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Sample records for 2011-10-01 false exhalation

  1. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  2. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  3. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  4. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.137 Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation and exhalation valves shall be provided where necessary and protected...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  6. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  7. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  8. 42 CFR 84.77 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.77 Section 84.77 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  9. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  10. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section 21.23 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false...

  11. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  12. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  13. 47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Privacy Act Regulations § 0.560 Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who...

  14. 43 CFR 20.510 - Fraud or false statements in a Government matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. 20.510 Section 20.510 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.510 Fraud or false statements in a...

  15. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  16. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  17. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  18. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  19. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  20. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  2. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  3. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  4. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  5. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  6. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  7. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  8. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  9. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  10. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  11. Monitoring Exhaled Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Siobal, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, assessment of exhaled CO2 in both intubated and non-intubated patients has evolved into an essential component in many aspects of patient monitoring. Besides the basic assessment of ventilation, exhaled CO2 monitoring can provide valuable patient safety information and critical physiologic data in regard to the ventilation and perfusion matching in the lungs, cardiac output, and metabolic rate. Despite these important clinical monitoring benefits and widespread availability, exhaled CO2 monitoring is often underutilized. The purpose of this paper is to review the importance and present the extensive body of knowledge to support the use of exhaled CO2 monitoring in various areas of clinical practice. Advanced application concepts and the future development of exhaled CO2 monitoring will also be discussed. PMID:27601718

  12. Monitoring Exhaled Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Siobal, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, assessment of exhaled CO2 in both intubated and non-intubated patients has evolved into an essential component in many aspects of patient monitoring. Besides the basic assessment of ventilation, exhaled CO2 monitoring can provide valuable patient safety information and critical physiologic data in regard to the ventilation and perfusion matching in the lungs, cardiac output, and metabolic rate. Despite these important clinical monitoring benefits and widespread availability, exhaled CO2 monitoring is often underutilized. The purpose of this paper is to review the importance and present the extensive body of knowledge to support the use of exhaled CO2 monitoring in various areas of clinical practice. Advanced application concepts and the future development of exhaled CO2 monitoring will also be discussed.

  13. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.137 Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation and exhalation valves shall be provided where necessary and protected...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  15. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  16. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  17. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  18. 43 CFR 20.510 - Fraud or false statements in a Government matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. 20.510 Section 20.510 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.510 Fraud or false statements in a...

  19. Particle concentration in exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, C.I.; Stampfer, J.F.

    1987-11-01

    Measurements were made of the number of concentration of particles in exhaled breath under various conditions of exercise. A laser light scattering particle spectrometer was used to count particles exhaled by test subjects wearing respirators in a challenge environment of clean, dry air. Precautions were taken to ensure that particles were not generated by the respirators and that no extraneous water or other particles were produced in the humid exhaled air. The number of particles detected in exhales air varied over a range from <0.10 to approx. 4 particles/cm/sup 3/ depending upon the test subject and his activity. Subjects at rest exhaled the lowest concentration of particles, whereas exercises producing a faster respiration rate caused increased exhalation of particles. Exhaled particle concentration can limit the usefulness of nondiscriminating, ambient challenge aerosols for the fit testing of highly protective respirators.

  20. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  1. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  2. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  3. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  4. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  5. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  6. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  7. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  8. Exhaled nitric oxide in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilsher, M; Fergusson, W; Milne, D; Wells, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) by the lower respiratory tract is viewed as a marker of airway inflammation in asthma and bronchiectasis. NO is a potentially important immune modulator, inhibiting the release of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines. As sarcoidosis is characterised by granulomatous airway inflammation, we hypothesised that exhaled NO levels might be raised in sarcoidosis and correlate with the morphological extent and functional severity of disease. Methods: Fifty two patients with sarcoidosis (29 men) of mean age 42 years underwent thin section computed tomography (CT), pulmonary function tests, and measurement of exhaled NO. Results: Exhaled NO levels (median 6.8 ppb, range 2.4–21.8) did not differ significantly from values in 44 control subjects, and were not related to the extent of individual CT abnormalities or the level of pulmonary function impairment. Conclusion: Exhaled NO levels are not increased in pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:16244094

  9. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Man, Jonathan C; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P; Sommerer, K; Stone, Howard A; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-12-14

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These "exhaled bioaerosols" may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these "high-producer" individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 +/- 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension.

  10. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David A.; Man, Jonathan C.; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P.; Sommerer, K.; Stone, Howard A.; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These “exhaled bioaerosols” may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these “high-producer” individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 ± 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension. PMID:15583121

  11. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  12. Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

    2014-01-01

    With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a “breath-print” that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

  13. Aerosol penetration through respirator exhalation valves.

    PubMed

    Bellin, P; Hinds, W C

    1990-10-01

    Exhalation valves are a critical component of industrial respirators. They are designed to permit minimal inward leakage of air contaminants during inhalation and provide low resistance during exhalation. Under normal conditions, penetration of aerosol through exhalation valves is minimal. The exhalation valve is, however, a vulnerable component of a respirator and under actual working conditions may become dirty or damaged to the point of causing significant leakage. Aerosol penetration was measured for normal exhalation valves and valves compromised by paint or fine copper wires on the valve seat. Penetration increased with increasing wire diameter. A wire 250 microns in diameter allowed greater than 1% penetration into the mask cavity. Dirt or paint accumulated on the exhalation valve allowed a similar level of penetration. Work rate had little effect on observed penetration. Penetration decreased significantly with increasing aerosol particle size. The amount of material on the valve or valve seat necessary for significant (greater than 0.5%) inward leakage in a half-mask respirator could be readily observed by careful inspection of the exhalation valve and its seat in good lighting conditions.

  14. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  15. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  16. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  17. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  18. 42 CFR 84.77 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.77 Section 84.77 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  19. Diagnostic Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using a Novel Sub-Millimeter Spectroscopic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Moran, Benjamin L.; Branco, Daniela R.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    As many as 3000 chemicals are reported to be found in exhaled human breath. Many of these chemicals are linked to certain health conditions and environmental exposures. Present state of the art techniques used for analysis of exhaled human breath include mass spectrometry based methods, infrared spectroscopic sensors, electro chemical sensors and semiconductor oxide based testers. Some of these techniques are commercially available but are somewhat limited in their specificity and exhibit fairly high probability of false alarm. Here, we present the results of our most recent study which demonstrated a novel application of a terahertz high resolutions spectroscopic technique to the analysis of exhaled human breath, focused on detection of ethanol in the exhaled breath of a person which consumed an alcoholic drink. This technique possesses nearly ``absolute'' specificity and we demonstrated its ability to uniquely identify ethanol, methanol, and acetone in human breath. This project is now complete and we are looking to extend this method of chemical analysis of exhaled human breath to a broader range of chemicals in an attempt to demonstrate its potential for biomedical diagnostic purposes.

  20. The origin of mouth-exhaled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-09-01

    It is known that the oral cavity is a production site for mouth-exhaled NH3. However, the mechanism of NH3 production in the oral cavity has been unclear. Since bacterial urease in the oral cavity has been found to produce ammonia from oral fluid urea, we hypothesize that oral fluid urea is the origin of mouth-exhaled NH3. Our results show that under certain conditions a strong correlation exists between oral fluid urea and oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) (rs = 0.77, p < 0.001). We also observe a strong correlation between oral fluid NH3 and mouth-exhaled NH3 (rs = 0.81, p < 0.001). We conclude that three main factors affect the mouth-exhaled NH3 concentration: urea concentration, urease activity and oral fluid pH. Bacterial urease catalyses the hydrolysis of oral fluid urea to ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3). Oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) and pH determine the concentration of oral fluid NH3, which evaporates from oral fluid into gas phase and turns to mouth-exhaled NH3.

  1. Radon and Thoron exhalation rate map in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Masahiro, Hosoda; Michikuni, Shimo; Kazuyuki, Minami; Kazutaka, Ejiri; Masato, Sugino; Masahide, Furukawa; Masahiro, Fukushi

    2008-08-07

    Measurements of radon and thoron exhalation rates have been done using the radon and thoron exhalation rate measuring instrument adopting the accumulation method. We obtained the 111 data in the 40 sites of the 14 prefectures in Japan. The arithmetic average value of the radon and thoron exhalation rates by all 111 data were obtained to be 8.6 mBq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1} and 0.80 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}, respectively, and we have reported the radon and thoron exhalation rates in relation to the geological features. The relation between the exhalation rate and geology was shown that the exhalation rate had an increasing tendency in order of basic rock, neutral rock and acidic rock. We made the nationwide exhalation-rate map using the survey data of exhalation-rate of radon and thoron and the geological distribution map.

  2. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  3. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  4. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  5. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M.; Lappas, Andreas S.; Tzortzi, Anna S.; Behrakis, Panagiotis K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice. PMID:26106641

  6. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solga, Steven F.; Mudalel, Matthew L.; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

  7. Association between exhaled inflammatory markers and asthma control in children.

    PubMed

    Van Vliet, D; Smolinska, A; Jöbsis, Q; Rosias, P P R; Muris, J W M; Dallinga, J W; van Schooten, F J; Dompeling, E

    2016-02-19

    The relationship between exhaled inflammatory markers and asthma control in children is unclear. To explore the association between inflammatory markers in exhaled breath (fractional nitric oxide (FeNO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), cytokines/chemokines) and asthma control. To assess whether exhaled inflammatory markers are able to discriminate between children with persistently controlled/uncontrolled asthma. 96 asthmatic children were followed-up in a one-year observational study. Every 2 months, the following parameters were assessed: asthma control, FeNO, lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), exhaled VOCs, and cytokines/chemokines in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Random Forest was used to analyse the relationship between exhaled inflammatory markers and asthma control. For each model, patients were randomly selected for a training set and validation set. To assess the accuracy of the classification models, receiver operating characteristic-curves (ROC-curves) were generated. No significant association was found between the exhaled inflammatory markers (FeNO, markers in EBC, VOCs) and asthma control (area under the ROC-curve 49%). However, 15 exhaled VOCs could discriminate between subgroups of children with persistently controlled and uncontrolled asthma during all clinical visits (area under the ROC-curve 86%). Adding FeNO and markers in EBC to this model, did not lead to a more accurate classification (area under the ROC-curve 87%). There was no association between exhaled inflammatory markers and asthma control in children. However, children with persistently controlled or uncontrolled asthma during the 12 month study period could be discriminated by a set of VOCs.

  8. Radon exhalation from building materials used in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, A. F.; Al-Awami, Hend H.; Hussein, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    Radon exhalation rates have been determined for various different samples of domestic and imported building materials available in the Libyan market for home construction and interior decoration. Radon exhalation rates were measured by the sealed-can technique based on CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The results show that radon exhalation rates from some imported building materials used as foundations and for decoration are extremely high, and these samples are the main sources of indoor radon emanation. Radium contents and annual effective doses have also been estimated.

  9. Radon exhalation rate in south-east Sicily building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, D.; Catalano, R.; Filincieri, R.; Immé, G.; Mangano, G.

    2015-05-01

    One of the main contributions to indoor radon levels is given by the exhalation from building materials. For this reason we performed measurements of radon exhalation rate in materials commonly used in buildings of the eastern Sicily. The measurements were carried out by using solid state nuclear track detectors in diffusion chambers. We report the results obtained for samples of materials used both for building and for decorating dwellings. The obtained values have shown that building materials commonly used in the eastern Sicily have surface exhalation rates ranging between 1.9 and 43.1 mBq m-2h-1 showing higher values for volcanic materials.

  10. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide-measuring devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Vitale, Carolina; Vatrella, Alessandro; Molino, Antonio; Bianco, Andrea; Mazzarella, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been employed in the diagnosis of specific types of airway inflammation, guiding treatment monitoring by predicting and assessing response to anti-inflammatory therapy and monitoring for compliance and detecting relapse. Various techniques are currently used to analyze exhaled NO concentrations under a range of conditions for both health and disease. These include chemiluminescence and electrochemical sensor devices. The cost effectiveness and ability to achieve adequate flexibility in sensitivity and selectivity of NO measurement for these methods are evaluated alongside the potential for use of laser-based technology. This review explores the technologies involved in the measurement of exhaled NO. PMID:27382340

  11. MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR VOLATILE METABOLIC BIOMARKERS IN EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing biomarker methodology to interpret spot biological measurements and their linkage to previous environmental pollutants exposures for individuals. This work explores the use of a promising biological media, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), which contains trapped...

  12. USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

  13. On the exhalation rate of radon by man

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some aspects of the exhalation rate of radon by man which may be relevant to its internal dosimetry and, therefore, to possible radiobiological consequences. Prolonged exposure of a person to radon results in a reservoir or radon dissolved in body fat and fluids. If the person then moves to an environment with a lower radon concentration, there is a net exhalation of radon and the initial exhalation rate depends on the radon concentration in the first environment. This is demonstrated for seven persons whose houses contained radon at concentrations varying from 10 Bq m{sup {minus}3} to almost 1000 Bq m{sup {minus}3}. About one hour after leaving the house, the subjects' average exhalation rate of radon, expressed as the equivalent volume of house air per unit time, was 236 mL min{sup {minus}1}. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Elevation in Exhaled Nitric Oxide Predicts for Radiation Pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Thomas; Martinez, Josue; McCurdy, Matthew R.; Wolski, Michael; McAleer, Mary Francis

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis is a major toxicity after thoracic radiotherapy (RT), with no method available to accurately predict the individual risk. This was a prospective study to evaluate exhaled nitric oxide as a predictive biomarker for radiation pneumonitis in esophageal cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 34 patients prescribed neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer were enrolled in the present trial. Each patient underwent respiratory surveys and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements before, at the end of, and 1 to 2 months after completing RT. Pneumonitis toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The demographics, dosimetric factors, and exhaled NO levels were evaluated for correlation with symptomatic patients (scores {>=}2). Results: Of the 34 patients, 28 were evaluable. All had received 50.4 Gy RT with concurrent chemotherapy. The pneumonitis toxicity score was Grade 3 for 1, Grade 2 for 3, Grade 1 for 7, and Grade 0 for 17. The dosimetric factors were not predictive of symptoms. The mean exhaled NO level measured before, at completion, and at restaging was 17.3 {+-} 8.5 (range, 5.5-36.7), 16.0 {+-} 14.2 (range, 5.8-67.7), and 14.7 {+-} 6.2 (range, 5.5-28.0) parts per billion, respectively. The ratio of exhaled NO at the end of RT vs. before treatment was 3.4 (range, 1.7-6.7) for the symptomatic and 0.8 (range, 0.3-1.3) for the asymptomatic (p = .0017) patients. The elevation in exhaled NO preceded the peak symptoms by 33 days (range, 21-50). The interval to peak symptoms was inversely related to the exhaled NO elevation. Conclusions: Elevations in exhaled NO at the end of RT was found to predict for radiation pneumonitis symptoms.

  15. Radon exhalation from building materials for decorative use.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Rahman, Naureen M; Abu Atiya, Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Long-term exposure to radon increases the risk of developing lung cancer. There is considerable public concern about radon exhalation from building materials and the contribution to indoor radon levels. To address this concern, radon exhalation rates were determined for 53 different samples of drywall, tile and granite available on the Canadian market for interior home decoration. The radon exhalation rates ranged from non-detectable to 312 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Slate tiles and granite slabs had relatively higher radon exhalation rates than other decorative materials, such as ceramic or porcelain tiles. The average radon exhalation rates were 30 Bq m(-2) d(-1) for slate tiles and 42 Bq m(-2) d(-1) for granite slabs of various types and origins. Analysis showed that even if an entire floor was covered with a material having a radon exhalation rate of 300 Bq m(-2) d(-1), it would contribute only 18 Bq m(-3) to a tightly sealed house with an air exchange rate of 0.3 per hour. Generally speaking, building materials used in home decoration make no significant contribution to indoor radon for a house with adequate air exchange.

  16. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  17. Dependence of exhaled breath composition on exogenous factors, smoking habits and exposure to air pollutants*

    PubMed Central

    Mochalski, P; Filipiak, A; Bajtarevic, A; Ager, C; Denz, H; Hilbe, W; Jamnig, H; Hackl, M; Dzien, A; Amann, A

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive disease monitoring on the basis of volatile breath markers is a very attractive but challenging task. Several hundreds of compounds have been detected in exhaled air using modern analytical techniques (e.g. proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and have even been linked to various diseases. However, the biochemical background for most of compounds detected in breath samples has not been elucidated; therefore, the obtained results should be interpreted with care to avoid false correlations. The major aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking on the composition of exhaled breath. Additionally, the potential origin of breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is discussed focusing on diet, environmental exposure and biological pathways based on other’s studies. Profiles of VOCs detected in exhaled breath and inspired air samples of 115 subjects with addition of urine headspace derived from 50 volunteers are presented. Samples were analyzed with GC-MS after preconcentration on multibed sorption tubes in case of breath samples and solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in the case of urine samples. Altogether 266 compounds were found in exhaled breath of at least 10% of the volunteers. From these, 162 compounds were identified by spectral library match and retention time (based on reference standards). It is shown that the composition of exhaled breath is considerably influenced by exposure to pollution and indoor-air contaminants and particularly by smoking. More than 80 organic compounds were found to be significantly related to smoking, the largest group comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons (29 dienes, 27 alkenes and 3 alkynes). On the basis of the presented results, we suggest that for the future understanding of breath data it will be necessary to carefully investigate the potential biological origin of volatiles, e.g., by means of analysis of tissues, isolated cell lines or other body fluids. In

  18. Analysis of exhaled breath by laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrall, Karla D.; Toth, James J.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of our work is two fold: (1) to develop a portable rapid laser based breath analyzer for monitoring metabolic processes, and (2) predict these metabolic processes through physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Small infrared active molecules such as ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethane are present in exhaled breath and can be readily detected by laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition, many of the stable isotopomers of these molecules can be accurately detected, making it possible to follow specific metabolic processes. Potential areas of applications for this technology include the diagnosis of certain pathologies (e.g. Helicobacter Pylori infection), detection of trauma due to either physical or chemical causes and monitoring nutrient uptake (i.e., malnutrition). In order to understand the origin and elucidate the metabolic processes associated with these small molecules, we are employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. A PBPK model is founded on known physiological processes (i.e., blood flow rates, tissue volumes, breathing rate, etc.), chemical-specific processes (i.e., tissue solubility coefficients, molecular weight, chemical density, etc.), and on metabolic processes (tissue site and rate of metabolic biotransformation). Since many of these processes are well understood, a PBPK model can be developed and validated against the more readily available experimental animal data, and then by extrapolating the parameters to apply to man, the model can predict chemical behavior in humans.

  19. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity. PMID:26453064

  20. The Clinical Potential of Exhaled Breath Analysis For Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Timothy Do Chau; Blake, Donald Ray; Galassetti, Pietro Renato

    2012-01-01

    Summary Various compounds in present human breath have long been loosely associated with pathological states (including acetone smell in uncontrolled diabetes). Only recently, however, the precise measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosolized particles was made possible at extremely low concentrations by advances in several analytical methodologies, described in detail in the international literature and each suitable for specific subsets of exhaled compounds. Exhaled gases may be generated endogenously (in the pulmonary tract, blood, or peripheral tissues), as metabolic byproducts of human cells or colonizing micro-organisms, or may be inhaled as atmospheric pollutants; growing evidence indicates that several of these molecules have distinct cell-to-cell signaling functions. Independent of origin and physiological role, exhaled VOCs are attractive candidates as biomarkers of cellular activity/metabolism, and could be incorporated in future non-invasive clinical testing devices. Indeed, several recent studies reported altered exhaled gas profiles in dysmetabolic conditions and relatively accurate predictions of glucose concentrations, at least in controlled experimental conditions, for healthy and diabetic subjects over a broad range of glycemic values. Optimization of this methodology and validation in large-scale trials under a wider range of conditions is needed to determine its true potential to transition into practical clinical use. PMID:22410396

  1. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity.

  2. The False Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

    1964-01-01

    The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications. PMID:14180533

  3. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  4. Associations of Exhaled Carbon Monoxide and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide with Metabolic Syndrome: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjun; Ma, Jixuan; Lu, Wei; He, Jintong; Zhang, Runbo; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could reflect underlying inflammatory and oxidative stresses, which play important roles in pathogenetic pathways of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, epidemiologic evidence was limited. We conducted a study in Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) cohort of 3649 community participants to investigate the association between eCO, FeNO and MetS in both cross-sectional and prospective ways. The results showed that higher eCO and FeNO were associated cross-sectionally with a higher prevalence of MetS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for MetS at baseline were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11 to 1.35) associated with per log eCO and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.30) associated with per log FeNO. During a follow-up of 3 years, 358/2181 new developed MetS cases were identified. Compared with lowest quartile of eCO and FeNO, the multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.48 (1.06 to 2.06) related to the highest quartile of eCO. These findings remained consistent across sex but not smoking status, eCO was only associated with MetS in non-smokers when stratified by smoking status. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that eCO and FeNO were independently and positively associated with the prevalence of MetS cross-sectionally, while only eCO was positively related with the incidence of MetS prospectively. PMID:27076211

  5. False memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Watson, Jason M

    2004-04-01

    In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Whereas knowledge corruption in schizophrenia was significantly greater for false-negative errors relative to controls, no group difference occurred for false-positive errors. The groups showed a comparable high degree of confidence for false-positive recognition of critical lure items. Similar to findings collected in elderly participants, patients, but not controls, showed a strong positive correlation between the number of recognized studied items and false-positive recognition of the critical lure.

  6. Radon exhalation rate of some building materials used in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F; Ashraf, F A

    2005-09-01

    Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired power plants or fertilizer production facilities, generate large amounts of waste gypsum as by-products. Compared to other building materials waste gypsum from fertilizer production facilities (phosphogypsum) shows increased rates of radon exhalation. In the present, investigation solid state alpha track detectors, CR-39 plastic detectors, were used to measure the indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rates from some building materials used in Egypt. The indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate ranges were found to be 24-55 Bq m(-3 )and 11-223 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The effective dose equivalent range for the indoor was found 0.6-1.4 mSv y(-1). The equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters increased with the increase of relative humidity.

  7. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 25 mm. (1 inch) water-column height. (c) The exhalation resistance of pressure-demand apparatus shall not exceed the static pressure in the facepiece by more than 51 mm. (2 inches) water-column height. (d) The static pressure (at zero flow) in the facepiece shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches)...

  8. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vimal; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Chauhan, R. P.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2015-08-28

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm{sup −3} to 82.9 Bqm{sup −3} with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm{sup −3}. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m{sup 2}/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m{sup 2}/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  9. Partitioned Exhaled Nitric Oxide to Non-Invasively Assess Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, James L.; George, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs, characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness. Chronic repetitive bouts of acute inflammation lead to airway wall remodeling and possibly the sequelae of fixed airflow obstruction. Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive molecule synthesized by NO synthases (NOS). NOS are expressed by cells within the airway wall and functionally, two NOS isoforms exist: constitutive and inducible. In asthma, the inducible isoform is over expressed, leading to increased production of NO, which diffuses into the airway lumen, where it can be detected in the exhaled breath. The exhaled NO signal can be partitioned into airway and alveolar components by measuring exhaled NO at multiple flows and applying mathematical models of pulmonary NO dynamics. The airway NO flux and alveolar NO concentration can be elevated in adults and children with asthma and have been correlated with markers of airway inflammation and airflow obstruction in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies which specifically address the clinical potential of partitioning exhaled NO for diagnosis, managing therapy, and predicting exacerbation are needed. PMID:18718562

  10. MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

  11. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that u...

