Science.gov

Sample records for 2011-07-01 true pet

  1. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pets. 1002.15 Section 1002.15....15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public building, public... possession of pets by the Board. This paragraph shall not apply to guide dogs accompanying visually...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1234 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pets. 13.1234 Section 13.1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK... § 13.1234 Pets. Possessing a pet in the BCDA is prohibited....

  6. 36 CFR 13.978 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pets. 13.978 Section 13.978 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Frontcountry Developed...

  7. 36 CFR 2.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pets. 2.15 Section 2.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC... destroyed if necessary for public safety or protection of wildlife, livestock, or other park resources....

  8. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions. 63.1319 Section 63.1319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions. 63.1320 Section 63.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards...

  11. A Maximum NEC Criterion for Compton Collimation to Accurately Identify True Coincidences in PET

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Garry; Levin, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new method to increase the accuracy of identifying true coincidence events for positron emission tomography (PET). This approach requires 3-D detectors with the ability to position each photon interaction in multi-interaction photon events. When multiple interactions occur in the detector, the incident direction of the photon can be estimated using the Compton scatter kinematics (Compton Collimation). If the difference between the estimated incident direction of the photon relative to a second, coincident photon lies within a certain angular range around colinearity, the line of response between the two photons is identified as a true coincidence and used for image reconstruction. We present an algorithm for choosing the incident photon direction window threshold that maximizes the noise equivalent counts of the PET system. For simulated data, the direction window removed 56%–67% of random coincidences while retaining > 94% of true coincidences from image reconstruction as well as accurately extracted 70% of true coincidences from multiple coincidences. PMID:21317079

  12. [Usefulness of Determining Acquisition Time by True Count Rate Measurement Method for Delivery 18F-FDG PET/CT].

    PubMed

    Miura, Shota; Odashima, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A stable quality of delivery 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) requires suitable acquisition time, which can be obtained from an accurate true count of 18F-FDG. However, the true count is influenced by body mass index (BMI) and attenuation of 18F-FDG. In order to remove these influences, we have developed a new method (actual measurement method) to measure the actual true count rate based on sub-pubic thigh, which allows us to calculate a suitable acquisition time. In this study, we aimed to verify the acquisition count through our new method in terms of two categories: (1) the accuracy of acquisition count and (2) evaluation of clinical images using physical index. Our actual measurement method was designed to obtain suitable acquisition time through the following procedure. A true count rate of sub-pubic thigh was measured through detector of PET, and used as a standard true count rate. Finally, the obtained standard count rate was processed to acquisition time. This method was retrospectively applied to 150 patients, receiving 18F-FDG administration from 109.7 to 336.8 MBq, and whose body weight ranged from 37 to 95.4 kg. The accuracy of true count was evaluated by comparing relationships of true count, relative to BMI or to administered dose of 18F-FDG. The PET/CT images obtained by our actual measurement method were assessed using physical index. Our new method resulted in accurate true count, which was not influenced by either BMI or administered dose of 18F-FDG, as well as satisfied PET/CT images with recommended criteria of physical index in all patients.

  13. Validation of true low-dose 18F-FDG PET of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Fällmar, David; Lilja, Johan; Kilander, Lena; Danfors, Torsten; Lubberink, Mark; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The dosage of 18F-FDG must be sufficient to ensure adequate PET image quality. For younger patients and research controls, the lowest possible radiation dose should be used. The purpose of this study was to find a protocol for FDG-PET of the brain with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. Eight patients with neurodegenerative disorders and nine controls (n=17) underwent FDG-PET/CT twice on separate occasions, first with normal-dose (3 MBq/kg), and second with low-dose (0.75 MBq/kg, 25% of the original). Five additional controls (total n=22) underwent FDG-PET twice, using normal-dose and ultra-low-dose (0.3 MBq/kg, 10% of original). All subjects underwent MRI. Ten-minute summation images were spatially normalized and intensity normalized. Regional standard uptake value ratios (SUV-r) were calculated using an automated atlas. SUV-r values from the normal- and low-dose images were compared pairwise. No clinically significant bias was found in any of the three groups. The mean absolute difference in regional SUV-r values was 0.015 (1.32%) in controls and 0.019 (1.67%) in patients. The ultra-low-dose protocol produced a slightly higher mean difference of 0.023 (2.10%). The main conclusion is that 0.75 MBq/kg (56 MBq for a 75-kg subject) is a sufficient FDG dose for evaluating regional SUV-ratios in brain PET scans in adults with or without neurodegenerative disease, resulting in a reduction of total PET/CT effective dose from 4.54 to 1.15 mSv. The ultra-low-dose (0.5 mSv) could be useful in research studies requiring serial PET in healthy controls or children. PMID:27766185

  14. Investigating the limits of PET/CT imaging at very low true count rates and high random fractions in ion-beam therapy monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, Christopher Bauer, Julia; Conti, Maurizio; Guérin, Laura; Eriksson, Lars; Parodi, Katia

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy with protons and heavier ions enables a tighter conformation of the applied dose to arbitrarily shaped tumor volumes with respect to photons, but is more sensitive to uncertainties in the radiotherapeutic treatment chain. Consequently, an independent verification of the applied treatment is highly desirable. For this purpose, the irradiation-induced β{sup +}-emitter distribution within the patient is detected shortly after irradiation by a commercial full-ring positron emission tomography/x-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner installed next to the treatment rooms at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). A major challenge to this approach is posed by the small number of detected coincidences. This contribution aims at characterizing the performance of the used PET/CT device and identifying the best-performing reconstruction algorithm under the particular statistical conditions of PET-based treatment monitoring. Moreover, this study addresses the impact of radiation background from the intrinsically radioactive lutetium-oxyorthosilicate (LSO)-based detectors at low counts. Methods: The authors have acquired 30 subsequent PET scans of a cylindrical phantom emulating a patientlike activity pattern and spanning the entire patient counting regime in terms of true coincidences and random fractions (RFs). Accuracy and precision of activity quantification, image noise, and geometrical fidelity of the scanner have been investigated for various reconstruction algorithms and settings in order to identify a practical, well-suited reconstruction scheme for PET-based treatment verification. Truncated listmode data have been utilized for separating the effects of small true count numbers and high RFs on the reconstructed images. A corresponding simulation study enabled extending the results to an even wider range of counting statistics and to additionally investigate the impact of scatter coincidences. Eventually, the recommended

  15. A true singles list-mode data acquisition system for a small animal PET scanner with independent crystal readout.

    PubMed

    McElroy, D P; Hoose, M; Pimpl, W; Spanoudaki, V; Schüler, T; Ziegler, S I

    2005-07-21

    We present a unique data acquisition system designed to read out signals from the MADPET-II small animal LSO-APD PET tomograph. The scanner consists of 36 independent detector modules arranged in a dual-radial layer ring (phi 71 mm). Each module contains a 4 x 8 array of optically isolated, 2 x 2 mm LSO crystals, coupled one-to-one to a 32 channel APD. To take full advantage of the detector geometry, signals from each crystal are individually processed without any data reduction. This is realized using custom designed mixed-signal ASICs for analogue signal processing, and FPGAs to control the digitization of analogue signals and subsequent multiplexing. Analogue to digital converters (ADCs) digitize the signal peak height, time to digital converters (TDCs) time stamp each event relative to a system clock and two 32 bit words containing the energy, time and position information for each singles event are multiplexed through three FIFO stages before being written to disk via gigabit Ethernet. Every singles event is processed and stored in list-mode format, and coincidences are sorted post-acquisition in software. The 1152 channel data acquisition system was designed to be able to handle sustained data rates of up to 11 520 000 cps without loss (10 000 cps/channel). The timing resolution of the TDC was measured to be 1 ns FWHM. In addition to describing the data acquisition system, performance measurements made using a 128-channel detector prototype will be presented.

  16. Is there an added clinical value of "true"whole body(18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with malignant melanoma?

    PubMed

    Tan, Julie C; Chatterton, Barry E

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and reliable staging of disease extent in patients with malignant MM is essential to ensure appropriate treatment planning. The detection of recurrent or residual malignancy after primary treatment is important to allow for early intervention and to optimise patient survival. 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET or PET computed tomography (PET/CT) is indicated for surveillance of malignant MM due to its high sensitivity and specificity for soft-tissue or nodal recurrences and metastases. It has been claimed that including lower extremities and skull in addition to 'eyes to thigh' images in PET/CT evaluation of metastatic MM routinely is warranted. We have studied retrospectively the reports of whole-body PET/CT scans in all patients with MM scanned in our Department from April 2005 to December 2010. All PET abnormalities in the brain/scalp and lower extremities were tabulated by location and whether they were 'expected' or 'unexpected'. Findings were correlated with pathology, other imaging studies, and clinical follow-up. In this study, 398 PET/CT examinations in 361 patients with MM were included. Results showed that twelve of the 398 (3%) scans had brain/scalp abnormalities, with only 4 (1.0%) showing unexpected abnormalities. Twenty nine of the 398 (7.2%) scans showed lower extremity abnormalities, with only 5 (1.2%) showing unexpected abnormalities. In no case was an isolated unexpected malignant lesion identified in the brain/scalp or lower extremities. In conclusion, whole body PET/CT scan showed about 1% unexpected primary or metastatic MM lesions involving the head or lower extremities, which seldom offered significant additional clinical benefit and were unlikely to change clinical management. No clinically significant change in staging would have occurred. Routine 'eyes to thighs' images were adequate for this subset of patients. PMID:23106051

  17. Commercially available avian and mammalian whole prey diet items targeted for consumption by managed exotic and domestic pet felines: true metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay.

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    Whole prey diets are commonly used in the zoo and home setting for captive exotic and domestic cats, respectively. Despite their increase in popularity, nutrient digestibility of such diets has been poorly studied. In this study, the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay was used to determine the protein quality and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) of 17 whole prey samples (mice [1 to 2 , 10 to 13 , 21 to 25 , 30 to 40 , and 150 to 180 d old], rats [1 to 4, 10 to 13, 21 to 25, 32 to 42, and >60 d old], rabbits [stillborn, 30 to 45 d old, and >65 d old], chicken [1 to 3 d old], and quail [1 to 3, 21 to 40, and >60 d old]) and 2 ground poultry-based products (chicken and duck). Amino acid score (AAS) and protein digestibility corrected AAS (PDCAAS) were calculated using the nutrient profile recommendations for domestic cat food as a reference value (AAFCO, 2012). Average individual indispensable AA (IAA) and total IAA (TIAA) digestibility coefficients were variable anddepended on AA (84 to 94% TIAA, 85 to 95% Arg, 87 to 96% His, 82 to 92% Ile, 84 to 94% Leu, 85 to 93% Lys, 89 to 97% Met, 83 to 94% Phe, 80 to 95% Thr, 84 to 94% Trp, and 80 to 93% Val) and sample. For a majority of the whole prey items, AA concentrations were greater than the Association of American Feed Control Officials ( AAFCO: , 2012) domestic cat nutrient profile recommendations for growth and reproduction and adult maintenance; however, some whole prey had AA concentrations below the AAFCO (2012) recommendations: Met + Cys (1.10% DM) in ground duck (1.06% DM) and taurine (Tau; 0.20% DM) in 30-to-45- and >65-d-old rabbits (0.01 and 0.10% DM, respectively), 150-to-180-d-old mice (0.18% DM), and ground duck (0.15% DM). The TMEn (3.76 to 6.44 kcal/g DM) expressed as the percent of GE (i.e., TMEn/GE) ranged from 66 to 85%, demonstrating how variable the digestibility of these items may be and justifying more research in this area. Both Met and Tau are commonly added to commercial pet foods, so

  18. Pet Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Before getting a pet, think carefully about which animal is best for your family. What is each ... Does anyone have pet allergies? What type of animal suits your lifestyle and budget? Once you own ...

  19. True ternary fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; von Oertzen, W.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the ternary fission of nuclei has received new interest recently. It is of general interest for nuclear dynamics, although the process is very rare. In the present work, we discuss the possibilities of true ternary fission (fragment masses A >30 ) in 252Cf for different mass splits. These mass splits are strongly favored in a collinear geometry. Based on the three cluster model (TCM), it is shown that the true ternary fission into fragments with almost equal masses is one of the possible fission modes in 252Cf . For general decays it is shown that the formation of the lightest fragment at the center has the highest probability. Further the formation of tin isotopes and/or other closed shell fragments are favored. For the decay products the presence of closed shell nuclei among the three fragments enhances the decay probabilities.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  1. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  2. A True Metasurface Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Badawe, Mohamed El; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a true metasurface antenna based on electrically-small resonators. The resonators are placed on a flat surface and connected to one feed point using corporate feed. Unlike conventional array antennas where the distance between adjacent antennas is half wavelength to reduce mutual coupling between adjacent antennas, here the distance between the radiating elements is electrically very small to affect good impedance matching of each resonator to its feed. A metasurface antenna measuring 1.2λ × 1.2λ and designed to operate at 3 GHz achieved a gain of 12 dBi. A prototype was fabricated and tested showing good agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results. Through numerical simulation, we show that the metasurface antenna has the ability to provide beam steering by phasing all the resonators appropriately. PMID:26759177

  3. True Colors Shining Through

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic illustrates how scientists use the color calibration targets (upper left) located on both Mars Exploration Rovers to fine-tune the rovers' sense of color. In the center, spectra, or light signatures, acquired in the laboratory of the colored chips on the targets are shown as lines. Actual data from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera is mapped on top of these lines as dots. The plot demonstrates that the observed colors of Mars match the colors of the chips, and thus approximate the red planet's true colors. This finding is further corroborated by the picture taken on Mars of the calibration target, which shows the colored chips as they would appear on Earth.

  4. "Making dreams come true"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    At an exciting stage in the evolution of the European Space Agency's Science Programme, Director-General Antonio Rodota and Director of Science Roger Bonnet will meet the press in ESA Head Office for a frank discussion of progress and problems. The Science Programme serves scientists in all of ESA's Member States, who want to do adventurous research in space of importance to all mankind. Making their dreams come true is more difficult in the face of recent cuts in the Programme's budget. Scientific boldness combined with administrative prudence nevertheless results in a series of current and future projects in which Europe can take pride. Highlights for discussion at the Press Conference will include: * MARS. In 2003, the newly approved mission Mars Express will make Europe's debut at the Red Planet, with innovative science at a very low cost. * THE SUN. SOHO is back in business after a nail-biting summer, Ulysses is heading for its second visit to the polar regions of the Sun, and Cluster II is on schedule for launch in 2000. * ASTRONOMY. Following the outstanding successes of ISO's infrared observations, completed this year, XMM and Integral are preparing to match its achievements by detecting X-rays and gamma-rays from the Universe. Journalists will also be updated about the status of Huygens (already en route for Titan), SMART-1 (new propulsion), Rosetta (comet mission), MiniSTEP (relativity), FIRST (far infra-red astronomy) and Planck (microwave background) -- as well as other adventurous missions under study.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1319 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources... § 63.1319 PET and polystyrene affected sources—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Except as specified in... demonstrating compliance with the applicability determination procedure for PET affected sources using...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1320 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-reporting provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources... § 63.1320 PET and polystyrene affected sources—reporting provisions. (a) Except as specified in... PET Affected Sources Using a Dimethyl Terephthalate Process. Owners or operators complying with §...

  7. Pet Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  8. APD-based PET detector for simultaneous PET/MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazioso, Ronald; Zhang, Nan; Corbeil, James; Schmand, Matthias; Ladebeck, Ralf; Vester, Markus; Schnur, Günter; Renz, Wolfgang; Fischer, Hubertus

    2006-12-01

    Two, APD-based, PET modules have been evaluated for use in combined PET/MR imaging. Each module consists of 4 independent, optically isolated detectors. Each detector consists of an 8×8 array of 2×2×20 mm LSO crystals read out by a 2×2 array of 5×5 mm Hamamatsu S8664-55 APDs. The average crystal energy resolution and time resolution (against a plastic scintillator on a PMT) of the detectors was 17% and 1.8 ns, respectively. The modules were positioned in the tunnel of a 1.5 T Siemens Symphony MR scanner. The presence of the PET modules decreased the MR signal-to-noise ratio by about 15% but no image interference was observed. The gradient and RF pulse sequences of the MR produced adverse effects on the PET event signals. These high-frequency pulses did not affect the true PET events but did increase the dead time of the PET system. Simultaneous, artifact-free, images were acquired with the PET and MR system using a small Derenzo phantom. These results show that APD-based PET detectors can be used for a high-resolution and cost-effective integrated PET/MR system.

  9. Towards optimal imaging with PET: an in silico feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, A. L.; Toghyani, M.; Gillam, J. E.; Wu, K.; Kuncic, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging relies fundamentally on the ability of the system to accurately identify true coincidence events. With existing systems, this is currently accomplished with an energy acceptance criterion followed by correction techniques to remove suspected false coincidence events. These corrections generally result in signal and contrast loss and thus limit the PET system’s ability to achieve optimum image quality. A key property of annihilation radiation is that the photons are polarised with respect to each other. This polarisation correlation offers a potentially powerful discriminator, independent of energy, to accurately identify true events. In this proof of concept study, we investigate how photon polarisation information can be exploited in PET imaging by developing a method to discriminate true coincidences using the polarisation correlation of annihilation pairs. We implement this method using a Geant4 PET simulation of a GE Advance/Discovery LS system and demonstrate the potential advantages of the polarisation coincidence selection method over a standard energy criterion method. Current PET ring detectors are not capable of exploiting the polarisation correlation of the photon pairs. Compton PET systems, however are promising candidates for this application. We demonstrate the feasibility of a two-component Compton camera system in identifying true coincidences with Monte Carlo simulations. Our study demonstrates the potential of improving signal gain using polarisation, particularly for high photon emission rates. We also demonstrate the ability of the Compton camera at exploiting this polarisation correlation in PET.

  10. Pet Bonding and Pet Bereavement among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brenda H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied adolescent-pet bonding and bereavement following pet loss (n=55). Hypothesized that highly-bonded adolescents experience more intense grief when a pet dies than do those less bonded; degree of bonding is greater for girls than for boys; and intensity of bereavement is greater for girls than for boys. Results supported the hypotheses. (RB)

  11. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  12. A True Training Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowack, Kenneth M.

    1991-01-01

    Employees often want training in areas that are irrelevant to their jobs or inconsistent with organizational objectives. A well-designed questionnaire can weed out training wants to uncover an employee's true training needs. (Author)

  13. Imaging and PET-PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Von Schulthess, Gustav K; Hany, Thomas F

    2008-03-01

    PET-CT has grown because the lack of anatomic landmarks in PET makes "hardware-fusion" to anatomic cross-sectional data extremely useful. Addition of CT to PET improves specificity, but also sensitivity, and adding PET to CT adds sensitivity and specificity in tumor imaging. The synergistic advantage of adding CT is that the attenuation correction needed for PET data can also be derived from the CT data. This makes PET-CT 25-30% faster than PET alone, leading to higher patient throughput and a more comfortable examination for patients typically lasting 20 minutes or less. FDG-PET-CT appears to provide relevant information in the staging and therapy monitoring of many tumors, such as lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, gynaecological cancers, melanoma and many others, with the notable exception of prostatic cancer. For this cancer, choline derivatives may possibly become useful radiopharmaceuticals. The published literature on the applications of FDG-PET-CT in oncology is still limited but several well-designed studies have demonstrated the benefits of PET-CT.

  14. Proceedings of the cardiac PET summit meeting 12 may 2014: Cardiac PET and SPECT instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ernest V

    2015-06-01

    Advances in PET and SPECT and imaging hardware and software are vastly improving the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial perfusion and function. PET perfusion imaging has benefitted from the introduction of novel detectors that now allow true 3D imaging, and precise attenuation correction (AC). These developments have also resulted in perfusion images with higher spatial and contrast resolution that may be acquired in shorter protocols and/or with less patient radiation exposure than traditional PET or SPECT studies. Hybrid PET/CT cameras utilize transmission computed tomographic (CT) scans for AC, and offer the additional clinical advantages of evaluating coronary calcium and myocardial anatomy but at a higher cost than PET scanners that use (68)Ge radioactive line sources. As cardiac PET systems continue to improve, dedicated cardiac SPECT systems are also undergoing a profound change in their design. The scintillation camera general purpose design is being replaced with systems with multiple detectors focused on the heart yielding 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of conventional SPECT. As a result, shorter acquisition times and/or lower tracer doses produce higher quality SPECT images than were possible before. This article reviews these concepts and compares the attributes of PET and SPECT instrumentation. PMID:25824018

  15. Proceedings of the cardiac PET summit meeting 12 may 2014: Cardiac PET and SPECT instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ernest V

    2015-06-01

    Advances in PET and SPECT and imaging hardware and software are vastly improving the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial perfusion and function. PET perfusion imaging has benefitted from the introduction of novel detectors that now allow true 3D imaging, and precise attenuation correction (AC). These developments have also resulted in perfusion images with higher spatial and contrast resolution that may be acquired in shorter protocols and/or with less patient radiation exposure than traditional PET or SPECT studies. Hybrid PET/CT cameras utilize transmission computed tomographic (CT) scans for AC, and offer the additional clinical advantages of evaluating coronary calcium and myocardial anatomy but at a higher cost than PET scanners that use (68)Ge radioactive line sources. As cardiac PET systems continue to improve, dedicated cardiac SPECT systems are also undergoing a profound change in their design. The scintillation camera general purpose design is being replaced with systems with multiple detectors focused on the heart yielding 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of conventional SPECT. As a result, shorter acquisition times and/or lower tracer doses produce higher quality SPECT images than were possible before. This article reviews these concepts and compares the attributes of PET and SPECT instrumentation.

  16. Trends in PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2000-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT).

  17. Birds Kept as Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... restricts the importation of pet birds from certain countries and enforces a 30-day quarantine for all imported birds except those that come from Canada. People interested in importing pet birds should visit the USDA non-US Origin Pet Bird Importation website . Choosing a bird Match ...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1317 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true PET and polystyrene affected sources-monitoring provisions. 63.1317 Section 63.1317 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1317 PET and polystyrene affected sources—monitoring provisions. Continuous process vents using...

  19. 36 CFR 327.11 - Control of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of animals. 327.11... § 327.11 Control of animals. (a) No person shall bring or allow dogs, cats, or other pets into developed... physically restrained. No person shall allow animals to impede or restrict otherwise full and free use...

  20. Mendel had no "true" monohybrids.

    PubMed

    Corcos, A; Monaghan, F

    1984-01-01

    Mendel's experiments in hybridizing peas started in 1856 and ended in 1863. When one attempts to fit the described experiments--in the sequence indicated in the paper--into those limits some serious implications emerge with regard to parental types needed and the scheduling of the experiments. If Mendel had to develop the parental types of his monohybrid and dihybrid crosses and then do the experiments he described, 8 years would not have been a sufficient amount of time. We believe that his original true-breeding varieties differed in more than one trait on the basis of a logical analysis of breeding relationships. It follows first that his "monohybrid" experiments were performed with varieties in several traits but that in each offering he concentrated his attention on only one, second that he had the parental lines for his dihybrid and trihybrid experiments on hand before he started those experiments.

  1. Laboratory and cyclotron requirements for PET research

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes four types of PET facilities: Clinical PET with no radionuclide production; clinical PET with a small accelerator; clinical PET with research support; and research PET facilities. General facility considerations are also discussed.

  2. Seeking the True Antarctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. G.

    2007-12-01

    With World Ocean warming a corrected name use is recommend with a universal adoption of the name, "Antarctic Ocean. This one large body of circumpolar water lies adjacent to - and south of - the Antarctic Convergence, on its northern perimeter, and is bordered to the south by the shoreline of the Antarctic continent. The Antarctic Ocean has a distinct water mass, with a true perimeter, and with a homogeneity, comprizing a unique environment for a specialized flora and fauna. It is recognized generally by its surface waters, ranging from 3.5 - 4.5 degrees Celsius (summer) and one degree C (winter).While its northern boundary, ' The Antarctic Convergence', has a water quality and thermal difference, this polar front is continuous and circumpolar, and it abuts -- and streams along with -- the ultimate southern extremities of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean waters. Parameters, characteristics and dynamics of water exchange are considered, here, with some water exchanges, with Intermediate and Antarctic Bottom water noted. It maintains its own forceful 'West Wind Drift', a current driven and emboldened by Earth's Geostrophic West Wind. Features defining the Antarctic Ocean: (1)Washing all shores of the continent named Antarctica; it is .the only ocean reaching this Antarctic Continent.; (2) it is one of Earth's two Polar (and coldest) oceans, the other, named Arctic Ocean, of which it is the opposite (the Anti); (3) its distinctive cold waters of the Antarctic Ocean and its peripheral seas, floating ice tongues, the frigid stamp of Antarctica's continental glaciers and ice fields; (4) the Antarctic Continent is the source of continual replenishment from her ice cap and melt-water derived from the great mountains, valleys and the massive polar dome of ice. Further, in the literature the present usage, 'Southern Ocean', by some authors, confuses the true Antarctic environmental waters (i.e. south of - and within the South Polar Front - Convergence) with southern

  3. Profits from precious pets.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, E

    2000-06-01

    In 1998, an anonymous millionaire, hoping to clone his pet dog Missy, awarded a Texas A&M University animal scientist $2.3 million to develop the necessary techniques. Now several companies are cashing in on the boom in frozen-tissue storage of pets for future cloning.

  4. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  5. Cardiac applications of PET.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-10-01

    Routine use of cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) applications has been increasing but has not replaced cardiac single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies yet. The majority of cardiac PET tracers, with the exception of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), are not widely available, as they require either an onsite cyclotron or a costly generator for their production. 18F-FDG PET imaging has high sensitivity for the detection of hibernating/viable myocardium and has replaced Tl-201 SPECT imaging in centers equipped with a PET/CT camera. PET myocardial perfusion imaging with various tracers such as Rb-82, N-13 ammonia, and O-15 H2O has higher sensitivity and specificity than myocardial perfusion SPECT for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). In particular, quantitative PET measurements of myocardial perfusion help identify subclinical coronary stenosis, better define the extent and severity of CAD, and detect ischemia when there is balanced reduction in myocardial perfusion due to three-vessel or main stem CAD. Fusion images of PET perfusion and CT coronary artery calcium scoring or CT coronary angiography provide additional complementary information and improve the detection of CAD. PET studies with novel 18F-labeled perfusion tracers such as 18F-flurpiridaz and 18F-FBnTP have yielded high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CAD. These tracers are still being tested in humans, and, if approved for clinical use, they will be commercially and widely available. In addition to viability studies, 18F-FDG PET can also be utilized to detect inflammation/infection in various conditions such as endocarditis, sarcoidosis, and atherosclerosis. Some recent series have obtained encouraging results for the detection of endocarditis in patients with intracardiac devices and prosthetic valves. PET tracers for cardiac neuronal imaging, such as C-11 HED, help assess the severity of heart failure and post-transplant cardiac

  6. 39 CFR 955.23 - Copies of papers, withdrawal of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copies of papers, withdrawal of exhibits. 955.23... SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.23 Copies of papers, withdrawal of exhibits. (a) When books, records, papers, or documents have been received in evidence, a true copy thereof or of such part...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Compliance Audit Testing Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conformance with applicable regulations under 40 CFR Part 211, et seq. All the data reported here are true and... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance Audit Testing Report A Appendix A to Part 211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  8. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.509-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.509-90 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system is designed to measure the true mass emissions of vehicle exhaust....

  9. Healthy Pets and People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnant women should avoid adopting or handling stray cats, especially kittens. They particularly should not clean litter ... may be sick. Many pets, such as dogs, cats, reptiles, rodents, and birds, carry germs that can ...

  10. Pets and Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... make me sick? Household pets such as dogs, cats, birds and reptiles can carry diseases or parasites ... might be used as litter boxes by neighborhood cats. Keep your children out of the dirt in ...

  11. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... large tunnel-shaped scanner. Electrodes for an electrocardiogram ( ECG ) will be placed on your chest. The PET ... often used when other tests, such as echocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac stress tests do not provide enough ...

  12. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... health by becoming aware of the most common health hazards found in many pet-owning households. Hazards in the Kitchen Foods Many foods are perfectly safe for humans, but could be harmful or potentially deadly to ...

  13. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and computed tomography ( CT ) scans only reveal the structure of the ... a PET/CT. Alternative Names ... PT, Rijntjes M, Weiller C. Neuroimaging: Functional neuroimaging. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic ...

  14. PET studies in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Various PET studies, such as measurements of glucose, serotonin and oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood flow and receptor bindings are availabe for epilepsy. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging of brain glucose metabolism is a well established and widely available technique. Studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of interictal FDG-PET is higher than interictal SPECT and similar to ictal SPECT for the lateralization and localization of epileptogenic foci in presurgical patients refractory to medical treatments who have noncontributory EEG and MRI. In addition to localizing epileptogenic focus, FDG-PET provide additional important information on the functional status of the rest of the brain. The main limitation of interictal FDG-PET is that it cannot precisely define the surgical margin as the area of hypometabolism usually extends beyond the epileptogenic zone. Various neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, opiates, serotonin, dopamine, acethylcholine, and adenosine) and receptor subtypes are involved in epilepsy. PET receptor imaging studies performed in limited centers help to understand the role of neurotransmitters in epileptogenesis, identify epileptic foci and investigate new treatment approaches. PET receptor imaging studies have demonstrated reduced 11C-flumazenil (GABAA-cBDZ) and 18F-MPPF (5-HT1A serotonin) and increased 11C-cerfentanil (mu opiate) and 11C-MeNTI (delta opiate) bindings in the area of seizure. 11C-flumazenil has been reported to be more sensitive than FDG-PET for identifying epileptic foci. The area of abnormality on GABAAcBDZ and opiate receptor images is usually smaller and more circumscribed than the area of hypometabolism on FDG images. Studies have demonstrated that 11C-alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan PET (to study synthesis of serotonin) can detect the epileptic focus within malformations of cortical development and helps in differentiating epileptogenic from non-epileptogenic tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

  15. PET/CT artifacts.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Todd M; Mehta, Ajeet S; Mehta, Amar S; Laymon, Charles M; Carney, Jonathan; Townsend, David W

    2011-01-01

    There are several artifacts encountered in positron emission tomography/computed tomographic (PET/CT) imaging, including attenuation correction (AC) artifacts associated with using CT for AC. Several artifacts can mimic a 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) avid malignant lesions and therefore recognition of these artifacts is clinically relevant. Our goal was to identify and characterize these artifacts and also discuss some protocol variables that may affect image quality in PET/CT.

  16. Can Universities Become True Learning Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Judith; Weathersby, Rita

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to assess whether a university can become a true learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: Focuses on the need for, and challenges of, transforming universities into true learning organizations. Findings: Observes that few of the underlying values that serve as the underpinnings of the learning organizations are actually…

  17. 4D PET iterative deconvolution with spatiotemporal regularization for quantitative dynamic PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Reilhac, Anthonin; Charil, Arnaud; Wimberley, Catriona; Angelis, Georgios; Hamze, Hasar; Callaghan, Paul; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Boisson, Frederic; Ryder, Will; Meikle, Steven R; Gregoire, Marie-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements in dynamic PET imaging are usually limited by the poor counting statistics particularly in short dynamic frames and by the low spatial resolution of the detection system, resulting in partial volume effects (PVEs). In this work, we present a fast and easy to implement method for the restoration of dynamic PET images that have suffered from both PVE and noise degradation. It is based on a weighted least squares iterative deconvolution approach of the dynamic PET image with spatial and temporal regularization. Using simulated dynamic [(11)C] Raclopride PET data with controlled biological variations in the striata between scans, we showed that the restoration method provides images which exhibit less noise and better contrast between emitting structures than the original images. In addition, the method is able to recover the true time activity curve in the striata region with an error below 3% while it was underestimated by more than 20% without correction. As a result, the method improves the accuracy and reduces the variability of the kinetic parameter estimates calculated from the corrected images. More importantly it increases the accuracy (from less than 66% to more than 95%) of measured biological variations as well as their statistical detectivity. PMID:26080302

  18. The True Liberal Education in Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Takeo

    Recently the true liberal education is uncommon in Japanese universities. Though there are liberal arts and science as the subjects. But the students want to attend to the lectures of the true liberal education by excellent professors in the small groups on such as on virtue and vice, on beautiful things, on great persons in the history and on what is the meaning to be in the world. But strange to say the true liberal educations are, though the cases are rare, in the private universities whose entrance exams are comparatively easy.

  19. Pet Loss: Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkin, Bruce S.; Bahrick, Audrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to increase awareness of counselors about topic of pet loss. Discusses how counselors can be actively involved through practice, consultation, and research to help people deal with emotional impact of pet loss. (Author/NB)

  20. The ADNI PET Core: 2015

    PubMed Central

    Jagust, William J.; Landau, Susan M.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chester A.; Price, Julie C.; Foster, Norman L.; Wang, Angela Y.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This paper reviews the work done in the ADNI PET core over the past 5 years, largely concerning techniques, methods, and results related to amyloid imaging in ADNI. METHODS The PET Core has utilized [18F]florbetapir routinely on ADNI participants, with over 1600 scans available for download. Four different laboratories are involved in data analysis, and have examined factors such as longitudinal florbetapir analysis, use of FDG-PET in clinical trials, and relationships between different biomarkers and cognition. RESULTS Converging evidence from the PET Core has indicated that cross-sectional and longitudinal florbetapir analyses require different reference regions. Studies have also examined the relationship between florbetapir data obtained immediately after injection, which reflects perfusion, and FDG-PET results. Finally, standardization has included the translation of florbetapir PET data to a centiloid scale. CONCLUSION The PET Core has demonstrated a variety of methods for standardization of biomarkers such as florbetapir PET in a multicenter setting. PMID:26194311

  1. Value of sonography in true complete diphallia.

    PubMed

    Marti-Bonmati, L; Menor, F; Gomez, J; Cortina, H; Garcia Ibarra, F

    1989-08-01

    A case of true complete diphallia associated with multiple malformations is presented. Complete radiological evaluation should include sonography of both penes preoperatively to classify the penile duplication correctly. PMID:2664222

  2. The myth of the true self.

    PubMed

    Anscombe, R

    1989-05-01

    The true self is a central construct of psychotherapy, but its status as fact or fiction is uncertain. Much of the plausibility of the true self comes from the concept's ambiguity, since it encompasses several different kinds of mental entity. It may be construed as a person's belief about himself or herself, as the experience of the working of the mind, or as a characterological essence. The true self is composed of qualities borrowed from these quite disparate kinds of self, none of which, considered singly, readily fits the description. However, if the true self is viewed as a fantasy, grounded on fact, of whom the patient might become, it is an instrument that gives coherence and direction to psychotherapy.

  3. An Educational PET Camera Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Tegner, P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are now in widespread use in hospitals. A model of a PET camera has been installed in Stockholm House of Science and is used to explain the principles of PET to school pupils as described here.

  4. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joram, Christian

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the field of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations (<2 mm FWHM in all three coordinates over the complete field of view) and also demonstrated the ability to include Compton interactions (inter-crystal scatter) in the reconstruction without noticeable performance loss. Our recent studies focus on a TOF extension of the AX-PET concept making use of the novel digital SiPM detectors by Philips. After reproducing comparable energy and spatial resolution on a small digital AX-PET set-up with 100 mm long crystals, we demonstrated a coincidence resolving time of about 210 ps FWHM.

  5. Pets and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on pets and the elderly. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children, dementia and…

  6. True-color night vision cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, Jason; Gat, Nahum

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes True-Color Night Vision cameras that are sensitive to the visible to near-infrared (V-NIR) portion of the spectrum allowing for the "true-color" of scenes and objects to be displayed and recorded under low-light-level conditions. As compared to traditional monochrome (gray or green) night vision imagery, color imagery has increased information content and has proven to enable better situational awareness, faster response time, and more accurate target identification. Urban combat environments, where rapid situational awareness is vital, and marine operations, where there is inherent information in the color of markings and lights, are example applications that can benefit from True-Color Night Vision technology. Two different prototype cameras, employing two different true-color night vision technological approaches, are described and compared in this paper. One camera uses a fast-switching liquid crystal filter in front of a custom Gen-III image intensified camera, and the second camera is based around an EMCCD sensor with a mosaic filter applied directly to the sensor. In addition to visible light, both cameras utilize NIR to (1) increase the signal and (2) enable the viewing of laser aiming devices. The performance of the true-color cameras, along with the performance of standard (monochrome) night vision cameras, are reported and compared under various operating conditions in the lab and the field. In addition to subjective criterion, figures of merit designed specifically for the objective assessment of such cameras are used in this analysis.

  7. MR/PET or PET/MRI: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Beyer, Thomas; Moser, Ewald

    2013-02-01

    After the very successful clinical introduction of combined PET/CT imaging a decade ago, a hardware combination of PET and MR is following suit. Today, three different approaches towards integrated PET/MR have been proposed: (1) a triple-modality system with a 3T MRI and a time-of-flight PET/CT installed in adjacent rooms, (2) a tandem system with a 3T MRI and a time-of-flight PET/CT in a co-planar installation with a joint patient handling system, and (3) a fully-integrated system with a whole-body PET system mounted inside a 3T MRI system. This special issue of MAGMA brings together contributions from key experts in the field of PET/MR, PET/CT and CT. The various papers share the author's perspectives on the state-of-the-art PET/MR imaging with any of the three approaches mentioned above. In addition to several reviews discussing advantages and challenges of combining PET and MRI for clinical diagnostics, first clinical data are also presented. We expect this special issue to nurture future improvements in hardware, clinical protocols, and efficient post-processing strategies to further assess the diagnostic value of combined PET/MR imaging. It remains to be seen whether a so-called "killer application" for PET/MRI will surface. In that case PET/MR is likely to excel in pre-clinical and selected research applications for now. This special issue helps the readers to stay on track of this exciting development. PMID:23385880

  8. PET/MRI insert using digital SiPMs: Investigation of MR-compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Jakob; Weissler, Bjoern; Dueppenbecker, Peter; Gebhardt, Pierre; Schug, David; Ruetten, Walter; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present an initial MR-compatibility study performed with the world's first preclinical PET/MR insert based on fully digital silicon photo multipliers (dSiPM). The PET insert allows simultaneous data acquisition of both imaging modalities and thus enables the true potential of hybrid PET/MRI. Since the PET insert has the potential to interfere with all of the MRI's subsystems (strong magnet, gradients system, radio frequency (RF) system) and vice versa, interference studies on both imaging systems are of great importance to ensure an undisturbed operation. As a starting point to understand the interference, we performed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements as well as dedicated noise scans on the MRI side to characterize the influence of the PET electronics on the MR receive chain. Furthermore, improvements of sub-components' shielding of the PET system are implemented and tested inside the MRI. To study the influence of the MRI on the PET performance, we conducted highly demanding stress tests with gradient and RF dominated MR sequences. These stress tests unveil a sensitivity of the PET's electronics to gradient switching.

  9. New shielding configurations for a simultaneous PET/MRI scanner at 7T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo J.; Wu, Yibao; Cherry, Simon R.; Walton, Jeffrey H.

