adults after one dose. In conclusion, the three 2010-2011 TIVs had good immunogenicity and safety in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults and were generally comparable in immunogenicity and reactogenicity.

  10. Reduced replication capacity of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the 2010-2011 winter season in Tottori, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Akeno; Itagaki, Asao; Tsuchie, Hideaki; Tokuhara, Misato; Okada, Takayoshi; Narai, Sakae; Kasagi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Kageyama, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    A novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been circulating in humans since March-April, 2009. The 2009-2010 epidemic involved predominantly a single subtype of A(H1N1)pdm09 (at 96%, 46/48) in the sentinel sites of this study. However, A(H1N1)pdm09 started to circulate together with other type/subtype (49%, 33/68) at the first peak in the next epidemic season in 2010-2011: A(H1N1)pdm09/A(H3N2) (9%, 6/68), A(H1N1)pdm09/B (35%, 24/68), and A(H1N1)pdm09/A(H3N2)/B (4%, 3/68). Single infection of A(H1N1)pdm09 became a rare event (8%, 5/65) at the second peak of the same season in 2010-2011 compared with that at the first peak (50%, 34/68). Concurrently with this decline, single infections of others, A(H3N2) or B, became evident (6%, 4/65; 14%, 9/65, respectively). Triple infections were more common (29%, 19/65) at the second peak than at the first peak (4%). The A(H1N1)pdm09 detected in 2010-2011 produced less virus upon 72 hr of incubation in vitro after the inoculations at 10(4) and 3,300 copies/ml (2.3 × 10(9) and 2.3 × 10(9) copies/ml on average) than that in 2009-2010 (3.7 × 10(9) and 1.3 × 10(10) copies/ml on average; P<0.05 by ANOVA test), respectively. As described above, the replication capacity of A(H1N1)pdm09 seems to have deteriorated in the 2010-2011 season presumably due to substantial herd immunity and allowed the existence of other type/subtype. These results suggest that assessment of replication capacity is indispensable for analysis of influenza epidemics.

  11. Hunting stand-related injuries in orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Lebus, George F; Krueger, Chad A; Stinner, Daniel J; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-09-01

    Hunting remains an extremely popular recreational activity, with nearly 15 million Americans receiving a hunting license annually. Precautions have helped decrease accidents, but hunting-related injuries remain relatively common. The majority of severe, hunting-related accidents involve either a fall from a hunting platform or an accidental shooting. Both of these mechanisms frequently result in orthopedic injuries, many of which require operative care. Although firearms-associated injury has seemingly decreased, hunting platform falls and their sequelae are increasing. Understanding the mechanisms of these injuries and increasing awareness of them may minimize their morbidity and mortality or help prevent them altogether.

  12. Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in Croatia in 2010-2011: a season with predominant circulation of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Kurečić Filipović, S; Gjenero-Margan, I; Kissling, E; Kaić, B; Cvitković, A

    2015-09-01

    This is a retrospective study using the test-negative case-control method to estimate seasonal 2010-2011 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Croatia. Of patients consulting a physician for influenza-like illness (ILI) and for whom a swab was taken, we compared RT-PCR influenza-positive and RT-PCR influenza-negative patients. We used a structured questionnaire and physicians' records to obtain information on vaccination status and potential confounders. We conducted a complete case analysis using logistic regression to measure adjusted VE overall, against A(H1N1)pdm09 and in age groups. Out of 785 interviewed patients, 495 eligible patients were included in the study, after applying exclusion criteria [217 cases, of which 92·6% were A(H1N1)pdm09 positive, 278 controls]. Crude VE was 31·9% [95% confidence interval (CI) -40·9 to 67·1] and adjusted VE was 20·7% (95% CI -71·4 to 63·3), with higher VE in youngest and oldest age groups. Results from this first VE study in Croatia suggest a low to moderate VE for the 2010-2011 season. Studies year on year are needed with a greater sample size to provide more precise estimates, and also by age group and risk groups for vaccination.

  13. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Effiom, Edu O.; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G.; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers—both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)—were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent. PMID:23516245

  14. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  15. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the...

  16. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2010-11 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2010-11 hunting season. This supplement to the...

  17. 77 FR 23093 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2014 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With...

  18. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... August 16, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded... 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on...

  19. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part VI Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the... 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...

  20. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  1. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. This supplement to the...

  2. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With...

  3. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11...

  4. 75 FR 53774 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird...

  5. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Proposed Rule #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  6. 78 FR 35844 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2013-14 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2013-14 hunting season. This supplement to the...

  7. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  8. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands... Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird...

  9. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... heard per route from the Mourning Dove Call-count Survey (CCS), doves seen per route from the CCS, birds... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice...

  10. 76 FR 53535 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Proposed Rule #0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  11. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... was 18,400 birds. Mourning Doves The Mourning Dove Call-count Survey (CCS) data is analyzed within a... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice...

  12. Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-02-01

    International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species.

  13. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  14. A Treasure Hunt for Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Adam J.; Rutledge, Peter J.; Todd, Matthew H.; Connor, Ricky

    2011-01-01

    A new group educational activity based on a treasure hunt is described. Students are asked questions and the answers specify a grid on a map. A specified object in the grid location must be found and photographed, and the photograph submitted electronically (through the Learning Management System) for assessment. Once a series of objects in…

  15. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  16. New insights into the tectonic inversion of North Canterbury and the regional structural context of the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Philip M.; Ghisetti, Francesca C.; Gorman, Andrew R.

    2016-02-01

    The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence highlighted the existence of previously unknown active faults beneath the North Canterbury plains and Pegasus Bay, South Island, New Zealand. We provide new insights into the geometry and kinematics of ongoing deformation by analyzing marine seismic data to produce new maps of regional faults and cross-sectional reconstructions of deformation history. Active faulting and folding extends up to 30 km offshore, and involves reactivation of sets of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene normal faults under NW-SE tectonic compression. The active faults consist predominantly of NE-SW striking, SE-dipping reverse faults, and less commonly E-W to NW-SE faults suitably oriented for strike-slip reactivation. Additionally, newly developing reverse faults obliquely segment and overprint the inherited basement fabric and impose geometric and kinematic complexities revealed by mapping and reverse displacement profiles of markers. The Quaternary reverse slip rates decrease from 0.1-0.3 mm/yr beneath northern Pegasus Bay to <0.05 mm/yr approaching Banks Peninsula. Fault growth modeling involving trishear fault-propagation folding mechanisms successfully restores an evolutionary sequence of progressive fault inversion, revealing a history of reactivated individual faults. Tectonic inversion and overprinting processes beneath Pegasus Bay are immature and <1.2 ± 0.4 Ma old, with no evidence of systematic spatial migration of deformation. Our marine data analyses give insights into the structural context of the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, while the combined onshore to offshore data provide an excellent illustration of fault growth associated with immature inversion tectonics, in which selective fault reactivation results from compressive stress imposed across a complex network of inherited faults.

  17. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites.

  18. A bioeconomic analysis of bushmeat hunting

    PubMed Central

    Damania, R.; Milner-Gulland, E.J.; Crookes, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Unsustainable bushmeat hunting is a major threat to mammal species, particularly in West/Central Africa. We developed a multispecies dynamic simulation model of hunter behaviour, parameterized using data from the Ashanti region, Ghana. The model distinguishes between two hunting techniques, snaring and gun hunting. We analyse the impact of key economic parameters on off-takes. Economic incentives determine the effort devoted to hunting, the choice of hunting technique, and the species that are consumed domestically or traded in markets. These factors, together with the growth rates and catchabilities of hunted species, determine the ecological impact of hunting. The results suggest that increased bushmeat prices are likely to lead to a switch from snaring, which is cheaper but less efficient, to gun hunting, with a consequent impact on vulnerable species. Increases in agricultural prices have an ambiguous effect on hunter behaviour, depending on the balance between incentives to invest in agriculture and increased consumption as incomes improve. Penalties are more effective if they target bushmeat sales, rather than the act of hunting. This model represents a step forward because it explicitly considers bushmeat as a component of the household economy. This has important implications as regards the development of policies to conserve species hunted for bushmeat. PMID:15705550

  19. [Role of modern hunting in wildlife management].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shi; Zhou, Xue-Hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Although modern hunting is different from traditional hunting, it remains a controversial topic. A large number of scholars in the world have studied the effects of hunting on wild animals from an ecological, ethological, genetic and economic aspect. This paper reviewed the role of controlled hunting in wildlife production from population dynamics, behavior, genetic and a phenotypic level, and by integrating a large number of domestic and foreign literatures. Many studies have shown that regulated hunting is an efficient approach in managing wildlife populations, which could be beneficial to the recovery and possibly even growth of wildlife populations. Meanwhile, over-exploitation or inappropriate hunting could affect the sex, birth and mortality ratios of wildlife populations, change foraging behavior and socio-spatial behavior and generate artificial selection of their genotype and phenotype. To apply modern hunting properly to wildlife management, China could learn from successful hunting programs implemented in many other countries, which are based on ecological and economic principles to formulate scientifically determined hunting quotas and set up an effective system to regulate and manage the hunting of wildlife populations.

  20. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting... migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of July 3, 1918 (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C....

  1. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting... migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of July 3, 1918 (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C....

  2. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... September 20, 2013 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final...

  3. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded.... SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes...: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) of July 3, 1918 (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.),...

  4. 77 FR 34931 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Meeting Regarding Regulations for the 2012-13 Hunting Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2012-13... hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109, and 20.110 of subpart K. On... migratory game bird hunting regulations (77 FR 29516). In that document, we announced a meeting of the...

  5. Pathogenicity of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in the 2010-2011 winter in Japan to mandarin ducks.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kosuke; Usui, Tatsufumi; Uno, Yukiko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses occurred in wild birds in Japan from 2010-2011. Forty out of 63 deceased wild birds belonged to the order Anseriformes, and mandarin duck was one of the dominant species. To estimate the risk of mandarin ducks as a source of virus infection in the environment, we examined the pathogenicity of a causal H5N1 HPAI virus to mandarin ducks. About half of the mandarin ducks died by inoculation with 10(7.0)TCID50 of A/mandarin duck/Miyazaki/22M807-1/2011 (H5N1). Viruses were mainly recovered from the trachea of the ducks sacrificed at three days post inoculation (d.p.i.). Viruses were recovered from the laryngopharyngeal swabs of the observation group until 5 d.p.i. In ducks that died at the late phase of infection, viruses were detected in the systemic organs, such as lung, kidney and colon. Together, these results showed that the H5N1 HPAI viruses, which belonged to clade 2.3.2.1 and are mainly circulating in East Asia, were lethal to mandarin ducks, indicating that mandarin ducks have the potential to disseminate the virus to other bird species. Therefore, wild birds should be kept out of poultry farms to prevent HPAI outbreaks in the future.

  6. Austerity, precariousness, and the health status of Greek labour market participants: Retrospective cohort analysis of employed and unemployed persons in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-11-01

    Greece implemented the deepest austerity package in Europe during the Great Recession (from 2008), including reductions in severance pay and redundancy notice periods. To evaluate whether these measures worsened labour market participants' health status, we compared changes in self-reported health using two cohorts of employed individuals in Greece from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. During the initial recession (2008-2009) we found that self-reported health worsened both for those remaining in employment and those who lost jobs. Similarly, during the austerity programme (2010-2011) people who lost jobs experienced greater health declines. Importantly, individuals who remained employed in 2011 were also 25 per cent more likely to experience a health decline than in 2009. These harms appeared concentrated in people aged 45-54 who lost jobs. Our study moves beyond existing findings by demonstrating that austerity both exacerbates the negative health consequences of job loss and worsens the health of those still employed.

  7. Tropical Controls on the CO2 Atmospheric Growth Rate 2010-2011 from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Lee, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Gierach, M. M.; Brix, H.; Gurney, K. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variations in the atmospheric growth rate of CO2 have been attributed to the tropical regions and the controls are correlated with temperature anomalies. We investigate the spatial drivers of the atmospheric growth rate and the processes controlling them over the exceptional period of 2010-2011. This period was marked by a marked shift from an El Nino to La Nina period resulting in historically high sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Atlantic leading to serious droughts in the Amazon. However, in 2011, unusual precipitation in Australia was linked to gross primary productivity anomalies in semi-arid regions. We use satellite observations of CO2, CO, and solar induced fluorescence assimilated into the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Project (CMS-Flux) to attribute the atmospheric growth rate to global, spatially resolved fluxes. This system is based upon observationally-constrained "bottom-up" estimates from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS), the ECCO2­-Darwin physical and biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and CASA-GFED3 land-surface biogeochemical model. The system is used to compute regional tropical and extra-tropical fluxes and quantify the role of biomass burning and gross primary productivity in controlling those fluxes.

  8. Towards ecohydrological drought monitoring and prediction using a land data assimilation system: A case study on the Horn of Africa drought (2010-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yohei; Koike, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    Despite the importance of the ecological and agricultural aspects of severe droughts, no drought monitoring and prediction framework based on a land data assimilation system (LDAS) has been developed to monitor and predict vegetation dynamics in the middle of droughts. In this study, we applied a LDAS that can simulate surface soil moisture, root-zone soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics to the Horn of Africa drought in 2010-2011 caused by the precipitation deficit in two consecutive rainy seasons. We successfully simulated the ecohydrological drought quantified by the model-estimated soil moistures and leaf area index (LAI). The root-zone soil moisture and LAI are good indicators of prolonged droughts because they reflect the long-term effects of past precipitation deficit. The precipitation deficit in 2010 significantly affected the land surface condition of the next rainy season in 2011, which indicated the importance of obtaining accurate initial soil moisture and LAI values for prediction of multiseasonal droughts. In addition, the general circulation model-based seasonal meteorological prediction showed good performance in predicting land surface conditions of the Horn of Africa drought.

  9. Incidence of urinary tract tumours in a two-year period (2010-2011) at the Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Skopje, Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Kostadinova-Kunovska, Slavica; Janevska, Vesna; Komina, Selim; Dukova, Blagica; Bogdanovska-Todorovska, Magdalena; Domazetovski, Ivan; Labachevski, Bojan; Saidi, Skender; Stavridis, Sotir; Petrushevska, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of tumours of the kidneys and the lower urinary tract diagnosed at the Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia, in a two-year period (2010-2011), with the aim of highlighting the main morphological characteristics and to present the statistical features of these tumours. All the cases were diagnosed on paraffin sections from surgical specimens routinely stained with H&E, and immunohistochemically with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The analysis revealed a total of 755 cases, of which 166 (14%) were located in the kidney including the renal pelvis, and 649 (86%) were tumours of the urinary bladder. Twelve of the renal tumours (11.3%) were benign, and the rest were malignant tumours. Most of them were adenocarcinomas (n=77; 72.6%) and 17 cases (16%) were transitional cell carcinomas originating from the renal pelvis. The analysis of the lower urinary tract tumours showed a strong prevalence of malignant urothelial tumours (96%), with a male to female ratio of almost 4:1. Low grade morphology was a predominant feature (71.7%) and 51 cases (22.9%) were of high grade. The percentage of urothelial tumours of the kidney in our series is higher than in most of the reported series, which should lead to an expanded analysis.

  10. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Khosroshahi, Nahid; Ghadirian, Laleh; Kamrani, Kamyar

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC) hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion criteria were the existence of convulsion due to fever and exclusion criteria were having a known neurological disease which could induce a seizure, and children younger than one month. In each group (cases include children with febrile convulsion and controls include febrile children without convulsion), Mg was measured in blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of 90 children and then they were compared. The data were analyzed by SPSS (α=0.05). The mean serum and CSF levels of Mg in case and control groups were equal (P<0.87 and P<0.22 respectively). There was no difference between two groups in terms of sex, but mean age was significantly different (P<0.003). There was not an association between serum and CSF levels of magnesium and the presence of FC. Therefore, it's not suggested to measure the level of magnesium in serum or CSF in children with fever routinely.

  11. Frequency fluctuations in the solar corona investigated with radio sounding experiments on the spacecraft ROSETTA and MARS EXPRESS in 2010/2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, A. I.; Lukanina, L. A.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, M. K.; Pätzold, M.

    2017-03-01

    Coronal radio-sounding experiments were carried out using two-way coherent dual-frequency carrier signals of the ESA spacecraft ROSETTA in 2010 and MARS EXPRESS in 2010/2011. Differential frequency measurements recorded at both NASA and ESA tracking stations (sample rate: 1 Hz) are analyzed in this paper. Spectral analysis of the S-band, X-band, and differential frequency records has shown that the r.m.s. frequency fluctuation of each signal can be described by a radial power-law function of the form σi = Ai(R/R⊙)-βi, where i = s, x, sx. The ratio of the coefficients As and Ax differs from the expected theoretical value As/Ax = fs/fx. This occurs because the X-band fluctuations underlie two-way propagation conditions while the S-band fluctuations are essentially the product of a one-way propagation experiment. The intensity of the frequency fluctuations decreases sharply at high heliolatitudes. The asymmetry of the frequency fluctuation intensity between ingress and egress is exploited to determine the solar wind speed at small heliocentric distances.

  12. 77 FR 74864 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting.... App., we announce that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a...

  13. 77 FR 15386 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background...

  14. 78 FR 42104 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background Formed...

  15. 77 FR 25191 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background Formed...

  16. 77 FR 38317 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background...

  17. 75 FR 57292 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed...

  18. 76 FR 3155 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed...

  19. 77 FR 10543 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Office of the Secretary Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Charter AGENCY: Office of the... Secretary of Agriculture have renewed the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council..., providing recommendations for: (a) Implementing the Recreational Hunting and Wildlife Resource...

  20. Neurosyphilis Mimicking Ramsay Hunt Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tadashi; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Hirayama, Takehisa; Saga, Tomoo; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Urita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with facial nerve palsy, hearing loss, vertigo and headache. He was initially diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and treated with a systemic steroid and valaciclovir; however, his symptoms deteriorated. Serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an elevated white blood cell count and positive RPR, confirming the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Penicillin G (PCG) was administered, and his facial nerve function and headache improved. However, left-side hearing loss worsened temporarily, which was assumed to be a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. Betamethasone was administered along with PCG, and he recovered completely.

  1. Dog pack attack: hunting humans.

    PubMed

    Avis, S P

    1999-09-01

    Dog bite-related fatalities, although unusual, accounted for 304 deaths in the United States between 1979 and 1996 and 6 fatalities in Canada between 1994 and 1996. Fatal dog pack attacks and attacks involving human predation are less common. The following describes a dog pack attack on a family of four involving 2 fatalities with predation of the victims. Factors previously identified that contribute to pack attacks and predation, including prior group hunting, social feeding, territorial defense, lack of human interaction, and prey stimuli, are discussed.

  2. Internet Cruising with the Internet Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Internet Hunt, a game designed to challenge and inform librarians about information sources available on the Internet. The use of telnet, and FTP (File Transfer Protocol) are described, and the results of the first Internet Hunt are provided. (EA)

  3. Salaries and Wages Paid Professional and Support Personnel in Public Schools, 2010-2011. National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools: A Reference Tool for School Administrators. 38th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy; Licciardi, Christopher M.; Cooke, Willa D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents salary and wage data collected as part of the "ERS National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools, 2010-2011." The survey, conducted in Fall 2010, collected data on salaries scheduled and salaries paid for 23 selected professional positions and 10 selected support positions in public school systems throughout the…

  4. Vaccine receipt and vaccine card availability among children of the apostolic faith: analysis from the 2010-2011 Zimbabwe demographic and health survey

    PubMed Central

    Kriss, Jennifer Lara; Goodson, James; Machekanyanga, Zorodzai; Shibeshi, Messeret Eshetu; Daniel, Fussum; Masresha, Balcha; Kaiser, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vaccine hesitancy and refusal continue to be a global challenge to reaching immunization targets, especially among those in traditional or fundamentalist religions. The apostolic faith in Zimbabwe has been historically associated with objection to most medical interventions, including immunization. Methods We conducted a descriptive analysis of socio-demographic characteristics and vaccine coverage among apostolic and non-apostolic adults aged 15-49 years and children aged 12-23 months using the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Zimbabwe during 2010-2011. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between the apostolic religion and receipt of all four basic childhood vaccinations in the Expanded Program on Immunization, receipt of no vaccinations, and availability of child vaccination card. Results Among children aged 12-23 months, 64% had received all doses of the four basic vaccinations, and 12% had received none of the recommended vaccines. A vaccination card was available for 68% of children. There was no significant association between Apostolic faith and completion of all basic vaccinations (aOR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.69-1.17), but apostolic children were almost twice as likely to have received no basic vaccinations (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.22-2.77) than non-Apostolic children, and they were 32% less likely to have a vaccination card that was available and seen by the interviewer (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89). Conclusion Disparities in childhood vaccination coverage and availability of vaccination cards persist for apostolic in Zimbabwe. Continued collaboration with apostolic leaders and additional research to better understand vaccine hesitancy and refine interventions and messaging strategies are needed. PMID:27642388

  5. Evolution of a Dark Anti-Cyclone on Saturn Associated with the Great Lightning Storm of 2010/2011 Through the Eyes of Cassini/VIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momary, Thomas W.; Baines, K. H.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sotin, C.

    2012-10-01

    A massive dark anti-cyclonic storm system on Saturn spanning some 7∘ of longitude and 2∘ of latitude was observed by Cassini/VIMS at a planetocentric latitude of 37∘ on 4 January 2012 and 26 January 2012. During this time, it drifted some 54∘ of longitude at a speed of 23.1 ± 0.2 m/s prograde, a drift speed which correlates well with the canonical Voyager (and VIMS) wind profiles for Saturn at this latitude. The spot also drifted northward during this time by 1∘ and became noticeably "squished" in morphology. Using this drift rate and extrapolating backward, we find that the position corresponds to the large (> 5,000 km) anti-cyclone observed by VIMS on 11 May 2011 at 35.4∘ latitude (pc) and 49.4∘ W. longitude. This would represent 8 months of observation of this titanic feature, which was associated with the major lightning storm of 2010-2011, following the spot as it changed in size and morphology and drifted northward. The spot underwent a dramatic shift in shape in the 3 weeks of January, changing from roughly oval to a highly elongated pancake shape as it apparently bumped up against the dark band at 40∘ latitude and experienced a powerful shear. The evolution suggests that we are watching the death throes of this feature in our most recent observations. Finally, the dark spot was darker than surrounding regions in May 2011 and maintained its dark color across all pseudo-continua from 1.0 to 4.0 μm between May 2011 and early January 2012.

  6. Factors impacting influenza vaccination of urban low-income Latino children under nine years requiring two doses in the 2010-2011 season.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Barrett, Angela; Stockwell, Melissa S

    2015-04-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that certain children under 9 years of age receive two influenza vaccine doses in a season for optimal protection. Recent data indicate that many of these children fail to receive one or both of these needed doses. Contributing factors to under-vaccination of this population remain unclear. Caregivers of children aged 6 months-8 years requiring two influenza vaccine doses in the 2010-2011 season were identified from households enrolled in four urban Head Start programs. Recruitment and survey administration were conducted between March and June 2011. The impact of caregiver, provider, and practice-based factors on influenza vaccine receipt was assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Caregivers (n = 128) were predominantly mothers, Latina, Spanish-speaking, and non-U.S. born. Few children received one (31 %) or both (7 %) influenza vaccine doses. Caregivers who discussed influenza vaccination with providers were more likely to know their child needed two doses (55 vs. 35 %, p < 0.05) and have a fully vaccinated child (11 vs. 0 %, p < 0.05). Among caregivers whose child received the first dose, those who reported being told when to return for the second dose were also more likely to have a fully vaccinated child (35 vs. 0 %, p = 0.05). Belief in influenza vaccine effectiveness was positively associated with vaccination (p < 0.001), while safety concerns were negatively associated (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of provider-family communication about the two-dose regimen as well as influenza vaccine effectiveness and safety.

  7. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of influenza B viruses circulating in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 2010-2011: evolution and sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ghazanfar; Amer, Haitham M; Almajhdi, Fahad N

    2014-06-01

    Influenza viruses are known as continuing threats to human public health every year worldwide. Evolutionary dynamics of influenza B viruses in humans are in a unique progression having two lineages; B/Yam and B/Vic-like viruses, which are circulating simultaneously worldwide. There is a considerable lack of data on influenza B viruses circulating in Saudi Arabia. During the winter-spring season of 2010-2011, 80 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from hospitalized patients with flu-like symptoms in Riyadh. Screening of samples by one-step RT-PCR identified three (3.8%) influenza B viruses. Sequencing of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes was performed to analyze influenza B viruses circulating in Riyadh as compared to the globally circulating strains. Several common and six unique amino acid substitutions were observed for both HA and NA genes of influenza B Saudi strains. Three unique substitutions (T182A, D196N, and K254R) were identified in HA gene of the B/Yam-like Riyadh strains. In NA gene, a unique common substitution (D53G) was found in all Riyadh strains, while two unique substitutions (L38P, G233R) were recognized only in B/Vic-like Riyadh strains. Riyadh strains were also found to contain N-glycosylation site in HA gene of both B/Vic and B/Yam lineages at positions 197-199 (NET) and 196-198 (NNK/DNK), respectively. The significance of these mutations on the antigenicity of both lineages is discussed herein. The unique changes observed in HA and NA genes of influenza B Riyadh strains support strongly the need for continuous surveillance and monitoring of new evolving strains that might pose threat to the Saudi community.

  8. Response to Roger W. Hunt.

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    A response to a critique by Roger W. Hunt of my views on the eventual likely need to use age as a standard for the allocation of expensive, high-technology, life-extending medical care for the elderly. The response encompasses three elements: 1. that while the elderly have a substantial claim to publicly-provided health care, it cannot be an unlimited claim; 2. that a health care system which provided a decent, coherent set of medical and social services for the elderly would be sufficient, even if some limits had to be set; and 3. allocation and rationing decisions should not be made by individual doctors at the bedside but by regional or national policy. PMID:11643099

  9. Chemical composition and severe ozone loss derived from SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 observations during Arctic winter 2010/2011 in comparisons to Arctic winters in the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, R.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Aschmann, J.; Bramstedt, K.; Weber, M.; von Savigny, C.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, A.; Wittrock, F.; Bauer, R.; Khosrawi, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2013-06-01

    Record breaking losses of ozone (O3) in the Arctic stratosphere have been reported in winter and spring 2011. Trace gas amounts and polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) distributions retrieved using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and scattering theory applied to the measurements of radiance and irradiance by satellite-born and ground-based instrumentation, document the unusual behaviour. A chemical transport model has been used to relate and compare Arctic winter-spring conditions in 2011 with those in previous years. We examine in detail the composition and transformations occurring in the Arctic polar vortex using total column and vertical profile data products for O3, bromine oxide (BrO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), chlorine dioxide (OClO), and PSCs retrieved from measurements made by the instrument SCIAMACHY onboard the ESA satellite Envisat, as well as the total column ozone amount, retrieved from the measurements of GOME-2 on the EUMETSAT operational meteorological polar orbiter Metop-A. In the late winter and spring 2010/2011 the chemical loss of O3 in the polar vortex is consistent with and confirms findings reported elsewhere. More than 70% of O3 was depleted between the 425 K and 525 K isentropic surfaces, i.e. in the altitude range ~16-20 km. In contrast, during the same period in the previous winter only slightly more than 20% depletion occurred below 20 km, whereas 40% of the O3 was removed above the 575 K isentrope (~23 km). This loss above the 575 K isentrope is explained by the catalytic destruction by the NOx descending from the mesosphere. At lower altitudes O3 loss results from processing by halogen driven O3 catalytic removal cycles, activated by the large volume of PSC generated throughout this winter and spring. The mid-winter 2011 conditions, prior to the catalytic cycles being fully effective, are also investigated. Surprisingly, a significant loss of O3 with 60% is observed in mid-January 2011 below 500 K (~19 km), which was

  10. Cloud clearing in the wake of Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 and suggested new constraints on Saturn's He/H2 ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P. M.; Momary, T. W.