  12. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vimal; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Chauhan, R. P.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2015-08-01

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm-3 to 82.9 Bqm-3 with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm-3. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m2/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m2/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  13. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer would improve prognosis and enlarge treatment options. Analysis of exhaled breath would be an ideal diagnostic method, since it is non-invasive and totally painless. Methods Exhaled breath and inhaled room air samples were analyzed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and solid phase microextraction with subsequent gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS). For the PTR-MS measurements, 220 lung cancer patients and 441 healthy volunteers were recruited. For the GCMS measurements, we collected samples from 65 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy volunteers. Lung cancer patients were in different disease stages and under treatment with different regimes. Mixed expiratory and indoor air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, and either analyzed directly by PTR-MS or transferred to glass vials and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Only those measurements of compounds were considered, which showed at least a 15% higher concentration in exhaled breath than in indoor air. Compounds related to smoking behavior such as acetonitrile and benzene were not used to differentiate between lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Results Isoprene, acetone and methanol are compounds appearing in everybody's exhaled breath. These three main compounds of exhaled breath show slightly lower concentrations in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy volunteers (p < 0.01 for isoprene and acetone, p = 0.011 for methanol; PTR

  14. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  15. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  16. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  17. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  18. Exhalation of respiratory viruses by breathing, coughing, and talking.

    PubMed

    Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Oliver, Brian G; Blazey, Angus J; Argent, Elizabeth; Newsome, Timothy P; Rawlinson, William D; Tovey, Euan R

    2009-09-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information about the generation of virus aerosols by infected subjects. The exhaled aerosols generated by coughing, talking, and breathing were sampled in 50 subjects using a novel mask, and analyzed using PCR for nine respiratory viruses. The exhaled samples from a subset of 10 subjects who were PCR positive for rhinovirus were also examined by cell culture for this virus. Of the 50 subjects, among the 33 with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, 21 had at least one virus detected by PCR, while amongst the 17 asymptomatic subjects, 4 had a virus detected by PCR. Overall, rhinovirus was detected in 19 subjects, influenza in 4 subjects, parainfluenza in 2 subjects, and human metapneumovirus in 1 subject. Two subjects were co-infected. Of the 25 subjects who had virus-positive nasal mucus, the same virus type was detected in 12 breathing samples, 8 talking samples, and in 2 coughing samples. In the subset of exhaled samples from 10 subjects examined by culture, infective rhinovirus was detected in 2. These data provide further evidence that breathing may be a source of respirable particles carrying infectious virus.

  19. Medical diagnostics by laser-based analysis of exhaled breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    2002-08-01

    IMany trace gases can be found in the exhaled breath, some of them giving the possibility of a non invasive diagnosis of related diseases or allowing the monitoring of the disease in the course of its therapy. In the present lecture the principle of medical diagnosis based on the breath analysis will be introduced and the detection of trace gases in exhaled breath by high- resolution molecular spectroscopy in the IR spectral region will be discussed. A number of substrates and the optical systems for their laser detection will be reported. The following laser based experimental systems has been realised in the Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory in ENEA in Frascati for the analysis of specific substances in the exhaled breath. A tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) appartus for the measurement of 13C/12C isotopic ratio in carbon dioxide, a TDLAS apparatus for the detection of CH4 and a CO2 laser based photoacoustic system to detect trace ethylene at atmospheric pressure. The experimental set-up for each one of the a.m. optical systems will be shown and the related medical applications will be illustrated. The concluding remarks will be focuses on chemical species that are of major interest for medical people today and their diagnostic ability.

  20. Exhaled methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, A; Ruzsanyi, V; Unterkofler, K; Mohácsi, Á; Tuboly, E; Boros, M; Szabó, G; Hinterhuber, H; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled methane concentration measurements are extensively used in medical investigation of certain gastrointestinal conditions. However, the dynamics of endogenous methane release is largely unknown. Breath methane profiles during ergometer tests were measured by means of a photoacoustic spectroscopy based sensor. Five methane-producing volunteers (with exhaled methane level being at least 1 ppm higher than room air) were measured. The experimental protocol consisted of 5 min rest—15 min pedalling (at a workload of 75 W)—5 min rest. In addition, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were determined and compared to the estimated alveolar methane concentration. The alveolar breath methane level decreased considerably, by a factor of 3–4 within 1.5 min, while the estimated ventilation-perfusion ratio increased by a factor of 2–3. Mean pre-exercise and exercise methane concentrations were 11.4 ppm (SD:7.3) and 2.8 ppm (SD:1.9), respectively. The changes can be described by the high sensitivity of exhaled methane to ventilationperfusion ratio and are in line with the Farhi equation. PMID:25749807

  1. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series.

  2. Exhaled breath volatile biomarker analysis for thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Changsong; Chi, Chunjie; Wang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Ke, Chaofu; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2015-08-01

    Compared with other types of cancer, thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased rapidly worldwide in the past few decades. In recent years, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers have been studied, but these biomarkers have neither specificity nor good positive predictive value. Exhaled breath analysis is a recently developed convenient and noninvasive method for screening and diagnosing the disease. In this study, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected. Exhaled breath was collected from 64 patients with histologically confirmed cases of thyroid disease (including 39 individuals with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 25 individuals with nodular goiters) and 32 healthy volunteers. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The statistical methods of principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis were performed to process the final data. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between nodular goiter patients and normal controls, papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and normal controls, and papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and nodular goiter patients; 7, 7, and 3 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. Breath analysis may provide a new, noninvasive, and directly qualitative method for the clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease. PMID:25666355

  3. Study on the sampling of methadone from exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Böttcher, Michael; Eriksen, Paul; Franck, Johan; Palmskog, Göran

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed at develop and validate the procedure for collecting exhaled breath for drug testing. Patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment were recruited for the study. Methadone levels were measured using liquid chromatography- electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. The sampling device was based on a 47-mm C(18) filter and used under pressure to aid flow through the filter. The mouth was rinsed before sampling, and the device was constructed to protect against any saliva contamination. Methadone was present in breath samples before and after the daily intake of methadone. The mean (± SD) pre-dose level was found to be 135 ± 109 pg/min (n = 48, median 121). The exhaled methadone increased after dose intake. Saliva levels of methadone were high in comparison with exhaled breath levels. Saliva contamination was suspected in about 10% of the collected samples. Similar results were obtained using 1, 3, and 10 min sampling times. The inter- and intraindividual variability were found to be similar and in the order of 50%. Alternative sampling using XAD-2 beads and solid-phase microextraction fiber was found to be possible and enables sampling with low back pressure and with no need for pump assistance. The presented results confirm that breath testing is a new possibility for the detection of drugs of abuse.

  4. Uranium distribution and radon exhalation from Brazilian dimension stones.

    PubMed

    Amaral, P G Q; Galembeck, T M B; Bonotto, D M; Artur, A C

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides evaluations of the radiometric behavior and exhalation patterns of radon gas in decorative and dimension stones explored in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, given the importance of determining radon gas concentrations in human-inhabited environments. A total of 10 silicate rock types were studied, featuring different petrographic/petrophysical characteristics given by seven magmatic rocks (three of which are granitic pegmatites) and three metamorphic rocks. The study, comprising radiometric data of U and monitoring of (222)Rn gas exhalation, shows a strong correlation between petrographic parameters and the physical properties of rocks. U levels ranged between 2.9 and 37 ppm, revealing a good coherence between the presence and the absence of radioactive element-bearing accessory minerals for each rock type. The rate of radon exhalation from the stones is related to the petrographic/petrophysical features of each material. By comparing the (222)Rn level generated by a rock to the amount effectively emanated by it, the rate of emanated gas proves to be insignificant; also, a rock that produces more Rn will not always emanate more. Simulations performed to estimate the radon levels inside residences or any given indoor environment showed that nine samples attained values below the 4 pCi/L EPA limit, whereas one was above that limit. PMID:22244194

  5. Uranium distribution and radon exhalation from Brazilian dimension stones.

    PubMed

    Amaral, P G Q; Galembeck, T M B; Bonotto, D M; Artur, A C

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides evaluations of the radiometric behavior and exhalation patterns of radon gas in decorative and dimension stones explored in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, given the importance of determining radon gas concentrations in human-inhabited environments. A total of 10 silicate rock types were studied, featuring different petrographic/petrophysical characteristics given by seven magmatic rocks (three of which are granitic pegmatites) and three metamorphic rocks. The study, comprising radiometric data of U and monitoring of (222)Rn gas exhalation, shows a strong correlation between petrographic parameters and the physical properties of rocks. U levels ranged between 2.9 and 37 ppm, revealing a good coherence between the presence and the absence of radioactive element-bearing accessory minerals for each rock type. The rate of radon exhalation from the stones is related to the petrographic/petrophysical features of each material. By comparing the (222)Rn level generated by a rock to the amount effectively emanated by it, the rate of emanated gas proves to be insignificant; also, a rock that produces more Rn will not always emanate more. Simulations performed to estimate the radon levels inside residences or any given indoor environment showed that nine samples attained values below the 4 pCi/L EPA limit, whereas one was above that limit.

  6. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen diving affects exhaled molecular profiles in men.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, P J A M; van Hulst, R A; Kulik, W; Brinkman, P; Houtkooper, A; Sterk, P J

    2014-07-01

    Exhaled breath contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are associated with respiratory pathophysiology. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen exposure (hyperoxia) generates a distinguishable VOC pattern. This study aimed to test this hypothesis in oxygen-breathing divers. VOCs in exhaled breath were measured in 10 male divers before and 4h after diving to 9msw (190kPa) for 1h. During the dive they breathed 100% oxygen or air in randomized order. VOCs were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared to air dives, after oxygen dives there was a significant increase in five VOCs (predominately methyl alkanes). Furthermore, a strong, positive correlation was found between increments in 2,4-dimethyl-hexane and those of 4-ethyl-5-methyl-nonane. Although non-submerged hyperoxia studies on VOCs have been performed, the present study is the first to demonstrate changes in exhaled molecular profiles after submerged oxygen diving. The pathophysiological background might be attributed to either a lipid peroxidation-induced pathway, an inflammatory pathway, or to both.

  8. Radon exhalation rates and gamma doses from ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, R S; Aral, H; Peggie, J R

    1998-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the possible radiological hazard resulting from the use of zircon in glaze applied to tiles used in buildings. The 226Ra content of various stains and glazing compounds was measured using gamma spectroscopy and the 222Rn exhalation rates for these materials were measured using adsorption on activated charcoal. The radon exhalation rates were found to be close to or less than the minimum detectable values for the equipment used. This limit was much lower than the estimated exhalation rates, which were calculated assuming that the parameters controlling the emanation and diffusion of 222Rn in the materials studied were similar to those of soil. This implied that the 222Rn emanation coefficients and/or diffusion coefficients for most of the materials studied were very much lower than expected. Measurements on zircon powders showed that the 222Rn emanation coefficient for zircon was much lower than that for soil, indicating that only a small fraction of the 222Rn produced by the decay of 226Ra was able to escape from the zircon grains. The estimated increase in radon concentration in room air and the estimated external gamma radiation dose resulting from the use of zircon glaze are both much lower than the relevant action level and dose limit.

  9. Hydrogen cyanide in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-06-01

    Mouth-exhaled hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations have previously been reported to originate from the oral cavity. However, a direct correlation between the HCN concentration in oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath has not been explicitly shown. In this study, we set up a new methodology to simultaneously measure HCN in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath. Our results show that there is a statistically significant correlation between stimulated oral fluid HCN and mouth-exhaled HCN (rs = 0.76, p < 0.001). This confirms that oral fluid is the main contributor to mouth-exhaled HCN. Furthermore, we observe that after the application of an oral disinfectant, both the stimulated oral fluid and mouth-exhaled HCN concentrations decrease. This implies that HCN production in the oral cavity is related to the bacterial and/or enzymatic activity.

  10. Levels of Exhaled Breath Condensate pH and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Retired Coal Miners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seong; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Joung Oh; Lee, Kyung Myung; Kim, Ji Hong; Choi, Byung-Soon

    2010-12-01

    Inhaled inorganic dusts, such as coal, can cause inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs, known as pneumoconiosis. Diagnosis of pneumoconiosis depends on morphological changes by radiological findings and functional change by pulmonary function test (PFT) . Unfortunately, current diagnostic findings are limited only to lung fibrosis, which is usually irreversibly progressive. Therefore, it is important that research on potential and prospective biomarkers for pneumoconiosis should be conducted prior to initiation of irreversible radiological or functional changes in the lungs. Analytical techniques using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) or exhaled gas are non-invasive methods for detection of various respiratory diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between inflammatory biomarkers, such as EBC pH or fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) , and pneumoconiosis among 120 retired coal miners (41 controls and 79 pneumoconiosis patients) . Levels of EBC pH and FENO did not show a statistically significant difference between the pneumoconiosis patient group and pneumoconiosis patients with small opacity classified by International Labor Organization (ILO) classification. The mean concentration of FENO in the low percentage FEV1 (< 80%) was lower than that in the high percentage (80% ≤) (p = 0.023) . The mean concentration of FENO in current smokers was lower than that in non smokers (never or past smokers) (p = 0.027) . Although there was no statistical significance, the levels of FENO in smokers tended to decrease, compared with non smokers, regardless of pneumoconiosis. In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between the level of EBC pH or FENO and radiological findings or PFT. The effects between exhaled biomarkers and pneumoconiosis progression, such as decreasing PFT and exacerbation of radiological findings, should be monitored. PMID:24278541

  11. 42 CFR 84.200 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.200 Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements....

  12. 42 CFR 84.200 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.200 Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements....

  13. Dispersal of exhaled air and personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, E; Nielsen, P V

    2002-09-01

    The influence of the human exhalation on flow fields, contaminant distributions, and personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms is studied together with the effects of physical movement. Experiments are conducted in full-scale test rooms with life-sized breathing thermal manikins. Numerical simulations support the experiments. Air exhaled through the mouth can lock in a thermally stratified layer, if the vertical temperature gradient in breathing zone height is sufficiently large. With exhalation through the nose, exhaled air flows to the upper part of the room. The exhalation flow from both nose and mouth is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person standing nearby. The stratification of exhaled air breaks down if there is physical movement in the room. As movement increases, the concentration distribution in the room will move towards a fully mixed situation. The protective effect of the boundary layer flow around the body of a moving person disappears at low speed, and is reduced for a seated person placed nearby due to horizontal air movements, which can also cause rebreathing of exhaled air for the seated person. The results indicate that the effect of the exhalation flow is no acute problem in most normal ventilation applications. However, exhalation and local effects caused by movement may be worth considering if one wishes to contain contaminants in certain areas, as in the case of tobacco smoking, in hospitals and clinics, or in certain industries.

  14. [Evaluation of the indication of carbon monoxide in exhaled air].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Moes, Alicja; Chadzyński, Radosław; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    In spite of intensified antitobacco campaigns and decrease in social acceptance for smoking it is still an important issue. In prevention there is a need to make smokers and non-smoking people aware of a level of exposure to tobacco smoke. One of the objective methods to evaluate this exposition is to measure a concentration of the carbon monoxide in exhaled air. The aim of our study was to evaluate the indication of carbon monoxide in exhaled air. The research was based on examination of 67 patients admitted to admission room in SP CSK, Warsaw. The level of carbon monoxide was measured with Smokerlyzer device in 56 cases (34 women, 22 men). Everyone in this group answered questions concerning a reason of admission to hospital, concomitant diseases, and addiction to smoking and ways of fight against the addiction as far as smokers are concerned. Current smokers answered also questions about their attitude to smoking and filled in Fagerström and Schneider tests. In a group of 67 patients 11 were not able to proceed the test with Smokerlyzer, 5 (45.5%) due to dyspnea, 4 (36.4%) due to lack of a verbal contact. In the group of 56 investigated patients 20 (35.7%) have never smoked, 32 (57.1%) were ex-smokers and 4 (7.1%) were current smokers. 3 (75%) of the smokers have tried to give up smoking 3 times on average. In the Fagerström test their mean came to 3.5 points, what indicates a low level of addiction. The Schneider test averaged out 8 points, what indicates a good motivation to give up smoking. The average of concentration of carbon monoxide in exhaled air came to 8 ppm (1.87% Hb) in this group. In the group of non-smoking patients the level of carbon monoxide came to 1.4 ppm (0.67%Hb). In the group of nonsmoking patients exposed to the tobacco smoke, the level of carbon monoxide came to 3 ppm (1.15%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The increased CO level in exhaled air is usually caused by smoking cigarettes and exposure to

  15. Mathematical and statistical approaches for interpreting biomarker compounds in exhaled human breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The various instrumental techniques, human studies, and diagnostic tests that produce data from samples of exhaled breath have one thing in common: they all need to be put into a context wherein a posed question can actually be answered. Exhaled breath contains numerous compoun...

  16. Fractal and Chaos Analysis for Dynamics of Radon Exhalation from Uranium Mill Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Xie, Yanshi

    2016-08-01

    Tailings from mining and milling of uranium ores potentially are large volumes of low-level radioactive materials. A typical environmental problem associated with uranium tailings is radon exhalation, which can significantly pose risks to environment and human health. In order to reduce these risks, it is essential to study the dynamical nature and underlying mechanism of radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings. This motivates the conduction of this study, which is based on the fractal and chaotic methods (e.g. calculating the Hurst exponent, Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension) and laboratory experiments of the radon exhalation rates. The experimental results show that the radon exhalation rate from uranium mill tailings is highly oscillated. In addition, the nonlinear analyses of the time series of radon exhalation rate demonstrate the following points: (1) the value of Hurst exponent much larger than 0.5 indicates non-random behavior of the radon time series; (2) the positive Lyapunov exponent and non-integer correlation dimension of the time series imply that the radon exhalation from uranium tailings is a chaotic dynamical process; (3) the required minimum number of variables should be five to describe the time evolution of radon exhalation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the internal factors, including heterogeneous distribution of radium, and randomness of radium decay, as well as the fractal characteristics of the tailings, can result in the chaotic evolution of radon exhalation from the tailings.

  17. Assessment of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Egyptian cement.

    PubMed

    El-Bahi, S M

    2004-05-01

    The cement industry is considered as one of the basic industries that plays an important role in the national economy of developing countries. Activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in local cement types from different Egyptian factories has been measured using a shielded HPGe detector. The average values obtained for 238U, 232Th, and 40K activity concentrations in different types of cement are lower than the corresponding global values reported in UNSCEAR publications. On the basis of the hazard index and the radium equivalent concentration, it can be shown that the natural radioactivity of cement samples is not greater than the values permitted in the established standards in other countries. A solid-state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The effective radium content and the exhalation rate are found to vary from 12.75 to 38.52 Bq kg(-1) and 61.19 to 181.39 Bq m(-2) d(-1), respectively.

  18. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma. PMID:27456161

  19. Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  20. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma.

  1. Gas analysis of human exhalation by tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Moskalenko, Konstantin L.

    1993-02-01

    Results of the application of a tunable diode laser (TDL) to determining the trace gas components of human exhalation are presented. The analyzer is specially developed to measure both carbon oxides (CO and CO2) in expired air. A few results illuminating possible applications of TDLs in high-sensitivity medical diagnostics have been obtained. For nonsmokers, expired concentrations of CO are slightly higher than those in inhaled air. The specific surplus value seems to be independent of the ambient atmospheric CO content. The surplus CO content increases by more than an order of magnitude just after intensive exercises, e.g., jogging. For smokers, the pharmacokinetic of abundant CO removal from the organism could be investigated by this technique, which provides quick and reliable measurements of smoking status. Breath-holding synchronous measurements of CO and CO2 in exhalation demonstrate behavior that is different with breath-holding time. The method seems useful for the investigation of phenomena such as molecular pulmonary diffusion through the alveolar-capillary membrane and an organism's adaptation to oxygen shortage. Prospects for the development and application of diode laser spectroscopy to trace gas analysis in medicine are also discussed.

  2. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  3. Exhaled methyl nitrate as a noninvasive marker of hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Novak, B J; Blake, D R; Meinardi, S; Rowland, F S; Pontello, A; Cooper, D M; Galassetti, P R

    2007-10-01

    Recent technical advances allow detection of several hundred volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human exhaled air, many of which reflect unidentified endogenous pathways. Our group has previously estimated plasma glucose levels in healthy adults during a standard oral glucose tolerance test via exhaled VOC analysis. As a result of the metabolic characteristics of hyperglycemia in the diabetic (low insulin and increased free fatty acids and ketones), we hypothesized that different exhaled VOC profiles may be present in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) during spontaneous hyperglycemia. Exhaled methyl nitrate strongly correlated specifically with the acute, spontaneous hyperglycemia of T1DM children. Eighteen experiments were conducted among 10 T1DM children. Plasma glucose and exhaled gases were monitored during either constant euglycemia (n = 5) or initial hyperglycemia with gradual correction (n = 13); all subjects received i.v. insulin and glucose as needed. Gas analysis was performed on 1.9-liter breath samples via gas chromatography using electron capture, flame ionization, and mass selective detection. Among the approximately 100 measured exhaled gases, the kinetic profile of exhaled methyl nitrate, commonly present in room air in the range of 5-10 parts per trillion, was most strongly statistically correlated with that of plasma glucose (P = 0.003-0.001). Indeed, the kinetic profiles of the two variables paralleled each other in 16 of 18 experiments, including repeat subjects who at different times displayed either euglycemia or hyperglycemia. PMID:17895380

  4. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels among Malaysian male smokers with nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ng Chong; Ann, Anne Yee Hway

    2012-01-01

    We studied the use of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) to identify nicotine dependence among adult Malaysian male smokers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 107 male smoking staff at a university hospital. We measured their exhaled CO using a piCO+ Smokerlyzer and diagnosed nicotine dependence using a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The optimal cut-off value for exhaled CO was determined. The correlation between exhaled CO level and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was also assessed. The mean exhaled CO level among subjects with nicotine dependence (15.78 ppm) was significantly higher than subjects without nicotine dependence (9.62 ppm). The cut-off value used to identify smokers with nicotine dependence was set at 10 ppm (specificity = 0.721, sensitivity = 0.731, positive predictive value = 0.817 and negative predictive value = 0.617). Psychometric properties were stable with various durations of smoking. Exhaled CO correlated positively with FTND scores (Pearson's rho = 0.398, p = 0.01). Our findings show exhaled CO can be used to identify nicotine dependence among adult Malaysian male smokers.

  5. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements.

    PubMed

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Musazay, M S; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-01-01

    A passive "can technique" and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bqm(-2)h(-1) with an average of 1.35+/-1.40 Bqm(-2)h(-1). The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  6. Analysis of breath, exhaled via the mouth and nose, and the air in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianshu; Pysanenko, Andriy; Dryahina, Kseniya; Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David

    2008-09-01

    Analyses have been performed, using on-line selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), of the breath of three healthy volunteers, as exhaled via the mouth and the nose and also of the air in the oral cavity during breath hold, each morning over a period of one month. Nine trace compounds have been quantified and concentration distributions have been constructed. Of these compounds, the levels of acetone, methanol and isoprene are the same in the mouth-exhaled and the nose-exhaled breath; hence, we deduce that these compounds are totally systemic. The levels of ammonia, ethanol and hydrogen cyanide are much lower in the nose-exhaled breath than in the mouth-exhaled breath and highest in the oral cavity, indicating that these compounds are largely generated in the mouth with little being released at the alveolar interface. Using the same ideas, both the low levels of propanol and acetaldehyde in mouth-exhaled breath appear to have both oral and systemic components. Formaldehyde is at levels in mouth- and nose-exhaled breath and the oral cavity that are lower than that of the ambient air and so its origin is difficult to ascertain, but it appears to be partially systemic. These results indicate that serious contamination of alveolar breath exhaled via the mouth can occur and if breath analysis is to be used to diagnose metabolic disease then analyses should be carried out of both mouth- and nose-exhaled breath to identify the major sources of particular trace compounds.

  7. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  8. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  9. Why inhaling salt water changes what we exhale.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Wiwik; Thomas, Matthew; Clarke, Robert; Klibanov, Alexander M; Langer, Robert; Katstra, Jeffrey; Fuller, Gerald G; Griel, Lester C; Fiegel, Jennifer; Edwards, David

    2007-03-01

    We find that inhaling salt water diminishes subsequently exhaled biomaterial in man and animals due to reversible stabilization of the airway lining fluid (ALF)/air interface as a novel potential means for control of the spread of airborne infectious disease. The mechanism of this phenomenon relates to charge shielding of mucin or mucin-like macromolecules that consequently undergo gelation; this gelation alters the physical properties of the ALF surface and reduces its breakup. Cations in the nebulized solution and apparent surface viscoelasticity of the ALF (more than any other ALF intrinsic physical property) appear to be responsible for the reduced tendency of the ALF to disintegrate into very small droplets. We confirm these effects in vivo and show their reversibility through nebulization of saline solutions to anesthetized bull calves.