    2014-02-01

    Understanding sources of electromagnetic interference are important in designing any electronic system. This is especially true when combining positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a multimodality system as coupling between the subsystems can degrade the performance of either modality. For this reason, eliminating radio frequency (RF) interference and gradient-induced eddy currents have been major challenges in building simultaneous hybrid PET/MRI systems. MRI requires negligible RF interference at the Larmor resonance frequency, while RF interference at almost any frequency may corrupt PET data. Moreover, any scheme that minimizes these interactions would, ideally, not compromise the performance of either subsystem. This paper lays out a plan to resolve these problems. A carbon fiber composite material is found to be a good RF shield at the Larmor frequency (300 MHz in this work) while introducing negligible gradient eddy currents. This carbon fiber composite also provides excellent structural support for the PET detector components. Low frequency electromagnetic radiation (81 kHz here) from the switching power supplies of the gradient amplifiers was also found to interfere with the PET detector. Placing the PET detector module between two carbon fiber tubes and grounding the inner carbon fiber tube to the PET detector module ground reduced this interference. Further reductions were achieved by adding thin copper (Cu) foil on the outer carbon fiber case and electrically grounding the PET detector module so that all 3 components had a common ground, i.e. with the PET detector in an electrostatic cage. Finally, gradient switching typical in MRI sequences can result in count losses in the particular PET detector design studied. Moreover, the magnitude of this effect depends on the location of the detector within the magnet bore and which MRI gradient is being switched. These findings have a bearing on future designs of PET

  10. New shielding configurations for a simultaneous PET/MRI scanner at 7T.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo J; Wu, Yibao; Cherry, Simon R; Walton, Jeffrey H

    2014-02-01

    Understanding sources of electromagnetic interference are important in designing any electronic system. This is especially true when combining positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a multimodality system as coupling between the subsystems can degrade the performance of either modality. For this reason, eliminating radio frequency (RF) interference and gradient-induced eddy currents have been major challenges in building simultaneous hybrid PET/MRI systems. MRI requires negligible RF interference at the Larmor resonance frequency, while RF interference at almost any frequency may corrupt PET data. Moreover, any scheme that minimizes these interactions would, ideally, not compromise the performance of either subsystem. This paper lays out a plan to resolve these problems. A carbon fiber composite material is found to be a good RF shield at the Larmor frequency (300MHz in this work) while introducing negligible gradient eddy currents. This carbon fiber composite also provides excellent structural support for the PET detector components. Low frequency electromagnetic radiation (81kHz here) from the switching power supplies of the gradient amplifiers was also found to interfere with the PET detector. Placing the PET detector module between two carbon fiber tubes and grounding the inner carbon fiber tube to the PET detector module ground reduced this interference. Further reductions were achieved by adding thin copper (Cu) foil on the outer carbon fiber case and electrically grounding the PET detector module so that all 3 components had a common ground, i.e. with the PET detector in an electrostatic cage. Finally, gradient switching typical in MRI sequences can result in count losses in the particular PET detector design studied. Moreover, the magnitude of this effect depends on the location of the detector within the magnet bore and which MRI gradient is being switched. These findings have a bearing on future designs of PET

  11. New shielding configurations for a simultaneous PET/MRI scanner at 7T.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo J; Wu, Yibao; Cherry, Simon R; Walton, Jeffrey H

    2014-02-01

    Understanding sources of electromagnetic interference are important in designing any electronic system. This is especially true when combining positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a multimodality system as coupling between the subsystems can degrade the performance of either modality. For this reason, eliminating radio frequency (RF) interference and gradient-induced eddy currents have been major challenges in building simultaneous hybrid PET/MRI systems. MRI requires negligible RF interference at the Larmor resonance frequency, while RF interference at almost any frequency may corrupt PET data. Moreover, any scheme that minimizes these interactions would, ideally, not compromise the performance of either subsystem. This paper lays out a plan to resolve these problems. A carbon fiber composite material is found to be a good RF shield at the Larmor frequency (300MHz in this work) while introducing negligible gradient eddy currents. This carbon fiber composite also provides excellent structural support for the PET detector components. Low frequency electromagnetic radiation (81kHz here) from the switching power supplies of the gradient amplifiers was also found to interfere with the PET detector. Placing the PET detector module between two carbon fiber tubes and grounding the inner carbon fiber tube to the PET detector module ground reduced this interference. Further reductions were achieved by adding thin copper (Cu) foil on the outer carbon fiber case and electrically grounding the PET detector module so that all 3 components had a common ground, i.e. with the PET detector in an electrostatic cage. Finally, gradient switching typical in MRI sequences can result in count losses in the particular PET detector design studied. Moreover, the magnitude of this effect depends on the location of the detector within the magnet bore and which MRI gradient is being switched. These findings have a bearing on future designs of PET

  12. 24 CFR 960.707 - Pet ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pet ownership. 960.707 Section 960... ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Pet Ownership in Public Housing § 960.707 Pet ownership. (a..., may own one or more common household pets or have one or more common household pets present in...

  13. 24 CFR 960.707 - Pet ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pet ownership. 960.707 Section 960... ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Pet Ownership in Public Housing § 960.707 Pet ownership. (a..., may own one or more common household pets or have one or more common household pets present in...

  14. Talking with Children about Furry Classroom Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that rodents and rabbits share many characteristics that make them suitable classroom pets and gives background information on rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, and gerbils. Offers advice on buying a classroom pet, the pet's home, feeding, helping the children handle the pet, and pet health and family planning. (TJQ)

  15. [The PET, Past and Future].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a unique nuclear medicine test using positron emitters such as 18F and 11C. In PET tests, various kinds of functional aspects of human bodies can be evaluated by using compounds labeled by these positron emitters. Recently, combined scanners of PET and anatomical imaging modalities such as CT and MRI have been developed and functional information with anatomical location can be easily obtained, increasing the usefulness of PET tests. PET tests are now essential imaging tools to diagnose various kinds of disease with functional abnormalities. In the field of oncology, 18F-fluorodeoxy glucose PET tests are routinely used in clinical practice under health insurance. In the field of neurology, PET tests are actively used to investigate cerebral function by labeled neurotransmitters and so on. Currently, brain PET tests to detect beta-amyloid are applied to the diagnosis of dementia. In the field of cardiology, cardiac perfusion and myocardial metabolism are quantitatively measured by using PET and obtained results have successfully revealed the pathogenesis of intractable cardiac diseases. Future technical advances will enhance the usefulness of PET tests more and more. PMID:26753390

  16. Dodging the Dilemma of True-False Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, Richard R.; Long, Clifford A.

    1977-01-01

    A scoring technique for true-false tests is presented. The technique, paired item scoring, involves combining two statements and having the student select one of the four resultants possible: true-true, false-true, true-false, and false-false. The combined item is treated as a multiple choice item. (Author/JKS)

  17. How to Make Their Dreams Come True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    The beginning of January--a fresh start. This presents a brand new opportunity to help students plan a bright future. This article provides a step-by-step guide to ensure a student's dreams come true. Each new year gives students another chance to get it right. The author provides the following 12 steps to ensure students' success in achieving…

  18. True cyclopia-very rare anomaly.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K R; Joseph, N Abraham Ratna; Koteswary, P

    2014-08-01

    During our routine postmortem examination, we found a female infant with "True Cyclopia." The two entire eye balls had fused completely to form one midline organ. The infant was a female who weighed 2910 g. The gestation period was 35 weeks. Infant lived for a short period of less than 20 minutes. The birth was a product of a 4(th) pregnancy. PMID:25302183

  19. Automated balance for determining true mass

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.E.

    1982-08-08

    An automated weighing system utilizing a precision electronic balance and a small desktop computer is described. An example of a computer program demonstrating some of the capabilities attainable with this system is included. The program demonstrates a substitution weighing technique with true mass determination for the object being weighed.

  20. Finding the True Incidence Rate of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Julie; Price, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on research that explores the use of detection software in the fight against plagiarism. The aim of the research was to determine if the true incidence rate of plagiarism could be found for a cohort of Higher Education students. The paper outlines the problems and issues when attempting this. In addition, this report highlights…

  1. Progress reported in PET recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The Goodyear Polyester Division has demonstrated its ability to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from recycled plastic soft drink bottles and remanufacture the material into PET suitable for containers. Most people are familiar with PET in the form of lightweight, shatter resistant beverage bottles. About 20 percent of these beverage containers currently are being recycled. The recycled PET is currently used in many applications such as carpeting, pillow stuffing, sleeping bag filling, insulation for water heaters and non-food containers. This is the first step of Goodyear's increased efforts to recycle PET from containers into a material suitable for food packing. The project is extremely complex, involving sophisticated understanding of the chemical reactions involved, PET production and the technology testing protocols necessary to design a process that addresses all the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns. The research conducted so far indicated that additional processing beyond simply cleaning the shredded material, called flake, will be required to assure a quality polymer.

  2. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  3. Client services for geriatric pets.

    PubMed

    Hancock, G; Yates, J

    1989-01-01

    Some veterinarians have been reluctant to discuss the prospect of the death of a pet because of a sense of discomfort and a lack of understanding about how to respond to the client's grief reaction. It is essential to take the time for this important communication and help clients deal with fears about the process, any feelings of guilt and helplessness, and judgments about the medical aspects of a case. Clients must be encouraged to express grief over the loss of a pet, particularly a geriatric pet that has lived with them many years and to which they are deeply bonded. Veterinarians need to counsel clients about obtaining additional pets or another pet. The phrase "replacement pet" must be stricken from the veterinarian's vocabulary. One does not "replace" a deceased spouse, mother, father, or child. It is possible to have another child or find another spouse, but it is not possible to replace a person. Neither can a pet be "replaced," because each pet is a unique living being. It is disrespectful to the memory of deceased pets to belittle their uniqueness by suggesting that they can be replaced. Instead, the veterinarian has the capability and responsibility to help pet owners maintain fond and happy memories of an irreplacable pet, while finding room in their hearts for another new pet to create happiness for the future. Once the grief is resolved, clients will be thankful for having had the privilege of sharing their life with an animal and experiencing the joy of the bond between two unique individuals. PMID:2646816

  4. Client services for geriatric pets.

    PubMed

    Hancock, G; Yates, J

    1989-01-01

    Some veterinarians have been reluctant to discuss the prospect of the death of a pet because of a sense of discomfort and a lack of understanding about how to respond to the client's grief reaction. It is essential to take the time for this important communication and help clients deal with fears about the process, any feelings of guilt and helplessness, and judgments about the medical aspects of a case. Clients must be encouraged to express grief over the loss of a pet, particularly a geriatric pet that has lived with them many years and to which they are deeply bonded. Veterinarians need to counsel clients about obtaining additional pets or another pet. The phrase "replacement pet" must be stricken from the veterinarian's vocabulary. One does not "replace" a deceased spouse, mother, father, or child. It is possible to have another child or find another spouse, but it is not possible to replace a person. Neither can a pet be "replaced," because each pet is a unique living being. It is disrespectful to the memory of deceased pets to belittle their uniqueness by suggesting that they can be replaced. Instead, the veterinarian has the capability and responsibility to help pet owners maintain fond and happy memories of an irreplacable pet, while finding room in their hearts for another new pet to create happiness for the future. Once the grief is resolved, clients will be thankful for having had the privilege of sharing their life with an animal and experiencing the joy of the bond between two unique individuals.

  5. It's Raining Cats and Dogs: Learning about the Role of Pets in Impressionist Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Animals have always been close to the heart of humankind. They appear in the earliest imagery as the very first subjects of art. Household pets are a fixture for many a family. This is true in art as well. In shifting the balance away from animals as pure symbols, the Impressionists identified them as members of the household. One of the most…

  6. Extended suicide with a pet.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases. PMID:24051598

  7. FDG PET imaging in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Sobic-Saranovic, Dragana; Artiko, Vera; Obradovic, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this review is to highlight the clinical utility of FDG-PET/CT for evaluation of patients with chronic sarcoidosis. The emphasis was on the potential advantages and disadvantages of this technique in these patients based on which recommendations were made. The advantage of FDG-PET/CT technique is that it can visualize FDG accumulation in activated inflammatory cells and simultaneously provide PET and CT images. Of particular interest is the use of FDG-PET/CT for the staging and identification of occult sites and sites suitable for biopsy and for the assessment of inflammatory active sarcoidosis in patients with prolonged symptoms, especially when other markers of the disease are within normal values. FDG-PET/CT also provides a better visualization of extrathoracic sites of active sarcoidosis, such as in the bones, liver, spleen, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The use of FDG-PET/CT is of special interest in cardiac sarcoidosis because this potentially life-threatening disease is sometimes present in asymptomatic patients. FDG-PET/CT also has a role in the clinical management of patients with chronic persistent sarcoidosis, such as for planning treatment, monitoring response, and long-term follow-up. The limitations of FDG-PET/CT in patients with sarcoidosis are discussed in the context of a "sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome" and potentially excessive radiation exposure. Further prospective multicentre studies are needed to refine the clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in patients with sarcoidosis and drive the field forward.

  8. Molecular imaging using PET for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Chikako; Miyakita, Yasuji; Yoshida, Masayuki; Hamada, Akinobu; Kanayama, Yousuke; Yonemori, Kan; Hashimoto, Jun; Tani, Hitomi; Kodaira, Makoto; Yunokawa, Mayu; Yamamoto, Harukaze; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging can visualize the biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels in vivo using certain tracers for specific molecular targets. Molecular imaging of breast cancer can be performed with various imaging modalities, however, positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive and non-invasive molecular imaging technology and this review will focus on PET molecular imaging of breast cancer, such as FDG-PET, FLT-PET, hormone receptor PET, and anti-HER2 PET.

  9. 32 CFR 635.30 - Establishing domestic violence Memoranda of Understanding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Establishing domestic violence Memoranda of... Establishing domestic violence Memoranda of Understanding. (a) Coordination between military law enforcement..., especially concerning domestic violence investigations, arrests, and prosecutions involving...

  10. 40 CFR 415.630 - Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.630 Applicability; description of the zinc sulfate... production of zinc sulfate....

  11. 40 CFR 211.206 - Methods for measurement of sound attenuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Methods for measurement of sound attenuation. 211.206 Section 211.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... measurement of sound attenuation....

  12. 40 CFR 246.200 - High-grade paper recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-grade paper recovery. 246.200 Section 246.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES SOURCE... paper recovery....

  13. Detection performance analysis for time-of-flight PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Nannan; Huesman, Ronald H.; Moses, William W.; Qi, Jinyi

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) in improving lesion detectability. We present a theoretical approach to compare lesion detectability of TOF versus non-TOF systems and perform computer simulations to validate the theoretical prediction. A single-ring TOF PET tomograph is simulated using SimSET software, and images are reconstructed in 2D from list-mode data using a maximum a posteriori method. We use a channelized Hotelling observer to assess the detection performance. Both the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and localization ROC curves are compared for the TOF and non-TOF PET systems. We first studied the SNR gains for TOF PET with different scatter and random fractions, system timing resolutions and object sizes. We found that the TOF information improves the lesion detectability and the improvement is greater with larger fractions of randoms, better timing resolution and bigger objects. The scatters by themselves have little impact on the SNR gain after correction. Since the true system timing resolution may not be known precisely in practice, we investigated the effect of mismatched timing kernels and showed that using a mismatched kernel during reconstruction always degrades the detection performance, no matter whether it is narrower or wider than the real value. Using the proposed theoretical framework, we also studied the effect of lumpy backgrounds on the detection performance. Our results indicated that with lumpy backgrounds, the TOF PET still outperforms the non-TOF PET, but the improvement is smaller compared with the uniform background case. More specifically, with the same correlation length, the SNR gain reduces with bigger number of lumpy patches and greater lumpy amplitudes. With the same variance, the SNR gain reaches the minimum when the width of the Gaussian lumps is close to the size of the tumor.

  14. True Cyclopia–Very Rare Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, K. R.; Koteswary, P.

    2014-01-01

    During our routine postmortem examination, we found a female infant with “True Cyclopia.” The two entire eye balls had fused completely to form one midline organ. The infant was a female who weighed 2910 g. The gestation period was 35 weeks. Infant lived for a short period of less than 20 minutes. The birth was a product of a 4th pregnancy. PMID:25302183

  15. Get Set for a Pet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1987-01-01

    Describes a game in which students deal with some of the factors involved in being a responsible pet owner. Includes a list of the materials needed for the game and provides the game board and the game pieces, along with a fold-out poster about neutering and spaying pets. (TW)

  16. Meet the Alpha-Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlaw, Jo Ann Bruce; Frank, Cheryl Standish

    1985-01-01

    "Alpha-Pets" are the focal point of an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum. Each pet is featured for a week in a vocabulary-rich story and introduces related activities beginning with the featured letter, such as the four food groups during Freddie Fish's week or universe during Ulysses Unicorn's week. (MT)

  17. A fast real time measurement system to track in and out of plane optical retardation/ birefringence, true stress, and true strain during biaxial stretching of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmak, M.; Hassan, M.; Unsal, E.; Martins, C.

    2012-12-01

    An instrumented and highly integrated biaxial stretching system was designed and constructed to obtain true stress, true strain, and optical behavior of polymeric films during biaxial stretching. With programmable drive motors, any form of temporally varying biaxial deformation profiles, including linear, exponential, logarithmic as well as cyclic, can be applied to a square-shaped films. This machine allows the investigation of mechano-optical behavior of films under profiles captured in industrial processes. To overcome the edge effects, the samples are painted with a dot pattern that is imaged using a high speed video capture system. This system accurately determines the locations of the each dot matrix in subsequent images acquired and calculates the true strains in both directions. The in-plane optical retardation is determined using spectral birefringence method that uses polarized white light and optical spectrometer in the optical train. This is carried out automatically at less than 10 nm in retardation resolution with the light beam passing through the symmetry center of the sample. Out of plane retardation is measured with an identical optical train tilted 45° to the plane of the film with its light beam going through the same spot on the sample as 0° beam. The true stress and birefringences are calculated with the determined instantaneous thickness of the film. With this system, the stress optical behavior of PET's is determined up to very large deformation levels at moderate to high deformation rates. Beyond the initial linear stress optical behavior, these films exhibit sudden positive deviation from linearity and this start of nonlinearity was directly associated with the stress induced crystallization.

  18. Performance evaluation of the Ingenuity TF PET/CT scanner with a focus on high count-rate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolthammer, Jeffrey A.; Su, Kuan-Hao; Grover, Anu; Narayanan, Manoj; Jordan, David W.; Muzic, Raymond F.

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging performance of the Ingenuity TF 128 PET/computed tomography (CT) scanner which has a PET component that was designed to support a wider radioactivity range than is possible with those of Gemini TF PET/CT and Ingenuity TF PET/MR. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, count rate characteristics and image quality were evaluated according to the NEMA NU 2-2007 standard and ACR phantom accreditation procedures; these were supplemented by additional measurements intended to characterize the system under conditions that would be encountered during quantitative cardiac imaging with 82Rb. Image quality was evaluated using a hot spheres phantom, and various contrast recovery and noise measurements were made from replicated images. Timing and energy resolution, dead time, and the linearity of the image activity concentration, were all measured over a wide range of count rates. Spatial resolution (4.8-5.1 mm FWHM), sensitivity (7.3 cps kBq-1), peak noise-equivalent count rate (124 kcps), and peak trues rate (365 kcps) were similar to those of the Gemini TF PET/CT. Contrast recovery was higher with a 2 mm, body-detail reconstruction than with a 4 mm, body reconstruction, although the precision was reduced. The noise equivalent count rate peak was broad (within 10% of peak from 241-609 MBq). The activity measured in phantom images was within 10% of the true activity for count rates up to those observed in 82Rb cardiac PET studies.

  19. Recent Developments in PET Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders, and to guide the discovery and development of new treatments. This paper reviews current challenges of advancing PET technology and some of newly developed PET detectors and systems. The paper focuses on four aspects of PET instrumentation: high photon detection sensitivity; improved spatial resolution; depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and time-of-flight (TOF). Improved system geometry, novel non-scintillator based detectors, and tapered scintillation crystal arrays are able to enhance the photon detection sensitivity of a PET system. Several challenges for achieving high resolution with standard scintillator-based PET detectors are discussed. Novel detectors with 3-D positioning capability have great potential to be deployed in PET for achieving spatial resolution better than 1 mm, such as cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) and position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). DOI capability enables a PET system to mitigate parallax error and achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view (FOV). Six common DOI designs, as well as advantages and limitations of each design, are discussed. The availability of fast scintillation crystals such as LaBr3, and the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) greatly advances TOF-PET development. Recent instrumentation and initial results of clinical trials are briefly presented. If successful, these technology advances, together with new probe molecules, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic. PMID:20497121

  20. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation). PMID:27386623

  1. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation).

  2. TRUE MASSES OF RADIAL-VELOCITY EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A.

    2015-06-01

    We study the task of estimating the true masses of known radial-velocity (RV) exoplanets by means of direct astrometry on coronagraphic images to measure the apparent separation between exoplanet and host star. Initially, we assume perfect knowledge of the RV orbital parameters and that all errors are due to photon statistics. We construct design reference missions for four missions currently under study at NASA: EXO-S and WFIRST-S, with external star shades for starlight suppression, EXO-C and WFIRST-C, with internal coronagraphs. These DRMs reveal extreme scheduling constraints due to the combination of solar and anti-solar pointing restrictions, photometric and obscurational completeness, image blurring due to orbital motion, and the “nodal effect,” which is the independence of apparent separation and inclination when the planet crosses the plane of the sky through the host star. Next, we address the issue of nonzero uncertainties in RV orbital parameters by investigating their impact on the observations of 21 single-planet systems. Except for two—GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b, which are observable only by the star-shade missions—we find that current uncertainties in orbital parameters generally prevent accurate, unbiased estimation of true planetary mass. For the coronagraphs, WFIRST-C and EXO-C, the most likely number of good estimators of true mass is currently zero. For the star shades, EXO-S and WFIRST-S, the most likely numbers of good estimators are three and four, respectively, including GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b. We expect that uncertain orbital elements currently undermine all potential programs of direct imaging and spectroscopy of RV exoplanets.

  3. True anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia-yue; Zhang, Wei; An, Ji-long; Sun, Ya-peng; Ding, Wen-yuan; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) surgery in the treatment of degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine in spinal surgery highlights the gradual decrease in the use of traditional pedicle screw insertion technology. This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery, compare it with conventional pedicle screw insertion technology, and discuss its clinical application value. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing true anteroposterior view (group A) and 87 patients undergoing conventional pedicle screw insertion (group B) were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis. Time for screw placement, intraoperative irradiation exposure, accuracy rate of pedicle screw insertion, and incidence of neurovascular injury were compared between the two groups. Results The time for screw placement and intraoperative irradiation exposure was significantly less in group A. Penetration rates of the paries lateralis of vertebral pedicle, medial wall of vertebral pedicle, and anterior vertebral wall were 1.44%, 0%, and 2.40%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than that in group B. No additional serious complications caused by the placement of screw were observed during the follow-up period in patients in group A, but two patients with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain. Conclusion The application of true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery shortens time for screw placement and reduces the intraoperative irradiation exposure along with a higher accuracy rate of screw placement, which makes it a safe, accurate, and efficient technique. PMID:27418828

  4. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  5. 36 CFR 1002.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pets. 1002.15 Section 1002.15....15 Pets. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a pet in a public building, public... possession of pets by the Board. This paragraph shall not apply to guide dogs accompanying visually...

  6. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets... vaccinations. Pets that are the property of employees residing on BARC must be up to date on their...

  7. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  8. A comprehensive study on urban true orthorectification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Chen, W.; Kelmelis, J.A.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2005-01-01

    To provide some advanced technical bases (algorithms and procedures) and experience needed for national large-scale digital orthophoto generation and revision of the Standards for National Large-Scale City Digital Orthophoto in the National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP), this paper presents a comprehensive study on theories, algorithms, and methods of large-scale urban orthoimage generation. The procedures of orthorectification for digital terrain model (DTM)-based and digital building model (DBM)-based orthoimage generation and their mergence for true orthoimage generation are discussed in detail. A method of compensating for building occlusions using photogrammetric geometry is developed. The data structure needed to model urban buildings for accurately generating urban orthoimages is presented. Shadow detection and removal, the optimization of seamline for automatic mosaic, and the radiometric balance of neighbor images are discussed. Street visibility analysis, including the relationship between flight height, building height, street width, and relative location of the street to the imaging center, is analyzed for complete true orthoimage generation. The experimental results demonstrated that our method can effectively and correctly orthorectify the displacements caused by terrain and buildings in urban large-scale aerial images. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  9. PET-Based Thoracic Radiation Oncology.

    PubMed

    Simone, Charles B; Houshmand, Sina; Kalbasi, Anusha; Salavati, Ali; Alavi, Abass

    2016-07-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET is increasingly being integrated into multiple aspects of oncology. PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become especially important in radiation oncology. With the increasing use of advanced techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy, PET/CT scans have played critical roles in the target delineation of tumors for radiation oncologists delivering conformal treatment techniques. Use of PET/CT is well established in lung cancer and several other thoracic malignancies. This article details the current uses of PET/CT in thoracic radiation oncology with a focus on lung cancer and describes expected future roles of PET/CT for thoracic tumors.

  10. Preliminary results on the role of PET/CT in initial staging, restaging, and management of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamitsi, J.; Valotassiou, B.; Iliadis, K.; Kosmidis, P.; Laspas, F.; Vasilaki, M.; Pipini, E.; Petounis, A.; Gogou, L.; Pagou, M.; Dalianis, K.; Efthimiadou, R.; Andreou, J.

    2006-12-01

    AimTo determine true-positive and true-negative rates of PET/CT studies in the staging of lung cancer as compared with conventional imaging (CT and bone scan and occasionally MRI) and the impact of PET/CT on the treatment strategy in patients with lung cancer. Materials and methodTwenty patients (21 studies) with known or suspected lung cancer (14 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), three patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), three patients with solitary pulmonary nodule underwent initial staging (seven studies) or restaging (14 studies) with combined FDG PET and CT scans on a PET/CT tomograph. PET/CT images were evaluated separately by two nuclear medicine physicians and two radiologists specialized on PET, CT, and MRI. Histology results and a more than 6 months follow-up served as the reference standards. ResultsAccurate diagnosis was achieved on 16 studies. Site-by-site analysis gave the following results: 16 true-positive sites (seven on histology, nine on >6 months follow-up), six true-negative sites (two on histology, four on >6 months follow-up). On PET/CT, six patients were correctly down-staged, three patients were correctly upstaged and seven patients were diagnosed correctly as being on the same stage (2/7 with increase of extent of disease, 5/7 with the same extent of disease). One patient was falsely upstaged and three patients were falsely down-staged. On the basis of PET/CT results, change of management was induced in six patients, while in 14 patients there was no change induced. In five cases PET/CT was partially accurate: on site-by-site analysis, four sites proved true positive (on histology), one site false positive (on histology), and four sites false negative (one on histology, three on >6 months follow-up). ConclusionIn our early experience, PET/CT contributed significantly to correct staging and management of patients with lung cancer.

  11. Thoracic Cavity Definition for 3D PET/CT Analysis and Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W.; Higgins, William E.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) serve as the standard imaging modalities for lung-cancer management. CT gives anatomical detail on diagnostic regions of interest (ROIs), while PET gives highly specific functional information. During the lung-cancer management process, a patient receives a co-registered whole-body PET/CT scan pair and a dedicated high-resolution chest CT scan. With these data, multimodal PET/CT ROI information can be gleaned to facilitate disease management. Effective image segmentation of the thoracic cavity, however, is needed to focus attention on the central chest. We present an automatic method for thoracic cavity segmentation from 3D CT scans. We then demonstrate how the method facilitates 3D ROI localization and visualization in patient multimodal imaging studies. Our segmentation method draws upon digital topological and morphological operations, active-contour analysis, and key organ landmarks. Using a large patient database, the method showed high agreement to ground-truth regions, with a mean coverage = 99.2% and leakage = 0.52%. Furthermore, it enabled extremely fast computation. For PET/CT lesion analysis, the segmentation method reduced ROI search space by 97.7% for a whole-body scan, or nearly 3 times greater than that achieved by a lung mask. Despite this reduction, we achieved 100% true-positive ROI detection, while also reducing the false-positive (FP) detection rate by >5 times over that achieved with a lung mask. Finally, the method greatly improved PET/CT visualization by eliminating false PET-avid obscurations arising from the heart, bones, and liver. In particular, PET MIP views and fused PET/CT renderings depicted unprecedented clarity of the lesions and neighboring anatomical structures truly relevant to lung-cancer assessment. PMID:25957746

  12. A Investigation of Deadtime and Count Rate Limitations for High Resolution, Multiplane PET Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germano, Guido

    1991-02-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to measure and characterize the data loss and the inaccuracies/artifacts caused by high count rates in the latest generations of PET scanners based on two-dimensional matrix detectors, and then, to develop and evaluate methods for compensating for these sources of error. It is important to have a quantitative knowledge of the count rate characteristics for accurate quantitation in PET studies, and it is useful for planning qualitative studies in such a manner that high data rates will not cause inordinate data loss or loss of resolution due to pileup in the detector system. Our approach has been to analyze the PET system as a series of sections or components in a pipeline, independent of one another except for the fact that they are receiving data from the previous section. We have found that all losses of true coincidence events in a PET study, for any PET system, can be seen as occurring in three separate system sections: (1) the front end, comprising the detector assembly and some pre-processing electronics, (2) the coincidence processing stage and (3) the transfer stage, where coincidence data must travel before being sorted into a sinogram. We postulated a model for the loss mechanisms in those three sections, applied it to data collected on neuroPET, total body and animal PET systems, and demonstrated that data loss can be estimated and compensated with excellent precision over a wide range of activity levels. With the advent of matrix detectors, cost and other practical considerations have imposed the multiplexing of all individual detector elements in the matrix through a single channel. This has in turn led to the front end of current PET systems becoming the section that suffers the most, under high count rate conditions. Future PET systems' optimization with respect to count rate and data loss shall concentrate on hardware and firmware modifications of the system's front end.

  13. An MR image-guided, voxel-based partial volume correction method for PET images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hesheng; Fei, Baowei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Partial volume effect in positron emission tomography (PET) can cause incorrect quantification of radiopharmaceutical uptake in functional imaging. A PET partial volume correction method is presented to attenuate partial volume blurring and to yield voxel-based corrected PET images. Methods: By modeling partial volume effect as a convolution of point spread function of the PET scanner, the reconstructed PET images are corrected by iterative deconvolution with an edge-preserving smoothness constraint. The constraint is constructed to restore discontinuities extracted from coregistered MR images but maintains the smoothness in radioactivity distribution. The correction is implemented in a Bayesian deconvolution framework and is solved by a conjugate gradient method. The performance of the method was compared with the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method on a simulated dataset. The method was evaluated on synthesized brain FDG–PET data and phantom MRI–PET experiments. Results: The true PET activity of objects with a size of greater than the full-width at half maximum of the point spread function has been effectively restored in the simulated data. The partial volume correction method is quantitatively comparable to the GTM method. For synthesized FDG–PET with true activity 0 μci/cc for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 228 μci/cc for white matter (WM), and 621 μci/cc for gray matter (GM), the method has improved the radioactivity quantification from 186 ± 16 μci/cc to 30 ± 7 μci/cc in CSF, 317 ± 15 μci/cc to 236 ± 10 μci/cc for WM, 438 ± 4 μci/cc to 592 ± 5 μci/cc for GM. Both visual and quantitative assessments show improvement of partial volume correction in the synthesized and phantom experiments. Conclusions: The partial volume correction method improves the quantification of PET images. The method is comparable to the GTM method but does not need MR image segmentation or prior tracer distribution information. The

  14. Does Delayed-Time-Point Imaging Improve 18F-FDG-PET in Patients With MALT Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Giraudo, Chiara; Senn, Daniela; Hartenbach, Markus; Weber, Michael; Rausch, Ivo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Herold, Christian J.; Hacker, Marcus; Pones, Matthias; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Müllauer, Leonhard; Dolak, Werner; Lukas, Julius; Raderer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), delayed–time-point 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) performs better than standard–time-point 18F-FDG-PET. Materials and Methods Patients with untreated histologically verified MALT lymphoma, who were undergoing pretherapeutic 18F-FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) and consecutive 18F-FDG-PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using a single 18F-FDG injection, in the course of a larger-scale prospective trial, were included. Region-based sensitivity and specificity, and patient-based sensitivity of the respective 18F-FDG-PET scans at time points 1 (45–60 minutes after tracer injection, TP1) and 2 (100–150 minutes after tracer injection, TP2), relative to the reference standard, were calculated. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake values) ratios were also assessed. Results 18F-FDG-PET at TP1 was true positive in 15 o f 23 involved regions, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 was true-positive in 20 of 23 involved regions; no false-positive regions were noted. Accordingly, region-based sensitivities and specificities were 65.2% (confidence interval [CI], 45.73%–84.67%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1; and 87.0% (CI, 73.26%–100%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2, respectively. FDG-PET at TP1 detected lymphoma in at least one nodal or extranodal region in 7 of 13 patients, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 in 10 of 13 patients; accordingly, patient-based sensitivity was 53.8% (CI, 26.7%–80.9%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1, and 76.9% (CI, 54.0%–99.8%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood maximum standardized uptake value ratios were significantly lower at TP1 (ratios, 1.05 ± 0.40 and 1.52 ± 0.62) than at TP2 (ratios, 1.67 ± 0.74 and 2.56 ± 1.10; P = 0.003 and P = 0.001). Conclusions Delayed–time-point imaging

  15. Regional deconvolution method for partial volume correction in brain PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinek, Henry; Tsui, Wai-Hon; de Leon, Mony J.

    2001-05-01

    Correction of PET images for partial volume effects (PVE) is of particular utility in studies of metabolism in brain aging and brain disorders. PVE is commonly corrected using voxel-by- voxel factors obtained from a high resolution brain mask (obtained from the coregistered MR scan), after convolution with the point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system. In a recently proposed regional deconvolution (RD) method, the observed regional activity is expressed as linear combinations of the true metabolic activity. The weights are obtained by integrating the PSF over the geometric extent of the brain regions. We have analyzed the accuracy of RD and two other PVE correction algorithms under a variety of conditions using simulated PET scans. Each of the brain regions was assigned a distribution of metabolic activity, with gray matter/white matter contrast representative of subjects in several age categories. Simulations were performed over a wide range of PET resolutions. The influence of PET/MR misregistration and heterogeneity of brain metabolism were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate the importance of correcting PET metabolic images for PVE. Without such correction, the regional brain activity values are contaminated with 30 - 40% errors. Under most conditions studied, the accuracy of RD and of the three- compartmental method were superior to the accuracy of the two- compartmental method. Our study provides the first demonstration of the feasibility of RD algorithm to provide accurate correction for a large number (n equals 109) of brain compartments. PVE correction methods appear to be promising tools in studies of metabolism in normal brain, brain aging, and brain disorders.

  16. Performance evaluation of neuro-PET using silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jiwoong; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jin Ho; Kim, Sangsu; Im, Ki Chun

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have developed the second prototype Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for human brain imaging. The PET system was comprised of detector block which consisted of 4×4 SiPMs and 4×4 Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate arrays, charge signal transmission method, high density position decoder circuit and FPGA-embedded ADC boards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the newly developed neuro-PET system. The energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity, stability of the photo-peak position and count rate performance were measured. Tomographic image of 3D Hoffman brain phantom was also acquired to evaluate imaging capability of the neuro-PET. The average energy and timing resolutions measured for 511 keV gamma rays were 17±0.1% and 3±0.3 ns, respectively. Spatial resolution and sensitivity at the center of field of view (FOV) were 3.1 mm and 0.8%, respectively. The average scatter fraction was 0.4 with an energy window of 350-650 keV. The maximum true count rate and maximum NECR were measured as 43.3 kcps and 6.5 kcps at an activity concentration of 16.7 kBq/ml and 5.5 kBq/ml, respectively. Long-term stability results show that there was no significant change in the photo-peak position, energy resolution and count rate for 60 days. Phantom imaging studies were performed and they demonstrated the feasibility for high quality brain imaging. The performance tests and imaging results indicate that the newly developed PET is useful for brain imaging studies, if the axial FOV is extended to improve the system sensitivity.

  17. In Search of the True Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2013-11-01

    1. The nineteenth century's last five years; Part I. The Import of Theoretical Tools: 2. An overview; 3. Conclusions based on principles; 4. Conclusions based on a premise; 5. Conclusions based on calculations; 6. Asking the right questions, accepting limited answers; Part II. A National Plan Shaping the Universe We Perceive: 7. A new order and the new universe it produced; 8. Where did the chemical elements arise?; 9. Landscapes; 10. The evolution of astrophysical theory after 1960; 11. Turmoils of leadership; 12. Cascades and shocks that shape astrophysics; 13. Astrophysical discourse and persuasion; Part III. The Cost of Discerning the True Universe: 14. Organization and functioning of the astronomical community; 15. Language and astrophysical stability; 16. An economically viable astronomical program; Epilogue.

  18. In Search of the True Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2014-01-01

    1. The nineteenth century's last five years; Part I. The Import of Theoretical Tools: 2. An overview; 3. Conclusions based on principles; 4. Conclusions based on a premise; 5. Conclusions based on calculations; 6. Asking the right questions, accepting limited answers; Part II. A National Plan Shaping the Universe We Perceive: 7. A new order and the new universe it produced; 8. Where did the chemical elements arise?; 9. Landscapes; 10. The evolution of astrophysical theory after 1960; 11. Turmoils of leadership; 12. Cascades and shocks that shape astrophysics; 13. Astrophysical discourse and persuasion; Part III. The Cost of Discerning the True Universe: 14. Organization and functioning of the astronomical community; 15. Language and astrophysical stability; 16. An economically viable astronomical program; Epilogue.

  19. Characteristic Age and True Age of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Zhang, Cheng-Min; Tanni, Ali; Zhao, Hai-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Age of a pulsar is a useful parameter, but it is difficult to get the age from observation. We can only derive the characteristic age from the observed parameters: spin period (P) and period derivative (Ṗ). In this paper, we discussed the relationship between characteristic age and magnetic field of a pulsar. Monte Carlo simulation is also used to support the idea: it is useless to study the magnetic field evolution using characteristic age. From some observation evidences we get that: the characteristic age cannot be used as true age, especially for millisecond pulsar (MSP). The difference between them is also discussed. From the studying of breaking index and MSP's initial spin period (P0), we get the conclusion that: the problem cannot be resolved using different radiation models.

  20. Kepler's winding Path to true Heliocentrism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    The paper concerns the evolution of concepts by Johannes Kepler from Aristotelian conception of the Universe to Heliocentrism. Already as young Magister in Tubingen Kepler has taken an active part in Physical disputations of the candidates and has defended the doctrines of Copernik (1). In the Mysterium Cosmographicum he refers the planetary distances no longer to the center of the earth's orbit, but to the center of the true sun. But just by working out his Astronomia Nova Kepler succeeds in creating a strictly heliocentric astronomy as his handwriting Manuscripts give detailed information (2). Notes: 1) fragmentum orations de motu terrae. In Keppler Gesammelte werke Vol. 20.1, Munich 1988, p. 147-149 2) Commentaria in Theoriam Martis. Edition in: Kepler Gessamelete Werke Vol. 20.2 (in preparation)

  1. "True enough" formulations: the MAPS approach.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Clinical case formulation is at the core of competent care. When appropriately constructed it is grounded in best practices and serves as an explanatory model, a prescriptive road map, and a yardstick for all interventions. Despite the key role of formulations, many clinicians struggle with their construction and usage. The author offers a new model described as the MAPS approach. This framework, which is pragmatic, driven by clinical data, and process oriented, helps clinicians develop a "true enough" core formulation focusing on the most salient clinical elements that must be addressed. Its graphic nature helps reinforce the interrelated systems nature of psychiatric work and directs the clinician to a restricted number of specific areas that both inform the "core formulation" and serve as the targets for care. This comprehensive model, which includes evaluation, formulation, treatment planning, and treatment monitoring, readily complements and dovetails with the full range of treatment approaches.

  2. Uranus in True and False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two pictures of Uranus -- one in true color (left) and the other in false color -- were compiled from images returned Jan. 17, 1986, by the narrow-angle camera of Voyager 2. The spacecraft was 9.1 million kilometers (5.7 million miles) from the planet, several days from closest approach. The picture at left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The picture is a composite of images taken through blue, green and orange filters. The darker shadings at the upper right of the disk correspond to the day-night boundary on the planet. Beyond this boundary lies the hidden northern hemisphere of Uranus, which currently remains in total darkness as the planet rotates. The blue-green color results from the absorption of red light by methane gas in Uranus' deep, cold and remarkably clear atmosphere. The picture at right uses false color and extreme contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of Uranus. Images obtained through ultraviolet, violet and orange filters were respectively converted to the same blue, green and red colors used to produce the picture at left. The very slight contrasts visible in true color are greatly exaggerated here. In this false-color picture, Uranus reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter concentric bands. One possible explanation is that a brownish haze or smog, concentrated over the pole, is arranged into bands by zonal motions of the upper atmosphere. The bright orange and yellow strip at the lower edge of the planet's limb is an artifact of the image enhancement. In fact, the limb is dark and uniform in color around the planet. The Voyager project is manages for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  3. [PET using 11C-methionine in recognition of pseudoprogression in cerebral glioma after combined treatment].