    2016-09-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 produced a planet-encircling wake that slowly transitioned from a region that was mainly dark at 5 μm in February 2011 to a region that was almost entirely bright and remarkably uniform by December of 2012. The uniformity and high emission levels suggested that the entire wake region had been cleared not only of the ammonia clouds that the storm had generated and exposed, but also of any other aerosols that might provide significant blocking of the thermal emission from Saturn's deeper and warmer atmospheric layers. Our analysis of VIMS wake spectra from December 2012 provides no evidence of ammonia ice absorption, but shows that at least one significant cloud layer remained behind: a non-absorbing layer of 3-4 optical depths (at 2 μm) extending from 150 to ∼400 mbar. A second layer of absorbing and scattering particles, with less than 1 optical depth and located near 1 bar, is also suggested, but its existence as a model requirement depends on what value of the He/H2 ratio is assumed. The observations can be fit well with just a single (upper) cloud layer for a He/H2 ratio ≈ 0.064 in combination with a PH3 deep volume mixing ratio of 5 ppm. At lower He/H2 ratios, the observed spectra can be modeled without particles in this region. At higher ratios, in order to fit the brightest wake spectrum, models must include either significant cloud opacity in this region, or significantly increased absorption by PH3, NH3, and AsH3. As the exceptional horizontal uniformity in the late wake is most easily understood as a complete removal of a deep cloud layer, and after considering independent constraints on trace gas mixing ratios, we conclude that the existence of this remarkable wake uniformity is most consistent with a He/H2 mixing ratio of 0.055-0.015+0.010, which is on the low side of the 0.038-0.135 range of previous estimates.

  11. Drivers of Bushmeat Hunting and Perceptions of Zoonoses in Nigerian Hunting Communities

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Paige, Sarah B.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1) quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2) identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3) identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4) measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%), being injured (14%), using body parts for traditional medicine (19%), collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%), and keeping as pets (16%). Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%), ungulates (93%), carnivores (93%), primates (87%), and bats (42%), among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that target

  12. Drivers of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of zoonoses in Nigerian hunting communities.

    PubMed

    Friant, Sagan; Paige, Sarah B; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-05-01

    Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1) quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2) identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3) identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4) measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%), being injured (14%), using body parts for traditional medicine (19%), collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%), and keeping as pets (16%). Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%), ungulates (93%), carnivores (93%), primates (87%), and bats (42%), among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that target

  13. Prehistoric bird extinctions and human hunting.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Richard P; Blackburn, Tim M; Worthy, Trevor H

    2002-03-07

    Holocene fossils document the extinction of hundreds of bird species on Pacific islands during prehistoric human occupation. Human hunting is implicated in these extinctions, but the impact of hunting is difficult to disentangle from the effects of other changes induced by humans, including habitat destruction and the introduction of other mammalian predators. Here, we use data from bones collected at a natural sand dune site and associated archaeological middens in New Zealand to show that, having controlled for differences in body mass and family membership (and hence for variation in life-history traits related to population growth rate), birds that were more intensively hunted by prehistoric humans had a higher probability of extinction. This result cannot be attributed to preservation biases and provides clear evidence that selective hunting contributed significantly to prehistoric bird extinctions at this site.

  14. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  15. Hunting cooperation and Allee effects in predators.

    PubMed

    Teixeira Alves, Mickaël; Hilker, Frank M

    2017-04-21

    Cooperation is a ubiquitous behavior in many biological systems and is well-known for promoting Allee effects. However, few studies have paid attention to mechanisms inducing Allee effects in predators. Here, we focus on hunting cooperation and use a classical predator-prey system for identifying the impact of this mechanism. We add a cooperation term to the attack rate of the predator population, and investigate the equilibrium stability in phase plane and bifurcation diagrams. We show that hunting cooperation can be beneficial to the predator population by increasing the attack rate. We identify a scenario in which hunting cooperation produces Allee effects in predators and allows the latter to persist when the prey population does not sustain them in the absence of hunting cooperation. However, hunting cooperation can turn detrimental to predators when prey density drastically decreases because of increased predation pressure, which in turn decreases the predator intake. Hunting cooperation can also destabilize the system and promote a sudden collapse of the predator population. We generalize the model and prove that demographic Allee effects always occur when (1) the attack rate increases with the predator density, and (2) the functional response increases with the attack rate. We conclude that Allee effects in predators might be more widespread than expected. Mechanisms inducing such effects may strongly influence not only predators, but also the fate of ecosystems involving predators as in biological control programs.

  16. 78 FR 21199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... April 9, 2013 Part II Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2015 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Proposals...

  17. 77 FR 42919 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... July 20, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of Meetings...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird...

  18. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2011 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Proposals in Alaska; Proposed Rule...

  19. 75 FR 58249 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... importance of weather and photoperiod on the timing and speed of bird migrations. It is possible that re... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 184 /...

  20. The management of hunting of Anatidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Johnson, F.A.; Birkan, Marcel

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of harvest management for members of family Anatidae typically involve the size of the harvested population and the size of the harvest. Hunting regulations are the primary tool used to try to achieve the objectives of harvest management. Informed harvest management thus requires a knowledge of the relationship between hunting regulations and both Anatid abundance and harvest. Results of retrospective studies in North America provide evidence that generally restrictive regulations produce lower harvest rates than generally liberal regulations. However, such studies have provided little evidence that specific hunting regulations designed to produce a change in the relative harvest rates of different species, or of the sexes within a species, have been successful in 'directing' harvest toward specific groups of birds and away from other groups. Estimates of the strength of the relationship between harvest mortality rates and annual survival rates of Anatidae have ranged from weak to strong. Thus, the key relationships for harvest management of Anatidae, those between hunting regulations and the size of both the subsequent harvest and the subsequent population, are not 'known' but are characterized by uncertainty. In the United States, this uncertainty led to a risk-aversive conservatism that characterized the setting of hunting regulations during the last decade. Recently, managers have begun to consider using hunting regulations themselves as a means to better understand the system being managed. This approach, referred to as active adaptive management, attempts to balance short-term demands for hunting opportunity with the learning needed to improve long-term management performance. Learning is accomplished by periodically comparing observed system response, as estimated by ongoing survey and data collection programs, with predictions of competing models. These periodic comparisons lead to changes in measures of credibility associated with the

  1. Hunting promotes sexual conflict in brown bears.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Jacinthe; Leclerc, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Steyaert, Sam M J G; Swenson, Jon E; Pelletier, Fanie

    2017-01-01

    The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991-2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled cub survival before, during and after the mating season. We used three proxies to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in male turnover; distance and timing of the closest male killed and number of males that died around a female's home range centre. Male removal decreased cub survival only during the mating season, as expected in seasonal breeders with SSI. Cub survival increased with distance to the closest male killed within the previous 1·5 years, and it was lower when the closest male killed was removed 1·5 instead of 0·5 year earlier. We did not detect an effect of the number of males killed. Our results support the hypothesis that social restructuring due to hunting can reduce recruitment and suggest that the distribution of the male deaths might be more important than the overall number of males that die. As the removal of individuals through hunting is typically not homogenously distributed across the landscape, spatial heterogeneity in hunting pressure may cause source-sink dynamics, with lower recruitment in areas of high human-induced mortality.

  2. Effects of hunting on cougar spatial organization.

    PubMed

    Maletzke, Benjamin T; Wielgus, Robert; Koehler, Gary M; Swanson, Mark; Cooley, Hilary; Alldredge, J Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of increased mortality on the spatial dynamics of solitary carnivores are not well understood. We examined the spatial ecology of two cougar populations that differed in hunting intensity to test whether increased mortality affected home range size and overlap. The stability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be similar for both sexes among the two areas. The instability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be greater in the heavily hunted population, although may differ for males versus females due to behavior strategies. We marked 22 adult resident cougars in the lightly hunted population and 20 in the heavily hunted population with GPS collars from 2002 to 2008. Cougar densities and predation rates were similar among areas, suggesting no difference in per capita resources. We compared home range size, two-dimensional home range overlap, and three-dimensional utilization distribution overlap index (UDOI) among annual home ranges for male and female cougars. Male cougars in the heavily hunted area had larger sized home ranges and greater two-dimensional and three-dimensional UDOI overlap than those in the lightly hunted area. Females showed no difference in size and overlap of home range areas between study populations - further suggesting that differences in prey quantity and distribution between study areas did not explain differences in male spatial organization. We reject the spatial stability hypothesis and provide evidence to support the spatial instability hypothesis. Increased hunting and ensuing increased male home range size and overlap may result in negative demographic effects for cougars and potential unintended consequences for managers.

  3. Target definition for shipwreck hunting

    PubMed Central

    Kirsner, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or “mean” just 2.7 NM (nautical miles) from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor's reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013). The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review. PMID:26579007

  4. Unintentional firearm hunting deaths in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Eriksson, Anders

    2012-03-10

    This study examined all unintentional firearm fatalities while hunting that occurred in Sweden between 1983 through 2008. The circumstances as well as the impact of the hunter's exam on fatality frequency were analysed. During these 26 years, there were 48 such fatalities, representing 53% of all (n=90) unintentional firearm deaths during the same period. The average annual number of fatalities decreased over the last few decades. Very restrictive firearm legislation in Sweden combined with the introduction of a mandatory hunter's exam since 1985 accounted, at least partly, for this finding. Moose hunting accounted for 46% of the fatalities and small game hunting for the remaining cases. The mean age of the victims was 50 years and 96% of them were males; all shooters were males. During moose hunting, most of the victims were mistaken for game, whereas in small game hunting most of the fatalities were related to falls and improper handling of the weapon. Human error was thus the main cause of these fatalities.

  5. Hunting, social status and biological fitness.

    PubMed

    Gurven, Michael; von Rueden, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Hunting performance may be one of the most important routes to high prestige or social status among men in hunter-gatherer societies. Higher social status based on hunting performance has been linked to higher biological fitness outcomes almost everywhere this relationship has been investigated. This paper explores the proximate pathways underlying the positive correlation between hunting success and fitness, and discusses these in light of recent debates concerning the role of men in hunter-gatherer societies. Meat obtained from hunting directly provisions families and is also distributed to other group members, who may directly or indirectly pay back good hunters with meat, other food, services or favors. The display of hunting abilities may also increase men's fitness through extra-marital reproductive gains. We discuss prior results and provide a novel additional example using data collected among Tsimane horticultural-foragers of Bolivia. Despite the impression that most of the benefits that accrue to good hunters are in the form of extra-marital mating opportunities, we argue instead that most benefits may be gained within rather than outside marital unions.

  6. 'Impact hunters' catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities.

    PubMed

    Gilby, Ian C; Machanda, Zarin P; Mjungu, Deus C; Rosen, Jeremiah; Muller, Martin N; Pusey, Anne E; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-12-05

    Even when hunting in groups is mutually beneficial, it is unclear how communal hunts are initiated. If it is costly to be the only hunter, individuals should be reluctant to hunt unless others already are. We used 70 years of data from three communities to examine how male chimpanzees 'solve' this apparent collective action problem. The 'impact hunter' hypothesis proposes that group hunts are sometimes catalysed by certain individuals that hunt more readily than others. In two communities (Kasekela and Kanyawara), we identified a total of five males that exhibited high hunt participation rates for their age, and whose presence at an encounter with red colobus monkeys increased group hunting probability. Critically, these impact hunters were observed to hunt first more often than expected by chance. We argue that by hunting first, these males dilute prey defences and create opportunities for previously reluctant participants. This by-product mutualism can explain variation in group hunting rates within and between social groups. Hunting rates declined after the death of impact hunter FG in Kasekela and after impact hunter MS stopped hunting frequently in Kanyawara. There were no impact hunters in the third, smaller community (Mitumba), where, unlike the others, hunting probability increased with the number of females present at an encounter with prey.

  7. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  8. 77 FR 57577 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  9. 77 FR 31636 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit...

  10. 76 FR 39433 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council... February 2010, the Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that:...

  11. 78 FR 48460 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  12. 76 FR 12130 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference AGENCY... February 2010, the Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: (a... public, the sporting conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry,...

  13. 78 FR 25463 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources;...

  14. 78 FR 73205 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources;...

  15. 76 FR 17442 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference AGENCY... February 2010, the Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: (a... public, the sporting conservation community, the shooting and hunting sports industry,...

  16. [Hunting shot - evolution of manufacturing technology].

    PubMed

    Bochyński, Piotr; Kuliczkowski, Maciej; Karpiewska, Anna; Turkiewicz, Mariola; Dobosz, Tadeusz

    Hunting shot are 1.2-10 mm diameter balls, usually made of lead alloys, forming a cluster projectile used in smoothbore hunting shotguns. Shot may also be used in pistol and revolver ammunition, in which it can constitute structural element of the projectile. Shot pellets may also be made of other materials and have other shapes. The aim of this paper is to aggregate information on the topic available from a number of different sources. It is hoped that such information will be useful for forensic ballistics experts. Historical development of pellets and their manufacturing technology from the 15th century is presented.

  17. Helping Students Understand American Influence in Canada: A Scavenger Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokott, Bridget; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explains a scavenger hunt to collect items (newspaper clippings, pictures, records, etc.) that represent the influence of the United States on Canadian Culture. The teacher prepares scavenger hunt stations which include items that students have collected. An assessment on items follows the hunt. (KC)

  18. 76 FR 30192 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., we announce that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation...

  19. 77 FR 4575 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed in February...

  20. 76 FR 66955 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed in February...

  1. American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

  2. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the…

  3. Scavenger Hunt: Middle School Earth Science "Test."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Katharine D.; Sanders, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt activity that has been used successfully with middle school students in an earth science course. This activity includes items that call for library research rather than the collection of objects, emphasize real-world connections, are skill-oriented, ask for originality and creativity, and are just for fun. (JRH)

  4. Scavenger Hunts: Chasing Down Scientific Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marshall S.; Dew, Nancy; Kronberg, Joyce R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt activity that stimulates active learning. Presents objectives, examples, pitfalls, grading methods, and evaluation based on course experiences with the technique. Although the method was used with lower division biology courses, it is applicable to a wide variety of science courses at various levels. (SAH)

  5. Hunting and Wildlife Management. Issue Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview discusses hunting as a tool for wildlife management, the management of wildlife populations and hunter participation in providing research data, and the…

  6. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  7. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of... second entry for ``Northwest Montana Wetland Management District'' is removed. BILLING CODE 1505-01-D...

  8. 75 FR 44855 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) is proposing to establish the 2010-11 early-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer limits, for dates and times when hunting may occur and the maximum number of birds that may be taken and possessed in early seasons. Early seasons may open as early as September 1, and......

  9. Determinants of a quality wild turkey hunting season.

    PubMed

    Wynveen, Christopher J; Cavin, Drew A; Wright, Brett A; Hammitt, William E

    2005-07-01

    According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, there has been a 450% increase in the number of licensed wild turkey hunters since 1973. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research articles focusing specifically on turkey hunting. Most human dimensions of wildlife research have focused on either deer or waterfowl hunting. In this study, dimensions of hunting quality, days a field, and harvest were examined among a sample of 739 Virginia fall turkey hunters. Quality of a hunting season, rather than a specific hunt, was examined. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed five domains of attributes of a high-quality turkey-hunting season: wildlife interaction, education, being away, social interaction, and hunting skills. The domains of hunting quality revealed by the PCA are similar to domains found previously for spring turkey hunters as well as other types of hunters. Also examined were hunter perceptions of overall hunting quality, the number of days spent hunting turkeys during the fall season, and harvest success. For comparative purposes and agency needs, hunters were segmented into three categories based on days spent hunting: low frequency (1 to 2 days), medium frequency (3 to 4 days), and high frequency (> or =5 days). The influence of these variables to respondents' perceptions of overall quality was examined using a series of regression models. Variables found to be significant predictors of quality were wildlife interaction and harvest success. Hunters who killed a turkey reported a significantly higher quality season than those who did not kill a turkey.

  10. Wolves on the Hunt: the Behavior of Wolves Hunting Wild Prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between apex predators and their prey are some of the most awesome and meaningful in nature—displays of strength, endurance, and a deep coevolutionary history. And there is perhaps no apex predator more impressive and important in its hunting—or more infamous, more misjudged—than the wolf. Because of wolves’ habitat, speed, and general success at evading humans, researchers have faced great obstacles in studying their natural hunting behaviors. The first book to focus explicitly on wolf hunting of wild prey, Wolves on the Hunt seeks to fill these gaps in our knowledge and understanding. Combining behavioral data, thousands of hours of original field observations, research in the literature, a wealth of illustrations, and—in the e-book edition and online—video segments from cinematographer Robert K. Landis, the authors create a compelling and complex picture of these hunters. The wolf is indeed an adept killer, able to take down prey much larger than itself. While adapted to hunt primarily hoofed animals, a wolf—or especially a pack of wolves—can kill individuals of just about any species. But even as wolves help drive the underlying rhythms of the ecosystems they inhabit, their evolutionary prowess comes at a cost: wolves spend one-third of their time hunting—the most time consuming of all wolf activities—and success at the hunt only comes through traveling long distances, persisting in the face of regular failure, detecting and taking advantage of deficiencies in the physical condition of individual prey, and through ceaseless trial and error, all while risking injury or death. By describing and analyzing the behaviors wolves use to hunt and kill various wild prey—including deer, moose, caribou, elk, Dall sheep, mountain goats, bison, musk oxen, arctic hares, beavers, and others—Wolves on the Hunt provides a revelatory portrait of one of nature’s greatest hunters.

  11. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    PubMed

    Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.

  12. Identity-Driven Differences in Stakeholder Concerns about Hunting Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Lute, Michelle L.; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management. PMID:25464276

  13. Proto-cooperation: group hunting sailfish improve hunting success by alternating attacks on grouping prey.

    PubMed

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan; Strömbom, Daniel; Couillaud, Pierre; Domenici, Paolo; Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F; Wilson, Alexander D M; Krause, Jens

    2016-11-16

    We present evidence of a novel form of group hunting. Individual sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) alternate attacks with other group members on their schooling prey (Sardinella aurita). While only 24% of attacks result in prey capture, multiple prey are injured in 95% of attacks, resulting in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting that hunters can benefit from other conspecifics' attacks on the prey. To explore this, we built a mathematical model capturing the dynamics of the hunt. We show that group hunting provides major efficiency gains (prey caught per unit time) for individuals in groups of up to 70 members. We also demonstrate that a free riding strategy, where some individuals wait until the prey are sufficiently injured before attacking, is only beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre-cursor to more complex group-hunting strategies.

  14. A Pediatric Case of Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Derin, Serhan; Derin, Hatice; Sahan, Murat; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is characterized by facial paralysis, inner ear dysfunction, periauricular pain, and herpetiform vesicles. The reported incidence in children is 2.7/100,000. The pathogenesis involves the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. The recovery rate is better in children than in adults. This paper discusses a 12-year-old girl with a rare case of peripheral facial paralysis caused by RHS and reviews the literature. PMID:25276457

  15. Canvasback mortality from illegal hunting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Nissen, J.M.; Wetzel, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the consequences of local hunting on illegal kill of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), we studied the behavior of hunters on a 646-ha area open to duck hunting (closed to canvasback hunting) on Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, Wisconsin, during the 1991 and 1992 waterfowl hunting seasons. Law enforcement officers observed 258 hunting parties for 419 hours. Of 94 hunting parties encountering canvasbacks, 41 (44%) shot at the ducks on 56 occasions, or 27% of 207 encounters observed, Based on a ratio estimator, there were 790 (95% CI = 376) attempts to shoot at canvasbacks on the Lake Onalaska study area during 1991 and 837 (95% CI = 390) during 1992. Mortality of canvasbacks, excluding crippling loss, was estimated to be 128 during 1991 and 166 during 1992. Thus, total canvasback losses may be higher than currently estimated on a flyway or national basis. This estimating technique offers a promising method for enumerating hunter take of protected and legal species.

  16. Injury pattern due to falls from hunting stands

    PubMed Central

    Zilkens, Georg; Zilkens, Christoph; Zilkens, Jan; Jäger, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Hunting is a historically constructed cultural act and continues to be a passion and a popular recreational pastime worldwide. Along with a high population density in Europe and a large volume of hunters hunting injuries such as falls from hunting stands continue to occur regularly and are a significant cause of morbidity among hunters. The purpose of this study was to review typical injury patterns after falls from hunting stands in Germany between 2000–2009 using the German agricultural statutory accident insurance database and to compare these findings to other causes of hunting accidents. The most common injury pattern after falls from hunting stands in Germany in the period of 2000–2009 are closed fractures. However, data collection is incomplete. Thus a more precise data collection would help to be able to better analyze accident mechanisms in order to be able to prevent further accidents. PMID:22053251

  17. Simulation of Wild Pig Control via Hunting and Contraceptives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 13 -2 1 Simulation of Wild Pig Control via Hunting and Contraceptives Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc...Simulation of Wild Pig Control via Hunting and Contraceptives Jennifer L. Burton, James D. Westervelt, and Stephen Ditchkoff Construction Engineering... contraceptives , and the combination of both on the Fort Benning, GA feral pig population. Results suggest that the combination of hunting and contraception

  18. HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS THE GREAT CIRCUS - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  19. HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH EASTERNMOST SET OF PIERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH EASTERNMOST SET OF PIERS TOWARD STABLE - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  20. Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome in Double-Hit Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Peddi, Prakash; Gallagher, Kevin M.; Chandrasekharan, Chandrikha; Wang, Qi; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo; Nair, Binu S.; Munker, Reinhold; Mills, Glenn M.; Koshy, Nebu V.

    2015-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is a painful condition characterized by hemicranial pain, retroorbital pain, loss of vision, oculomotor nerve paralysis, and sensory loss in distribution of ophthalmic and maxillary division of trigeminal nerve. Lymphomas rarely involve cavernous sinus and simulate Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Here we present a first case of double-hit B cell lymphoma (DHL) relapsing and masquerading as Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. The neurological findings were explained by a lymphomatous infiltration of the right Gasserian ganglion which preceded systemic relapse. As part of this report, the diagnostic criteria for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and double-hit lymphoma are reviewed and updated treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:25918657

  1. Hunting for Knowledge: Using a Scavenger Hunt to Orient Graduate Veterinary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Caitlin; Alpi, Kristine M.

    2015-01-01

    Active participation in orientation is hoped to increase understanding and use of library resources and services beyond the effect of tours or welcome lectures. Timed scavenger hunts have been used to orient undergraduate and medical students to academic libraries. This report describes the planning, execution, and evaluation of an untimed…

  2. 76 FR 58681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    .... Special Seasons/Species Management iii. Black Ducks In 2008, U.S. and Canadian waterfowl managers... substantive changes in hunting regulations unless the black duck breeding population, averaged over the most.... The strategy is designed to share the black duck harvest equally between the two countries;...

  3. Treasure-Hunting in Astronomical Plate Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Peter; La Dous, Constanze; Bräuer, Hans-Jürgen

    In our days astronomical research shows two trends - anong others: On the one hand traditional astronomical plate archives are in danger of falling into oblivion while science is losing their information content. On the other hand, there is an ever-growing need for long-term monitoring of large quantities of objects - the very information contained in the archives. On thes background the workshop ``Treasure-Hunting in Astronomical Plate Archives'' was convened in order to discuss the scientific potential of the world's photometric and astrometric plate archives, ways of making them fully available to scientific research, as well as technical problems connected with this.

  4. Missouri DECA: 2010-2011 Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Missouri DECA Policy Manual. This manual contains the following sections: (1) DECA Board of Directors; (2) State Sales Projects; (3) State Officers; (4) Districts; (5) Competitive Events; (6) General Conference Information; (7) Fall Leadership & State Officer Election Conference; (8) Central Region Leadership…

  5. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  6. Effect of diet on hunting performance of English pointers.

    PubMed

    Davenport, G M; Kelley, R L; Altom, E K; Lepine, A J

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of diet on hunting performance of English pointers during the quail-hunting season in southwest Georgia. Twenty-three trained dogs were assigned to two commercially available diets (i.e., Diet A = Eukanuba Premium Performance Formula, The Iams Company, Lewisburg, OH; Diet B = Diamond Premium Adult Dog Food, Diamond Pet Foods, Meta, MO). Results showed that dogs fed Diet A maintained or gained weight and body condition throughout the hunting season while dogs fed Diet B lost body weight and body condition (P < .05). Dogs fed Diet A demonstrated superior hunting performance (P < .05) compared with those fed Diet B based on total finds per hunt and on the number of birds located per hour of hunting. All blood variables were within normal ranges for adult healthy dogs throughout the season. These results imply that diet can affect the overall performance of hunting dogs and should provide useful information to trainers, handlers, and clinicians who are concerned with promoting the best performance and health in hunting dogs and other canine athletes.

  7. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA...: (a) The hunting, trapping, catching, molesting, killing, or having in possession any wild animal or... could be used for hunting, trapping, or the taking of wildlife, is prohibited....

  8. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA...: (a) The hunting, trapping, catching, molesting, killing, or having in possession any wild animal or... could be used for hunting, trapping, or the taking of wildlife, is prohibited....

  9. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA...: (a) The hunting, trapping, catching, molesting, killing, or having in possession any wild animal or... could be used for hunting, trapping, or the taking of wildlife, is prohibited....

  10. 78 FR 78377 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service RIN 1018-AZ80 Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting... preliminary issues concerning the 2014-15 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,...

  11. 78 FR 3446 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,...

  12. 77 FR 1718 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held... CONTACT: Chief, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of...