  10. Electronic Nose To Detect Patients with COPD From Exhaled Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, Adriana; Durán, Cristhian M.; Gualdron, Oscar; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Manjarres, Leonardo

    2009-05-01

    To date, there is no effective tool analysis and detection of COPD syndrome, (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) which is linked to smoking and, less frequently to toxic substances such as, the wood smoke or other particles produced by noxious gases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of this disease show it affects more than 52 million people and kills more than 2.7 million human beings each year. In order to solve the problem, a low-cost Electronic Nose (EN) was developed at the University of Pamplona (N. S) Colombia, for this specific purpose and was applied to a sample group of patients with COPD as well as to others who were healthy. From the exhalation breath samples of these patients, the results were as expected; an appropriate classification of the patients with the disease, as well as from the healthy group was obtained.

  11. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  12. Natural radioactivity in and radon exhalation from Finnish building materials.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, R

    1984-06-01

    A total of 369 samples of Finnish building materials were tested for their 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations. The rate of radon exhalation was measured from 19 samples of material and 34 dwellings were tested for their room air ventilation rate and radon concentration. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations in ballast materials for concrete production were 34.2 Bq X kg-1, 39.0 Bq X kg-1 and 964 Bq X kg-1, with standard deviations of 18.7 Bq X kg-1, 19.5 Bq X kg-1 and 265 Bq X kg-1, respectively. The activity concentrations were higher in clay bricks than in concrete, the mean values being 79.8 Bq X kg-1, 61.6 Bq X kg-1 and 986 Bq X kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 15-cm-thick concrete, slag-aggregate concrete and by-product gypsum were 0.38 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), 0.15 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), and 0.06 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), respectively. The ventilation rates in dwellings varied between 0.27 and 1.99 air changes per h, the mean value being 0.60 h-1, and the corresponding steady state radon concentrations in room air varied from 17.0 to 149 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of concrete and from 11.2 to 61.9 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of brick.

  13. Exhaled breath condensate pH and exhaled nitric oxide in allergic asthma and in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ojoo, J; Mulrennan, S; Kastelik, J; Morice, A; Redington, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that the pH of airway lining fluid may regulate the fractional exhaled concentration of nitric oxide (FENO) in respiratory disease. Methods: FENO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, and EBC concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate (NO2/NO3) were compared in 12 subjects with stable asthma, 18 with stable cystic fibrosis (CF), and 15 healthy control subjects. Eight of the CF patients were studied on a separate occasion at the start of a pulmonary exacerbation. Results: FENO was significantly greater in asthmatic subjects than in control subjects (mean 35 v 9 ppb, p<0.001). EBC pH, however, was similar in the asthmatic and control groups (median 5.82 v 6.08, p = 0.23). Levels of NO2/NO3 were on average higher in EBC samples from asthmatic subjects, but the difference was not significant. In patients with stable CF both the FENO (mean 4 ppb, p<0.001) and EBC pH (median 5.77, p = 0.003) were lower than in the control group. Levels of EBC NO2/NO3 (median 29.9 µM; p = 0.002) in patients with stable CF, in contrast, were significantly higher than in control subjects. During CF exacerbations, EBC pH was further reduced (median 5.30, p = 0.017) but FENO and NO2/NO3 were unchanged. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a dissociation between EBC pH and FENO in inflammatory airways disease. PMID:15618578

  14. Evaluation of Airway Inflammation in Compost Workers Exposed to Bioaerosols Using Exhaled Breath Condensate and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, F; van Kampen, V; Deckert, A; Neumann, H-D; Buxtrup, M; Willer, E; Felten, C; Brüning, T; Raulf, M; Bünger, J

    2015-01-01

    Occupational bioaerosol exposures are capable to cause respiratory diseases. We studied the relationship between exposure to bioaerosols and biomarkers' concentration in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in 119 bioaerosol-exposed compost workers taking into account atopy and smoking habits. Atopy was classified according to specific IgE concentrations to common inhalant allergens (sx1). Bioaerosol exposure was estimated according to job title, duration of employment, results of ambient monitoring at the workplaces, and shift time worked under protection of filtered air supply. Concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and acid-base balance (pH) in EBC and FeNO were assessed in 59 never-smoking (NS) and 60 smoking (S) compost workers. We found that atopic subjects were equally distributed among NS and S (n=16 each). Levels of 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly higher in workers considered highly exposed to bioaerosols than in low exposed workers (86.6 (66.1; 128.8) pg/mL vs. 74.4 (56.3; 96.7) pg/mL, p=0.047). No associations could be observed between exposures and biomarkers concerning compost workers in total, but there were some in atopic workers (duration of employment and FeNO: r=0.376, p=0.041; filtered air supply and FeNO: r=-0.335, p=0.071). Smokers had significantly lower pH values compared to NS (non-atopic, p=0.041; atopic p=0.050). In conclusion, EBC and FeNO might be useful tools for monitoring of inflammation due to bioaerosol exposures, especially in atopic subjects. Besides smoking also atopy should be considered when investigating airway inflammation.

  15. Conditions of early chemical processing of matter - Explosive exhalations of supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic stratifications of supernova exhalations are discussed, with reference to a number of theoretical estimates. Particular attention is given to the theoretical models of the major chemical zones of explosive exhalation of isotopes of Mg, Si, and Ti in intermediate size supernovae. The contribution of supernova exhalations to oxygen anomalies in the solar system is also discussed within the framework of the theoretical models of Clayton et al. (1977, 1978, 1979, 1981). The initial stratigraphy of the major elements in the explosive exhalation of a progenitor star of 25 solar mass is illustrated in a graph, on the basis of the theoretical estimates of Waver et al. (1978), and Weaver and Woolsey (1980).

  16. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  17. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will explore historical and newly emerging methods for the collection and analysis of exhaled breath for use in environmental exposure assessment studies. We will discuss their applicability and limitations with respect to environmental research. Particular em...

  18. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to isoflurane by measurement of isoflurane exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Prado, C; Tortosa, J A; Ibarra, I; Luna, A; Periago, J F

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between isoflurane environmental concentrations in operating rooms and the corresponding isoflurane concentration in the exhaled air of the operating personnel at the end of the exposure has been investigated. Isoflurane was retained in an adsorbent cartridge and after thermal desorption the concentration was estimated by gas chromatography. Significant correlation between environmental and exhaled air isoflurane concentrations allowed the establishment of a biological exposure index and biological exposure limits corresponding to proposed atmospheric threshold values.

  19. Determining the 222Rn exhalation rate of building materials using liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, W; de Jong, P

    1991-10-01

    A new method for determining the free 222Rn exhalation rate from building materials is described. The sample is enclosed in a container from which the exhaled Rn is continuously purged by nitrogen gas. After 2-3 h, when the Rn level in the container has reached a steady-state concentration, the outflowing Rn is trapped on silica gel at about -190 degrees C. About 16 h after sampling, the silica gel is analyzed by liquid scintillation counting to determine the area exhalation rate. The method described has a good repeatability and reproducibility with coefficients of variation of 7.8% and 8.3%, respectively, at 5 Bq m-2 h-1. The low limit of detection of 11 mBq 222Rn offers the opportunity to quantify the exhalation rate of almost all kinds of building materials. It was found that the air humidity strongly influences the exhalation rates of building material and, therefore, should be controlled. Two typical building materials were investigated. For gypsum, an increase in the exhalation rate with increasing water vapor pressure was found, whereas for concrete, a linear decrease with increasing water vapor pressure was observed. The 222Rn area exhalation rates of 20 Dutch building materials, including some experimental ones, were determined at 50% RH, 20 degrees C, showing a range of less than 0.02-15.8 Bq m-2 h-1. The lowest values were found for natural gypsum board, the highest for phosphogypsum blocks. Building materials containing fly ash gave area exhalation rates comparable to those of similar materials without fly ash.

  20. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  1. The effect of multiple allergen immunotherapy on exhaled nitric oxide in adults with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of objective measures of the clinical efficacy of allergen immunotherapy which relies on patients’ perception about the effect of this treatment. We studied whether the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide is affected by multiple allergen immunotherapy in polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis. We also looked for associations between exhaled nitric oxide and subjects’ demographics, symptom scores, and pulmonary function tests. Methods Twenty adult, polysensitized subjects with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis who chose to undergo allergen immunotherapy were enrolled. They were evaluated at baseline, and 4, 8, 12, 24, and 52 weeks later. Exhaled nitric oxide was reported as the mean of triplicate determinations. Findings Our results indicate that multiple allergen immunotherapy did not affect exhaled nitric oxide levels and such levels did not correlate with subjects’ demographics and pulmonary function tests. However, exhaled nitric oxide was associated with rhinoconjuctivitis and asthma symptom scores at the end of the study. Conclusions In polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis, exhaled nitric oxide levels are unaffected by multiple allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23958488

  2. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)). PMID:25194815

  3. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  4. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  5. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions.

  6. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.; Milyaev, Varerii A.

    2002-11-01

    The application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air in biomedical diagnostics is discussed. The principle of operation and the design of a laser analyser for studying the composition of exhaled air are described. The results of detection of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air, including clinical studies, which demonstrate the diagnostic possibilities of the method, are presented.

  7. Detection of pulmonary amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, M; Rechsteiner, T; Hofer, M; Boehler, A

    2013-12-01

    Amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is usually interpreted as an indication of oropharyngeal contamination despite the fact that amylase can be found in pulmonary excretions. The aim of this study was to recruit and refine an amylase assay in order to detect amylase activity in any EBC sample and to develop a method to identify EBC samples containing amylase of pulmonary origin. EBC was collected from 40 volunteers with an EcoScreen condenser. Amylase assays and methods to discriminate between oropharyngeal and pulmonary proteins were tested and developed using matched EBC and saliva samples. Our refined 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriosid (CNP-G3) assay was 40-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive commercial assay and allowed detection of amylase activity in 30 µl of EBC. We developed a dot-blot assay which allowed detection of salivary protein in saliva diluted up to 150 000-fold. By plotting amylase activity against staining intensity we identified a few EBC samples with high amylase activity which were aligned with diluted saliva. We believe that EBC samples aligned with diluted saliva contain amylase activity introduced during EBC collection and that all other EBC samples contain amylase activity of pulmonary origin and are basically free of oropharyngeal protein contamination.

  8. Sedimentary exhalative (sedex) zinc-lead-silver deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, Poul; Seal, Robert R.; Breit, George N.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-10-28

    This report draws on previous syntheses and basic research studies of sedimentary exhalative (sedex) deposits to arrive at the defining criteria, both descriptive and genetic, for sedex-type deposits. Studies of the tectonic, sedimentary, and fluid evolution of modern and ancient sedimentary basins have also been used to select defining criteria. The focus here is on the geologic characteristics of sedex deposit-hosting basins that contain greater than 10 million metric tons of zinc and lead. The enormous size of sedex deposits strongly suggests that basin-scale geologic processes are involved in their formation. It follows that mass balance constraints of basinal processes can provide a conceptual underpinning for the evaluation of potential ore-forming mechanisms and the identification of geologic indicators for ore potential in specific sedimentary basins. Empirical data and a genetic understanding of the physicochemical, geologic, and mass balance conditions required for each of these elements are used to establish a hierarchy of quantifiable geologic criteria that can be used in U.S. Geological Survey national assessments.  In addition, this report also provides a comprehensive evaluation of environmental considerations associated with the mining of sedex deposits.

  9. Leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in workers exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Komarc, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zikova, Nadezda; Makes, Otakar; Syslova, Kamila; Belacek, Jaroslav; Zakharov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Human health data regarding exposure to nanoparticles are extremely scarce and biomonitoring of exposure is lacking in spite of rodent pathological experimental data. Potential markers of the health-effects of engineered nanoparticles were examined in 30 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol, 22 office employees of the same plant, and 45 unexposed controls. Leukotrienes (LT) B4, C4, E4, and D4 were analysed in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and spirometry was also measured. The median particle number concentration of the aerosol in the production ranged from 1.98  ×  10(4) to 2.32  ×  10(4) particles cm(-3); about 80% of the particles were  <100 nm in diameter. Median total mass concentration varied between 0.4 and 0.65 mg m(-3). All LT levels in workers' EBC were elevated relative to the controls (p  <  0.01). LTs in the EBC sample were correlated with titanium levels. Urinary LTs were not elevated in the workers and office employees. Office workers had higher LTB4 in EBC (p  <  0.05), and higher levels of FeNO (p  <  0.01). FeNO was higher in office employees with allergic diseases and was negatively correlated with smoking (p  <  0.01). In spirometry significant impairment in the workers was seen only for %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). Multiple regression analysis confirmed a significant association between production of TiO2 and all cysteinyl LTs in EBC (p  <  0.01) and impaired %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). LTB4 was also associated with smoking (p  <  0.01). LT levels complemented our earlier findings of DNA, protein, and lipid damage in the EBC of workers with nanoTiO2 exposures. Cysteinyl LTs in EBC analysis suggest inflammation and potential fibrotic changes in the lungs; they may be helpful for monitoring the biological

  10. Exhaled aerosol transmission of pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Koster, Frederick; Gouveia, Kristine; Zhou, Yue; Lowery, Kristin; Russell, Robert; MacInnes, Heather; Pollock, Zemmie; Layton, R Colby; Cromwell, Jennifer; Toleno, Denise; Pyle, John; Zubelewicz, Michael; Harrod, Kevin; Sampath, Rangarajan; Hofstadler, Steven; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yushi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of influenza viruses occurs by contact (direct and fomites) and non-contact (droplet and small particle aerosol) routes, but the quantitative dynamics and relative contributions of these routes are incompletely understood. The transmissibility of influenza strains estimated from secondary attack rates in closed human populations is confounded by large variations in population susceptibilities. An experimental method to phenotype strains for transmissibility in an animal model could provide relative efficiencies of transmission. We developed an experimental method to detect exhaled viral aerosol transmission between unanesthetized infected and susceptible ferrets, measured aerosol particle size and number, and quantified the viral genomic RNA in the exhaled aerosol. During brief 3-hour exposures to exhaled viral aerosols in airflow-controlled chambers, three strains of pandemic 2009 H1N1 strains were frequently transmitted to susceptible ferrets. In contrast one seasonal H1N1 strain was not transmitted in spite of higher levels of viral RNA in the exhaled aerosol. Among three pandemic strains, the two strains causing weight loss and illness in the intranasally infected 'donor' ferrets were transmitted less efficiently from the donor than the strain causing no detectable illness, suggesting that the mucosal inflammatory response may attenuate viable exhaled virus. Although exhaled viral RNA remained constant, transmission efficiency diminished from day 1 to day 5 after donor infection. Thus, aerosol transmission between ferrets may be dependent on at least four characteristics of virus-host relationships including the level of exhaled virus, infectious particle size, mucosal inflammation, and viral replication efficiency in susceptible mucosa.

  11. Detection of virulent Rhodococcus equi in exhaled air samples from naturally infected foals.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, G; Gilkerson, J R; Browning, G F

    2009-03-01

    Virulent Rhodococcus equi causes pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia in foals. The route of infection of foals has been considered to be inhalation of aerosolized bacteria from soil that is contaminated with equine feces. Thus, disease caused by R. equi has been regarded as an opportunistic infection of environmental origin and not a contagious disease. In this study, we report the exhalation of virulent R. equi from the respiratory tract of naturally infected foals. A handheld air-monitoring system was used to recover virulent R. equi from the exhaled breath of foals, and the concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air was compared to the concentration in environmental air samples taken from the holding pens and lane areas on farms. R. equi strains carrying the vapA gene of the virulence plasmid were detected by using colony blotting and DNA hybridization techniques in cultures of exhaled air from 67% (37/55) of foals tested. The concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air from foals was significantly higher than that in environmental air (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria exhaled by clinically healthy or diseased foals. The high concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria in exhaled air suggested that aerosol transmission between foals is possible and may have a significant impact on the prevalence of R. equi pneumonia on farms. The air sampling technique described is potentially useful as a noninvasive method for the detection and quantification of virulent R. equi in the respiratory tract of foals.

  12. False rape: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Schoendorff, P; Achache, P; Miras, A; Malicier, D

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department for sexual assault. The forensic examination revealed genital lesions of an age that were incompatible with her statements. She also presented extragenital lesions that resembled self-inflicted lesions. The reports of false rape allegations in the literature have all dealt with the motivations of the false victims. This case report is a reminder that an allegation of rape can be considered only on the basis of proof and not on speculation. PMID:10624933

  13. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  14. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  15. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  16. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  17. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air: a source of error, a paradox and its resolution

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Stefan; Kronseder, Angelika; Karrasch, Stefan; Neff, Petra A.; Haaks, Matz; Koczulla, Andreas R.; Reinhold, Petra; Nowak, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air has been reported to be elevated in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but results are inconsistent and difficult to reproduce. As H2O2 occurs in ambient air, we examined its association with exhaled H2O2 in human subjects. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 12 COPD patients and nine healthy control subjects was collected either with an inhalation filter (efficiency 81%) or without. Ambient air condensate (AAC) was collected in parallel and samples were analysed for H2O2. Additionally, ambient H2O2 was recorded by an atmospheric measuring device (online fluorometric measurement). H2O2 concentration in AAC was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in EBC. AAC variations were concordant with the data from the atmospheric measuring instrument. In both subjects' groups, the inhalation filter reduced H2O2 values (p<0.01). Despite generally low levels in exhaled air, analysis by a mathematical model revealed a contribution from endogenous H2O2 production. The low H2O2 levels in exhaled air are explained by the reconditioning of H2O2-containing inhaled air in the airways. Inhaled H2O2 may be one factor in the heterogeneity and limited reproducibility of study results. A valid determination of endogenous H2O2 production requires inhalation filters. PMID:27730191

  18. 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate after experimental exposure to wood smoke in humans.

    PubMed

    Murgia, N; Barregard, L; Sallsten, G; Almstrand, A C; Montuschi, P; Ciabattoni, G; Olin, A C

    2016-01-01

    Wood smoke, a well-known indoor and outdoor air pollutant, may cause adverse health effects through oxidative stress. In this study 8-isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine before and after experimental exposure to wood smoke. The results were compared with measurements of other biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Thirteen subjects were exposed first to clean air and then, after 1 week, to wood smoke in an exposure chamber during 4-hour sessions. Exhaled breath condensate, exhaled nitric oxide, blood and urine were sampled before and at various intervals after exposure to wood smoke and clean air. Exhaled breath condensate was examined for 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde (MDA), while exhaled air was examined for nitric oxide, serum for Clara cell protein (CC16) and urine for 8-isoprostane. 8-isoprostane in EBC did not increase after wood smoke exposure and its net change immediately after exposure was inversely correlated with net changes in MDA (r(s)= -0.57, p= 0.041) and serum CC16 (S-CC16) (r(p)= -0.64, p= 0.020) immediately after the exposure. No correlation was found between 8-isoprostane in urine and 8-isoprostane in EBC. In this study controlled wood smoke exposure in healthy subjects did not increase 8-isoprostane in EBC.

  19. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Mirekhtiary, F

    2013-12-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 × 5.0 m area × 2.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg(-1). The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the (226)Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m(-2)h(-1). The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 625 Bq m(-3). Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22 % higher than the passive method. PMID:23798709

  20. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Mirekhtiary, F

    2013-12-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 × 5.0 m area × 2.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg(-1). The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the (226)Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m(-2)h(-1). The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 625 Bq m(-3). Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22 % higher than the passive method.

  1. Exhaled nasal nitric oxide output is reduced in humans at night during the sleep period.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, Daniel J; Giraud, George D; Sippel, Jeffrey M; Edwards, Chad; Chan, Benjamin; Holden, William E

    2007-04-16

    The physiologic function of nasal nitric oxide (NO) release is unknown. In prior experiments, topical NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on nasal mucosa reduced exhaled nasal NO output and caused daytime sleepiness. We hypothesized that nasal NO output is reduced at night during the sleep period. We measured exhaled nasal NO concentration and minute ventilation and calculated nasal NO output in humans over 24 h. Daytime awake NO output was greater than NO output at night during sleep or transient wakefulness. Exhaled NO concentration decreased during sleep along with minute ventilation. A daytime voluntary reduction in minute ventilation also decreased nasal NO output but exhaled NO concentration increased. Nasal NO output was not changed by body position. We conclude that exhaled nasal NO output is decreased at night due to decreased mass flow of NO into nasal air in addition to decreased minute ventilation. Our findings suggest a role of nasal NO in sleep or in the physiologic processes accompanying sleep.

  2. Detection of Torque teno virus DNA in exhaled breath by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Chikasue, Kumiko; Kimura, Miyuki; Ikeda, Kazuyuki; Ohnishi, Takuma; Kawanishi, Satoshi; Iio, Tomoe; Kataoka, Mikio; Arao, Yujiro

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether exhaled breath contains Torque teno virus (TTV) or not, we tested exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples by semi-nested PCR assay. We detected TTV DNA in 35% (7/20) of EBC samples collected from the mouth of one of the authors, demonstrating that TTV DNA is excreted in exhaled breath with moderate frequency. TTV DNA was detected also in oral EBC samples from 4 of 6 other authors, indicating that TTV DNA excretion in exhaled breath is not an exception but rather a common phenomenon. Furthermore, the same assay could amplify TTV DNA from room air condensate (RAC) samples collected at distances of 20 and 40cm from a human face with 40 (8/20) and 35% (7/20) positive rates, respectively. TTV transmission has been reported to occur during infancy. These distances seem equivalent to that between an infant and its household members while caring for the infant. Taken together, it seems that exhaled breath is one of the possible transmission routes of TTV. We also detected TTV DNA in 25% (10/40) of RAC samples collected at a distance of more than 180cm from any human face, suggesting the risk of airborne infection with TTV in a room. PMID:23093057

  3. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Moura, C L; Artur, A C; Bonotto, D M; Guedes, S; Martinelli, C D

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for (226)Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for (232)Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for (40)K. Such data were used to estimate Ra(eq), H(ex) and I(γ), which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra(eq) and H(ex) in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces ~10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m(2)/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (=(226)Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation. PMID:21459585

  4. Cough and exhaled nitric oxide levels: what happens with exercise?

    PubMed

    Petsky, Helen L; Kynaston, Jennifer Anne; McElrea, Margaret; Turner, Catherine; Isles, Alan; Chang, Anne B

    2013-01-01

    Cough associated with exertion is often used as a surrogate marker of asthma. However, to date there are no studies that have objectively measured cough in association with exercise in children. Our primary aim was to examine whether children with a pre-existing cough have an increase in cough frequency during and post-exercise. We hypothesized that children with any coughing illness will have an increase in cough frequency post-exercise regardless of the presence of exercise-induced broncho-constriction (EIB) or atopy. In addition, we hypothesized that Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels decreases post-exercise regardless of the presence of EIB or atopy. Children with chronic cough and a control group without cough undertook an exercise challenge, FeNO measurements and a skin prick test, and wore a 24-h voice recorder to objectively measure cough frequency. The association between recorded cough frequency, exercise, atopy, and presence of EIB was tested. We also determined if the change in FeNO post exercise related to atopy or EIB. Of the 50 children recruited (35 with cough, 15 control), 7 had EIB. Children with cough had a significant increase in cough counts (median 7.0, inter-quartile ranges, 0.5, 24.5) compared to controls (2.0, IQR 0, 5.0, p = 0.028) post-exercise. Presence of atopy or EIB did not influence cough frequency. FeNO level was significantly lower post-exercise in both groups but the change was not influenced by atopy or EIB. Cough post-exertion is likely a generic response in children with a current cough. FeNO level decreases post-exercise irrespective of the presence of atopy or EIB. A larger study is necessary confirm or refute our findings.