    PubMed

    Skvortsova, T Yu; Brodskaya, Z L; Gurchin, A F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the value of PET using 11C-methionine (PET-Met) for distinction between true glioma progression and pseudoprogression (PsPr). 72 patients with treated cerebral glioma investigated by PET-Met were identified from prospective database. Entry criteria included new or progressive MR imaging enhancing lesions within first 6 months after irradiation and definite final diagnosis on the basis of the pathological study (n=17) or clinical-radiological follow-up on an average 16 months. PET examinations were assessed by visual inspection and calculating 11C-methionine uptake index (UI). Results. Pseudoprogression was defined as early radiological progression with subsequent regress or stabilization, without salvage therapy. 42 patients were considered to exhibit PsPr and 30 patients had true glioma progression. In PsPr group PET scans were either negative (n=6) or slightly increased tracer uptake (UI range 1.2-2.14) was seen in the site of contrast-enhanced lesion. The UI was 1.48±0.39 (mean±SD). In comparison with pretreatment PET 15 patients showed decrease 11C-methionine uptake on an average by 26%. In recurrence group PET-Met showed abnormal high focal 11C-methionine uptake in the lesion. The UI was 2.54±0.84 (range 1.54-5.4). An UI threshold value of greater than 1.9 optimized differentiation between glioma progression and PsPr with sensitivity of 83.5% and specificity of 97.0%. Conclusion. Metabolic characteristics of PsPr included negative tracer accumulation or slightly increased 11C-methionine uptake in the contrast-enhancing lesion with UI less than 1.9.

  4. Pelvis: normal variants and benign findings in FDG-PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kohan, Andres; Avril, Norbert E

    2014-04-01

    With the widespread use of whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography as a diagnostic tool in patients with cancer, incidental findings are of increasing importance. This is particularly true within the pelvis, where several benign findings might present with increased FDG uptake. In addition, physiologic excretion of radiotracer by way of the urinary tract can complicate image analysis. This article reviews potential incidental benign findings in the pelvis that one should be aware of when interpreting FDG-PET/computed tomography scans.

  5. PET/CT in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Tinsu; Mawlawi, Osama

    2008-11-15

    PET/CT is an effective tool for the diagnosis, staging and restaging of cancer patients. It combines the complementary information of functional PET images and anatomical CT images in one imaging session. Conventional stand-alone PET has been replaced by PET/CT for improved patient comfort, patient throughput, and most importantly the proven clinical outcome of PET/CT over that of PET and that of separate PET and CT. There are over two thousand PET/CT scanners installed worldwide since 2001. Oncology is the main application for PET/CT. Fluorine-18 deoxyglucose is the choice of radiopharmaceutical in PET for imaging the glucose uptake in tissues, correlated with an increased rate of glycolysis in many tumor cells. New molecular targeted agents are being developed to improve the accuracy of targeting different disease states and assessing therapeutic response. Over 50% of cancer patients receive radiation therapy (RT) in the course of their disease treatment. Clinical data have demonstrated that the information provided by PET/CT often changes patient management of the patient and/or modifies the RT plan from conventional CT simulation. The application of PET/CT in RT is growing and will become increasingly important. Continuing improvement of PET/CT instrumentation will also make it easier for radiation oncologists to integrate PET/CT in RT. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current PET/CT technology, to project the future development of PET and CT for PET/CT, and to discuss some issues in adopting PET/CT in RT and potential improvements in PET/CT simulation of the thorax in radiation therapy.

  6. Pets and the immunocompromised person

    MedlinePlus

    ... their pets to avoid getting diseases from the animals. Persons in this category include those who take ... risk of diseases that can be passed from animals to humans. Here are some tips: Ask your ...

  7. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... left on the bedside table. Zolpidem may make cats wobbly and sleepy, but most pets become very ... very common pain killer found in most households. Cats are extremely sensitive to acetaminophen, but dogs can ...

  8. Take Care with Pet Reptiles

    MedlinePlus

    ... pets in households with young children. [775 KB] Animals and Health Check out two CDC websites with helpful resources. Gastrointestinal (Enteric) Diseases from Animals : Information about zoonotic outbreaks, prevention messages, and helpful ...

  9. Image Reconstruction for a Partially Collimated Whole Body PET Scanner.

    PubMed

    Alessio, Adam M; Schmitz, Ruth E; Macdonald, Lawrence R; Wollenweber, Scott D; Stearns, Charles W; Ross, Steven G; Ganin, Alex; Lewellen, Thomas K; Kinahan, Paul E

    2008-06-01

    Partially collimated PET systems have less collimation than conventional 2-D systems and have been shown to offer count rate improvements over 2-D and 3-D systems. Despite this potential, previous efforts have not established image-based improvements with partial collimation and have not customized the reconstruction method for partially collimated data. This work presents an image reconstruction method tailored for partially collimated data. Simulated and measured sensitivity patterns are presented and provide a basis for modification of a fully 3-D reconstruction technique. The proposed method uses a measured normalization correction term to account for the unique sensitivity to true events. This work also proposes a modified scatter correction based on simulated data. Measured image quality data supports the use of the normalization correction term for true events, and suggests that the modified scatter correction is unnecessary.

  10. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  11. Combined PET/MRI: Multi-modality Multi-parametric Imaging Is Here: Summary Report of the 4th International Workshop on PET/MR Imaging; February 23-27, 2015, Tübingen, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D L; Pichler, B J; Gückel, B; Barthel, H; Beer, A J; Bremerich, J; Czernin, J; Drzezga, A; Franzius, C; Goh, V; Hartenbach, M; Iida, H; Kjaer, A; la Fougère, C; Ladefoged, C N; Law, I; Nikolaou, K; Quick, H H; Sabri, O; Schäfer, J; Schäfers, M; Wehrl, H F; Beyer, T

    2015-10-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both technical versatility and acceptance by clinical and research-driven users from the status quo of last year. Still, with only minimal evidence of progress made in exploiting the true complementary nature of the PET and MRI-based information, PET/MRI is still yet to achieve its potential. In that regard, the conclusion of last year's meeting "the real work has just started" still holds true.

  12. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils.

  13. True HIV seroprevalence in Indian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, N; Ayagiri, A; Ray, V L

    2000-03-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the apex body for controlling AIDS in India, projected that HIV seroprevalence would increase from 7/1000 in 1995 to 21.2/1000 in 1997. A high incidence (8.2%) of HIV was observed in blood donors. This study was carried out to find out the true HIV positivity in Indian blood donors. Blood donors from our centre were followed for more than 5 years to determine the true HIV seroprevalence and our result was compared with similar studies from India. Voluntary and relative blood donors who visited the SGPGIMS, Lucknow, since 1993 to June 1998 were included. They were screened for HIV 1/2 by ELISA kits (WHO approved). First-time HIV-positive samples were preserved frozen for further study (stage-I). They were repeated in duplicate and retested with other kits. If found positive, the sample was labelled as ELISA positive (stage-II). ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) at stage-III. A total of 65 288 donors were included and 834 (12.8/1000) were reactive at stage-I. But 1.1/1000 donors were found to be ELISA positive at stage-II, and 0.28/1000 donors were positive by WB at stage-III. The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than our study. There were five similar Indian studies and seropositivity rate varied from 0.72/1000 (using ELISA and WB) to 5.5/1000 (using ELISA alone). The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than all these studies. HIV seroprevalence in the present study is lower (P < 0.001) than other Indian figures. The present and other studies confirmed that the projected HIV seroprevalence (82/1000) in Indian blood donors was high. The NACO result was based on one-time ELISA screening reports from zonal blood testing centres which also receive samples from paid donors donating in commercial blood banks. The HIV prevalence of blood donors (and national prevalence) is to be reassessed.

  14. Production of the Smallest QED Atom: True Muonium

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Lebed, Richard F.

    2009-04-15

    The 'true muonium' ({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) and 'true tauonium' ({tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) bound states are not only the heaviest, but also the most compact pure QED systems. The rapid weak decay of the {tau} makes the observation of true tauonium difficult. However, as we show, the production and study of true muonium is possible at modern electron-positron colliders.

  15. Mechanisms for oscillatory true polar wander.

    PubMed

    Creveling, J R; Mitrovica, J X; Chan, N-H; Latychev, K; Matsuyama, I

    2012-11-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies of Palaeoproterozoic to Cretaceous rocks propose a suite of large and relatively rapid (tens of degrees over 10 to 100 million years) excursions of the rotation pole relative to the surface geography, or true polar wander (TPW). These excursions may be linked in an oscillatory, approximately coaxial succession about the centre of the contemporaneous supercontinent. Within the framework of a standard rotational theory, in which a delayed viscous adjustment of the rotational bulge acts to stabilize the rotation axis, geodynamic models for oscillatory TPW generally appeal to consecutive, opposite loading phases of comparable magnitude. Here we extend a nonlinear rotational stability theory to incorporate the stabilizing effect of TPW-induced elastic stresses in the lithosphere. We demonstrate that convectively driven inertia perturbations acting on a nearly prolate, non-hydrostatic Earth with an effective elastic lithospheric thickness of about 10 kilometres yield oscillatory TPW paths consistent with palaeomagnetic inferences. This estimate of elastic thickness can be reduced, even to zero, if the rotation axis is stabilized by long-term excess ellipticity in the plane of the TPW. We speculate that these sources of stabilization, acting on TPW driven by a time-varying mantle flow field, provide a mechanism for linking the distinct, oscillatory TPW events of the past few billion years. PMID:23135471

  16. Hippocrates, the true father of hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Gahhos, F N; Ariyan, S

    1985-02-01

    The methods used by Hippocrates for treating fractures and dislocations formed the basis for further development in operations performed upon the hand. He described the common distal radial fracture, and the method to reduce and immobilize it. Of carpal dislocations, he mentioned two patterns which are similar to the common "anterior dislocation of the lunate" and the "perilunar dislocation." He treated pressure sores and wound infection with frequent dressings, application of heat and mechanical debridement; limb necrosis was treated with delayed amputation, and tetanus, with immediate exploration and drainage of the wound. His general principles of fracture management include the value of early reduction, strict fluid diet after reductions of large joints, keeping sites of fracture warm and changing splints as the swelling resolves. It is obvious that many of the principles for the treatment of fractures and dislocations of the wrist and hand are still valid today. The genius of Hippocrates surpassed all those whom we know at a corresponding stage of civilization and for many years to come. The discovery of roentgenograms an antiseptics only furthered his established sound principles. On the basis of these principles, perhaps Hippocrates should be considered the true father of operations performed upon the hand.

  17. Placebo: the lie that comes true?

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2013-04-01

    Over the decades of experimentation on the placebo effect, it has become clear that it is driven largely by expectation, and that strong expectations of efficacy are more likely to give rise to the experience of benefit. No wonder the placebo effect has come to resemble a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, this resemblance is considerably exaggerated. The placebo effect does not work as strongly as it is advertised to do in some efforts to elicit it. Half-truths about the placebo effect are now in circulation, reinforced by a number of other equivocations that it seems to attract. As the deceptive use of placebos has fallen into discredit, the use of half-truths and exaggerations-neither of which is technically a deception-becomes an ever more inviting possibility. However, there are risks and costs associated with the half-truth that the doctor possesses the power to make his or her words come true by the alchemy of the placebo effect. PMID:23250230

  18. True Color of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Roughly true color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter as taken by the Galileo imaging system on June 26, 1996. Because the Galileo imaging system's wavelength sensitivities go beyond those of the human eye, this is only an approximation of what a human observer would have seen in place of the Galileo spacecraft. To simulate red as our eyes see it, the near-infrared filter (756 nm) image was used. To simulate blue as our eyes see it, the violet filter (410 nm) image was used. Finally, to simulate green as our eyes see it, a combination of 2/3 violet and 1/3 near-infrared was used. The result is an image that is similar in color to that seen when looking through a telescope at Jupiter with your eye, but allowing detail about 100 times finer to be visible! The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. Performance evaluation and calibration of the neuro-pet scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Sank, V.J.; Brooks, R.A.; Cascio, H.E.; Di Chiro, G.; Friauf, W.S.; Leighton, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    The Neuro-PET is a circular ring seven-slice positron emission tomograph designed for imaging human heads and small animals. The scanner uses 512 bismuth germanate detectors 8.25 mm wide packed tightly together in four layers to achieve high spatial resolution (6-7 mm FWHM) without the use of beam blockers. Because of the small 38 cm ring diameter, the sensitivity is also very high: 70,000 c/s per true slice with medium energy threshold (375 keV) for a 20 cm diameter phantom containing 1 ..mu..Ci/cc of positron-emitting activity, according to a preliminary measurement. There are three switch-selectable thresholds, and the sensitivity will be higher in the low threshold setting. The Neuro-PET is calibrated with a round or elliptical phantom that approximates a patient's head; this method eliminates the effects of scatter and self-attenuation to first order. Further software corrections for these artifacts are made in the reconstruction program, which reduce the measured scatter to zero, as determined with a 5 cm cold spot. With a 1 cm cold spot, the apparent activity at the center of the cold spot is 18% of the surrounding activity, which is clearly a consequence of the limits of spatial resolution, rather than scatter. The Neuro-PET has been in clinical operation since June 1982, and approximately 30 patients have been scanned to date.

  20. MRI-guided brain PET image filtering and partial volume correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianhua; Chu-Shern Lim, Jason; Townsend, David W.

    2015-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) image quantification is a challenging problem due to limited spatial resolution of acquired data and the resulting partial volume effects (PVE), which depend on the size of the structure studied in relation to the spatial resolution and which may lead to over or underestimation of the true tissue tracer concentration. In addition, it is usually necessary to perform image smoothing either during image reconstruction or afterwards to achieve a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, an isotropic Gaussian filtering (GF) is used for this purpose. However, the noise suppression is at the cost of deteriorating spatial resolution. As hybrid imaging devices such as PET/MRI have become available, the complementary information derived from high definition morphologic images could be used to improve the quality of PET images. In this study, first of all, we propose an MRI-guided PET filtering method by adapting a recently proposed local linear model and then incorporate PVE into the model to get a new partial volume correction (PVC) method without parcellation of MRI. In addition, both the new filtering and PVC are voxel-wise non-iterative methods. The performance of the proposed methods were investigated with simulated dynamic FDG brain dataset and 18F-FDG brain data of a cervical cancer patient acquired with a simultaneous hybrid PET/MR scanner. The initial simulation results demonstrated that MRI-guided PET image filtering can produce less noisy images than traditional GF and bias and coefficient of variation can be further reduced by MRI-guided PET PVC. Moreover, structures can be much better delineated in MRI-guided PET PVC for real brain data.

  1. 33 CFR 110.173 - Port of Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port of Charleston, SC. 110.173... 32°45′34″ N., 79°52′12″ W. (2) Commercial Anchorage B. This anchorage is located adjacent to the... located 1800 yards, 118° true from St. Michaels Church Spire and has a diameter of 500 yards....

  2. Parasites in pet reptiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners. PMID:21624124

  3. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  5. Evaluation of cancer detection with whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoh, Carl K.; Hawkins, Randall A.; Glaspy, John A.; Dahlbom, Magnus; Tse, Nielson Y.; Hoffman, Edward T.; Schiepers, Christiaan; Choi, Yong; Rege, Sheila; Nitzsche, Egbert U.; Maddahi, Jamshid; Phelps, Michael E.

    1993-08-01

    Until recently, positron emission tomography (PET) has been acquired and displayed in a standard transaxial image format. The development of whole body PET has allowed biochemical and physiologic imaging of the entire body, expanding the limited axial field of view of the conventional PET scanner. In this study, the application of whole body PET studies with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for tumor imaging was evaluated. Whole body PET studies were positive (presence of focal FDG uptake relative to surrounding tissue activity) in 61 of 70 patients (87%) with biopsy confirmed malignant tumors. PET images failed to reveal focal hypermetabolism in 9 of the 70 patients. Of the 17 patients with benign biopsies lesions, 13 patients had whole body PET studies without focal areas of FDG uptake. Because of the high glycolytic rate of malignant tissue, the whole body PET FDG technique has promise in the detection of a wide variety of both primary and metastatic malignancies. The presence of FDG uptake in benign inflammatory conditions may limit the specificity of the technique. The true positive rates for the characterization of known lesions was 87% in this series, and the PET FDG method is promising both in determining both the nature of a localized lesion, and in defining the systemic extent of malignant disease.

  6. Imaging of Musculoskeletal Bacterial Infections by [124I]FIAU-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Endres, Christopher J.; Uzuner, Ovsev; Seyler, Thorsten M.; Ulrich, Slif D.; Conway, Janet; Bettegowda, Chetan; Agrawal, Nishant; Cheong, Ian; Zhang, Xiaosong; Ladenson, Paul W.; Vogelstein, Barry N.; Mont, Michael A.; Zhou, Shibin; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Pomper, Martin G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Traditional imaging techniques for the localization and monitoring of bacterial infections, although reasonably sensitive, suffer from a lack of specificity. This is particularly true for musculoskeletal infections. Bacteria possess a thymidine kinase (TK) whose substrate specificity is distinct from that of the major human TK. The substrate specificity difference has been exploited to develop a new imaging technique that can detect the presence of viable bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight subjects with suspected musculoskeletal infections and one healthy control were studied by a combination of [124I]FIAU-positron emission tomography and CT ([124I]FIAU-PET/CT). All patients with proven musculoskeletal infections demonstrated positive [124I]FIAU-PET/CT signals in the sites of concern at two hours after radiopharmaceutical administration. No adverse reactions with FIAU were observed. Conclusions/Significance [124I]FIAU-PET/CT is a promising new method for imaging bacterial infections. PMID:17925855

  7. Exercises in PET Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Oliver

    These exercises are complementary to the theoretical lectures about positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. They aim at providing some hands on experience in PET image reconstruction and focus on demonstrating the different data preprocessing steps and reconstruction algorithms needed to obtain high quality PET images. Normalisation, geometric-, attenuation- and scatter correction are introduced. To explain the necessity of those some basics about PET scanner hardware, data acquisition and organisation are reviewed. During the course the students use a software application based on the STIR (software for tomographic image reconstruction) library 1,2 which allows them to dynamically select or deselect corrections and reconstruction methods as well as to modify their most important parameters. Following the guided tutorial, the students get an impression on the effect the individual data precorrections have on image quality and what happens if they are forgotten. Several data sets in sinogram format are provided, such as line source data, Jaszczak phantom data sets with high and low statistics and NEMA whole body phantom data. The two most frequently used reconstruction algorithms in PET image reconstruction, filtered back projection (FBP) and the iterative OSEM (ordered subset expectation maximation) approach are used to reconstruct images. The exercise should help the students gaining an understanding what the reasons for inferior image quality and artefacts are and how to improve quality by a clever choice of reconstruction parameters.

  8. Recent Understandings of Pet Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Dennis; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2016-01-01

    Allergic reactions to pets have been recognized for at least a hundred years. Yet our understanding of the effects of all of the interactions between pet exposures and human immune responses continues to grow. Allergists, epidemiologists, and immunologists have spent years trying to better understand how exposures to pet allergens lead to allergic sensitization (the production of allergen-specific immunoglobulin class E [IgE] antibodies) and subsequent allergic disease. A major new development in this understanding is the recognition that pet exposures consist of not only allergen exposures but also changes in microbial exposures. Exposures to certain pet-associated microbes, especially in the neonatal period, appear to be able to dramatically alter how a child’s immune system develops and this in turn reduces the risk of allergic sensitization and disease. An exciting challenge in the next few years will be to see whether these changes can be developed into a realistic preventative strategy with the expectation of significantly reducing allergic disease, especially asthma. PMID:26918180

  9. Children's drawings and attachment to pets.

    PubMed

    Kidd, A H; Kidd, R M

    1995-08-01

    To help confirm the concept that distances placed between the self and other figures in children's drawings represent emotional distances, 242 pet-owning and 35 nonpet-owning kindergartners through eighth graders drew pictures of themselves, a pet, and/or a family member. Owners drew pets significantly closer than family-figures although the younger the child, the greater the distance between self and pet. Older children drew themselves holding pets significantly more often, but younger children placed the family-figure between the self and the pet significantly more often. There were no significant gender differences in self-figure/pet-figure distances, but cats, dogs, caged animals, and farm animals were placed significantly closer to self-figures than were fish. Over-all, owners were clearly emotionally closer to pets than to family members, but nonowners were as close emotionally to family members as were owners. PMID:7501763

  10. What is the 'true' function of skin?

    PubMed

    Chuong, C M; Nickoloff, B J; Elias, P M; Goldsmith, L A; Macher, E; Maderson, P A; Sundberg, J P; Tagami, H; Plonka, P M; Thestrup-Pederson, K; Bernard, B A; Schröder, J M; Dotto, P; Chang, C M; Williams, M L; Feingold, K R; King, L E; Kligman, A M; Rees, J L; Christophers, E

    2002-04-01

    origins of our favorite organ. Hopefully, this unique discussion feature will foster an understanding of the 'true' skin functions that is both more comprehensive and more profound than conventional teaching on this topic, and will stimulate more than 'skin-deep' reflections on the full range of skin functions. PMID:11994143

  11. Evaluation of high-risk melanoma: comparison of [18F]FDG PET and high-dose 67Ga SPET.

    PubMed

    Kalff, Victor; Hicks, Rodney J; Ware, Robert E; Greer, Brett; Binns, David S; Hogg, Annette

    2002-04-01

    Recently the potential of whole-body positron emission tomography scanning using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET) has led to renewed interest in the use of functional imaging for the detection of occult metastatic melanoma. This study compared dedicated FDG PET with high-dose gallium-67 imaging incorporating whole-body scanning and comprehensive single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in 122 cases (121 patients) in which the two scans were performed <6 weeks apart. All patients were at high clinical risk of occult metastatic disease and 49 (40%) had abnormality suggestive of metastatic disease by at least one functional imaging technique. Discrepant scan findings were followed up to determine which technique more accurately reflected disease status. There were 23/122 (19%; 95% CI: 12%-26%) cases with discordant scan results in respect of either the presence of melanoma (11 cases) or the extent of disease (12 cases). PET correctly identified more disease than 67Ga SPET in 14 cases (including three incidental primary tumours) and was true negative in three further patients with abnormal 67Ga SPET. There were six patients with true positive 67Ga SPET in whom FDG PET was false negative (one small cutaneous deposit, one residual axillary node rated equivocal on FDG PET due to postoperative changes, one adrenal metastasis inseparable from renal activity on FDG PET and three cases in which sites missed on FDG PET were seen on 67Ga SPET. Thus, FDG PET provided incremental diagnostic information compared with 67Ga SPET in 17/23 patients, while 67Ga SPET provided incremental information compared with PET in 6/23 cases ( P=0.035). Based on Australian Medicare reimbursement levels, the net cost per patient with clinical management benefit of replacing 67Ga SPET with FDG PET was estimated to be less than EUR 1,750. These results suggest that FDG PET provides incremental and clinically important information in around 10% of patients at a low incremental cost which, combined

  12. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Etienne; Renaud, Jennifer M; Richard, Marie Anne; Ruddy, Terrence D; Bénard, François; deKemp, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The body's main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose), proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication-all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects. PMID:27679534

  13. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Etienne; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Richard, Marie Anne; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Bénard, François; deKemp, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The body’s main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose), proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication—all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects. PMID:27679534

  14. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Etienne; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Richard, Marie Anne; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Bénard, François; deKemp, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The body’s main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose), proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication—all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects.

  15. Latest achievements in PET techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola; Motta, Alfonso; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Sabba, Nicola; Zavattini, Guido

    2003-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has moved from a distinguished research tool in physiology, cardiology and neurology to become a major tool for clinical investigation in oncology, in cardiac applications and in neurological disorders. Much of the PET accomplishments is due to the remarkable improvements in the last 10 years both in hardware and software aspects. Nowadays a similar effort is made by many research groups towards the construction of dedicated PET apparatus in new emerging fields such as molecular medicine, gene therapy, breast cancer imaging and combined modalities. This paper reports on some recent results we have obtained in small animal imaging and positron emission mammography, based on the use of advanced technology in the field of scintillators and photodetectors, such as Position-Sensitive Detectors coupled to crystal matrices, combined use of scintillating fibers and Hybrid-Photo-Diodes readout, and Hamamatsu flat panels. New ideas and future developments are discussed.

  16. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R G

    1994-01-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective. PMID:8076285

  17. Pet therapy: dogs de-stress students.

    PubMed

    Young, Judith S

    2012-01-01

    Research supports the efficacy of the human-animal bond and pet therapy in a variety of settings. At nursing students' request at one school, the author began offering pet therapy prior to examinations. Anecdotal evidence of a study with the author's Golden Retriever, Goldilocks, demonstrates that pet therapy can reduce test anxiety and improve nursing student performance. PMID:23082615

  18. 7 CFR 503.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 503.11 Section 503.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.11 Pets. No pets or animals of any kind may be...

  19. 7 CFR 503.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pets. 503.11 Section 503.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.11 Pets. No pets or animals of any kind may be...

  20. 7 CFR 503.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pets. 503.11 Section 503.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.11 Pets. No pets or animals of any kind may be...

  1. 7 CFR 503.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pets. 503.11 Section 503.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.11 Pets. No pets or animals of any kind may be...

  2. 7 CFR 503.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pets. 503.11 Section 503.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.11 Pets. No pets or animals of any kind may be...

  3. A Guide to Managing Your Classroom Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caras, Robert

    1980-01-01

    The author suggests eight ideal classroom pets: hamsters; turtles; snakes; spiders; frogs and toads; fish; and birds. For each he gives suggestions on selecting the pet and housing and feeding it in the classroom. Desert terrariums and home pet care training are also discussed. (SJL)

  4. 7 CFR 500.10 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 500.10 Section 500.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property § 500.10 Pets. Pets brought upon...

  5. Saying Goodbye: Pet Loss and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Thelma

    2005-01-01

    Pets can be loyal, loving, and entertaining members of a family. Their deaths are generally experienced as painful losses by the people who love them, even though the grief experience is often culturally disenfranchised. In this manuscript, we discuss the role that pets can play in a person's life; the effects that pet loss can have on the people…

  6. 36 CFR 13.1234 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pets. 13.1234 Section 13.1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK... § 13.1234 Pets. Possessing a pet in the BCDA is prohibited....

  7. Detection of Primary Malignancy and Metastases with FDG PET/CT in Patients with Cholangiocarcinomas: Lesion-based Comparison with Contrast Enhanced CT

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Youssef; Mariano, Aladin T.; Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines consider the role of 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (FDG PET/CT) in the evaluation of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) as "uncertain," and have recommended contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) but not FDG PET/CT as a routine imaging test for CCA workup. We set out to compare the diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT and CECT in patients with CCA. The retrospective study included patients with CCA who underwent FDG PET/CT and CECT within 2-month interval between 2011 and 2013 in our hospital. Lesion-based comparison was conducted. Final diagnoses were made based on the composite clinical and imaging data with minimal 6-month follow-up. A total of 18 patients with 28-paired tests were included. There is a total of 142 true malignant lesions as revealed by the 6-paired pre-treatment and 22-paired post-treatment tests. On a lesion-based analysis, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and accuracies of PET/CT and CECT for detection of CCA were 96.5%, 55.5%, 97.2%, 50.0%, 94.1% and 62.2%, 66.7%, 96.7%, 10.0%, 62.5%, respectively. FDG PET/CT detected more intrahepatic malignant and extrahepatic metastases; and had significant higher sensitivity, NPV, and accuracy than CECT, while similar in specificity and PPV. No true positive lesion detected on CECT that was missed on PET/CT, and none of the false negative lesions on PET/CT were detected on CECT. Six patients had paired pretreatment tests, and FDG PET/CT results changed planned management in three patients. Our data suggest that FDG PET/CT detect more primary and metastatic lesions and lead to considerable changes in treatment plan in comparison with CECT. PMID:27651736

  8. Detection of Primary Malignancy and Metastases with FDG PET/CT in Patients with Cholangiocarcinomas: Lesion-based Comparison with Contrast Enhanced CT

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Youssef; Mariano, Aladin T.; Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines consider the role of 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (FDG PET/CT) in the evaluation of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) as "uncertain," and have recommended contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) but not FDG PET/CT as a routine imaging test for CCA workup. We set out to compare the diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT and CECT in patients with CCA. The retrospective study included patients with CCA who underwent FDG PET/CT and CECT within 2-month interval between 2011 and 2013 in our hospital. Lesion-based comparison was conducted. Final diagnoses were made based on the composite clinical and imaging data with minimal 6-month follow-up. A total of 18 patients with 28-paired tests were included. There is a total of 142 true malignant lesions as revealed by the 6-paired pre-treatment and 22-paired post-treatment tests. On a lesion-based analysis, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and accuracies of PET/CT and CECT for detection of CCA were 96.5%, 55.5%, 97.2%, 50.0%, 94.1% and 62.2%, 66.7%, 96.7%, 10.0%, 62.5%, respectively. FDG PET/CT detected more intrahepatic malignant and extrahepatic metastases; and had significant higher sensitivity, NPV, and accuracy than CECT, while similar in specificity and PPV. No true positive lesion detected on CECT that was missed on PET/CT, and none of the false negative lesions on PET/CT were detected on CECT. Six patients had paired pretreatment tests, and FDG PET/CT results changed planned management in three patients. Our data suggest that FDG PET/CT detect more primary and metastatic lesions and lead to considerable changes in treatment plan in comparison with CECT.

  9. Detection of Primary Malignancy and Metastases with FDG PET/CT in Patients with Cholangiocarcinomas: Lesion-based Comparison with Contrast Enhanced CT.

    PubMed

    Elias, Youssef; Mariano, Aladin T; Lu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    The current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines consider the role of 2-deoxy-2-(18)F-fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (FDG PET/CT) in the evaluation of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) as "uncertain," and have recommended contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) but not FDG PET/CT as a routine imaging test for CCA workup. We set out to compare the diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT and CECT in patients with CCA. The retrospective study included patients with CCA who underwent FDG PET/CT and CECT within 2-month interval between 2011 and 2013 in our hospital. Lesion-based comparison was conducted. Final diagnoses were made based on the composite clinical and imaging data with minimal 6-month follow-up. A total of 18 patients with 28-paired tests were included. There is a total of 142 true malignant lesions as revealed by the 6-paired pre-treatment and 22-paired post-treatment tests. On a lesion-based analysis, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and accuracies of PET/CT and CECT for detection of CCA were 96.5%, 55.5%, 97.2%, 50.0%, 94.1% and 62.2%, 66.7%, 96.7%, 10.0%, 62.5%, respectively. FDG PET/CT detected more intrahepatic malignant and extrahepatic metastases; and had significant higher sensitivity, NPV, and accuracy than CECT, while similar in specificity and PPV. No true positive lesion detected on CECT that was missed on PET/CT, and none of the false negative lesions on PET/CT were detected on CECT. Six patients had paired pretreatment tests, and FDG PET/CT results changed planned management in three patients. Our data suggest that FDG PET/CT detect more primary and metastatic lesions and lead to considerable changes in treatment plan in comparison with CECT. PMID:27651736

  10. Development of PhytoPET: A plant imaging PET system

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, H; Lee, S J; McKisson, J; Xi, W; Zorn, C; Howell, C R; Crowell, A S; Cumberbatch, L; Reid, C D; Smith, M F; Stolin, A

    2012-02-01

    The development and initial evaluation of a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system to image the biodistribution of positron emitting tracers in live plants is underway. The positron emitting {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer is used in plant biology research investigating carbon sequestration in biomass, optimization of plant productivity and biofuel development. This PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single 5 cm x 5 cm Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. Each H8500 is coupled to a LYSO:Ce scintillator array composed of 48 x 48 elements that are 10 mm thick arranged with a 1.0 mm pitch. An Ethernet based 12-bit flash analog to digital data acquisition system with onboard coincident matrix definition is under development to digitize the signals. The detector modules of the PhytoPET system can be arranged and stacked to accommodate various sized plants and plant structures.

  11. To discover or to create: metaphors and the true self.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Rebecca J; Vess, Matthew; Arndt, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    Three studies examined how endorsement of self-discovery and self-creation metaphors influences belief in the true self and its use as meaning source. It was hypothesized that discovery metaphors contribute to belief in the true self and bolster the relationship between true self-knowledge and meaning. Study 1 supported the hypothesis that discovery is positively associated with belief in the true self among a sample of college students (N = 311). Studies 2 and 3 extended the analysis by showing that the discovery metaphor also facilitates perceptions of meaning and the use of the true self specifically as a source of meaning in a second sample of college students (N = 75) as well as an adult sample of university employees (N = 173). Implications for understanding what enables the true self to infuse life with meaning, as well as an individual differences approach to metaphoric cognition, are discussed.

  12. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved.

  13. Use of beam stoppers to correct random and scatter coincidence in PET: A Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2013-05-01

    3D acquisition of positron emission tomography (PET) produce data with improved signal-to-noise ratios compared with conventional 2D PET. However, the sensitivity increase is accompanied by an increase in the number of scattered photons and random coincidences detected. Scatter and random coincidence lead to a loss in image contrast and degrade the accuracy of quantitative analysis. This work examines the feasibility of using beam stoppers (BS) for correcting scatter and random coincidence simultaneously. The origins of the photons are not on the path of non-true event. Therefore, a BS placed on the line of response (LOR) that passes through the source position absorbs a particular fraction of the true events but has little effect on the scatter and random events. The subtraction of the two scanned data, with and without BS, can be employed to estimate the non-true events at the LOR. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of 3D PET on an EEC phantom and a Zubal Phantom are conducted to validate the proposed approach. Both scattered and random coincidences can be estimated and corrected using the proposed method. The mean squared errors measured on the random+scatter sinogram of the phantom obtained by the proposed method are much less than those obtained using the conventional correction method (the delayed coincidence subtraction for random correction combined with single scatter simulation for scatter correction). Preliminary results indicate that the proposed method is feasible for clinical application.

  14. PET-Based Percutaneous Needle Biopsy.

    PubMed

    El-Haddad, Ghassan

    2016-07-01

    PET can be used to guide percutaneous needle biopsy to the most metabolic lesion, improving diagnostic yield. PET biopsy guidance can be performed using visual or software coregistration, electromagnetic needle tracking, cone-beam computed tomography (CT), and intraprocedural PET/CT guidance. PET/CT-guided biopsies allow the sampling of lesions that may not be clearly visible on anatomic imaging, or of lesions that are morphologically normal. PET can identify suspicious locations within complex tumors that are most likely to contain important diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:27321036

  15. The MiniPET: a didactic PET system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, R.; Silva, J.; Gurriana, L.; Silva, J. M.; Maio, A.; Soares Augusto, J.

    2013-03-01

    The MiniPET project aims to design and build a small PET system. It consists of two 4 × 4 matrices of 16 LYSO scintillator crystals and two PMTs with 16 channels resulting in a low cost system with the essential functionality of a clinical PET instrument. It is designed to illustrate the physics of the PET technique and to provide a didactic platform for the training of students and nuclear imaging professionals as well as for scientific outreach. The PET modules can be configured to test for the coincidence of 511 keV gamma rays. The model has a flexible mechanical setup [1] and can simulate 14 diferent ring geometries, from a configuration with as few as 18 detectors per ring (ring radius phi=51 mm), up to a geometry with 70 detectors per ring (phi=200 mm). A second version of the electronic system [2] allowed measurement and recording of the energy deposited in 4 detector channels by photons from a 137Cs radioactive source and by photons resulting of the annihilation of positrons from a 22Na radioactive source. These energy spectra are used for detector performance studies, as well as angular dependency studies. In this paper, the mechanical setup, the front-end high-speed analog electronics, the digital acquisition and control electronics implemented in a FPGA, as well as the data-transfer interface between the FPGA board and a host PC are described. Recent preliminary results obtained with the 4 active channels in the prototype are also presented.

  16. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  17. Principles of PET/MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Disselhorst, Jonathan A; Bezrukov, Ilja; Kolb, Armin; Parl, Christoph; Pichler, Bernd J

    2014-05-12

    Hybrid PET/MR systems have rapidly progressed from the prototype stage to systems that are increasingly being used in the clinics. This review provides an overview of developments in hybrid PET/MR systems and summarizes the current state of the art in PET/MR instrumentation, correction techniques, and data analysis. The strong magnetic field requires considerable changes in the manner by which PET images are acquired and has led, among others, to the development of new PET detectors, such as silicon photomultipliers. During more than a decade of active PET/MR development, several system designs have been described. The technical background of combined PET/MR systems is explained and related challenges are discussed. The necessity for PET attenuation correction required new methods based on MR data. Therefore, an overview of recent developments in this field is provided. Furthermore, MR-based motion correction techniques for PET are discussed, as integrated PET/MR systems provide a platform for measuring motion with high temporal resolution without additional instrumentation. The MR component in PET/MR systems can provide functional information about disease processes or brain function alongside anatomic images. Against this background, we point out new opportunities for data analysis in this new field of multimodal molecular imaging. PMID:24819419

  18. High performance polyester concrete using recycled PET

    SciTech Connect

    Rebeiz, K.S.

    1995-10-01

    Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes could be used in production of unsaturated polyester resins. In turn, these resins could be mixed with inorganic aggregates to produce polymer concrete (PC). Unsaturated polyesters based on recycled PET might be a potentially lower source cost of resins for producing useful PC based-products. The advantage of recycling PET in PC is that the PET materials do not have to be purified, including removal of colors, to the same extent as other PET recycling applications, which should facilitate the recycling operation and minimize its cost. The recycling of PET in PC could also help save energy and allow the long term disposal of the PET waste, an important advantage in recycling applications.

  19. Quantitative simultaneous PET-MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Reese, Timothy G.; Kolnick, Aleksandra L.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-06-01

    Whole-body PET is currently limited by the degradation due to patient motion. Respiratory motion degrades imaging studies of the abdomen. Similarly, both respiratory and cardiac motions significantly hamper the assessment of myocardial ischemia and/or metabolism in perfusion and viability cardiac PET studies. Based on simultaneous PET-MR, we have developed robust and accurate MRI methods allowing the tracking and measurement of both respiratory and cardiac motions during abdominal or cardiac studies. Our list-mode iterative PET reconstruction framework incorporates the measured motion fields into PET emission system matrix as well as the time-dependent PET attenuation map and the position dependent point spread function. Our method significantly enhances the PET image quality as compared to conventional methods.

  20. Diseases Transmitted by Less Common House Pets.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2015-12-01

    Beside dogs and cats, the most common pets worldwide, an increasing number of pocket pets and exotic pets are making their way to more and more households, especially in North America and Europe. Although many of these animals make appropriate pets, they also can be a source of many zoonotic diseases, especially in young children and immunocompromised individuals. Some of these diseases can be life threatening, such as rabies, rat bite fever, and plague. Some others are quite common, because of the frequency of the pathogens harbored by these species, such as salmonellosis in reptiles and amphibians. Appropriate knowledge of the zoonotic agents carried by these "new" pet species is strongly recommended prior to acquiring pocket or exotic pets. Furthermore, adopting wildlife as pets is strongly discouraged, because it is always a risky action that can lead to major health issues. PMID:27337276

  1. Pet insurance--essential option?

    PubMed

    Stowe, J D

    2000-08-01

    As Hawn (2) says, "insurance is about risk and peace of mind." She reports that the American Humane Society supports pet insurance because companion animals are able to be treated for disease or accidents that are life-threatening where, otherwise, they would have been euthanized. For veterinarians, she suggests that pet insurance allows them to practice veterinary medicine "as if it were free." It is inevitable that pet insurance will grow as a recourse for veterinary fees. This may be a savior to some families whose budget is stretched to the limit at a critical moment in the health care of their cherished pet. We in the veterinary profession have an advantage over other professions. We have seen the good, the bad, and the ugly of insurance, as it applies to human health and dental care. If we work hand-in-hand with our own industries, collectively we may be able to develop a system that wins for everyone, with fees that allow practice to thrive and growth strategies that accommodate new treatment and diagnostic modalities, as well as consistent and exemplary customer service. The path ahead is always fraught with bumps and potholes. We can be a passive passenger and become a victim of the times or an active driver to steer the profession to a clearer route. Pet insurance is but one of the solutions for the profession; the others are a careful assessment of our fees--charging what we are worth, not what we think the client will pay; business management; customer service; leadership of our health care team; lifelong learning; and more efficient delivery systems. Let us stop being a victim, stop shooting ourselves in the professional foot, and seize the day! PMID:10945132

  2. Pet insurance--essential option?

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, J D

    2000-01-01

    As Hawn (2) says, "insurance is about risk and peace of mind." She reports that the American Humane Society supports pet insurance because companion animals are able to be treated for disease or accidents that are life-threatening where, otherwise, they would have been euthanized. For veterinarians, she suggests that pet insurance allows them to practice veterinary medicine "as if it were free." It is inevitable that pet insurance will grow as a recourse for veterinary fees. This may be a savior to some families whose budget is stretched to the limit at a critical moment in the health care of their cherished pet. We in the veterinary profession have an advantage over other professions. We have seen the good, the bad, and the ugly of insurance, as it applies to human health and dental care. If we work hand-in-hand with our own industries, collectively we may be able to develop a system that wins for everyone, with fees that allow practice to thrive and growth strategies that accommodate new treatment and diagnostic modalities, as well as consistent and exemplary customer service. The path ahead is always fraught with bumps and potholes. We can be a passive passenger and become a victim of the times or an active driver to steer the profession to a clearer route. Pet insurance is but one of the solutions for the profession; the others are a careful assessment of our fees--charging what we are worth, not what we think the client will pay; business management; customer service; leadership of our health care team; lifelong learning; and more efficient delivery systems. Let us stop being a victim, stop shooting ourselves in the professional foot, and seize the day! Images p639-a PMID:10945132

  3. Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate Strain and True Stress-True Strain Curves for High Yield Steels

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true strain curves for elastic-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true strain curves derived herein are valid for use in elastic-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate strain values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the elastic-plastic strain acceptance criteria for transient analysis.