  13. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  14. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  15. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  16. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  17. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  18. Cat Dilemma: Too Protected To Escape Trophy Hunting?

    PubMed Central

    Palazy, Lucille; Bonenfant, Christophe; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2011-01-01

    Trophy hunting is one of the most controversial issues in the field of biodiversity conservation. In particular, proponents and opponents debate fiercely over whether it poses a threat to hunted populations. Here, we show that trophy hunting constitutes a greater menace to threatened species than previously realized. Because humans value rarity, targeted species that are threatened are likely to be disproportionately hunted, thereby becoming even more vulnerable, which could eventually push them to extinction. With the ten felid species currently hunted for their trophies, we present evidence that (1) the number of killed individuals increases with time, in several cases exponentially, despite population declines, (2) the price of trophies is strongly dependent on species protection status, (3) changes of protection status coincide with counter-intuitive changes of hunting pressures: protection intensification with augmented hunting effort, and protection relaxation with lower effort. This suggests an over-exploitation of trophy-hunted felids and the necessity of a better quota system coupled with reconsidered protection methods. PMID:21818322

  19. 50 CFR 20.133 - Hunting regulations for crows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hunting regulations for crows. 20.133... Hunting regulations for crows. (a) Crows may be taken, possessed, transported, exported, or imported, only.... (b) Except in the State of Hawaii, where no crows shall be taken, States may by statute or...

  20. Protection to homologous and heterologous challenge in pigs immunized with vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease type O caused an epidemic in East Asia during 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Nam; Lee, Seo-Yong; Chu, Jia-Qi; Lee, Yeo-Joo; Kim, Rae-Hyung; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dong-Seob; Kim, Byounghan; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious infectious disease, and the use of vaccines is known to be effective for its prevention. In 2010/2011, there was an epidemic of the South East Asia (SEA) topotype in East Asian countries. We adapted the SEA topotype virus isolated in November 2010 in Korea in cells to analyze the characteristics of the virus and evaluate its possibility as a vaccine. After cell culture adaptation, the FMD virus particle 146S was purified to develop an inactivated oil vaccine for SEA or other topotypes. To measure its immunogenicity, pigs were inoculated with the experimental vaccine at different concentrations of the antigen. The results indicated that the groups immunized with at least 7.5 μg antigen were protected from homologous challenge. The immunized pigs were also protected against heterologous virus (ME-SA topotype) challenge. The genetic variations between the two field isolates and the adapted vaccine strains were identified in six amino acids by complete genome sequencing.

  1. 76 FR 54051 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2011-12 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  2. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2010-11 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  3. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  4. Referential gestures in fish collaborative hunting.

    PubMed

    Vail, Alexander L; Manica, Andrea; Bshary, Redouan

    2013-01-01

    In humans, referential gestures intentionally draw the attention of a partner to an object of mutual interest, and are considered a key element in language development. Outside humans, referential gestures have only been attributed to great apes and, most recently, ravens. This was interpreted as further evidence for the comparable cognitive abilities of primates and corvids. Here we describe a signal that coral reef fishes, the grouper Plectropomus pessuliferus marisrubri and coral trout Plectropomus leopardus, use to indicate hidden prey to cooperative hunting partners, including giant moray eels Gymnothorax javanicus, Napoleon wrasses Chelinus undulatus and octopuses Octopus cyanea. We provide evidence that the signal possesses the five attributes proposed to infer a referential gesture: it is directed towards an object, mechanically ineffective, directed towards a potential recipient, receives a voluntary response and demonstrates hallmarks of intentionality. Thus, referential gesture use is not restricted to large-brained vertebrates.

  5. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Smith, Eric A; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2014-02-07

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18-82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by 'showing off' was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters.

  6. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William E; Croes, Barbara M; Tchignoumba, Landry; Lahm, Sally A; Alonso, Alfonso; Lee, Michelle E; Campbell, Patrick; Ondzeano, Claude

    2006-08-01

    Road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to African tropical wildlife. In the rainforests of southern Gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). At each of 12 study sites that were evenly divided between hunted and unhunted areas, we established standardized 1-km transects at five distances (50, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 m) from an unpaved road, and then repeatedly surveyed mammals during the 2004 dry and wet seasons. Hunting had the greatest impact on duikers (Cephalophus spp.), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), which declined in abundance outside the oil concession, and lesser effects on lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and carnivores. Roads depressed abundances of duikers, sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), and forest elephants (Loxondonta africana cyclotis), with avoidance of roads being stronger outside than inside the concession. Five monkey species showed little response to roads or hunting, whereas some rodents and pangolins increased in abundance outside the concession, possibly in response to greater forest disturbance. Our findings suggest that even moderate hunting pressure can markedly alter the structure of mammal communities in central Africa. Roads had the greatest impacts on large and small ungulates, with the magnitude of road avoidance increasing with local hunting pressure.

  7. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  8. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    PubMed

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos.

  9. Hunt to buy Pacific Enterprises' U. S. production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Hunt Oil Co., Dallas, has agreed to buy substantially all of the oil and gas assets of Pacific Enterprises Oil Co. (U.S.A.) a subsidiary of Pacific Enterprises, Los Angeles. Hunt will pay $371 million for leases mainly in Texas, Wyoming, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The acquired properties will add oil and gas reserves of about 63 million bbl of oil equivalent and nearly 1.4 million gross leasehold acres to Hunt's exploration and production assets. Included in the assets to be acquired are several oil and gas fields on the Burnett Ranch in King County, Tex., and a subsidiary corporation that has production interests in Colombia.

  10. Higher Serum Heavy Metal May Be Related with Higher Serum gamma-Glutamyltransferase Concentration in Koreans: Analysis of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1, 2, 2010, 2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Han, Sung-Woo; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) may be an early and sensitive marker for oxidative stress. This study was performed to evaluate the association between serum heavy metals and γ-GT concentration. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis based on data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (V-1, 2, 2010, 2011) regarding serum heavy metal concentrations (lead, mercury, and cadmium) as well as serum γ-GT. Serum heavy metals were categorized into tertiles, and serum γ-GT concentration was compared using an analysis of covariance test after relevant variable adjustments. In addition, we evaluated the odds ratio (OR) of having the highest tertile of serum γ-GT in each heavy metal tertile using logistic regression. Results The mean serum lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were 2.67, 5.08, and 1.02 µg/dL in men and 1.95, 3.60, and 1.21 µg/dL in women, respectively. Partial correlation showed a significant positive relation between each heavy metal and serum γ-GT concentration. Comparing serum γ-GT concentration by the tertile of each heavy metal, serum γ-GT concentration showed a significant increase as the tertiles of serum mercury and cadmium in men and that of serum mercury in women increased, but not with lead. The OR of having the highest tertile of serum γ-GT was significant for cadmium in men (OR, 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54 to 6.35) and mercury in women (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.10) in the top tertile of each heavy metal. Conclusion Higher serum heavy metal concentration may be related with higher serum γ-GT concentration. In particular, serum cadmium in men and mercury in women showed significant correlation with serum γ-GT concentration. PMID:24724002

  11. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ANTIBIOTICS IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN A SECONDARY CARE SETTING FROM 2005-2006 AND 2010-2011, IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL: DATA FROM 11,943 URINE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Érique José Peixoto De; Oliveira, Gerson Sobrinho Salvador De; Roque, Felício Lopes; Santos, Sílvia Regina Dos; Olmos, Rodrigo Diaz; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) has a high incidence and recurrence, therefore, treatment is empirical in the majority of cases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the urine cultures performed at a secondary hospital, during two periods, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011, and to estimate the microbial resistance. Patients and methods: We analyzed 11,943 aerobic urine cultures according to basic demographic data and susceptibility to antibiotics in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for Vitek 1 and 2. Results: Most of our cohort consisted of young adult females that were seen at the Emergency Department. E. coli was the most frequent (70.2%) among the 75 species isolated. Resistance of all isolates was ≥ 20% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, cefazolin and nalidixic acid. Although E. coli was more susceptible (resistance ≥ 20% for TMP/SMX and nalidixic acid) among all of the isolates, when classified by the number and percentage of antibiotic resistance. Global resistance to fluoroquinolones was approximately 12%. Risk factors for E. coli were female gender and an age less than 65 years. Men and patients older than 65 years of age, presented more resistant isolates. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were identified in 173 out of 5,722 Gram-negative isolates (3.0%) between 2010 and 2011. Conclusion: E. coli was the most frequent microbe isolated in the urine cultures analyzed in this study. There was a significant evolution of bacterial resistance between the two periods studied. In particular, the rise of bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones was concerning. PMID:25076433

  12. 170. GWMP SOUTH OF GREAT HUNTING CREEK LOOKING SOUTH. (NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. GWMP SOUTH OF GREAT HUNTING CREEK LOOKING SOUTH. (NOTE ASPHALT PAVEMENT AND FILLED LAND) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  13. Hunting promotes spatial reorganization and sexually selected infanticide

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, M.; Frank, S. C.; Zedrosser, A.; Swenson, J. E.; Pelletier, F.

    2017-01-01

    Harvest can affect the ecology and evolution of wild species. The removal of key individuals, such as matriarchs or dominant males, can disrupt social structure and exacerbate the impact of hunting on population growth. We do not know, however, how and when the spatiotemporal reorganization takes place after removal and if such changes can be the mechanism that explain a decrease in population growth. Detailed behavioral information from individually monitored brown bears, in a population where hunting increases sexually selected infanticide, revealed that adult males increased their use of home ranges of hunter-killed neighbors in the second year after their death. Use of a hunter-killed male’s home range was influenced by the survivor’s as well as the hunter-killed male’s age, population density, and hunting intensity. Our results emphasize that hunting can have long-term indirect effects which can affect population viability. PMID:28332613

  14. HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING WEST THROUGH WESTERNMOST SET OF PIERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING WEST THROUGH WESTERNMOST SET OF PIERS AND DOWN PINE ALLÉE - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  15. PAIRED CONCRETE COLUMNS AT GREAT CIRCUS, HUNT STABLE COMPLEX, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PAIRED CONCRETE COLUMNS AT GREAT CIRCUS, HUNT STABLE COMPLEX, VIEW NORTH TO SOUTH, FACING SOUTH - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  16. 222. NORTH END OF DIVIDING STRIP LOCATED NEAR LITTLE HUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    222. NORTH END OF DIVIDING STRIP LOCATED NEAR LITTLE HUNTING CREEK ON GWMP LOOKING SOUTH, 1946. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  17. Geocaching: Finding Mathematics in a Global Treasure Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.

    2014-01-01

    If you love taking mathematics lessons outdoors, then you will love this article. Leicha Bragg describes geocaching, which combines technology, treasure hunting and mathematics, and results in purposeful, authentic and engaging mathematics.

  18. Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rhett D; Sreekar, Rachakonda; Brodie, Jedediah F; Brook, Sarah; Luskin, Matthew; O'Kelly, Hannah; Rao, Madhu; Scheffers, Brett; Velho, Nandini

    2016-10-01

    Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting-tolerant species. To document hunting impacts on vertebrate populations regionally, we conducted an extensive literature review, including papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Evidence from multiple sites indicated animal populations declined precipitously across the region since approximately 1980, and many species are now extirpated from substantial portions of their former ranges. Hunting is by far the greatest immediate threat to the survival of most of the region's endangered vertebrates. Causes of recent overhunting include improved access to forests and markets, improved hunting technology, and escalating demand for wild meat, wildlife-derived medicinal products, and wild animals as pets. Although hunters often take common species, such as pigs or rats, for their own consumption, they take rarer species opportunistically and sell surplus meat and commercially valuable products. There is also widespread targeted hunting of high-value species. Consequently, as currently practiced, hunting cannot be considered sustainable anywhere in the region, and in most places enforcement of protected-area and protected-species legislation is weak. The international community's focus on cross-border trade fails to address overexploitation of wildlife because hunting and the sale of wild meat is largely a local issue and most of the harvest is consumed in villages, rural towns, and nearby cities. In addition to improved enforcement, efforts to engage hunters and manage wildlife populations through sustainable hunting practices are urgently needed. Unless there is a step change in efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation to sustainable levels, the

  19. Low-Tech Scavenger Hunt Model for Student Orientation.

    PubMed

    Renner, Barbara Rochen; Cahoon, Elizabeth; Allegri, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger hunts are an effective, fun way of orienting new students to the library. The low-tech nature and small scale of the scavenger hunt program described here might be more suitable for health sciences libraries than other models, particularly for libraries with small staffs. This model also includes a unique optional element useful for library marketing. This article describes the methods used, shares reactions of program participants, and provides suggestions for those considering orienting students in this way.

  20. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. PMID:24966203

  1. ["Treasure Hunt"--a cognitive-behavioural computer game].

    PubMed

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The development of video games promoting health related behaviour is increasing. This holds not only for chronic diseases like asthma and diabetes, but also for the field of child psychotherapy. At the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of Zürich University, the video game Treasure Hunt was developed to support psychotherapeutic treatment of children between eight and thirteen years of age. Treasure Hunt does not replace the therapist but supports treatment by offering attractive electronic work assignments. The scope of this article is an overview on health games for children and a description of Treasure Hunt. After the explanation of its therapeutic potentials, an evaluation based on questionnaires for therapists and children will be presented. 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of the game three months after download. 41 therapists were willing to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 200 children with whom Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is that a positive bias can not be excluded, as therapists with a positive attitude towards psychotherapeutic computer games were more likely to answer the questionnaire. 118 therapists (95.2%) considered Treasure Hunt a useful tool in child psychotherapy. 197 children (98.5%) report being satisfied with the use of the game during treatment. Treasure Hunt was predominantly used for the age group it is designed for and both, by very experienced and by young therapists. Eleven diagnostic categories reflect a broader range of indications than expected.

  2. Mine-hunting dolphins of the Navy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick W.

    1997-07-01

    Current counter-mine and obstacle avoidance technology is inadequate, and limits the Navy's capability to conduct shallow water (SW) and very shallow water (VSW) MCM in support of beach assaults by Marine Corps forces. Without information as to the location or density of mined beach areas, it must be assumed that if mines are present in one area then they are present in all areas. Marine mammal systems (MMS) are an unusual, effective and unique solution to current problems of mine and obstacle hunting. In the US Navy Mine Warfare Plan for 1994-1995 Marine Mammal Systems are explicitly identified as the Navy's only means of countering buried mines and the best means for dealing with close-tethered mines. The dolphins in these systems possess a biological sonar specifically adapted for their shallow and very shallow water habitat. Research has demonstrated that the dolphin biosonar outperforms any current hardware system available for SW and VSW applications. This presentation will cover current Fleet MCM systems and future technology application to the littoral region.

  3. Regeneration: Thomas Hunt Morgan's window into development.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Early in his career Thomas Hunt Morgan was interested in embryology and dedicated his research to studying organisms that could regenerate. Widely regarded as a regeneration expert, Morgan was invited to deliver a series of lectures on the topic that he developed into a book, Regeneration (1901). In addition to presenting experimental work that he had conducted and supervised, Morgan also synthesized and critiqued a great deal of work by his peers and predecessors. This essay probes into the history of regeneration studies by looking in depth at Regeneration and evaluating Morgan's contribution. Although famous for his work with fruit fly genetics, studying Regeneration illuminates Morgan's earlier scientific approach which emphasized the importance of studying a diversity of organisms. Surveying a broad range of regenerative phenomena allowed Morgan to institute a standard scientific terminology that continues to inform regeneration studies today. Most importantly, Morgan argued that regeneration was a fundamental aspect of the growth process and therefore should be accounted for within developmental theory. Establishing important similarities between regeneration and development allowed Morgan to make the case that regeneration could act as a model of development. The nature of the relationship between embryogenesis and regeneration remains an active area of research.

  4. The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Extrasolar moons may be frequent temperate abodes for life and their detection would not only have astrobiological significance but would also greatly further our understanding of planet/moon formation theories. To date, the bulk of research on this topic has been mostly theoretical, focussing on detection techniques and expected sensitivities as well as exomoon origin and evolution. Here, we introduce a new observational project which aims to change this, enabled by the fact both the theory and available instrumentation have evolved to the required level to make such a search feasible. Our project, "The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler” (HEK), will be a systematic search for exomoons around planets which are viable hosts, with the explicit goal of determining the frequency of large exomoons in the cosmos. We will overview the observational strategy including the detection tools and target selection routines which have been developed, methods to vet false-positives, and some preliminary results from our first batch of candidates. This research is enabled by the NASA Carl Sagan fellowships for exoplanetary research.

  5. Hunting for Snarks in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hestenes, David

    2009-12-08

    A long-standing debate over the interpretation of quantum mechanics has centered on the meaning of Schroedinger's wave function {psi} for an electron. Broadly speaking, there are two major opposing schools. On the one side, the Copenhagen school(led by Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli) holds that {psi} provides a complete description of a single electron state; hence the probability interpretation of {psi}{psi}* expresses an irreducible uncertainty in electron behavior that is intrinsic in nature. On the other side, the realist school(led by Einstein, de Broglie, Bohm and Jaynes) holds that {psi} represents a statistical ensemble of possible electron states; hence it is an incomplete description of a single electron state. I contend that the debaters have overlooked crucial facts about the electron revealed by Dirac theory. In particular, analysis of electron zitterbewegung(first noticed by Schroedinger) opens a window to particle substructure in quantum mechanics that explains the physical significance of the complex phase factor in {psi}. This led to a testable model for particle substructure with surprising support by recent experimental evidence. If the explanation is upheld by further research, it will resolve the debate in favor of the realist school. I give details. The perils of research on the foundations of quantum mechanics have been foreseen by Lewis Carroll in The Hunting of the Snark{exclamation_point}.

  6. Hunting or habitat? Drivers of waterbird abundance and community structure in agricultural wetlands of southern India.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Ramesh; Kumar, Ajith; Gopi Sundar, Kolla S; Bhalla, Ravinder Singh

    2017-02-28

    The relative impacts of hunting and habitat on waterbird community were studied in agricultural wetlands of southern India. We surveyed wetlands to document waterbird community, and interviewed hunters to document hunting intensity, targeted species, and the motivations for hunting. Our results show that hunting leads to drastic declines in waterbird diversity and numbers, and skew the community towards smaller species. Hunting intensity, water spread, and vegetation cover were the three most important determinants of waterbird abundance and community structure. Species richness, density of piscivorous species, and medium-sized species (31-65 cm) were most affected by hunting. Out of 53 species recorded, 47 were hunted, with a preference for larger birds. Although illegal, hunting has increased in recent years and is driven by market demand. This challenges the widely held belief that waterbird hunting in India is a low intensity, subsistence activity, and undermines the importance of agricultural wetlands in waterbird conservation.

  7. Modeling the impacts of hunting on the population dynamics of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rudran, Rasanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Overexploitation of wildlife populations occurs across the humid tropics and is a significant threat to the long-term survival of large-bodied primates. To investigate the impacts of hunting on primates and ways to mitigate them, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model for a landscape that included hunted and un-hunted areas. We used the large-bodied neotropical red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) as our case study species because its life history characteristics make it vulnerable to hunting. We modeled the influence of different rates of harvest and proportions of landscape dedicated to un-hunted reserves on population persistence, population size, social dynamics, and hunting yields of red howler monkeys. In most scenarios, the un-hunted populations maintained a constant density regardless of hunting pressure elsewhere, and allowed the overall population to persist. Therefore, the overall population was quite resilient to extinction; only in scenarios without any un-hunted areas did the population go extinct. However, the total and hunted populations did experience large declines over 100 years under moderate and high hunting pressure. In addition, when reserve area decreased, population losses and losses per unit area increased disproportionately. Furthermore, hunting disrupted the social structure of troops. The number of male turnovers and infanticides increased in hunted populations, while birth rates decreased and exacerbated population losses due to hunting. Finally, our results indicated that when more than 55% of the landscape was harvested at high (30%) rates, hunting yields, as measured by kilograms of biomass, were less than those obtained from moderate harvest rates. Additionally, hunting yields, expressed as the number of individuals hunted/year/km2, increased in proximity to un-hunted areas, and suggested that dispersal from un-hunted areas may have contributed to hunting sustainability. These results indicate that un-hunted

  8. Can compensatory culling offset undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting?

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Bischof, Richard

    2010-01-01

    1. There is growing concern about the evolutionary consequences of human harvesting on phenotypic trait quality in wild populations. Undesirable consequences are especially likely with trophy hunting because of its strong bias for specific phenotypic trait values, such as large antlers in cervids and horns in bovids. Selective hunting can cause a decline in a trophy trait over time if it is heritable, thereby reducing the long-term sustainability of the activity itself. 2. How can we build a sustainable trophy hunting tradition without the negative trait-altering effects? We used an individual-based model to explore whether selective compensatory culling of 'low quality' individuals at an early life stage can facilitate sustainability, as suggested by information from managed game populations in eastern and central Europe. Our model was rooted in empirical data on red deer, where heritability of sexual ornaments has been confirmed and phenotypic quality can be assessed by antler size in individuals as young as 1 year. 3. Simulations showed that targeted culling of low-quality yearlings could counter the selective effects of trophy hunting on the distribution of the affected trait (e.g. antler or horn size) in prime-aged individuals. Assumptions of trait heritability and young-to-adult correlation were essential for compensation, but the model proved robust to various other assumptions and changes to input parameters. The simulation approach allowed us to verify responses as evolutionary changes in trait values rather than short-term consequences of altered age structure, density and viability selection. 4. We conclude that evolutionarily enlightened management may accommodate trophy hunting. This has far reaching implications as income from trophy hunting is often channelled into local conservation efforts and rural economies. As an essential follow-up, we recommend an analysis of the effects of trophy hunting in conjunction with compensatory culling on the

  9. Jupiter observations in 2010-2011. (Italian Title: Giove 2010-2011: rapporto osservativo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamoli, G.

    2012-10-01

    The planet was observed in the visual waveband, in the near-IR and at the 889 nm methane absorption band. Statistics of intensity, colour, latitude and longitudinal drifts were produced; some belts showed latitude and albedo differences between continuum and methane band. The central/Northern part of the NEB hosted strong atmospheric activity;few festoons were observed on the equatorial side of this belt. The STBn and NNTBs jetstreams produced a number of spots; the NTB/Z domain was very active. STBn spots were produced by two prominent sectors of the STB. The GRS had an intense colour, and was surpassed by the oval BA at the end of August.Following the 2009 fade, the SEB was very pale until the outbreak of a bright spot, which started a classical Revival of the belt in November, characterised by chaotic features in the centre of the belt and spots propagating the perturbation along its S. and N. components.

  10. Effects of landscape features on the distribution and sustainability of ungulate hunting in northern Congo.

    PubMed

    Mockrin, Miranda H; Rockwell, Robert F; Redford, Kent H; Keuler, Nicholas S

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the spatial dimensions of hunting and prey population dynamics is important in order to estimate the sustainability of hunting in tropical forests. We investigated how hunting offtake of vertebrates differed in mixed forest and monodominant forest (composed of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei) and over different spatial extents within the hunting catchment around the logging town of Kabo, Congo. In 9 months of recall surveys with hunters, we gathered information on over 1500 hunting trips in which ungulates were 65% of the species killed and 82% of harvested biomass. Hunters supplied information on animals killed and the hunting trip, including the area visited (i.e., hunting zone; 11 separate zones within a 506 km(2) catchment or commonly hunted area). Over 65% of all animals were killed in monodominant forest, which made up 28% of the hunting catchment, and zones with small amounts of monodominant forest were used most frequently by hunters. Given the large offtakes from monodominant forests, we suggest that animal dispersal may be maintaining high, localized harvests in these areas. We believe hunters preferred to hunt in monodominant forest because the understory was accessible and that areas with small amounts of monodominant forest and large amounts of mixed forest were more productive. The variation in hunting pressure we found between and within hunting zones differs from past examinations of spatial variation in hunting offtake, where entire hunting catchments were considered population sinks and areas with low to no hunting (no-take zones) were outside hunting catchments. Future use of no-take zones to manage hunting should incorporate variability in offtake within hunting catchments.

  11. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  12. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.

  13. Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of pseudorabies virus infection in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verin, Ranieri; Varuzza, Paolo; Mazzei, Maurizio; Poli, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    To investigate pseudorabies-virus (PrV) -antibody and viral-DNA prevalence, we collected blood, nasal and genital swabs, and tonsillar and lymph-node tissue samples from 139 wild boars (Sus scrofa; 39 piglets, 30 juveniles, and 70 adults), during the hunting season of 2010-2011 in Tuscany, Central Italy. We performed immunohistochemistry with anti-PrV monoclonal antibodies on selected tissue samples. Forty-three of 139 (30.9%) boars were PrV-antibody positive and a 1,954-base-pair PrV-specific product was amplified from nine nasal (6.5%) and 26 genital (18.7%) swabs. Sequence analysis of PrV-positive PCR products revealed identity scores of 99-100% with Suid herpesvirus 1 strain Becker (JF797219) and confirmed the identification of PrV DNA in tested swabs. There was significantly higher antibody prevalence in adults than in juveniles and in piglets than in juveniles. The prevalence of viral DNA was significantly higher in genital swabs than in nasal specimens. The percentage of positive nasal swabs did not differ among age classes. Piglets had a higher percentage of PCR-positive genital swabs than juvenile and adult subjects (30.8% vs. 13.3% and 14.3%, respectively). Results confirmed that PrV infection is widespread in the wild boar population in the study area. The presence of anti-PrV antibodies and of the PrV virus in piglets could be related to vertical transmission of the virus. This hypothesis was also supported by a higher presence of viral genome in genital swabs than in nasal swabs. This field study supports the importance of vertical transmission of PrV, and the high prevalence of virus in genital swabs supports venereal transmission in adult feral boars.