  5. Cannabinoids in Exhaled Breath following Controlled Administration of Smoked Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Beck, Olof; Gorelick, David A.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), and cannabinol (CBN) were measured in breath following controlled cannabis smoking to characterize the time course and window of detection of breath cannabinoids. METHODS Exhaled breath was collected from chronic (≥4 times per week) and occasional (

  6. Spirometry filters can be used to detect exhaled respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Mourad, Bassel; Tovey, Euan; Buddle, Lachlan; Peters, Matthew; Morgan, Lucy; Oliver, Brian G

    2016-09-26

    Respiratory viruses are very common in the community and contribute to the burden of illness for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including acute exacerbations. Traditional sampling methods are invasive and problematic to repeat. Accordingly, we explored whether respiratory viruses could be isolated from disposable spirometry filters and whether detection of viruses in this context represented presence in the upper or lower respiratory tract. Discovery (n  =  53) and validation (n  =  49) cohorts were recruited from a hospital outpatient department during two different time periods. Spirometry mouthpiece filters were collected from all participants. Respiratory secretions were sampled from the upper and lower respiratory tract by nasal washing (NW), sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were examined using RT-PCR to identify a panel of respiratory viruses (rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 & 3, and human metapneumovirus). Rhinovirus was quantified using qPCR. Paired filter-NW samples (n  =  29), filter-sputum samples (n  =  24), filter-BAL samples (n  =  39) and filter-NW-BAL samples (n  =  10) provided a range of comparisons. At least one virus was detected in any sample in 85% of participants in the discovery cohort versus 45% in the validation cohort. Overall, 72% of viruses identified in the paired comparator method matched those detected in spirometry filters. There was a high correlation between viruses identified in spirometry filters compared with viruses identified in both the upper and lower respiratory tract using traditional sampling methods. Our results suggest that examination of spirometry filters may be a novel and inexpensive sampling method for the presence of respiratory viruses in exhaled breath.

  7. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Moura, C L; Artur, A C; Bonotto, D M; Guedes, S; Martinelli, C D

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for (226)Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for (232)Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for (40)K. Such data were used to estimate Ra(eq), H(ex) and I(γ), which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra(eq) and H(ex) in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces ~10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m(2)/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (=(226)Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation.

  8. Spirometry filters can be used to detect exhaled respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Mourad, Bassel; Tovey, Euan; Buddle, Lachlan; Peters, Matthew; Morgan, Lucy; Oliver, Brian G

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are very common in the community and contribute to the burden of illness for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including acute exacerbations. Traditional sampling methods are invasive and problematic to repeat. Accordingly, we explored whether respiratory viruses could be isolated from disposable spirometry filters and whether detection of viruses in this context represented presence in the upper or lower respiratory tract. Discovery (n  =  53) and validation (n  =  49) cohorts were recruited from a hospital outpatient department during two different time periods. Spirometry mouthpiece filters were collected from all participants. Respiratory secretions were sampled from the upper and lower respiratory tract by nasal washing (NW), sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were examined using RT-PCR to identify a panel of respiratory viruses (rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 & 3, and human metapneumovirus). Rhinovirus was quantified using qPCR. Paired filter-NW samples (n  =  29), filter-sputum samples (n  =  24), filter-BAL samples (n  =  39) and filter-NW-BAL samples (n  =  10) provided a range of comparisons. At least one virus was detected in any sample in 85% of participants in the discovery cohort versus 45% in the validation cohort. Overall, 72% of viruses identified in the paired comparator method matched those detected in spirometry filters. There was a high correlation between viruses identified in spirometry filters compared with viruses identified in both the upper and lower respiratory tract using traditional sampling methods. Our results suggest that examination of spirometry filters may be a novel and inexpensive sampling method for the presence of respiratory viruses in exhaled breath. PMID:27669334

  9. Exhaled breath condensate collection in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-05-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than 10 min. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at -70 °C to -80 °C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients.

  10. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  11. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17252717

  12. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  14. False positives in imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  15. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate of soil in southern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sroor, A; El-Bahi, S M; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S

    2001-12-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in soil of 30 mining samples collected from six locations in southern Egypt was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with a specially designed shield. The obtained results of uranium and thorium series as well as potassium (K-40) are discussed. The present data were compared with data obtained from different areas in Egypt. Also, a solid state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.54 to 5.37 Bq/kg. The exhalation rates were found to vary from 338.81 to 1426.47 Bq/m2d. The values of the radon exhalation rate are found to correspond with the uranium concentration values measured by the germanium detector in the corresponding soil samples.

  16. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

    2014-02-15

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4–6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

  17. Application of thermal desorption to the biological monitoring of organic compounds in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Periago, J F; Prado, C; Ibarra, I; Tortosa, J

    1993-12-24

    We have developed a thermal desorption-gas chromatographic method for the analysis of organic compounds in exhaled breath air, to be used in the biological monitoring of environmental exposure. The exhaled breath sampler is based on the concentration of compounds present in alveolar air in a solid sorbent material. Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl-ether), an inhaled anaesthetic used widely in surgery, and styrene, used in boat construction and the manufacture of fibreglass-reinforced plastics, are partially eliminated from the body in exhaled breath, samples of which can therefore be used to monitor biological exposure to these two organic compounds. Recoveries were tested in controlled atmospheres of isoflurane or styrene, with Chromosorb 106 or Tenax, respectively, as the adsorbent. We also investigated the influence of relative humidity, an important factor in breath sampling, on adsorption.

  18. Radon exhalation from sub-slab aggregate used in home construction in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lauren; Lee, Jaeyoung; Sadi, Baki; Chen, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes has been shown to result in an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The two largest contributors to indoor radon are radon in soil gas, formed from the rocks and soil surrounding the home, and building materials such as aggregate. This study measured the surface radon exhalation rates for 35 aggregate samples collected from producers across Canada. The radon exhalation rates ranged from 2.3 to 479.9 Bq m(-2) d(-1), with a mean of 80.7±112 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Using a simple, conservative analysis, the aggregate contribution to radon concentrations in an unfinished basement was determined. The maximum estimated radon concentration was 32.5±2.7 Bq m(-3), or ~16 % of the Canadian Radon Guideline. It can be concluded that under normal conditions radon exhalation from aggregate contributes very little to the total radon concentration in indoor air.

  19. Dynamic Nanoparticle-Based Flexible Sensors: Diagnosis of Ovarian Carcinoma from Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Nicole; Lavie, Ofer; Paz, Moran; Segev, Yakir; Haick, Hossam

    2015-10-14

    Flexible sensors based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were integrated into a dynamic cross-reactive diagnostic sensing array. Each bending state of the GNP-based flexible sensor gives unique nanoparticle spatial organization, altering the interaction between GNP ligands and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which increases the amount of data obtainable from each sensor. Individual dynamic flexible sensor could selectively detect parts per billion (ppb) level VOCs that are linked with ovarian cancers in exhaled breath and discriminate them from environmental VOCs that exist in exhaled breath samples, but do not relate to ovarian cancer per se. Strain-related response successfully discriminated between exhaled breath collected from control subjects and those with ovarian cancer, with data from a single sensor being sufficient to obtain 82% accuracy, irrespective of important confounding factors, such as tobacco consumption and comorbidities. The approach raises the hope of achieving an extremely simple, inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive diagnostic procedure for cancer and other diseases. PMID:26352191

  20. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil.

    PubMed

    Mazur, J; Kozak, K

    2014-02-01

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions. PMID:24593340

  1. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

    2014-02-01

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

  2. The Effect of Grain Size on Radon Exhalation Rate in Natural-dust and Stone-dust Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Raj; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    Radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contributes more than 50% of the total dose from the natural sources which is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In the present work the dependence of radon exhalation rate on the physical sample parameters of stone dust and natural dust were studied. The samples under study were first crushed, grinded, dried and then passed through sieves with different pore sizes to get samples of various grain sizes (μm). The average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 5.95±2.7 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 286±36 mBqm-2 hr-1 for stone dust, and the average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 9.02±5.37 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 360±67 mBqm-2 hr-1 for natural dust. The exhalation rate was found to increase with the increase in grain size of the sample. The obtained values of radon exhalation rate for all the samples are found to be under the radon exhalation rate limit reported worldwide.

  3. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Samoliński, Bolesław K; Zalewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR). Material and methods The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB), as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence) set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Results In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4th h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045). Conclusions Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy. PMID:27279816

  4. Detection of exhaled hydrogen sulphide gas in healthy human volunteers during intravenous administration of sodium sulphide

    PubMed Central

    Toombs, Christopher F; Insko, Michael A; Wintner, Edward A; Deckwerth, Thomas L; Usansky, Helen; Jamil, Khurram; Goldstein, Brahm; Cooreman, Michael; Szabo, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule and potential therapeutic agent. Emerging studies indicate its therapeutic potential in a variety of cardiovascular diseases and in critical illness. Augmentation of endogenous sulphide concentrations by intravenous administration of sodium sulphide can be used for the delivery of H2S to the tissues. In the current study, we have measured H2S concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy human volunteers subjected to increasing doses sodium sulphide in a human phase I safety and tolerability study. METHODS We have measured reactive sulphide in the blood via ex vivo derivatization of sulphide with monobromobimane to form sulphide-dibimane and blood concentrations of thiosulfate (major oxidative metabolite of sulphide) via ion chromatography. We have measured exhaled H2S concentrations using a custom-made device based on a sulphide gas detector (Interscan). RESULTS Administration of IK-1001, a parenteral formulation of Na2S (0.005–0.20 mg kg−1, i.v., infused over 1 min) induced an elevation of blood sulphide and thiosulfate concentrations over baseline, which was observed within the first 1–5 min following administration of IK-1001 at 0.10 mg kg−1 dose and higher. In all subjects, basal exhaled H2S was observed to be higher than the ambient concentration of H2S gas in room air, indicative of on-going endogenous H2S production in human subjects. Upon intravenous administration of Na2S, a rapid elevation of exhaled H2S concentrations was observed. The amount of exhaled H2S rapidly decreased after discontinuation of the infusion of Na2S. CONCLUSION Exhaled H2S represents a detectable route of elimination after parenteral administration of Na2S. PMID:20565454

  5. Influence of humidity on radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials.

    PubMed

    Janik, M; Omori, Y; Yonehara, H

    2014-10-24

    The contributions of radon and thoron from building materials to total radon (thoron) entry rates in dwellings range from almost zero to several percent. It is necessary to measure radon and thoron exhalation rates, among other things, to assess the radiological hazard to human health in a living environment. Brick and granite specimens were used to study the changes of these rates as a function of the relative and absolute humidities. Measurement results showed that radon and thoron exhalation rates change to humidity with the same trends as well as effective dose could be changed by the factor of 2 due to this. PMID:25464185

  6. Influence of humidity on radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials.

    PubMed

    Janik, M; Omori, Y; Yonehara, H

    2014-10-24

    The contributions of radon and thoron from building materials to total radon (thoron) entry rates in dwellings range from almost zero to several percent. It is necessary to measure radon and thoron exhalation rates, among other things, to assess the radiological hazard to human health in a living environment. Brick and granite specimens were used to study the changes of these rates as a function of the relative and absolute humidities. Measurement results showed that radon and thoron exhalation rates change to humidity with the same trends as well as effective dose could be changed by the factor of 2 due to this.

  7. Radioactivity and radon exhalation rates of building materials in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Ackers, J G; den Boer, J F; de Jong, P; Wolschrijn, R A

    1985-10-01

    About 140 samples of building materials have been analysed by gamma spectrometry for their Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 concentrations. The radon exhalation rate was measured from concrete slabs of different composition including fly-ash components. The activity concentrations of materials containing soil products, like clay bricks and concrete, proved to be somewhat lower than those reported in some other European countries. This is probably due to the mainly sedimentary structure of the Dutch soil. The normalized radon exhalation rates were found to be substantially lower for concrete containing fly-ash products than for ordinary concrete.

  8. Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Moran, Benjamin L.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-09-01

    As many as 3500 chemicals are reported in exhaled human breath. Many of these chemicals are linked to certain health conditions and environmental exposures. This experiment demonstrated a method of breath analysis utilizing a high resolution spectroscopic technique for the detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in the exhaled breath of a person who consumed alcohol. This technique is applicable to a wide range of polar molecules. For select species, unambiguous detection in a part per trillion dilution range with a total sample size in a femtomol range is feasible. It compares favorably with other methods of breath analysis.

  9. Exhaled nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in mechanically ventilated brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Korovesi, I; Kotanidou, A; Papadomichelakis, E; Livaditi, O; Sotiropoulou, C; Koutsoukou, A; Marczin, N; Orfanos, S E

    2016-03-02

    The inflammatory influence and biological markers of prolonged mechanical-ventilation in uninjured human lungs remains controversial. We investigated exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) in mechanically-ventilated, brain-injured patients in the absence of lung injury or sepsis at two different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Exhaled NO and CO were assessed in 27 patients, without lung injury or sepsis, who were ventilated with 8 ml kg(-1) tidal volumes under zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP group, n  =  12) or 8 cm H2O PEEP (PEEP group, n  =  15). Exhaled NO and CO was analysed on days 1, 3 and 5 of mechanical ventilation and correlated with previously reported markers of inflammation and gas exchange. Exhaled NO was higher on day 3 and 5 in both patient groups compared to day 1: (PEEP group: 5.8 (4.4-9.7) versus 11.7 (6.9-13.9) versus 10.7 (5.6-16.6) ppb (p  <  0.05); ZEEP group: 5.3 (3.8-8.8) versus 9.8 (5.3-12.4) versus 9.6 (6.2-13.5) ppb NO peak levels for days 1, 3 and 5, respectively, p  <  0.05). Exhaled CO remained stable on day 3 but significantly decreased by day 5 in the ZEEP group only (6.3 (4.3-9.0) versus 8.1 (5.8-12.1) ppm CO peak levels for day 5 versus 1, p  <  0.05). The change scores for peak exhaled CO over day 1 and 5 showed significant correlations with arterial blood pH and plasma TNF levels (r s  =  0.49, p  =  0.02 and r s  =  -0.51 p  =  0.02, respectively). Exhaled NO correlated with blood pH in the ZEEP group and with plasma levels of IL-6 in the PEEP group. We observed differential changes in exhaled NO and CO in mechanically-ventilated patients even in the absence of manifest lung injury or sepsis. These may suggest subtle pulmonary inflammation and support application of real time breath analysis for molecular monitoring in critically ill patients.

  10. Detection of ammonia in exhaled breath for clinical diagnosis- A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafare, Mawahib; Dennis, J. O.; Md Khir, M. H.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents ammonia gas as a biomarker for different clinical conditions when it exceeds the normal concentration in the exhaled breath. In peculiar, detection of ammonia in human breath has the effort to investigate various practicabilities inclusive those comprising the kidneys, liver and bacterial infection of either the stomach or mouth. Laser spectroscopy, gas chromatography, photo-acoustic spectroscopy, chemical ionization, and chemical sensing are used to measure and detect ammonia gas from exhaled breath. These methods and techniques are discussed in terms of their response time and the minimum concentration detectable. Furthermore, the benefits and importance of these methods and their limitation and drawback are highlighted.

  11. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  12. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  13. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  14. The relationships among Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus exposure, exhaled nitric oxide, and exhaled breath condensate pH levels in atopic asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dah-Chin; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Syh-Jae; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    This study examined seasonal changes in indoor Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 (Der p 1)/Blattella germanica 1 (Bla g 1) antigen concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic and atopic nonasthmatic children. Possible associations between environmental allergen exposure and levels of exhaled breath indices were also evaluated.A total of 38 atopic children were recruited for this cross-sectional study: 22 were asthmatic and 16 were nonasthmatic. Home visits were conducted for indoor air and dust sampling each season. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)/spirometric measurements were taken and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected after sampling of the domestic environment.The highest Der p 1 concentrations were on the top of mattresses in the homes of recruited children. The floors of kitchens and living rooms had the highest Bla g 1 concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic children. A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure of mattress, bedroom floor, and living room floor and eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children. The Der p 1 concentrations on the surfaces of mattress and bedroom floor were positively related to high eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children after adjusting for season. No association was found between Der p 1 exposure and EBC pH values in the recruited children.A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure and high eNO levels in atopic asthmatic children, especially in Der p 1 exposure of mattress and bedroom floor. PMID:27684812

  15. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  16. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  17. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  18. Characteristics of radon and thoron exhalation rates in Okinawa, subtropical region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Kina, S; Fujitani, T; Hosoda, M; Sorimachi, A; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates from the ground surface were estimated in three islands of Okinawa Prefecture, a subtropical region of Japan. In situ measurements of the exhalation rates were conducted at a total of 88 points using an accumulation technique with a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The radon and thoron exhalation rates were calculated to be 1-137 (arithmetic mean: 21) mBq m(-2) s(-1) and 32-6244 (1801) mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In the surface soil samples collected at 53 measurement points, (238)U and (232)Th series concentrations were estimated to be 17.9-254.0 (64.0) Bq kg(-1) dry and 17.8-136.1 (58.8) Bq kg(-1) dry, respectively. The maximum rates and concentrations were observed in the dark red soil area. Recent studies strongly suggest that the base material of the soils may be the eolian dust derived from the southeastern part of China, a high background radiation area. The eolian dust is, therefore, considered to be an enhancer for the radon and thoron exhalations in Okinawa.

  19. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Ronny; Fijten, Rianne; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Dallinga, Jan; Boumans, Marie-Louise; Stobberingh, Ellen; Boots, Agnes; Roekaerts, Paul; Bergmans, Dennis; van Schooten, Frederik Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection occurring in the intensive care unit (ICU). The diagnostic standard is based on clinical criteria and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Exhaled breath analysis is a promising non-invasive method for rapid diagnosis of diseases and contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can differentiate diseased from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether analysis of VOCs in exhaled breath can be used as a non-invasive monitoring tool for VAP. One hundred critically ill patients with clinical suspicion of VAP underwent BAL. Before BAL, exhaled air samples were collected and analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-tof-MS). The clinical suspicion of VAP was confirmed by BAL diagnostic criteria in 32 patients [VAP(+)] and rejected in 68 patients [VAP(−)]. Multivariate statistical comparison of VOC profiles between VAP(+) and VAP(−) revealed a subset of 12 VOCs that correctly discriminated between those two patient groups with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.8% ± 13.5% and 73.0% ± 11.8%, respectively. These results suggest that detection of VAP in ICU patients is possible by examining exhaled breath, enabling a simple, safe and non-invasive approach that could diminish diagnostic burden of VAP. PMID:26608483

  20. Exhaled nitric oxide decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel E; Beall, Cynthia M; Strohl, Kingman P; Mills, Phoebe S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator that plays a role in blood flow and oxygen delivery. Acute hypoxia down regulates NO synthesis, a response that may exacerbate hypoxic stress by decreasing blood flow. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that pulmonary NO decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia and that relatively low levels of NO at altitude are associated with greater stress as reflected in more symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). A sample of 47 healthy, adult, nonsmoking, sea-level residents provided measurements at sea level, at 2,800 m, and at 0-, 2-, and 3-h exposure times at 4,200 m altitude on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Measurements were made of exhaled NO, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, heart rate, and reported symptoms of AMS. The partial pressure of NO concentration in exhaled breath decreased significantly from a sea level mean of 4.2 nmHg to 3.8 nmHg at 2,800 m and 3.4 nmHg at 4,200 m. NO concentration in exhaled breath did not change significantly over a 3-h exposure at 4,200 m and recovered to pre-exposure baseline upon return to sea level. There was no significant association between the level of NO exhaled and the number of self-reported symptoms of AMS during this brief exposure. PMID:16493632

  1. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05).There was a correlation between heart rate and changes in environmental temperature, time of exposure to the sun and relative humidity (p < 0.05). In elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested. PMID:27076001

  2. [Exhaled nitric oxide in children: a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation].

    PubMed

    Cobos Barroso, Nicolás; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; Sardón Prado, Olaia; Reverté Bover, Conrado; Gartner, Silvia; Korta Murua, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This article is an academic review of the application in children of the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). We outline the joint American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommendations for online measurement of FENO in both cooperating children and children unable to cooperate, offline measurement with uncontrolled exhalation flow rate, offline measurement with controlled exhalation flow rate using a dynamic flow restrictor, and offline measurement during tidal breathing in children unable to cooperate. This is followed by a review of the normal range of values for single-breath online measurements obtained with a chemiluminescence FENO analyzer (geometric mean, 9.7 parts per billion [ppb]; upper limit of the 95% confidence interval, 25.2 ppb). FENO values above 17 ppb have a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 80% for predicting asthma of an eosinophilic phenotype. We discuss the response of FENO values to anti-inflammatory treatment and the use of this marker in the management of asthma. Results obtained with chemiluminescence and portable electrochemical analyzers are compared. The portable devices offer the possibility--in children over 5 years of age--of accurate and universal monitoring of exhaled nitric oxide concentrations, an emerging marker of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma that facilitates diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and assessment of response to therapy.

  3. Exhaled breath malondialdehyde as a matter of effect of exposure to airpollution in children with asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the adverse effects of oxidative stress related to air pollution is limited by the lack of biological markers of dose to the lungs. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) malondialdehyde as a biomarker of exposure to traffic-r...

  4. Influencing effect of heat-treatment on radon emanation and exhalation characteristic of red mud.

    PubMed

    Sas, Zoltán; Szántó, János; Kovács, János; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2015-10-01

    The reuse of industrial by-products is important for members of numerous industrial sectors. However, though the benefits of reuse are evident from an economical point of view, some compounds in these materials can have a negative effect on users' health. In this study, the radon emanation and exhalation features of red mud were surveyed using heat-treatment (100-1200 °C). As a result of the 1200°C-treated samples, massic radon exhalation capacity reduced from 75 ± 10 mBq kg(-1) h(-1) to 7 ± 4 mBq kg(-1) h(-1), approximately 10% of the initial exhalation rate. To find an explanation for internal structural changes, the porosity features of the heat-treated samples were also investigated. It was found that the cumulative pore volume reduced significantly in less than 100 nm, which can explain the reduced massic exhalation capacity in the high temperature treated range mentioned above. SEM snapshots were taken of the surfaces of the samples as visual evidence for superficial morphological changes. It was found that the surface of the high temperature treated samples had changed, proving the decrement of open pores on the surface.

  5. Microbial content of household dust associated with exhaled NO in asthmatic children.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is increasingly used as a non-invasive measure of airway inflammation. Despite this, little information exists regarding the potential effects of indoor microbial components on eNO. We determined the influence of microbial contaminants in house dust and...

  6. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Ronny; Fijten, Rianne; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Dallinga, Jan; Boumans, Marie-Louise; Stobberingh, Ellen; Boots, Agnes; Roekaerts, Paul; Bergmans, Dennis; van Schooten, Frederik Jan

    2015-11-26

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection occurring in the intensive care unit (ICU). The diagnostic standard is based on clinical criteria and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Exhaled breath analysis is a promising non-invasive method for rapid diagnosis of diseases and contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can differentiate diseased from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether analysis of VOCs in exhaled breath can be used as a non-invasive monitoring tool for VAP. One hundred critically ill patients with clinical suspicion of VAP underwent BAL. Before BAL, exhaled air samples were collected and analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-tof-MS). The clinical suspicion of VAP was confirmed by BAL diagnostic criteria in 32 patients [VAP(+)] and rejected in 68 patients [VAP(-)]. Multivariate statistical comparison of VOC profiles between VAP(+) and VAP(-) revealed a subset of 12 VOCs that correctly discriminated between those two patient groups with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.8% ± 13.5% and 73.0% ± 11.8%, respectively. These results suggest that detection of VAP in ICU patients is possible by examining exhaled breath, enabling a simple, safe and non-invasive approach that could diminish diagnostic burden of VAP.