  4. Towards coronary plaque imaging using simultaneous PET-MR: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, Y.; El Fakhri, G.; Nezafat, R.; Johnson, N.; Brady, T.; Ouyang, J.

    2014-03-01

    Coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main cause of myocardial infarction and the leading killer in the US. Inflammation is a known bio-marker of plaque vulnerability and can be assessed non-invasively using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging (FDG-PET). However, cardiac and respiratory motion of the heart makes PET detection of coronary plaque very challenging. Fat surrounding coronary arteries allows the use of MRI to track plaque motion during simultaneous PET-MR examination. In this study, we proposed and assessed the performance of a fat-MR based coronary motion correction technique for improved FDG-PET coronary plaque imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. The proposed methods were evaluated in a realistic four-dimensional PET-MR simulation study obtained by combining patient water-fat separated MRI and XCAT anthropomorphic phantom. Five small lesions were digitally inserted inside the patients coronary vessels to mimic coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The heart of the XCAT phantom was digitally replaced with the patient's heart. Motion-dependent activity distributions, attenuation maps, and fat-MR volumes of the heart, were generated using the XCAT cardiac and respiratory motion fields. A full Monte Carlo simulation using Siemens mMR's geometry was performed for each motion phase. Cardiac/respiratory motion fields were estimated using non-rigid registration of the transformed fat-MR volumes and incorporated directly into the system matrix of PET reconstruction along with motion-dependent attenuation maps. The proposed motion correction method was compared to conventional PET reconstruction techniques such as no motion correction, cardiac gating, and dual cardiac-respiratory gating. Compared to uncorrected reconstructions, fat-MR based motion compensation yielded an average improvement of plaque-to-background contrast of 29.6%, 43.7%, 57.2%, and 70.6% for true plaque-to-blood ratios of 10, 15, 20 and 25:1, respectively. Channelized

  5. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  6. Teaching Human Capital by Calculating the True Costs of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an approach to calculating the costs of college education to maximize students' human capital. When considering college expenses, students often overlook the opportunity costs of income foregone while pursuing degrees. A true-cost calculation worksheet and a strategy for making true costs salient to students (projecting the number of…

  7. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    PubMed

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by <2%. Therefore, our study confirmed the common assumption that the economic impact of true bug damage on mature pods is negligible on cocoa farms in Cameroon. However, true bugs have a significant impact on young fruit mortality.

  8. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  9. Discovering a "True" Map of the World--Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    "True" maps of the world, as seen from the perspective of the time in which they were produced, remain an ethnocentric visual language in modern times. Students can gain insight into such "true" maps by studying maps produced in the great traditions of the West and East. Teachers can determine a map's appropriateness by identifying its title,…

  10. Natural products from true mangrove flora: source, chemistry and bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Xiao, Qiang; Xu, Jing; Li, Min-Yi; Pan, Jian-Yu; Yang, Mei-hua

    2008-10-01

    The mangrove flora is a diverse group of salt-tolerant plants growing in tropical and subtropical intertidal estuarine zones. This review summarizes the source, chemistry and bioactivities of natural products from true mangrove species worldwide. It includes 349 metabolites and 150 references. The molecular phylogeny and chemotaxonomy of true mangrove plants is discussed.

  11. Characterization and correction for scatter in 3D PET using rebinned plane integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.; Ordonez, C.E.; Chen, C.T. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1994-12-01

    The scatter characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) positron emission tomography (PET) in terms of the plane-integral scatter response function (SRF) are studied. To obtain the plane-integral SRF and study its properties, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out which generated coincidence events from point sources located at different positions in water-filled spheres of various sizes. In each simulation, the plane-integral SRF is obtained by rebinning the detected true and scatter events into two separate sets of plane integrals and then dividing the plane integrals of scatter events by the plane integral of true events of the plane in which the point source is located. A spherical PET scanner was assumed for these simulations. Examination of the SRF shows that the SRF in 3D PET can be modeled not by an exponential function as in the case of 2D PET, but by a Gaussian with its peak shifted away from the primary peak. Using this plane-integral SRF, a scatter correction method was developed for 3D PET that first converts an attenuation-corrected 3D PET data set into plane integrals, then obtains the scatter components in the rebinned plane integrals by integral transformation of the rebinned plane integrals with the SRF, and finally subtracts the scatter components from the rebinned plane integrals to yield the scatter-corrected plane integrals. From the scatter-corrected plane integrals, a 3D image was reconstructed by using a 3D filtered-backprojection algorithm. To test the method, a cylindrical PET scanner imaging an ellipsoid phantom with a 3-cm cold bar at the center was simulated, and 3D images of the phantom with and without scatter correction were reconstructed. Comparison of the two images shows that this method compensates reasonably well for scatter events. The advantages of the proposed method are that it treats the scatter in 3D PET in a truly 3D manner and that it is computationally efficient.

  12. Incremental Value of a Dedicated Head and Neck Acquisition during 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ciappuccini, Renaud; Aide, Nicolas; Blanchard, David; Rame, Jean-Pierre; de Raucourt, Dominique; Michels, Jean-Jacques; Babin, Emmanuel; Bardet, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 18F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful tool used to evidence persistent/recurrent disease (PRD) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and iodine-refractory lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value at the cervical level of the routine whole-body (WB) acquisition and that of a complementary head and neck (HN) acquisition, performed successively during the same PET/CT study. Methods PET/CT studies combining WB and HN acquisitions performed in 85 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed by two nuclear medicine physicians. 18F-FDG uptake in cervical lymph nodes (LN) or in the thyroid bed was assessed. Among the 85 patients, the PET/CT results of the 26 who subsequently underwent neck surgery were compared with surgical and pathological reports. The size of each largest nodal metastasis was assessed by a pathologist. Results In the 85 patients, inter-observer agreement was excellent for both WB and HN PET/CT interpretation. Of the 26 patients who underwent surgery, 25 had pathology proven PRD in the neck. Of these 25 patients, 15 displayed FDG uptake on either WB or HN PET. In these 15 patients, HN PET detected more malignant lesions than WB PET did (21/27 = 78% vs. 12/27 = 44%, P = 0.006). Node/background ratios were significantly higher on HN than on WB PET (P<0.0001). Three false-negative studies (20%) on WB PET were upstaged as true-positive on HN PET. The mean size of the largest LN metastasis was 3 mm for the LN detected neither on WB nor on HN PET, 7 mm for the metastasis detected on HN but not on WB PET, and 13 mm for those detected on both acquisitions (P = 0.0004). Receiver-Operating Characteristic analysis showed that area under the curve was higher for HN PET than for WB PET (0.97 [95%CI, 0.90–0.99] vs 0.88 [95%CI, 0.78–0.95], P = 0.009). Conclusions HN acquisition improves the ability to detect PRD in the neck compared with WB acquisition alone. We recommend systematically adding an HN acquisition when PET

  13. PET and PET/CT imaging of skeletal metastases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Bone scintigraphy augmented with radiographs or cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has remained the commonest method to diagnose and follow up skeletal metastases. However, bone scintigraphy is associated with relatively poor spatial resolution, limited diagnostic specificity and reduced sensitivity for bone marrow disease. It also shows limited diagnostic accuracy in assessing response to therapy in a clinically useful time period. With the advent of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanners there has been an increasing interest in using various PET tracers to evaluate skeletal disease including [18F]fluoride (NaF) as a bone-specific tracer and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [18F]choline as tumour-specific tracers. There is also early work exploring the receptor status of skeletal metastases with somatostatin receptor analogues. This review describes the potential utility of these tracers in the assessment of skeletal metastases. PMID:20663736

  14. Comparison of dosimetry between PET/CT and PET alone using (11)C-ITMM.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kimiteru; Sakata, Muneyuki; Oda, Keiichi; Wagatsuma, Kei; Toyohara, Jun; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ishii, Kenji; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2016-03-01

    We used a new tracer, N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino) pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-(11)C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ((11)C-ITMM), to compare radiation doses from positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with previously published doses from PET alone. Twelve healthy volunteers [six males (mean age ± SD, 27.7 ± 6.7 years) and six females (31.8 ± 14.5 years)] in 12 examinations were recruited. Dose estimations from PET/CT were compared with those from PET alone. Regions of interest (ROIs) in PET/CT were delineated on the basis of low-dose CT (LD-CT) images acquired during PET/CT. Internal and external radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 and CT-Expo software. The effective dose (ED) for (11)C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT was estimated to be 4.7 ± 0.5 μSv/MBq for the male subjects and 4.1 ± 0.7 μSv/MBq for the female subjects. The mean ED for (11)C-ITMM calculated from PET alone in a previous report was estimated to be 4.6 ± 0.3 μSv/MBq (males, n = 3). The ED values for (11)C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT in the male subjects were almost identical to those from PET alone. The absorbed doses (ADs) of the gallbladder, stomach, red bone marrow, and spleen calculated from PET/CT were significantly different from those calculated from PET alone. The EDs of (11)C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT were almost identical to those calculated from PET alone. The ADs in several organs calculated from PET/CT differed from those from PET alone. LD-CT images acquired during PET/CT may facilitate organ identification.

  15. Characterization of true stress-true strain curves obtained by hot deformation of different types of steels

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.E.S.; Ruzzante, J.E. . Grupo Deformacion en Caliente CNEA, Buenos Aires . Dept. Materials)

    1993-10-01

    The results of hot torsion tests in order to characterize the true stress-true strain curves at a high temperature for six different types of steel (carbon, free-cutting and alloyed), were presented in a previous work, and from those results, an expression was proposed to calculate the peak strain [bar [epsilon

  16. FDG-PET/CT can rule out malignancy in patients with vocal cord palsy.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Anders; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik; Johansen, Allan; Asmussen, Jon Thor; Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Johansen, Jørgen; Godballe, Christian; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the performance of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT to rule out malignancy in patients with confirmed vocal cord palsy (VCP). Between January 2011 and June 2013, we retrospectively included consecutive patients referred to PET/CT with paresis or paralysis of one or both vocal cords. PET/CT results were compared to clinical workup and histopathology. The study comprised 65 patients (32 females) with a mean age of 66±12 years (range 37-89). Eleven patients (17%) had antecedent cancer. Twenty-seven (42%) were diagnosed with cancer during follow-up. The palsy was right-sided in 24 patients, left-sided in 37, and bilateral in 4. Median follow-up was 7 months (interquartile range 4-11 months). Patients without cancer were followed for at least three months. PET/CT suggested a malignancy in 35 patients (27 true positives, 8 false positives) and showed none in 30 (30 true negatives, 0 false negatives). Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were (95% confidence intervals in parenthesis): 100% (88%-100%), 79% (64%-89%), 77% (61%-88%), 100% (89%-100%), and 88% (78%-94%), respectively. Sixteen patients had palliative treatment, while 11 were treated with curative intent, emphasising the severity of VCP and the need for a rapid and accurate diagnostic work-up. In this retrospective survey, biopsy proven malignancy (whether newly diagnosed or relapsed) was the cause of VCP in almost half of patients (42%). PET/CT had a high sensitivity (100%) with a relatively high false positive rate, but was excellent in ruling out malignancy (negative predictive value 100%). PMID:24753985

  17. FDG-PET/CT can rule out malignancy in patients with vocal cord palsy

    PubMed Central

    Thomassen, Anders; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik; Johansen, Allan; Asmussen, Jon Thor; Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Johansen, Jørgen; Godballe, Christian; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the performance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT to rule out malignancy in patients with confirmed vocal cord palsy (VCP). Between January 2011 and June 2013, we retrospectively included consecutive patients referred to PET/CT with paresis or paralysis of one or both vocal cords. PET/CT results were compared to clinical workup and histopathology. The study comprised 65 patients (32 females) with a mean age of 66±12 years (range 37-89). Eleven patients (17%) had antecedent cancer. Twenty-seven (42%) were diagnosed with cancer during follow-up. The palsy was right-sided in 24 patients, left-sided in 37, and bilateral in 4. Median follow-up was 7 months (interquartile range 4-11 months). Patients without cancer were followed for at least three months. PET/CT suggested a malignancy in 35 patients (27 true positives, 8 false positives) and showed none in 30 (30 true negatives, 0 false negatives). Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were (95% confidence intervals in parenthesis): 100% (88%-100%), 79% (64%-89%), 77% (61%-88%), 100% (89%-100%), and 88% (78%-94%), respectively. Sixteen patients had palliative treatment, while 11 were treated with curative intent, emphasising the severity of VCP and the need for a rapid and accurate diagnostic work-up. In this retrospective survey, biopsy proven malignancy (whether newly diagnosed or relapsed) was the cause of VCP in almost half of patients (42%). PET/CT had a high sensitivity (100%) with a relatively high false positive rate, but was excellent in ruling out malignancy (negative predictive value 100%). PMID:24753985

  18. 18F-FDG PET/CT for identifying the potential causes and extent of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Leilei; Kan, Ying; Meeks, Jacqui K.; Ma, Daqing; Yang, Jigang

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the value of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for identifying the possible causes of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). METHODS Forty-five cases (17 female, 28 male; age, 17–79 years) with secondary HLH were included. The standard of reference for diagnosis in all patients was a combination of histology, clinical results (medical history, physical examination, and laboratory test results), and follow-up imaging for at least 12 months. All cases underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT to identify the possible trigger in HLH. RESULTS Of 45 secondary HLH cases 10 (22.2%) were associated with infection, seven (15.6%) with rheumatic disease, and 28 (62.2%) with lymphoma. PET/CT images of 22 secondary HLH cases (48.9%) showed true positive results. PET/CT images demonstrated obvious tracer uptake in five of 10 secondary HLH cases with infection, one of three cases with lupus, two of two cases with rheumatoid arthritis, one of two cases with adult-onset Still disease, and 13 of 28 cases with lymphoma. CONCLUSION PET/CT is helpful for identifying the possible trigger (infection or malignant disease) and extent of secondary HLH. However, PET/CT alone is not sufficient to make a correct differential diagnosis. PMID:27537853

  19. Joint PET-MR respiratory motion models for clinical PET motion correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manber, Richard; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Wan, Simon; McClelland, Jamie; Barnes, Anna; Arridge, Simon; Ourselin, Sébastien; Atkinson, David

    2016-09-01

    Patient motion due to respiration can lead to artefacts and blurring in positron emission tomography (PET) images, in addition to quantification errors. The integration of PET with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in PET-MR scanners provides complementary clinical information, and allows the use of high spatial resolution and high contrast MR images to monitor and correct motion-corrupted PET data. In this paper we build on previous work to form a methodology for respiratory motion correction of PET data, and show it can improve PET image quality whilst having minimal impact on clinical PET-MR protocols. We introduce a joint PET-MR motion model, using only 1 min per PET bed position of simultaneously acquired PET and MR data to provide a respiratory motion correspondence model that captures inter-cycle and intra-cycle breathing variations. In the model setup, 2D multi-slice MR provides the dynamic imaging component, and PET data, via low spatial resolution framing and principal component analysis, provides the model surrogate. We evaluate different motion models (1D and 2D linear, and 1D and 2D polynomial) by computing model-fit and model-prediction errors on dynamic MR images on a data set of 45 patients. Finally we apply the motion model methodology to 5 clinical PET-MR oncology patient datasets. Qualitative PET reconstruction improvements and artefact reduction are assessed with visual analysis, and quantitative improvements are calculated using standardised uptake value (SUVpeak and SUVmax) changes in avid lesions. We demonstrate the capability of a joint PET-MR motion model to predict respiratory motion by showing significantly improved image quality of PET data acquired before the motion model data. The method can be used to incorporate motion into the reconstruction of any length of PET acquisition, with only 1 min of extra scan time, and with no external hardware required.

  20. PET genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tzagoloff, A; Dieckmann, C L

    1990-01-01

    We describe a collection of nuclear respiratory-defective mutants (pet mutants) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consisting of 215 complementation groups. This set of mutants probably represents a substantial fraction of the total genetic information of the nucleus required for the maintenance of functional mitochondria in S. cerevisiae. The biochemical lesions of mutants in approximately 50 complementation groups have been related to single enzymes or biosynthetic pathways, and the corresponding wild-type genes have been cloned and their structures have been determined. The genes defined by an additional 20 complementation groups were identified by allelism tests with mutants characterized in other laboratories. Mutants representative of the remaining complementation groups have been assigned to one of the following five phenotypic classes: (i) deficiency in cytochrome oxidase, (ii) deficiency in coenzyme QH2-cytochrome c reductase, (iii) deficiency in mitochondrial ATPase, (iv) absence of mitochondrial protein synthesis, and (v) normal composition of respiratory-chain complexes and of oligomycin-sensitive ATPase. In addition to the genes identified through biochemical and genetic analyses of the pet mutants, we have cataloged PET genes not matched to complementation groups in the mutant collection and other genes whose products function in the mitochondria but are not necessary for respiration. Together, this information provides an up-to-date list of the known genes coding for mitochondrial constituents and for proteins whose expression is vital for the respiratory competence of S. cerevisiae. PMID:2215420

  1. FDG-PET imaging in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Valls, L; Badve, C; Avril, S; Herrmann, K; Faulhaber, P; O'Donnell, J; Avril, N

    2016-07-01

    The majority of aggressive lymphomas is characterized by an up regulated glycolytic activity, which enables the visualization by F-18 FDG-PET/CT. One-stop hybrid FDG-PET/CT combines the functional and morphologic information, outperforming both, CT and FDG-PET as separate imaging modalities. This has resulted in several recommendations using FDG-PET/CT for staging, restaging, monitoring during therapy, and assessment of treatment response as well as identification of malignant transformation. FDG-PET/CT may obviate the need for a bone marrow biopsy in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. FDG-PET/CT response assessment is recommended for FDG-avid lymphomas, whereas CT-based response evaluation remains important in lymphomas with low or variable FDG avidity. The treatment induced change in metabolic activity allows for assessment of response after completion of therapy as well as prediction of outcome early during therapy. The five-point scale Deauville Criteria allows the assessment of treatment response based on visual FDG-PET analysis. Although the use of FDG-PET/CT for prediction of therapeutic response is promising it should only be conducted in the context of clinical trials. Surveillance FDG-PET/CT after complete remission is discouraged due to the relative high number of false-positive findings, which in turn may result in further unnecessary investigations. Future directions include the use of new PET tracers such as F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT), a surrogate biomarker of cellular proliferation and Ga-68 CXCR4, a chemokine receptor imaging biomarker as well as innovative digital PET/CT and PET/MRI techniques. PMID:27090170

  2. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  3. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons. PMID:26487162

  4. PET/MR Imaging in Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rischpler, Christoph; Nekolla, Stephan G

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid PET/MR imaging is a complex imaging modality that has raised high expectations not only for oncological and neurologic imaging applications, but also for cardiac imaging applications. Initially, physicians and physicists had to become accustomed to technical challenges including attenuation correction, gating, and more complex workflow and more elaborate image analysis as compared with PET/CT or standalone MR imaging. PET/MR imaging seems to be particularly valuable to assess inflammatory myocardial diseases (such as sarcoidosis), to cross-validate PET versus MR imaging data (eg, myocardial perfusion imaging), and to help validate novel biomarkers of various disease states (eg, postinfarction inflammation). PMID:27593250

  5. Advances in time-of-flight PET.

    PubMed

    Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review and an update on time-of-flight PET imaging with a focus on PET instrumentation, ranging from hardware design to software algorithms. We first present a short introduction to PET, followed by a description of TOF PET imaging and its history from the early days. Next, we introduce the current state-of-art in TOF PET technology and briefly summarize the benefits of TOF PET imaging. This is followed by a discussion of the various technological advancements in hardware (scintillators, photo-sensors, electronics) and software (image reconstruction) that have led to the current widespread use of TOF PET technology, and future developments that have the potential for further improvements in the TOF imaging performance. We conclude with a discussion of some new research areas that have opened up in PET imaging as a result of having good system timing resolution, ranging from new algorithms for attenuation correction, through efficient system calibration techniques, to potential for new PET system designs.

  6. PET/MR Imaging in Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rischpler, Christoph; Nekolla, Stephan G

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid PET/MR imaging is a complex imaging modality that has raised high expectations not only for oncological and neurologic imaging applications, but also for cardiac imaging applications. Initially, physicians and physicists had to become accustomed to technical challenges including attenuation correction, gating, and more complex workflow and more elaborate image analysis as compared with PET/CT or standalone MR imaging. PET/MR imaging seems to be particularly valuable to assess inflammatory myocardial diseases (such as sarcoidosis), to cross-validate PET versus MR imaging data (eg, myocardial perfusion imaging), and to help validate novel biomarkers of various disease states (eg, postinfarction inflammation).

  7. Advances in time-of-flight PET.

    PubMed

    Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review and an update on time-of-flight PET imaging with a focus on PET instrumentation, ranging from hardware design to software algorithms. We first present a short introduction to PET, followed by a description of TOF PET imaging and its history from the early days. Next, we introduce the current state-of-art in TOF PET technology and briefly summarize the benefits of TOF PET imaging. This is followed by a discussion of the various technological advancements in hardware (scintillators, photo-sensors, electronics) and software (image reconstruction) that have led to the current widespread use of TOF PET technology, and future developments that have the potential for further improvements in the TOF imaging performance. We conclude with a discussion of some new research areas that have opened up in PET imaging as a result of having good system timing resolution, ranging from new algorithms for attenuation correction, through efficient system calibration techniques, to potential for new PET system designs. PMID:26778577

  8. PET-Computed Tomography in Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Randall, Elissa K

    2016-05-01

    PET/CT is an advanced imaging modality that is becoming more commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is most commonly used to image patients with cancer, and the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical is F-18 FDG. F-18 FDG is a glucose analog that highlights areas of increased glucose metabolism on the PET images. CT images provide excellent anatomic depiction and aid in interpretation of the PET data. Many types of cancer are hypermetabolic on PET/CT scans, but normal structures and areas of inflammation are also hypermetabolic, so knowledge of normal imaging and cytologic or histopathologic evaluation of lesions is essential.

  9. Nonperturbative True Muonium on the Light Front with TMSWIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamm, Henry; Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-08-01

    The true muonium {(μbar{μ})} bound state presents an interesting test of light-cone quantization techniques. In addition to exhibiting the standard problems of handling non-perturbative calculations, true muonium requires correct treatment of {ebar{e}} Fock-state contributions. Having previously produced a crude model of true muonium using the method of iterated resolvents, our current work has focused on the inclusion of the box diagrams to improve the cutoff-dependent issues of the model. Further, a parallel computer code, TMSWIFT, allowing for smaller numerical uncertainties, has been developed. This work focuses on the current state of these efforts to develop a model of true muonium that is testable at near-term experiments.

  10. True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcoma) of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Stephen, J; Batsakis, J G; Luna, M A; von der Heyden, U; Byers, R M

    1986-06-01

    True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas) of salivary glands are of a high grade of malignancy and are distinguishable from the more frequently occurring carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma. Having a putative origin from a benign pleomorphic adenoma, the true malignant mixed tumor is an aggressive, often rapidly lethal neoplasm in which the sarcomatous element is most often a chondrosarcoma and the epithelial element is most often a ductal carcinoma. The twelve cases in this report represent the largest recorded series to date.

  11. Dobutamine-tagged MRI for inotropic reserve assessment in severe CAD: relationship with PET findings.

    PubMed

    Mazzadi, Alejandro N; Janier, Marc F; Brossier, Benjamin; André-Fouët, Xavier; McFadden, Eugene; Revel, Didier; Croisille, Pierre

    2004-05-01

    The impact of blood flow reductions on the intramyocardial inotropic reserve has not yet been established in coronary artery disease (CAD). We therefore evaluated in severe CAD the relationship between positron emission tomography (PET) patterns of perfusion and glucose uptake and the corresponding tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tagged MRI) values of midmyocardial strains under low-dose dobutamine. Eighteen patients underwent tagged MRI (at rest, with dobutamine) and H2(15)O/18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Regional midmyocardial circumferential shortening (Ecc) and PET patterns (normal, match viable, mismatch viable, and infarcted) were assessed in three tagged MRI/PET short-axis slices. Regional Ecc at rest correlated with both perfusion (r = 0.49) and glucose uptake (r = 0.58). The presence of the inotropic reserve was similar in normal, match viable, and infarcted (approximately 40% of regions vs. 52% in mismatch viable, P < 0.05), but the extent of the increase after dobutamine was lower in infarcted regions (P = 0.06). Within each PET pattern, regions were grouped according to their Ecc values at rest into three categories (high, intermediate, and low contractile performance). In mismatch viable (hibernation), the inotropic reserve was similar among the three categories, but in the other PET patterns the presence and extent of the inotropic reserve was higher in those regions with lowest Ecc (without significant differences in perfusion). In severe CAD, the presence of the inotropic reserve assessed by midmyocardial changes under dobutamine does not relate to resting perfusion. At a similar level of perfusion, the presence of the inotropic reserve is inversely related to contractile performance at rest, but our results suggest that it may not be true for hibernating myocardium. PMID:14726299

  12. The effect of respiratory induced density variations on non-TOF PET quantitation in the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Beverley F.; Cuplov, Vesna; Hutton, Brian F.; Groves, Ashley M.; Thielemans, Kris

    2016-04-01

    Accurate PET quantitation requires a matched attenuation map. Obtaining matched CT attenuation maps in the thorax is difficult due to the respiratory cycle which causes both motion and density changes. Unlike with motion, little attention has been given to the effects of density changes in the lung on PET quantitation. This work aims to explore the extent of the errors caused by pulmonary density attenuation map mismatch on dynamic and static parameter estimates. Dynamic XCAT phantoms were utilised using clinically relevant 18F-FDG and 18F-FMISO time activity curves for all organs within the thorax to estimate the expected parameter errors. The simulations were then validated with PET data from 5 patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who underwent PET/Cine-CT. The PET data were reconstructed with three gates obtained from the Cine-CT and the average Cine-CT. The lung TACs clearly displayed differences between true and measured curves with error depending on global activity distribution at the time of measurement. The density errors from using a mismatched attenuation map were found to have a considerable impact on PET quantitative accuracy. Maximum errors due to density mismatch were found to be as high as 25% in the XCAT simulation. Differences in patient derived kinetic parameter estimates and static concentration between the extreme gates were found to be as high as 31% and 14%, respectively. Overall our results show that respiratory associated density errors in the attenuation map affect quantitation throughout the lung, not just regions near boundaries. The extent of this error is dependent on the activity distribution in the thorax and hence on the tracer and time of acquisition. Consequently there may be a significant impact on estimated kinetic parameters throughout the lung.

  13. Development and use of a kinetic FDG-PET dataset simulated from the MNI standard brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schottlander, David; Guimond, Alexandre; Pan, Xiao-Bo; Brady, Michael; Declerck, Jérôme; Collins, Louis; Evans, Alan C.; Reilhac, Anthonin

    2006-03-01

    Simulated data is an important tool for evaluation of reconstruction and image processing algorithms in the frequent absence of ground truth, in-vivo data from living subjects. This is especially true in the case of dynamic PET studies, in which counting statistics of the volume can vary widely over the time-course of the acquisition. Realistic simulated data-sets which model anatomy and physiology, and make explicit the spatial and temporal image acquisition characteristics, facilitate experimentation with a wide range of the conditions anticipated in practice, and which can severely challenge algorithm performance and reliability. As a first example, we have developed a realistic dynamic FDG-PET data-set using the PET-SORTEO Monte Carlo simulation code and the MNI digital brain phantom. The phantom is a three-dimensional data-set that defines the spatial distribution of different tissues. Time activity curves were calculated using an impulse response function specified by generally accepted rate constants, convolved with an input function obtained by blood sampling, and assigned to grey and white matter tissue regions. We created a dynamic PET study using PET-SORTEO configured to simulate an ECAT Exact HR+. The resulting sinograms were reconstructed with all corrections, using variations of FBP and OSEM. Having constructed the dynamic PET data-sets, we used them to evaluate the performance of intensity-based registration as part of a tool for quantifying hyper/hypo perfusion with particular application to analysis of brain dementia scans, and a study of the stability of kinetic parameter estimation.

  14. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones during the 2011 Hurricane Irene were surveyed about whether or not they evacuated and about their experiences during the hurricane. Although pet-ownership was not statistically associated with evacuation failure, many pet owners who chose not to evacuate still claimed that they did not evacuate because of difficulties with evacuating their pet. These findings suggest that more work needs to be done in order to make evacuating with a pet easier. Abstract Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons. PMID:26487162

  15. Comparison of 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/MRI in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Hillengass, Jens; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Mosebach, Jennifer; Pan, Leyun; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    PET/MRI represents a promising hybrid imaging modality with several potential clinical applications. Although PET/MRI seems highly attractive in the diagnostic approach of multiple myeloma (MM), its role has not yet been evaluated. The aims of this prospective study are to evaluate the feasibility of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in detection of MM lesions, and to investigate the reproducibility of bone marrow lesions detection and quantitative data of 18F-FDG uptake between the functional (PET) component of PET/CT and PET/MRI in MM patients. The study includes 30 MM patients. All patients initially underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT (60 min p.i.), followed by PET/MRI (120 min p.i.). PET/CT and PET/MRI data were assessed and compared based on qualitative (lesion detection) and quantitative (SUV) evaluation. The hybrid PET/MRI system provided good image quality in all cases without artefacts. PET/MRI identified 65 of the 69 lesions, which were detectable with PET/CT (94.2%). Quantitative PET evaluations showed the following mean values in MM lesions: SUVaverage=5.5 and SUVmax=7.9 for PET/CT; SUVaverage=3.9 and SUVmax=5.8 for PET/MRI. Both SUVaverage and SUVmax were significantly higher on PET/CT than on PET/MRI. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated a strong correlation between both lesional SUVaverage (r=0.744) and lesional SUVmax (r=0.855) values derived from PET/CT and PET/MRI. Regarding detection of myeloma skeletal lesions, PET/MRI exhibited equivalent performance to PET/CT. In terms of tracer uptake quantitation, a significant correlation between the two techniques was demonstrated, despite the statistically significant differences in lesional SUVs between PET/CT and PET/MRI. PMID:26550538

  16. Preparation and characterization of solution cast films of PET, reorganized PET and their MWNT nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind R.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2013-06-01

    The samples of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), reorganized PET (r-PET) and their nanocomposites with 0.05 wt % and 0.1 wt % multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were prepared by standard solution casting method using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a solvent. Reorganization of PET was obtained by precipitation method using TFA as a solvent and acetone as an antisolvent. Structural and morphological properties of the films were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal properties of the films. Bulk resistivity of the prepared samples was studied using LCR meter. The results show better dispersion of MWNT in r-PET than in PET. Better dispersion is attributed to the morphological changes in r-PET. The films obtained were conductive and transparent even after addition of MWNT signifying their use as a flexible solar substrate.

  17. Measurement of myocardial wall thickening from PET/SPECT images: Comparison of two methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, M.L.; Mok, D.; Dilsizian, V.

    1996-05-01

    We compared two methods for measuring myocardial wall thickening from nuclear medicine perfusion scans. The first method uses the percent change in peak activity, and the second method models a profile measured across the myocardium. Mathematical simulations of the myocardium were used. In addition, images with PET or SPECT resolution were created from real MR images. Known amounts of noise were then added. The percent peak thickening (%PT) is nonlinear with true percent thickening, especially for PET resolutions [7 mm full width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. For the peak method, low levels of noise (10%) introduced an error of 8%PT for PET and of 16%PT for SPECT. Additional smoothing reduced these errors. For the fitted model, at 10% noise, the error in thickening was large: 2.3 mm for PET and 7.8 mm for SPECT. The fitted model works well only with good resolution and low noise (e.g., 7 mm FWHM and 10%). The peak method is also sensitive to noise, especially for poorer resolutions. Additional smoothing gives more reliable results for the peak method but not the fitted method. The peak method is therefore the more generally reliable, but even this method may only allow classification of myocardial thickening into broad categories. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. ⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT detects heart metastases from ileal neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Calissendorff, Jan; Sundin, Anders; Falhammar, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    Metastases from ileal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to the myocardium are rare and generally seen in patients with widespread metastatic NET disease. The objectives of this investigation were to describe the frequency of intracardiac metastases in ileal NET patients examined by (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT and to describe the cases in detail. All (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT examinations performed at the Karolinska University Hospital since 2010 until April 2012 were reviewed. In all, 128 out of 337 examinations were in patients with ileal NETs. Four patients had seven myocardiac metastases, yielding a frequency of 4.3 % in patients with ileal NETs. One patient had cardiac surgery while three were treated with somatostatin analogs. The cardiac metastases did not affect the patients' activity of daily life. (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT is an established imaging modality in identifying cardiac metastases in ileal NETs. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the true clinical value of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT in detecting cardiac metastases in both ileal and non-ileal NETs.

  19. FDG PET and tumour markers in the diagnosis of recurrent and metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Siggelkow, Wulf; Rath, Werner; Buell, Udalrich; Zimny, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Breast cancer continues to be one of the most common cancers in North America and Western Europe. Positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG PET) represents a non-invasive functional imaging modality that is based on metabolic characteristics of malignant tumours. In breast cancer, FDG PET is more accurate than conventional methods for staging of distant metastases or local recurrences and enables early assessment of treatment response in patients undergoing primary chemotherapy. Recent data indicate a rationale for the use of FDG PET in cases of asymptomatically elevated tumour marker levels in the presence of uncertain results of conventional imaging. Despite the fact that PET cannot rule out microscopic disease, it does have particular value in providing, in a single examination, a reliable assessment of the true extent of the disease. This technique is complementary to morphological imaging for primary diagnosis, staging and re-staging. It may become the method of choice for the assessment of asymptomatic patients with elevated tumour marker levels. This method, however, cannot replace invasive procedures if microscopic disease is of clinical relevance. PMID:15146295

  20. 7 CFR 501.10 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pets. 501.10 Section 501.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.10 Pets. Animals shall be...

  1. 7 CFR 501.10 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 501.10 Section 501.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.10 Pets. Animals shall be...

  2. 7 CFR 501.10 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pets. 501.10 Section 501.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.10 Pets. Animals shall be...

  3. 7 CFR 501.10 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pets. 501.10 Section 501.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.10 Pets. Animals shall be...

  4. 7 CFR 501.10 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pets. 501.10 Section 501.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.10 Pets. Animals shall be...

  5. Integrating Pet Therapy into Daily School Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brous, Miriam T.

    2010-01-01

    Stories abound in literature of the ways that people and their pets have fostered and created valuable relationships. More recently, research has shown a strong impact from the pet relationship in health-related settings. Positive changes have been seen in people developing resilience, self-reliance, and in making progress in treatment. Children…

  6. Evaluating College Student Interest in Pet Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamle, Kathleen N.; Riley, Tracy A.; Carlson, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college can be extremely stressful, especially for students residing on campus. Objective: The authors obtained information from college freshmen about their relationships with pets and investigated interest in a pet therapy program as social support for transient stressful periods. Participants: As part of a university…

  7. Recent developments in PET detector technology

    PubMed Central

    Lewellen, Tom K

    2010-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a tool for metabolic imaging that has been utilized since the earliest days of nuclear medicine. A key component of such imaging systems is the detector modules—an area of research and development with a long, rich history. Development of detectors for PET has often seen the migration of technologies, originally developed for high energy physics experiments, into prototype PET detectors. Of the many areas explored, some detector designs go on to be incorporated into prototype scanner systems and a few of these may go on to be seen in commercial scanners. There has been a steady, often very diverse development of prototype detectors, and the pace has accelerated with the increased use of PET in clinical studies (currently driven by PET/CT scanners) and the rapid proliferation of pre-clinical PET scanners for academic and commercial research applications. Most of these efforts are focused on scintillator-based detectors, although various alternatives continue to be considered. For example, wire chambers have been investigated many times over the years and more recently various solid-state devices have appeared in PET detector designs for very high spatial resolution applications. But even with scintillators, there have been a wide variety of designs and solutions investigated as developers search for solutions that offer very high spatial resolution, fast timing, high sensitivity and are yet cost effective. In this review, we will explore some of the recent developments in the quest for better PET detector technology. PMID:18695301

  8. [Innovation and Future Technologies for PET Scanners].

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) plays important roles in cancer diagnosis, neuroimaging and molecular imaging research; but potential points remain for which big improvements could be made, including spatial resolution, sensitivity and manufacturing costs. Higher spatial resolution is essential to enable earlier diagnosis, and improved sensitivity results in reduced radiation exposure and shortened measurement time. Therefore, research on next generation PET technologies remains a hot topic worldwide. In this paper, innovation and future technologies for the next generation PET scanners, such as time-of-flight measurement and simultaneous PET/MRI measurement, are described. Among them, depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement in the radiation sensor will be a key technology to get any significant improvement in sensitivity while maintaining high spatial resolution. DOI measurement also has a potential to expand PET application fields because it allows for more flexible detector arrangement. As an example, the world's first, open-type PET geometry "OpenPET", which is expected to lead to PET imaging during treatment, is under development. The DOI detector itself continues to evolve with the help of recently developed semiconductor photodetectors, often referred to as silicon photomultipliers. PMID:26753392

  9. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets....

  10. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets....

  11. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets, except assistance trained animals, brought upon BARC property must be kept on a leash and have...

  12. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets, except assistance trained animals, brought upon BARC property must be kept on a leash and have...

  13. PET/MRI – Technical Review

    PubMed Central

    Muzic, Raymond F.; DiFilippo, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    PET/MR is a hybrid imaging technology with the potential to combine the molecular and functional information of PET with the soft-tissue contrast of MR. Herein we review the technical features and challenges of putting these different technologies together. We emphasize the conceptual to make the material accessible to a wide audience. We begin by reviewing PET/CT, a more mature multi-modality imaging technology, to provide a basis for comparison to the history of PET/MR development. We discuss the motivation and challenges of PET/MR and different approaches that have been used to meet the challenges. We conclude with a speculation about the future of this exciting imaging method. PMID:25497909

  14. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fan; Joergensen, Jesper T; Hansen, Anders E; Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET contains additional valuable information on the temporal changes in tracer distribution. Kinetic modeling can be used to extract relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of tracer behavior in vivo that reflects relevant physiological processes. In this paper, we review the potential contribution of kinetic analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia. PMID:25250200

  15. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief.