  14. ‘Impact hunters’ catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities

    PubMed Central

    Gilby, Ian C.; Machanda, Zarin P.; Mjungu, Deus C.; Rosen, Jeremiah; Muller, Martin N.; Pusey, Anne E.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Even when hunting in groups is mutually beneficial, it is unclear how communal hunts are initiated. If it is costly to be the only hunter, individuals should be reluctant to hunt unless others already are. We used 70 years of data from three communities to examine how male chimpanzees ‘solve’ this apparent collective action problem. The ‘impact hunter’ hypothesis proposes that group hunts are sometimes catalysed by certain individuals that hunt more readily than others. In two communities (Kasekela and Kanyawara), we identified a total of five males that exhibited high hunt participation rates for their age, and whose presence at an encounter with red colobus monkeys increased group hunting probability. Critically, these impact hunters were observed to hunt first more often than expected by chance. We argue that by hunting first, these males dilute prey defences and create opportunities for previously reluctant participants. This by-product mutualism can explain variation in group hunting rates within and between social groups. Hunting rates declined after the death of impact hunter FG in Kasekela and after impact hunter MS stopped hunting frequently in Kanyawara. There were no impact hunters in the third, smaller community (Mitumba), where, unlike the others, hunting probability increased with the number of females present at an encounter with prey. PMID:26503679

  15. Mourning Dove Nesting: Seasonal Patterns and Effects of September Hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Dolton, D.D.; Coon, R.A.; Percival, H.F.; Field, R.; Hayne, D.W.; Soileau, L.D.; George, R.R.; Dunks, J.H.; Bunnell, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A nationwide State/Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting. This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in areas where early September dove hunting is permitted compared to areas where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were followed to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated both by backdating from hatch dates and by the numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percent of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual total of nesting activity occurred in September and October. The observed period when 80% of the nests were active, based on hatch dates, lasted from April 22 to September 4. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. A decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the September 1 start of hunting. From this we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in hunted and nonhunted sections from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted sections; the corresponding fledging rates were 33% and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26

  16. Mourning dove nesting: seasonal patterns and effects of September hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, Paul H.; Dolton, David D.; Field, Rebecca; Coon, Richard A.; Percival, H. Franklin; Hayne, Don W.; Soileau, Lawrence D.; George, Ronnie R.; Dunks, James H.; Bunnell, S. Dwight

    1987-01-01

    A nationwide State-Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on nesting mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in zones where early September dove hunting is permitted than in zones where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were monitored to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated using two measurements, backdating from hatch dates and counting numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percentage of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating from hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual nesting activity occurred in September and October. The activity of 80% of the observed nests was within the period of 22 April to 4 September. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. Because a decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the 1 September start of hunting, we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and is not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in adjacent hunted and nonhunted zones from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted zones; the corresponding fledging rates were 33 and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26-day

  17. Shoot first, ask questions later: Interpretative narratives of Neanderthal hunting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mark; Pettitt, Paul; Schreve, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the hunting strategies employed by Neanderthals at a series of kill or near-kill sites from the Middle Palaeolithic of Europe (Mauran, La Borde, Taubach, Zwoleń and Salzgitter Lebenstedt). Using palaeolandscape reconstructions and animal ethology as our context, we adopt a multifaceted approach that views hunting as a chaîne opératoire involving the decisions and actions of both the hunter and the hunted, which together help reconstruct a forensic picture of past events as they unfolded. Our conclusions indicate that Neanderthals did not necessarily pre-select individuals from a herd, who they then isolated, pursued and killed, but rather ambushed whole groups, which they slaughtered indiscriminately. There is strong evidence, however, that Neanderthals were highly selective in the carcasses they then chose to process. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals were excellent tacticians, casual executioners and discerning diners.

  18. Hunting for Ancient Tsunamis in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.

    2007-05-01

    the plow for centuries. The outlook for paleotsunami hunting in South and Southeast Asia probably depends on new targets that include coral boulders and scarcely disturbed beach-ridge plains in Thailand; archaeological sites that provide cultural timelines in India; lagoons of Sri Lanka; coastal rivers that offer cutbanks and oxbows on beach-ridge plains of Java; delicately laminated deposits of salt flats routinely overrun by storm surges on the arid northern shores of the Arabian Sea; and records of prehistoric land-level change close to fault-rupture areas along the Sunda Trench.

  19. [The determination of the ballistics of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet].

    PubMed

    Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Nagornov, M N

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to determine the shooting range of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet from the specific features of gunshot injuries inflicted by container-type Poleba-3 bullets for hunting rifles.

  20. 76 FR 16638 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference; Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference... teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). The teleconference was to... provide advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors. For more information about the...

  1. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  2. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  3. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  4. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se

  5. Risk and Ethical Concerns of Hunting Male Elephant: Behavioural and Physiological Assays of the Remaining Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tarryne; Page, Bruce; Van Dyk, Gus; Millspaugh, Josh; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1) risk of attack or damage (11 hunts), and (2) behavioural (movement dynamics) and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations) responses (4 hunts) in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds) did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites) in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt) and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt). Conclusions/Significance As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies. PMID:18560517

  6. Application of the anthropogenic allee effect model to trophy hunting as a conservation tool.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard B; Cooney, Rosie; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2013-10-01

    Trophy hunting can provide economic incentives to conserve wild species, but it can also involve risk when rare species are hunted. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) is a conceptual model that seeks to explain how rarity may spread the seeds of further endangerment. The AAE model has increasingly been invoked in the context of trophy hunting, increasing concerns that such hunting may undermine rather than enhance conservation efforts. We question the appropriateness of uncritically applying the AAE model to trophy hunting for 4 reasons. First, the AAE assumes an open-access resource, which is a poor characterization of most trophy-hunting programs and obscures the potential for state, communal, or private-property use rights to generate positive incentives for conservation. Second, study results that show the price of hunting increases as the rarity of the animal increases are insufficient to indicate the presence of AAE. Third, AAE ignores the existence of biological and behavioral factors operating in most trophy-hunting contexts that tend to regulate the effect of hunting. We argue that site-specific data, rather than aggregated hunting statistics, are required to demonstrate that patterns of unsustainable exploitation can be well explained by an AAE model. Instead, we suggest that conservation managers seeking to investigate and identify constraints that limit the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, should focus on the critical governance characteristics that shape the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, such as corruption, insecure property rights, and inadequate sharing of benefits with local people.

  7. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  8. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  9. The Hunt for Dwarf Galaxies' Ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    formation had already occurred by this time.Finally, the authors compared the properties of these 73 scaled-back dwarfs to those of high-redshift galaxies that we have already detected with the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, as well as to the detection limits of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission launching in 2018.Patej and Loeb find that, when scaled back to redshifts of z = 6 or 7, the dwarf galaxies would be too faint to detect with current telescopes despite being roughly the same size as high-redshift galaxies weve already detected. But the capabilities of JWST will push into this regime: according to Patej and Loebs calculations, JWST would be able to detect 13 of the 73 galaxies in the sample at a redshift of z = 6, and 9/73 at a redshift of z = 7.Furthermore, the fraction of detectable galaxies would increase if these ancient dwarfs contained large numbers of Population-III-like, massive, bright stars. But even without such a boost, the hunt for the ancestors of local dwarf galaxies appears to be well within JWSTs capabilities!CitationAnna Patej and Abraham Loeb 2015 ApJ 815 L28. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/2/L28

  10. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

  11. Bee Hunt! Ecojustice in Practice for Earth's Buzzing Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.; Pickering, John

    2010-01-01

    The Bee Hunt! project and curriculum are designed with cultural and environmental sensitivity in mind. In this project, K-12 students develop their awareness and understanding of science and investigate North American pollinator declines. Bees, butterflies, and other pollinators are integrally connected to the pollination of the world's crops for…

  12. 77 FR 59285 - National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... responsibility to protect it. On National Hunting and Fishing Day, we pay tribute to the community of sportsmen... deep and abiding bond with our environment. Generations have worked tirelessly to protect the lands and..., communities, and nonprofits with the tools they need to protect the land they love. Through the...

  13. Native American Fishing/Hunting Rights: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, David R.

    An attempt to provide ready access to publications dealing with the controversy over American Indian fishing and hunting rights, this annotated bibliography includes 37 citations (law journals, books, government documents, and other publications excluding newspapers and court cases). The earliest citation is a 1915 speech to the Washington…

  14. [Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: current clinical and electrophysiologic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Oba, E; Salu, P; Liesenborgh, F; Brihaye, M

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome were reported. All clinical investigations were negative in two of them, apart from the orbital venography, which showed on the affected side, an obstruction of the superior ophthalmic vein in its third segment. In the third case, early subclinical optic nerve involvement were demonstrated and followed up by visual evoked responses to checker-board pattern stimuli.

  15. A Hunt for Tennyson: Teaching Poetry through Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lask-Spinac, Sabina

    Tennyson's poem "The Lady of Shalott" and Holman Hunt's painting of the same subject are excellent examples of the value of exploring poetry through painting. One of the biggest questions raised in relation to the poem's theme is the problem of its ambiguity. By looking at the painting in class, one can sense the lack of definite…

  16. Meet EPA Scientist Sherri Hunt, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dr. Sherri Hunt is the Assistant Center Director for the Air, Climate, and Energy (ACE) Research Program. She plays an active leadership role in the ACE program planning and coordination and was a key author for the Research Action Plan development

  17. Hunting increases adaptive auditory map plasticity in adult barn owls.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Joseph F; Ro, Peter; Ro, Daniel; Knudsen, Eric I

    2005-10-19

    The optic tectum (OT) of barn owls contains topographic maps of auditory and visual space. Barn owls reared with horizontally displacing prismatic spectacles (prisms) acquire a novel auditory space map in the OT that restores alignment with the prismatically displaced visual map. Although juvenile owls readily acquire alternative maps of auditory space as a result of experience, this plasticity is reduced greatly in adults. We tested whether hunting live prey, a natural and critically important behavior for barn owls, increases auditory map plasticity in adult owls. Two groups of naive adult owls were fit with prisms. The first group was fed dead mice during 10 weeks of prism experience, while the second group was required to hunt live prey for an identical period of time. When the owls hunted live prey, auditory maps shifted substantially farther (five times farther, on average) and the consistency of tuning curve shifts within each map increased. Only a short period of time in each day, during which the two groups experienced different conditions, accounts for this effect. In addition, increased map plasticity correlated with behavioral improvements in the owls' ability to strike and capture prey. These results indicate that the experience of hunting dramatically increases adult adaptive plasticity in this pathway.

  18. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hunting and trapping. 331.3 Section 331.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  19. Future-Oriented Coping and Job Hunting among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yueqin; Gan, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of Chinese college students (n = 216), the present study showed that future-oriented coping negatively correlated with perceived pressure and positively correlated with successful job hunting. The relationship between proactive coping and preventive coping was also explored. Structural equation modeling suggested that a sequence…

  20. The Public Services Job Hunt: Observations and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The library science job market is competitive, and library and information science (LIS) students and new graduates often have questions and concerns about how to engage in a successful job hunt. Based on research with employers and interactions with students and alumni, the author offers advice for job-seekers looking for public services…

  1. Sport Hunting, Predator Control and Conservation of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S.; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities. PMID:19536277

  2. Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-06-17

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities.

  3. Library Scavenger Hunts: A Way out of the Bewilderness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Randall

    1990-01-01

    Describes a "scavenger hunt" approach to teaching research and critical thinking skills to high school and college students. Students are provided with lists of challenging questions, supporting materials (cartoons, quotations, odd facts and humorous excerpts), and clues for developing a research strategy. Examples of questions, clues…

  4. Reward Your Students with an Online Scavenger Hunt!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Do you have a class of students who do excellent work and whom you would like to give an enjoyable reward? Try an "Internet scavenger hunt" for a fun and educational change of pace! This article shares how to run the activity.

  5. Using Scavenger Hunts to Familiarize Students with Scientific Journal Articles.

    PubMed

    Lijek, Rebeccah S; Fankhauser, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Primary scientific literature can be difficult to navigate for anyone unfamiliar with its foreign, formal structure. We sought to create a fun, easy learning tool to help familiarize students of all ages with the structure of a scientific article. Our main learning objective was for the student to realize that science writing is formulaic-that specific information is found in predictable locations within an article-and that, with an understanding of the formula, anyone can comfortably navigate any journal article and accurately predict what to expect to find in each section. To this end, we designed a Journal Article Scavenger Hunt that requires the user to find and identify a series of commonplace features of a primary research article. The scavenger hunt activity is quick and easy to implement, and is adaptable to various ages and settings, including the classroom, lab, and at outreach events. The questions in the scavenger hunt can be scaled in difficulty and specificity to suit the instructor's needs. Over many years of using this activity, we have received positive feedback from students of all ages, from elementary school students to lay adult-learners as well as science teachers themselves. By making the unknown seem predictable and approachable, the scavenger hunt helps a variety of audiences feel more comfortable with science and more confident in their ability to engage directly with the scientific literature. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  6. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hunting and trapping. 331.3 Section 331.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  7. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of...

  8. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses §...

  9. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses §...

  10. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses §...

  11. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14... Alaska National Wildlife Refuges in compliance with applicable State and Federal laws. To the extent... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  12. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14... Alaska National Wildlife Refuges in compliance with applicable State and Federal laws. To the extent... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  13. The Evolution of Lateralization in Group Hunting Sailfish.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Stefan; Viblanc, Paul E; Herbert-Read, James E; Zaslansky, Paul; Domenici, Paolo; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F; Svendsen, Morten B S; Wilson, Alexander D M; Couillaud, Pierre; Boswell, Kevin M; Krause, Jens

    2017-02-20

    Lateralization is widespread throughout the animal kingdom [1-7] and can increase task efficiency via shortening reaction times and saving on neural tissue [8-16]. However, lateralization might be costly because it increases predictability [17-21]. In predator-prey interactions, for example, predators might increase capture success because of specialization in a lateralized attack, but at the cost of increased predictability to their prey, constraining the evolution of lateralization. One unexplored mechanism for evading such costs is group hunting: this would allow individual-level specialization, while still allowing for group-level unpredictability. We investigated this mechanism in group hunting sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, attacking schooling sardines, Sardinella aurita. During these attacks, sailfish alternate in attacking the prey using their elongated bills to slash or tap the prey [22-24]. This rapid bill movement is either leftward or rightward. Using behavioral observations of identifiable individual sailfish hunting in groups, we provide evidence for individual-level attack lateralization in sailfish. More strongly lateralized individuals had a higher capture success. Further evidence of lateralization comes from morphological analyses of sailfish bills that show strong evidence of one-sided micro-teeth abrasions. Finally, we show that attacks by single sailfish are indeed highly predictable, but predictability rapidly declines with increasing group size because of a lack of population-level lateralization. Our results present a novel benefit of group hunting: by alternating attacks, individual-level attack lateralization can evolve, without the negative consequences of individual-level predictability. More generally, our results suggest that group hunting in predators might provide more suitable conditions for the evolution of strategy diversity compared to solitary life.

  14. Can hunting of translocated nuisance Canada geese reduce local conflicts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holevinski, R.A.; Malecki, R.A.; Curtis, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) nest or reside in the temperate latitudes of North America. In past years, translocation-the capture and subsequent release of geese at distant locations-has been used to establish resident goose populations and to reduce nuisance problems. However, with new special hunting seasons designed to target resident Canada geese, we can now evaluate translocation as a management tool when hunting is allowed at release sites. We selected 2 study sites, representative of urban and suburban locations with nuisance resident geese, in central and western New York, USA. In June 2003, we translocated 80 neck-banded adult geese, 14 radiomarked adult females, and 83 juveniles 150 km east and southwest from urban and suburban problem sites in western New York to state-owned Wildlife Management Areas. At these same capture sites, we used 151 neck-banded adult geese, 12 radiomarked females, and 100 juveniles as controls to compare dispersal movements and harvest vulnerability to translocated geese. All observations (n = 45) of translocated radiomarked geese were <20 km from release sites, in areas where hunting was permitted. Only 25 of 538 observations (4.6%) of radiomarked geese at control sites were in areas open to hunting. The remainder of observations occurred at nonhunting locations within 10 km of control sites. More translocated adult geese (23.8%) were harvested than control geese (6.6%; ??2 = 72.98, P = 0.0009). More translocated juvenile geese were harvested (22.9%) than juvenile controls (5.0%; ??2 = 72.30, P = 0.0005). Only 7 (8.8%) translocated adult geese returned to the original capture sites during Canada goose hunting seasons. Translocation of adult and juvenile geese in family groups may alleviate nuisance problems at conflict sites through increased harvest, reducing the number of birds returning in subsequent years.

  15. Responses of Florida panthers to recreational deer and hog hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janis, Michael W.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Big Cypress National Preserve constitutes approximately one-third of the range of the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi). Because recreational hunting is allowed in Big Cypress National Preserve, we examined 8 response variables (activity rates, movement rates, predation success, home-range size, home-range shifts, proximity to off-road vehicle trails, use of areas with concentrated human activity, and habitat selection) to evaluate how Florida panthers respond to human activity associated with deer and hog hunting. Data consisted of panther radiolocations collected since 1981 by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and the National Park Service, which we augmented with radiolocations and activity monitoring from 1994 to 1998. A split-plot (treatment and control) study design with repeated measures of the variables for each panther taken before, during, and after the hunting season was used. We did not detect responses to hunting for variables most directly related to panther energy intake or expenditure (i.e., activity rates, movement rates, predation success of females; P>0.10). However, panthers reduced their use of Bear Island (P=0.021), an area of concentrated human activity, and were found farther from off-road vehicle trails (P≤0.001) during the hunting season, which was indicative of a reaction to human disturbance. Whereas the reaction to human activity on off-road vehicle trails probably has minor biological implications and may be linked to prey behavior, the decreased use of Bear Island is most likely a direct reaction to human activity and resulted in increased use of adjacent private lands. Future habitat loss on those private lands could exacerbate the negative consequences of this response by panthers.

  16. Hunting statistics: what data for what use? An account of an international workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Lebreton, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Hunting interacts with the underlying dynamics of game species in several different ways and is, at the same time, a source of valuable information not easily obtained from populations that are not subjected to hunting. Specific questions, including the sustainability of hunting activities, can be addressed using hunting statistics. Such investigations will frequently require that hunting statistics be combined with data from other sources of population-level information. Such reflections served as a basis for the meeting, ?Hunting Statistics: What Data for What Use,? held on January 15-18, 2001 in Saint-Benoist, France. We review here the 20 talks held during the workshop and the contribution of hunting statistics to our knowledge of the population dynamics of game species. Three specific topics (adaptive management, catch-effort models, and dynamics of exploited populations) were highlighted as important themes and are more extensively presented as boxes.

  17. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  18. 50 CFR 32.70 - Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. National Elk Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. B. Upland Game Hunting. C. Big Game Hunting. Hunters may hunt elk and bison on designated areas... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. Hunting of geese, ducks and coots is permitted on designated...

  19. Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    : View of the SIMBA instrument First observations with SIMBA SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") was built and installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at La Silla (Chile) within an international collaboration between the University of Bochum and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Germany, the Swedish National Facility for Radio Astronomy and ESO . The SIMBA ("Lion" in Swahili) instrument detects radiation at a wavelength of 1.2 mm . It has 37 "horns" and acts like a camera with 37 picture elements (pixels). By changing the pointing direction of the telescope, relatively large sky fields can be imaged. As the first and only imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere , SIMBA now looks up towards rich and virgin hunting grounds in the sky. Observations at millimetre wavelengths are particularly useful for studies of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar clouds that are impenetrable to optical light. Other objects for which SIMBA is especially suited include planet-forming disks of cold dust around nearby stars and extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , still in the stage of formation. During the first observations, SIMBA was used to study the gas and dust content of star-forming regions in our own Milky Way Galaxy, as well as in the Magellanic Clouds and more distant galaxies. It was also used to record emission from planetary nebulae , clouds of matter ejected by dying stars. Moreover, attempts were made to detect distant galaxies and quasars radiating at mm-wavelengths and located in two well-studied sky fields, the "Hubble Deep Field South" and the "Chandra Deep Field" [1]. Observations with SEST and SIMBA also serve to identify objects that can be observed at higher resolution and at shorter wavelengths with future southern submm telescopes and interferometers such as APEX (see MPG Press Release 07/01 of 6 July 2001) and ALMA. SIMBA images regions of high-mass star formation ESO PR Photo 28a/01 ESO

  20. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-03-02

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  1. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  2. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  3. Turtle hunting and tombstone opening. public generosity as costly signaling.

    PubMed

    Smith; Bird

    2000-07-01

    Costly signaling theory (CST) offers an explanation of generosity and collective action that contrasts sharply with explanations based on conditional reciprocity. This makes it particularly relevant to situations involving widespread unconditional provisioning of collective goods. We provide a preliminary application of CST to ethnographic data on turtle hunting and public feasting among the Meriam of Torres Strait, Australia. Turtle hunting appears to meet the key conditions specified in CST: it is (1) an honest signal of underlying abilities such as strength, risk-taking, skill, and leadership; (2) costly in ways not subject to reciprocation; (3) an effective means of broadcasting signals, since the collective good (a feast) attracts a large audience; and (4) seems to provide benefits to signalers (turtle hunters) as well as recipients (audience). We conclude with some suggestions as to the broader implications of this research, and the costly signaling paradigm in general, for understanding collective action and generosity in human social groups.

  4. On a nonlinear viscoelastic model of Hunt-Crossley impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyagel, R. V.; Lapshin, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    We consider a nonlinear viscoelastic model of the impact of a body on a stationary Hunt-Crossley obstacle. We obtain the first integral of the equation of motion and determine the coefficient of restitution, the kinetic energy lost at the impact, and their dependence on the impact velocity. We find the solution of the equation of motion of the body in terms of integrals by using the Lambert W-function and present the results of mathematical modeling.

  5. Applicability of Age-Based Hunting Regulations for African Leopards

    PubMed Central

    Balme, Guy Andrew; Hunter, Luke; Braczkowski, Alex Richard

    2012-01-01

    In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males <2 years were typically misidentified as females, while mature males (≥4 years) were sexed correctly. Mature male leopards were also more likely to be aged correctly, as were portrait photographs. Aging proficiency was also influenced by the profession of respondents, with hunters recording the lowest scores. A discriminant model including dewlap size, the condition of the ears, and the extent of facial scarring accurately discriminated among male leopard age classes. Model classification rates were considerably higher than the respective scores attained by survey respondents, implying that the aging ability of hunters could theoretically improve with appropriate training. Dewlap size was a particularly reliable indicator of males ≥7 years and a review of online trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory framework and the

  6. Cross-jurisdictional management of a trophy-hunted species.

    PubMed

    Hochard, Jacob; Finnoff, David

    2017-02-08

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) are managed for competing uses in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Tourism benefits Yellowstone National Park (YNP) visitors while trophy hunting benefits hunters outside of the park. We investigate the policy scope of gray wolf management across jurisdictional boundaries by incorporating three foundations of the behavioral ecology of wolves: refuge-seeking behavior, optimal foraging group size and territoriality. Tradeoffs between and within consumptive and non-consumptive human benefits and wolf population fitness and life history indicators are quantified as a set of elasticities, providing clear implications to resource managers. Our approach highlights that hunting intensity affects the provision of consumptive and non-consumptive human benefits across jurisdictional boundaries and ought to be managed accordingly. We also show that population levels are an incomplete indicator of species fitness, which may depend on how hunting policies impact underlying group ecology. Our findings suggest traditional optimization approaches to wildlife management may lead to suboptimal policy recommendations when the boundaries on the natural system are oversimplified. Highlighting the human element of wildlife management, we show that understanding tourist and hunter responses to wildlife population abundances is critical to balancing provision of consumptive and non-consumptive human uses.

  7. Demography, not inheritance, drives phenotypic change in hunted bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Traill, Lochran W.; Schindler, Susanne; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Selective harvest, such as trophy hunting, can shift the distribution of a quantitative character such as body size. If the targeted character is heritable, then there will be an evolutionary response to selection, and where the trait is not, then any response will be plastic or demographic. Identifying the relative contributions of these different mechanisms is a major challenge in wildlife conservation. New mathematical approaches can provide insight not previously available. Here we develop a size- and age-based two-sex integral projection model based on individual-based data from a long-term study of hunted bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at Ram Mountain, Canada. We simulate the effect of trophy hunting on body size and find that the inheritance of body mass is weak and that any perceived decline in body mass of the bighorn population is largely attributable to demographic change and environmental factors. To our knowledge, this work provides the first use of two-sex integral projection models to investigate the potential eco-evolutionary consequences of selective harvest. PMID:25114219

  8. Palestine Saw-scaled Vipers hunt disadvantaged avian migrants.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Reuven; Zduniak, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The selection of an ambush-cum-foraging site and proper prey are indispensable for maintaining an adequate energy intake by sit-and-wait predators to optimize survival and future fitness. This is important for snakes, where an ambush site has suitable ambience. We studied the foraging strategy of the Palestine Saw-scaled Viper (Echis coloratus) at an avian migratory stopover site. Following initial observations, we hypothesized that vipers are able to discern the body mass of a perched bird and hunt accordingly. We implemented an experiment where vipers chose between four groups of migratory Blackcaps with different body mass. Prey choice by vipers of both age classes was not random and adults focused on Blackcaps with the lightest body mass. Juveniles displayed a variability of prey choice but selected mainly birds from the lightest categories. We concluded that Saw-scaled Vipers hunt prey based on thermal cues; juveniles practice on different prey groups prior to perfecting their foraging techniques i.e., hunting is a learned process; and that they prefer birds with the lowest body mass. The last because Blackcaps, when on migration, save energy by entering a state of deep torpor in which they sacrifice their vigilance capabilities.

  9. Deer hunting on Pennsylvania's public and private lands: A two-tiered system of hunters?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stedman, R.C.; Bhandari, P.; Luloff, A.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Finley, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recreational hunting is crucial for controlling white-tailed deer populations. Public land is increasingly important as access to private lands declines. However, differences between public and private land hunters remain unknown. Our study of Pennsylvania hunters revealed differences between private and public land hunters that may pose problems for management. Hunters who only hunted public land had lower harvest rates, especially of antlerless deer, spent less time hunting, were less committed to hunting, were more likely to hunt alone, less likely to belong to a hunting camp, and more likely to live in urban areas. They were less likely to believe that high deer populations could damage forest ecosystems, and less willing to harvest antlerless deer. The implications of these findings, in the context of already-declining hunter capacity to keep deer populations in check, and concomitant declining access to private land, are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Summary of hunting injuries in central Wisconsin: a 4-year experience at a rural referral center.

    PubMed

    Stueland, D; Carpenter, W S; Cleveland, D

    1995-05-01

    Surveillance of hunting-associated injuries was performed over a 4-year period at a rural Emergency Department in central Wisconsin. Over that period of time, 125 individuals sought treatment for hunting-related injuries. The majority of injuries were related to autumn deer hunting and included both gun and bow and arrow hunting. Over half of the persons injured while hunting with a bow and arrow fell from a height. The admission rate for persons in the immediate area was 35.1%, but for those from outside the area, it was 64.8%. The effects of the referral bias result in severe injuries being seen in rural Emergency Departments during hunting seasons, necessitating such departments to be prepared for a wide range of injuries.

  11. Hunting influences the diel patterns in habitat selection by northern pintails Anas acuta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.

  12. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    PubMed

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.

  13. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  14. Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004–2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007–2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September–October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013–2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  15. Social and ecological change over a decade in a village hunting system, central Gabon.