  7. Exhaled volatile organic compounds as lung cancer biomarkers during one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changsong; Dong, Ran; Wang, Xiaoyang; Lian, Ailing; Chi, Chunjie; Ke, Chaofu; Guo, Lei; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2014-01-01

    In this study, single-lung ventilation was used to detect differences in the volatile organic compound (VOCs) profiles between lung tissues in healthy and affected lungs. In addition, changes that occurred after lung cancer resection in both the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath from ipsilateral and contralateral lungs and the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath and blood sample headspaces were also determined. Eighteen patients with non-small cell carcinoma were enrolled. Alveolar breath samples were taken separately from healthy and diseased lungs before and after the tumor resection. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs before surgery, the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs after surgery, the ipsilateral lungs before and after surgery, and the blood samples from before and after surgery; 12, 19, 12 and 5 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. 2,2-Dimethyldecane, tetradecane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, 2,3,4-trimethyldecane, nonane, 3,4,5,6-tetramethyloctane, and hexadecane may be generated from lipid peroxidation during surgery. Caprolactam and propanoic acid may be more promising exhaled breath biomarkers for lung cancer. PMID:25482491

  8. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05).There was a correlation between heart rate and changes in environmental temperature, time of exposure to the sun and relative humidity (p < 0.05). In elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  9. Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmanesh, Nahid; Cristescu, Simona M.; Ghorbanzadeh, Atamalek; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mandon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important biomarker as it originates in the human body from the heme (component of hemoglobin) degradation. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region is used for sensitive trace gas sensing of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Based on a quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.61 µm, two different spectroscopic methods are investigated: off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and wavelength modulation 2f/1f spectroscopy (WMS). The optical sensors integrate a slow feedback system to correct for wavelength drifts improving their stability over days. Both approaches demonstrate a high reproducibility and sensitivity during online measurements of exhaled human breath. Considering the detection limit to be the equal to the standard deviation of the background fluctuations, the noise-equivalent detection limit for both OA-ICOS and WMS is 7 ppbv (1-s averaging time), leading to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2, which is sufficient for measurements of exhaled CO (eCO). Collection and measurements of eCO samples were investigated, and different exhalation flow rates and breath-holding time were explored, to provide a reliable sampling method for future medical investigations.

  10. [Exhaled nitric oxide in children: a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation].

    PubMed

    Cobos Barroso, Nicolás; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; Sardón Prado, Olaia; Reverté Bover, Conrado; Gartner, Silvia; Korta Murua, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This article is an academic review of the application in children of the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). We outline the joint American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommendations for online measurement of FENO in both cooperating children and children unable to cooperate, offline measurement with uncontrolled exhalation flow rate, offline measurement with controlled exhalation flow rate using a dynamic flow restrictor, and offline measurement during tidal breathing in children unable to cooperate. This is followed by a review of the normal range of values for single-breath online measurements obtained with a chemiluminescence FENO analyzer (geometric mean, 9.7 parts per billion [ppb]; upper limit of the 95% confidence interval, 25.2 ppb). FENO values above 17 ppb have a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 80% for predicting asthma of an eosinophilic phenotype. We discuss the response of FENO values to anti-inflammatory treatment and the use of this marker in the management of asthma. Results obtained with chemiluminescence and portable electrochemical analyzers are compared. The portable devices offer the possibility--in children over 5 years of age--of accurate and universal monitoring of exhaled nitric oxide concentrations, an emerging marker of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma that facilitates diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and assessment of response to therapy. PMID:18221726

  11. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel.

  12. Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2014-09-01

    Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2.

  13. A comparative study between the dynamic method and passive can technique of radon exhalation measurements from samples.

    PubMed

    Raj Menon, Sreeja; Sahoo, B K; Balasundar, S; Gaware, J J; Jose, M T; Venkatraman, B; Mayya, Y S

    2015-05-01

    A comparative study has been carried out between the SSNTD based 'can' technique and active monitors based dynamic method using nine different samples, eight of granite and one of phosphogypsum. Besides radon ((222)Rn) exhalation, thoron((220)Rn) exhalation and (226)Ra and (232)Th content were also measured. The results are: (i) presence of significant thoron exhalation from samples and (ii) observation of thoron interference and leak (~0.05h(-1)) from the 'can' in the SSNTD based 'can' technqiue. The study unequivocally demonstrates the presence of intrinsic uncertainty in SSNTD based 'can' technique. Instead, dynamic method offers a more reliable and faster method. PMID:25770859

  14. A comparative study between the dynamic method and passive can technique of radon exhalation measurements from samples.

    PubMed

    Raj Menon, Sreeja; Sahoo, B K; Balasundar, S; Gaware, J J; Jose, M T; Venkatraman, B; Mayya, Y S

    2015-05-01

    A comparative study has been carried out between the SSNTD based 'can' technique and active monitors based dynamic method using nine different samples, eight of granite and one of phosphogypsum. Besides radon ((222)Rn) exhalation, thoron((220)Rn) exhalation and (226)Ra and (232)Th content were also measured. The results are: (i) presence of significant thoron exhalation from samples and (ii) observation of thoron interference and leak (~0.05h(-1)) from the 'can' in the SSNTD based 'can' technqiue. The study unequivocally demonstrates the presence of intrinsic uncertainty in SSNTD based 'can' technique. Instead, dynamic method offers a more reliable and faster method.

  15. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  16. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  17. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  18. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  19. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R; Brinkman, P; van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Dijkers, E; Bootsma, S K; de Jongh, F H C; Sterk, P J

    2015-12-01

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We aimed to determine and optimize the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of exhaled breath analysis linked to routine spirometry. Exhaled breath was collected in triplicate in healthy subjects by an eNose (SpiroNose) based on five identical metal oxide semiconductor sensor arrays (three arrays monitoring exhaled breath and two reference arrays monitoring ambient air) at the rear end of a pneumotachograph. First, the influence of flow, volume, humidity, temperature, environment, etc, was assessed. Secondly, a two-centre case-control study was performed using diagnostic and monitoring visits in day-to-day clinical care in patients with a (differential) diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. Breathprint analysis involved signal processing, environment correction based on alveolar gradients and statistics based on principal component (PC) analysis, followed by discriminant analysis (Matlab2014/SPSS20). Expiratory flow showed a significant linear correlation with raw sensor deflections (R(2)  =  0.84) in 60 healthy subjects (age 43  ±  11 years). No correlation was found between sensor readings and exhaled volume, humidity and temperature. Exhaled data after environment correction were highly reproducible for each sensor array (Cohen's Kappa 0.81-0.94). Thirty-seven asthmatics (41  ±  14.2 years), 31 COPD patients (66  ±  8.4 years), 31 lung cancer patients (63  ±  10.8 years) and 45 healthy controls (41  ±  12.5 years) entered the cross-sectional study. SpiroNose could adequately distinguish between controls, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients with cross-validation values

  20. Viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size affect indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Chio, C P; Jou, L J; Liao, C M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size on indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection. The target cell-limited model with delayed virus production was adopted to strengthen the inner mechanisms of virus infection on human epithelial cell. The particle number and volume involved in the viral kinetics were linked with Wells-Riley mathematical equation to quantify the infection risk. We investigated population dynamics in a specific elementary school by using the seasonal susceptible - exposed - infected - recovery (SEIR) model. We found that exhaled pulmonary bioaerosol of sneeze (particle diameter <10 microm) have 10(2)-fold estimate higher than that of cough. Sneeze and cough caused risk probabilities range from 0.075 to 0.30 and 0.076, respectively; whereas basic reproduction numbers (R(0)) estimates range from 4 to 17 for sneeze and nearly 4 for cough, indicating sneeze-posed higher infection risk. The viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size for sneeze affect indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection since date post-infection 1-7. This study provides direct mechanistic support that indoor influenza virus transmission can be characterized by viral kinetics in human upper respiratory tracts that are modulated by exhaled droplet size. Practical Implications This paper provides a predictive model that can integrate the influenza viral kinetics (target cell-limited model), indoor aerosol transmission potential (Wells-Riley mathematical equation), and population dynamic model [susceptible - exposed - infected - recovery (SEIR) model] in a proposed susceptible population. Viral kinetics expresses the competed results of human immunity ability with influenza virus generation. By linking the viral kinetics and different exposure parameters and environmental factors in a proposed school setting with five age groups, the influenza infection risk can be estimated. On the other hand, we implicated

  1. Viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size affect indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Chio, C P; Jou, L J; Liao, C M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size on indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection. The target cell-limited model with delayed virus production was adopted to strengthen the inner mechanisms of virus infection on human epithelial cell. The particle number and volume involved in the viral kinetics were linked with Wells-Riley mathematical equation to quantify the infection risk. We investigated population dynamics in a specific elementary school by using the seasonal susceptible - exposed - infected - recovery (SEIR) model. We found that exhaled pulmonary bioaerosol of sneeze (particle diameter <10 microm) have 10(2)-fold estimate higher than that of cough. Sneeze and cough caused risk probabilities range from 0.075 to 0.30 and 0.076, respectively; whereas basic reproduction numbers (R(0)) estimates range from 4 to 17 for sneeze and nearly 4 for cough, indicating sneeze-posed higher infection risk. The viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size for sneeze affect indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection since date post-infection 1-7. This study provides direct mechanistic support that indoor influenza virus transmission can be characterized by viral kinetics in human upper respiratory tracts that are modulated by exhaled droplet size. Practical Implications This paper provides a predictive model that can integrate the influenza viral kinetics (target cell-limited model), indoor aerosol transmission potential (Wells-Riley mathematical equation), and population dynamic model [susceptible - exposed - infected - recovery (SEIR) model] in a proposed susceptible population. Viral kinetics expresses the competed results of human immunity ability with influenza virus generation. By linking the viral kinetics and different exposure parameters and environmental factors in a proposed school setting with five age groups, the influenza infection risk can be estimated. On the other hand, we implicated

  2. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump. PMID:25461511

  3. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump.

  4. Post-operative elimination of sevoflurane anesthetic and hexafluoroisopropanol metabolite in exhaled breath: Pharmacokinetic models for assessing liver function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sevoflurane (SEV), a commonly used anesthetic agent for invasive surgery, is directly eliminated via exhaled breath and indirectly by metabolic conversion to inorganic fluoride and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), which is also eliminated in the breath. We studied the post-operativ...

  5. Application of Novel Method to Measure Endogenous VOCs in Exhaled Breath Condensate Before and After Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polar volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) such as aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols are byproducts of normal human metabolism and are present in exhaled breath and blood. Environmental exposures, individual activities, and disease states can perturb normal metabolic processes and ...

  6. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  7. Measuring radon exhalation rate in two cycles avoiding the effects of back-diffusion and chamber leakage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Xiao, Detao

    2013-10-01

    This paper will present a simple method for measuring the radon exhalation rate from the medium surface in two cycles and also avoiding the effects of back-diffusion and chamber leakage. The method is based on a combination of the "accumulation chamber" technique and a radon monitor. The radon monitor performs the measurement of the radon concentration inside the accumulation chamber, and then the radon exhalation rate can be obtained by simple calculation. For reducing the systematic error and the statistical uncertainty, too short of total measurement time is not appropriate, and the first cycle time should be about 70 % of the total measurement. The radon exhalation rate from the medium surface obtained through this method is in good agreement with the reference value. This simple method can be applied to develop and improve the instruments for measuring radon exhalation rate.

  8. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333

  9. Measurement of radon/thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in granite areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G; Ishikawa, T; Hosoda, M; Sahoo, S K; Kavasi, N; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S; Uchida, S

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in different places in Hiroshima Prefecture were measured. Exhalation rates were measured using an accumulation chamber method. The radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 3 to 37 mBq m(-2) s(-1), while the thoron exhalation rate ranged from 40 to 3330 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The highest radon exhalation rate (37 mBq m(-2) s(-1)) and gamma-ray dose rate (92 nGy h(-1)) were found in the same city (Kure City). In Kure City, indoor radon and thoron concentrations were previously measured at nine selected houses using a radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). The indoor radon concentrations varied from 16 to 78 Bq m(-3), which was higher than the average value in Japan (15.5 Bq m(-3)). The indoor thoron concentration ranged from ND (not detected: below a detection limit of approximately 10 Bq m(-3)) to 314 Bq m(-3). The results suggest that radon exhalation rate from the ground is an influential factor for indoor radon concentration.

  10. [Determination of proteomic and metabolic composition of exhaled breath condensate of newborns].

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Chagovets, V V; Starodubtseva, N L; Ryndin, A Y; Bugrova, A E; Kostyukevich, Y I; Popov, I A; Frankevich, V E; Ionov, O V; Sukhikh, G T; Nikolaev, E N

    2016-01-01

    Here, the possibility of proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the composition of exhaled breath condensate of neonates with respiratory support. The developed method allows non-invasive collecting sufficient amount of the material for identification of disease-specific biomarkers. Samples were collected by using a condensing device that was incorporated into the ventilation system. The collected condensate was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The isolated substances were identified with a use of databases for proteins and metabolites. As a result, a number of compounds that compose the exhaled breath condensate was determined and can be considered as possible biomarkers of newborn diseases or stage of development. PMID:27414793

  11. Radon exhalation rates and effective radium contents of the soil samples in Adapazarı, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuş, Adem; Yakut, Hakan; Tabar, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this study effective radium content and radon exhalation rates in soil samples collected from Adapazarı district of Sakarya, Turkey have been measured using LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors by closed-can technique for the first time. The obtained effective radium contents are found to vary from 6.66 to 34.32 Bqkg-1 with a mean value of 18.01 Bqkg-1. The radon exhalation rates measured in terms of mass and area of soil samples are found to vary from 50.35-259.41 mBqkg-1h-1 with a mean value of 136.12 mBqkg-1h-1 and 1035.18-5333.39 mBqm-2h-1 with a mean value of mBqm-2h-1. All the measurements show that the values of radium content are under the safe limit recommended by Organization for Cooperation and Development.

  12. Radiometric surveying for the assessment of radiation dose and radon specific exhalation in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, M.; Verdoya, M.; Chiozzi, P.; Pasquale, V.

    2012-08-01

    We performed a radiometric survey for evaluating the natural radioactivity and the related potential hazard level both outdoor and indoor a mine tunnel. The mine is located in a zone of uranium enrichment in the Western Alps (Italy). At first, a γ-ray spectrometry survey of the area surrounding the mine was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, spectrometric measurements were performed in the tunnel and rock samples were collected for laboratory analyses. The results point to significant heterogeneity in uranium concentration and consequently in the absorbed dose rate spatial distribution. Spectrometric results in situ and in the laboratory, together with radon air concentration measurements, were used to infer the radon specific exhalation and flow from the mine rocks. The specific exhalation is positively related to the activity concentration of uranium.

  13. Assessment of airway inflammation by exhaled breath condensate and impedance due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yasuo; Dobashi, Kunio; Nagoshi, Atsuto; Kawamura, Osamu; Mori, Masatomo

    2009-09-01

    Avoiding oxidative stress in the airways is important for the treatment of respiratory disease associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is often difficult to decide whether GERD is causing airway inflammation or whether an airway disease is complicated by GERD. Measurement of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is performed by cooling and collecting the airway lining fluid contained in exhaled air. A decrease of pH and an increase of the 8-isoprostane concentration in EBC have been observed in patients with mild to moderate asthma accompanied by GERD. There are still problems to be overcome before EBC can be used clinically, but pH and 8-isoprostane may be promising objective markers of airway inflammation due to GERD. The disease concept and diagnosis of GERD are constantly advancing, including the development of impedance methods. It is expected that treatment will be based on the latest diagnostic knowledge of GERD associated with respiratory disease and on monitoring of airway inflammation.

  14. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, C. B.; Holland, B. P.; McMillen, G.; Step, D. L.; Krehbiel, C. R.; Namjou, K.; McCann, P. J.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in the expired breath of crossbred calves received at a research facility was performed using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Exhaled NO (eNO) concentrations were measured using NO absorption lines at 1912.07 cm-1 and employing background subtraction. The lower detection limit and measurement precision were determined to be ˜330 parts in 1012 per unit volume. A custom breath collection system was designed to collect lower airway breath of spontaneously breathing calves while in a restraint chute. Breath was collected and analyzed from calves upon arrival and periodically during a 42 day receiving period. There was a statistically significant relationship between eNO, severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in terms of number of times treated, and average daily weight gain over the first 15 days postarrival. In addition, breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 showed a statistically significant relationship with BRD morbidity.

  15. Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks.

    PubMed

    Milton, Donald K; Fabian, M Patricia; Cowling, Benjamin J; Grantham, Michael L; McDevitt, James J

    2013-03-01

    The CDC recommends that healthcare settings provide influenza patients with facemasks as a means of reducing transmission to staff and other patients, and a recent report suggested that surgical masks can capture influenza virus in large droplet spray. However, there is minimal data on influenza virus aerosol shedding, the infectiousness of exhaled aerosols, and none on the impact of facemasks on viral aerosol shedding from patients with seasonal influenza. We collected samples of exhaled particles (one with and one without a facemask) in two size fractions ("coarse">5 µm, "fine"≤5 µm) from 37 volunteers within 5 days of seasonal influenza onset, measured viral copy number using quantitative RT-PCR, and tested the fine-particle fraction for culturable virus. Fine particles contained 8.8 (95% CI 4.1 to 19) fold more viral copies than did coarse particles. Surgical masks reduced viral copy numbers in the fine fraction by 2.8 fold (95% CI 1.5 to 5.2) and in the coarse fraction by 25 fold (95% CI 3.5 to 180). Overall, masks produced a 3.4 fold (95% CI 1.8 to 6.3) reduction in viral aerosol shedding. Correlations between nasopharyngeal swab and the aerosol fraction copy numbers were weak (r = 0.17, coarse; r = 0.29, fine fraction). Copy numbers in exhaled breath declined rapidly with day after onset of illness. Two subjects with the highest copy numbers gave culture positive fine particle samples. Surgical masks worn by patients reduce aerosols shedding of virus. The abundance of viral copies in fine particle aerosols and evidence for their infectiousness suggests an important role in seasonal influenza transmission. Monitoring exhaled virus aerosols will be important for validation of experimental transmission studies in humans.

  16. Radon exhalation from Libyan soil samples measured with the SSNTD technique.

    PubMed

    Saad, A F; Abdallah, R M; Hussein, N A

    2013-02-01

    Radon concentrations in soil samples collected from the cities of Benghazi and Al-Marj, located in northeastern Libya, were measured using the sealed-can technique based on the CR-39 SSNTDs. Mass and areal radon exhalation rates, radium content and radon concentration contribute to indoor radon, and annual effective doses were determined. The results indicate mostly normal rates, but there were some higher levels of radon concentration and emanation in samples collected from Al-Marj and one sample from Benghazi.

  17. Inflammatory Markers in Blood and Exhaled Air after Short-Term Exposure to Cooking Fumes

    PubMed Central

    Svedahl, Sindre Rabben

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cooking fumes contain aldehydes, alkanoic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds. The inhalation of cooking fumes entails a risk of deleterious health effects. The aim of this study was to see if the inhalation of cooking fumes alters the expression of inflammatory reactions in the bronchial mucosa and its subsequent systemic inflammatory response in blood biomarkers. Methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers stayed in a model kitchen on two different occasions for 2 or 4h. On the first occasion, there was only exposure to normal air, and on the second, there was exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. On each occasion, samples of blood, exhaled air, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were taken three times in 24h and inflammatory markers were measured from all samples. Results: There was an increase in the concentration of the d-dimer in blood from 0.27 to 0.28mg ml–1 on the morning after exposure to cooking fumes compared with the levels the morning before (P-value = 0.004). There was also a trend of an increase in interleukin (IL)-6 in blood, ethane in exhaled air, and IL-1β in EBC after exposure to cooking fumes. In a sub-analysis of 12 subjects, there was also an increase in the levels of ethane—from 2.83 parts per billion (ppb) on the morning before exposure to cooking fumes to 3.53 ppb on the morning after exposure (P = 0.013)—and IL-1β—from 1.04 on the morning before exposure to cooking fumes to 1.39 pg ml–1 immediately after (P = 0.024). Conclusion: In our experimental setting, we were able to unveil only small changes in the levels of inflammatory markers in exhaled air and in blood after short-term exposure to moderate concentrations of cooking fumes. PMID:23179989

  18. Quantification of methane in humid air and exhaled breath using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, D; Spanel, P

    2010-05-15

    In selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, analyses of humid air and breath, it is essential to consider and account for the influence of water vapour in the media, which can be profound for the analysis of some compounds, including H(2)CO, H(2)S and notably CO(2). To date, the analysis of methane has not been considered, since it is known to be unreactive with H(3)O(+) and NO(+), the most important precursor ions for SIFT-MS analyses, and it reacts only slowly with the other available precursor ion, O(2) (+). However, we have now experimentally investigated methane analysis and report that it can be quantified in both air and exhaled breath by exploiting the slow O(2) (+)/CH(4) reaction that produces CH(3)O(2) (+) ions. We show that the ion chemistry is significantly influenced by the presence of water vapour in the sample, which must be quantified if accurate analyses are to be performed. Thus, we have carried out a study of the loss rate of the CH(3)O(2) (+) analytical ion as a function of sample humidity and deduced an appropriate kinetics library entry that provides an accurate analysis of methane in air and breath by SIFT-MS. However, the associated limit of detection is rather high, at 0.2 parts-per-million, ppm. We then measured the methane levels, together with acetone levels, in the exhaled breath of 75 volunteers, all within a period of 3 h, which shows the remarkable sample throughput rate possible with SIFT-MS. The mean methane level in ambient air is seen to be 2 ppm with little spread and that in exhaled breath is 6 ppm, ranging from near-ambient levels to 30 ppm, with no significant variation with age and gender. Methane can now be included in the wide ranging analyses of exhaled breath that are currently being carried out using SIFT-MS.

  19. Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Stacy R.; Ngo, Jerry; Flores, Rebecca; Midyett, Jason; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Blake, Donald R.; Galassetti, Pietro R.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of diabetes mellitus, affecting tens of millions of patients, requires frequent assessment of plasma glucose. Patient compliance for sufficient testing is often reduced by the unpleasantness of current methodologies, which require blood samples and often cause pain and skin callusing. We propose that the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as a novel, alternative, noninvasive means to monitor glycemia in these patients. Seventeen healthy (9 females and 8 males, 28.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eight type 1 diabetic (T1DM) volunteers (5 females and 3 males, 25.8 ± 1.7 yr) were enrolled in a 240-min triphasic intravenous dextrose infusion protocol (baseline, hyperglycemia, euglycemia-hyperinsulinemia). In T1DM patients, insulin was also administered (using differing protocols on 2 repeated visits to separate the effects of insulinemia on breath composition). Exhaled breath and room air samples were collected at 12 time points, and concentrations of ∼100 VOCs were determined by gas chromatography and matched with direct plasma glucose measurements. Standard least squares regression was used on several subsets of exhaled gases to generate multilinear models to predict plasma glucose for each subject. Plasma glucose estimates based on two groups of four gases each (cluster A: acetone, methyl nitrate, ethanol, and ethyl benzene; cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone) displayed very strong correlations with glucose concentrations (0.883 and 0.869 for clusters A and B, respectively) across nearly 300 measurements. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately predict glycemia through exhaled breath analysis over a broad range of clinically relevant concentrations in both healthy and T1DM subjects. PMID:21467303

  20. Radon in soil gas--exhalation tests and in situ measurements.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, A; Rosen, B

    1985-10-01

    Radon in soil can move into buildings resulting in high radon daughter concentrations. The foundation of a dwelling should be adapted to the radon "risk" which is determined by the radon concentration and the air permeability of the soil. Different measuring procedures are discussed in this paper, both in situ measurements of radon content and laboratory tests on radon exhalation from different types of soils at different water contents. PMID:4081740

  1. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Chiu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust) and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:23840530

  2. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before...