  16. Image reconstruction for hybrid true-color micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Bennett, James; He, Peng; Zainon, Rafidah; Doesburg, Robert; Opie, Alex; Walsh, Mike; Shen, Haiou; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Mou, Xuanqin; Wang, Ge

    2012-06-01

    X-ray micro-CT is an important imaging tool for biomedical researchers. Our group has recently proposed a hybrid "true-color" micro-CT system to improve contrast resolution with lower system cost and radiation dose. The system incorporates an energy-resolved photon-counting true-color detector into a conventional micro-CT configuration, and can be used for material decomposition. In this paper, we demonstrate an interior color-CT image reconstruction algorithm developed for this hybrid true-color micro-CT system. A compressive sensing-based statistical interior tomography method is employed to reconstruct each channel in the local spectral imaging chain, where the reconstructed global gray-scale image from the conventional imaging chain served as the initial guess. Principal component analysis was used to map the spectral reconstructions into the color space. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by numerical simulations, physical phantom experiments, and animal studies. The results confirm the merits of the proposed algorithm, and demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid true-color micro-CT system. Additionally, a "color diffusion" phenomenon was observed whereby high-quality true-color images are produced not only inside the region of interest, but also in neighboring regions. It appears harnessing that this phenomenon could potentially reduce the color detector size for a given ROI, further reducing system cost and radiation dose.

  17. Blocking Mimicry Makes True and False Smiles Look the Same

    PubMed Central

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G.; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions. PMID:24670316

  18. True polar wander and plate-driving forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. M.; Solomon, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of net torques applied to the lithosphere by ridge and trench forces as implied by the absence of recent true polar wander is explored. The 'ridge push' and 'trench pull' forces and the potential net torques on the global lithosphere contributed by each of these forces are discussed. It is shown that the relative magnitudes of the net torques contributed by ridge and trench forces are constrained by the absence of true polar wander during the Cenozoic and by the magnitudes of basal shear stresses on the faster moving plates. It is suggested that the lack of recent true polar wander may be due at least in part to the coincidence of a near cancellation of net torques contributed by ridge and trench forces.

  19. NASA Has Joined America True's Design Mission for 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    1999-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Lewis Research Center will support the America True design team led by America s Cup innovator Phil Kaiko. The joint effort between NASA and America True is encouraged by Mission HOME, the official public awareness campaign of the U.S. space community. NASA Lewis and America True have entered into a Space Act Agreement to focus on the interaction between the airfoil and the large deformation of the pretensioned sails and rigs along with the dynamic motions related to the boat motions. This work will require a coupled fluid and structural simulation. Included in the simulation will be both a steadystate capability, to capture the quasi-state interactions between the air loads and sail geometry and the lift and drag on the boat, and a transient capability, to capture the sail/mast pumping effects resulting from hull motions.

  20. Blocking mimicry makes true and false smiles look the same.

    PubMed

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions.

  1. Software for determining the true displacement of faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Fuentes, R.; Nieto-Samaniego, Á. F.; Xu, S.-S.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important parameters of faults is the true (or net) displacement, which is measured by restoring two originally adjacent points, called “piercing points”, to their original positions. This measurement is not typically applicable because it is rare to observe piercing points in natural outcrops. Much more common is the measurement of the apparent displacement of a marker. Methods to calculate the true displacement of faults using descriptive geometry, trigonometry or vector algebra are common in the literature, and most of them solve a specific situation from a large amount of possible combinations of the fault parameters. True displacements are not routinely calculated because it is a tedious and tiring task, despite their importance and the relatively simple methodology. We believe that the solution is to develop software capable of performing this work. In a previous publication, our research group proposed a method to calculate the true displacement of faults by solving most combinations of fault parameters using simple trigonometric equations. The purpose of this contribution is to present a computer program for calculating the true displacement of faults. The input data are the dip of the fault; the pitch angles of the markers, slickenlines and observation lines; and the marker separation. To prevent the common difficulties involved in switching between operative systems, the software is developed using the Java programing language. The computer program could be used as a tool in education and will also be useful for the calculation of the true fault displacement in geological and engineering works. The application resolves the cases with known direction of net slip, which commonly is assumed parallel to the slickenlines. This assumption is not always valid and must be used with caution, because the slickenlines are formed during a step of the incremental displacement on the fault surface, whereas the net slip is related to the finite slip.

  2. Some food toxic for pets

    PubMed Central

    Kovalkovičová, Natália; Šutiaková, Irena; Pistl, Juraj; Šutiak, Václav

    2009-01-01

    According to world statistics, dogs and cats are the species that owners most frequently seek assistance with potential poisonings, accounting 95–98% of all reported animal cases. Exposures occur more commonly in the summer and in December that is associated with the holiday season. The majority (>90%) of animal poisonings are accidental and acute in nature and occur near or at the animal owner's home. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may also prove dangerous for their health. The aim of this review was to present common food items that should not be fed (intentionally or unintentionally) to dogs, i.e. chocolate, caffeine, and other methylxanthines, grapes, raisins, onion, garlic, avocado, alcohol, nuts, xylitol contained in chewing gum and candies, etc. Onion and avocado are toxic for cats, too. The clinical effects of individual toxicants and possible therapy are also mentioned. Knowing what human food has the potential to be involved in serious toxicoses should allow veterinarians to better educate their clients on means of preventing pet poisonings. It can be concluded that the best advice must surely be to give animal fodder or treats specifically developed for their diets. PMID:21217849

  3. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance.

  4. 24 CFR 5.318 - Discretionary pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discretionary pet rules. 5.318... Disabilities General Requirements § 5.318 Discretionary pet rules. Pet rules promulgated by project owners and... “common household pet”—(1) For Public Housing programs. The pet rules established by a PHA may contain...

  5. Myths and misperceptions about ingredients used in commercial pet foods.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Dottie; Izquierdo, Oscar; Eirmann, Laura; Binder, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Information and misinformation about pet nutrition and pet foods, including ingredients used in pet foods, is widely available through various sources. Often, this "information" raises questions or concerns among pet owners. Many pet owners will turn to their veterinarian for answers to these questions. One of the challenges that veterinarians have is keeping up with the volume of misinformation about pet foods and sorting out fact from fiction. The goal of this article is to provide facts regarding some common myths about ingredients used in commercial pet foods so as to better prepare veterinarians to address their client's questions. PMID:24951341

  6. SU-D-201-01: Attenuation of PET/CT Gantries with 511 KeV Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: PET shielding requires the use of large amounts of lead because of the penetrating nature of 511 keV photons. While the uptake rooms generally require the thickest lead, the scan room often requires substantial shielding. Attenuation by the PET/CT gantry is normally assumed to be zero, but may be significant in directions perpendicular to the scanner axis. Methods: A 5 mL tube was filled with between 14.7 and 20.5 mCi of F-18 and inserted into a phantom (70 cm NEMA PET Scatter Phantom). Exposure rates were recorded at several distances and 15° intervals with a pressurized ionization chamber (Ludlum 9DP) both with the phantom outside the gantry and centered in the CT and PET acquisition positions. These measurements were repeated with three scanners: Siemens Biograph TruePoint 6, GE Optima 560, and Philips Gemini 64. Measurements were decay corrected and normalized to exposure rates outside the gantry to calculate percent transmission. Results: Between 45° to 135° (measured from the patient bed at 0°), average transmission was about 20% for GE, 35% for Philips, and 30% for Siemens. The CT gantry was roughly twice as attenuating as the PET gantry at 90° for all three manufacturers, with about 10% transmission through the CT gantry and 20% through the PET gantry. Conclusion: The Philips system is a split-gantry and therefore has a narrower angle of substantial attenuation. For the GE and Siemens systems, which are single-gantry design, transmission was relatively constant once the angle was sufficient to block line-of-sight from the phantom. While the patient may spend a greater fraction of time at the PET position of the scanner, transmission characteristics of the two components are similar enough to be treated collectively. For shielding angles between 45° and 135°, a reasonably conservative assumption would be to assume gantry transmission of 50%.

  7. Postapplication Fipronil Exposure Following Use on Pets.

    PubMed

    Cochran, R C; Yu, Liu; Krieger, R I; Ross, J H

    2015-01-01

    Fipronil is a pyrazole acaricide and insecticide that may be used for insect, tick, lice, and mite control on pets. Residents' short-term and long-term postapplication exposures to fipronil, including secondary environmental exposures, were estimated using data from chemical-specific studies. Estimations of acute (24-h) absorbed doses for residents were based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 2012 standard operating procedures (SOPs) for postapplication exposure. Chronic exposures were not estimated for residential use, as continuous, long-term application activities were unlikely to occur. Estimated acute postapplication absorbed doses were as high as 0.56 μg/kg-d for toddlers (1-2 yr) in households with treated pets based on current U.S. EPA SOPs. Acute toddler exposures estimated here were fivefold larger in comparison to adults. Secondary exposure from the household environment in which a treated pet lives that is not from contacting the pet, but from contacting the house interior to which pet residues were transferred, was estimated based on monitoring socks worn by pet owners. These secondary exposures were more than an order of magnitude lower than those estimated from contacting the pet and thus may be considered negligible.

  8. Prognostic Value and Clinical Impact of 18FDG-PET in the Management of Children with Burkitt Lymphoma after Induction Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Clément; Eugène, Thomas; Couec, Marie-Laure; Strullu, Marion; Frampas, Eric; Campion, Loïc; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Bodet-Milin, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare and aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma that is curable using intensive chemotherapy. Obtaining a complete response (CR) at the end of induction chemotherapy is a major prognostic factor. This study retrospectively evaluates the potential impact of 18FDG-PET in the management of children with BL after induction chemotherapy, and the prognostic performance of the Deauville criteria. Methods: Nineteen children with BL treated according to the French LMB2001 protocol between 2005 and 2012 were included. 18FDG-PET and conventional imaging (CI) were performed after induction chemotherapy to confirm CR. 18FDG-PET was interpreted according to Deauville criteria with follow-up and/or histology as the gold standard. Results: 18FDG-PET was negative in 15 cases, in agreement with CI in 9/15 cases. The six discordant cases confirmed to be negative by histology, were considered as true negative for 18FDG-PET. Negative predictive value (NPV) of CI and 18FDG-PET were 73 and 93%, respectively. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly higher in patients with negative 18FDG-PET than those with positive 18FDG-PET (p = 0.011). Conclusion: 18FDG-PET interpreted using Deauville criteria can help confirm CR at the end of induction chemotherapy, with a prognostic impact on 5-year PFS. Its high NPV could limit the use of residual mass biopsy. Given the small size of our population, these results need to be confirmed by future prospective studies on a larger population. PMID:25593926

  9. Will true 3d display devices aid geologic interpretation. [Mirage

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.R. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    A description is given of true 3D display devices and techniques that are being evaluated in various research laboratories around the world. These advances are closely tied to the expected application of 3D display devices as interpretational tools for explorationists. 34 refs.

  10. True/False Test: Enhancing Its Power through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Felix B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses how modifying the true-or-false (T/F) test, by requiring written explanations, reveals major weaknesses and hazards of the simple (unexplained) T/F tests popular among teachers. But, more important, the modification transforms the test into a very efficient formative assessment tool. It opens a window that allows a teacher to…

  11. Molecular characterization of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 247 true morels (Morchella spp.) was made from 10 different provinces of Turkey during the 2007-2008 growing season. This collection was analyzed for species diversity using phylogenetic analyses of partial Ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase I (RPB1) and nuclear ribosomal large subuni...

  12. True pubertas praecox in a girl; onset at nineteen months.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, F; Didato, M; Albeggiani, A; Perino, A; Campesi, G

    1976-12-01

    The authors report a case of true pubertas praecox in a girl with onset at 19 months; they describe the principal histopathologic, clinical and laboratory features and discuss problems of etiopathogenesis and differential diagnosis, as well as the prognosis and treatment of this disorder. PMID:1026001

  13. The Full and True Value of Campus Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elefante, Carl

    2011-01-01

    To gain a full and true understanding of the value of campus heritage requires shifting perspective. On many campuses, heritage resources are perceived to have no relevance whatsoever to the challenges of sustainability. This results largely from a profound misconception about what may constitute a sustainable future and what steps may be needed…

  14. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  15. Shrinkage Estimation of Linear Combinations of True Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated that, in the presence of population information, a linear combination of true scores can be estimated more efficiently than by the same linear combination of the observed scores. Three criteria for optimality are discussed, but they yield the same solution, described as a multivariate shrinkage estimator. (Author/SLD)

  16. Educators' Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Saykaly, Christine; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research investigating children's lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals' abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators' abilities to evaluate the veracity of children's reports of bullying. In this study, educators' abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying…

  17. Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

  18. Neural correlates of true and false belief reasoning.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Sodian, Beate; Meinhardt, Jörg; Thoermer, Claudia; Hajak, Göran

    2007-04-15

    Belief reasoning plays a central role in making inferences about other people's mental states. The ability to reason about false beliefs is considered as a critical test for having a Theory of Mind (ToM). There is some controversy as to whether it is the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) or the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) that is centrally involved in belief reasoning. According to developmental studies of belief reasoning we conducted an fMRI experiment with a carefully controlled paradigm (Sally Anne scenario). We compared false belief reasoning with true belief reasoning in parallel tasks, using a series of cartoon stories depicting transfer of an object unbeknownst to the protagonist (false belief) or with the protagonist witnessing (true belief). The false belief versus true belief contrast revealed activation of the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the right lateral rostral prefrontal cortex and the right TPJ associated with false belief. We suggest that the activation of the dACC and the lateral PFC might be associated with action monitoring and stimulus-independent cognitive processing whereas the activation of the TPJ might be related to the computation of mental representations that create perspective differences, such as a person's false belief that contrasts with reality and therefore might be centrally involved in the decoupling mechanism. Additionally we found common patterns of activation for true and false belief reasoning, including inferior parietal and precuneus activation, but we found no activation of the MPFC or the TPJ in general belief reasoning.

  19. Estimating true color imagery for GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossberg, Michael D.; Shahriar, Fazlul; Gladkova, Irina; Alabi, Paul K.; Hillger, Donald W.; Miller, Steven D.

    2011-06-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will help NOAA's objective of engaging and educating the public on environmental issues by providing near real-time imagery of the earth-atmosphere system. True color satellite images are beneficial to the public, as well as to scientists, who use these images as an important "decision aid" and visualization tool. Unfortunately, ABI only has two visible bands (cyan and red) and does not directly produce the three bands (blue, green, and red) used to create true color imagery. We have developed an algorithm that will produce quantitative true color imagery from ABI. Our algorithm estimates the three tristimulus values of the international standard CIE 1931 XYZ colorspace for each pixel of the ABI image, and thus is compatible with a wide range of software packages and hardware devices. Our algorithm is based on a non-linear statistical regression framework that incorporate both classification and local multispectral regression using training data. We have used training data from the hyper-spectral imager Hyperion. Our algorithm to produce true color images from the ABI is not specific to ABI and may be applicable to other satellites which, like the ABI, do not have the ability to directly produce RGB imagery.

  20. Clinical and Imaging Findings of True Hemifacial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bhuta, Bansari A.; Desai, Rajiv S.; Bansal, Shivani P.; Chemburkar, Vipul V.; Dev, Prashant V.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia is a rare developmental disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by a marked unilateral facial asymmetry. It involves the hard (bones and teeth) and soft tissues of the face. We report an interesting case of true hemifacial hyperplasia in a 25-year-old male highlighting the clinical and computed tomography imaging findings. PMID:24349801

  1. Symposium on research advances in clinical PET. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michael McGehee

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Clinical PET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) co-sponsored a symposium entitled 'Research in PET: International and Institutional Perspectives' that highlighted the activities of many leading investigators in the U.S. and throughout the world. Research programs at the DOE were discussed as were potential directions of PET research. International as well as institutional perspectives on PET research were presented. This symposium was successful in reaching those interested in research advances of clinical PET.

  2. The Heritage of Radiotracers for PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fowler, J. S.; Wolf, A. P.

    1988-05-01

    The history of PET research clearly demonstrates that it is advances in chemistry coupled with a detailed examination of the biochemistry of new radiotracers which has allowed the PET method to be applied to new areas of biology and medicine. Radiotracers whose regional distribution reflects glucose metabolism, neutrotransmitter activity and enzyme activity have all required the development of rapid synthetic methods for the radiotracers themselves and the characterization of their biochemical behavior. This article traces some of the advances in the production of labeled precursors and in radiotracer synthesis and evaluation which have shaped the rapidly expanding application of PET to problems in the neurosciences, in cardiology and in oncology.

  3. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  4. The heritage of radiotracers for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-05-01

    The history of PET research clearly demonstrates that it is advances in chemistry coupled with a detailed examination of the biochemistry of new radiotracers which has allowed the PET method to be applied to new areas of biology and medicine. Radiotracers whose regional distribution reflects glucose metabolism, neutrotransmitter activity and enzyme activity have all required the development of rapid synthetic methods for the radiotracers themselves and the characterization of their biochemical behavior. This article traces some of the advances in the production of labeled precursors and in radiotracer synthesis and evaluation which have shaped the rapidly expanding application of PET to problems in the neurosciences, in cardiology and in oncology. 54 refs.

  5. Recovering the triple coincidence of non-pure positron emitters in preclinical PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chen, Szu-Yu; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Non-pure positron emitters, with their long half-lives, allow for the tracing of slow biochemical processes which cannot be adequately examined by the commonly used short-lived positron emitters. Most of these isotopes emit high-energy cascade gamma rays in addition to positron decay that can be detected and create a triple coincidence with annihilation photons. Triple coincidence is discarded in most scanners, however, the majority of the triple coincidence contains true photon pairs that can be recovered. In this study, we propose a strategy for recovering triple coincidence events to raise the sensitivity of PET imaging for non-pure positron emitters. To identify the true line of response (LOR) from a triple coincidence, a framework utilizing geometrical, energy and temporal information is proposed. The geometrical criterion is based on the assumption that the LOR with the largest radial offset among the three sub pairs of triple coincidences is least likely to be a true LOR. Then, a confidence time window is used to test the valid LOR among those within triple coincidence. Finally, a likelihood ratio discriminant rule based on the energy probability density distribution of cascade and annihilation gammas is established to identify the true LOR. An Inveon preclinical PET scanner was modeled with GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo software. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of identification fraction, noise equivalent count rates (NECR), and image quality on various phantoms. With the inclusion of triple coincidence events using the proposed method, the NECR was found to increase from 11% to 26% and 19% to 29% for I-124 and Br-76, respectively, when 7.4-185 MBq of activity was used. Compared to the reconstructed images using double coincidence, this technique increased the SNR by 5.1-7.3% for I-124 and 9.3-10.3% for Br-76 within the activity range of 9.25-74 MBq, without compromising the spatial resolution or

  6. CT-guided automated detection of lung tumors on PET images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yunfeng; Zhao, Binsheng; Akhurst, Timothy J.; Yan, Jiayong; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    2008-03-01

    The calculation of standardized uptake values (SUVs) in tumors on serial [ 18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images is often used for the assessment of therapy response. We present a computerized method that automatically detects lung tumors on 18F-FDG PET/Computed Tomography (CT) images using both anatomic and metabolic information. First, on CT images, relevant organs, including lung, bone, liver and spleen, are automatically identified and segmented based on their locations and intensity distributions. Hot spots (SUV >= 1.5) on 18F-FDG PET images are then labeled using the connected component analysis. The resultant "hot objects" (geometrically connected hot spots in three dimensions) that fall into, reside at the edges or are in the vicinity of the lungs are considered as tumor candidates. To determine true lesions, further analyses are conducted, including reduction of tumor candidates by the masking out of hot objects within CT-determined normal organs, and analysis of candidate tumors' locations, intensity distributions and shapes on both CT and PET. The method was applied to 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans from 9 patients, on which 31 target lesions had been identified by a nuclear medicine radiologist during a Phase II lung cancer clinical trial. Out of 31 target lesions, 30 (97%) were detected by the computer method. However, sensitivity and specificity were not estimated because not all lesions had been marked up in the clinical trial. The method effectively excluded the hot spots caused by mediastinum, liver, spleen, skeletal muscle and bone metastasis.

  7. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Judd, E; Calhoun, D A

    2014-08-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of > or =3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires > or =4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. In studies where pseudo-resistant hypertension cannot be excluded (for example, 24-h ambulatory BP not obtained), the term apparent resistant hypertension has been used to identify 'apparent' lack of control on > or =3 medications. Large, well-designed studies have recently reported the prevalence of resistant hypertension. Pooling prevalence data from these studies and others within North America and Europe with a combined sample size of >600,000 hypertensive participants, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is 14.8% of treated hypertensive patients and 12.5% of all hypertensives. However, the prevalence of true resistant hypertension, defined as uncontrolled both by office and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring with confirmed medication adherence, may be more meaningful in terms of identifying risk and estimating benefit from newer therapies like renal denervation. Rates of cardiovascular events and mortality follow mean 24-h ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension, and true resistant hypertension represents the highest risk. The prevalence of true resistant hypertension has not been directly measured in large trials; however, combined data from smaller studies suggest that true resistant hypertension is present in half of the patients with resistant hypertension who are uncontrolled in the office. Our pooled analysis shows prevalence rates of 10.1% and 7.9% for uncontrolled resistant hypertension among

  8. Is non-attenuation-corrected PET inferior to body attenuation-corrected PET or PET/CT in lung cancer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maintas, Dimitris; Houzard, Claire; Ksyar, Rachid; Mognetti, Thomas; Maintas, Catherine; Scheiber, Christian; Itti, Roland

    2006-12-01

    It is considered that one of the great strengths of PET imaging is the ability to correct for body attenuation. This enables better lesion uptake quantification and quality of PET images. The aim of this work is to compare the sensitivity of non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) PET images, the gamma photons (GPAC) and CT attenuation-corrected (CTAC) images in detecting and staging of lung cancer. We have studied 66 patients undergoing PET/CT examinations for detecting and staging NSC lung cancer. The patients were injected with 18-FDG; 5 MBq/kg under fasting conditions and examination was started 60 min later. Transmission data were acquired by a spiral CT X-ray tube and by gamma photons emitting Cs-137l source and were used for the patient body attenuation correction without correction for respiratory motion. In 55 of 66 patients we performed both attenuation correction procedures and in 11 patients only CT attenuation correction. In seven patients with solitary nodules PET was negative and in 59 patients with lung cancer PET/CT was positive for pulmonary or other localization. In the group of 55 patients we found 165 areas of focal increased 18-FDG uptake in NAC, 165 in CTAC and 164 in GPAC PET images.In the patients with only CTAC we found 58 areas of increased 18-FDG uptake on NAC and 58 areas lesions on CTAC. In the patients with positive PET we found 223 areas of focal increased uptake in NAC and 223 areas in CTAC images. The sensitivity of NAC was equal to the sensitivity of CTAC and GPAC images. The visualization of peripheral lesions was better in NAC images and the lesions were better localized in attenuation-corrected images. In three lesions of the thorax the localization was better in GPAC and fused images than in CTAC images.

  9. Combined PET/MRI scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David; Woody, Craig L.; Rooney, William; Vaska, Paul; Stoll, Sean; Pratte, Jean-Francois; O'Connor, Paul

    2007-10-23

    A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

  10. [Indications for the use of PET or PET/CT in patients with breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Bernsdorf, Mogens; Graff, Jesper

    2011-10-17

    PET and PET/CT, using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, are not suited for primary diagnostics of small tumours or lymph node metastases to the axilla. In return, the method has a high sensitivity and specificity regarding the detection of loco-regional recurrence and metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes, bones, liver and lungs. Whether the method can replace the conventional evaluation or be a supplement if conventional evaluation is non-conclusive, remains unresolved. PET/CT has a clear advantage compared to PET alone and will probably find increasing use in the treatment planning and evaluation of patients with breast cancer.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong-Il; Cho, Kwang Bum; Bae, Sung Uk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and 18F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of focal colonic 18F-FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT image was made based on histopathologic results from the colonoscopic biopsy. The 18F-FDG PET/CT result was considered as true positive for advanced CRN when focal 18F-FDG uptake matched colorectal carcinoma or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in the same location on colonoscopy. Synchronous advanced CRN was detected in 21 of the 256 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 76.2%, 96.2%, and 94.5%. The size of CRN with a true positive result was significantly larger than that with a false negative result. 18F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. Colonoscopy is recommended as the next diagnostic step for further evaluation of a positive 18F-FDG PET/CT result in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27603371

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong-Il; Cho, Kwang Bum; Bae, Sung Uk

    2016-09-01

    Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer.A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of focal colonic F-FDG uptake on F-FDG PET/CT image was made based on histopathologic results from the colonoscopic biopsy. The F-FDG PET/CT result was considered as true positive for advanced CRN when focal F-FDG uptake matched colorectal carcinoma or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in the same location on colonoscopy.Synchronous advanced CRN was detected in 21 of the 256 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of F-FDG PET/CT were 76.2%, 96.2%, and 94.5%. The size of CRN with a true positive result was significantly larger than that with a false negative result.F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. Colonoscopy is recommended as the next diagnostic step for further evaluation of a positive F-FDG PET/CT result in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27603371

  13. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... eczema should probably avoid aquariums. continue Dogs and Cats Dogs and cats are popular pets but can carry infections such ... be in the intestinal tract of infected dogs, cats, hamsters, birds, and certain farm animals. A person ...

  14. Don't Just Pet Your Chia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents ways to use ChiaPets to link biology-related topics such as taxonomy, morphology, ethnobotany, economic botany, hydroponics, salinity, photomorphogenesis, and phototropism with food and fertilizer chemistry, mathematics, art, and history. (MKR)

  15. Pet Turtles Continue to Spread Salmonella

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159393.html Pet Turtles Continue to Spread Salmonella 15 outbreaks in U.S. ... WEDNESDAY, June 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Kissing a turtle may be more than just yucky -- sometimes it ...

  16. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of pet birds.

    PubMed

    Pees, Michael; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Avian cardiac disease in pet birds occurs more often than previously assumed. The article focuses on anatomic peculiarities of the avian cardiovascular system and common diseases. Diagnostic possibilities are demonstrated, and therapeutic measures are discussed.

  17. 36 CFR 13.1310 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) Pets are prohibited— (1) In the Exit Glacier Developed Area except in the parking lot, on the Exit Glacier road, or other areas designated by the superintendent; (2) Along the coast within the...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1310 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Pets are prohibited— (1) In the Exit Glacier Developed Area except in the parking lot, on the Exit Glacier road, or other areas designated by the superintendent; (2) Along the coast within the...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1310 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) Pets are prohibited— (1) In the Exit Glacier Developed Area except in the parking lot, on the Exit Glacier road, or other areas designated by the superintendent; (2) Along the coast within the...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1310 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (a) Pets are prohibited— (1) In the Exit Glacier Developed Area except in the parking lot, on the Exit Glacier road, or other areas designated by the superintendent; (2) Along the coast within the...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1310 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (a) Pets are prohibited— (1) In the Exit Glacier Developed Area except in the parking lot, on the Exit Glacier road, or other areas designated by the superintendent; (2) Along the coast within the...

  2. A comparative study between evaluation methods for quality control procedures for determining the accuracy of PET/CT registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Min Kyoung; Ko, Hyun Soo; Jung, Woo Young; Ryu, Jae Kwang; Choe, Bo-Young

    2015-08-01

    The Accuracy of registration between positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) images is one of the important factors for reliable diagnosis in PET/CT examinations. Although quality control (QC) for checking alignment of PET and CT images should be performed periodically, the procedures have not been fully established. The aim of this study is to determine optimal quality control (QC) procedures that can be performed at the user level to ensure the accuracy of PET/CT registration. Two phantoms were used to carry out this study: the American college of Radiology (ACR)-approved PET phantom and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) body phantom, containing fillable spheres. All PET/CT images were acquired on a Biograph TruePoint 40 PET/CT scanner using routine protocols. To measure registration error, the spatial coordinates of the estimated centers of the target slice (spheres) was calculated independently for the PET and the CT images in two ways. We compared the images from the ACR-approved PET phantom to that from the NEMA IEC body phantom. Also, we measured the total time required from phantom preparation to image analysis. The first analysis method showed a total difference of 0.636 ± 0.11 mm for the largest hot sphere and 0.198 ± 0.09 mm for the largest cold sphere in the case of the ACR-approved PET phantom. In the NEMA IEC body phantom, the total difference was 3.720 ± 0.97 mm for the largest hot sphere and 4.800 ± 0.85 mm for the largest cold sphere. The second analysis method showed that the differences in the x location at the line profile of the lesion on PET and CT were (1.33, 1.33) mm for a bone lesion, (-1.26, -1.33) mm for an air lesion and (-1.67, -1.60) mm for a hot sphere lesion for the ACR-approved PET phantom. For the NEMA IEC body phantom, the differences in the x location at the line profile of the lesion on PET and CT were (-1.33, 4.00) mm for the air

  3. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  4. The dynamics of physics in PET.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charles C

    2014-12-01

    From a technical perspective, there are fundamentally two forces driving the evolution of instrumentation in positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear medicine generally: clinical needs and technical innovation. This essay considers some of the dynamics of these forces as they act on physics-related developments in PET and suggests that progress will be greatest if these differing motivations are kept in balance as the field evolves.

  5. Sea otter health: challenging a pet hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  6. The history of cerebral PET scanning

    PubMed Central

    Portnow, Leah H.; Vaillancourt, David E.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the discoveries underpinning the introduction of cerebral PET scanning and highlight its modern applications. Background: Important discoveries in neurophysiology, brain metabolism, and radiotracer development in the post–World War II period provided the necessary infrastructure for the first cerebral PET scan. Methods: A complete review of the literature was undertaken to search for primary and secondary sources on the history of PET imaging. Searches were performed in PubMed, Google Scholar, and select individual journal Web sites. Written autobiographies were obtained through the Society for Neuroscience Web site at www.sfn.org. A reference book on the history of radiology, Naked to the Bone, was reviewed to corroborate facts and to locate references. The references listed in all the articles and books obtained were reviewed. Results: The neurophysiologic sciences required to build cerebral PET imaging date back to 1878. The last 60 years have produced an evolution of technological advancements in brain metabolism and radiotracer development. These advancements facilitated the development of modern cerebral PET imaging. Several key scientists were involved in critical discoveries and among them were Angelo Mosso, Charles Roy, Charles Sherrington, John Fulton, Seymour Kety, Louis Sokoloff, David E. Kuhl, Gordon L. Brownell, Michael Ter-Pogossian, Michael Phelps, and Edward Hoffman. Conclusions: Neurophysiology, metabolism, and radiotracer development in the postwar era synergized the development of the technology necessary for cerebral PET scanning. Continued use of PET in clinical trials and current developments in PET-CT/MRI hybrids has led to advancement in diagnosis, management, and treatment of neurologic disorders. PMID:23460618

  7. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission. PMID:26155464

  8. Radiopharmaceuticals in PET, Progress and Promise

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wolf, A. P.; Fowler, J. S.

    1988-11-01

    It is the intention of this presentation to focus on the current state of radiopharmaceuticals for PET and where this is leading us. PET radiopharmaceuticals can be broken down into perhaps seven categories at present with each being applicable to a different aspect of human biochemistry. These are: metabolic probes, neurochemical probes, enzyme probes, ion channel blockers, blood flow agents, ethical drugs and other positron emitters.

  9. Radiopharmaceuticals in PET, progress and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1988-11-01

    It is the intention of this presentation to focus on the current state of radiopharmaceuticals for PET and where this is leading us. PET radiopharmaceuticals can be broken down into perhaps seven categories at present with each being applicable to a different aspect of human biochemistry. These are: metabolic probes, neurochemical probes, enzyme probes, ion channel blockers, blood flow agents, ethical drugs and other positron emitters. 7 refs.

  10. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission. PMID:26155464

  11. 40 CFR 211.212-5 - Reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reporting of test results. 211.212-5... with applicable regulations under 40 CFR Part 211 et seq. All the data reported are true and accurate... repromulgate or modify the reporting requirements at that time. (Sec. 13, Pub. L. 92-574, 86 Stat. 1244 (42...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Compliance Audit Testing Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Compliance Audit Testing Report A Appendix A to Part 211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE... conformance with applicable regulations under 40 CFR Part 211, et seq. All the data reported here are true...

  13. Reproducibility of 18F-FDG PET uptake measurements in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma on both PET/CT and PET/MR

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, B M; Aznar, M C; Hansen, A E; Vogelius, I R; Löfgren, J; Andersen, F L; Loft, A; Kjaer, A; Højgaard, L; Specht, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate reproducibility of fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and 18F-FDG PET/MR scans in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods: 30 patients with HNSCC were included in this prospective study. The patients were scanned twice before radiotherapy treatment with both PET/CT and PET/MR. Patients were scanned on the same scanners, 3 days apart and according to the same protocol. Metabolic tumour activity was measured by the maximum and peak standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVpeak, respectively), and total lesion glycolysis from the metabolic tumour volume defined from ≥50% SUVmax. Bland–Altman analysis with limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV) from the two modalities were performed in order to test the reproducibility. Furthermore, CVs from SUVmax and SUVpeak were compared. The area under the curve from cumulative SUV–volume histograms were measured and tested for reproducibility of the distribution of 18F-FDG uptake. Results: 24 patients had two pre-treatment PET/CT scans and 21 patients had two pre-treatment PET/MR scans available for further analyses. Mean difference for SUVmax, peak and mean was approximately 4% for PET/CT and 3% for PET/MR, with 95% limits of agreement less than ±20%. CV was small (5–7%) for both modalities. There was no significant difference in CVs between PET/CT and PET/MR (p = 0.31). SUVmax was not more reproducible than SUVpeak (p = 0.09). Conclusion: 18F-FDG uptake in PET/CT and PET/MR is highly reproducible and we found no difference in reproducibility between PET/CT and PET/MR. Advances in knowledge: This is the first report to test reproducibility of PET/CT and PET/MR. PMID:25634069

  14. Nutritional Sustainability of Pet Foods12

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Kelly S.; Carter, Rebecca A.; Yount, Tracy P.; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  15. Pet fur color and texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  16. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field.

  17. Attenuation correction for small animal PET tomographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Patrick L.; Rannou, Fernando R.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2005-04-01

    Attenuation correction is one of the important corrections required for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). This work will compare the quantitative accuracy of attenuation correction using a simple global scale factor with traditional transmission-based methods acquired either with a small animal PET or a small animal x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. Two phantoms (one mouse-sized and one rat-sized) and two animal subjects (one mouse and one rat) were scanned in CTI Concorde Microsystem's microPET® Focus™ for emission and transmission data and in ImTek's MicroCAT™ II for transmission data. PET emission image values were calibrated against a scintillation well counter. Results indicate that the scale factor method of attenuation correction places the average measured activity concentration about the expected value, without correcting for the cupping artefact from attenuation. Noise analysis in the phantom studies with the PET-based method shows that noise in the transmission data increases the noise in the corrected emission data. The CT-based method was accurate and delivered low-noise images suitable for both PET data correction and PET tracer localization.

  18. Investigating true and false confessions within a novel experimental paradigm.

    PubMed

    Russano, Melissa B; Meissner, Christian A; Narchet, Fadia M; Kassin, Saul M

    2005-06-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to develop a novel experimental paradigm with which to study the influence of psychologically based interrogation techniques on the likelihood of true and false confessions. The paradigm involves guilty and innocent participants being accused of intentionally breaking an experimental rule, or "cheating." In the first demonstration of this paradigm, we explored the influence of two common police interrogation tactics: minimization and an explicit offer of leniency, or a "deal." Results indicated that guilty persons were more likely to confess than innocent persons, and that the use of minimization and the offer of a deal increased the rate of both true and false confessions. Police investigators are encouraged to avoid interrogation techniques that imply or directly promise leniency, as they appear to reduce the diagnostic value of any confession that is elicited. PMID:15943675

  19. A rare case of true carcinosarcoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Antonello; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Gianni Antonio; Reale, Paola; Accardo, Giuseppe; Salerno, Carmela; Bordoni, Daniele; Falco, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background True carcinosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare condition, accounting for 0.08–0.2% of all breast malignancies. The correct definition of this tumor requires both a carcinomatous component and a malignant non-epithelial component of mesenchymal origin, without evidence of a transition zone between the two elements. Case presentation We present a case of a 49-year-old woman presenting with a 4 cm mass at the level of her left breast upper-outer quadrant with a histologic diagnosis of true carcinosarcoma of the breast. Discussion The most appropriate therapeutic regimens for breast carcinosarcoma are still unclear because of the rarity of this condition, but Breast Conserving Treatment (BCT) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy seems to provide a prognosis equalling that of usual Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the breast. PMID:26978126

  20. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. PMID:26390033

  1. True Cervicothoracic Meningocele: A Rare and Benign Condition

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Bruno L.; Lima, Yara

    2015-01-01

    Cervical meningoceles are rare spinal dysraphism, accounting for approximately 7% of all cystic spinal dysraphism. In spite of the rarity, the clinical course is most of the times benign. The surgical treatment includes resection of the lesion and untethering, when presented. We present a 14-day-old female child with true meningoceles who underwent to surgical excision and dura-mater repair. Retrospect analysis of the literature concerning true cervical meningocele is performed. By reporting this illustrative case, we focus on its classification and its differentiation from other types of cervical spinal dysraphism, such as myelocystocele and myelomeningocele. Although its course is benign, it is mandatory a continuum follow up with periodic magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord, since late neurological deterioration has been described. PMID:26788266

  2. True Cervicothoracic Meningocele: A Rare and Benign Condition.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Bruno L; Lima, Yara; Orsini, Marco

    2015-12-29

    Cervical meningoceles are rare spinal dysraphism, accounting for approximately 7% of all cystic spinal dysraphism. In spite of the rarity, the clinical course is most of the times benign. The surgical treatment includes resection of the lesion and untethering, when presented. We present a 14-day-old female child with true meningoceles who underwent to surgical excision and dura-mater repair. Retrospect analysis of the literature concerning true cervical meningocele is performed. By reporting this illustrative case, we focus on its classification and its differentiation from other types of cervical spinal dysraphism, such as myelocystocele and myelomeningocele. Although its course is benign, it is mandatory a continuum follow up with periodic magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord, since late neurological deterioration has been described.

  3. Sarcoma with true epithelial differentiation secondary to irradiated glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, J.; Marques, J.; Pereira, P.; Roque, L.; Martins, C.; Campos, A.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme rarely shows true, immunohistochemically confirmed, epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, radiotherapy may induce cerebral sarcomatous tumors, and postsurgery glioblastoma irradiation may give rise to secondary gliosarcomas. We report a case of a 48-year-old male operated on a primary glioblastoma, followed by radiotherapy. A local recurrence occurred 23 months later that was operated too, and a second diagnosis of a fibrosarcoma with true epithelial differentiation was made. Primary systemic neoplasms were largely excluded. The patient died shortly after, and postmortem showed another cerebral dural-attached mass corresponding to a sarcoma without epithelial differentiation, and leptomeningeal seeding composed of malignant epithelial elements only. Cytogenetics, however, disclosed the second tumor to be similar to the primary one.

  4. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications.

  5. True scale model of the Solar System in Hermanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villiers, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    The Hermanus Centre (HAC) has recently constructed a true scale model of the solar system along the Cliff Path in Hermanus, stretching from the amphitheatre near the Old Harbour to the end of the Cliff Path at Grotto Beach. Equating the actual distance 3 867.133 m from the Sun model to the Pluto model to the astronomical equivalent of 5 907 171 120 km fixes the scale of the model.