    PubMed

    Coad, L; Schleicher, J; Milner-Gulland, E J; Marthews, T R; Starkey, M; Manica, A; Balmford, A; Mbombe, W; Diop Bineni, T R; Abernethy, K A

    2013-04-01

    Despite widespread recognition of the major threat to tropical forest biological diversity and local food security posed by unsustainable bushmeat hunting, virtually no long-term studies tracking the socioecological dynamics of hunting systems have been conducted. We interviewed local hunters and collected detailed hunting data to investigate changes in offtake and hunter characteristics over 10 years (2001-2010) in Dibouka and Kouagna villages, central Gabon, in the context of hunter recollections of longer term trends since the 1950s. To control for changes in hunter behavior, such as trap location and characteristics, we report hunting offtake data per trap. Our results suggest the hunting area was already highly depleted by 2001; local hunters reported that 16 large-bodied prey species had become rare or locally extirpated over the last 60 years. Overall, we observed no significant declines in hunting offtake or changes in species composition from 2001 to 2010, and offtakes per trap increased slightly between 2004 and 2010. However, trapping distance from the villages increased, and there was a switch in hunting techniques; a larger proportion of the catch was hunted with guns in 2010. The number of hunters declined by 20% from 2004 to 2010, and male livelihood activities shifted away from hunting. Hunters with the lowest hunting incomes in 2004 were more likely than successful hunters to have moved away from the village by 2010 (often in response to alternative employment opportunities). Therefore, changes in trap success (potentially related to biological factors) were interacting with system-level changes in hunter number and composition (related to external socioeconomic factors) to produce a relatively static overall offtake. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the small-scale context of hunting to correctly interpret changes or apparent stasis in hunting effort and offtake over time.

  16. Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Redouan; Hohner, Andrea; Ait-el-Djoudi, Karim; Fricke, Hans

    2006-12-01

    Intraspecific group hunting has received considerable attention because of the close links between cooperative behaviour and its cognitive demands. Accordingly, comparisons between species have focused on behaviours that can potentially distinguish between the different levels of cognitive complexity involved, such as "intentional" communication between partners in order to initiate a joint hunt, the adoption of different roles during a joint hunt (whether consistently or alternately), and the level of food sharing following a successful hunt. Here we report field observations from the Red Sea on the highly coordinated and communicative interspecific hunting between the grouper, Plectropomus pessuliferus, and the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus. We provide evidence of the following: (1) associations are nonrandom, (2) groupers signal to moray eels in order to initiate joint searching and recruit moray eels to prey hiding places, (3) signalling is dependent on grouper hunger level, and (4) both partners benefit from the association. The benefits of joint hunting appear to be due to complementary hunting skills, reflecting the evolved strategies of each species, rather than individual role specialisation during joint hunts. In addition, the partner species that catches a prey item swallows it whole immediately, making aggressive monopolisation of a carcass impossible. We propose that the potential for monopolisation of carcasses by one partner species represents the main constraint on the evolution of interspecific cooperative hunting for most potentially suitable predator combinations.

  17. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  18. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

    PubMed

    Darimont, Chris T; Child, K Rosie

    2014-01-01

    Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas), physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing), and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair) and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%), camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access, wildlife hunters in

  19. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S.; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts. PMID:26196134

  20. Revisiting evidence for sustainability of bushmeat hunting in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Waite, T A

    2007-09-01

    Bushmeat hunting, a key source of dietary protein, has been implicated as a major extinction threat to tropical vertebrate species in West Africa. Ideally, any such hunting of wild species should be done sustainably, with off-take levels low enough to ensure viability of harvested species. Recent work purports to show that a mature bushmeat market in a major city in Ghana operates sustainably after depletion of vulnerable, slow-reproducing species (Cowlishaw and others 2005). I revisit two aspects of this work. First, I retest the prediction that larger species are transported to the market from greater distances, as expected if overexploitation depletes large species close to the city. Cowlishaw and others failed to find a significantly positive relationship between species-specific body mass and distance between capture site and the market. However, my reanalysis provides evidence for a positive relationship after all, consistent with unsustainable harvesting. In particular, ungulate species were harvested significantly farther from the market than smaller-bodied rodent species. Second, I caution that just because species "persist" in the marketplace in no way implies that they can withstand hunting pressure elsewhere and so should be of little concern to conservationists. I reveal that such species, despite their high intrinsic rates of population growth, are not robust elsewhere. Several of them have disappeared from a network of protected areas in Ghana (Brashares and others 2001). I show that faster-reproducing species are not necessarily more likely to persist in protected areas. The mere presence of fast-reproducing species in a mature bushmeat market should not be construed as generalizable robustness; criteria for ecological sustainability should ensure viability; and harvested species should be robust, not highly prone to extinction, in protected areas.

  1. Effect of small-scale heterogeneity of prey and hunter distributions on the sustainability of bushmeat hunting.

    PubMed

    Van Vliet, Nathalie; Milner-Gulland, E J; Bousquet, Francois; Saqalli, Mehdi; Nasi, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Bushmeat is the main source of protein and the most important source of income for rural people in the Congo Basin, but intensive hunting of bushmeat species is also a major concern for conservationists. Although spatial heterogeneity in hunting effort and in prey populations at the landscape level plays a key role in the sustainability of hunted populations, the role of small-scale heterogeneity within a village hunting territory in the sustainability of hunting has remained understudied. We built a spatially explicit multiagent model to capture the dynamics of a system in which hunters and preys interact within a village hunting territory. We examined the case of hunting of bay duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis) in the village of Ntsiété, northeastern Gabon. The impact of hunting on prey populations depended on the spatial heterogeneity of hunting and prey distribution at small scales within a hunting area. Within a village territory, the existence of areas hunted throughout the year, areas hunted only during certain seasons, and unhunted areas contributed to the sustainability of the system. Prey abundance and offtake per hunter were particularly sensitive to the frequency and length of hunting sessions and to the number of hunters sharing an area. Some biological parameters of the prey species, such as dispersal rate and territory size, determined their spatial distribution in a hunting area, which in turn influenced the sustainability of hunting. Detailed knowledge of species ecology and behavior, and of hunting practices are crucial to understanding the distribution of potential sinks and sources in space and time. Given the recognized failure of simple biological models to assess maximum sustainable yields, multiagent models provide an innovative path toward new approaches for the assessment of hunting sustainability, provided further research is conducted to increase knowledge of prey species' and hunter behavior.

  2. Science in 60 – The Hunt for Antarctic Meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Nina

    2015-12-08

    She's the "coolest" thing in science, searching the ice sheets of Antarctica for meteorites from outer space. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist Nina Lanza has signed up to spend nearly six weeks in a tent on the Antarctic ice sheet. Why would anyone do such a thing? For science, obviously! In the premiere episode of Los Alamos National Laboratory's "Science in 60" video series, Lanza gives us the low-down in 60 seconds on the why and how of hunting meteorites on the ice.

  3. Assessing the sustainability of African lion trophy hunting, with recommendations for policy.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; M'soka, Jassiel; Dröge, Egil; Rosenblatt, Eli; Becker, Matthew S; Matandiko, Wigganson; Simpamba, Twakundine

    2016-10-01

    While trophy hunting provides revenue for conservation, it must be carefully managed to avoid negative population impacts, particularly for long-lived species with low natural mortality rates. Trophy hunting has had negative effects on lion populations throughout Africa, and the species serves as an important case study to consider the balance of costs and benefits, and to consider the effectiveness of alternative strategies to conserve exploited species. Age-restricted harvesting is widely recommended to mitigate negative effects of lion hunting, but this recommendation was based on a population model parameterized with data from a well-protected and growing lion population. Here, we used demographic data from lions subject to more typical conditions, including source-sink dynamics between a protected National Park and adjacent hunting areas in Zambia's Luangwa Valley, to develop a stochastic population projection model and evaluate alternative harvest scenarios. Hunting resulted in population declines over a 25-yr period for all continuous harvest strategies, with large declines for quotas >1 lion/concession (~0.5 lion/1,000 km(2) ) and hunting of males younger than seven years. A strategy that combined periods of recovery, an age limit of ≥7 yr, and a maximum quota of ~0.5 lions shot/1,000 km(2) yielded a risk of extirpation <10%. Our analysis incorporated the effects of human encroachment, poaching, and prey depletion on survival, but assumed that these problems will not increase, which is unlikely. These results suggest conservative management of lion trophy hunting with a combination of regulations. To implement sustainable trophy hunting while maintaining revenue for conservation of hunting areas, our results suggest that hunting fees must increase as a consequence of diminished supply. These findings are broadly applicable to hunted lion populations throughout Africa and to inform global efforts to conserve exploited carnivore populations.

  4. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will... rulemaking requirements of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553). Lands acquired pursuant to the...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  5. The Jensen and The Hunt and Sternberg Comments: From Penetrating to Absurd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.; Arikawa, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    We praised the comments of Jensen and regard most of the contentions of Hunt and Sternberg as absurd. It is ridiculous to question the validity of the skin color map and its application since meaningful group differences and meaningful correlations between temperature and skin color were found. It was inappropriate for Hunt and Sternberg to…

  6. Lead exposure in free-flying turkey vultures is associated with big game hunting in California.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers.

  7. Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures Is Associated with Big Game Hunting in California

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers. PMID:21494326

  8. Looking for Answers: Developing a Critical Reflective Scavenger Hunt for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kathleen A.; Stewart, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt assignment in a freshman orientation course. Uses the idea of the scavenger hunt as a way to locate and utilize campus resources and gain insight into the grading and self-evaluation process. Contains four resources, with sample assignments appended. (NB)

  9. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting. 32.1 Section 32.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General...

  10. Pack hunting by a common soil amoeba on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Rosengarten, Jamila; Koller, Robert; Mulder, Christian; Urich, Tim; Bonkowski, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Soils host the most complex communities on Earth, including the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes, i.e. heterotrophic protists. Protists are generally considered as bacterivores, but evidence for negative interactions with nematodes both from laboratory and field studies exist. However, direct impacts of protists on nematodes remain unknown. We isolated the soil-borne testate amoeba Cryptodifflugia operculata and found a highly specialized and effective pack-hunting strategy to prey on bacterivorous nematodes. Enhanced reproduction in presence of prey nematodes suggests a beneficial predatory life history of these omnivorous soil amoebae. Cryptodifflugia operculata appears to selectively impact the nematode community composition as reductions of nematode numbers were species specific. Furthermore, we investigated 12 soil metatranscriptomes from five distinct locations throughout Europe for 18S ribosomal RNA transcripts of C. operculata. The presence of C. operculata transcripts in all samples, representing up to 4% of the active protist community, indicates a potential ecological importance of nematophagy performed by C. operculata in soil food webs. The unique pack-hunting strategy on nematodes that was previously unknown from protists, together with molecular evidence that these pack hunters are likely to be abundant and widespread in soils, imply a considerable importance of the hitherto neglected trophic link 'nematophagous protists' in soil food webs.

  11. Cadaver treasure hunt: introducing geriatrics concepts in the anatomy class.

    PubMed

    McNicoll, Lynn; Fulton, Ana Tuya; Ritter, Dale; Besdine, Richard W

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an educational program introducing geriatrics to medical students during anatomy. Observational study of an educational intervention in medical school was the design utilized. First-year medical students in an anatomy laboratory were participants. The program consists of a lecture and a workshop. First, a geriatrics lecture early in the course presents demographic data on the cadavers, followed by comparison with national data on leading causes of death. Second, there is a "treasure hunt" in the anatomy laboratory conducted by geriatricians. Each geriatrician spends 45 minutes with one-four-student cadaver group at a time, reviewing anatomical findings and facilitating a discussion of clinical correlations and implications. A list of common anatomical findings, aging- and disease-related, is distributed to the students as an aid in identifying findings of interest. Students have been surprised to learn that the mean age of the 24 cadavers exceeded 80 years (mean 81, median 85 for 2 years), and that causes of death mirrored national data. The students begin understanding aging and appreciate the valuable resource of cadavers. The students acquire a new holistic perspective regarding their cadavers that is not apparent during the dissections. Students and faculty find the experience valuable in understanding the interplay of disease and aging. Evaluations have been mostly positive (82-87% positive responses). The anatomy lecture and "treasure hunt" experience are unique strategies for using cadavers to introduce geriatrics principles into the medical school.

  12. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  13. Embargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation?

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230-648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123-498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa.

  14. Embargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230–648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123–498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa. PMID:27182985

  15. Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo R N; Mendonça, Lívia E T; Confessor, Maine V A; Vieira, Washington L S; Lopez, Luiz C S

    2009-04-22

    Hunting for wild animals is stimulated by the many different human uses of faunal resources, and these animals constitute important subsistence items in local communities in the Caatinga region. In order to gain access to these resources, hunters have developed a series of techniques and strategies that are described in the present work. The principal hunting techniques encountered were: waiting, especially directed towards hunting diurnal birds; calling ("arremedo"), a technique in which the hunters imitate the animal's call to attract it to close range; hunting with dogs, a technique mostly used for capturing mammals; tracking, a technique used by only a few hunters who can recognize and follow animal tracks; and "facheado", in which the hunters go out at night with lanterns to catch birds in their nests. Additionally, many animal species are captured using mechanical traps. The types of traps used by the interviewees were: dead-fall traps ("quixó"), iron-jaw snap traps ("arataca"), wooden cages with bait ("arapuca"), iron-cage traps ("gaiola'), "visgo", multi-compartment bird cages ("alçapão"), buried ground traps with pivoted tops ("fojo"), and nooses and cages for carnivorous. The choice of which technique to use depends on the habits of the species being hunted, indicating that the hunters possess a wide knowledge of the biology of these animals. From a conservation perspective, active hunting techniques (waiting, imitation, hunting with dogs, and "facheado") have the greatest impact on the local fauna. The use of firearm and dogs brought greater efficiency to hunting activities. Additional studies concerning these hunting activities will be useful to contribute to proposals for management plans regulating hunting in the region - with the objective of attaining sustainable use of faunal resources of great importance to the local human communities.

  16. Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rômulo RN; Mendonça, Lívia ET; Confessor, Maine VA; Vieira, Washington LS; Lopez, Luiz CS

    2009-01-01

    Hunting for wild animals is stimulated by the many different human uses of faunal resources, and these animals constitute important subsistence items in local communities in the Caatinga region. In order to gain access to these resources, hunters have developed a series of techniques and strategies that are described in the present work. The principal hunting techniques encountered were: waiting, especially directed towards hunting diurnal birds; calling ("arremedo"), a technique in which the hunters imitate the animal's call to attract it to close range; hunting with dogs, a technique mostly used for capturing mammals; tracking, a technique used by only a few hunters who can recognize and follow animal tracks; and "facheado", in which the hunters go out at night with lanterns to catch birds in their nests. Additionally, many animal species are captured using mechanical traps. The types of traps used by the interviewees were: dead-fall traps ("quixó"), iron-jaw snap traps ("arataca"), wooden cages with bait ("arapuca"), iron-cage traps ("gaiola'), "visgo", multi-compartment bird cages ("alçapão"), buried ground traps with pivoted tops ("fojo"), and nooses and cages for carnivorous. The choice of which technique to use depends on the habits of the species being hunted, indicating that the hunters possess a wide knowledge of the biology of these animals. From a conservation perspective, active hunting techniques (waiting, imitation, hunting with dogs, and "facheado") have the greatest impact on the local fauna. The use of firearm and dogs brought greater efficiency to hunting activities. Additional studies concerning these hunting activities will be useful to contribute to proposals for management plans regulating hunting in the region – with the objective of attaining sustainable use of faunal resources of great importance to the local human communities. PMID:19386121

  17. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia

  18. 50 CFR 32.63 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.63... alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory... accordance with State regulations subject to the following conditions: 1. Season dates will be...

  19. Effects of hunting on survival of American woodcock in the Northeast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, D.G.; Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.; Allen, R.B.; Weik, A.; Williamson, S.; Dunn, J.; Palmer, B.; Evans, K.; Staats, W.; Sepik, G.F.; Halteman, W.

    2005-01-01

    Numbers of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) males counted on the annual singing ground survey (SGS) have declined over the last 35 years at an average rate of 2.3% per year in the Eastern Region and 1.8% per year in the Central Region. Although hunting was not thought to be a cause of these declines, mortality caused by hunters can be controlled. Furthermore, there has been no research on effects of hunting mortality on woodcock populations at local and regional levels on the breeding grounds. We used radiotelemetry to determine survival rates and causes of mortality for 913 woodcock captured during fall 1997?2000 on 7 areas in Maine, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Vermont, USA. Three of 7 sites were closed to hunting. For all sites and all years combined, 176 woodcock died, and 130 were censored, of which 39 were censored mortalities. Predation was the major (n = 134, 76%) cause of mortality. Mammals accounted for 56% of the predation, raptors accounted for 25%, and 19% was attributed to unknown predators. On hunted sites, 36% of the total mortality (n = 102) was caused by hunting, 63% by predation, and 1 bird starved. Kaplan-Meier survival curves did not differ between hunted and non-hunted sites among years (P = 0.46). Overall, point estimates of survival did not differ (P = 0.217) between hunted (SR = 0.636, SE = 0.04) and nonhunted sites (SR = 0.661, SE = 0.08). We modeled hazard rates from hunting and natural mortality events using program MARK. Akaike's Information Criterion supported using a model with common constant hazards from both hunting and natural causes for groups of sites. Groupings of sites for hazard rates from natural causes were not influenced by whether a site was hunted or not. Models detected no effects of woodcock age and sex (P = 0.52) on survival. Proportional hazards models comparing hunted and nonhunted sites found no effects of age and sex (P = 0.45), interactions of age, sex, capture weight, and bill length (P > 0.269). Our data

  20. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large

  1. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Henry; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  2. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  3. The emergence of defective predators who never hunt by themselves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueting; Pan, Qiuhui; Kang, Yibin; He, Mingfeng

    2013-06-01

    We propose a lattice Monte Carlo model of two populations, predators and prey. We divide predators into cooperative predators and defective predators. Cooperative predators participate in hunting. On the other hand, defective predators only participate to dominate, i.e. take possession of, the food when a kill has already been made by a cooperative predator. Numerous factors have been taken into account in our research, such as individual mobility, predation and hunger time. The model we have constructed displays the features of the population that evolve through time and the spatial distribution of the population. We focus on the emergence of defective predators and how the parameters affect the system. The results indicate that prey can profit from the appearance of these defective predators in some specific situations. It has even been shown that the emergence of defective predators can sometimes save endangered systems.

  4. Hunt for improved carbon capture picks up speed

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A high-throughput metal-organic framework synthesis instrument in action. Berkeley Lab chemist Jeffrey Long's lab will soon host a round-the-clock, robotically choreographed hunt for carbon-hungry materials. The Berkeley Lab chemist leads a diverse team of scientists whose goal is to quickly discover materials that can efficiently strip carbon dioxide from a power plant's exhaust, before it leaves the smokestack and contributes to climate change. They're betting on a recently discovered class of materials called metal-organic frameworks, which boast a record-shattering internal surface area. A sugar cube-sized piece, if unfolded and flattened, would more than blanket a football field. The crystalline material can also be tweaked to absorb specific molecules. More: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/05/26/carbon-capture-search/

  5. Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Katharine; Betts, Matthew G.; Chapron, Guillaume; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Galetti, Mauro; Levi, Taal; Lindsey, Peter A.; Macdonald, David W.; Machovina, Brian; Peres, Carlos A.; Wallach, Arian D.

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial mammals are experiencing a massive collapse in their population sizes and geographical ranges around the world, but many of the drivers, patterns and consequences of this decline remain poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis showing that bushmeat hunting for mostly food and medicinal products is driving a global crisis whereby 301 terrestrial mammal species are threatened with extinction. Nearly all of these threatened species occur in developing countries where major coexisting threats include deforestation, agricultural expansion, human encroachment and competition with livestock. The unrelenting decline of mammals suggests many vital ecological and socio-economic services that these species provide will be lost, potentially changing ecosystems irrevocably. We discuss options and current obstacles to achieving effective conservation, alongside consequences of failure to stem such anthropogenic mammalian extirpation. We propose a multi-pronged conservation strategy to help save threatened mammals from immediate extinction and avoid a collapse of food security for hundreds of millions of people. PMID:27853564

  6. Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals.

    PubMed

    Ripple, William J; Abernethy, Katharine; Betts, Matthew G; Chapron, Guillaume; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Galetti, Mauro; Levi, Taal; Lindsey, Peter A; Macdonald, David W; Machovina, Brian; Newsome, Thomas M; Peres, Carlos A; Wallach, Arian D; Wolf, Christopher; Young, Hillary

    2016-10-01

    Terrestrial mammals are experiencing a massive collapse in their population sizes and geographical ranges around the world, but many of the drivers, patterns and consequences of this decline remain poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis showing that bushmeat hunting for mostly food and medicinal products is driving a global crisis whereby 301 terrestrial mammal species are threatened with extinction. Nearly all of these threatened species occur in developing countries where major coexisting threats include deforestation, agricultural expansion, human encroachment and competition with livestock. The unrelenting decline of mammals suggests many vital ecological and socio-economic services that these species provide will be lost, potentially changing ecosystems irrevocably. We discuss options and current obstacles to achieving effective conservation, alongside consequences of failure to stem such anthropogenic mammalian extirpation. We propose a multi-pronged conservation strategy to help save threatened mammals from immediate extinction and avoid a collapse of food security for hundreds of millions of people.

  7. Pediatric Ramsay Hunt Syndrome: Analysis of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aydoğdu, İmran; Ataç, Enes; Saltürk, Ziya; Atar, Yavuz; Özdemir, Erdi; Uyar, Yavuz; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet; Berkiten, Güler

    2015-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a disorder characterized by herpetic eruptions on the auricle, facial paralysis, and vestibulocochlear dysfunction and is attributed to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in the geniculate ganglion. Although it is a common cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis, children are not usually affected. The diagnosis is based on history and physical findings. Treatment of RHS uses a combination of high-dose corticosteroids and acyclovir. This paper presents three cases diagnosed as RHS in the pediatric age group in association with the literature review. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of careful examination and early initiation of therapy in suspected cases of RHS. PMID:26435868

  8. Hunted Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) Show Threat-Sensitive Responses to Human Presence

    PubMed Central

    Papworth, Sarah; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Slocombe, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Responding only to individuals of a predator species which display threatening behaviour allows prey species to minimise energy expenditure and other costs of predator avoidance, such as disruption of feeding. The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts such behaviour in prey species. If hunted animals are unable to distinguish dangerous humans from non-dangerous humans, human hunting is likely to have a greater effect on prey populations as all human encounters should lead to predator avoidance, increasing stress and creating opportunity costs for exploited populations. We test the threat sensitivity hypothesis in wild Poeppigi's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, by presenting human models engaging in one of three behaviours “hunting”, “gathering” or “researching”. These experiments were conducted at two sites with differing hunting pressures. Visibility, movement and vocalisations were recorded and results from two sites showed that groups changed their behaviours after being exposed to humans, and did so in different ways depending on the behaviour of the human model. Results at the site with higher hunting pressure were consistent with predictions based on the threat sensitivity hypothesis. Although results at the site with lower hunting pressure were not consistent with the results at the site with higher hunting pressure, groups at this site also showed differential responses to different human behaviours. These results provide evidence of threat-sensitive predator avoidance in hunted primates, which may allow them to conserve both time and energy when encountering humans which pose no threat. PMID:23614003

  9. Heterogeneity of hunting ability and nutritional status among domestic dogs in lowland Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Koster, Jeremy M; Tankersley, Kenneth B

    2012-02-21

    In past and modern human societies, dogs have played an important role as hunting companions. Given considerable ethnographic evidence that dogs vary in their hunting abilities, this paper addresses the effects of key demographic variables, namely age and sex, on the amount of harvested game that dogs contribute in an indigenous Nicaraguan community. Controlling for variation in the time spent potentially hunting, male dogs and older dogs are significantly associated with greater harvests. These results may account for documented preferences for males in both archaeological and ethnographic contexts. Among societies in which dogs are used both as hunting companions and sources of food, the age-related delay in peak hunting ability also suggests a tradeoff that might explain the consumption of dogs shortly after they have reached adult size. Informant rankings of two cohorts of dogs indicate that residents of the community exhibit high agreement about the relative abilities of the dogs, and the rankings indicate that dogs from the same household exhibit comparable skill. There is little evidence that talented, highly-ranked dogs are provided a more nutritious diet, as measured by nitrogen-based and carbon-based isotopic analysis of hair samples. Overall, although dogs can be quite advantageous as hunting companions, this research suggests that the heterogeneity of hunting ability combines with the high mortality of dogs to impose risks on households that depend on dogs as a source of harvested meat.

  10. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Vucetich, John A.; Packer, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups.

  11. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Mech, L.D.; Vucetich, J.A.; Packer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups. ?? 2011 The Author.

  12. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A. V.; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. PMID:26332105

  13. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally.

  14. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  15. Phylogeography of dengue virus serotype 4, Brazil, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A; Lemey, Philippe; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-11-01

    Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applied to envelope genes and full genomes by using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses. An introduction of genotype I into Brazil from Southeast Asia was confirmed, and full genome phylogeographic analyses revealed multiple introductions of DENV-4 genotype II in Brazil, providing evidence for >3 introductions of this genotype within the last decade: 2 from Venezuela to Roraima and 1 from Colombia to Amazonas. The phylogeographic analysis of full genome data has demonstrated the origins of DENV-4 throughout Brazil.

  16. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2010 - 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2010 and mid-2011. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Analytical methods for mycotoxins conti...

  17. Realizing Potential: Reaching beyond. Annual Report, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools (CYFS) is to the conduct of high-quality interdisciplinary research to promote the intellectual, behavioral and social-emotional development and functioning of individuals across educational, familial and community contexts. The Center creates the context for…

  18. First 5 Kern Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    Kern County Children and Families Commission (First 5 Kern) is funded by the Proposition 10 ballot initiative to support services for children prenatal to age five in California. The state revenue comes from an extra 50-cent tax on tobacco products, and is distributed according to the proportion of live births in each county. Following a…

  19. Sustainable NREL, Biennial Report, FY 2010-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Slovensky, M.; Daw, J.

    2012-09-01

    This document reports on NREL's 'Campus of the Future,' which leverages partnerships and showcases sustainable energy on and near the NREL site. It is unique in that the report is based on GRI key performance indicators, that support NREL's sustainability goals.

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures.