  3. Blood and exhaled air can be used for biomonitoring of hydrofluorocarbon exposure.

    PubMed

    Ernstgård, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Gunnare, Sara; Johanson, Gunnar

    2014-02-10

    Various hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have replaced the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons during the last decades. The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of blood and breath for exposure biomonitoring of HFCs. We compared data on blood and exhaled air from a series of experiments where healthy volunteers were exposed to vapors of four commonly used HFCs; 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane. All four HFCs had similar toxicokinetic profiles in blood with a rapid initial increase and an apparent steady-state reached within a few minutes. For all HFCs, the inhalation uptake during exposure was low (less than 6%), most of which was exhaled post-exposure. No metabolism could be detected and only minor amounts were excreted unchanged in urine. The observed time courses in blood and breath were well described by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Simulations of 8-h exposures show that the HFC levels in both blood and breath drop rapidly during the first minutes post-exposure, whereafter the decline is considerably slower and mainly reflects washout from fat tissues. We conclude that blood and exhaled air can be used for biological exposure monitoring. Samples should not be taken immediately at the end of shift but rather 20-30 min later.

  4. Both bronchial and alveolar exhaled nitric oxide are reduced with extrafine beclomethasone dipropionate in asthma.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Gabriele; Chetta, Alfredo; Simonazzi, Anna; Tzani, Panayota; Aiello, Marina; Olivieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation. Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is the only inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) available as both extrafine and nonextrafine hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) formulation. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the different patterns of lung deposition of two HFA BDP formulations are associated with a different effect on bronchial and alveolar NO. This was a prospective double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study. After a 2-week placebo run-in period without ICSs, asthmatic patients were randomized to extrafine BDP, 100 μg, b.i.d. or nonextrafine BDP, 250 μg, b.i.d. for two 2-week periods separated by a 2-week washout period. Fourteen patients (5 men) with a mean age 37 years and mean baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁) of 83% of predicted were analyzed. Exhaled bronchial NO was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in both treatment groups when compared with the last week of run-in period, whereas alveolar NO was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced only with extrafine BDP. Moreover, extrafine BDP was superior to nonextrafine BDP in both parameters (p < 0.05). Extrafine but not nonextrafine BDP HFA formulation lowers both bronchial and alveolar exhaled NO in asthmatic patients. ICS distribution throughout the whole bronchial tree could be important in patients who do not gain optimal control of inflammation with conventional nonextrafine ICS.

  5. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface.

    PubMed

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3-5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. PMID:27132250

  6. Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Frank; Schiller, Amanda; Ehehalt, Robert; Greule, Markus; Hartmann, Jan; Polag, Daniela

    2016-01-29

    Mammalian formation of methane (methanogenesis) is widely considered to occur exclusively by anaerobic microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Approximately one third of humans, depending on colonization of the gut by methanogenic archaea, are considered methane producers based on the classification terminology of high and low emitters. In this study laser absorption spectroscopy was used to precisely measure concentrations and stable carbon isotope signatures of exhaled methane in breath samples from 112 volunteers with an age range from 1 to 80 years. Here we provide analytical evidence that volunteers exhaled methane levels were significantly above background (inhaled) air. Furthermore, stable carbon isotope values of the exhaled methane unambiguously confirmed that this gas was produced by all of the human subjects studied. Based on the emission and stable carbon isotope patterns of various age groups we hypothesize that next to microbial sources in the gastrointestinal tracts there might be other, as yet unidentified, processes involved in methane formation supporting the idea that humans might also produce methane endogenously in cells. Finally we suggest that stable isotope measurements of volatile organic compounds such as methane might become a useful tool in future medical research diagnostic programs.

  7. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Said; Mati, N; Matiullah; Ghauri, Badar

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan. The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 degrees C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, (222)Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 +/- 11 to 416 +/- 9 mBq m(-2) h(-1), 205 +/- 16 to 291 +/- 13 mBq m(-2) h(-1) and 245 +/- 12 to 365 +/- 11 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively.

  8. Assessment of the exhalation kinetics of volatile cancer biomarkers based on their physicochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Anton; Mochalski, Pawel; Ruzsanyi, Vera; Broza, Yoav Y; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    The current review provides an assessment of the exhalation kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have been linked with cancer. Towards this end, we evaluate various physicochemical properties, such as ‘breath:air’ and ‘blood:fat’ partition coefficients, of 112 VOCs that have been suggested over the past decade as potential markers of cancer. With these data, we show that the cancer VOC concentrations in the blood and in the fat span over 12 and 8 orders of magnitude, respectively, in order to provide a specific counterpart concentration in the exhaled breath (e.g., 1 ppb). This finding suggests that these 112 different compounds have different storage compartments in the body and that their exhalation kinetics depends on one or a combination of the following factors: (i) the VOC concentrations in different parts of the body; (ii) the VOC synthesis and metabolism rates; (iii) the partition coefficients between tissue(s), blood and air; and (iv) the VOCs’ diffusion constants. Based on this analysis, we discuss how this knowledge allows modeling and simulating the behavior of a specific VOC under different sampling protocols (with and without exertion of effort). We end this review by a brief discussion on the potential role of these scenarios in screening and therapeutic monitoring of cancer. PMID:24566039

  9. Ascent exhalations of Antarctic fur seals: a behavioural adaptation for breath-hold diving?

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Miller, Patrick J. O.; Johnson, Mark P.; Cox, Oliver P.; Boyd, Ian L.

    2005-01-01

    Novel observations collected from video, acoustic and conductivity sensors showed that Antarctic fur seals consistently exhale during the last 50–85% of ascent from all dives (10–160 m, n>8000 dives from 50 seals). The depth of initial bubble emission was best predicted by maximum dive depth, suggesting an underlying physical mechanism. Bubble sound intensity recorded from one seal followed predictions of a simple model based on venting expanding lung air with decreasing pressure. Comparison of air release between dives, together with lack of variation in intensity of thrusting movement during initial descent regardless of ultimate dive depth, suggested that inhaled diving lung volume was constant for all dives. The thrusting intensity in the final phase of ascent was greater for dives in which ascent exhalation began at a greater depth, suggesting an energetic cost to this behaviour, probably as a result of loss of buoyancy from reduced lung volume. These results suggest that fur seals descend with full lung air stores, and thus face the physiological consequences of pressure at depth. We suggest that these regular and predictable ascent exhalations could function to reduce the potential for a precipitous drop in blood oxygen that would result in shallow-water blackout. PMID:15734689

  10. Blood and exhaled air can be used for biomonitoring of hydrofluorocarbon exposure.

    PubMed

    Ernstgård, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Gunnare, Sara; Johanson, Gunnar

    2014-02-10

    Various hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have replaced the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons during the last decades. The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of blood and breath for exposure biomonitoring of HFCs. We compared data on blood and exhaled air from a series of experiments where healthy volunteers were exposed to vapors of four commonly used HFCs; 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane. All four HFCs had similar toxicokinetic profiles in blood with a rapid initial increase and an apparent steady-state reached within a few minutes. For all HFCs, the inhalation uptake during exposure was low (less than 6%), most of which was exhaled post-exposure. No metabolism could be detected and only minor amounts were excreted unchanged in urine. The observed time courses in blood and breath were well described by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Simulations of 8-h exposures show that the HFC levels in both blood and breath drop rapidly during the first minutes post-exposure, whereafter the decline is considerably slower and mainly reflects washout from fat tissues. We conclude that blood and exhaled air can be used for biological exposure monitoring. Samples should not be taken immediately at the end of shift but rather 20-30 min later. PMID:24296009

  11. Effect of gravity on lung exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogliaghi, S.; Krasney, J. A.; Pendergast, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) from the lungs (VNO) in nose-clipped subjects increases during exercise. This may be due to endothelial shear stress secondary to changes in pulmonary blood flow. We measured VNO after modifying pulmonary blood flow with head-out water immersion (WI) or increased gravity (2 Gz) at rest and during exercise. Ten sedentary males were studied during exercise performed in air and WI. Nine subjects were studied at 1 and 2 Gz. Resting NO concentrations in exhaled air ([NO]) were 16.3 +/- 8.2 ppb (air). 15 +/- 8.2 ppb (WI) and 17.4 +/- 5 ppb (2 Gz). VNO (ppb/min) was calculated as [NO]VE and was unchanged at rest by either WI or 2 Gz. VNO increased linearly with Vo2, VE and fii during exercise in air, WI and at 2 Gz. These relationships did not differ among the experimental conditions. Therefore, changes in pulmonary blood flow failed to alter the output of NO exhaled from the lungs at rest or during exercise.

  12. Effect of gravity on lung exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Pogliaghi, S; Krasney, J A; Pendergast, D R

    1997-02-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) from the lungs (VNO) in nose-clipped subjects increases during exercise. This may be due to endothelial shear stress secondary to changes in pulmonary blood flow. We measured VNO after modifying pulmonary blood flow with head-out water immersion (WI) or increased gravity (2 Gz) at rest and during exercise. Ten sedentary males were studied during exercise performed in air and WI. Nine subjects were studied at 1 and 2 Gz. Resting NO concentrations in exhaled air ([NO]) were 16.3 +/- 8.2 ppb (air). 15 +/- 8.2 ppb (WI) and 17.4 +/- 5 ppb (2 Gz). VNO (ppb/min) was calculated as [NO]VE and was unchanged at rest by either WI or 2 Gz. VNO increased linearly with Vo2, VE and fii during exercise in air, WI and at 2 Gz. These relationships did not differ among the experimental conditions. Therefore, changes in pulmonary blood flow failed to alter the output of NO exhaled from the lungs at rest or during exercise.

  13. Analytical study of radionuclide concentration and radon exhalation rate in market available building materials of Ramsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Vahabi-moghaddam, Masoud; Babakhani, Asad; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2012-07-01

    Samples of structural and covering market available building materials from Ramsar, a northern city of Iran, were analyzed for their radon exhalation rate using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. The radon exhalation rate varied from below the minimum detection limit of 0.01 to 0.31 Bq·m-2·h-1 with an average of 0.08 Bq·m-2·h-1. The 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K contents were also measured using a high resolution HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer system. The radionuclides contents varied from below the minimum detectable activity up to 73.5, 169, and 1,350 Bq.kg-1, with the average value of 16 ± 6, 25 ± 11, and 280 ± 101 Bq.kg-1, respectively. It was concluded from the results that some granite samples along with the block sample were the main source of radon exhalation rate, and the mean values of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in building material samples are below the world average values. Therefore, the use of these market available building materials in construction of Ramsar dwellings is considered to be safe for human habitation.

  14. 49 CFR 195.452 - Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipeline integrity management in high consequence...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance Pipeline...

  15. 48 CFR 1219.1005 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 1219.1005 Section 1219.1005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program...

  16. 46 CFR 308.305 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.305 Section 308.305 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.305...

  17. 46 CFR 308.301 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.301 Section 308.301 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.301...

  18. 47 CFR 27.15 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27.15 Section 27.15 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses §...

  19. 47 CFR 27.1333 - Geographic partitioning, spectrum disaggregation, license assignment, and transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning, spectrum disaggregation, license assignment, and transfer. 27.1333 Section 27.1333 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES...

  20. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  1. 48 CFR 225.7009 - Restriction on ball and roller bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on ball and roller bearings. 225.7009 Section 225.7009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... roller bearings....

  2. 49 CFR 193.2015 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 193.2015 Section 193.2015 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... STANDARDS General § 193.2015...

  3. 49 CFR 1103.15 - The practitioner's duty to clients, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aspects to his service to the client. ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The practitioner's duty to clients, generally... Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.15 The practitioner's duty to...

  4. 45 CFR 1638.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1638.1 Section 1638.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION RESTRICTION ON SOLICITATION... clients....

  5. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  6. 43 CFR 11.19 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11.19 Section 11.19 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.19...

  7. 43 CFR 11.16 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11.16 Section 11.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.16...

  8. 48 CFR 204.7103 - Contract line items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract line items. 204..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7103 Contract line items....

  9. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by the Secretary of Transportation (49 CFR parts 27, 37, and 38) and the Attorney General (28 CFR... Compliance Board (36 CFR part 1191). ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with...

  10. 49 CFR 178.33b - Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles. 178.33b Section 178.33b Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... nonrefillable plastic receptacles....

  11. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219...

  12. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  13. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  14. 48 CFR 1303.804 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 1303.804 Section 1303.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS... Administration, Ethics Law and Program Division....

  15. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  16. 49 CFR 268.13 - Deadline for submission of applications for preconstruction planning assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAGNETIC LEVITATION... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deadline for submission of applications for... of applications for preconstruction planning assistance. Completed application packages shall...

  17. 49 CFR 268.15 - Form and contents of applications for preconstruction planning assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAGNETIC LEVITATION... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Form and contents of applications for... applications for preconstruction planning assistance. States, groups of States, or designated authorities...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 210 - Switcher Locomotive Enforcement Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switcher Locomotive Enforcement Policy B Appendix B to Part 210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD NOISE EMISSION COMPLIANCE REGULATIONS...

  19. 48 CFR 970.3770 - Facilities management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilities management. 970... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Facilities Management Contracting 970.3770 Facilities management....

  20. 48 CFR 970.2201-2 - Overtime management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overtime management. 970... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-2 Overtime management....

  1. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on such... stop....

  2. 46 CFR 196.05-5 - Charts and nautical publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 33 CFR 164.33. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charts and nautical publications. 196.05-5 Section 196.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH...

  3. 46 CFR 385.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 385.2 Section 385.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE..., exclusions, issuance, arrangement, publication, and exceptions....

  4. 48 CFR 1631.205-81 - Inferred reasonableness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inferred reasonableness... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-81 Inferred reasonableness. If the... the subcontract's costs shall be inferred....

  5. 48 CFR 215.404 - Proposal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposal analysis. 215.404 Section 215.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Proposal analysis....

  6. 47 CFR 4.1 - Scope, basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope, basis and purpose. 4.1 Section 4.1... and purpose. In this part, the Federal Communications Commission is setting forth requirements... communications infrastructures....

  7. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  8. 49 CFR 520.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 520.2 Section 520.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... affect the quality of the human environment....

  9. 48 CFR 970.4403 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.4403 Section 970.4403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY... System, in all management and operating contracts....

  10. 48 CFR 947.7000 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 947.7000 Section 947.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 947.7000...

  11. 48 CFR 1523.303 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clause. 1523.303 Section 1523.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC... Material Safety Data 1523.303 Contract clause....

  12. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  13. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  14. 49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2R; inside containment vessel. 178.360 Section 178.360 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Specification 2R; inside containment vessel....

  15. 48 CFR 803.405 - Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... referrals of suspected fraudulent or criminal matters to the Department of Justice under FAR 3.405(b)(4... the Department of Justice. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Misrepresentations...

  16. 49 CFR 173.448 - General transportation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General transportation requirements. 173.448 Section 173.448 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  17. 48 CFR 19.403 - Small Business Administration breakout procurement center representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small Business... System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Cooperation With the Small Business Administration 19.403 Small Business Administration breakout procurement...

  18. 48 CFR 53.236 - Construction and architect-engineer contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction and architect-engineer contracts. 53.236 Section 53.236 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...-engineer contracts....

  19. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine...

  20. 48 CFR 1803.104 - Procurement integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procurement integrity. 1803.104 Section 1803.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Procurement integrity....

  1. 49 CFR 110.80 - Procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 18.36. ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procurement. 110.80 Section 110.80 Transportation... TRAINING AND PLANNING GRANTS § 110.80 Procurement. Project managers shall use procurement procedures...

  2. 48 CFR 1511.011-79 - Information resources management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information resources... AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-79 Information resources management. The... Resource Management, in all solicitations and contracts....

  3. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  4. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  5. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  6. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  7. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  8. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  9. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  10. 50 CFR 38.5 - Emergency authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Executive Authority; Authorized... Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency authority. 38.5 Section...

  11. 48 CFR 1009.204-70 - Contractor publicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contractor publicity. 1009... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 1009.204-70 Contractor publicity... Contractor Publicity in all solicitations and contracts....

  12. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  13. 48 CFR 871.208 - Rehabilitation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rehabilitation facilities... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTY AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.208 Rehabilitation facilities. Charges by...

  14. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  15. 48 CFR 225.7004 - Restriction on acquisition of foreign buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on acquisition of foreign buses. 225.7004 Section 225.7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on acquisition of foreign buses....

  16. 48 CFR 970.0470 - Department of Energy Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Energy Directives. 970.0470 Section 970.0470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... Energy Directives....

  17. 48 CFR 37.116 - Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin. 37.116 Section 37.116 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... and Dispensing of $1 Coin....

  18. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO... origin, or sex....

  19. 48 CFR 232.503 - Postaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postaward matters. 232.503 Section 232.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....503 Postaward matters....

  20. 48 CFR 232.502 - Preaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preaward matters. 232.502 Section 232.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....502 Preaward matters....

  1. 43 CFR 3120.5 - Competitive sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competitive sale. 3120.5 Section 3120.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Competitive sale....

  2. 48 CFR 53.301-1423 - Inventory Verification Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory Verification Survey. 53.301-1423 Section 53.301-1423 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Survey. ER05AP04.000...

  3. 43 CFR 2912.1 - Nature of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature of interest. 2912.1 Section 2912.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Nature of interest....

  4. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  5. 48 CFR 206.302-3 - Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial mobilization; or engineering, development, or research capability. 206.302-3 Section 206.302-3 Federal Acquisition... engineering, development, or research capability....

  6. 48 CFR 1422.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1422.804 Section 1422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....804 Affirmative action programs....

  7. 48 CFR 422.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 422.804 Section 422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Affirmative action programs....

  8. 48 CFR 22.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 22.804 Section 22.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Affirmative action programs....

  9. 48 CFR 1522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1522.804 Section 1522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....804 Affirmative action programs....

  10. 48 CFR 922.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 922.804 Section 922.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC... Affirmative action programs....

  11. 48 CFR 522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 522.804 Section 522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Affirmative action programs....

  12. 48 CFR 3032.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 3032.006 Section 3032.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... finding of fraud....

  13. 48 CFR 537.270 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clause. 537.270 Section 537.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES... proposal evaluation and analysis services....

  14. 48 CFR 1552.235-79 - Release of contractor confidential business information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... employees engaged in information systems analysis, development, operation, and maintenance, including... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Release of contractor... System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  15. 47 CFR 73.3574 - Processing of international broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing of international broadcast station... of international broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for International station... such amended application. (c) Applications for International stations will be processed as nearly...

  16. 47 CFR 76.227 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 76.227 Section 76.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.227...

  17. 48 CFR Appendix E to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false E Appendix E to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendix E to Chapter 7...

  18. 48 CFR 3403.101-3 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 34 CFR part 73, Standards of Conduct. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agency regulations. 3403.101-3 Section 3403.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  19. 48 CFR 1231.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1231.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1231.205 Selected costs....

  20. 48 CFR 1331.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1331.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1331.205 Selected costs....

  1. 48 CFR 970.3102-05 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 970.3102... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05 Selected costs....

  2. 48 CFR 931.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 931.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 931.205 Selected costs....

  3. 48 CFR 31.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 31.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205 Selected costs....

  4. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension....

  5. 48 CFR 3409.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 3409.407... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 3409.407 Suspension....

  6. 48 CFR 22.102 - Federal and State labor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.102 Federal and State labor requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal and State...

  7. 48 CFR 1215.606-2 - Evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of (FAR) 48 CFR 15.607. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation. 1215.606-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 1215.606-2 Evaluation....

  8. 48 CFR 415.305 - Proposal evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposal evaluation. 415... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 415.305 Proposal evaluation. HCAs... of the technical evaluation team....

  9. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  10. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  11. 47 CFR 32.6351 - Public telephone terminal equipment expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public telephone terminal equipment expense. 32....6351 Public telephone terminal equipment expense. This account shall include expenses associated with public telephone terminal equipment....

  12. 47 CFR 32.6362 - Other terminal equipment expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other terminal equipment expense. 32.6362... Other terminal equipment expense. This account shall include expenses associated with other terminal equipment....

  13. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production facilities. 331.5 Section 331.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... and essential economic and strategic factors....

  14. 48 CFR 246.470 - Government contract quality assurance actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government contract... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.470 Government contract quality assurance actions....

  15. 48 CFR 3004.804 - Closeout of contract files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Government Contract Files 3004.804 Closeout of contract files. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closeout of contract...

  16. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  17. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....303 Blanket purchase agreements....

  18. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  19. 48 CFR 613.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 613.303 Section 613.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE....303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  20. 48 CFR 13.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 13.303 Section 13.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Methods 13.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  1. 48 CFR 1313.303 - Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). 1313.303 Section 1313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....303 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs)....

  2. 45 CFR 1700.2 - Functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Functions. 1700.2 Section 1700.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE... information science programs....

  3. 42 CFR 457.800 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES... apply to separate child health programs. ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.800...

  4. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management Controls...

  5. 48 CFR 970.1907 - The Small Business Subcontracting Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small Business Programs 970.1907 The Small Business Subcontracting Program. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Small...

  6. 48 CFR 44.202 - Contracting officer's evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracting officer's evaluation. 44.202 Section 44.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... officer's evaluation....

  7. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meaning given these terms in 49 CFR Part 1201. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and...

  8. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act....

  9. 48 CFR 239.7408 - Special construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special construction. 239.7408 Section 239.7408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Telecommunications Services 239.7408 Special construction....

  10. 47 CFR 25.402 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 25.402 Section 25.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.402...

  11. Exhaled breath analysis in suspected cases of non-small-cell lung cancer: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Corradi, M; Poli, D; Banda, I; Bonini, S; Mozzoni, P; Pinelli, S; Alinovi, R; Andreoli, R; Ampollini, L; Casalini, A; Carbognani, P; Goldoni, M; Mutti, A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide and is still the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. There is a considerable interest in finding diagnostic methods in the disease's earliest stages. A complementary approach to imaging techniques could be provided by exhaled breath gas phase and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis. The aim of this study was to quantify various biomarkers in the exhaled breath gas phase and EBC in suspected cases of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study involved 138 subjects with suspected lung cancer, 71 of whom had a subsequent diagnosis of NSCLC. The diagnostic power of a combination of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-EBC, and exhaled pentane, 2-methyl pentane, hexane, ethyl benzene, heptanal, trans-2-nonenal in distinguishing NSCLC and non-NSCLC subjects was poor-to-fair (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.68), similar to that of smoking history alone (expressed as pack-years, AUC = 0.70); a further improvement was observed when smoking history was combined with exhaled compounds (AUC = 0.80). The diagnostic power was increased in those patients with little or no past smoke exposure (AUC = 0.92) or where past smoke exposure was up to 30 pack-years (AUC = 0.85). Exhaled substances had a good accuracy in discriminating suspected cancerous cases only in those subjects with a modest smoking history (≤ 30 pack-years), but the inclusion of other exhaled biomarkers may increase the overall accuracy, regardless of tobacco smoke.