  6. Wing motion measurement and aerodynamics of hovering true hoverflies.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiao Lei; Liu, Yan Peng; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Most hovering insects flap their wings in a horizontal plane (body having a large angle from the horizontal), called `normal hovering'. But some of the best hoverers, e.g. true hoverflies, hover with an inclined stroke plane (body being approximately horizontal). In the present paper, wing and body kinematics of four freely hovering true hoverflies were measured using three-dimensional high-speed video. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces of the insects. The stroke amplitude of the hoverflies was relatively small, ranging from 65 to 85 deg, compared with that of normal hovering. The angle of attack in the downstroke (∼50 deg) was much larger that in the upstroke (∼20 deg), unlike normal-hovering insects, whose downstroke and upstroke angles of attack are not very different. The major part of the weight-supporting force (approximately 86%) was produced in the downstroke and it was contributed by both the lift and the drag of the wing, unlike the normal-hovering case in which the weight-supporting force is approximately equally contributed by the two half-strokes and the lift principle is mainly used to produce the force. The mass-specific power was 38.59-46.3 and 27.5-35.4 W kg(-1) in the cases of 0 and 100% elastic energy storage, respectively. Comparisons with previously published results of a normal-hovering true hoverfly and with results obtained by artificially making the insects' stroke planes horizontal show that for the true hoverflies, the power requirement for inclined stroke-plane hover is only a little (<10%) larger than that of normal hovering. PMID:21832126

  7. Wing motion measurement and aerodynamics of hovering true hoverflies.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiao Lei; Liu, Yan Peng; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Most hovering insects flap their wings in a horizontal plane (body having a large angle from the horizontal), called `normal hovering'. But some of the best hoverers, e.g. true hoverflies, hover with an inclined stroke plane (body being approximately horizontal). In the present paper, wing and body kinematics of four freely hovering true hoverflies were measured using three-dimensional high-speed video. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces of the insects. The stroke amplitude of the hoverflies was relatively small, ranging from 65 to 85 deg, compared with that of normal hovering. The angle of attack in the downstroke (∼50 deg) was much larger that in the upstroke (∼20 deg), unlike normal-hovering insects, whose downstroke and upstroke angles of attack are not very different. The major part of the weight-supporting force (approximately 86%) was produced in the downstroke and it was contributed by both the lift and the drag of the wing, unlike the normal-hovering case in which the weight-supporting force is approximately equally contributed by the two half-strokes and the lift principle is mainly used to produce the force. The mass-specific power was 38.59-46.3 and 27.5-35.4 W kg(-1) in the cases of 0 and 100% elastic energy storage, respectively. Comparisons with previously published results of a normal-hovering true hoverfly and with results obtained by artificially making the insects' stroke planes horizontal show that for the true hoverflies, the power requirement for inclined stroke-plane hover is only a little (<10%) larger than that of normal hovering.

  8. CD10 immunoreactivity in sarcomatoid carcinomas: comparison with true sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Vennapusa, Bharathi; Fischer, Edgar G; Wick, Mark R; Cerilli, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    CD10 is a cell surface-related neutral endopeptidase that is involved in cleaving cytokine peptides; it may also play a role in the proliferation of tumor cells and their acquisition of invasiveness. On account of its association with other overtly epithelial neoplasms, we hypothesized that CD10 might be preferentially expressed in the sarcoma-like components of sarcomatoid carcinomas as compared with true sarcomas. Immunohistochemical labeling for CD10 was assessed in various sarcomas and sarcomatoid carcinomas. An aggregate score was generated using both the intensity and extent of staining throughout the neoplasms. Overall, CD10 was expressed more often in true sarcomas (27 of 33 cases) as contrasted with sarcomatoid carcinomas (22 of 34 cases), but with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Uterine "carcinosarcomas" expressed CD10 with accentuation in periglandular tumor cells. The sarcoma-like components in squamous cell carcinoma of the respiratory tract (larynx and lung), tongue, bladder, skin, and penis also expressed CD10 consistently. In the final analysis, there was no difference in CD10 expression between sarcomatoid carcinomas and true sarcomas. This marker seems to have little, if any, differential diagnostic value in the specified histopathologic context.

  9. Disc outflows and high-luminosity true type 2 AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Moshe; Netzer, Hagai

    2016-06-01

    The absence of intrinsic broad-line emission has been reported in a number of active galactic nuclei (AGN), including some with high Eddington ratios. Such `true type 2 AGN' are inherent to the disc-wind scenario for the broad-line region: broad-line emission requires a minimal column density, implying a minimal outflow rate and thus a minimal accretion rate. Here we perform a detailed analysis of the consequences of mass conservation in the process of accretion through a central disc. The resulting constraints on luminosity are consistent with all the cases where claimed detections of true type 2 AGN pass stringent criteria, and predict that intrinsic broad-line emission can disappear at luminosities as high as ˜4 × 1046 erg s-1 and any Eddington ratio, though more detections can be expected at Eddington ratios below ˜1 per cent. Our results are applicable to every disc outflow model, whatever its details and whether clumpy or smooth, irrespective of the wind structure and its underlying dynamics. While other factors, such as changes in spectral energy distribution or covering factor, can affect the intensities of broad emission lines, within this scenario they can only produce true type 2 AGN of higher luminosity then those prescribed by mass conservation.

  10. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)

    PubMed Central

    Jerinić-Prodanović, Dušanka; Protić, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

  11. Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for plant biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Kross, B.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Bonito, G.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Crowell, A.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Topp, C.; Smith, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in corn plants is presented. {sup 11}CO{sub 2} is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling cuvette and translocation of {sup 11}C-sugars is imaged by a flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The PhytoPET system successfully images {sup 11}C within corn plants and allows for the dynamic measurement of {sup 11}C-sugar translocation from the leaf to the roots.

  12. Current Status of Hybrid PET/MRI in Oncologic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Friedman, Kent; Chandarana, Hersh; Melsaether, Amy; Moy, Linda; Ding, Yu-Shin; Jhaveri, Komal; Beltran, Luis; Jain, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This review article explores recent advancements in PET/MRI for clinical oncologic imaging. CONCLUSION Radiologists should understand the technical considerations that have made PET/MRI feasible within clinical workflows, the role of PET tracers for imaging various molecular targets in oncology, and advantages of hybrid PET/MRI compared with PET/CT. To facilitate this understanding, we discuss clinical examples (including gliomas, breast cancer, bone metastases, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, gynecologic malignancy, and lymphoma) as well as future directions, challenges, and areas for continued technical optimization for PET/MRI. PMID:26491894

  13. Hybrid registration of PET/CT in thoracic region with pre-filtering PET sinogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokri, S. S.; Saripan, M. I.; Marhaban, M. H.; Nordin, A. J.; Hashim, S.

    2015-11-01

    The integration of physiological (PET) and anatomical (CT) images in cancer delineation requires an accurate spatial registration technique. Although hybrid PET/CT scanner is used to co-register these images, significant misregistrations exist due to patient and respiratory/cardiac motions. This paper proposes a hybrid feature-intensity based registration technique for hybrid PET/CT scanner. First, simulated PET sinogram was filtered with a 3D hybrid mean-median before reconstructing the image. The features were then derived from the segmented structures (lung, heart and tumor) from both images. The registration was performed based on modified multi-modality demon registration with multiresolution scheme. Apart from visual observations improvements, the proposed registration technique increased the normalized mutual information index (NMI) between the PET/CT images after registration. All nine tested datasets show marked improvements in mutual information (MI) index than free form deformation (FFD) registration technique with the highest MI increase is 25%.

  14. Miscellaneous cancers (lung, thyroid, renal cancer, myeloma, and neuroendocrine tumors): role of SPECT and PET in imaging bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Chua, Sue; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Cook, Gary J R

    2009-11-01

    advantage of (18)F-FDG-PET is that it can detect soft-tissue components of metastases, which is particularly important in aggressive osteolytic metastases. The effectiveness of (18)F-FDG-PET is limited in slow-growing tumor types, but (18)F-sodium fluoride, a bone radiotracer that can detect early osteoblastic changes, shows promise in this area. Bony metastases from many neuroendocrine tumors can be detected with a high degree of specificity by PET using somatostatin analogs. Other novel and often highly specific radiotracers are under evaluation, which will further enhance the diagnostic capability of PET. The true potential of PET in this group of malignancies is gradually unfolding, although studied series of patients remain generally small and much further evaluation of its role is required.

  15. The imaging performance of a LaBr3-based PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E.; Surti, S.; Perkins, A.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Wiener, R.; Werner, M. E.; Kulp, R.; Karp, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner based on cerium-doped lanthanum bromide [LaBr3 (5% Ce)] has been developed. LaBr3 has a high light output, excellent energy resolution and fast timing properties that have been predicted to lead to good image quality. Intrinsic performance measurements of spatial resolution, sensitivity and scatter fraction demonstrate good conventional PET performance; the results agree with previous simulation studies. Phantom measurements show the excellent image quality achievable with the prototype system. Phantom measurements and corresponding simulations show a faster and more uniform convergence rate, as well as more uniform quantification, for TOF reconstruction of the data, which have 375 ps intrinsic timing resolution, compared to non-TOF images. Measurements and simulations of a hot and cold sphere phantom show that the 7% energy resolution helps to mitigate residual errors in the scatter estimate because a high energy threshold (>480 keV) can be used to restrict the amount of scatter accepted without a loss of true events. Preliminary results with incorporation of a model of detector blurring in the iterative reconstruction algorithm not only show improved contrast recovery but also point out the importance of an accurate resolution model of the tails of LaBr3's point spread function. The LaBr3 TOF-PET scanner demonstrated the impact of superior timing and energy resolutions on image quality.

  16. Discordance between cerebellar metabolism and perfusion: Explanation for SPECT vs. PET differences in the cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.; Beltran, M.; Moore, M.

    1994-05-01

    The cerebellum normally has a level of HMPAO uptake that is equal to or greater than nearby frontal cortices on transaxial SPECT sections, whereas FDG PET studies shows the reverse. Since cerebral blood flow is generally coupled to metabolism in normal individuals, this study was performed to test the hypothesis that this difference represents a true discordance between cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism of the cerebellar cortex. Thirty eight subjects underwent PET imaging after an intravenous bolus of N-13 ammonia (370 MBq) to image cerebral perfusion, later followed by an intravenous bolus of F-18 FDG (3 70 MBq) after the N-13 had disappeared by decay. All studies were acquired with a Siemens 931 ECAT camera with an initial 20 minute transmission scan of the head acquired to apply measured attenuation correction. PET imaging of N-13 ammonia was performed over the first 15 minutes after injection, and FDG imaging was performed between 40 and 55 minutes after injection. Regions of interest for both tracers in each of 38 patients were drawn over the cerebellar cortex from transaxial sections taken at the level of the dentate nuclei, and from the orbitofrontal cortex. Frontal to cerebellar cortex ratios are shown below for perfusion (open square) and metabolism (closed) for each of the 38 patients studied.

  17. Imaging performance of a LaBr3-based PET scanner

    PubMed Central

    Daube-Witherspoon, M E; Surti, S; Perkins, A; Kyba, C C M; Wiener, R; Werner, M E; Kulp, R; Karp, J S

    2010-01-01

    A prototype time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner based on cerium-doped lanthanum bromide [LaBr3 (5% Ce)] has been developed. LaBr3 has high light output, excellent energy resolution, and fast timing properties that have been predicted to lead to good image quality. Intrinsic performance measurements of spatial resolution, sensitivity, and scatter fraction demonstrate good conventional PET performance; the results agree with previous simulation studies. Phantom measurements show the excellent image quality achievable with the prototype system. Phantom measurements and corresponding simulations show a faster and more uniform convergence rate, as well as more uniform quantification, for TOF reconstruction of the data, which have 375-ps intrinsic timing resolution, compared to non-TOF images. Measurements and simulations of a hot and cold sphere phantom show that the 7% energy resolution helps to mitigate residual errors in the scatter estimate because a high energy threshold (>480 keV) can be used to restrict the amount of scatter accepted without a loss of true events. Preliminary results with incorporation of a model of detector blurring in the iterative reconstruction algorithm show improved contrast recovery but also point out the importance of an accurate resolution model of the tails of LaBr3’s point spread function. The LaBr3 TOF-PET scanner has demonstrated the impact of superior timing and energy resolutions on image quality. PMID:19949259

  18. FDG-PET/CT in pediatric solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Franzius, C

    2010-08-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become an important imaging modality in the non-invasive evaluation and monitoring of children with known or suspected malignant diseases. In sarcoma patients, [18F]FDG (FDG) PET and FDG PET/CT is useful in staging, therapy monitoring, and detection of relapse. However, FDG PET has been proven to be less sensitive than chest CT in the detection of pulmonary metastases derived from sarcoma. This disadvantage has been overcome using a PET/CT scanner. In neuroblastoma patients, PET using FDG is indicated in MIBG-negative cases. Furthermore, there are specific PET tracers for tumors of the sympathetic nervous system, such as [11C]Hydroxyephedrine (HED) and [18F]-labeled dihydrophenylalanine (F-DOPA), which can be used for PET/CT imaging for detection of disease, staging and monitoring therapy. However, there are only few studies using specific PET tracers in neuroblastoma patients. In other pediatric malignancies including germ cell tumors and hepatoblastoma PET and PET/CT may be helpful in individual cases, but the literature in these entities is limited so far. Although publications on the additional value of the combined PET/CT compared to both stand-alone modalities are still limited in pediatrics, it can already be anticipated that the combination of morphological and functional information obtained by integrated PET/CT will improve the accuracy of staging and will change patient management in a significant number of pediatric patients.

  19. Comparison of reconstruction methods and quantitative accuracy in Siemens Inveon PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Yu, A.; Kim, Jin Su; Kang, Joo Hyun; Moo Lim, Sang

    2015-04-01

    PET reconstruction is key to the quantification of PET data. To our knowledge, no comparative study of reconstruction methods has been performed to date. In this study, we compared reconstruction methods with various filters in terms of their spatial resolution, non-uniformities (NU), recovery coefficients (RCs), and spillover ratios (SORs). In addition, the linearity of reconstructed radioactivity between linearity of measured and true concentrations were also assessed. A Siemens Inveon PET scanner was used in this study. Spatial resolution was measured with NEMA standard by using a 1 mm3 sized 18F point source. Image quality was assessed in terms of NU, RC and SOR. To measure the effect of reconstruction algorithms and filters, data was reconstructed using FBP, 3D reprojection algorithm (3DRP), ordered subset expectation maximization 2D (OSEM 2D), and maximum a posteriori (MAP) with various filters or smoothing factors (β). To assess the linearity of reconstructed radioactivity, image quality phantom filled with 18F was used using FBP, OSEM and MAP (β =1.5 & 5 × 10-5). The highest achievable volumetric resolution was 2.31 mm3 and the highest RCs were obtained when OSEM 2D was used. SOR was 4.87% for air and 3.97% for water, obtained OSEM 2D reconstruction was used. The measured radioactivity of reconstruction image was proportional to the injected one for radioactivity below 16 MBq/ml when FBP or OSEM 2D reconstruction methods were used. By contrast, when the MAP reconstruction method was used, activity of reconstruction image increased proportionally, regardless of the amount of injected radioactivity. When OSEM 2D or FBP were used, the measured radioactivity concentration was reduced by 53% compared with true injected radioactivity for radioactivity <16 MBq/ml. The OSEM 2D reconstruction method provides the highest achievable volumetric resolution and highest RC among all the tested methods and yields a linear relation between the measured and true

  20. Differentiation of true anophthalmia from clinical anophthalmia using neuroradiological imaging.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Sasani, Hadi

    2014-07-28

    Anophthalmia is a condition of the absence of an eye and the presence of a small eye within the orbit. It is associated with many known syndromes. Clinical findings, as well as imaging modalities and genetic analysis, are important in making the diagnosis. Imaging modalities are crucial scanning methods. Cryptophthalmos, cyclopia, synophthalmia and congenital cystic eye should be considered in differential diagnoses. We report two clinical anophthalmic siblings, emphasizing the importance of neuroradiological and orbital imaging findings in distinguishing true congenital anophthalmia from clinical anophthalmia.

  1. On the True Indium Content of In-Filled Skutterudites.

    PubMed

    Visnow, Eduard; Heinrich, Christophe P; Schmitz, Andreas; de Boor, Johannes; Leidich, Patrick; Klobes, Benedikt; Hermann, Raphael P; Müller, Wolf Eckhard; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-08-17

    The incongruently melting single-filled skutterudite InxCo4Sb12 is known as a promising bulk thermoelectric material. However, the products of current bulk syntheses contain always impurities of InSb, Sb, CoSb, or CoSb2, which prevent an unbiased determination of its thermoelectric properties. We report a new two-step synthesis of high-purity InxCo4Sb12 with nominal compositions x = 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, and 0.20 that separates the kieftite (CoSb3) formation from the topotactic filler insertion. This approach allows conducting the reactions at lower temperatures with shorter reaction times and circumventing the formation of impurity phases. The synthesis can be extended to other filled skutterudites. High-density (>98%) pellets for thermoelectric characterization were prepared by current-assisted short-time sintering. Sample homogeneity was demonstrated by potential and Seebeck microprobe measurements of the complete pellet surfaces. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction showed a purity of 99.9% product with traces (≤0.1%) of InSb in samples of nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12 and In0.20Co4Sb12. Rietveld refinements revealed a linear correlation between the true In occupancy and the lattice parameter a. This allows the determination of the true In filling in skutterudites and predicting the In content of unknown AxCo4Sb12. The high purity of InxCo4Sb12 allowed studying the transport properties without bias from side phases. A figure of merit close to unity at 420 °C was obtained for a sample of a true composition of In0.160(2)Co4Sb12 (nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12). The lower degree of In filling has a dramatic effect on the thermoelectric properties as demonstrated by the sample of nominal composition In0.20Co4Sb12. The presence of InSb in amounts of ∼0.1 vol% led to a substantially lower degree of interstitial site filling of 0.144, and the figure of merit zT decreased by 18%, which demonstrates the significance of the true filler atom content in skutterudite

  2. [True place of simple sugars in the cause of caries].

    PubMed

    Julien, M G

    1991-02-01

    A recent leaflet published for dental patients by the Canadian Association of Confectioners promotes the consumption of sweets, considering them on an equal basis, in regard to caries, as any other foods containing simple sugars, such as: fruits, vegetables, bread or pasta. This article intends to demistify such inference. While it is true that most foods containing simple sugars can lower plaque pH when considered alone, in the context of a total diet, the relationship between simple sugars and caries is much more complex. Also, in regard to total health, one can not equate all simple sugars since they differ considerably in terms of nutritional value. PMID:1869698

  3. Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true portwine stain anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Welch, Ashley J.; Smithies, Derek J.; Nelson, Jerry; van Gemert, Martin J.

    1998-04-01

    A unique Monte Carlo program capable of accommodating an arbitrarily complex geometry was used to determine the energy deposition in a true port wine stain anatomy. Serial histologic sections taken from a biopsy of a dark red, laser therapy resistant stain were digitized and used to create the program input for simulation at wavelengths of 532 and 585 nm. At both wavelengths, the greatest energy deposition occurred in the superficial blood vessels, and subsequently decreased with depth as the laser beam was attenuated. However, more energy was deposited in the epidermis and superficial blood vessels at 532 nm than at 585 nm.

  4. Infectious threats from exotic pets: dermatological implications.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ted; Jablon, Jennifer

    2003-04-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. More than 250 distinct zoonoses have been described in the literature. It is estimated that 56% of United States households contain at least one pet, and although considerable research has been performed regarding the more common household animals including dogs, cats, small birds, and rodents, surprisingly little is known about the zoonotic hazards of owning the more exotic pets. According to the 1997 USPHS/IDSA Report on the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the immunocompromised patient should avoid contact with feces-laden soil, litter boxes, reptiles, most pet birds, and any animal less than 6 months old . It has also been documented that because of their inquisitive nature, children are at even higher risk for infection from animals than adolescents or immunocompetent adults. In this article the authors have reviewed the available data regarding hazards associated with the hedgehog, flying squirrel, iguana, chinchilla, and cockatoo. With the growing popularity of such exotic pets, further observation and research is warranted. Physicians need to be aware of the possibility of zoonotic disease related to exotic pet ownership, and they should address this issue when obtaining a history and formulating a differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions suggestive of such illnesses. PMID:12757244

  5. PET Imaging: Basics and New Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlbom, Magnus

    Positron Emission Tomography or PET is a noninvasive molecular imaging method used both in research to study biology and disease, and clinically as a routine diagnostic imaging tool. In PET imaging, the subject is injected with a tracer labeled with a positron-emitting isotope and is then placed in a scanner to localize the radioactive tracer in the body. The localization of the tracer utilizes the unique decay characteristics of isotopes decaying by positron emission. In the PET scanner, a large number of scintillation detectors use coincidence detection of the annihilation radiation that is emitted as a result of the positron decay. By collecting a large number of these coincidence events, together with tomographic image reconstruction methods, the 3-D distribution of the radioactive tracer in the body can be reconstructed. Depending on the type of tracer used, the distribution will reflect a particular biological process, such as glucose metabolism when fluoro-deoxyglucose is used. PET has evolved from a relatively inefficient single-slice imaging system with relatively poor spatial resolution to an efficient, high-resolution imaging modality which can acquire a whole-body scan in a few minutes. This chapter will describe the basic physics and instrumentation used in PET. The various corrections that are necessary to apply to the acquired data in order to produce quantitative images are also described. Finally, some of the latest trends in instrumentation development are also discussed.

  6. Novel Developments in Instrumentation for PET Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Advances in medical imaging, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), have been based on technical developments in physics and instrumentation that have common foundations with detection systems used in other fields of physics. New detector materials are used in PET systems that maximize efficiency, timing characteristics and robustness, and which lead to improved image quality and quantitative accuracy for clinical imaging. Time of flight (TOF) techniques are now routinely used in commercial PET scanners that combine physiological imaging with anatomical imaging provided by x-ray computed tomography. Using new solid-state photo-sensors instead of traditional photo-multiplier tubes makes it possible to combine PET with magnetic resonance imaging which is a significant technical challenge, but one that is creating new opportunities for both research and clinical applications. An overview of recent advances in instrumentation, such as TOF and PET/MR will be presented, along with examples of imaging studies to demonstrate the impact on patient care and basic research of diseases.

  7. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  8. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients. PMID:22843648

  9. Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, D L; Khakhria, R; Johnson, W M

    1997-01-01

    During the period from 1994 to 1996, an increase in the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas, pet turtles, sugar gliders, and hedgehogs was observed in Canada. Pet turtle-associated salmonellosis was recognized as a serious public health problem in the 1960s and 1970s, and in February 1975 legislation banning the importation of turtles into Canada was enacted by Agriculture Canada. Reptile-associated salmonellosis is once again being recognized as a resurgent disease. From 1993 to 1995, there were more than 20,000 laboratory-confirmed human cases of salmonellosis in Canada. The major source of Salmonella infection is food; however, an estimated 3 to 5% of all cases of salmonellosis in humans are associated with exposure to exotic pets. Among the isolates from these patients with salmonellosis, a variety of Salmonella serotypes were also associated with exotic pets and included the following: S. java, S. stanley, S. poona, S. jangwani, S. tilene, S. litchfield, S. manhattan, S. pomona, S. miami, S. rubislaw, S. marina subsp. IV, and S. wassenaar subsp. IV. PMID:9350734

  10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gallamini, Andrea; Zwarthoed, Colette; Borra, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG). FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later. PMID:25268160

  11. PET Image Reconstruction Using Kernel Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guobao; Qi, Jinyi

    2014-01-01

    Image reconstruction from low-count PET projection data is challenging because the inverse problem is ill-posed. Prior information can be used to improve image quality. Inspired by the kernel methods in machine learning, this paper proposes a kernel based method that models PET image intensity in each pixel as a function of a set of features obtained from prior information. The kernel-based image model is incorporated into the forward model of PET projection data and the coefficients can be readily estimated by the maximum likelihood (ML) or penalized likelihood image reconstruction. A kernelized expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is presented to obtain the ML estimate. Computer simulations show that the proposed approach can achieve better bias versus variance trade-off and higher contrast recovery for dynamic PET image reconstruction than the conventional maximum likelihood method with and without post-reconstruction denoising. Compared with other regularization-based methods, the kernel method is easier to implement and provides better image quality for low-count data. Application of the proposed kernel method to a 4D dynamic PET patient dataset showed promising results. PMID:25095249

  12. [Microbiological conservation medicine and exotic pets].

    PubMed

    Hassl, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The keeping and the breeding of exotic pets in privacy is a hobby with increasing popularity in industrialised countries. The growing demand for animals usually imported from the tropics, the growing demand for unprofessionally bred feeder organisms, and the increasing number of cases of faulty caring behaviour lead to the creation of new infectiological niches in the interface between exotic pet--nurse--feed--vivarium. These niches are filled preferably by ubiquitous, facultative pathogenic, stress- and age-deduced opportunists with a broad host spectrum. On the one hand these extraordinary germ faunas, relating to their compositions, may generate broad relevance in human medicine, lead to bizarre clinical pictures in specific cases, and may contribute to a reduction of the mean span of life of exotic pets kept in human care. On the other hand the quantitative composition of the fauna may also be a direct measure of the degree of stress the pets are suffering in captivity. Thus, a professional designation of the germ fauna of an exotic pet may contribute to an optimisation of the captivity conditions. PMID:15683044

  13. Prevalence and types of hyponatraemia, its relationship with hyperglycaemia and mortality in ill pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bonvehi, C; Ardiaca, M; Barrera, S; Cuesta, M; Montesinos, A

    2014-05-31

    Prevalence of hyponatraemia has not been extensively studied in pet rabbits, and the reference data for calculated plasma tonicity and osmolarity are not available. This retrospective clinical study reports the prevalence of hyponatraemia, hyposmolarity and hypotonicity in ill pet rabbits (n=356). The relationship between sodium and glucose levels was studied (n=134). Mortality rates within seven days associated with different sodium levels were calculated in ill rabbits (n=322). Venous blood samples in lithium heparin were processed using iStat EC8+ cartridges. The 95% RI for plasma sodium, calculated osmolarity and tonicity from 51 healthy pet rabbits were 136-147 mEq/l, 284-312 mOsm/l and 278-302 mOsm/l, respectively. The prevalence of hyponatraemia, hypotonicity and hyposmolarity was 39.0 per cent, 28.7 per cent and 18.0 per cent, respectively. Pseudohyponatraemia was present in 28.1 per cent and true hyponatraemia was present in 71.9 per cent of the cases of hyponatraemia. Sodium levels less than 129 mEq/l were found to be associated with 2.3-fold increase in mortality risk. Plasmatic sodium levels in rabbits decrease in conditions of hyperglycaemia in a similar manner as it occurs in human beings. As hyperglycaemia is quite a common condition in rabbits, simultaneous measurement of plasmatic sodium along with glucose in ill rabbits is advised. Hyponatraemia is a common condition in ill rabbits and, depending on its type (true hyponatraemia or pseudohyponatraemia), of varying clinical relevance. Calculation of plasmatic tonicity is necessary for differentiation of types of hyponatraemia. PMID:24603463

  14. High time-resolution photodetectors for PET applications

    DOE PAGES

    Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes recent developments aiming at the improvement of the time resolution of photodetectors used in positron emission tomography (PET). Promising photodetector candidates for future PET-time-of-flight (TOF) applications are also discussed.

  15. Temporal lobe deficits in murderers: EEG findings undetected by PET.

    PubMed

    Gatzke-Kopp, L M; Raine, A; Buchsbaum, M; LaCasse, L

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET) in the same subjects. Fourteen murderers were assessed by using both PET (while they were performing the continuous performance task) and EEG during a resting state. EEG revealed significant increases in slow-wave activity in the temporal, but not frontal, lobe in murderers, in contrast to prior PET findings that showed reduced prefrontal, but not temporal, glucose metabolism. Results suggest that resting EEG shows empirical utility distinct from PET activation findings.

  16. 9 CFR 130.10 - User fees for pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false User fees for pet birds. 130.10... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.10 User fees for pet birds. (a) User fees for pet birds of U.S. origin returning to the United States, except pet birds of U.S. origin returning from Canada, are as...

  17. 9 CFR 130.10 - User fees for pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false User fees for pet birds. 130.10... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.10 User fees for pet birds. (a) User fees for pet birds of U.S. origin returning to the United States, except pet birds of U.S. origin returning from Canada, are as...

  18. 9 CFR 130.10 - User fees for pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false User fees for pet birds. 130.10... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.10 User fees for pet birds. (a) User fees for pet birds of U.S. origin returning to the United States, except pet birds of U.S. origin returning from Canada, are as...

  19. 9 CFR 130.10 - User fees for pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for pet birds. 130.10... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.10 User fees for pet birds. (a) User fees for pet birds of U.S. origin returning to the United States, except pet birds of U.S. origin returning from Canada, are as...

  20. 9 CFR 130.10 - User fees for pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false User fees for pet birds. 130.10... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.10 User fees for pet birds. (a) User fees for pet birds of U.S. origin returning to the United States, except pet birds of U.S. origin returning from Canada, are as...

  1. True Neutrality as a New Type of Flavour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-06-01

    A classification of leptonic currents with respect to C-operation requires the separation of elementary particles into the two classes of vector C-even and axial-vector C-odd character. Their nature has been created so that to each type of lepton corresponds a kind of neutrino. Such pairs are united in families of a different C-parity. Unlike the neutrino of a vector type, any C-noninvariant Dirac neutrino must have his Majorana neutrino. They constitute the purely neutrino families. We discuss the nature of a corresponding mechanism responsible for the availability in all types of axial-vector particles of a kind of flavour which distinguishes each of them from others by a true charge characterized by a quantum number conserved at the interactions between the C-odd fermion and the field of emission of the corresponding types of gauge bosons. This regularity expresses the unidenticality of truly neutral neutrino and antineutrino, confirming that an internal symmetry of a C-noninvariant particle is described by an axial-vector space. Thereby, a true flavour together with the earlier known lepton flavour predicts the existence of leptonic strings and their birth in single and double beta decays as a unity of flavour and gauge symmetry laws. Such a unified principle explains the availability of a flavour symmetrical mode of neutrino oscillations.

  2. Experimental and analytical studies of a true airspeed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Shen, J. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A true airspeed sensor based on the precession of a vortex whistle for sensing airspeeds up to 321.9 km/hr (200 mph). In an attempt to model the complicated fluid mechanics of the vortex precession, three dimensional, inviscid, unsteady, incompressible fluid flow was studied by using the hydrodynamical linearized stability theory. The temporal stability approach was used to derive the relationship between the true airspeed and frequency response. The results show that the frequency response is linearly proportional to the airspeed. A computer program was developed to obtain the numerical solution. Computational results for various parameters were obtained. The designed sensor basically consisted of a vortex tube, a swirler, and a transducer system. A microphone converted the audible tone to an electronic frequency signal. Measurements for both the closed conduit tests and wind tunnel tests were recorded. For a specific flow rate or airspeed, larger exit swirler angles produced higher frequencies. For a smaller cross sectional area in the precessional flow region, the frequency was higher. It was observed that as the airspeed was increased the Strouhal number remained constant.

  3. Pancreatic true cysts--diagnosis and treatment difficulties.

    PubMed

    Vilcea, I D; Vasile, I; Mirea, C; Mesină, C; Calota, F; Pasalega, M; Cheie, M; Dumitrescu, T; Mogoanta, S; Vilcea, A-M

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic true cysts represent a rare, heterogeneous group of pancreatic tumors; therapeutic strategy is based on patient's general status, cyst topography, and especially the estimated risk of malignancy. This paper aim is to present 7 cases of pancreatic true cysts, operated on a six years period (January 2004-January 2010) in our surgical clinic: 2 men and 5 women, aged between 24-61 years old; cyst diameter varies between 3.5-15 cm, tumor location being pancreatic head in two cases and the distal pancreas in 5 cases. Surgical treatment consisted in cyst enucleation (two cases), splenopancreatectomy (three cases), duodenopancreatectomy (one case), and subtotal splenopancreatectomy (one case). Histology was represented by serous cystadenoma (one case), mucinous cystadenoma (2 cases), intraductal papillary mucinous cystadenoma (one case), and papillary cystadenocarcinoma (3 cases).Postoperative results were good in all cases, with 3 postoperative pancreatic external fistulas, resolved conservatory; no case of post-pancreatectomy diabetes mellitus was registered. In conclusion, surgical removal of the pancreatic cystic tumors is necessary, especially due to the risk of malignancy, at least in the absence of rigorous histological proofs of benignancy. Postoperative results are favorable in terms of postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  4. Deep Brain Stimulation, Continuity over Time, and the True Self.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, Sven; O'Neill, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    One of the topics that often comes up in ethical discussions of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the question of what impact DBS has, or might have, on the patient's self. This is often understood as a question of whether DBS poses a threat to personal identity, which is typically understood as having to do with psychological and/or narrative continuity over time. In this article, we argue that the discussion of whether DBS is a threat to continuity over time is too narrow. There are other questions concerning DBS and the self that are overlooked in discussions exclusively focusing on psychological and/or narrative continuity. For example, it is also important to investigate whether DBS might sometimes have a positive (e.g., a rehabilitating) effect on the patient's self. To widen the discussion of DBS, so as to make it encompass a broader range of considerations that bear on DBS's impact on the self, we identify six features of the commonly used concept of a person's "true self." We apply these six features to the relation between DBS and the self. And we end with a brief discussion of the role DBS might play in treating otherwise treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa. This further highlights the importance of discussing both continuity over time and the notion of the true self. PMID:27634716

  5. A versatile scalable PET processing system

    SciTech Connect

    H. Dong, A. Weisenberger, J. McKisson, Xi Wenze, C. Cuevas, J. Wilson, L. Zukerman

    2011-06-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) historically has major clinical and preclinical applications in cancerous oncology, neurology, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, in a new direction, an application specific PET system is being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with Duke University, University of Maryland at Baltimore (UMAB), and West Virginia University (WVU) targeted for plant eco-physiology research. The new plant imaging PET system is versatile and scalable such that it could adapt to several plant imaging needs - imaging many important plant organs including leaves, roots, and stems. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant organs without requiring the plant be disturbed. Prototyping such a system requires a new data acquisition system (DAQ) and data processing system which are adaptable to the requirements of these unique and versatile detectors.

  6. Wildlife, Exotic Pets, and Emerging Zoonoses1

    PubMed Central

    Belotto, Albino; Meslin, François-Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic; wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir. Wildlife can also be a source for reemergence of previously controlled zoonoses. Although the discovery of such zoonoses is often related to better diagnostic tools, the leading causes of their emergence are human behavior and modifications to natural habitats (expansion of human populations and their encroachment on wildlife habitat), changes in agricultural practices, and globalization of trade. However, other factors include wildlife trade and translocation, live animal and bushmeat markets, consumption of exotic foods, development of ecotourism, access to petting zoos, and ownership of exotic pets. To reduce risk for emerging zoonoses, the public should be educated about the risks associated with wildlife, bushmeat, and exotic pet trades; and proper surveillance systems should be implemented. PMID:17370509

  7. Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; White, R. D.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the ‘gas-phase’ assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations.

  8. Psychiatric investigation of 18 bereaved pet owners.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuya; Kawabata, Hidenobu; Maezawa, Masaji

    2011-08-01

    This survey explores the grief associated with the loss of a pet, and was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaires were handed out to 50 bereaved pet owners attending a public animal cremation service, and we received 18 responses. Participants responded within 0 to 44 (median 4) days of the death of their pet. Although most mental health problems immediately following mourning are presumed to be normal grief reactions, on the basis of several psychiatric scales, 8 of the 16 valid responses indicated depression and/or neurosis. Statistical analyses showed that the following factors were significantly associated with grief reactions: age of owner, other stressful life events, family size, age of deceased animal, rearing place, and preliminary veterinary consultation. PMID:21483181

  9. Pet Care Teaching Unit: 1st-3rd Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this unit are designed to familiarize primary grade students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons involving social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities adaptable for readers and non-readers focus on pet overpopulation, care of pets when…

  10. The Psychological Effect of Pet-Ownership on Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamtil, Rosemary

    A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…

  11. Profound Encounters: Classroom Animals--More Than Responsible Pet Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naherniak, Craig

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of a classroom pet. Presents guidelines to determine whether a classroom pet is really needed and some suggestions for improving existing conditions for animals you may already have. Includes chart for choosing the right pet, which compares the life span, size, diet, and pros and cons for guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits,…

  12. Deformation field correction for spatial normalization of PET images

    PubMed Central

    Bilgel, Murat; Carass, Aaron; Resnick, Susan M.; Wong, Dean F.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images is essential for population studies, yet the current state of the art in PET-to-PET registration is limited to the application of conventional deformable registration methods that were developed for structural images. A method is presented for the spatial normalization of PET images that improves their anatomical alignment over the state of the art. The approach works by correcting the deformable registration result using a model that is learned from training data having both PET and structural images. In particular, viewing the structural registration of training data as ground truth, correction factors are learned by using a generalized ridge regression at each voxel given the PET intensities and voxel locations in a population-based PET template. The trained model can then be used to obtain more accurate registration of PET images to the PET template without the use of a structural image. A cross validation evaluation on 79 subjects shows that the proposed method yields more accurate alignment of the PET images compared to deformable PET-to-PET registration as revealed by 1) a visual examination of the deformed images, 2) a smaller error in the deformation fields, and 3) a greater overlap of the deformed anatomical labels with ground truth segmentations. PMID:26142272

  13. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  14. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  15. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  16. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  17. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  18. PET-Specific Parameters and Radiotracers in Theoretical Tumour Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Loredana G.; Bezak, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The innovation of computational techniques serves as an important step toward optimized, patient-specific management of cancer. In particular, in silico simulation of tumour growth and treatment response may eventually yield accurate information on disease progression, enhance the quality of cancer treatment, and explain why certain therapies are effective where others are not. In silico modelling is demonstrated to considerably benefit from information obtainable with PET and PET/CT. In particular, models have successfully integrated tumour glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell oxygenation from multiple tracers in order to simulate tumour behaviour. With the development of novel radiotracers to image additional tumour phenomena, such as pH and gene expression, the value of PET and PET/CT data for use in tumour models will continue to grow. In this work, the use of PET and PET/CT information in in silico tumour models is reviewed. The various parameters that can be obtained using PET and PET/CT are detailed, as well as the radiotracers that may be used for this purpose, their utility, and limitations. The biophysical measures used to quantify PET and PET/CT data are also described. Finally, a list of in silico models that incorporate PET and/or PET/CT data is provided and reviewed. PMID:25788973

  19. 76 FR 8770 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade... full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film... whether revocation of the antidumping order on PET film from Korea would be likely to lead to...

  20. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued an antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (56 FR..., Commerce issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (65 FR 11984... issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (70 FR 61118)....

  1. Couples' Perception of Stressfulness of Death of the Family Pet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, M. Geraldine; Holcomb, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 242 couples whose pet had died during 3 years prior to survey. About one-half of wives and over one-quarter of husbands reported being "quite" or "extremely" disturbed by pet death. Husbands rated pet loss about as stressful as loss of close friendship; wives rated it about as stressful as losing touch with married children. (Author/NB)

  2. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port designated under, and in accordance with, 9 CFR part 92. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17...

  3. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port designated under, and in accordance with, 9 CFR part 92. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17...

  4. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port designated under, and in accordance with, 9 CFR part 92. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17...

  5. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port designated under, and in accordance with, 9 CFR part 92. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17...

  6. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port designated under, and in accordance with, 9 CFR part 92. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17...

  7. Signal-to-noise ratio in neuro activation PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Votaw, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    It has become commonplace to compare scanner sensitivity characteristics by comparing noise equivalent count rate curves. However, because a 20-cm diameter uniform phantom is drastically difference from a human brain, these curves give misleading information when planning a neuro activation PET experiment. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations have been performed using measured data (Siemens 921 scanner) from the three-dimensional (3-D) Hoffman brain phantom for the purpose of determining the optimal injection and scanning protocol for [{sup 15}O] labeled activation experiments. Region of interest (ROI) values along with the variance due to prompt (trues plus randoms) and random events were determined for various regions and radioactivity concentrations. Calculated attenuation correction was used throughout. Scatter correction was not used when calculating the SNR in activation studies because the number of scattered events is almost identical in each data acquisition and hence cancels. The results indicate that randoms correction should not be performed and that rather than being limited by the scanner capabilities, neuro activation experiments are limited by the amount of radioactivity that can be injected and the length of time the patient can stay in the scanner.