  1. MCPS Special Education at a Glance 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) "Special Education at a Glance," which includes a copy of the "Guide to Planning and Assessing School-Based Special Education Programs," provides in a single document, information about the special education population at each Montgomery County (Maryland public school, including…

  2. English Language Learners and Their Academic Progress: 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This is the 2010-11 annual report on the academic progress of English language learners in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The purpose of the report is to: (1) Describe the demographic characteristics of students classified as English Language Learners (ELL) in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS); (2) Provide data regarding ELL…

  3. Military Entomology in Operation Enduring Freedom, 2010-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    that units across theater were properly collecting and submitting vectors for testing. Vector-borne Diseases Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains a...primarily located in Regional Command South and Regional Command North. Cu- taneous leishmaniasis in Afghanistan may be zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis ...caused by Leishmania major (Friedlin), or anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), caused by L. tropica (Wright). The majority of CL cases in 2010

  4. Your business in court and at federal agencies: 2010 - 2011.

    PubMed

    Reiss, John B; Crowder, Dawn; Simons, Brian; Pleskov, Igor; Davis, Tiffany; Nugent, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This year the government aggressively pursued Manufacturers under the enhanced provisions of the False Claims Act (FCA), as well as under the provisions of the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (FDCA). In addition, the government pursued actions against individual executives under the Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine ("RCO Doctrine") because it does not believe sanctions against the companies provide sufficient deterrence to inappropriate behavior. Companies need to focus on implementing effective compliance programs in order to prevent the occurrence of allegedly improper activity. It should be noted that the existence of an effective program will not protect executives from liability under the RCO Doctrine if improper behavior takes place. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) has undertaken a number of initiatives during the past year in an attempt to counter claims that its review processes for domestic products is driving the development of drugs and devices to overseas markets. The Agency also has improved its capacity to review products imported from overseas by undertaking initiatives with foreign agencies and stationing more FDA employees in foreign countries. The FDA increased the number of warning letters and other enforcement actions. The FDA added two new topics of enhanced authority during the year. One was an expansion of its regulatory authority over foods, and the second was new authority to regulate certain tobacco products. The former is being subjected to some review by the courts, and the scope of its authority over tobacco is the subject of ongoing major litigation. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are unlikely to experience significant change regarding their regulation of Manufacturers. The FTC, as it has for many years, continues to try to prevent "reverse" payments to generic drug manufacturers by Innovator Manufacturers to diminish generic drug competition, and proposed legislation is before Congress. The SEC still appears focused on the Foreign Corporate Practices Act with respect to enforcement against pharmaceutical and device manufacturers. Federal preemption of State law continues to be a topic of concern, with Court's taking different positions on the effect of the various Supreme Court decisions made in the last two years.

  5. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported.

  6. Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne; Schmidt, Jeff; Quereshi, Yusuf; Dickman, Anneliese; Henken, Rob

    2011-01-01

    For the past 25 years, the Public Policy Forum has compiled and analyzed data from southeast Wisconsin's public school districts to produce an annual report on trends in educational performance and demographics. This year's report, however, may take on greater importance than those of previous years in light of the monumental impacts of the new…

  7. Washington State Board of Education Strategic Plan, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Washington State Legislature significantly changed the role of the State Board of Education (SBE). While the Board retains some administrative duties, SBE is now mandated to play a broad leadership role in strategic oversight and policy for K-12 education in the state. This paper presents the strategic plan of Washington State Board…

  8. [2010-2011 Federal Student Aid Handbook with Active Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication is intended for financial aid administrators and counselors who help students begin the aid process--filing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), verifying information, and making corrections and other changes to the information reported on the FAFSA. The Federal Student Aid Handbook consists of the Application and…

  9. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Sindani, Ireneaus; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Falzon, Dennis; Suleiman, Bashir; Arube, Peter; Adam, Ismail; Baghdadi, Samiha; Bassili, Amal; Zignol, Matteo

    2013-03-01

    In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia.

  10. Queensland 2010-2011: A Summer of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    "I love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror, The wide brown land for me." (Dorothea Mackellar OBE, 1885-1968). This second stanza from Mackellar's famous poem "My Country", beautifully sums up the Australian environment. In late 2010-early 2011, the "droughts and flooding rains" were the perfect terms to describe the climatic variability and the resulting flooding impacts experienced in many parts of Queensland under an enhanced La Niña as part of the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) climate pattern, with over 75% of Queensland being declared a disaster zone. This contrasts with the severe drought that had gripped many parts of Australia over the previous 8 years which saw water storage levels plummet, and resulted in 35% of Queensland being 'drought declared' as at April 2010. On the Darling Downs in southern Queensland, over 100,000 ha of land was inundated by the Condamine River due to flooding in early 2011. The river which is generally <100 m wide was seven kilometres wide at the widest point during the floods. However, the erosive impacts of the floods on largely tilled floodplains was relatively low with most erosion confined to the bed and banks of the river. In Grantham, where 13 lives were lost, flooding was especially hazardous because of the combined depth and velocity of floodwaters and the rapid rise of floodwaters across the floodplain. Floodwaters were ~2.0-2.5 m deep across the northern parts of the floodplain with a maximum velocity of ~2-3 m/s. The rate of rise was estimated at ~12 m/hour, indicating that it would have taken only 10-15 minutes to rise to full depth. However, despite detailed river and flood gauging in the more urbanised catchments such as the Brisbane River valley, this is by far the exception rather than the rule throughout mainland Australia. The Queensland floods highlight the pressing and urgent need for an accurate and more intensive network of river gauging and sediment monitoring. In a country of "droughts and flooding rains" and in the face of climate change, this need is now imperative.

  11. Hunting, livelihoods and declining wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents (n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting (n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  12. The Trophy Hunting of African Lions: Scale, Current Management Practices and Factors Undermining Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ∼558,000 km2, which comprises 27–32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation. PMID:24058491

  13. Hunting, Livelihoods and Declining Wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents ( n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting ( n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  14. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  15. Does hunting regulate cougar populations? A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Hilary S; Wielgus, Robert B; Koehler, Gary M; Robinson, Hugh S; Maletzke, Benjamin T

    2009-10-01

    Many wildlife species are managed based on the compensatory mortality hypothesis, which predicts that harvest mortality (especially adult male mortality) will trigger density-dependent responses in reproduction, survival, and population growth caused via reduced competition for resources. We tested the compensatory mortality hypothesis on two cougar (Puma concolor) populations in Washington, USA (one heavily hunted and one lightly hunted). We estimated population growth, density, survival, and reproduction to determine the effects of hunting on cougar population demography based on data collected from 2002 to 2007. In the heavily hunted population, the total hunting mortality rate (mean +/- SD) was 0.24 +/- 0.05 (0.35 +/- 0.08 for males, 0.16 +/- 0.05 for females). In the lightly hunted population, the total hunting mortality rate was 0.11 +/- 0.04 (0.16 +/- 0.06 for males, 0.07 +/- 0.05 for females). The compensatory mortality hypothesis predicts that higher mortality will result in higher maternity, kitten survival, reproductive success, and lower natural mortality. We found no differences in rates of maternity or natural mortality between study areas, and kitten survival was lower in the heavily hunted population. We rejected the compensatory mortality hypothesis because vital rates did not compensate for hunting mortality. Heavy harvest corresponded with increased immigration, reduced kitten survival, reduced female population growth, and a younger overall age structure. Light harvest corresponded with increased emigration, higher kitten survival, increased female population growth, and an older overall age structure. Managers should not assume the existence of compensatory mortality when developing harvest prescriptions for cougars.

  16. Batak foraging camps today: a window to the history of a hunting-gathering economy

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, J.F.

    1988-03-01

    Incorporation into wider social and economic systems has brought a variety of changes to the hunting-gathering lifestyle of the Batak of the Philippines. Compared to 100 years ago, Batak hunting-gathering camps today are more limited in duration and smaller in size, hunting-gathering itself is more seasonal in importance, and there are significant differences in technology, resource utilization, the organization of labor, and length of workday. These changes are related to the growing importance of other economic activities and to the nature of Batak market articulation with lowland Filipino society.

  17. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  18. Ramsay Hunt syndrome and zoster laryngitis with multiple cranial nerve involvement

    PubMed Central

    Shinha, Takashi; Krishna, Pasala

    2015-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by varicella zoster virus infection affecting the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. It typically presents with vesicles in the external auditory canal associated with auricular pain and peripheral facial nerve paralysis. Although vestibulocochlear nerve is frequently co-involved during the course of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, multiple lower cranial nerve involvement has rarely been described in the literature. In addition, laryngitis due to varicella zoster virus is a diagnostic challenge due to its unfamiliarity among clinicians. We report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome with laryngitis involving multiple lower cranial nerves. PMID:26793453

  19. The association between continual, year-round hunting and bellowing rate of bison bulls during the rut

    PubMed Central

    Grigione, Melissa M.; Higa, Alessandra; Childers, Eddie; Ecoffey, Trudy

    2017-01-01

    The impact of hunting (selective harvest, trophy hunting) on the demography of mammals is well documented. However, despite continual year-round hunting of bison in some populations, little is known about how the behavior of survivors may be altered. Therefore, in this initial study, we used focal-animal observations in adjacent populations of continually hunted and protected Plains bison (Bison bison bison) in western South Dakota, to examine the potential impact of hunting on bellowing rate—an important behavior that serves to intimidate rival bulls and potentially influences mate choice by females. In addition to hunting, we investigated how the number of attendant males, number of adult females, group size, and number of days from the start of rut influenced bellowing rate. Bulls bellowed an order of magnitude more often in the protected population than in the hunted populations, whereas bellowing rate was not significantly different in the hunted populations. Hunting was significantly and negatively associated with bellowing rate, while all other predictors were found to be positively associated with bellowing rate. Furthermore, the impact of hunting on bellowing rate became more pronounced (i.e., dampened bellowing rate more strongly) as the number of attendant males increased. Changes in bellowing behavior of bulls (and possibly mate choice by cows) can alter breeding opportunities. Therefore, our data suggest the need for studies with broader-scale geographical and temporal replication to determine the extent that continual year-round hunting has on bellowing rate of bison during the rut. If reduced bellowing is associated with human hunting on a larger scale, then wildlife managers may need to adjust hunting rate and duration, timing (season), and the time lag between hunting events in order to insure that bison are able to express their full repertoire of natural mating behaviors.

  20. Effect of hunting on annual survival of grey ducks in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) banded in New Zealand between 1957 and 1974 to test 2 null hypotheses: (1) hunting mortality is completely additive to natural sources of mortality, and (2) hunting mortality is completely compensated by changes in natural mortality. We modeled annual survival as a function of survival in the absence of hunting and the probability of death from hunting. The complete compensation hypothesis was rejected, but we were unable to reject the completely additive hypothesis. There was no evidence of sex- or age-specificity for the relationship between kill rate and annual survival rate. We used simulated data to evaluate model performance. Parameter estimates were unbiased despite the inclusion of estimates that lay outside the bounds of the parameter space, although model-based variance estimates were consistently less than empirical variances. Our results imply that harvest-restrictions may be useful in effecting change in annual survival rates of grey ducks.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia.

  2. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  3. A 9,000-year-old caribou hunting structure beneath Lake Huron.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, John M; Lemke, Ashley K; Sonnenburg, Elizabeth P; Reynolds, Robert G; Abbott, Brian D

    2014-05-13

    Some of the most pivotal questions in human history necessitate the investigation of archaeological sites that are now under water. Nine thousand years ago, the Alpena-Amberley Ridge (AAR) beneath modern Lake Huron was a dry land corridor that connected northeast Michigan to southern Ontario. The newly discovered Drop 45 Drive Lane is the most complex hunting structure found to date beneath the Great Lakes. The site and its associated artifacts provide unprecedented insight into the social and seasonal organization of prehistoric caribou hunting. When combined with environmental and simulation studies, it is suggested that distinctly different seasonal strategies were used by early hunters on the AAR, with autumn hunting being carried out by small groups, and spring hunts being conducted by larger groups of cooperating hunters.

  4. A 9,000-year-old caribou hunting structure beneath Lake Huron

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, John M.; Lemke, Ashley K.; Sonnenburg, Elizabeth P.; Reynolds, Robert G.; Abbott, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most pivotal questions in human history necessitate the investigation of archaeological sites that are now under water. Nine thousand years ago, the Alpena-Amberley Ridge (AAR) beneath modern Lake Huron was a dry land corridor that connected northeast Michigan to southern Ontario. The newly discovered Drop 45 Drive Lane is the most complex hunting structure found to date beneath the Great Lakes. The site and its associated artifacts provide unprecedented insight into the social and seasonal organization of prehistoric caribou hunting. When combined with environmental and simulation studies, it is suggested that distinctly different seasonal strategies were used by early hunters on the AAR, with autumn hunting being carried out by small groups, and spring hunts being conducted by larger groups of cooperating hunters. PMID:24778246

  5. 75 FR 6056 - Establishment of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Secretary of Agriculture establish the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). The Council will provide advice on wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that (1) benefit recreational... conservation community, wildlife conservation groups, the States, Native American Tribes, and the...

  6. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs.

  7. Decoupling the effects of logging and hunting on an afrotropical animal community.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, J R; Clark, C J; Bolker, B M

    2011-07-01

    In tropical forests, hunting nearly always accompanies logging. The entangled nature of these disturbances complicates our ability to resolve applied questions, such as whether secondary and degraded forest can sustain populations of tropical animals. With the expansion of logging in central Africa, conservation depends on knowledge of the individual and combined impacts of logging and hunting on animal populations. Our goals were (1) to decouple the effects of selective logging and hunting on densities of animal guilds, including apes, duikers, monkeys, elephant, pigs, squirrels, and large frugivorous and insectivorous birds and (2) to compare the relative importance of these disturbances to the effects of local-scale variation in forest structure and fruit abundance. In northern Republic of Congo, we surveyed animals along 30 transects positioned in forest disturbed by logging and hunting, logging alone, and neither logging nor hunting. While sampling transects twice per month for two years, we observed 47 179 animals of 19 species and eight guilds in 1154 passages (2861 km). Species densities varied by as much as 480% among forest areas perturbed by logging and/or hunting, demonstrating the strong effects of these disturbances on populations of some species. Densities of animal guilds varied more strongly with disturbance type than with variation in forest structure, canopy cover, and fruit abundance. Independently, logging and hunting decreased density of some guilds and increased density of others: densities varied from 44% lower (pigs) to 90% higher (insectivorous birds) between logged and unlogged forest and from 61% lower (apes) to 77% higher (frugivorous birds) between hunted and unhunted forest. Their combined impacts exacerbated decreases in populations of some guilds (ape, duiker, monkey, and pig), but counteracted one another for others (squirrels, insectivorous and frugivorous birds). Together, logging and hunting shifted the relative abundance of the

  8. Spatial tools for modeling the sustainability of subsistence hunting in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Shepard, Glenn H; Ohl-Schacherer, Julia; Wilmers, Christopher C; Peres, Carlos A; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-07-01

    Subsistence hunting provides a crucial food source for rural populations in tropical forests, but it is often practiced unsustainably. We use the empirical observation that subsistence hunters are central-place foragers to develop three "bio-demographic" hunting models of increasing complexity and realism for assessing the sustainability of hunting of an indicator species. In all our models, we calculate the spatial pattern of depletion of an indicator species (here, a large-bodied primate) across a landscape. Specifically, we show how to identify the area surrounding a human settlement that is expected to suffer local extinction. Our approach is an improvement over well-known sustainability indices of hunting, which are prone to error and do not provide clear links to policy prescriptions. Our first approach models the long-term effect of a single settlement and (1) can be parameterized with easily obtainable field data (such as settlement maps and knowledge of the major weapon used), (2) is simple enough to be used without requiring technical skill, and (3) reveals the asymptotic relationship between local human density and the level of game depletion. Our second model allows multiple settlements with overlapping hunting zones over large spatial scales. Our third model additionally allows temporal changes in human population size and distribution and source-sink dynamics in game populations. Using transect and hunting data from two Amazonian sites, we show that the models accurately predict the spatial distribution of primate depletion. To make these methods accessible, we provide software-based tools, including a toolbox for ArcGIS, to assist in managing and mapping the spatial extent of hunting. The proposed application of our models is to allow the quantitative assessment of settlement stabilization approaches to managing hunting in Amazonia.

  9. Effects of hunting and season of fire on wild turkey populations in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, William, F.; Kilgo, John, C.; Guynn, David, C.; Davis, James, R.

    2002-07-31

    This report assesses impacts to wild turkey populations from hunting and prescribed fire. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To compare survival rates and causes of mortality of wild turkey gobblers between hunted and unhunted populations; (2) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on nesting success, survival and habitat use of wild turkey hens; (3) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on the availability of wild turkey plant foods.

  10. Insights into the origins of fish hunting in venomous cone snails from studies of Conus tessulatus.

    PubMed

    Aman, Joseph W; Imperial, Julita S; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Zhang, Min-Min; Aguilar, Manuel; Taylor, Dylan; Watkins, Maren; Yoshikami, Doju; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Biggs, Jason; Teichert, Russell W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2015-04-21

    Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary "smoking gun" that illuminates the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting among marine cone snails, resulting in the adaptive radiation of fish-hunting lineages comprising ∼100 piscivorous Conus species. This smoking gun is δ-conotoxin TsVIA, a peptide from the venom of Conus tessulatus that delays inactivation of vertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels. C. tessulatus is a species in a worm-hunting clade, which is phylogenetically closely related to the fish-hunting cone snail specialists. The discovery of a δ-conotoxin that potently acts on vertebrate sodium channels in the venom of a worm-hunting cone snail suggests that a closely related ancestral toxin enabled the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting, as δ-conotoxins are highly conserved among fish hunters and critical to their mechanism of prey capture; this peptide, δ-conotoxin TsVIA, has striking sequence similarity to these δ-conotoxins from piscivorous cone snail venoms. Calcium-imaging studies on dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons revealed the peptide's putative molecular target (voltage-gated sodium channels) and mechanism of action (inhibition of channel inactivation). The results were confirmed by electrophysiology. This work demonstrates how elucidating the specific interactions between toxins and receptors from phylogenetically well-defined lineages can uncover molecular mechanisms that underlie significant evolutionary transitions.

  11. An Interesting Case of Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome in a Young Male

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Konowitz, Nicholas; Lu, Hannah; Faqah, Anadil; Kuruvilla, Aneesh

    2017-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare disease with a limited number of cases reported in the literature. It typically presents with orbital pain associated with palsy of the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve. We present an interesting case of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in a young male who responded well to high-dose steroids and in a few days had significant improvement in his retro-orbital pain and ocular movements. PMID:28210639

  12. Isotopic evidence for Last Glacial climatic impacts on Neanderthal gazelle hunting territories at Amud Cave, Israel.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Gideon; Hovers, Erella; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Middle Paleolithic site of Amud Cave, Israel, was occupied by Neanderthals at two different time periods, evidenced by two chronologically and stratigraphically distinct depositional sub-units (B4 and B2/B1) during MIS 4 and MIS 3, respectively. The composition of both hunted large fauna and naturally-deposited micromammalian taxa is stable at the site over time, despite a ∼ 10 ky gap between the two occupation phases. However, while gazelle is the most ubiquitous hunted species throughout the occupation, isotopic analysis showed that there is a marked change in Neanderthal hunting ranges between the early (B4) and late (B2/B1) phases. Hunting ranges were reconstructed by comparing oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotopes from gazelle tooth enamel with modern isotope data from the Amud Cave region. This region is characterized by extensive topographic, lithological, and pedological heterogeneity. During the early occupation phase negative oxygen isotope values, low radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, and low Sr concentrations reveal restricted gazelle hunting in the high elevations west of Amud Cave. In the late occupation phase, hunting ranges became more diverse, but concentrate at low elevations closer to the site. Climatic proxies indicate that conditions were drier in the early occupation phase, which may have pushed gazelle populations into higher, more productive foraging areas. This study showed that Neanderthals adjusted their hunting territories considerably in relation to varying environmental conditions over the course of occupation in Amud Cave. It highlights the utility of multiple isotope analysis in enhancing the resolution of behavioral interpretations based on faunal remains and in reconstructing past hunting behaviors of Paleolithic hominins.

  13. Changing patterns of goose harvest on California public hunting areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, J.P.; Hicks, J.M.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    We summarized hunter visits, success, and the magnitude and species-subspecies composition of tho goose harvest recorded on California public hunting areas (PHAs) during 1950-89. Of six geographic regions, the Northeast accounted for the largest portion of the PHA harvest (55%); most of the remainder occurred in the Sacramento (30%) and Imperial (10%) Valley regions. Harvest, hunter visits, and success were low during the 1950s, but increased during the 1960s as new PHAs were added and data from Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs), where about half of California's PHA goose harvest occurs, became available. Success and harvest reflected declining goose abundance during the 1970s; however, hunter visits remained high on most PHAs because ducks were abundant. During the 1980s, declining populations of greater white-fronted geese, Anser albifrons frontalis, and cackling Canada geese, Branta canadensis minima, prompted restrictive regulations resulting in low harvest and success. Hunter visits were further reduced because of declining duck abundance and overall declines in hunter numbers. White-fronted geese were most prominent in the Northeast and Suisun Marsh harvest, but the lesser snow goose, Chen caerulescens caerulescens, was more important in other regions. Overall, the cackling Canada goose was the third most common goose harvested. The harvest of most geese peaked during 1965-74, coinciding with a peak in hunter visits, and then declined. However, the harvest of Canada geese (includes unknown proportions of western, B. c. moffitti, Taverner's, B. c. taverneri, and lesser, B. c. parvipes) and Ross' geese, Chen rossi, increased slightly throughout the study period. PHA harvest averaged 9-15% of the total state goose harvest during 1960-89. Success on PHAs was greater than statewide success until the 1980's, when restrictive regulations were imposed in zones encompassing many Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Basin PHAs. White

  14. The Significance of African Lions for the Financial Viability of Trophy Hunting and the Maintenance of Wild Land

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000–US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5–17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km2 that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km2), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km2). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their

  15. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their

  16. Who Bites the Bullet First? The Susceptibility of Leopards Panthera pardus to Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Braczkowski, Alex Richard; Balme, Guy Andrew; Dickman, Amy; Macdonald, David Whyte; Fattebert, Julien; Dickerson, Tristan; Johnson, Paul; Hunter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities. PMID:25860139

  17. Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, K A; Coad, L; Taylor, G; Lee, M E; Maisels, F

    2013-01-01

    Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem.

  18. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The ‘drive hunting’ of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 ‘bottlenose’ dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  19. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

    2011-02-01

    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) .

  20. Who bites the bullet first? The susceptibility of leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting.

    PubMed

    Braczkowski, Alex Richard; Balme, Guy Andrew; Dickman, Amy; Macdonald, David Whyte; Fattebert, Julien; Dickerson, Tristan; Johnson, Paul; Hunter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities.

  1. How much land is needed for feral pig hunting in Hawai'i?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Jacobi, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Hunting is often considered to be incompatible with conservation of native biota and watershed functions in Hawai'i. Management actions for conservation generally exclude large non-native mammals from natural areas, thereby reducing the amount of land area available for hunting activities and the maintenance of sustainable game populations. An approach which may be useful in addressing the necessary minimum amount of land area allocated for hunting in Hawai'i is to determine the amount of land area necessary for sustaining populations of hunted animals to meet current levels harvested by the public. We ask: What is the total amount of land necessary to provide sustained-yield hunting of game meat for food at the current harvest level on Hawai'i Island if only feral pigs (Sus scrofa) were to be harvested? We used a simplistic analysis to estimate that 1 317.6 km2-1 651.4 km2 would be necessary to produce 187 333.6 kg of feral pig meat annually based on the range of dressed weight per whole pig, the proportion of a pig population that can be sustainably removed annually, and the density of pig populations in the wild. This amount of area comprises 12.6-15.8% of the total land area of Hawai'i Island, but more likely represents 27.6-43.5% of areas that may be compatible with sustained-yield hunting.

  2. Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, K. A.; Coad, L.; Taylor, G.; Lee, M. E.; Maisels, F.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

  3. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  4. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  5. Bump hunting in LHC t t ¯ events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakon, Michal; Heymes, David; Mitov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate that a purposefully normalized next-to-next-to-leading-order mt t ¯ differential spectrum can have very small theoretical uncertainty and, in particular, a small sensitivity to the top quark mass. Such an observable can thus be a very effective bump-hunting tool for resonances decaying to t t ¯ events during LHC run II and beyond. To illustrate how the approach works, we concentrate on one specific example of current interest, namely, the possible 750 GeV digamma excess resonance Φ . Considering only theoretical uncertainties, we demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish p p →Φ →t t ¯ signals studied in the recent literature [Hespel, Maltoni, and Vryonidou, J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2016) 016, 10.1007/JHEP10(2016)016] from the pure Standard Model background with very high significance. Alternatively, in the case of nonobservation, a strong upper limit on the decay rate Φ →t t ¯ can be placed.

  6. New England's Other Witch-hunt: The Hartford Witch-hunt of the 1660s and Changing Patterns in Witchcraft Prosecution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Classifies witchcraft prosecution into three periods in New England during the seventeenth century. Focuses on the witch-hunt in Hartford, Connecticut, the trial of Katherine Harrison, and the period of skepticism toward witchcraft prosecution. Addresses the role of Governor John Winthrop, Jr. in this skepticism and the legal procedures in…

  7. Chaos and crises in a model for cooperative hunting: a symbolic dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2009-12-01

    In this work we investigate the population dynamics of cooperative hunting extending the McCann and Yodzis model for a three-species food chain system with a predator, a prey, and a resource species. The new model considers that a given fraction sigma of predators cooperates in prey's hunting, while the rest of the population 1-sigma hunts without cooperation. We use the theory of symbolic dynamics to study the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of the kneading sequences associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the dynamics of the species under several degrees of cooperative hunting. Our model also allows us to investigate the so-called deterministic extinction via chaotic crisis and transient chaos in the framework of cooperative hunting. The symbolic sequences allow us to identify a critical boundary in the parameter spaces (K,C(0)) and (K,sigma) which separates two scenarios: (i) all-species coexistence and (ii) predator's extinction via chaotic crisis. We show that the crisis value of the carrying capacity K(c) decreases at increasing sigma, indicating that predator's populations with high degree of cooperative hunting are more sensitive to the chaotic crises. We also show that the control method of Dhamala and Lai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 1646 (1999)] can sustain the chaotic behavior after the crisis for systems with cooperative hunting. We finally analyze and quantify the inner structure of the target regions obtained with this control method for wider parameter values beyond the crisis, showing a power law dependence of the extinction transients on such critical parameters.