  12. Surfactant Protein A in Exhaled Endogenous Particles Is Decreased in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lärstad, Mona; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Per; Bake, Björn; Larsson, Sven; Ljungström, Evert; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Background Exhaled, endogenous particles are formed from the epithelial lining fluid in small airways, where surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in pulmonary host defense. Based on the knowledge that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) starts in the small airway epithelium, we hypothesized that chronic inflammation modulates peripheral exhaled particle SP-A and albumin levels. The main objective of this explorative study was to compare the SP-A and albumin contents in exhaled particles from patients with COPD and healthy subjects and to determine exhaled particle number concentrations. Methods Patients with stable COPD ranging from moderate to very severe (n = 13), and healthy non-smoking subjects (n = 12) were studied. Subjects performed repeated breath maneuvers allowing for airway closure and re-opening, and exhaled particles were optically counted and collected on a membrane using the novel PExA® instrument setup. Immunoassays were used to quantify SP-A and albumin. Results COPD patients exhibited significantly lower SP-A mass content of the exhaled particles (2.7 vs. 3.9 weight percent, p = 0.036) and lower particle number concentration (p<0.0001) than healthy subjects. Albumin mass contents were similar for both groups. Conclusions Decreased levels of SP-A may lead to impaired host defense functions of surfactant in the airways, contributing to increased susceptibility to COPD exacerbations. SP-A in exhaled particles from small airways may represent a promising non-invasive biomarker of disease in COPD patients. PMID:26656890

  13. Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Cameron E; Akber, Riaz A; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Martin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Radon-222 exhalation from the ground surface depends upon a number of variables such as the 226Ra activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains; soil grain size; soil porosity, temperature and moisture; atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature. In this study, 222Rn exhalation flux density measurements within and around the Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia were performed to investigate the effect of these variables within a tropical region. Measurements were taken at the waste rock dumps, ore stockpiles, mine pits, and at sites where effluent water with elevated 226Ra concentration has been spray irrigated over land, as well as at sites outside the mine. The sites selected represented a variety of geomorphic regions ranging from uranium-bearing rocks to ambient soils. Generally, wet season rains reduced 222Rn exhalation but at a few sites the onset of rains caused a step rise in exhalation flux densities. The results show that parameters such as 226Ra activity concentration, soil grain size and soil porosity have a marked effect on 222Rn flux densities. For similar geomorphic sites, 226Ra activity concentration is a dominant factor, but soil grain size and porosity also influence 222Rn exhalation. Surfaces with vegetation showed higher exhalation flux densities than their barren counterparts, perhaps because the associated root structure increases soil porosity and moisture retention. Repeated measurements over one year at eight sites enabled an analysis of precipitation and soil moisture effects on 222Rn exhalation. Soil moisture depth profiles varied both between seasons and at different times during the wet season, indicating that factors such as duration, intensity and time between precipitation events can influence 222Rn flux densities considerably.

  14. An Association Account of False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

  15. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.5 False statements. Under...

  16. 43 CFR 3000.2 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERALS MANAGEMENT: GENERAL General § 3000.2 False statements. Under the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 1001, it is a crime punishable by 5 years imprisonment or a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False statements. 3000.2 Section...

  17. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  18. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  19. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  20. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  1. Immersed false vertical room. A new motion sickness model.

    PubMed

    Coats, A C; Norfleet, W T

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated a new model of motion sickness--an enclosure decorated with visual cues to upright which was immersed either inverted or "front"-wall down, in Johnson Space Center's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) pool. This "WETF False Vertical Room" (WFVR) was tested with 19 male and 3 female SCUBA diver subjects, aged 23 to 57, who alternately set clocks mounted near the room's 8 corners and made exaggerated pitch head movements. We found that (1) the WFVR test runs produced motion sickness symptoms in 56% and 36% of subjects in the room-inverted and room-front-down positions, respectively. (2) Pitch head movements were the most provocative acts, followed closely by setting the clocks--particularly when a clock face filled the visual field. (3) When measured with a self-ranking questionnaire, terrestrial motion sickness susceptibility correlated strongly (P < 0.005) with WFVR sickness susceptibility. (4) Standing instability, measured with a modified Fregly-Graybiel floor battery, also correlated strongly (P < 0.005) with WFVR sickness susceptibility. This result may reflect a relationship between visual dominance and WFVR sickness. (5) A control study demonstrated that the inverted and front-down positions produced WFVR sickness, but the upright position did not, and that adaptation may have occurred in some subjects with repeated exposure. The WFVR could become a useful terrestrial model of space motion sickness (SMS) because it duplicates the nature of the gravity-dependent sensory conflicts created by microgravity (visual and otolith inputs conflict while somatosensory gravity cues are minimized), and it also duplicates the nature of the provocative stimulus (sensory environment "rule change" versus application of motion to passive subject) more closely than any other proposed terrestrial SMS model. Also, unlike any other proposed terrestrial SMS model, the WFVR incorporates whole-body movement in all three spatial dimensions. However, the WFVR

  2. Detecting Lung Diseases from Exhaled Aerosols: Non-Invasive Lung Diagnosis Using Fractal Analysis and SVM Classification

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Zhao, Weizhong; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua; Xu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Background Each lung structure exhales a unique pattern of aerosols, which can be used to detect and monitor lung diseases non-invasively. The challenges are accurately interpreting the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and quantitatively correlating them to the lung diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, we presented a paradigm of an exhaled aerosol test that addresses the above two challenges and is promising to detect the site and severity of lung diseases. This paradigm consists of two steps: image feature extraction using sub-regional fractal analysis and data classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the breath test in four asthmatic lung models. A high-fidelity image-CFD approach was employed to compute the exhaled aerosol patterns under different disease conditions. Findings By employing the 10-fold cross-validation method, we achieved 100% classification accuracy among four asthmatic models using an ideal 108-sample dataset and 99.1% accuracy using a more realistic 324-sample dataset. The fractal-SVM classifier has been shown to be robust, highly sensitive to structural variations, and inherently suitable for investigating aerosol-disease correlations. Conclusion For the first time, this study quantitatively linked the exhaled aerosol patterns with their underlying diseases and set the stage for the development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for non-invasive detection of obstructive respiratory diseases. PMID:26422016

  3. Fiber content of diet affects exhaled breath volatiles in fasting and postprandial state in a pilot crossover study.

    PubMed

    Raninen, Kaisa J; Lappi, Jenni E; Mukkala, Maria L; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Raatikainen, Olavi J

    2016-06-01

    Our pilot study examined the potential of exhaled breath analysis in studying the metabolic effects of dietary fiber (DF). We hypothesized that a high-fiber diet (HFD) containing whole grain rye changes volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in exhaled breath and that consuming a single meal affects these levels. Seven healthy men followed a week-long low-fiber diet (17 g/d) and HFD (44 g/d) in a randomized crossover design. A test meal containing 50 g of the available carbohydrates from wheat bread was served as breakfast after each week. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analyzed at fasting state and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after this meal parallel to plasma glucose, insulin, and serum lipids. We used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for detecting changes in 15 VOCs. These VOCs were acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, hexanoic acid, acetoin, diacetyl, and phenol. Exhaled breath 2-methylbutyric acid in the fasting state and 1-propanol at 120 minutes decreased (P = .091 for both) after an HFD. Ingestion of the test meal increased ethanol, 1-propanol, acetoin, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels while reducing acetone, 1-butanol, diacetyl, and phenol levels. Both DF diet content and having a single meal affected breathVOCs. Exploring exhaled breath further could help to develop tools for monitoring the metabolic effects of DF. PMID:27188907

  4. An association account of false belief understanding.

    PubMed

    De Bruin, L C; Newen, A

    2012-05-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young infants already understand false belief, then why do they fail the elicited-response false belief task? We postulate two systems to account for the development of false belief understanding: an association module, which provides infants with the capacity to register congruent associations between agents and objects, and an operating system, which allows them to transform these associations into incongruent associations through a process of inhibition, selection and representation. The interaction between the association module and the operating system enables infants to register increasingly complex associations on the basis of another agent's movements, visual perspective and propositional attitudes. This allows us account for the full range of findings on false belief understanding.

  5. Influence of the porosity on the ²²²Rn exhalation rate of concrete.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Peter; van Dijk, Willem; de Rooij, Mario

    2011-02-01

    The composition of 23 concrete mixtures was varied in five separate series to evaluate the influence of porosity on the ²²²Rn exhalation rate. In each series, a range in porosities is obtained by varying (1) the amount of cement, (2) type of cement (Portland or blast furnace slag cement), (3) the amount of water at a fixed cement level, (4) addition of an air entraining agent, or (5) the amount of recycled aggregates. The porosities ranged from 1% to 16%. The ²²²Rn exhalation rate is normalized to the ²²⁶Ra activity concentration and expressed as the ²²²Rn release factor to eliminate the effect of differences in ²²⁶Ra activity concentrations among the various concrete mixtures. Since most ²²²Rn originates from the cement, a ²²²Rn release factor based on the amount of ²²⁶Ra introduced by the cements appeared to be more adequate. Although the methods to attain the porosities in the concrete mixtures differ widely, this cement-related factor corresponds well with the capillary porosity of the mixtures. Since the water-to-cement ratio of the fresh paste is a good indicator of the capillary porosity, this is the guiding factor in the fabrication of concretes low in ²²²Rn exhalation. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the less capillary pore area will be available from which ²²²Rn can emanate from the mineral matrix into the pore system. The good correlation between the cement-based ²²²Rn release factor and literature data on the internal capillary pore area support the results of this study. PMID:21399427

  6. Effects of acute hypoventilation and hyperventilation on exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background High levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) are a marker of airway or lung inflammation. We investigated whether hypo- or hyperventilation can affect measured values. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were trained to achieve sustained end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) concentrations of 30 (hyperventilation), 40 (normoventilation), and 50 mmHg (hypoventilation). As soon as target etCO2 values were achieved for 120 sec, exhaled breath was analyzed for eCO with a photoacoustic spectrometer. At etCO2 values of 30 and 40 mmHg exhaled breath was sampled both after a deep inspiration and after a normal one. All measurements were performed in two different environmental conditions: A) ambient CO concentration = 0.8 ppm and B) ambient CO concentration = 1.7 ppm. Results During normoventilation, eCO mean (standard deviation) was 11.5 (0.8) ppm; it decreased to 10.3 (0.8) ppm during hyperventilation (p < 0.01) and increased to 11.9 (0.8) ppm during hypoventilation (p < 0.01). eCO changes were less pronounced than the correspondent etCO2 changes (hyperventilation: 10% Vs 25% decrease; hypoventilation 3% Vs 25% increase). Taking a deep inspiration before breath sampling was associated with lower eCO values (p < 0.01), while environmental CO levels did not affect eCO measurement. Conclusions eCO measurements should not be performed during marked acute hyperventilation, like that induced in this study, but the influence of less pronounced hyperventilation or of hypoventilation is probably negligible in clinical practice PMID:20030802

  7. Anodic alumina coating for extraction of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Zou, LiangYuan; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a facile and highly sensitive solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. For the purpose, a highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina coating was prepared by a two-step anodic oxidization method based on aluminum substrate. To have a good knowledge of the fiber, some features were characterized and the results indicate that the coating has several advantages, including excellent chemical and thermal stability, high mechanical strength, large surface area and good extraction performance. In addition, some parameters related to extraction efficiency were also studied. Under the optimal conditions, the coating was used to quantitatively extract volatile organic compounds. Good linearity and wide linear range were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.9933 to 0.9999. The detection limits of benzene homologues, aldehydes and ketones were between 0.7 and 3.4 ng L(-1). Relative standard deviations (n=5) ranged from 1.8 to 15.0%. Satisfied recovery (89-115%) was obtained at two spiked concentration levels. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled vapor samples of lung cancer patients and the controls, and the results were statistically analyzed with Independent-Sample T Test. The proposed method exhibits some outstanding merits, including convenience, non-invasion, low cost and sensitivity. It provides a potential tool for rapid detection of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath.

  8. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  9. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  10. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  11. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  12. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  13. False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications.

    PubMed

    Leo, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, hundreds of convicted prisoners have been exonerated by DNA and non-DNA evidence, revealing that police-induced false confessions are a leading cause of wrongful conviction of the innocent. In this article, empirical research on the causes and correlates of false confessions is reviewed. After a description of the three sequential processes that are responsible for the elicitation of false confessions--misclassification, coercion, and contamination--the three psychologically distinct types of false confession (voluntary, compliant, and persuaded) are discussed along with the consequences of introducing false-confession evidence in the criminal justice system. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of empirical research for reducing the number of false confessions and improving the accuracy of confession evidence that is introduced against a defendant at trial. PMID:19767498

  14. Increased exhaled cysteinyl-leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane in aspirin-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Antczak, Adam; Montuschi, Paolo; Kharitonov, Sergei; Gorski, Pawel; Barnes, Peter J

    2002-08-01

    The pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) has not yet been clearly elucidated, although eicosanoid metabolites appear to play an important role. We hypothesized that levels of eicosanoids in exhaled air condensate are abnormal in patients with AIA and that they change in patients receiving steroid therapy. We measured cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), and also 8-isoprostane as a marker of oxidative stress, by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate from patients with AIA (17 steroid naive; mean age, 41 +/- 23 years; FEV(1), 63%pred), 26 patients with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) (11 steroid naive; mean age, 47 +/- 18 years; FEV(1), 69%pred), and 16 healthy subjects (mean age, 45 +/- 17 years; FEV(1), 93%pred). Cys-LTs were significantly higher in steroid-naive patients with AIA compared with steroid-naive patients with ATA and healthy subjects (152.3 +/- 30.4 and 36.6 +/- 7.1 versus 19.4 +/- 2.8 pg/ml; p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). Steroid-naive patients with AIA also had higher levels of 8-isoprostane than normal subjects (131.8 +/- 31.0 versus 21.9 +/- 4.5 pg/ml; p < 0.05). There were significantly lower levels of both cys-LTs and 8-isoprostanes in steroid-treated patients with AIA. There was no difference in either the PGE(2) or LTB(4) level between the patient groups. This is the first study to show that cys-LTs and 8-isoprostanes are elevated in expired breath condensate of steroid-naive patients with AIA, and that cys-LTs are decreased in steroid-treated patients. Exhaled PGE(2) levels are not reduced, so that it is unlikely that a deficiency of PGE(2) is an important mechanism, whereas exhaled LTB(4) levels are unchanged, indicating an abnormality beyond 5-lipoxygenase. PMID:12153961

  15. Measurement of Lung Phosphatidylcholines in Exhaled Breath Particles by a Convenient Collection Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Sandqvist, Sören; Beck, Olof

    2015-11-17

    An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantitative determination of four phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in human exhaled breath particles. Analytes were conveniently collected on an electrostatic polymer filter and extracted with methanol prior to analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ultraperformance liquid chromatographic ethylene bridged hybrid phenyl column using a mobile phase consisting of water and methanol containing 4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% ammonia. The mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring mode. Detection limits for PC 16:0/16:0 (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC), PC 16:0/18:1, PC 16:0/18:2, and PC 18:0/18:2 were <0.01 ng/filter. Method recoveries at concentration levels of 0.1 and 10 ng/filter were 100-110% and 101-121%, respectively. Acceptable precision with coefficients of variation <20% and accuracies of 100% ± 20% were achieved. Identification of the individual PCs was performed on the basis of two product ions with correct ion ratios and chromatographic retention times. The highest amount in exhaled breath was found for DPPC with median concentration 1.14 ng/filter (range 0.6-21 ng/filter), and median molar ratios of DPPC/PC (16:0/18:1) of 1.98 (range 0.48-2.75). A different pattern with lower molar ratio (∼0.15) was found for oral fluid. The most significant element of this study was to use a precolumn in the LC system and to collecting exhaled particles in an electret polymer filter. Due to chromatographic interference by background contamination, an isolator column (PFC kit) was installed in between eluent mixer and injector to reduce contamination. This is the first LC/MS study where the method was successfully applied to analyze PCs in human exhaled breath by using a simple and convenient collection procedure. PMID:26505278

  16. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    PubMed

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  17. The mathematical analysis of breath alcohol profiles generated during breath exhalation.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, R G

    1990-01-01

    The mathematical analysis of time domain data provides a useful tool for evaluating biological and instrumental systems. Breath alcohol profile measurements generated during exhalation constitute biological signals that can be subjected to a variety of mathematical treatments. The present paper discusses the application of a variety of mathematical procedures to breath alcohol profiles. These mathematical procedures include model approximation, data smoothing, integration, differentiation, and fourier transformation. The different mathematical procedures provide insight into the physiology of breath alcohol measurement and suggest forensic as well as instrumental applications.

  18. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    PubMed

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  19. Characterization of exhaled breath particles collected by an electret filter technique.

    PubMed

    Tinglev, Åsa Danielsson; Ullah, Shahid; Ljungkvist, Göran; Viklund, Emilia; Olin, Anna-Carin; Beck, Olof

    2016-06-01

    Aerosol particles that are present in exhaled breath carry nonvolatile components and have gained interest as a specimen for potential biomarkers. Nonvolatile compounds detected in exhaled breath include both endogenous and exogenous compounds. The aim of this study was to study particles collected with a new, simple and convenient filter technique. Samples of breath were collected from healthy volunteers from approximately 30 l of exhaled air. Particles were counted with an optical particle counter and two phosphatidylcholines were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, phosphatidylcholines and methadone was analysed in breath from patients in treatment with methadone and oral fluid was collected with the Quantisal device. The results demonstrated that the majority of particles are  <1 μm in size and that the fraction of larger particle contributes most to the total mass. The phosphatidylcholine PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) dominated over PC(16 : 0/18 : 1) and represented a major constituent of the particles. The concentration of the PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) homolog was significantly correlated (p  <  0.001) with total mass. From the low concentration of the two phosphatidylcholines and their relative abundance in oral fluid a major contribution from the oral cavity could be ruled out. The concentration of PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) in breath was positively correlated with age (p  <  0.01). An attempt to use PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) as a sample size indicator for methadone was not successful, as the large intra-individual variability between samplings even increased after normalization. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that exhaled breath sampled with the filter device represents a specimen corresponding to surfactant. The possible use of PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) as a sample size indicator was supported and deserves further investigations. We propose that the direct and selective collection of the breath aerosol particles is a promising strategy

  20. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose. PMID:27167436

  1. Application of End-Exhaled Breath Monitoring to Assess Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed Burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.H.; Devaux, I; Stock, A.; Naeher, L.P.

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February–March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

  2. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime. PMID:25589599

  3. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  4. Relations between isoprene and nitric oxide in exhaled breath and the potential influence of outdoor ozone: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Alya; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Galassetti, Pietro; Blake, Donald R.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of endogenous isoprene in the human body, if any, is unclear because previous research is inconsistent and mechanistic evidence for the biologic function of isoprene is lacking. Given previous evidence that exhaled isoprene is elevated in systemic inflammatory states, we hypothesized that exhaled isoprene would be positively associated with a breath biomarker of airway inflammation, the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). We examined relationships of exhaled breath isoprene with FENO and with outdoor ozone given that ozone chemically reacts with isoprene and has been positively associated with FENO in past studies. Sixteen elderly subjects were followed with ≤12 weekly exhaled hydrocarbon and FENO collections at the subjects’ retirement community. Outdoor ozone concentrations were measured continuously on site. Mixed-effects regression analyses tested relations of FENO with isoprene, and FENO and isoprene with ozone, adjusted for temperature. We found FENO was inversely associated with isoprene, and this was not confounded by ozone. Isoprene was inversely related to ozone. FENO was positively related to ozone and this relation was not confounded by isoprene. In contrast to hypothesized relations, we conclude that exhaled isoprene is inversely associated with FENO as well as outdoor ozone, which suggests possible protective ozone-scavenging functions of endogenous isoprene. Findings may indicate chemical reactions of isoprene oxidation by ozone and by hydroxyl radicals in the presence of O2 that is dependent on NO concentration. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in additional studies of human subjects, particularly as they apply to FENO monitoring in asthma. PMID:23999846

  5. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  6. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.107 False activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing warning system...

  7. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.107 False activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing warning system...

  8. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.107 False activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing warning system...

  9. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General §...

  10. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  11. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  12. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  13. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  14. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  15. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  16. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  17. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  18. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  19. Endogenous CO monitoring in exhalation with tunable diode lasers: applications to clinical and biomedical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; D'yachenko, Alexander I.

    1999-07-01

    Middle IR tunable diode lasers were applied to studies of pulmonary excretion of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO). Variations of the CO content level in exhaled air of healthy nonsmokers were investigated for different environmental conditions with the applied laser technique. Correlation of the obtained data with atmospheric CO contamination and elevated oxygen content were studied as well as diurnal variations of the endogenous CO in exhalation was observed. Criteria for correct conditions of the endogenous CO detection in breath could be derive don this basis. Developed laser approach and methods were applied for the analysis of the excreted CO level in different diseases like bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia and hepatitis. Laser based close-to-real-time monitoring of the endogenous CO elimination with breath in the course of different dynamic tests was demonstrated to be informative in studies of blood oxygen transport and pH variations in tissues for different challenges tests in human physiology.

  20. [Verification of exhaled air temperature and heat flux in respiratory diseases as useful biomarker].

    PubMed

    Ito, Wataru; Chihara, Junichi

    2008-12-01

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diffuse panbronchiolitis are syndromes associated with chronic airway inflammation. In the conventional definition of inflammation, local pyrexia at the site of inflammation should be observed. However, there are very few reports that have evaluated the "heat" in inflammatory respiratory diseases. We considered that the evaluation of allergic airway inflammation such as asthma might be possible by measuring the exhaled air temperature, and devised an original device that stabilizes the flow rate, which is a very important factor for the direct measurement of heat. Moreover, an expiratory heat flux meter, which can detect a change in air temperature more precisely and immediately, was also incorporated into our original device. As a result, we succeeded in the measurement and evaluation of the heat flux and air temperature in healthy subjects and asthmatic patients, and, further, the air temperature was straightforwardly evaluated by a portable spirometer including a temperature sensor. These findings suggest that the heat flux and temperature of exhaled air can be used to objectively monitor airway inflammation noninvasively, and assist in the diagnosis/monitoring of inflammatory respiratory diseases, including asthma.

  1. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  2. Dielectric barrier discharge micro-plasma emission spectrometry for the detection of acetone in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Dong-Xue; Yu, Yong-Liang; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is a predominant volatile organic compound (VOC) in the exhaled breath and a promising biomarker for diabetes and ketoacidosis. A non-thermal micro-plasma generated in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used as a radiation source for the excitation of gaseous acetone followed by its quantification with optical emission spectrometry (OES). Gaseous acetone can be directly sampled, while liquid acetone is evaporated by heated tungsten coil and then introduced into the DBD micro-plasma by a helium carrier flow for performing optical emission and detection at a 519 nm emission line. In the present study, the exhaled breath is collected and transferred into aqueous medium for sampling. With a sampling volume of 7 μL in a micro-drop, a linear range of 40-1600 mg L(-1) is obtained along with a detection limit of 44 ng and a precision of 5.7% RSD. The present system is successfully applied to the determination of breath acetone for both diabetic patients and healthy volunteers.

  3. pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Sophie; Hellgren, Johan

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a new method to assess nasal pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate in adults. The study included 19 healthy, non-smoking, adult volunteers without current upper respiratory disease, COPD or asthma. Expiratory breath condensate (EBC) was collected from the nose and mouth respectively. A Jaeger breath condenser was fitted with a transparent facemask and during oral sampling it was fitted with a mouthpiece. The condensates were bubbled with argon gas for 10 minutes to reduce carbon dioxide and the samples were analysed immediately using a calibrated glass electrode and a portable pH-meter. The mean pH in the nasal EBC was 7.0 +/- 0.5 and in oral EBC 6.9 +/- 0.7 (p = 0.6). The nasal EBC-pH was well in agreement with data from previous studies, which measured pH directly on the nasal mucosa with an electrode. In conclusion, this paper describes a method to measure pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in healthy adults during tidal breathing. The nasal EBC-pH related well to previous data from intranasal pH measurements suggesting that nasal EBC-pH could have a role in monitoring pH alterations in the nasal mucosa such as nasal inflammation.