  8. Correction of quantification errors in pelvic and spinal lesions caused by ignoring higher photon attenuation of bone in [{sup 18}F]NaF PET/MR

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, Georg Maus, Jens; Hofheinz, Frank; Petr, Jan; Lougovski, Alexandr; Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina; Oehme, Liane; Platzek, Ivan; Hoff, Jörg van den

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) in routine clinical whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) is based on tissue type segmentation. Due to lack of MR signal in cortical bone and the varying signal of spongeous bone, standard whole-body segmentation-based MRAC ignores the higher attenuation of bone compared to the one of soft tissue (MRAC{sub nobone}). The authors aim to quantify and reduce the bias introduced by MRAC{sub nobone} in the standard uptake value (SUV) of spinal and pelvic lesions in 20 PET/MRI examinations with [{sup 18}F]NaF. Methods: The authors reconstructed 20 PET/MR [{sup 18}F]NaF patient data sets acquired with a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MRI. The PET raw data were reconstructed with two different attenuation images. First, the authors used the vendor-provided MRAC algorithm that ignores the higher attenuation of bone to reconstruct PET{sub nobone}. Second, the authors used a threshold-based algorithm developed in their group to automatically segment bone structures in the [{sup 18}F]NaF PET images. Subsequently, an attenuation coefficient of 0.11 cm{sup −1} was assigned to the segmented bone regions in the MRI-based attenuation image (MRAC{sub bone}) which was used to reconstruct PET{sub bone}. The automatic bone segmentation algorithm was validated in six PET/CT [{sup 18}F]NaF examinations. Relative SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} differences between PET{sub bone} and PET{sub nobone} of 8 pelvic and 41 spinal lesions, and of other regions such as lung, liver, and bladder, were calculated. By varying the assigned bone attenuation coefficient from 0.11 to 0.13 cm{sup −1}, the authors investigated its influence on the reconstructed SUVs of the lesions. Results: The comparison of [{sup 18}F]NaF-based and CT-based bone segmentation in the six PET/CT patients showed a Dice similarity of 0.7 with a true positive rate of 0.72 and a false discovery rate of 0.33. The [{sup 18}F]NaF-based bone

  9. Clinical Utility and Future Applications of PET/CT and PET/CMR in Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jonathan A.; Salerno, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, there have been major advances in cardiovascular positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with either computed tomography (CT) or, more recently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). These multi-modality approaches have significant potential to leverage the strengths of each modality to improve the characterization of a variety of cardiovascular diseases and to predict clinical outcomes. This review will discuss current developments and potential future uses of PET/CT and PET/CMR for cardiovascular applications, which promise to add significant incremental benefits to the data provided by each modality alone. PMID:27598207

  10. Clinical Utility and Future Applications of PET/CT and PET/CMR in Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jonathan A; Salerno, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, there have been major advances in cardiovascular positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with either computed tomography (CT) or, more recently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). These multi-modality approaches have significant potential to leverage the strengths of each modality to improve the characterization of a variety of cardiovascular diseases and to predict clinical outcomes. This review will discuss current developments and potential future uses of PET/CT and PET/CMR for cardiovascular applications, which promise to add significant incremental benefits to the data provided by each modality alone. PMID:27598207

  11. PET Imaging in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roussakis, Andreas-Antonios; Piccini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    To date, little is known about how neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation propagate in Huntington’s disease (HD). Unfortunately, no treatment is available to cure or reverse the progressive decline of function caused by the disease, thus considering HD a fatal disease. Mutation gene carriers typically remain asymptomatic for many years although alterations in the basal ganglia and cortex occur early on in mutant HD gene–carriers. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique of nuclear medicine which enables in vivo visualization of numerous biological molecules expressed in several human tissues. Brain PET is most powerful to study in vivo neuronal and glial cells function as well as cerebral blood flow in a plethora of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s and HD. In absence of HD–specific biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, previous PET studies in HD were merely focused on the study of dopaminergic terminals, cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in manifest and premanifest HD–gene carriers. More recently, research interest has been exploring novel PET targets in HD including the state of phosphodiesterse expression and the role of activated microglia. Hence, a better understanding of the HD pathogenesis mechanisms may lead to the development of targeted therapies. PET imaging follow–up studies with novel selective PET radiotracers such as 11C-IMA–107 and 11C-PBR28 may provide insight on disease progression and identify prognostic biomarkers, elucidate the underlying HD pathology and assess novel pharmaceutical agents and over time. PMID:26683130

  12. Positron range estimations with PeneloPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cal-González, J.; Herraiz, J. L.; España, S.; Corzo, P. M. G.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    Technical advances towards high resolution PET imaging try to overcome the inherent physical limitations to spatial resolution. Positrons travel in tissue until they annihilate into the two gamma photons detected. This range is the main detector-independent contribution to PET imaging blurring. To a large extent, it can be remedied during image reconstruction if accurate estimates of positron range are available. However, the existing estimates differ, and the comparison with the scarce experimental data available is not conclusive. In this work we present positron annihilation distributions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations with the PeneloPET simulation toolkit, for several common PET isotopes (18F, 11C, 13N, 15O, 68Ga and 82Rb) in different biological media (cortical bone, soft bone, skin, muscle striated, brain, water, adipose tissue and lung). We compare PeneloPET simulations against experimental data and other simulation results available in the literature. To this end the different positron range representations employed in the literature are related to each other by means of a new parameterization for positron range profiles. Our results are generally consistent with experiments and with most simulations previously reported with differences of less than 20% in the mean and maximum range values. From these results, we conclude that better experimental measurements are needed, especially to disentangle the effect of positronium formation in positron range. Finally, with the aid of PeneloPET, we confirm that scaling approaches can be used to obtain universal, material and isotope independent, positron range profiles, which would considerably simplify range correction.

  13. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    SciTech Connect

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium avium in pet birds

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Silvia Neri; Sakamoto, Sidnei Miyoshi; de Paula, Cátia Dejuste; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a report on the presence of Mycobacterium avium in four birds of the psittaciform order kept as pets. Anatomopathological diagnosis showed lesions suggestive of the agent and presence of alcohol-acid resistant bacilli (AARB) shown by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The identification of Mycobacterium avium was performed by means of PRA (PCR Restriction Analysis). DNA was directly extracted from tissue of the lesions and blocked in paraffin. The role of this agent in pet bird infection is discussed, as well as its zoonotic potential. PMID:24031356

  15. Modular Strategies for PET Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Jacob M

    2009-01-01

    Summary of Recent Advances In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging. PMID:19880343

  16. Fundamental Limits of Spatial Resolution in PET

    PubMed Central

    Moses, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental limits of spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) have been understood for many years. The physical size of the detector element usually plays the dominant role in determining resolution, but the combined contributions from acollinearity, positron range, penetration into the detector ring, and decoding errors in the detector modules often combine to be of similar size. In addition, the sampling geometry and statistical noise further degrade the effective resolution. This paper describes quantitatively describes these effects, discusses potential methods for reducing the magnitude of these effects, and computes the ultimately achievable spatial resolution for clinical and pre-clinical PET cameras. PMID:21804677

  17. People think about what is true for conditionals, not what is false: only true possibilities prime the comprehension of "if".

    PubMed

    Espino, Orlando; Santamaria, Carlos; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2009-06-01

    We report the results of two priming experiments that examine the comprehension of conditionals--for example, "if there are apples then there are oranges"--and biconditionals--for example, "if and only if there are apples then there are oranges". The first experiment showed that participants read a biconditional faster when it was primed by a true possibility, "there were apples and there were oranges" than when it was primed by a false possibility, "there were no apples and there were oranges"; a conditional was primed equally by both possibilities. The second experiment showed that participants read the negated-antecedent conjunction faster when it was primed by a conditional than when it was primed by a biconditional; the affirmative conjunction was primed equally by both connectives. The experiments show that (a) when people understand "if A then B", they access the true possibilities, "A and B", and "not-A and B", and (b) when they understand "if and only if A then B" they access "A and B", but they do not access "not-A and B". We discuss their implications for current theories of reasoning.

  18. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model.

    PubMed

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to 'treats' and excessive meal amounts given by the 'pet-parent' and child-parent to obtain affection from the pet/child, which enables 'eating addiction' in the pet/child and results in parental 'co-dependence'. Pet-parents and child-parents may even become hostage to the treats/food to avoid the ire of the pet/child. Eating addiction in the pet/child also may be brought about by emotional factors such as stress, independent of parental co-dependence. An applicable treatment for child obesity has been trialled using classic addiction withdrawal/abstinence techniques, as well as behavioural addiction methods, with significant results. Both the child and the parent progress through withdrawal from specific 'problem foods', next from snacking (non-specific foods) and finally from excessive portions at meals (gradual reductions). This approach should adapt well for pets and pet-parents. Pet obesity is more 'pure' than child obesity, in that contributing factors and treatment points are essentially under the control of the pet-parent. Pet obesity might thus serve as an ideal test bed for the treatment and prevention of child obesity, with focus primarily on parental behaviours. Sharing information between the fields of pet and child obesity would be mutually beneficial. PMID:27469280

  19. Churned-Up Rocky Debris and Dust (True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been analyzing sulfur-rich rocks and surface materials in the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater on Mars. This image shows rocky debris and dust, which planetary scientists call 'regolith' or 'soil,' that has been churned up by the rover wheels. This 40-centimeter-wide (16-inch-wide) patch of churned-up dirt, nicknamed 'Paso Robles,' contains brighter patches measured to be high in sulfur by Spirit's alpha particle X-ray Spectrometer. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on martian day, or sol, 400 (Feb. 16, 2005). The image represents the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating a true color view of what this scene would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. The image was generated from a combination of six calibrated, left-eye images acquired through filters ranging from 430-nanometer to 750-nanometer wavelengths.

  20. True covariance simulation of the EUVE update filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Harman, R. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a covariance analysis of the performance and sensitivity of the attitude determination Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) used by the On Board Computer (OBC) of the Extreme Ultra Violet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft. The linearized dynamics and measurement equations of the error states are used in formulating the 'truth model' describing the real behavior of the systems involved. The 'design model' used by the OBC EKF is then obtained by reducing the order of the truth model. The covariance matrix of the EKF which uses the reduced order model is not the correct covariance of the EKF estimation error. A 'true covariance analysis' has to be carried out in order to evaluate the correct accuracy of the OBC generated estimates. The results of such analysis are presented which indicate both the performance and the sensitivity of the OBC EKF.

  1. True covariance simulation of the EUVE update filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    A covariance analysis of the performance and sensitivity of the attitude determination Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) used by the On Board Computer (OBC) of the Extreme Ultra Violet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft is presented. The linearized dynamics and measurement equations of the error states are derived which constitute the truth model describing the real behavior of the systems involved. The design model used by the OBC EKF is then obtained by reducing the order of the truth model. The covariance matrix of the EKF which uses the reduced order model is not the correct covariance of the EKF estimation error. A true covariance analysis has to be carried out in order to evaluate the correct accuracy of the OBC generated estimates. The results of such analysis are presented which indicate both the performance and the sensitivity of the OBC EKF.

  2. New York State TrueAllele ® casework validation study.

    PubMed

    Perlin, Mark W; Belrose, Jamie L; Duceman, Barry W

    2013-11-01

    DNA evidence can pose interpretation challenges, particularly with low-level or mixed samples. It would be desirable to make full use of the quantitative data, consider every genotype possibility, and objectively produce accurate and reproducible DNA match results. Probabilistic genotype computing is designed to achieve these goals. This validation study assessed TrueAllele(®) probabilistic computer interpretation on 368 evidence items in 41 test cases and compared the results with human review of the same data. Whenever there was a human result, the computer's genotype was concordant. Further, the computer produced a match statistic on 81 mixture items (for 87 inferred matching genotypes) in the test cases, while human review reported a statistic on 25 of these items (30.9%). Using match statistics to quantify information, probabilistic genotyping was shown to be sensitive, specific, and reproducible. These results demonstrate that objective probabilistic genotyping of biological evidence can reliably preserve DNA identification information.

  3. True malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Kameda, N; Katayama, K; Hiruta, N; Nakada, M; Takeda, Y

    1990-02-01

    A case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland is reported. The submandibular tumor, occurring in a 52-year-old man, started to grow rapidly after a long history without any change in size. Surgical resection was carried out and the resected tumor measured 5.5 cm with a cut surface showing mixed solid structures. Microscopically, the tumor had both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, the former consisting of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with squamous cell differentiation and the latter consisting of osteosarcoma with chondrosarcomatous and fibrosarcomatous elements. A remnant of benign pleomorphic adenoma could also be identified. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated keratin and epithelial membrane antigen in the carcinoma cells and vimentin in all elements of the osteosarcoma. It is assumed from these clinical and histological findings that the tumor had transformed from a pre-existing benign pleomorphic adenoma.

  4. Murder and robbery by vehicular impact: true vehicular homicide.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2000-06-01

    True vehicular homicides are defined as those occurrences in which a motor vehicle is intentionally used as a weapon in taking of a life. A case is presented in which the deceased was traveling in the front passenger seat of a motor car that was deliberately rammed by a heavy jeep that came in the opposite direction, resulting in a serious frontal collision. Immediately after the impact, while the occupants of the car were lying in a dazed condition, the two persons riding in the jeep escaped with a bag containing money that was in the car, leaving the jeep behind. The impact mainly involved the driver's sides of both vehicles. The driver of the car sustained serious injuries but was found to be alive, whereas the front-seat passenger, who did not show any serious external injuries, was found to be in a collapsed state and was pronounced dead on admission to the hospital within 30 minutes of the accident. The autopsy revealed that death was caused by closed hemopericardium from a ruptured right atrium. The evaluation of the external and internal injuries confirmed that the fatal injury and a few serious internal injuries were caused by the seat belt (tertiary-impact injuries). The ruptured right atrium was attributed to blunt abdominal trauma by impacting against the lap belt. The case was a true vehicular homicide in which a motor vehicle had been used as a weapon to kill a person. Various aspects pertaining to road accidents, the safety of the occupants, and the advantage and disadvantage of the safety devices are discussed.

  5. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  6. A true polar wander model for Neoproterozoic plate motions

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperdan, R.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Recent paleogeographic reconstructions for the interval 750--500 Ma (Neoproterozoic to Late Cambrian) require rapid rates of plate motion and/or rotation around an equatorial Euler pole to accommodate reconstructions for the Early Paleozoic. Motions of this magnitude appear to be very uncommon during the Phanerozoic. A model for plate motions based on the hypothesis that discrete intervals of rapid true polar wander (RTPW) occurred during the Neoproterozoic can account for the paleogeographic changes with minimum amounts of plate motion. The model uses the paleogeographic reconstructions of Hoffman (1991). The following constraints were applied during derivation of the model: (1) relative motions between major continental units were restricted to be combinations of great circle or small circle translations with Euler poles of rotation = spin axis; (2) maximum rates of relative translational plate motion were 0.2 m/yr. Based on these constraints, two separate sets of synthetic plate motion trajectories were determined. The sequence of events in both can be summarized as: (1) A rapid true polar wander event of ca 90[degree] rafting a supercontinent to the spin axis; (2) breakup of the polar supercontinent into two fragments, one with the Congo, West Africa, Amazonia, and Baltica cratons, the other with the Laurentia, East Gondwana, and Kalahari cratons; (3) great circle motion of the blocks towards the equator; (4) small circle motion leading to amalgamation of Gondwana and separation of Laurentia and Baltica. In alternative 1, rifting initiates between East Antarctica and Laurentia and one episode of RTPW is required. Alternative 2 requires two episodes of RTPW; and that rifting occurred first along the eastern margin and later along the western margin of Laurentia. Synthetic plate motion trajectories are compared to existing paleomagnetic and geological data, and implications of the model for paleoclimatic changes during the Neoproterozoic are discussed.

  7. Tunable Optical True-Time Delay Devices Would Exploit EIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; DiDomenico, Leo; Lee, Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Tunable optical true-time delay devices that would exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been proposed. Relative to prior true-time delay devices (for example, devices based on ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials) and electronically controlled phase shifters, the proposed devices would offer much greater bandwidths. In a typical envisioned application, an optical pulse would be modulated with an ultra-wideband radio-frequency (RF) signal that would convey the information that one seeks to communicate, and it would be required to couple differently delayed replicas of the RF signal to the radiating elements of a phased-array antenna. One or more of the proposed devices would be used to impose the delays and/or generate the delayed replicas of the RF-modulated optical pulse. The beam radiated or received by the antenna would be steered by use of a microprocessor-based control system that would adjust operational parameters of the devices to tune the delays to the required values. EIT is a nonlinear quantum optical interference effect that enables the propagation of light through an initially opaque medium. A suitable medium must have, among other properties, three quantum states (see Figure 1): an excited state (state 3), an upper ground state (state 2), and a lower ground state (state 1). These three states must form a closed system that exhibits no decays to other states in the presence of either or both of two laser beams: (1) a probe beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 1; and (2) a coupling beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 2. The probe beam is the one that is pulsed and modulated with an RF signal.

  8. It's time to make management a true profession.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rakesh; Nohria, Nitin

    2008-10-01

    In the face of the recent institutional breakdown of trust in business, managers are losing legitimacy. To regain public trust, management needs to become a true profession in much the way medicine and law have, argue Khurana and Nohria of Harvard Business School. True professions have codes, and the meaning and consequences of those codes are taught as part of the formal education required of their members. Through these codes, professional institutions forge an implicit social contract with society: Trust us to control and exercise jurisdiction over an important occupational category, and, in return, we will ensurethat the members of our profession are worthy of your trust--that they will not only be competent to perform the tasks entrusted to them, but that they will also conduct themselves with high standardsand great integrity. The authors believe that enforcing educational standards and a code of ethics is unlikely to choke entrepreneurial creativity. Indeed, if the field of medicine is any indication, a code may even stimulate creativity. The main challenge in writing a code lies in reaching a broad consensus on the aims and social purpose of management. There are two deeply divided schools of thought. One school argues that management's aim should simply be to maximize shareholder wealth; the other argues that management's purpose is to balance the claims of all the firm's stakeholders. Any code will have to steer a middle course in order to accommodate both the value-creating impetus of the shareholder value concept and the accountability inherent in the stakeholder approach.

  9. It's time to make management a true profession.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rakesh; Nohria, Nitin

    2008-10-01

    In the face of the recent institutional breakdown of trust in business, managers are losing legitimacy. To regain public trust, management needs to become a true profession in much the way medicine and law have, argue Khurana and Nohria of Harvard Business School. True professions have codes, and the meaning and consequences of those codes are taught as part of the formal education required of their members. Through these codes, professional institutions forge an implicit social contract with society: Trust us to control and exercise jurisdiction over an important occupational category, and, in return, we will ensurethat the members of our profession are worthy of your trust--that they will not only be competent to perform the tasks entrusted to them, but that they will also conduct themselves with high standardsand great integrity. The authors believe that enforcing educational standards and a code of ethics is unlikely to choke entrepreneurial creativity. Indeed, if the field of medicine is any indication, a code may even stimulate creativity. The main challenge in writing a code lies in reaching a broad consensus on the aims and social purpose of management. There are two deeply divided schools of thought. One school argues that management's aim should simply be to maximize shareholder wealth; the other argues that management's purpose is to balance the claims of all the firm's stakeholders. Any code will have to steer a middle course in order to accommodate both the value-creating impetus of the shareholder value concept and the accountability inherent in the stakeholder approach. PMID:18822673

  10. Evaluation of attenuation and scatter correction requirements in small animal PET and SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konik, Arda Bekir

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) are two nuclear emission-imaging modalities that rely on the detection of high-energy photons emitted from radiotracers administered to the subject. The majority of these photons are attenuated (absorbed or scattered) in the body, resulting in count losses or deviations from true detection, which in turn degrades the accuracy of images. In clinical emission tomography, sophisticated correction methods are often required employing additional x-ray CT or radionuclide transmission scans. Having proven their potential in both clinical and research areas, both PET and SPECT are being adapted for small animal imaging. However, despite the growing interest in small animal emission tomography, little scientific information exists about the accuracy of these correction methods on smaller size objects, and what level of correction is required. The purpose of this work is to determine the role of attenuation and scatter corrections as a function of object size through simulations. The simulations were performed using Interactive Data Language (IDL) and a Monte Carlo based package, Geant4 application for emission tomography (GATE). In IDL simulations, PET and SPECT data acquisition were modeled in the presence of attenuation. A mathematical emission and attenuation phantom approximating a thorax slice and slices from real PET/CT data were scaled to 5 different sizes (i.e., human, dog, rabbit, rat and mouse). The simulated emission data collected from these objects were reconstructed. The reconstructed images, with and without attenuation correction, were compared to the ideal (i.e., non-attenuated) reconstruction. Next, using GATE, scatter fraction values (the ratio of the scatter counts to the total counts) of PET and SPECT scanners were measured for various sizes of NEMA (cylindrical phantoms representing small animals and human), MOBY (realistic mouse/rat model) and XCAT (realistic human model

  11. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-01

    acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ˜35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging.

  12. Multimodality Brain Tumor Imaging: MR Imaging, PET, and PET/MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Fink, James R; Muzi, Mark; Peck, Melinda; Krohn, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    Standard MR imaging and CT are routinely used for anatomic diagnosis in brain tumors. Pretherapy planning and posttreatment response assessments rely heavily on gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Advanced MR imaging techniques and PET imaging offer physiologic, metabolic, or functional information about tumor biology that goes beyond the diagnostic yield of standard anatomic imaging. With the advent of combined PET/MR imaging scanners, we are entering an era wherein the relationships among different elements of tumor metabolism can be simultaneously explored through multimodality MR imaging and PET imaging. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical and clinically relevant overview of current anatomic and physiologic imaging of brain tumors as a foundation for further investigations, with a primary focus on MR imaging and PET techniques that have demonstrated utility in the current care of brain tumor patients.

  13. MR Imaging-Guided Attenuation Correction of PET Data in PET/MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-04-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) is one of the most important challenges in the recently introduced combined PET/magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. PET/MR AC (MR-AC) approaches aim to develop methods that allow accurate estimation of the linear attenuation coefficients of the tissues and other components located in the PET field of view. MR-AC methods can be divided into 3 categories: segmentation, atlas, and PET based. This review provides a comprehensive list of the state-of-the-art MR-AC approaches and their pros and cons. The main sources of artifacts are presented. Finally, this review discusses the current status of MR-AC approaches for clinical applications. PMID:26952727

  14. Clinical PET/MR Imaging in Oncology: Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Andreas; Torigian, Drew A

    2016-10-01

    In 2011, the first fully integrated commercially available clinical PET/MR imaging systems became available, and the imaging community thought that these scanners would replace PET/CT systems. However, today a disappointing number of less than 100 scanners have been installed worldwide. The question, therefore, arises regarding what the future clinical applications of PET/MR imaging will be. In this article, the authors discuss ways in which PET/MR imaging may be used in future applications that justify the added cost, predominantly focusing on oncologic applications. The authors suggest that such areas include combined molecular and functional imaging, multimodality radiomics, and hyperPET. PMID:27593252

  15. Brain PET in the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Charles; Mena, Esther; Subramaniam, Rathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to review the current role of brain PET in the diagnosis of Alzheimer dementia. The characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism on brain FDG-PET can help in differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from other causes of dementia such as frontotemporal dementia and dementia of Lewy body. Amyloid brain PET may exclude significant amyloid deposition and thus Alzheimer’s disease in appropriate clinical setting. Conclusions FDG-PET and amyloid PET imaging are valuable in the assessment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25199063

  16. (18)F-FDG PET/CT quantification in head and neck squamous cell cancer: principles, technical issues and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Manca, Gianpiero; Vanzi, Eleonora; Rubello, Domenico; Giammarile, Francesco; Grassetto, Gaia; Wong, Ka Kit; Perkins, Alan C; Colletti, Patrick M; Volterrani, Duccio

    2016-07-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). The major clinical applications of this method include diagnosing an unknown primary tumour, identifying regional lymph node involvement and distant metastases, and providing prognostic information. (18)F-FDG PET/CT is also used for precise delineation of the tumour volume for radiation therapy planning and dose painting, and for treatment response monitoring, by detecting residual or recurrent disease. Most of these applications would benefit from a quantitative approach to the disease, but the quantitative capability of (18)F-FDG PET/CT is still underused in HNSCC. Innovations in PET/CT technology promise to overcome the issues that until now have hindered the employment of dynamic procedures in clinical practice and have limited "quantification" to the evaluation of standardized uptake values (SUV), de facto a semiquantitative parameter, the limits of which are well known to the nuclear medicine community. In this paper the principles of quantitative imaging and the related technical issues are reviewed so that professionals involved in HNSCC management can reflect on the advantages of "true" quantification. A discussion is then presented on how semiquantitative information is currently used in clinical (18)F-FDG PET/CT applications in HNSCC, by discussing the improvements that could be obtained with more advanced and "personalized" quantification techniques.

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow imaging: A quantitative comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT with C15O2 PET

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmell, H.G.; Evans, N.T.; Besson, J.A.; Roeda, D.; Davidson, J.; Dodd, M.G.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Crawford, J.R.; Newton, R.H. )

    1990-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). As investigation of dementia is likely to be one of the main uses of routine rCBF imaging, 18 demented patients were imaged with both techniques. The PET data were compared quantitatively with three versions of the SPECT data. These were, first, data normalized to the SPECT cerebellar uptake, second, data linearly corrected using the PET cerebellar value and, finally, data Lassen corrected for washout from the high flow areas. Both the linearly-corrected (r = 0.81) and the Lassen-corrected (r = 0.79) HMPAO SPECT data showed good correlation with the PET rCBF data. The relationship between the normalized HMPAO SPECT data and the PET data was nonlinear. It is not yet possible to obtain rCBF values in absolute units from HMPAO SPECT without knowledge of the true rCBF in one reference region for each patient.

  18. Effects of calcium feeding strategy on true ileal phosphorus digestibility and true phosphorus retention determined with growing broilers.

    PubMed

    Perryman, K R; Masey O'Neill, H V; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2016-05-01

    An experiment utilizing 960 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers was conducted to determine the effects of Ca feeding strategy on true ileal (prececal) P digestibility (TIPD) and true P retention (TPR) of corn. Experimental diets were formulated with 1 of 3 dietary Ca feeding strategies (0.95%, 0.13%, or variable Ca concentrations to maintain a 2.1:1 Ca:P ratio) and contain 0, 25, 50, or 75% corn. A practical corn-soybean meal diet (1.4:1 Ca:P ratio) was fed as a control. After receiving a common starter diet, experimental diets were fed from 19 to 26 d of age. After a 48-h dietary adaptation period, a 48-h retention assay was conducted. At 25 and 26 d of age, ileal digesta were collected from 8 birds per cage. Broilers consuming the control diet had higher (P<0.001) BW gain, feed intake, digesta P, and excreta P than broilers consuming the corn titration diets. Digesta and excreta P increased (linear, P<0.05) with graded increases of corn. True ileal P digestibility and TPR were highest (P<0.05) for diets with 0.13% Ca (57.3 and 69.5%, respectively) compared with diets formulated with a 2.1:1 Ca:P ratio (41.2 and 37.8%, respectively) or 0.95% Ca (25.4 and 39.0%, respectively). Values for TPR were higher (P<0.05) than those for TIPD except when the dietary Ca:P ratio was fixed. Additionally, negative endogenous P losses were predicted by regression equations when TPR was estimated for birds fed titration diets with the fixed Ca:P ratio. Changing the Ca concentration of the diets to maintain a fixed Ca:P ratio influenced (P<0.001) apparent P retention, which affected the estimate for TPR due to the prediction of negative endogenous P losses. These data demonstrated that regression analysis may have limitations when estimating the TIPD or TPR of corn when formulating diets with different Ca feeding strategies. More research is necessary to elucidate the factors that contributed to regression equations predicting negative endogenous P losses.

  19. Hybrid PET/MR imaging: physics and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shetal N; Huang, Steve S

    2015-08-01

    In just over a decade, hybrid imaging with FDG PET/CT has become a standard bearer in the management of cancer patients. An exquisitely sensitive whole-body imaging modality, it combines the ability to detect subtle biologic changes with FDG PET and the anatomic information offered by CT scans. With advances in MR technology and advent of novel targeted PET radiotracers, hybrid PET/MRI is an evolutionary technique that is poised to revolutionize hybrid imaging. It offers unparalleled spatial resolution and functional multi-parametric data combined with biologic information in the non-invasive detection and characterization of diseases, without the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. This article reviews the basic principles of FDG PET and MR imaging, discusses the salient technical developments of hybrid PET/MR systems, and provides an introduction to FDG PET/MR image acquisition.

  20. Supplemental transmission method for improved PET attenuation correction on an integrated MR/PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Although MR image segmentation, combined with information from the PET emission data, has achieved a clinically usable PET attenuation correction (AC) on whole-body MR/PET systems, more accurate PET AC remains one of the main instrumental challenges for quantitative imaging. Incorporating a full conventional PET transmission system in these machines would be difficult, but even a small amount of transmission data might usefully complement the MR-based estimate of the PET attenuation image. In this paper we explore one possible configuration for such a system that uses a small number of fixed line sources placed around the periphery of the patient tunnel. These line sources are implemented using targeted positron beams. The sparse transmission (sTX) data are collected simultaneously with the emission (EM) acquisition. These data, plus a blank scan, are combined with a partially known attenuation image estimate in a modified version of the maximum likelihood for attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm, to estimate values of the linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) in unknown regions of the image. This algorithm was tested in two simple phantom experiments. We find that the use of supplemental transmission data can significantly improve the accuracy of the estimated LAC in a truncated region, as well as the estimate of the emitter concentration within the phantom. In the experiments, the bias in the EM+sTX estimate of emitter concentrations was 3-5%, compared to 15-20% with the use of EM-only data.

  1. AAPM Task Group 108: PET and PET/CT shielding requirements.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Mark T; Anderson, Jon A; Halama, James R; Kleck, Jeff; Simpkin, Douglas J; Votaw, John R; Wendt, Richard E; Williams, Lawrence E; Yester, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    The shielding of positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT (computed tomography) facilities presents special challenges. The 0.511 MeV annihilation photons associated with positron decay are much higher energy than other diagnostic radiations. As a result, barrier shielding may be required in floors and ceilings as well as adjacent walls. Since the patient becomes the radioactive source after the radiopharmaceutical has been administered, one has to consider the entire time that the subject remains in the clinic. In this report we present methods for estimating the shielding requirements for PET and PET/CT facilities. Information about the physical properties of the most commonly used clinical PET radionuclides is summarized, although the report primarily refers to fluorine-18. Typical PET imaging protocols are reviewed and exposure rates from patients are estimated including self-attenuation by body tissues and physical decay of the radionuclide. Examples of barrier calculations are presented for controlled and noncontrolled areas. Shielding for adjacent rooms with scintillation cameras is also discussed. Tables and graphs of estimated transmission factors for lead, steel, and concrete at 0.511 MeV are also included. Meeting the regulatory limits for uncontrolled areas can be an expensive proposition. Careful planning with the equipment vendor, facility architect, and a qualified medical physicist is necessary to produce a cost effective design while maintaining radiation safety standards. PMID:16485403

  2. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Vaska

    2016-07-12

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  3. PET Tracers Based on Zirconium-89

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies has always been a dynamic area in molecular imaging. With decay half-life (3.3 d) well matched to the circulation half-lives of antibodies (usually on the order of days), 89Zr has been extensively studied over the last decade. This review article will give a brief overview on 89Zr isotope production, the radiochemistry generally used for 89Zr-labeling, and the PET tracers that have been developed using 89Zr. To date, 89Zr-based PET imaging has been investigated for a wide variety of cancer-related targets, which include human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, epidermal growth factor receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, splice variant v6 of CD44, vascular endothelial growth factor, carbonic anhydrase IX, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, among others. With well-developed radiochemistry, commercial availability of chelating agents for 89Zr labeling, increasingly widely available isotope supply, as well as successful proof-of-principle in pilot human studies, it is expected that PET imaging with 89Zr-based tracers will be a constantly evolving and highly vibrant field in the near future. PMID:22191652

  4. 36 CFR 13.978 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pets. 13.978 Section 13.978 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Frontcountry Developed...

  5. 36 CFR 13.978 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pets. 13.978 Section 13.978 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Frontcountry Developed...

  6. 36 CFR 13.978 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pets. 13.978 Section 13.978 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Frontcountry Developed...

  7. Methods Needed to Curb Rising Pet Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses socioeconomic problems of pet population explosion and recommends the conduct of educational programs and the implementation of surgical sterilization as a short-term answer to dog and cat control. Also considered are problems of using chemical contraceptives in human population control. (CC)

  8. Probing neurodegeneration and aging: A PET approach

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, H.F.

    1995-12-31

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging has received wide application to the study of the aging brain and its diseases, most notably Parkinson`s Disease (PD) and Alzheimer`s Disease (AD). Basic neurological processes such as blood flow and glucose metabolism have been most often measured. Radioligands developed for specific neurochemical systems have amplified the flow and metabolism studies by more precisely defining the changes associated with degenerative processes. Our present research focuses on two additional applications of radiopharmaceutical development and PET imaging - (1) investigating the fundamental mechanisms of neurodegeneration and aging, and (2) assessing novel therapeutic intervention for PD with PET imaging. We have synthesized fluorine-18 labeled analogs of rotenone, a natural product that possesses high affinity to Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and evaluated their potential to study changes in neuronal mitochondrial density and function. A large body evidence points to mitochondrial dysfunction as a key factor in aging and neurodegeneration. We are also currently evaluating the use of genetically transfected cells to treat PD. Primates are being imaged with [{sup 18}F]flouro-m-L-tyrosine before and after MPTP Parkinsonian type lesioning and following implantation of genetically altered cells capable of secreting tyrosine hydroxylase into the lesioned area. The ability to develop and apply PET probes has significantly enhanced the understanding of normal, aging, and degenerative processes of the brain.

  9. Uterine disorders in 50 pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Grinninger, Petra; Shibly, Sarina; Hassan, Jasmin; Tichy, Alexander; Berghold, Petra; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of uterine disorders in pet rabbits is high there are only a few retrospective studies and case reports on genital tract disease in female rabbits. Uterine disorders were assessed in 50 pet rabbits. In 31 pet rabbits with suspected clinical uterine disease, medical records were further reviewed regarding clinical signs, diagnostic workup, treatment as well as the outcome itself. Uterine adenocarcinoma (54%) was most frequently diagnosed, followed by endometrial hyperplasia (26%). Serosanguineous vaginal discharge was the predominant clinical sign observed by the rabbit owners. In approximately 50% of the rabbits with suspected uterine disorders, abdominal palpation revealed enlarged and/or irregular masses in the caudoventral abdomen indicating uterine lesions. Out of 23 rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy, four were either euthanized or died shortly after surgery because they were clinically unstable. Overall, 80% of the ovariohysterectomized animals were still alive 6 mo after surgery. In female pet rabbits that are not breeding, either ovariohysterectomy should be performed at an early age or routine checks including ultrasonography of the abdomen are recommended on a regular basis.

  10. 36 CFR 2.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pets. 2.15 Section 2.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC... destroyed if necessary for public safety or protection of wildlife, livestock, or other park resources....

  11. 36 CFR 2.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pets. 2.15 Section 2.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC... destroyed if necessary for public safety or protection of wildlife, livestock, or other park resources....

  12. 36 CFR 2.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pets. 2.15 Section 2.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC... destroyed if necessary for public safety or protection of wildlife, livestock, or other park resources....

  13. 36 CFR 2.15 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pets. 2.15 Section 2.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC... destroyed if necessary for public safety or protection of wildlife, livestock, or other park resources....

  14. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. PMID:27092548

  15. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Vaska

    2011-03-09

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  16. 36 CFR 13.978 - Pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pets. 13.978 Section 13.978 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve Frontcountry Developed...

  17. A PET system based on 2-18FDG production with a low energy electrostatic proton accelerator and a dual headed PET scanner.

    PubMed

    Sandell, A; Ohlsson, T; Erlandsson, K; Hellborg, R; Strand, S E

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a comparatively inexpensive PET system, based on a rotating scanner with two scintillation camera heads, and a nearby low energy electrostatic proton accelerator for production of short-lived radionuclides. Using a 6 MeV proton beam of 5 microA, and by optimization of the target geometry for the 18O(p,n)18F reaction, 750 MBq of 2-18FDG can be obtained. The PET scanner shows a spatial resolution of 6 mm (FWHM) and a sensitivity of 80 s-1kBq-1ml-1 (3 kcps/microCi/ml). Various corrections are included in the imaging process, to compensate for spatial and temporal response variations in the detector system. Both filtered backprojection and iterative reconstruction methods are employed. Clinical studies have been performed with acquisition times of 30-40 min. The system will be used for clinical experimental research with short- as well as long-lived positron emitters. Also the possibility of true 3D reconstruction is under evaluation.

  18. Use of TrueBeam developer mode for imaging QA.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Gilmer; Morin, Olivier; Valenciaga, Yanisley; Kirby, Niel; Pouliot, Jean; Chuang, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to automate regular Imaging QA procedures to become more efficient and accurate. Daily and monthly imaging QA for SRS and SBRT protocols were fully automated on a Varian linac. A three-step paradigm where the data are automatically acquired, processed, and analyzed was defined. XML scripts were written and used in developer mode in a TrueBeam linac to automatically acquire data. MATLAB R013B was used to develop an interface that could allow the data to be processed and analyzed. Hardware was developed that allowed the localization of several phantoms simultaneously on the couch. 14 KV CBCTs from the Emma phantom were obtained using a TrueBeam onboard imager as example of data acquisition and analysis. The images were acquired during two months. Artifacts were artificially introduced in the images during the reconstruction process using iTool reconstructor. Support vector machine algorithms to automatically identify each artifact were written using the Machine Learning MATLAB R2011 Toolbox. A daily imaging QA test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 14.3 ± 2.4 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 4.2 ± 0.7 min. In the same manner, a monthly imaging QA could be performed by a physicist in 70.7 ± 8.0 min and, if fully automated, in 21.8 ± 0.6 min. Additionally, quantitative data analysis could be automatically performed by Machine Learning Algorithms that could remove the subjectivity of data interpretation in the QA process. For instance, support vector machine algorithms could correctly identify beam hardening, rings and scatter artifacts. Traditional metrics, as well as metrics that describe texture, are needed for the classification. Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging capabilities that are used for patient alignment, substantially improving IGRT treatment accuracy. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA

  19. True beam commissioning experience at Nordland Hospital Trust, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daci, Lulzime; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the measured of all photon beam data of first Varian True Beam version 2.0 slim model, recently commissioned at Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø. To compare and evaluate the possibility of beam matching with the Clinac2300, for the energies of 6MV and 15 MV. Materials/Methods: Measurements of PDD, OAR, and Output factors were realized with the IBA Blue-phantom with different detectors and evaluated between them for all photon energies: 6MV, 15MV, 6MV FFF and 10MV FFF. The ionization chambers used were Pin Point CC01, CC04, Semiflex CC13 and photon diode by Iba dosimetry. The data were processed using Beizer algorithm with a resolution of 1 mm. The measured depth dose curves, diagonals, OAR, and output factors were imported into Eclipse in order to calculate beam data for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA version 10.0.28) for both the dataset measured with CC04 and CC13 and compared. The model head of 23EX was selected as the most near model to True Beam as a restriction of our version of Aria. It was seen that better results were achieved with the CC04 measured data as a result of better resolution. For the biggest field after 10 cm depth a larger difference is seen between measured and calculated for both dataset, but it is within the criteria for acceptance. Results: The Beam analysis criteria of 2 mm at 50% dose is achieved for all the fields accept for 40x40 that is within 3%. Depth difference at maximum dose is within 1 mm for all the fields and dose difference at 100 mm and 200 mm is lower than 1% for or all the fields. The PDD between two machines for all the fields differ after Dmax with less than 1%. For profiles in the field zone and outside field the difference is within 1% for all the fields. In the penumbra region the difference is from 2% up to 12% for big fields. As for diagonals they differ as a result of the head construction at the edge of the field and the penumbra region. The output factors differ for big fields within 5% and

  20. Use of TrueBeam developer mode for imaging QA.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Gilmer; Morin, Olivier; Valenciaga, Yanisley; Kirby, Niel; Pouliot, Jean; Chuang, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to automate regular Imaging QA procedures to become more efficient and accurate. Daily and monthly imaging QA for SRS and SBRT protocols were fully automated on a Varian linac. A three-step paradigm where the data are automatically acquired, processed, and analyzed was defined. XML scripts were written and used in developer mode in a TrueBeam linac to automatically acquire data. MATLAB R013B was used to develop an interface that could allow the data to be processed and analyzed. Hardware was developed that allowed the localization of several phantoms simultaneously on the couch. 14 KV CBCTs from the Emma phantom were obtained using a TrueBeam onboard imager as example of data acquisition and analysis. The images were acquired during two months. Artifacts were artificially introduced in the images during the reconstruction process using iTool reconstructor. Support vector machine algorithms to automatically identify each artifact were written using the Machine Learning MATLAB R2011 Toolbox. A daily imaging QA test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 14.3 ± 2.4 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 4.2 ± 0.7 min. In the same manner, a monthly imaging QA could be performed by a physicist in 70.7 ± 8.0 min and, if fully automated, in 21.8 ± 0.6 min. Additionally, quantitative data analysis could be automatically performed by Machine Learning Algorithms that could remove the subjectivity of data interpretation in the QA process. For instance, support vector machine algorithms could correctly identify beam hardening, rings and scatter artifacts. Traditional metrics, as well as metrics that describe texture, are needed for the classification. Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging capabilities that are used for patient alignment, substantially improving IGRT treatment accuracy. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA

  1. Pet ownership among homeless youth: associations with mental health, service utilization and housing status.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2015-04-01

    As many as 25 % of homeless persons have pets. To our knowledge, pet ownership has not been studied quantitatively with homeless youth. This study examined pet ownership among 398 homeless youth utilizing two Los Angeles drop-in centers. Twenty-three percent of homeless youth had a pet. The majority of pet owners reported that their pets kept them company and made them feel loved; nearly half reported that their pets made it more difficult to stay in a shelter. Pet owners reported fewer symptoms of depression and loneliness than their non-pet owning peers. Pet ownership was associated with decreased utilization of housing and job-finding services, and decreased likelihood of currently staying in a shelter. These findings elucidate many of the positive benefits of pet ownership for homeless youth, but importantly highlight that pet ownership may negatively impact housing options. Housing and other services must be sensitive to the needs of homeless youth with pets. PMID:24728815

  2. Pet ownership among homeless youth: associations with mental health, service utilization and housing status.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2015-04-01

    As many as 25 % of homeless persons have pets. To our knowledge, pet ownership has not been studied quantitatively with homeless youth. This study examined pet ownership among 398 homeless youth utilizing two Los Angeles drop-in centers. Twenty-three percent of homeless youth had a pet. The majority of pet owners reported that their pets kept them company and made them feel loved; nearly half reported that their pets made it more difficult to stay in a shelter. Pet owners reported fewer symptoms of depression and loneliness than their non-pet owning peers. Pet ownership was associated with decreased utilization of housing and job-finding services, and decreased likelihood of currently staying in a shelter. These findings elucidate many of the positive benefits of pet ownership for homeless youth, but importantly highlight that pet ownership may negatively impact housing options. Housing and other services must be sensitive to the needs of homeless youth with pets.