  8. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Giordano, Anthony J; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry; Mohd-Azlan, Jayasilan; Ambu, Laurentius

    2015-02-01

    Humans influence tropical rainforest animals directly via exploitation and indirectly via habitat disturbance. Bushmeat hunting and logging occur extensively in tropical forests and have large effects on particular species. But how they alter animal diversity across landscape scales and whether their impacts are correlated across species remain less known. We used spatially widespread measurements of mammal occurrence across Malaysian Borneo and recently developed multispecies hierarchical models to assess the species richness of medium- to large-bodied terrestrial mammals while accounting for imperfect detection of all species. Hunting was associated with 31% lower species richness. Moreover, hunting remained high even where richness was very low, highlighting that hunting pressure persisted even in chronically overhunted areas. Newly logged sites had 11% lower species richness than unlogged sites, but sites logged >10 years previously had richness levels similar to those in old-growth forest. Hunting was a more serious long-term threat than logging for 91% of primate and ungulate species. Hunting and logging impacts across species were not correlated across taxa. Negative impacts of hunting were the greatest for common mammalian species, but commonness versus rarity was not related to species-specific impacts of logging. Direct human impacts appeared highly persistent and lead to defaunation of certain areas. These impacts were particularly severe for species of ecological importance as seed dispersers and herbivores. Indirect impacts were also strong but appeared to attenuate more rapidly than previously thought. The lack of correlation between direct and indirect impacts across species highlights that multifaceted conservation strategies may be needed for mammal conservation in tropical rainforests, Earth's most biodiverse ecosystems.

  9. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  10. Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests

    PubMed Central

    Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O. W.; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas. PMID:27589384

  11. Multiple-host pathogens in domestic hunting dogs in Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V; Straub, Mary H; Schwartz, Laura M; Liu, James; Campbell, Amanda; Kownacki, Alexa K; Foley, Janet E

    2017-03-01

    Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp. exceeded 50% of dogs. At least one dog was actively shedding leptospires in urine, and many dogs were anemic and/or dehydrated. These dogs interact with wildlife in the forest and humans and domestic livestock in the communities, and may therefore serve as sources of zoonotic and wildlife diseases. Bosawás represents one of the largest intact tracts of habitat for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Central America, and given that these communities are located within the forest, jaguars may be at risk from disease spillover from hunting dogs. Dog owners reported that four of 49 dogs had been attacked and killed by jaguars in the past year, and that retaliatory killing of jaguars was sometimes practiced. Disease spillover from dogs to wildlife could occur both in the course of dogs' hunting activities as well as during jaguar attacks. A better understanding of dog depredation by jaguars, pathogen exposure in jaguars, and a management strategy for the hunting dog population, are urgently needed to mitigate these dual threats to jaguars, improve the lives of hunting dogs, and safeguard the health of their owners.

  12. Chaos and crises in a model for cooperative hunting: A symbolic dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2009-12-01

    In this work we investigate the population dynamics of cooperative hunting extending the McCann and Yodzis model for a three-species food chain system with a predator, a prey, and a resource species. The new model considers that a given fraction σ of predators cooperates in prey's hunting, while the rest of the population 1-σ hunts without cooperation. We use the theory of symbolic dynamics to study the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of the kneading sequences associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the dynamics of the species under several degrees of cooperative hunting. Our model also allows us to investigate the so-called deterministic extinction via chaotic crisis and transient chaos in the framework of cooperative hunting. The symbolic sequences allow us to identify a critical boundary in the parameter spaces (K ,C0) and (K ,σ) which separates two scenarios: (i) all-species coexistence and (ii) predator's extinction via chaotic crisis. We show that the crisis value of the carrying capacity Kc decreases at increasing σ, indicating that predator's populations with high degree of cooperative hunting are more sensitive to the chaotic crises. We also show that the control method of Dhamala and Lai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 1646 (1999)] can sustain the chaotic behavior after the crisis for systems with cooperative hunting. We finally analyze and quantify the inner structure of the target regions obtained with this control method for wider parameter values beyond the crisis, showing a power law dependence of the extinction transients on such critical parameters.

  13. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  14. Geo-Spatial Aspects of Acceptance of Illegal Hunting of Large Carnivores in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Gangaas, Kristin E.; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P.; Andreassen, Harry P.

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human – wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7–15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3–4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  15. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  16. Sink populations in carnivore management: cougar demography and immigration in a hunted population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hugh S; Wielgus, Robert B; Cooley, Hilary S; Cooley, Skye W

    2008-06-01

    Carnivores are widely hunted for both sport and population control, especially where they conflict with human interests. It is widely believed that sport hunting is effective in reducing carnivore populations and related human-carnivore conflicts, while maintaining viable populations. However, the way in which carnivore populations respond to harvest can vary greatly depending on their social structure, reproductive strategies, and dispersal patterns. For example, hunted cougar (Puma concolor) populations have shown a great degree of resiliency. Although hunting cougars on a broad geographic scale (> 2000 km2) has reduced densities, hunting of smaller areas (i.e., game management units, < 1000 km2), could conceivably fail because of increased immigration from adjacent source areas. We monitored a heavily hunted population from 2001 to 2006 to test for the effects of hunting at a small scale (< 1000 km2) and to gauge whether population control was achieved (lambda < or = 1.0) or if hunting losses were negated by increased immigration allowing the population to remain stable or increase (lambda > or = 1.0). The observed growth rate of 1.00 was significantly higher than our predicted survival/fecundity growth rates (using a Leslie matrix) of 0.89 (deterministic) and 0.84 (stochastic), with the difference representing an 11-16% annual immigration rate. We observed no decline in density of the total population or the adult population, but a significant decrease in the average age of independent males. We found that the male component of the population was increasing (observed male population growth rate, lambda(OM) = 1.09), masking a decrease in the female component (lambda(OF) = 0.91). Our data support the compensatory immigration sink hypothesis; cougar removal in small game management areas (< 1000 km2) increased immigration and recruitment of younger animals from adjacent areas, resulting in little or no reduction in local cougar densities and a shift in population

  17. CWD prevalence, perceived human health risks, and state influences on deer hunting participation.

    PubMed

    Vaske, Jerry J; Lyon, Katie M

    2011-03-01

    This study examined factors predicted by previous research to influence hunters' decisions to stop hunting deer in a state. Data were obtained from mail surveys of resident and nonresident deer hunters in Arizona, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin (n = 3,518). Hunters were presented with six scenarios depicting hypothetical CWD prevalence levels and human health risks from the disease (e.g., death), and asked if they would continue or stop hunting deer in the state. Bivariate analyses examined the influence of five predictor variables: (a) CWD prevalence, (b) hypothetical human death from CWD, (c) perceived human health risks from CWD, (d) state, and (e) residency. In the bivariate analyses, prevalence was the strongest predictor of quitting hunting in the state followed by hypothetical human death and perceived risk. The presence of CWD in a state and residency were weak, but statistically significant, predictors. Interactions among these predictors increased the potential for stopping hunting in the state. Multivariate analyses suggested that 64% of our respondents would quit hunting in the worst-case scenario.

  18. Subsistence hunting of Cuniculus paca in the middle of the Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, J; El Bizri, H R; Figueira, J E C

    2014-08-01

    Ungulates, large primates and caviomorfs are cited by Amazonian hunters as preferred species. In this research, paca (Cuniculus paca) hunting was investigated in relation to water levels and the lunar cycle. In eight years of monitoring in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, the killing of 625 pacas was registered in five monitored communities. Paca hunting took place mainly at night and the most commonly used method is "spotlighting". A positive correlation between the number of pacas killed and water level (rs=0.890; p<0.0001) was found. At least 37% of the pacas were hunted when moon illumination level was less than 10%, before moonrise or after moonset. In the Boa Esperança community, capture of paca tended to decrease on nights with high moon illumination (rs= -0.663; p=0.067). At the same time, an expressive catch-per-unity-effort decrease was also observed in this community (r2= -0.881; p<0.001), allowing us to predict unsustainable hunting levels for the next decade. The stock of animals in these areas could be continuously replaced if surrounding areas consisted of continuous forests. However, continuous hunting and deforestation force local hunters to travel longer distances to kill prey such as pacas. The confirmation of the relation between paca habits and lunar illumination and water level, a pattern described by local hunters, demonstrates the potential value of participatory research and the possibility of integrating traditional knowledge into scientific knowledge.

  19. Synchrony in hunting bags: reaction on climatic and human induced changes?

    PubMed

    Hagen, Robert; Heurich, Marco; Kröschel, Max; Herdtfelder, Micha

    2014-01-15

    Human induced land use changes negatively impact the viability of many wildlife species through habitat modifications and mortality, while some species seem to benefit from it. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), a wide spread ungulate increased both its abundance and range throughout Europe. This pattern is also reflected in the increasing hunting bags over the last 40 years. Such a development raises questions about the relationship between human hunting and population dynamics and, in particular, about the potential of human hunting to control related populations. We analysed and reconstructed annual hunting bags of roe deer for three federal states of northern Germany, Brandenburg, Lower Saxony and Mecklenburg West Pomerania for the years 1972 to 2011. Since 1992 the hunting bags from these three states are significantly higher than those reported for the years 1972-1991. Our reconstruction takes into consideration effects of climate variability, expressed by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation and impacts from rapeseed and wheat cultivation. We found that severe winters, which are indicated by negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the months December-March, directly, or with a time lag of two years affect the number of deer shot. In contrast, an increase in the area used for rapeseed cultivation coincides with higher numbers of roe deer shot, with respect to the overall mean value. Consequently, we recommend that wildlife management addresses changes in large scale processes including land use pattern and climate variability.

  20. Prey-Capture Strategies of Fish-Hunting Cone Snails: Behavior, Neurobiology and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Baldomero M; Seger, Jon; Horvath, Martin P; Fedosov, Alexander E

    2015-09-01

    The venomous fish-hunting cone snails (Conus) comprise eight distinct lineages evolved from ancestors that preyed on worms. In this article, we attempt to reconstruct events resulting in this shift in food resource by closely examining patterns of behavior, biochemical agents (toxins) that facilitate prey capture and the combinations of toxins present in extant species. The first sections introduce three different hunting behaviors associated with piscivory: 'taser-and-tether', 'net-engulfment' and 'strike-and-stalk'. The first two fish-hunting behaviors are clearly associated with distinct groups of venom components, called cabals, which act in concert to modify the behavior of prey in a specific manner. Derived fish-hunting behavior clearly also correlates with physical features of the radular tooth, the device that injects these biochemical components. Mapping behavior, biochemical components and radular tooth features onto phylogenetic trees shows that fish-hunting behavior emerged at least twice during evolution. The system presented here may be one of the best examples where diversity in structure, physiology and molecular features were initially driven by particular pathways selected through behavior.

  1. Influence of Group Size on the Success of Wolves Hunting Bison

    PubMed Central

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison), to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus), a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2–6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9–13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey. PMID:25389760

  2. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    PubMed

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison), to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus), a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey.

  3. Functional Responses of Retaliatory Killing versus Recreational Sport Hunting of Leopards in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Lourens H; Somers, Michael J; Dalerum, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Predation strategies in response to altering prey abundances can dramatically influence the demographic effects of predation. Despite this, predation strategies of humans are rarely incorporated into quantitative assessments of the demographic impacts of humans killing carnivores. This scarcity largely seems to be caused by a lack of data. In this study, we contrasted predation strategies exhibited by people involved in retaliatory killing and recreational sport hunting of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Waterberg District Municipality, South Africa. We predicted a specialist predation strategy exemplified by a type II functional response for retaliatory killing, and a generalist strategy exemplified by a type III functional response for recreational sport hunting. We could not distinguish between a type I, a type II, or a type III functional response for retaliatory killing, but the most parsimonious model for recreational sport hunting corresponded to a type I functional response. Kill rates were consistently higher for retaliatory killing than for recreational sport hunting. Our results indicate that retaliatory killing of leopards may have severe demographic consequences for leopard populations, whereas the demographic consequences of recreational sport hunting likely are less dramatic.

  4. Lead pollution from waterfowl hunting in wetlands and rice fields in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Romano, Marcelo; Ferreyra, Hebe; Ferreyroa, Gisele; Molina, Fernando V; Caselli, Andrea; Barberis, Ignacio; Beldoménico, Pablo; Uhart, Marcela

    2016-03-01

    The pollution of wetlands by lead derived from waterfowl hunting with lead shot was investigated. We determined soil pellet density and Pb concentration in soil, water and vegetation in natural wetlands and rice fields in central-eastern Santa Fe province, Argentina. Pellet density varied greatly among hunting sites (between 5.5-141 pellets/m(2)) and pellets were present in some control sites. Soil Pb concentration in most hunting sites (approximately 10-20 mg kg(-1)) was not much higher than in control sites (~5-10 mg kg(-1)), with the exception of the site with highest pellet density, which also had a high Pb soil concentration. In water, on the other hand, Pb concentration was similar in all sites (~4-7 μg L(-1)), both control and hunting, and higher than reference values for aquatic media. Lead was also present in vegetation, including grasses and rice crops, in almost all cases. Most soil-collection sites were slightly acidic, and were frequently flooded. These results strongly suggest that metallic Pb from spent shot is oxidized and dissolved due to wetland conditions. Thus, the pollutant is readily mobilized and distributed across all wetland areas, effectively homogenizing its concentration in locations with and without hunting activities. The replacement of lead by nontoxic materials in pellets appears to be the only effective way to prevent Pb pollution in wetlands.

  5. Predator hunting mode and habitat domain alter nonconsumptive effects in predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Evan L; Orrock, John L; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2007-11-01

    Predators can affect prey populations through changes in traits that reduce predation risk. These trait changes (nonconsumptive effects, NCEs) can be energetically costly and cause reduced prey activity, growth, fecundity, and survival. The strength of nonconsumptive effects may vary with two functional characteristics of predators: hunting mode (actively hunting, sit-and-pursue, sit-and-wait) and habitat domain (the ability to pursue prey via relocation in space; can be narrow or broad). Specifically, cues from fairly stationary sit-and-wait and sit-and-pursue predators should be more indicative of imminent predation risk, and thereby evoke stronger NCEs, compared to cues from widely ranging actively hunting predators. Using a meta-analysis of 193 published papers, we found that cues from sit-and-pursue predators evoked stronger NCEs than cues from actively hunting predators. Predator habitat domain was less indicative of NCE strength, perhaps because habitat domain provides less reliable information regarding imminent risk to prey than does predator hunting mode. Given the importance of NCEs in determining the dynamics of prey communities, our findings suggest that predator characteristics may be used to predict how changing predator communities translate into changes in prey. Such knowledge may prove particularly useful given rates of local predator change due to habitat fragmentation and the introduction of novel predators.

  6. Prey-capture Strategies of Fish-hunting Cone Snails: Behavior, Neurobiology and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, Baldomero M.; Seger, Jon; Horvath, Martin P.; Fedosov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The venomous fish-hunting cone snails (Conus) comprise eight distinct lineages evolved from ancestors that preyed on worms. In this article we attempt to reconstruct events resulting in this shift in food resource by closely examining patterns of behavior, biochemical agents (toxins) that facilitate prey capture, and the combinations of toxins present in extant species. The first sections introduce three different hunting behaviors associated with piscivory: “taser and tether”, “net engulfment”, and “strike and stalk”. The first two fish-hunting behaviors are clearly associated with distinct groups of venom components, called cabals, which act in concert to modify the behavior of prey in a specific manner. Derived fish-hunting behavior clearly also correlates with physical features of the radular tooth, the device that injects these biochemical components. Mapping behavior, biochemical components, and radular tooth features onto phylogenetic trees shows that fish-hunting behavior emerged at lease twice during evolution. The system presented here may be one of the best examples where diversity in structure, physiology and molecular features was initially driven by particular pathways selected through behavior. PMID:26397110

  7. Functional Responses of Retaliatory Killing versus Recreational Sport Hunting of Leopards in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Swanepoel, Lourens H.; Somers, Michael J.; Dalerum, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Predation strategies in response to altering prey abundances can dramatically influence the demographic effects of predation. Despite this, predation strategies of humans are rarely incorporated into quantitative assessments of the demographic impacts of humans killing carnivores. This scarcity largely seems to be caused by a lack of data. In this study, we contrasted predation strategies exhibited by people involved in retaliatory killing and recreational sport hunting of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Waterberg District Municipality, South Africa. We predicted a specialist predation strategy exemplified by a type II functional response for retaliatory killing, and a generalist strategy exemplified by a type III functional response for recreational sport hunting. We could not distinguish between a type I, a type II, or a type III functional response for retaliatory killing, but the most parsimonious model for recreational sport hunting corresponded to a type I functional response. Kill rates were consistently higher for retaliatory killing than for recreational sport hunting. Our results indicate that retaliatory killing of leopards may have severe demographic consequences for leopard populations, whereas the demographic consequences of recreational sport hunting likely are less dramatic. PMID:25905623

  8. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a hunting dog and its diphtheria toxin antibody titer.

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Chihiro; Komiya, Takako; Umeda, Kaoru; Goto, Minami; Yanai, Tokuma; Takahashi, Motohide; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Iwaki, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans is a zoonotic pathogen that produces diphtheria toxin and causes a diphtheria-like illness in humans. The organism is known to infect and circulate among dogs, which can then transmit it to humans. Furthermore, previous studies have found that C. ulcerans is carried by wild animals, including game animals. In the present study, we tested hunting and companion dogs for the presence of toxigenic C. ulcerans and succeeded in isolating the bacterium from a hunting dog. Moreover, several hunting dogs had serum diphtheria antitoxin titers that were higher than the titers required for protection in humans, suggesting a history of exposure to toxigenic Corynebacterium strains. Notably, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and tox gene sequencing demonstrated that the isolate from the hunting dog clustered with previously characterized C. ulcerans strains isolated from wild animals, as opposed to groups of isolates from humans and companion dogs. Interestingly, the wild animal cluster also contains an isolate from an outdoor breeding dog, which could have formed a bridge between isolates from wild animals and those from companion dogs. The results presented herein provide insight into the mechanism by which the zoonotic pathogen C. ulcerans circulates among wild animals, hunting and companion dogs, and humans.

  9. Large carnivores response to recreational big game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, T.E.; Smith, D.W.; Haroldson, M.A.; Buotte, P.C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Quigley, H.B.; Cherry, S.; Tyres, D.; Frey, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem contains the rare combination of an intact guild of native large carnivores, their prey, and differing land management policies (National Park versus National Forest; no hunting versus hunting). Concurrent field studies on large carnivores allowed us to investigate activities of humans and carnivores on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) northern boundary. Prior to and during the backcountry big-game hunting season, we monitored movements of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and cougars (Puma concolor) on the northern boundary of YNP. Daily aerial telemetry locations (September 1999), augmented with weekly telemetry locations (August and October 1999), were obtained for 3 grizzly bears, 7 wolves in 2 groups of 1 pack, and 3 cougars in 1 family group. Grizzly bears were more likely located inside the YNP boundary during the pre-hunt period and north of the boundary once hunting began. The cougar family tended to be found outside YNP during the pre-hunt period and moved inside YNP when hunting began. Wolves did not significantly change their movement patterns during the pre-hunt and hunting periods. Qualitative information on elk (Cervus elaphus) indicated they moved into YNP once hunting started, suggesting that cougars followed living prey or responded to hunting activity, grizzly bears focused on dead prey (e.g., gut piles, crippled elk), and wolves may have taken advantage of both. Measures of association (Jacob's Index) were positive within carnivore species but inconclusive among species. Further collaborative research and the use of new technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry collars will advance our ability to understand these species, the carnivore community and its interactions, and human influences on carnivores.

  10. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: wild boar as a case study.

    PubMed

    Gamelon, Marlène; Besnard, Aurélien; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Servanty, Sabrina; Baubet, Eric; Brandt, Serge; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality.

  11. A rare case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome following temporomandibular joint surgery.

    PubMed

    Lehman, H; Rushinek, H

    2015-08-01

    Surgical approaches to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have been designed specifically to minimize injury to the temporal branch of the facial nerve. In spite of this, facial nerve dysfunction occurs in 1-32% of patients undergoing TMJ surgery. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by peripheral facial paralysis that often involves other cranial nerves, mostly cranial nerve VIII. The pathology is attributed to the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. The diagnosis is based mostly on history and physical findings. Surgical procedures have been known to reactivate varicella zoster virus, but Ramsay Hunt syndrome subsequent to TMJ surgery has not been described yet. This report describes a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with TMJ surgery. Because of the relatively high incidence of facial nerve dysfunction associated with TMJ surgery, patients with varicella zoster virus reactivation may initially be misdiagnosed with iatrogenic facial palsy, or vice versa.

  12. Animal movements in the Kenya Rift and evidence for the earliest ambush hunting by hominins

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Reynolds, Sally C.; Rucina, Stephen M.; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal movements in the Kenya Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and trace nutrient distribution. These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. We use this approach to create a landscape reconstruction of Olorgesailie, a key site in the East African Rift with abundant evidence of large-mammal butchery between ~1.2 and ~0.5 Ma BP. The site location in relation to limited animal routes through the area show that hominins were aware of animal movements and used the location for ambush hunting during the Lower to Middle Pleistocene. These features explain the importance of Olorgesailie as a preferred location of repeated hominin activity through multiple changes in climate and local environmental conditions, and provide insights into the cognitive and hunting abilities of Homo erectus while indicating that their activities at the site were aimed at hunting, rather than scavenging. PMID:26369499

  13. Animal movements in the Kenya Rift and evidence for the earliest ambush hunting by hominins.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Reynolds, Sally C; Rucina, Stephen M; King, Geoffrey C P

    2015-09-15

    Animal movements in the Kenya Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and trace nutrient distribution. These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. We use this approach to create a landscape reconstruction of Olorgesailie, a key site in the East African Rift with abundant evidence of large-mammal butchery between ~1.2 and ~0.5 Ma BP. The site location in relation to limited animal routes through the area show that hominins were aware of animal movements and used the location for ambush hunting during the Lower to Middle Pleistocene. These features explain the importance of Olorgesailie as a preferred location of repeated hominin activity through multiple changes in climate and local environmental conditions, and provide insights into the cognitive and hunting abilities of Homo erectus while indicating that their activities at the site were aimed at hunting, rather than scavenging.

  14. Animal movements in the Kenya Rift and evidence for the earliest ambush hunting by hominins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Reynolds, Sally C.; Rucina, Stephen M.; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Animal movements in the Kenya Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and trace nutrient distribution. These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. We use this approach to create a landscape reconstruction of Olorgesailie, a key site in the East African Rift with abundant evidence of large-mammal butchery between ~1.2 and ~0.5 Ma BP. The site location in relation to limited animal routes through the area show that hominins were aware of animal movements and used the location for ambush hunting during the Lower to Middle Pleistocene. These features explain the importance of Olorgesailie as a preferred location of repeated hominin activity through multiple changes in climate and local environmental conditions, and provide insights into the cognitive and hunting abilities of Homo erectus while indicating that their activities at the site were aimed at hunting, rather than scavenging.

  15. Data-poor management of African lion hunting using a relative index of abundance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Charles T T; Bunnefeld, Nils; Balme, Guy A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-07

    Sustainable management of terrestrial hunting requires managers to set quotas restricting offtake. This often takes place in the absence of reliable information on the population size, and as a consequence, quotas are set in an arbitrary fashion, leading to population decline and revenue loss. In this investigation, we show how an indirect measure of abundance can be used to set quotas in a sustainable manner, even in the absence of information on population size. Focusing on lion hunting in Africa, we developed a simple algorithm to convert changes in the number of safari days required to kill a lion into a quota for the following year. This was tested against a simulation model of population dynamics, accounting for uncertainties in demography, observation, and implementation. Results showed it to reliably set sustainable quotas despite these uncertainties, providing a robust foundation for the conservation of hunted species.

  16. The Hundred Year Hunt for the Red Sprite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Schmidt, M.

    2003-12-01

    This presentation reviews an NSF Informal Science Education project directed by the PO of an ongoing NSF Physical Meteorology/Aeronomy-sponsored research program on red sprites. For over 100 years, anecdotal reports and citations in the literature have persisted of strange luminous apparitions occurring high above thunderstorms. They were long discounted by the scientific community - until 1989, when by pure chance, a video revealed two giant pillars of light extending tens of kilometers above a thunderstorm. Since then, thousands of events, now called sprites, have been imaged, many by the PI. Mesospheric sprites, at 40 to 90 km altitude, are induced by lightning discharges having highly unusual characteristics. Science is now gradually unraveling the nature of the giant lightning discharges which spawn sprites. In the process we have found even more unusual electrical discharges above thunderstorms, suggesting that many new discoveries await to be made. We produced and are distributing a planetarium DVD/video program (42 minutes length) entitled, "The Hundred Year Hunt for the Red Sprite." It documents the application of the scientific method to unraveling this century old mystery surrounding strange lights in the night sky. We also contrasted this story of discovery to the pseudo-science prevalent today in topics such as UFOs. With distribution to numerous planetaria and science centers, we believe over 200,000 persons will eventually view this program (which has won three major video production awards). Our long term goal is to inspire planetarium visitors to undertake their own self-directed learning programs. A companion educational web site (www.Sky-Fire.TV) allows students and adults sufficiently motivated by the planetarium experience to further investigate sprites and related basic science topics. The highly interactive web site challenges visitors to test their knowledge of sprites and lightning by participating in an on-line 20 question quiz game, which

  17. Prognostic factors of Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhengyi; Li, Huijing; Wang, Xun; Niu, Xiaoting; Ni, Peiqi; Zhang, Wanli; Shao, Bei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare clinical characteristics, electroneurography (ENoG) results, and functional outcomes of patients with Bell's palsy (BP) and Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). Around 57 patients with BP and 23 patients with RHS were enrolled in this study from January 2010 and September 2015. Both clinical characteristics and ENoG results were recorded at hospital admission. The evaluations of functional outcomes were conducted with House–Brackmann (H-B) grading system at 6-month follow-up. There were no significant differences in age, gender proportion, initial H-B grades, time before commencement of treatment and the presence of comorbid disease in 2 groups. However, the final H-B grades at 6-month follow-up were significantly better in BP patients than RHS patients. The results of ENoG showed that degeneration index (DI) was significantly higher in the RHS group than the BP group. But no significant difference was found in the value of prolonged latency time (PLT) between the 2 groups. In multivariate analysis, age and ENoG DI were independently associated with functional outcome of recovery in the BP group (OR 0.167, 95% CI 0.038–0.622, P = 0.009 and OR 0.289 95% CI 0.107–0.998, P = 0.050, respectively). However, in the RHS group, only ENoG DI was related to the final H-B grades (OR 0.067, 95% CI 0.005–0.882, P = 0.040). Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed that higher age and ENoG DI were related to poorer prognosis in 2 groups (P < 0.05). PLT was related to functional outcomes only in the BP group (rs = 0.460, P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of ENoG DI analysis revealed that the cutoff value was 67.0% for BP prognosis and 64.5% for RHS prognosis. What's more, patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus had both higher final H-B grade and ENoG DI than those without the same comorbidity. Patients with RHS had poorer prognosis than those with BP. Some factors including age

  18. Vulnerability of nontarget goose species to hunting with electronic snow goose calls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, J.H.; Afton, A.D.; Caswell, F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1999, use of electronic calls has been legal for hunting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter snow geese) during special seasons or times of day when other waterfowl species could not be hunted in prairie Canada. Prior to expanding the use of electronic calls for hunting snow geese during fall hunting seasons, effects of these calls on nontarget goose species must be examined. Accordingly, we examined the vulnerability of Canada (Branta canadensis) and white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) (dark geese) to electronic snow goose calls and 3 goose decoy sets (dark, mixed, and white) during the 1999 fall hunting seasons in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Canada geese were 2.3 times more likely to fly within gun range (P<0.001) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 2.5 times greater (P=0.043) during control periods when hunters were silent or used traditional calling methods (i.e., hand-held and voice calls) than when hunters used electronic snow goose calls. Flock response and kill rate for Canada geese declined as proportions of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). White-fronted geese were 1.8 times more likely to fly within gun range (P=0.050) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 5.0 times greater (P=0.022) during control periods than during periods when electronic snow goose calls were used. Flock response for white-fronted geese also declined as the proportion of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). The legalization of electronic snow goose calls during fall hunting seasons in prairie Canada should not result in increased harvest of nontarget dark geese.

  19. When top predators become prey: Black bears alter movement behaviour in response to hunting pressure.

    PubMed

    Stillfried, Milena; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The trade-off between predator avoidance and foraging is a key decision making factor that shapes an organism's adaptive behaviour and movement patterns. Human hunters act as top predators to influence the behaviour of free-ranging mammals, including large carnivorous species such as black bears (Ursus americanus). Analysing the effects of hunting on animal behavioural patterns is essential for understanding the extent to which animals detect and respond to human-induced disturbances. To this end, we assessed whether black bear movement behaviour changed with varying risk from spatially and temporally heterogeneous human predation. Levels of risk were categorized as either low (disturbance from dog training; n=19 bears) or high (disturbance from hunting activities; n=11 bears). Road types were either paved (risk due to vehicles) or non-paved (risk due to hunters) and were used as proxies for hunting effort and amount of disturbance. We began by testing the null hypothesis that bears' distribution before the onset of human disturbance is spatially random. Next, to test temporal movement adjustment between the low and high risk levels, we measured the distance to the nearest road and the road crossing frequency using mixed effects models with risk level, time of day and sex as predictor variables. As disturbance near non-paved roads increased due to the start of the hunting activity, the mean distances of bears to non-paved roads increased while the mean distances of bears to paved roads decreased, despite the continual risk of vehicle collision. These behavioural responses were observed during day and night, with the frequency of crossing paved roads at night five times greater than in daytime during the hunting season. Our findings demonstrate that black bears are able to detect risky places and adjust their spatial movements accordingly. More specifically, bears can perceive changes in the level of risk from human hunting activities on a fine temporal scale.

  20. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  4. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed...

  5. 76 FR 54657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons...

  6. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed...

  7. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed...

  8. 77 FR 53751 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States,...

  9. 77 FR 58627 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and...

  10. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed...

  11. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States,...

  12. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 185... Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession...

  13. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  15. Cross-cultural Comparison of Learning in Human Hunting : Implications for Life History Evolution.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katharine

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a cross-cultural examination of the development of hunting skills and the implications for the debate on the role of learning in the evolution of human life history patterns. While life history theory has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the evolution of the human life course, other schools, such as cultural transmission and social learning theory, also provide theoretical insights. These disparate theories are reviewed, and alternative and exclusive predictions are identified. This study of cross-cultural regularities in how children learn hunting skills, based on the ethnographic literature on traditional hunters, complements existing empirical work and highlights future areas for investigation.

  16. Pre-Clovis mastodon hunting 13,800 years ago at the Manis site, Washington.

    PubMed

    Waters, Michael R; Stafford, Thomas W; McDonald, H Gregory; Gustafson, Carl; Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Olsen, Jesper V; Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-21

    The tip of a projectile point made of mastodon bone is embedded in a rib of a single disarticulated mastodon at the Manis site in the state of Washington. Radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis show that the rib is associated with the other remains and dates to 13,800 years ago. Thus, osseous projectile points, common to the Beringian Upper Paleolithic and Clovis, were made and used during pre-Clovis times in North America. The Manis site, combined with evidence of mammoth hunting at sites in Wisconsin, provides evidence that people were hunting proboscideans at least two millennia before Clovis.

  17. On the role of mobility and hunting effectiveness in a prey-predator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droz, M.; Pękalski, A.

    2010-10-01

    We present a new, extended, predator-prey model for which we discuss the role of predators mobility and hunting effectiveness on the dynamics of the system. We show, via Monte Carlo simulations, that the maximum of predators’ population density is a rather complex function of both - mobility and effectiveness of hunting. For a low mobility, larger effectiveness suits the predators better. When the mobility is large, the predators population is bigger if the predators are rather bad hunters. We have not observed temporal oscillations in the densities of both species.

  18. Differential wolf-pack-size persistence and the role of risk when hunting dangerous prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David; Newton, Wesley E.; Borg, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Risk to predators hunting dangerous prey is an emerging area of research and could account for possible persistent differences in gray wolf (Canis lupus) pack sizes. We documented significant differences in long-term wolf-pack-size averages and variation in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Denali National Park and Preserve, Yellowstone National Park, and Yukon, Canada (p<0.01). The SNF differences could be related to the wolves’ risk when hunting primary prey, for those packs (N=3) hunting moose (Alces americanus) were significantly larger than those (N=10) hunting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (F1,8=16.50, p=0.004). Our data support the hypothesis that differential pack-size persistence may be perpetuated by differences in primary prey riskiness to wolves, and we highlight two important extensions of this idea: (1) the potential for wolves to provision and defend injured packmates from other wolves and (2) the importance of less-risky, buffer prey to pack-size persistence and year-to-year variation. Risk to predators hunting dangerous prey is an emerging area of research and could account for possible persistent differences in gray wolf (Canis lupus) pack sizes. We documented significant differences in long-term wolf-pack-size averages and variation in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Denali National Park and Preserve, Yellowstone National Park, and Yukon, Canada (p<0.01). The SNF differences could be related to the wolves’ risk when hunting primary prey, for those packs (N=3) hunting moose (Alces americanus) were significantly larger than those (N=10) hunting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (F1,8=16.50, p=0.004). Our data support the hypothesis that differential pack-size persistence may be perpetuated by differences in primary prey riskiness to wolves, and we highlight two important extensions of this idea: (1) the potential for wolves to provision and defend injured packmates from other wolves and (2) the importance of less

  19. 78 FR 68148 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HUNT; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA HUNT....regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Linda Williams, U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime... Linda.Williams@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended...

  20. 78 FR 66061 - Notice of Hunting and Trapping Restrictions Within the Skilak Wildlife Recreation Area (Skilak...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... and Game) only, and small game may be taken from October 1 through March 1 by falconry and bow and... regulations apply. Permit moose hunts are administered by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Through... the results of a fall survey (conducted cooperatively between the Alaska Department of Fish and...

  1. A Library Adventure: Comparing a Treasure Hunt with a Traditional Freshman Orientation Tour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Sandra; Beck, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses finding the best means of introducing community college freshmen to the library and the skills and concepts of information literacy. Compares results of a traditional librarian-led orientation tour with those of a self-guided treasure hunt. Results indicate an educational advantage in the self-guided tour, supporting active…

  2. Determinants of lifetime reproduction in female brown bears: early body mass, longevity, and hunting regulations.

    PubMed

    Zedrosser, Andreas; Pelletier, Fanie; Bischof, Richard; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Swenson, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    In iteroparous mammals, conditions experienced early in life may have long-lasting effects on lifetime reproductive success. Human-induced mortality is also an important demographic factor in many populations of large mammals and may influence lifetime reproductive success. Here, we explore the effects of early development, population density, and human hunting on survival and lifetime reproductive success in brown bear (Ursus arctos) females, using a 25-year database of individually marked bears in two populations in Sweden. Survival of yearlings to 2 years was not affected by population density or body mass. Yearlings that remained with their mother had higher survival than independent yearlings, partly because regulations prohibit the harvest of bears in family groups. Although mass as a yearling did not affect juvenile survival, it was positively associated with measures of lifetime reproductive success and individual fitness. The majority of adult female brown bear mortality (72%) in our study was due to human causes, mainly hunting, and many females were killed before they reproduced. Therefore, factors allowing females to survive several hunting seasons had a strong positive effect on lifetime reproductive success. We suggest that, in many hunted populations of large mammals, sport harvest is an important influence on both population dynamics and life histories.

  3. Using Scavenger Hunts to Familiarize Students with Scientific Journal Articles †

    PubMed Central

    Lijek, Rebeccah S.; Fankhauser, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Primary scientific literature can be difficult to navigate for anyone unfamiliar with its foreign, formal structure. We sought to create a fun, easy learning tool to help familiarize students of all ages with the structure of a scientific article. Our main learning objective was for the student to realize that science writing is formulaic—that specific information is found in predictable locations within an article—and that, with an understanding of the formula, anyone can comfortably navigate any journal article and accurately predict what to expect to find in each section. To this end, we designed a Journal Article Scavenger Hunt that requires the user to find and identify a series of commonplace features of a primary research article. The scavenger hunt activity is quick and easy to implement, and is adaptable to various ages and settings, including the classroom, lab, and at outreach events. The questions in the scavenger hunt can be scaled in difficulty and specificity to suit the instructor’s needs. Over many years of using this activity, we have received positive feedback from students of all ages, from elementary school students to lay adult-learners as well as science teachers themselves. By making the unknown seem predictable and approachable, the scavenger hunt helps a variety of audiences feel more comfortable with science and more confident in their ability to engage directly with the scientific literature. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27047608

  4. 77 FR 52344 - Proposed Information Collection; Annual Certification of Hunting and Sport Fishing Licenses Issued

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-WSR-2012-N210; FVWF941009000007B-XXX-FF09W23000; FVWF511009000007B-XXX-FF09W23000] Proposed Information Collection; Annual Certification of Hunting and Sport...

  5. The Hunting Ground: The Inside Story of Sexual Assault on American College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Kirby; Ziering, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The debate over sexual violence on campus is reaching fever pitch, from headlines about out--of-control fraternities, to the "mattress protests" by female students at Columbia University and other colleges. "The Hunting Ground," the new documentary by award-winning filmmakers Kirby Dick and Amy Ziering, has taken this debate to…

  6. Exploring Content Schemata Influence on L2 Reading: "The Hunted Fox" and "Twelve and Not Stupid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radzi, Amizura Hanadi Mohd; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss the aspects of content schemata in second language reading among diploma level students who were taking a reading course in Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis. In this qualitative case study, the researcher had selected two short stories that are categorized as content-familiar texts, i.e. "The Hunted Fox" and…

  7. To Please the Animal Master: The Innu Hunting Way of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loring, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    Examines the ways in which the Innu people interact with the flora and fauna of their lands in northern Quebec and Labrador, Canada. Describes Innu methods for adapting to the harsh environment and discusses their folkways regarding the hunting of and preparation of meals made from local animals. (MAB)

  8. Witch-Hunting at Crucible University: The Power and Peril of Competing Organizational Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.; Hartley, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The literature on organizational culture underscores the benefits of a strong culture--its capacity to draw people together through shared values and norms. Yet, the formation of a powerful ideology also has the capacity to promote divisiveness and to alienate those who fail to conform. This study employs Frank W. Lutz's witch-hunting framework in…

  9. In Pursuit of the Irresistible: Art Therapy Research in the Hunting Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapitan, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Presents an archetypal teaching model that contemplates research as a contemporary form of an ancient hunting and gathering tradition. Argues that admonishing art therapists to engage in research creates an unintended consequence of identification with powerlessness as a primary motivation for expanding the knowledge of the profession. (MKA)

  10. 76 FR 43339 - Hunt Fee at Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... to curtail this population growth. The hunting of feral hogs has become a popular sport in the State... population dynamics throughout the state, TPWD has identified 33 unique Resource Management Units (RMUs... population data from identified RMUs and associated ecoregions throughout the state and adjusts deer...

  11. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Antunes, André P; Fewster, Rachel M; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance.

  12. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear sport... estate, must submit an application for a permit to import a trophy of a polar bear taken in Canada to...

  13. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear sport... estate, must submit an application for a permit to import a trophy of a polar bear taken in Canada to...

  14. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear sport... estate, must submit an application for a permit to import a trophy of a polar bear taken in Canada to...

  15. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear sport... estate, must submit an application for a permit to import a trophy of a polar bear taken in Canada to...

  16. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear sport... estate, must submit an application for a permit to import a trophy of a polar bear taken in Canada to...

  17. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an “empty forest” loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance. PMID:27757421

  18. Finding the Balance: A Response to Hunt and McDonnell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Hunt and McDonnell have provided an excellent overview of one of the most important aspects of planning for students with severe disabilities--an ecological curricular framework that is created with input from the student, family, and needs of current and future environments. The standards-based reform-movement has created tension for educators to…

  19. Sexual predators and prey: a comparative study of the hunting behavior of rapists and child molesters.

    PubMed

    Rebocho, Maria Francisca; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2012-09-01

    Although there has been an increase in research on sex offenders' modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior, most studies still tend to emphasize criminal motivation while overlooking the role of situational and environmental factors. Studies of mixed samples of rapists and child molesters typically neglect to conduct comparative analyses. Consequently, the full nature of their distinction is not clear. This is particularly problematic for the understanding of crossover or polymorphous sex offenders, who target victims from various age groups. Using a sample of 216 incarcerated sexual offenders, hunting behavior patterns were identified and tested to establish which hunting behavior patterns were associated with each type of offender. Relationships between modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior were also examined. Three types of offender were identified: (a) manipulative; (b) opportunist; and (c) coercive. The manipulative offender is typically a child molester. The coercive offender is typically a rapist. The opportunist offender includes both rapists and child molesters. These findings emphasize the relevance of polymorphous, crossover, or versatile sex offenders and suggest new ways of conceptualizing sex offenders and their study.

  20. 78 FR 44969 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for Allowing Avian Hunting in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... game bird hunting within designated areas on USIBWC property in Do a Ana County, New Mexico, along the... WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment... Do a Ana Counties, New Mexico AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary and...

  1. Refining reproductive parameters for modelling sustainability and extinction in hunted primate populations in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Mark; Anderson, Matt; Montes, Daniel; Pérez, Pedro; Mayor, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Primates are frequently hunted in Amazonia. Assessing the sustainability of hunting is essential to conservation planning. The most-used sustainability model, the 'Production Model', and more recent spatial models, rely on basic reproductive parameters for accuracy. These parameters are often crudely estimated. To date, parameters used for the Amazon's most-hunted primate, the woolly monkey (Lagothrix spp.), come from captive populations in the 1960s, when captive births were rare. Furthermore, woolly monkeys have since been split into five species. We provide reproductive parameters calculated by examining the reproductive organs of female Poeppig's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii), collected by hunters as part of their normal subsistence activity. Production was 0.48-0.54 young per female per year, and an interbirth interval of 22.3 to 25.2 months, similar to parameters from captive populations. However, breeding was seasonal, which imposes limits on the maximum reproductive rate attainable. We recommend the use of spatial models over the Production Model, since they are less sensitive to error in estimated reproductive rates. Further refinements to reproductive parameters are needed for most primate taxa. Methods like ours verify the suitability of captive reproductive rates for sustainability analysis and population modelling for populations under differing conditions of hunting pressure and seasonality. Without such research, population modelling is based largely on guesswork.

  2. DenHunt - A Comprehensive Database of the Intricate Network of Dengue-Human Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Arjunan, Selvam; Sastri, Narayan P.; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature. However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue–human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called DenHunt. We retrieved 682 direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, 382 indirect interactions and 4120 differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients. We have illustrated the importance of DenHunt by mapping the dengue–human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. We also observed that 7 percent of the dengue virus interacting human proteins are also associated with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Finally, the understanding that comes from such analyses could be used to design better strategies to counteract the diseases caused by dengue virus. The whole dataset has been catalogued in a searchable database, called DenHunt (http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/DenHunt/). PMID:27618709

  3. The Library Scavenger Hunt: Teaching Library Skills in Introductory Sociology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasberg, Davita Silfen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Challenges the assumption that library skills are not a legitimate aspect of sociology courses. Argues that library skills are learned most effectively through an active process of participation and experience. Suggests and describes a library scavenger hunt as an effective learning exercise. (DB)

  4. Faculty Forum: The Scavenger Hunt--Getting to Know Your Psychology Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrist, Dan J.; Nordstrom, Cynthia R.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four undergraduates enrolled in a careers in psychology course participated in a group-oriented scavenger hunt activity. The purpose of this activity was to increase students' awareness of the types of resources, available to them within the psychology department and within the larger campus community, related to psychology…

  5. A Botanical Treasure Hunt: A Fun and Educational Tree Identification Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marty; Gaynor, John J.; Cribben, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Shares an approach to tree identification that can be adapted to use with all levels from middle school through college. Stresses student involvement and cooperation in a botanical scavenger hunt. Describes the development of the treasure map and how to use the guide sheet. (DDR)

  6. Refining Reproductive Parameters for Modelling Sustainability and Extinction in Hunted Primate Populations in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Mark; Anderson, Matt; Montes, Daniel; Pérez, Pedro; Mayor, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Primates are frequently hunted in Amazonia. Assessing the sustainability of hunting is essential to conservation planning. The most-used sustainability model, the ‘Production Model’, and more recent spatial models, rely on basic reproductive parameters for accuracy. These parameters are often crudely estimated. To date, parameters used for the Amazon’s most-hunted primate, the woolly monkey (Lagothrix spp.), come from captive populations in the 1960s, when captive births were rare. Furthermore, woolly monkeys have since been split into five species. We provide reproductive parameters calculated by examining the reproductive organs of female Poeppig’s woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii), collected by hunters as part of their normal subsistence activity. Production was 0.48–0.54 young per female per year, and an interbirth interval of 22.3 to 25.2 months, similar to parameters from captive populations. However, breeding was seasonal, which imposes limits on the maximum reproductive rate attainable. We recommend the use of spatial models over the Production Model, since they are less sensitive to error in estimated reproductive rates. Further refinements to reproductive parameters are needed for most primate taxa. Methods like ours verify the suitability of captive reproductive rates for sustainability analysis and population modelling for populations under differing conditions of hunting pressure and seasonality. Without such research, population modelling is based largely on guesswork. PMID:24714614

  7. 77 FR 39983 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Fluoropolymeric Shot Coatings as Nontoxic for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY66 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval... INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird...

  8. Brucella suis infection associated with feral swine hunting - three states, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    2009-06-12

    Historically, brucellosis from Brucella suis infection occurred among workers in swine slaughterhouses. In 1972, the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Brucellosis Eradication Program was expanded to cover swine herds. Subsequent elimination of brucellosis in commercial swine resulted in a decrease in B. suis-associated illness in humans. Currently, swine-associated brucellosis in humans in the United States is predominantly associated with exposure to infected feral swine (i.e., wild boar or wild hogs). In May and July 2008, CDC was contacted by the state health departments in South Carolina and Pennsylvania regarding two cases of brucellosis possibly linked to feral swine hunts. Both state health departments contacted the state health department in Florida, where the hunts took place. The subsequent investigation, conducted jointly by the three state health departments and CDC, determined that the two patients had confirmed brucellosis from B. suis infection and the brother of one patient had probable brucellosis. All three exposures were associated with feral swine hunting, and at least two patients did not have symptoms until 4-6 months after exposure. The findings from this investigation suggest that clinicians treating patients with unexplained febrile illness should consider brucellosis in the differential diagnosis and obtain a thorough history of travel (e.g., to enzootic areas), food consumption, occupation, and recreational activities, including feral swine hunting. Cross-agency collaboration by state health departments and agriculture agencies is needed on brucellosis investigations to reduce the risk for illness through contact with infected animals.

  9. The Stag Hunt Game: An Example of an Excel-Based Probabilistic Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Dave

    2016-01-01

    With so many role-playing simulations already in the political science education literature, the recent repeated calls for new games is both timely and appropriate. This article answers and extends those calls by advocating the creation of probabilistic games using Microsoft Excel. I introduce the example of the Stag Hunt Game--a short, effective,…

  10. Sexual Predators and Prey: A Comparative Study of the Hunting Behavior of Rapists and Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebocho, Maria Francisca; Goncalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been an increase in research on sex offenders' modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior, most studies still tend to emphasize criminal motivation while overlooking the role of situational and environmental factors. Studies of mixed samples of rapists and child molesters typically neglect to conduct…

  11. 78 FR 37397 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... June 20, 2013 Part V Small Business Administration 13 CFR Part 121 Small Business Size Standards; Final...; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG43 Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  12. Effects of remedial sport hunting on cougar complaints and livestock depredations.

    PubMed

    Peebles, Kaylie A; Wielgus, Robert B; Maletzke, Benjamin T; Swanson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Remedial sport hunting of predators is often used to reduce predator populations and associated complaints and livestock depredations. We assessed the effects of remedial sport hunting on reducing cougar complaints and livestock depredations in Washington from 2005 to 2010 (6 years). The number of complaints, livestock depredations, cougars harvested, estimated cougar populations, human population and livestock populations were calculated for all 39 counties and 136 GMUs (game management units) in Washington. The data was then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of complaints and depredations in the current year with the number of cougars harvested the previous year. As expected, we found that complaints and depredations were positively associated with human population, livestock population, and cougar population. However, contrary to expectations we found that complaints and depredations were most strongly associated with cougars harvested the previous year. The odds of increased complaints and livestock depredations increased dramatically (36 to 240%) with increased cougar harvest. We suggest that increased young male immigration, social disruption of cougar populations, and associated changes in space use by cougars - caused by increased hunting resulted in the increased complaints and livestock depredations. Widespread indiscriminate hunting does not appear to be an effective preventative and remedial method for reducing predator complaints and livestock depredations.

  13. Ghost Hunting as a Means to Illustrate Scientific Methodology and Enhance Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing popularity of television shows featuring paranormal investigations has led to a renewed enthusiasm in ghost hunting activities, and belief in the paranormal in general. These shows typically feature a group of investigators who, while claiming to utilize proper scientifically correct methodologies, violate many core scientific…

  14. "I Know I'm Unlovable": Desperation, Dislocation, Despair, and Discourse on the Academic Job Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Failure, according to the academic canonical narrative, is anything other than a tenure-track professorship. The academic job hunt is fraught with unknowns: a time of fear, hope, and despair. This personal narrative follows the author's three-year journey from doctoral candidate, to visiting assistant professor, to the unemployment line. Using a…

  15. After the Makah Whale Hunt: Indigenous Knowledge and Limits to Multicultural Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the racist backlash against the Makah tribe for their treaty-protected right to hunt whales. It then explains some core epistemological aspects of indigenous peoples' struggles that are outside discussions in multicultural education. This article also offers a contribution to our understanding of schools as political…

  16. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, José M V; Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F B; Luzar, Jeffrey B; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M; Silvius, Kirsten M

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11-40% of village and control sites or on 29-72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  17. Guanaco traces and hunting strategies at Alto Patache North Chilean fog oasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrain, H.; Cereceda, P.; Pérez, L.

    2010-07-01

    1. In foregoing Fog Conferences, some of us have made explicit the rich botanic and faunistic inventory to be found at this Chilean Fog site. This was specially apparent under strong ENSO conditions, as it happened in 1997/98 in the area. Among the mammal biggest species represented, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller) merits special mention. Clear traces of their presence and eventual hunting and slaughtering by primitive populations have survived until present times. Among them, the myriads of guanaco trails still covering practically all the slopes along the foggy area, close to the sea, and their wollowing and defecating places are found. Also, although less studied, plant eating traces left behind by roaming camelids can be seen. 2. Guanaco hunting traces still visible at Alto Patache can be portrayed differently through : A) Analysis of lithic artifacts used as arms in hunting operations; B) Botanic response to animal attack; C) Examination of topographic traits used by primitive man in guanaco hunting strategies. A. Hundreds of lithic instruments made of stone, were abandoned by hunters in situ, some of them were intact, some fragmented, which would demonstrate a direct relationship with hunting and slaughtering, and also their elaboration in workshops at place. Lithic points, scrapers and knives were found at places specially apt for hunting or slaughtering activities. Total isolation of the mountain fog site previous to our arrival in 1996, favoured their conservation at place. B. Careful observation of some local plants showed clear traces of guanaco feeding habits. As a proof thereof, old cactus of the species Eulychnia iquiquensis show in their basal portions clear signals in the forms of scars, caused by the eating by guanacos. Guanaco faeces were found at the foot of Ephedra plants. Many dead Stipa ichu plants (Gramineae), in different areas of the oasis provide evidence of cutting close to their basis, caused by sharp guanaco tooth under severe food

  18. Adhesive foot pads: an adaptation to climbing? An ecological survey in hunting spiders.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-02-01

    Hairy pads relying on dry adhesion are fascinating structures that convergently evolved among spiders and lizards. Numerous studies underline the functional aspects leading to their strong adhesion to smooth surfaces, but rarely has their role been studied in the context of natural habitats and surfaces that animals are faced with. In hunting spiders, the hairy foot pads (claw tufts) underneath the paired claws are assumed to be an adaptation to a climbing lifestyle, particularly on smooth plant surfaces. However, surfaces that are too smooth for claws to generate a sufficient grip are rather rare in natural habitats and above-ground habitats are occupied by hunting spiders both with and without claw tufts. In this study we estimated the proportion of claw tuft-bearing hunting spiders (ct+ ratio) among microhabitat-specific assemblages by conducting both a field study and a meta-analysis approach. The effect of surface characteristics, structure fragmentation and altitude of the microhabitat niche on the ct+ ratio was analyzed. We hypothesized that the ct+ ratio will be higher in (i) hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats above the ground than from those at the ground and (ii) in hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats with smoother surfaces (tree foliage) than those with rougher surfaces (barks, stones), and lower in (iii) hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats with more fragmented structures (small leaves) than in those with comparable but less fragmented structures (large leaves). We found the ct+ ratio to be significantly affected by the microhabitat's distance from the ground, whereas surface characteristics and fragmentation of the substrates were of minor importance. This suggests that claw tufts are highly beneficial when the microhabitat's height exceeds a value where the additional pad-related costs are exceeded by the costs of dropping. We assume the benefit to be mainly due to gaining a high safety factor

  19. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F. B.; Luzar, Jeffrey B.; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11–40% of village and control sites or on 29–72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  20. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar’s largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar’s largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (x¯ = 90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (x¯ = 58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (x¯ = 31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are