  3. Linguistic Determinants of the Difficulty of True-False Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1976-01-01

    Adults read a prose passage and responded to passages based on it which were either true or false and were phrased either affirmatively or negatively. True negatives yielded most errors, followed in order by false negatives, true affirmatives, and false affirmatives. (Author/RC)

  4. 77 FR 33794 - True Product ID, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION True Product ID, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 5, 2012. It appears to the Securities... securities of True Product ID, Inc. (``True Product'') because it has not filed a periodic report since...

  5. Having One's Cake and Eating It, Too: Combining True Experiments with Regression Discontinuity Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Marvin B.

    2008-01-01

    Both true experiments and regression discontinuity (RD) designs produce unbiased estimates of effects. However, true experiments are, of course, often criticized on equity grounds, whereas RD designs entail sacrifices in terms of statistical precision. In this article, a hybrid of true experiments and RD designs is considered. This hybrid entails…

  6. Linear Prediction of a True Score from a Direct Estimate and Several Derived Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Qian, Jiahe

    2007-01-01

    Statistical prediction problems often involve both a direct estimate of a true score and covariates of this true score. Given the criterion of mean squared error, this study determines the best linear predictor of the true score given the direct estimate and the covariates. Results yield an extension of Kelley's formula for estimation of the true…

  7. True unipolar ECG machine for Wilson Central Terminal measurements.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D

    2015-01-01

    Since its invention (more than 80 years ago), modern electrocardiography has employed a supposedly stable voltage reference (with little variation during the cardiac cycle) for half of the signals. This reference, known by the name of "Wilson Central Terminal" in honor of its inventor, is obtained by averaging the three active limb electrode voltages measured with respect to the return ground electrode. However, concerns have been raised by researchers about problems (biasing and misdiagnosis) associated with the ambiguous value and behavior of this reference voltage, which requires perfect and balanced contact of at least four electrodes to work properly. The Wilson Central Terminal has received scant research attention in the last few decades even though consideration of recent widespread medical practice (limb electrodes are repositioned closer to the torso for resting electrocardiography) has also sparkled concerns about the validity and diagnostic fitness of leads not referred to the Wilson Central Terminal. Using a true unipolar electrocardiography device capable of precisely measuring the Wilson Central Terminal, we show its unpredictable variability during the cardiac cycle and confirm that the integrity of cardinal leads is compromised as well as the Wilson Central Terminal when limb electrodes are placed close to the torso. PMID:26495303

  8. Type I restriction endonucleases are true catalytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Piero R; Xu, Cuiling; Chi, Min

    2009-06-01

    Type I restriction endonucleases are intriguing, multifunctional complexes that restrict DNA randomly, at sites distant from the target sequence. Restriction at distant sites is facilitated by ATP hydrolysis-dependent, translocation of double-stranded DNA towards the stationary enzyme bound at the recognition sequence. Following restriction, the enzymes are thought to remain associated with the DNA at the target site, hydrolyzing copious amounts of ATP. As a result, for the past 35 years type I restriction endonucleases could only be loosely classified as enzymes since they functioned stoichiometrically relative to DNA. To further understand enzyme mechanism, a detailed analysis of DNA cleavage by the EcoR124I holoenzyme was done. We demonstrate for the first time that type I restriction endonucleases are not stoichiometric but are instead catalytic with respect to DNA. Further, the mechanism involves formation of a dimer of holoenzymes, with each monomer bound to a target sequence and, following cleavage, each dissociates in an intact form to bind and restrict subsequent DNA molecules. Therefore, type I restriction endonucleases, like their type II counterparts, are true enzymes. The conclusion that type I restriction enzymes are catalytic relative to DNA has important implications for the in vivo function of these previously enigmatic enzymes.

  9. Blood flow estimation in gastroscopic true-color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Raffael S.; Herpers, Rainer; Zwiebel, Franz M.; Englmeier, Karl-Hans

    1995-05-01

    The assessment of blood flow in the gastrointestinal mucosa might be an important factor for the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases such as ulcers, gastritis, colitis, or early cancer. The quantity of blood flow is roughly estimated by computing the spatial hemoglobin distribution in the mucosa. The presented method enables a practical realization by calculating approximately the hemoglobin concentration based on a spectrophotometric analysis of endoscopic true-color images, which are recorded during routine examinations. A system model based on the reflectance spectroscopic law of Kubelka-Munk is derived which enables an estimation of the hemoglobin concentration by means of the color values of the images. Additionally, a transformation of the color values is developed in order to improve the luminance independence. Applying this transformation and estimating the hemoglobin concentration for each pixel of interest, the hemoglobin distribution can be computed. The obtained results are mostly independent of luminance. An initial validation of the presented method is performed by a quantitative estimation of the reproducibility.

  10. [Neurological Signs and Symptoms of True Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Mana; Konoeda, Fumie; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but many aspects of its pathology, including its definition, has been disputed. True neurogenic TOS (TN-TOS) is a rare but well-defined clinical condition. TN-TOS results from the compression of the C8/T1 roots (dominant for the T1 root) or the proximal lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a fibrous band. The band extends from the first rib to either the tip of an elongated C7 transverse process or a rudimentary cervical rib. The most common presenting symptoms of TN-TOS are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digit flexors. Nerve conduction studies demonstrate pathognomonic findings: severely attenuated compound muscle action potential of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, and usually, loss of the sensory nerve action potential of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Numbness and sensory loss are typically observed, mainly in the medial forearm, although they are usually mild, and may be absent in some patients. Severe pain or paresthesia proximal to the elbow is not observed. The classical concept of TOS underlie nonspecific neurogenic TOS. It has been primarily diagnosed using provocative maneuvers. However, there is controversy regarding its pathological conceptualization and existence, as objective evidence of the disease is still lacking. PMID:27156505

  11. FPGA Implementation of Metastability-Based True Random Number Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Shuichi

    True random number generators (TRNGs) are important as a basis for computer security. Though there are some TRNGs composed of analog circuit, the use of digital circuits is desired for the application of TRNGs to logic LSIs. Some of the digital TRNGs utilize jitter in free-running ring oscillators as a source of entropy, which consume large power. Another type of TRNG exploits the metastability of a latch to generate entropy. Although this kind of TRNG has been mostly implemented with full-custom LSI technology, this study presents an implementation based on common FPGA technology. Our TRNG is comprised of logic gates only, and can be integrated in any kind of logic LSI. The RS latch in our TRNG is implemented as a hard-macro to guarantee the quality of randomness by minimizing the signal skew and load imbalance of internal nodes. To improve the quality and throughput, the output of 64-256 latches are XOR'ed. The derived design was verified on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA (XC4VFX20), and passed NIST statistical test suite without post-processing. Our TRNG with 256 latches occupies 580 slices, while achieving 12.5Mbps throughput.

  12. Characterizing the True Background Corona with SDO/AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napier, Kate; Winebarger, Amy; Alexander, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the nature of the solar coronal background would enable scientists to more accurately determine plasma parameters, and may lead to a better understanding of the coronal heating problem. Because scientists study the 3D structure of the Sun in 2D, any line of sight includes both foreground and background material, and thus, the issue of background subtraction arises. By investigating the intensity values in and around an active region, using multiple wavelengths collected from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) over an eight-hour period, this project aims to characterize the background as smooth or structured. Different methods were employed to measure the true coronal background and create minimum intensity images. These were then investigated for the presence of structure. The background images created were found to contain long-lived structures, including coronal loops, that were still present in all of the wavelengths, 193 Angstroms,171 Angstroms,131 Angstroms, and 211 Angstroms. The intensity profiles across the active region indicate that the background is much more structured than previously thought.

  13. The quest for a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Godfroid, J; DeBolle, X; Roop, R M; O'Callaghan, D; Tsolis, R M; Baldwin, C; Santos, R L; McGiven, J; Olsen, S; Nymo, I H; Larsen, A; Al Dahouk, S; Letesson, J J

    2014-08-01

    One Health is an interdisciplinary collaboration that aims at mitigating risks to human health arising from microorganisms present in non-human animal species, which have the potential to be transmitted and cause disease in humans. Different degrees of scientific collaboration and sectoral integration are needed for different types of zoonotic diseases, depending on the health and associated economic gains that can be expected from a One Health approach. Indeed, mitigating zoonotic risks related to emerging diseases with pandemic potential is different from mitigating risks related to endemic zoonotic diseases like brucellosis. Likewise, management of brucellosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in wildlife conservation areas is in essence different from mitigating transmission of a given Brucella species within its preferential host species, which in turn is different from mitigating the spillover of a given Brucella species to non-preferential host species, humans included. Brucellosis economic models often oversimplify and/or wrongly assess transmission between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts. Moreover,they may not properly value non-market outcomes, such as avoidance of human disease, consumer confidence and conservation biology issues. As a result, uncertainty is such that the economic predictions of these models can be questionable. Therefore, understanding the infection biology of Brucella species is a prerequisite. This paper reviews and highlights important features of the infection biology of Brucella species and the changing epidemiology of brucellosis that need to be integrated into a true One Health perspective of brucellosis. PMID:25707181

  14. The quest for a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Godfroid, J; DeBolle, X; Roop, R M; O'Callaghan, D; Tsolis, R M; Baldwin, C; Santos, R L; McGiven, J; Olsen, S; Nymo, I H; Larsen, A; Al Dahouk, S; Letesson, J J

    2014-08-01

    One Health is an interdisciplinary collaboration that aims at mitigating risks to human health arising from microorganisms present in non-human animal species, which have the potential to be transmitted and cause disease in humans. Different degrees of scientific collaboration and sectoral integration are needed for different types of zoonotic diseases, depending on the health and associated economic gains that can be expected from a One Health approach. Indeed, mitigating zoonotic risks related to emerging diseases with pandemic potential is different from mitigating risks related to endemic zoonotic diseases like brucellosis. Likewise, management of brucellosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in wildlife conservation areas is in essence different from mitigating transmission of a given Brucella species within its preferential host species, which in turn is different from mitigating the spillover of a given Brucella species to non-preferential host species, humans included. Brucellosis economic models often oversimplify and/or wrongly assess transmission between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts. Moreover,they may not properly value non-market outcomes, such as avoidance of human disease, consumer confidence and conservation biology issues. As a result, uncertainty is such that the economic predictions of these models can be questionable. Therefore, understanding the infection biology of Brucella species is a prerequisite. This paper reviews and highlights important features of the infection biology of Brucella species and the changing epidemiology of brucellosis that need to be integrated into a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

  15. Crawford Williamson Long: The True Pioneer of Surgical Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Prado, Roberto; Schadegg-Peña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia and analgesia are as old as mankind itself. However, we now know that the true pioneer of surgical anesthesia through inhalation of ether was Doctor Crawford Williamson Long (1815-1878), who endeavored to help his profession and mankind without pursuing any reward or honor. Crawford Williamson Long was a great and beloved American surgeon. He was a well-educated and elegant man with an outstanding personality. Crawford was born in Danielsville, Georgia, in the United States and was the son of James Long and Elizabeth Ware Long. He married Mary Caroline Swain Long and gave birth to 12 children. Long proved the effectiveness of ether after painlessly removing a tumor from the neck. In 1847, a rivalry broke out among Horace Wells, Charles Thomas Jackson, and William Thomas Green Morton for the primacy as regards the discovery of anesthesia. The US Congress offered itself to arbitrate the case of the so called "ether controversy." Finally, a few years after the end of the North American Civil War, while taking care of a patient, Crawford passed away, presumably after suffering a stroke. PMID:26268419

  16. Topographic evidence of True Polar Wander on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajeddine, R.; Soderlund, K. M.; Thomas, P.; Helfenstein, P.; Schenk, P.; Hedman, M. M.; Burns, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The peculiar presence of the active hotspot at Enceladus' south pole raises the question of whether it formed in situor if the satellite reoriented over time and moved the hotspot there from a different location. Here we extend a spherical harmonic reconstruction of Enceladus' shape to order 16 by combining Cassini limb profile data with the positions of a large, globally distributed collection of surface control points. We have discovered an aligned arrangement of deep topographic lows that define a circumglobal valley lying along a non-equatorial great circle across Enceladus' surface. In addition, we have found two antipodal basins located about 90 degrees from the great circle. We argue that these structures are evidence of True Polar Wander of an angle 75 to 90 degrees, where the great circle and the antipodal regions are remnants of old equator and poles, respectively. Modeling of heat transport in Enceladus' sub-surface ocean suggests that heat flux along the ice-ocean interface is strongest and weakest at high and low latitudes, respectively. The resulting basal melt/freeze distribution may produce latitudinal variations in ice shell thickness and density that can create the topographic depressions apparent at the surface through isostatic adjustment. Our hypothesis also agrees well with the surface geological features visible in Cassini images.

  17. [Isolated true aneurysm of the deep femoral artery].

    PubMed

    Salomon du Mont, L; Holzer, T; Kazandjian, C; Saucy, F; Corpataux, J M; Rinckenbach, S; Déglise, S

    2016-07-01

    Aneurysms of the deep femoral artery, accounting for 5% of all femoral aneurysms, are uncommon. There is a serious risk of rupture. We report the case of an 83-year-old patient with a painless pulsatile mass in the right groin due to an aneurysm of the deep femoral artery. History taking revealed no cardiovascular risk factors and no other aneurysms at other localizations. The etiology remained unclear because no recent history of local trauma or puncture was found. ACT angiography was performed, revealing a true isolated aneurysm of the deep femoral artery with a diameter of 90mm, beginning 1cm after its origin. There were no signs of rupture or distal emboli. Due to unsuitable anatomy for an endovascular approach, the patient underwent open surgery, with exclusion of the aneurysm and interposition of an 8-mm Dacron graft to preserve deep femoral artery flow. Due to their localization, the diagnosis and the management of aneurysms of the deep femoral artery can be difficult. Options are surgical exclusion or an endovascular approach in the absence of symptoms or as a bridging therapy. If possible, blood flow to the distal deep femoral artery should be maintained, the decision depending also on the patency of the superficial femoral artery. In case of large size, aneurysms of the deep femoral artery should be treated without any delay.

  18. Gender dysphoria in a child with true hermaphroditism.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Bradley, S J; Hughes, H E

    1987-10-01

    This case report describes the psychosexual development of a child with true hermaphroditism who was assigned to the male sex at birth, but reassigned to the female sex at age two months. Given this child's excessive exposure to male sex hormone in utero, relative to physically normal females, one would predict a biological predisposition to behave in a masculine manner. This has occurred since two years of age. In addition, this child has had periodic episodes of gender disturbance, dysphoria, and ambivalence. In contrast, a physically normal fraternal twin sister has been conventionally feminine. A number of psychosocial factors appeared to have exacerbated the biologic predisposition to behave in a masculine manner, and thus may have been responsible for "pushing" this child into varying degrees of gender identity conflict. These included a closer father-daughter than mother-daughter relationship, parental tolerance of cross-gender behavior, and a mother who has been psychologically disturbed since the birth of her children. The heuristic value of this case will be discussed in relation to contemporary models of psychosexual development which emphasize the interaction of biological and psychosocial factors.

  19. True-personality-assisted self-awareness expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Laleuf, M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on psychoanalytic theory, the Who am I expert system explains in simple terms the individual's true personality, even it its unconscious or hidden aspects. Our overt personality traits are deeply rooted. The Who am I expert system gives access to an individual's primary personality, starting from his habitual everyday-life behavior: (1) describes the individual's basic personality, (2) explains this personality through the individual's deeply rooted experience and motivation, and (3) makes links with other people with a similar profile. The following are the primary features of the system: easy individual access, results in <20 minutes, and guaranteed confidentiality. Business applications include the following: (1) Individual training: Self-awareness improves a person's ability to fit in and to succeed within the group. (2) Communication: a homogeneous team has a better chance of success. (3) Human reliability: A close-knit team remains reliable even when faced with serious difficulties. (4) Recruitment: This technique enables the selection of individuals who will fit an existing homogeneous team. The system also enables a psychological diagnosis to be confirmed.

  20. True Unipolar ECG Machine for Wilson Central Terminal Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D.

    2015-01-01

    Since its invention (more than 80 years ago), modern electrocardiography has employed a supposedly stable voltage reference (with little variation during the cardiac cycle) for half of the signals. This reference, known by the name of “Wilson Central Terminal” in honor of its inventor, is obtained by averaging the three active limb electrode voltages measured with respect to the return ground electrode. However, concerns have been raised by researchers about problems (biasing and misdiagnosis) associated with the ambiguous value and behavior of this reference voltage, which requires perfect and balanced contact of at least four electrodes to work properly. The Wilson Central Terminal has received scant research attention in the last few decades even though consideration of recent widespread medical practice (limb electrodes are repositioned closer to the torso for resting electrocardiography) has also sparkled concerns about the validity and diagnostic fitness of leads not referred to the Wilson Central Terminal. Using a true unipolar electrocardiography device capable of precisely measuring the Wilson Central Terminal, we show its unpredictable variability during the cardiac cycle and confirm that the integrity of cardinal leads is compromised as well as the Wilson Central Terminal when limb electrodes are placed close to the torso. PMID:26495303

  1. Sulfur-Rich Rocks and Dirt (True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rover Spirit has been analyzing sulfur-rich rocks and surface materials in the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater on Mars. This image of a very soft, nodular, layered rock nicknamed 'Peace' in honor of Martin Luther King Jr. shows a 4.5-centimeter-wide (1.8-inch-wide) hole Spirit ground into the surface with the rover's rock abrasion tool. The high sulfur content of the rock measured by Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and its softness measured by the abrasion tool are probably evidence of past alteration by water. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on martian day, or sol, 381 (Jan. 27, 2005). The image represents the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating a true color view of what this scene would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. The image was generated from a combination of six calibrated, left-eye Pancam images acquired through filters ranging from 430-nanometer to 750-nanometer wavelengths.

  2. Efficient true-time-delay adaptive array processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Kelvin H.; Kraut, Shawn; Griffiths, Lloyd J.; Weaver, Samuel P.; Weverka, Robert T.; Sarto, Anthony W.

    1996-11-01

    We present a novel and efficient approach to true-time-delay (TTD) beamforming for large adaptive phased arrays with N elements, for application in radar, sonar, and communication. This broadband and efficient adaptive method for time-delay array processing algorithm decreases the number of tapped delay lines required for N-element arrays form N to only 2, producing an enormous savings in optical hardware, especially for large arrays. This new adaptive system provides the full NM degrees of freedom of a conventional N element time delay beamformer with M taps, each, enabling it to fully and optimally adapt to an arbitrary complex spatio-temporal signal environment that can contain broadband signals, noise, and narrowband and broadband jammers, all of which can arrive from arbitrary angles onto an arbitrarily shaped array. The photonic implementation of this algorithm uses index gratings produce in the volume of photorefractive crystals as the adaptive weights in a TTD beamforming network, 1 or 2 acousto-optic devices for signal injection, and 1 or 2 time-delay-and- integrate detectors for signal extraction. This approach achieves significant reduction in hardware complexity when compared to systems employing discrete RF hardware for the weights or when compared to alternative optical systems that typically use N channel acousto-optic deflectors.

  3. True metabolizable energy of moist-soil seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Checkett, J.M.; Drobney, R.D.; Petrie, M.J.; Graber, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl are often established by converting population energy demands into an equivalent measure of foraging habitat. In some areas, seeds produced from moist-soil plants provide a significant proportion of the energy available to waterfowl. To accurately establish habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl, managers must estimate seed production from moist-soil plants and have information on metabolizable energy (ME) of moist-soil seeds. Although methods for estimating seed production have been developed, ME has been determined for few natural seeds. We determined true metabolizable energy (TME) of 10 moist-soil seeds commonly consumed by wintering and migrating ducks. TME estimates were similar (P>0.05) for hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis; 3.09 kcal/g), little hairy crabgrass (D. ischaemum; 3.10 kcal/g), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.; 2.97 kcal/g), yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens; 2.88 kcal/g), fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum; 2.75 kcal/g), curly dock (Rumex crispus; 2.68 kcal/g), and wild millet (Echinochloa crusgalli; 2.61 kcal/g), but less (P<0.05) for beakrush (Rynchospora corniculata; 1.86 kcal/g), paspalum (Paspalum laeve; 1.57 kcal/g), and nodding or curltop ladysthumb smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium; 1.52 kcal/g). TME values determined for moist-soil seeds in this study will allow managers to accurately estimate carrying capacity of waterfowl habitats.

  4. Atlas construction for dynamic (4D) PET using diffeomorphic transformations.

    PubMed

    Bieth, Marie; Lombaert, Hervé; Reader, Andrew J; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    A novel dynamic (4D) PET to PET image registration procedure is proposed and applied to multiple PET scans acquired with the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT), the highest resolution human brain PET scanner available in the world. By extending the recent diffeomorphic log-demons (DLD) method and applying it to multiple dynamic [11C]raclopride scans from the HRRT, an important step towards construction of a PET atlas of unprecedented quality for [11C]raclopride imaging of the human brain has been achieved. Accounting for the temporal dimension in PET data improves registration accuracy when compared to registration of 3D to 3D time-averaged PET images. The DLD approach was chosen for its ease in providing both an intensity and shape template, through iterative sequential pair-wise registrations with fast convergence. The proposed method is applicable to any PET radiotracer, providing 4D atlases with useful applications in high accuracy PET data simulations and automated PET image analysis. PMID:24579121

  5. A survey of attitudes toward responsible pet ownership.

    PubMed

    Selby, L A; Rhoades, J D; Hewett, J E; Irvin, J A

    1979-01-01

    The concerns of medical and community officials about responsible pet ownership have increased. Before a practical solution can be found for irresponsible ownership and community health problems associated with pet populations, the public's attitudes on issues related to responsible pet ownership must be determined. Such issues include attitudes on dog and cat overpopulation, potential public health problems associated with pet populations, and methods of controlling pet populations and stray animals. Responses to a questionnaire were used to evaluate the attitudes of 910 pet owners and nonowners toward factors comprising responsible pet ownership. The median age of the respondents was 33 years; 414 (45 percent) were men, and 496 (55 percent) were women. At the time of the study, 18 percent owned a cat and a dog, 35 percent owned only a dog, 11 percent showed only a cat, and 36 percent were nonowners. Not only the sex of the respondent but also the category of pet ownership affected opinions on overpopulation of dogs and cats, nuisance and pollution problems associated with these animals, and methods of controlling pet populations in the community. For example, owners agreed strongly on family planning for pets, but a majority of male owners stated that they would not have their dogs neutered.

  6. A meaty matter. Pet diet and the vegetarian's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2013-09-01

    The present research examined pet ownership, current pet diet, and guilt associated with pet diet among a fairly large sample of non-meat-eaters (n=515). It specifically focused on the conflict that pits feeding one's pet an animal-based diet that may be perceived as best promoting their well-being with concerns over animal welfare and environmental degradation threatened by such diets, here labeled the vegetarian's dilemma. Questionnaire responses indicated that ethically motivated meat abstainers were more likely to own pets and owned more of them than those motivated by health concerns or a combination of ethical and health concerns. Vegans and those resisting meat on ethical grounds were more likely to feed their pet a vegetarian diet and expressed the greatest concerns over feeding their pet an animal-based diet. For vegans and ethical meat abstainers, it is suggested that questions concerning what to feed their pet approaches a tragic tradeoff contrasting two sacred values: protecting the well-being of their pets and protecting the well-being of other animals and the environment. For meat abstainers motivated by health concerns, this constitutes a relatively easy moral problem because the primary concern for such individuals is the health of their pet with less or no regard for other ramifications of the decision, i.e., harming other animals or the environment. PMID:23619313

  7. A survey of attitudes toward responsible pet ownership.

    PubMed Central

    Selby, L A; Rhoades, J D; Hewett, J E; Irvin, J A

    1979-01-01

    The concerns of medical and community officials about responsible pet ownership have increased. Before a practical solution can be found for irresponsible ownership and community health problems associated with pet populations, the public's attitudes on issues related to responsible pet ownership must be determined. Such issues include attitudes on dog and cat overpopulation, potential public health problems associated with pet populations, and methods of controlling pet populations and stray animals. Responses to a questionnaire were used to evaluate the attitudes of 910 pet owners and nonowners toward factors comprising responsible pet ownership. The median age of the respondents was 33 years; 414 (45 percent) were men, and 496 (55 percent) were women. At the time of the study, 18 percent owned a cat and a dog, 35 percent owned only a dog, 11 percent showed only a cat, and 36 percent were nonowners. Not only the sex of the respondent but also the category of pet ownership affected opinions on overpopulation of dogs and cats, nuisance and pollution problems associated with these animals, and methods of controlling pet populations in the community. For example, owners agreed strongly on family planning for pets, but a majority of male owners stated that they would not have their dogs neutered. PMID:572978

  8. Recent Advances and Future Progress in PET Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Piotr J; Pan, Tinsu; Germano, Guido

    2016-01-01

    PET is an important and growing imaging modality. PET instrumentation has undergone a steady evolution improving various aspects of imaging. In this review, we discuss recent and future software and hardware technologies for PET/CT. The improvements include new hardware, incorporating designs with digital photomultipliers, and fast electronics, allowing implementation of time-of-flight reconstruction. Manufacturers also improved PET sensitivity with a larger axial field of view and 3D imaging. On the CT side, faster scanners and multislice detectors allow implementation of advanced acquisition protocols such as 4D CT and coronary CT angiography. Significant advances have been also made in the reconstruction software, now integrating resolution recovery with advanced iterative techniques. New PET acquisition protocols have been enabled to include continuous bed motion. Efforts have been undertaken to compensate PET scans for respiratory and also for cardiac patient motion (for cardiac imaging) during PET imaging, which significantly improves overall image quality and resolution. Finally, simultaneous PET/MR systems have been recently deployed clinically and now offer even greater potential of image quality and enhanced clinical utility. PET/MR imaging allows for perfectly registered attenuation maps, clinically important complementary MR information, and potentially superior motion correction. These recent multifaceted advances allow PET to remain as one of the most exciting and relevant imaging technologies. PMID:26687853

  9. Recent Advances and Future Progress in PET Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Piotr J; Pan, Tinsu; Germano, Guido

    2016-01-01

    PET is an important and growing imaging modality. PET instrumentation has undergone a steady evolution improving various aspects of imaging. In this review, we discuss recent and future software and hardware technologies for PET/CT. The improvements include new hardware, incorporating designs with digital photomultipliers, and fast electronics, allowing implementation of time-of-flight reconstruction. Manufacturers also improved PET sensitivity with a larger axial field of view and 3D imaging. On the CT side, faster scanners and multislice detectors allow implementation of advanced acquisition protocols such as 4D CT and coronary CT angiography. Significant advances have been also made in the reconstruction software, now integrating resolution recovery with advanced iterative techniques. New PET acquisition protocols have been enabled to include continuous bed motion. Efforts have been undertaken to compensate PET scans for respiratory and also for cardiac patient motion (for cardiac imaging) during PET imaging, which significantly improves overall image quality and resolution. Finally, simultaneous PET/MR systems have been recently deployed clinically and now offer even greater potential of image quality and enhanced clinical utility. PET/MR imaging allows for perfectly registered attenuation maps, clinically important complementary MR information, and potentially superior motion correction. These recent multifaceted advances allow PET to remain as one of the most exciting and relevant imaging technologies.

  10. Initial PET performance evaluation of a preclinical insert for PET/MRI with digital SiPM technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schug, David; Lerche, Christoph; Weissler, Bjoern; Gebhardt, Pierre; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Wehner, Jakob; Dueppenbecker, Peter Michael; Salomon, Andre; Hallen, Patrick; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    Hyperion-IID is a positron emission tomography (PET) insert which allows simultaneous operation in a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. To read out the scintillation light of the employed lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and 12 mm in height, digital silicon photomultipliers (DPC 3200-22, Philips Digital Photon Counting) (DPC) are used. The basic PET performance in terms of energy resolution, coincidence resolution time (CRT) and sensitivity as a function of the operating parameters, such as the operating temperature, the applied overvoltage, activity and configuration parameters of the DPCs, has been evaluated at system level. The measured energy resolution did not show a large dependency on the selected parameters and is in the range of 12.4%-12.9% for low activity, degrading to  ˜13.6% at an activity of  ˜100 MBq. The CRT strongly depends on the selected trigger scheme (trig) of the DPCs, and we measured approximately 260 ps, 440 ps, 550 ps and 1300 ps for trig 1-4, respectively. The trues sensitivity for a NEMA NU 4 mouse-sized scatter phantom with a 70 mm long tube of activity was dependent on the operating parameters and was determined to be 0.4%-1.4% at low activity. The random fraction stayed below 5% at activity up to 100 MBq and the scatter fraction was evaluated as  ˜6% for an energy window of 411 keV-561 keV and  ˜16% for 250 keV-625 keV. Furthermore, we performed imaging experiments using a mouse-sized hot-rod phantom and a large rabbit-sized phantom. In 2D slices of the reconstructed mouse-sized hot-rod phantom (∅ = 28 mm), the rods were distinguishable from each other down to a rod size of 0.8 mm. There was no benefit from the better CRT of trig 1 over trig 3, where in the larger rabbit-sized phantom (∅ = 114 mm) we were able to show a clear improvement in image quality using the time-of-flight information. The findings will allow system architects—aiming at a similar

  11. Initial PET performance evaluation of a preclinical insert for PET/MRI with digital SiPM technology.

    PubMed

    Schug, David; Lerche, Christoph; Weissler, Bjoern; Gebhardt, Pierre; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Wehner, Jakob; Dueppenbecker, Peter Michael; Salomon, Andre; Hallen, Patrick; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    Hyperion-II(D) is a positron emission tomography (PET) insert which allows simultaneous operation in a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. To read out the scintillation light of the employed lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and 12 mm in height, digital silicon photomultipliers (DPC 3200-22, Philips Digital Photon Counting) (DPC) are used. The basic PET performance in terms of energy resolution, coincidence resolution time (CRT) and sensitivity as a function of the operating parameters, such as the operating temperature, the applied overvoltage, activity and configuration parameters of the DPCs, has been evaluated at system level. The measured energy resolution did not show a large dependency on the selected parameters and is in the range of 12.4%-12.9% for low activity, degrading to  ∼13.6% at an activity of  ∼100 MBq. The CRT strongly depends on the selected trigger scheme (trig) of the DPCs, and we measured approximately 260 ps, 440 ps, 550 ps and 1300 ps for trig 1-4, respectively. The trues sensitivity for a NEMA NU 4 mouse-sized scatter phantom with a 70 mm long tube of activity was dependent on the operating parameters and was determined to be 0.4%-1.4% at low activity. The random fraction stayed below 5% at activity up to 100 MBq and the scatter fraction was evaluated as  ∼6% for an energy window of 411 keV-561 keV and  ∼16% for 250 keV-625 keV. Furthermore, we performed imaging experiments using a mouse-sized hot-rod phantom and a large rabbit-sized phantom. In 2D slices of the reconstructed mouse-sized hot-rod phantom (∅ = 28 mm), the rods were distinguishable from each other down to a rod size of 0.8 mm. There was no benefit from the better CRT of trig 1 over trig 3, where in the larger rabbit-sized phantom (∅ = 114 mm) we were able to show a clear improvement in image quality using the time-of-flight information. The findings will allow system architects-aiming at a

  12. 40 CFR Appendix: Table 1 to... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH Table Appendix: Table 1 to Subpart HHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  13. 40 CFR 406.103-406.104 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 406.103-406.104 Section 406.103-406.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory §§ 406.103-406.104...

  14. 40 CFR 406.105 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 406.105 Section 406.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten...

  15. 34 CFR 300.505 - Electronic mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Electronic mail. 300.505 Section 300.505 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.505 Electronic mail. A....508 by an electronic mail communication, if the public agency makes that option available....

  16. 41 CFR 51-1.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Policy. 51-1.1 Section 51-1.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL § 51-1.1 Policy. (a) It is...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  18. 41 CFR 51-2.8 - Procurement list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Procurement list. 51-2.8 Section 51-2.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM...

  19. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Membership. 51-2.1 Section 51-2.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM...

  20. 40 CFR 406.35 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 406.35 Section 406.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling...

  1. 40 CFR 406.43 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 406.43 Section 406.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.43...

  2. 40 CFR 406.31 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 406.31 Section 406.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.31...

  3. 32 CFR 643.123 - Reserve facilities-Local civic organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reserve facilities-Local civic organizations. 643.123 Section 643.123 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.123 Reserve...

  4. 40 CFR 201.28 - Testing by railroad to determine probable compliance with the standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Testing by railroad to determine...; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.28 Testing by railroad to determine probable compliance... whether it should institute noise abatement, a railroad may take measurements on its own property...

  5. 40 CFR 246.200-6 - Recommended procedures: Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Storage. 246....200-6 Recommended procedures: Storage. Among the alternatives for paper storage are on-site bailing, the use of stationary compactors, or storage in corrugated boxes or normal waste containers....

  6. 40 CFR 243.200 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Storage. 243.200 Section 243.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE STORAGE... Procedures § 243.200 Storage....

  7. 40 CFR 421.205 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 421.205 Section 421.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Mercury Subcategory § 421.205...

  8. 40 CFR 421.202-421.203 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 421.202-421.203 Section 421.202-421.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Mercury Subcategory §§ 421.202-421.203...

  9. 40 CFR 421.257 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 421.257 Section 421.257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Precious Metals and Mercury Subcategory § 421.257...

  10. 40 CFR 421.255 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 421.255 Section 421.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Precious Metals and Mercury Subcategory § 421.255...

  11. 40 CFR 421.207 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 421.207 Section 421.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Mercury Subcategory § 421.207...

  12. 41 CFR 50-204.3 - Material handling and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.3 Material handling and storage. (a) Where mechanical... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Material handling and... aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked. (b) Storage of material shall not create a...

  13. 40 CFR 233.41 - Requirements for enforcement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Requirements for enforcement authority. 233.41 Section 233.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN.... To the extent that an Indian Tribe does not assert or is precluded from asserting...

  14. 40 CFR 233.12 - Attorney General's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Attorney General's statement. 233.12 Section 233.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404... program. (b) If a State seeks approval of a program covering activities on Indian lands, the...

  15. 40 CFR 233.62 - Procedures for processing an Indian Tribe's application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS Eligible Indian Tribes § 233.62 Procedures for processing an Indian Tribe's application. (a) The Regional Administrator shall process an application of an... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedures for processing an...

  16. 40 CFR 233.70 - Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Michigan. 233.70 Section 233.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM..., except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Michigan Department of Natural...

  17. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  18. 40 CFR 209.26 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Evidence. 209.26 Section 209.26... Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.26 Evidence. (a) The official... record. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of...

  19. 34 CFR 395.8 - Distribution and use of income from vending machines on Federal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Distribution and use of income from vending machines on... use of income from vending machines on Federal property. (a) Vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property which has been disbursed to the State licensing agency by a property...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.509 - Tabulating machine cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Tabulating machine cards... PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.509 Tabulating machine cards. Procurement by Federal agencies of tabulating machine cards shall be made in accordance with the provisions of this § 101-26.509....

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.5 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Machine guarding. 50-204... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.5 Machine guarding. (a) One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from...

  2. 34 CFR 395.32 - Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property. 395.32 Section 395.32 Education Regulations of the Offices... Management § 395.32 Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on...

  3. 32 CFR 635.29 - Domestic violence and protection orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Domestic violence and protection orders. 635.29... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.29 Domestic violence... permitted by law and regulation. AR 608-18 contains additional information about domestic violence...

  4. 34 CFR 300.509 - Model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Model forms. 300.509 Section 300.509 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.509 Model forms. (a) Each SEA must develop model forms to assist parents and public agencies in filing a due...

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ggg of... - Control Requirements for Items of Equipment That Meet the Criteria of § 63.1252(f)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Control Requirements for Items of Equipment That Meet the Criteria of § 63.1252(f) 5 Table 5 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Lllll of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits a 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLLL of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Cccc of... - Requirements for Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Requirements for Reports 5 Table 5 to Subpart CCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  8. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier Operations Standards §...

  9. 40 CFR 202.22 - Visual exhaust system inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Visual exhaust system inspection. 202.22 Section 202.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier...

  10. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... parameters in ground-water samples. Ground-water samples shall not be field-filtered prior to laboratory... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action §...

  11. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-water samples shall not be field-filtered prior to laboratory analysis. (c) The sampling procedures and... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water...

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Partially Soluble Hazardous Air... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHH, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63—Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants As specified in § 63.8020, the partially soluble HAP in wastewater that are subject to...

  13. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8..., Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63—Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants As specified in § 63.8020, the soluble HAP in wastewater that are subject to management and treatment requirements of...

  14. 40 CFR 257.3-1 - Floodplains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Floodplains. 257.3-1 Section 257.3-1... and Practices § 257.3-1 Floodplains. (a) Facilities or practices in floodplains shall not restrict the flow of the base flood, reduce the temporary water storage capacity of the floodplain, or result...

  15. 40 CFR 257.8 - Floodplains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Floodplains. 257.8 Section 257.8... Location Restrictions § 257.8 Floodplains. (a) Owners or operators of new units, existing units, and lateral expansions located in 100-year floodplains must demonstrate that the unit will not restrict...

  16. 32 CFR 644.320 - Floodplain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Floodplain management. 644.320 Section 644.320... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.320 Floodplain management. The requirements of Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management, 42 FR 26951, (24 May 1977) and its implementation will be outlined in subpart H (to...

  17. 40 CFR 258.11 - Floodplains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Floodplains. 258.11 Section 258.11... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.11 Floodplains. (a) Owners or operators of new MSWLF units, existing MSWLF units, and lateral expansions located in 100-year floodplains must...

  18. 40 CFR 243.201 - Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Safety. 243.201 Section 243.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE STORAGE... Procedures § 243.201 Safety....

  19. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 623 - Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA Form 4881-1-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA Form 4881-1-R) D Appendix D to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. D Appendix D to Part...