  4. Factors affecting exhaled carbon monoxide levels in coffeehouses in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bahcebasi, Talat; Kandis, Hayati; Baltaci, Davut; Kara, Ismail Hamdi

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate indoor air quality and factors affecting expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels in a coffeehouse environment. This cross-sectional study was conducted at 16 randomly selected coffeehouses in Duzce, Turkey, during November 2007 to March 2008. A total of 547 people, average age 46.72 ± 17.03 (19-82) years, participated. The selected coffeehouses were divided into four groups: (1) smoking, (2) nonsmoking, (3) old-style and (iv) new-style coffeehouses. Prior to entering the coffeehouse, exhaled CO levels in smokers (mean 21.17 ± 6.73 parts per million [ppm]) were significantly higher than those for nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). Measurements taken after 2 hours in the coffeehouse also showed significantly higher CO concentrations for smokers (22.72 ± 5.31 ppm), compared to nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). It was determined that CO levels inside coffee shops were above the WHO guidelines. Exhaled CO levels in nonsmokers are influenced by the ambient CO levels as a result of the use of cigarettes in coffeehouses in addition to the structure of coffeehouses. PMID:20858650

  5. Study of the exhaled acetone in type 1 diabetes using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Reyes, Adonis; Horsten, Roland C; Urbach, H Paul; Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    The acetone concentration exhaled in the breath of three type 1 diabetes patients (two minors and one adult) and one healthy volunteer is studied using a quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system. Using the acetone signature between 1150 and 1250 cm(-1) and a multiline fitting method, the concentration variations on the order of parts per billion by volume were measured. Blood glucose and ketone concentrations in blood measurements were performed simultaneously to study their relation with acetone in exhaled breath. We focus on personalized studies to better understand the role of acetone in diabetes. For each volunteer, we performed a series of measurements over a period of time, including overnight fastings of 11 ± 1 h and during ketosis-hyperglycemia events for the minors. Our results highlight the importance of performing personalized studies because the response of the minors to the presence of ketosis was consistent but unique for each individual. Also, our results emphasize the need for performing more studies with T1D minors, because the acetone concentration in the breath of the minors differs, with respect to those reported in the literature, which are based on adults.

  6. Quantitative detection of nitric oxide in exhaled human breath by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Susu; Tian, Yong; Li, Ming; Zhao, Jiuyan; Zhu, Lanlan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Haidong; Shi, Jianbo; Fang, Xiang; Li, Penghui; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a useful biomarker of various physiological conditions, including asthma and other pulmonary diseases. Herein a fast and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the quantitative detection of eNO based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Exhaled NO molecules selectively reacted with 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) reagent, and eNO concentration was derived based on the EESI-MS response of 1-oxyl-2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline (PTI) product. The method allowed quantification of eNO below ppb level (~0.02 ppbv) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 11.6%. In addition, eNO levels of 20 volunteers were monitored by EESI-MS over the time period of 10 hrs. Long-term eNO response to smoking a cigarette was recorded, and the observed time-dependent profile was discussed. This work extends the application of EESI-MS to small molecules (<30 Da) with low proton affinity and collision-induced dissociation efficiency, which are usually poorly visible by conventional ion trap mass spectrometers. Long-term quantitative profiling of eNO by EESI-MS opens new possibilities for the research of human metabolism and clinical diagnosis.

  7. Venous gas emboli and exhaled nitric oxide with simulated and actual extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Lars L; Blogg, S Lesley; Lindholm, Peter; Gennser, Mikael; Hemmingsson, Tryggve; Linnarsson, Dag

    2009-10-01

    The decompression experienced due to the change in pressure from a space vehicle (1013hPa) to that in a suit for extravehicular activity (EVA) (386hPa) was simulated using a hypobaric chamber. Previous ground-based research has indicated around a 50% occurrence of both venous gas emboli (VGE) and symptoms of decompression illness (DCI) after similar decompressions. In contrast, no DCI symptoms have been reported from past or current space activities. Twenty subjects were studied using Doppler ultrasound to detect any VGE during decompression to 386hPa, where they remained for up to 6h. Subjects were supine to simulate weightlessness. A large number of VGE were found in one subject at rest, who had a recent arm fracture; a small number of VGE were found in another subject during provocation with calf contractions. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were found that can be related to either simulated EVA or actual EVA (studied in a parallel study on four cosmonauts). We conclude that weightlessness appears to be protective against DCI and that exhaled NO is not likely to be useful to monitor VGE.

  8. Lung function and exhaled nitric oxide in healthy unsedated African infants

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Diane; Willemse, Lauren; Visagie, Ane; Smith, Emilee; Czövek, Dorottya; Sly, Peter D; Hantos, Zoltán; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Population-appropriate lung function reference data are essential to accurately identify respiratory disease and measure response to interventions. There are currently no reference data in African infants. The aim was to describe normal lung function in healthy African infants. Methods Lung function was performed on healthy South African infants enrolled in a birth cohort study, the Drakenstein child health study. Infants were excluded if they were born preterm or had a history of neonatal respiratory distress or prior respiratory tract infection. Measurements, made during natural sleep, included the forced oscillation technique, tidal breathing, exhaled nitric oxide and multiple breath washout measures. Results Three hundred sixty-three infants were tested. Acceptable and repeatable measurements were obtained in 356 (98%) and 352 (97%) infants for tidal breathing analysis and exhaled nitric oxide outcomes, 345 (95%) infants for multiple breath washout and 293 of the 333 (88%) infants for the forced oscillation technique. Age, sex and weight-for-age z score were significantly associated with lung function measures. Conclusions This study provides reference data for unsedated infant lung function in African infants and highlights the importance of using population-specific data. PMID:26134556

  9. Dielectric barrier discharge micro-plasma emission spectrometry for the detection of acetone in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Dong-Xue; Yu, Yong-Liang; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is a predominant volatile organic compound (VOC) in the exhaled breath and a promising biomarker for diabetes and ketoacidosis. A non-thermal micro-plasma generated in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used as a radiation source for the excitation of gaseous acetone followed by its quantification with optical emission spectrometry (OES). Gaseous acetone can be directly sampled, while liquid acetone is evaporated by heated tungsten coil and then introduced into the DBD micro-plasma by a helium carrier flow for performing optical emission and detection at a 519 nm emission line. In the present study, the exhaled breath is collected and transferred into aqueous medium for sampling. With a sampling volume of 7 μL in a micro-drop, a linear range of 40-1600 mg L(-1) is obtained along with a detection limit of 44 ng and a precision of 5.7% RSD. The present system is successfully applied to the determination of breath acetone for both diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. PMID:26695309

  10. Radon concentration in soil gas and radon exhalation rate at the Ravne Fault in NW Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaupotič, J.; Gregorič, A.; Kobal, I.; Žvab, P.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.; Kochowska, E.; Grzä Dziel, D.

    2010-04-01

    The Ravne tectonic fault in north-west (NW) Slovenia is one of the faults in this region, responsible for the elevated seismic activity at the Italian-Slovene border. Five measurement profiles were fixed in the vicinity of the Ravne fault, four of them were perpendicular and one parallel to the fault. At 18 points along these profiles the following measurements have been carried out: radon activity concentration in soil gas, radon exhalation rate from ground, soil permeability and gamma dose rate. The radon measurements were carried out using the AlphaGuard equipment, and GammaTracer was applied for gamma dose rate measurements. The ranges of the obtained results are as follows: 0.9-32.9 kBq m-3 for radon concentration (CRn), 1.1-41.9 mBq m-2 s-1 for radon exhalation rate (ERn), 0.5-7.4×10-13 m2 for soil permeability, and 86-138 nSv h-1 for gamma dose rate. The concentrations of 222Rn in soil gas were found to be lower than the average for Slovenia. Because the deformation zones differ not only in the direction perpendicular to the fault but also along it, the behaviour of either CRn or ERn at different profiles differ markedly. The study is planned to be continued with measurements being carried out at a number of additional points.

  11. Controlling false discoveries in genetic studies.

    PubMed

    van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2008-07-01

    A false discovery occurs when a researcher concludes that a marker is involved in the etiology of the disease whereas in reality it is not. In genetic studies the risk of false discoveries is very high because only few among the many markers that can be tested will have an effect on the disease. In this article, we argue that it may be best to use methods for controlling false discoveries that would introduce the same ratio of false discoveries divided by all rejected tests into the literature regardless of systematic differences between studies. After a brief discussion of traditional "multiple testing" methods, we show that methods that control the false discovery rate (FDR) may be more suitable to achieve this goal. These FDR methods are therefore discussed in more detail. Instead of merely testing for main effects, it may be important to search for gene-environment/covariate interactions, gene-gene interactions or genetic variants affecting disease subtypes. In the second section, we point out the challenges involved in controlling false discoveries in such searches. The final section discusses the role of replication studies for eliminating false discoveries and the complexities associated with the definition of what constitutes a replication and the design of these studies.

  12. A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

  13. The false-negative Meckel's scan

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, G.; Froelich, J.W.

    1982-10-01

    A case is presented of a 17-month-old girl who underwent two Meckel's scans with /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. The initial study was interpreted as normal while a subsequent study five days later was definitely positive. Surgery immediately following the positive Meckel's scan demonstrated a Meckel's diverticulum containing gastric mucosa without evidence of active hemorrhage. This prompted a review of the literature in reference to false-negative Meckel's scans which revealed a wide variance in the reported incidence of false-negative examinations. Repeat scintigraphy in the face of a strong clinical suspicion after an initial normal study may decrease the indicence of false-negative imaging series.

  14. Study of the correlations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath and atopic status, blood eosinophils, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Thi-Bich, Hanh; Duong-Thi-Ly, Huong; Thom, Vu Thi; Pham-Thi-Hong, Nhung; Dinh, Long Doan; Le-Thi-Minh, Huong; Craig, Timothy John; Duong-Quy, Sy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. Subjects and methods This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam), were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT), and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. Results Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6–16 years) were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05). FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004). Five of the 32 subjects (15.6%) had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP). In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05). The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of treatment (17±8 ppb vs 26±25 ppb; P<0.05). Significant correlations between inhaled corticosteroid doses and FENO levels occurred at 1 and 3 months (r=0.415, P=0.007; r=0.396, P=0.010; respectively). There were no correlations between FENO levels, ACT, and daily use of salbutamol. After 3 months, asthma remained uncontrolled in 22.2% of children. Conclusion The measurement of FENO levels is a useful and feasible tool to predict clinical, biological, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. PMID

  15. Study of the correlations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath and atopic status, blood eosinophils, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Thi-Bich, Hanh; Duong-Thi-Ly, Huong; Thom, Vu Thi; Pham-Thi-Hong, Nhung; Dinh, Long Doan; Le-Thi-Minh, Huong; Craig, Timothy John; Duong-Quy, Sy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. Subjects and methods This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam), were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT), and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. Results Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6–16 years) were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05). FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004). Five of the 32 subjects (15.6%) had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP). In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05). The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of treatment (17±8 ppb vs 26±25 ppb; P<0.05). Significant correlations between inhaled corticosteroid doses and FENO levels occurred at 1 and 3 months (r=0.415, P=0.007; r=0.396, P=0.010; respectively). There were no correlations between FENO levels, ACT, and daily use of salbutamol. After 3 months, asthma remained uncontrolled in 22.2% of children. Conclusion The measurement of FENO levels is a useful and feasible tool to predict clinical, biological, and asthma control in Vietnamese children.

  16. The False Claims Act and clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Vogel, R L

    1993-01-01

    In its efforts to fight fraud, the government has turned increasingly to the civil False Claims Act. The Act imposes triple damages plus monetary penalties against those who defraud the federal government. The Act also encourages whistleblowers to report fraud by offering the prospect of large bounties. This article describes the False Claims Act, its qui tam provision dealing with whistleblowers, and the application of the Act to clinical laboratories.

  17. Review article: the false-bottom ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Jouzel, J.; Nizovtseva, I.; Ryashko, L. B.

    2013-11-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water (with a~temperature of 0 °C) to the arctic salt water (with a temperature of -1.6 °C) is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. The processes of false bottom ice growth from below (i.e. from the ocean to the atmosphere) become of prime importance in the era of global warming and climate change. In this review, we summarize the theoretical approaches, field and laboratory observations, conducted during more than 100 yr, in order to address the problem of false bottoms to a broad community of readers. We also discuss the recent modeling advances to which we have contributed. A "false bottom" is a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe, where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the present-day estimate of the false bottom ice coverage is approximately half of the sea ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for various physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics.

  18. False Discovery Rate Estimation in Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Suruchi; Yadav, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement in proteomics separation techniques and improvements in mass analyzers, the data generated in a mass-spectrometry based proteomics experiment is rising exponentially. Such voluminous datasets necessitate automated computational tools for high-throughput data analysis and appropriate statistical control. The data is searched using one or more of the several popular database search algorithms. The matches assigned by these tools can have false positives and statistical validation of these false matches is necessary before making any biological interpretations. Without such procedures, the biological inferences do not hold true and may be outright misleading. There is a considerable overlap between true and false positives. To control the false positives amongst a set of accepted matches, there is a need for some statistical estimate that can reflect the amount of false positives present in the data processed. False discovery rate (FDR) is the metric for global confidence assessment of a large-scale proteomics dataset. This chapter covers the basics of FDR, its application in proteomics, and methods to estimate FDR.

  19. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  20. Comparison of exhaled nitric oxide and cardiorespiratory indices between nasal and oral breathing during submaximal exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Y; Itoh, T; Miyamura, M; Nishino, H

    1997-10-01

    In order to examine the origin and role of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air during exercise, exhaled NO outputs of 8 healthy human subjects were compared using different breathing methods, through the mouth or nose, at two intensities of bicycle exercise. The concentration of NO in the exhaled air and ventilatory gas exchange variables were measured by a chemiluminescence analyzer and a mixing chamber method, respectively. The concentration and total output of NO in the expired air was significantly higher under nasal breathing than under oral breathing for both exercise intensities, whereas no significant difference was observed in cardiorespiratory variables between them. NO output increased significantly when exercise intensity was increased from unloaded (0 W) to 60 W under nasal breathing, but not under oral breathing. A negative correlation among subjects was found between NO output and minute ventilation in both breathing methods only for unloaded exercise. Data indicate that nasal airways have a large contribution, at least 50% of total NO output in the exhaled air during nasal breathing, but this nasal NO may have no further modulation on respiratory function during submaximal exercise by healthy humans.

  1. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82.

  2. Use of exhaled breath condensate endpoints for examination of Body Mass Index as a susceptibility factor to diesel exhaust.

    EPA Science Inventory

    High and low Body Mass Index (BMI) is a risk factor for effects (e.g., premature mortality) induced by exposure to common air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Diesel exhaust contributes to particulate matter levels. We examined lung responses using the exhaled bre...

  3. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:23192085

  4. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide as a marker of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John; Jones, Andrew M.; Smith, David; Smyth, Alan R.; Southern, Kevin W.; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, A. Kevin; Lenney, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is readily detected in the headspace above Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and in the breath of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic (P. aeruginosa) infection. We investigated if exhaled breath HCN is an early marker of P. aeruginosa infection. 233 children with CF who were free from P. aeruginosa infection were followed for 2 years. Their median (interquartile range) age was 8.0 (5.0–12.2) years. At each study visit, an exhaled breath sample was collected for hydrogen cyanide analysis. In total, 2055 breath samples were analysed. At the end of the study, the hydrogen cyanide concentrations were compared to the results of routine microbiology surveillance. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 71 children during the study with an incidence (95% CI) of 0.19 (0.15–0.23) cases per patient-year. Using a random-effects logistic model, the estimated odds ratio (95% CI) was 3.1 (2.6–3.6), which showed that for a 1- ppbv increase in exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide, we expected a 212% increase in the odds of P. aeruginosa infection. The sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 33% and 99%, respectively. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide is a specific biomarker of new P. aeruginosa infection in children with CF. Its low sensitivity means that at present, hydrogen cyanide cannot be used as a screening test for this infection. PMID:27730156

  5. An investigation of radon exhalation rate and estimation of radiation doses in coal and fly ash samples.

    PubMed

    Mahur, A K; Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Meena; Sengupta, D; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-03-01

    Coal is a technologically important material used for power generation. Its cinder (fly ash) is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products often contain significant amounts of radionuclides, including uranium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon. Burning of coal and the subsequent atmospheric emission cause the redistribution of toxic radioactive trace elements in the environment. In the present study, radon exhalation rates in coal and fly ash samples from the thermal power plants at Kolaghat (W.B.) and Kasimpur (U.P.) have been measured using sealed Can technique having LR-115 type II detectors. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the samples of Kolaghat power station are also measured. It is observed that the radon exhalation rate from fly ash samples from Kolaghat is higher than from coal samples and activity concentration of radionuclides in fly ash is enhanced after the combustion of coal. Fly ash samples from Kasimpur show no appreciable change in radon exhalation. Radiation doses from the fly ash samples have been estimated from radon exhalation rate and radionuclide concentrations.

  6. Measurement of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in different kinds of marbles and granites.

    PubMed

    El-Dine, N W; El-Shershaby, A; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S

    2001-12-01

    Geological materials usually contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have become a focus of great attention. These NORM under certain conditions can reach hazardous contamination levels. Some contamination levels may be sufficiently severe that precautions must be taken. The present study deals with 60 geological samples (marble and granite) from both Egyptian and foreign locations. The studied samples were analyzed and the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of radioisotopes were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector in Bq/kg dry weight. The absorbed dose rate due to the natural radioactivity in the samples under investigation ranged from 2.45 +/- 0.07 to 64.44 +/- 1.93 nGy/h for marble and from 41.55 +/- 1.25 to 111.94 +/- 3.36 nGy/h for granite. The radium equivalent activity varied from 5.46 +/- 0.16 to 150.52 +/- 4.52 Bq/kg for marble samples and from 229.52 +/- 6.89 to 92.16 +/- 2.76 Bq/kg for granite. The representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples are also estimated and given. The radon exhalation rates for marble and granite samples were also calculated by using solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39). The value of radium exhalation rate varied from 8.0 +/- 2.39 to 30.20 +/- 5.06 Bq/m2/d for marble and 6.89 +/- 1.72 to 25.79 +/- 4.38 Bq/m2/d for granite and the effective radium content was found to vary from 1.700 +/- 0.51 to 6.42 +/- 1.08 Bq/kg for marble and 1.29 +/- 0.32 to 5.63 +/- 0.96 Bq/kg for granite. The values of the radon exhalation rate and effective radium content are found to correspond with the values of uranium concentration measured by the HPGe detector in the corresponding sample.

  7. Instant effects of changing body positions on compositions of exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may depend not only on biochemical or pathologic processes but also on physiological parameters. As breath sampling may be done in different body positions, effects of the sampling position on exhaled VOC concentrations were investigated by means of real-time mass spectrometry. Breaths from 15 healthy volunteers were analyzed in real-time by PTR-ToF-MS-8000 during paced breathing (12/min) in a continuous side-stream mode. We applied two series of body positions (setup 1: sitting, standing, supine, and sitting; setup 2: supine, left lateral, right lateral, prone, and supine). Each position was held for 2 min. Breath VOCs were quantified in inspired and alveolar air by means of a custom-made algorithm. Parallel monitoring of hemodynamics and capnometry was performed noninvasively. In setup 1, when compared to the initial sitting position, normalized mean concentrations of isoprene, furan, and acetonitrile decreased by 24%, 26%, and 9%, respectively, during standing and increased by 63%, 36%, and 10% during lying mirroring time profiles of stroke volume and pET-CO2. In contrast, acetone and H2S concentrations remained almost constant. In setup 2, when compared to the initial supine position, mean alveolar concentrations of isoprene and furan increased significantly up to 29% and 16%, respectively, when position was changed from lying on the right side to the prone position. As cardiac output and stroke volume decreased at that time, the reasons for the observed concentrations changes have to be linked to the ventilation/perfusion ratio or compartmental distribution rather than to perfusion alone. During final postures, all VOC concentrations, hemodynamics, and pET-CO2 returned to baseline. Exhaled blood-borne VOC profiles changed due to body postures. Changes depended on cardiac stroke volume, origin, compartmental distribution and physico-chemical properties of the substances. Patients' positions and

  8. Remedies by competitors for false advertising.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising. PMID:2343426

  9. Traffic-related air pollutants and exhaled markers of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in New York City adolescents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Molini M; Chillrud, Steven N; Deepti, K C; Ross, James M; Kinney, Patrick L

    2013-02-01

    Exposures to ambient diesel exhaust particles have been associated with respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations in children; however, epidemiologic evidence linking short-term exposure to ambient diesel exhaust particles with airway inflammation is limited. We conducted a panel study with asthmatic and nonasthmatic adolescents to characterize associations between ambient diesel exhaust particle exposures and exhaled biological markers of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Over four weeks, exhaled breath condensate was collected twice a week from 18 asthmatics and 18 nonasthmatics (ages 14-19 years) attending two New York City schools and analyzed for pH and 8-isoprostane as indicators of airway inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. Air concentrations of black carbon, a diesel exhaust particle indicator, were measured outside schools. Air measurements of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and fine particulate matter were obtained for the closest central monitoring sites. Relationships between ambient pollutants and exhaled biomarkers were characterized using mixed effects models. Among all subjects, increases in 1- to 5-day averages of black carbon were associated with decreases in exhaled breath condensate pH, indicating increased airway inflammation, and increases in 8-isoprostane, indicating increased oxidative stress. Increases in 1- to 5-day averages of nitrogen dioxide were associated with increases in 8-isoprostane. Ozone and fine particulate matter were inconsistently associated with exhaled biomarkers. Associations did not differ between asthmatics and nonasthmatics. The findings indicate that short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may increase airway inflammation and/or oxidative stress in urban youth and provide mechanistic support for associations documented between traffic-related pollutant exposures and respiratory morbidity.

  10. False lock performance of quadriphase receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Quadriphase receivers, like biphase receivers, have the ability to false lock on a sideband on the data modulation. The theory associated with this phenomenon for receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK), using Costas loop demodulation, has recently been documented in the literature. This paper considers the corresponding theory for receivers of balanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) employing a quadriphase Costas loop (or equivalent fourth-power loop) for demodulation. Specific closed form expressions for false lock performance are developed and numerically evaluated for the particular case of single pole arm filters and an NRZ data format for each of the two statistically independent quadrature modulations.

  11. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing.

  12. An Overview of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Devika R.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease and is characterized by lung inflammation. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is thought to reflect the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation, and is an easy, non-invasive test that has held promise in providing additional objective data. However, not all studies have shown a clinical benefit in the use of FeNO to guide management of asthma in children. This review will describe the results of the most recent studies examining the use of FeNO in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in infants, pre-school-aged children and in school-aged children. It will aid the clinician in providing a clinical context in which FeNO may be most useful in treating pediatric asthma. PMID:26757849

  13. Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate: a review of collection, processing and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grob, N M; Aytekin, M; Dweik, R A

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a potential rich source for countless biomarkers that can provide valuable information about respiratory as well as systemic diseases. EBC has been studied in a variety of diseases including allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although numerous biomarkers have been discovered and studied in EBC, the methods of collection and biomarker detection have not been fully standardized. While leaving standardization methods up to individual labs for the present time is optimal for the continued discovery of new biomarkers in EBC, this decreases the reproducibility and generalizability of the findings. In this review we will discuss specific biomarkers studied in specific diseases as well as some of the related technical issues including collection, processing and analysis. PMID:21386165

  14. Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using High Resolution Mm-Wave Rotational Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tianle; Branco, Daniela; Thomas, Jessica; Medvedev, Ivan; Dolson, David; Nam, Hyun-Joo; O, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy enables chemical sensors that are both sensitive and highly specific, which is well suited for analysis of expired human breath. We have previously reported on detection of breath ethanol, methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde using THz sensors. This paper will outline our present efforts in this area, with specific focus on our ongoing quest to correlate levels of blood glucose with concentrations of a few breath chemicals known to be affected by elevated blood sugar levels. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed. Fosnight, A.M., B.L. Moran, and I.R. Medvedev, Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach. Applied Physics Letters, 2013. 103(13): p. 133703-5.

  15. Exhaled breath condensate: a promising source for biomarkers of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Yeligar, Samantha M; Brown, Lou Ann S

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method for sampling the alveolar and airway space and is recognized as a promising source of biomarkers of lung diseases. Substances measured in EBC include oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid derivatives, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and inflammatory cytokines. Although EBC has great potential as a source of biomarkers in many lung diseases, the low concentrations of compounds within the EBC present challenges in sample collection and analysis. Although EBC is viewed as a noninvasive method for sampling airway lining fluid (ALF), validation is necessary to confirm that EBC truly represents the ALF. Likewise, a dilution factor for the EBC is needed in order to compare across subjects and determine changes in the ALF. The aims of this paper are to address the characteristics of EBC; strategies to standardize EBC sample collection and review available analytical techniques for EBC analysis. PMID:23365513

  16. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children.

  17. Investigation of human biomarkers in exhaled breath by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitras, D. C.; Giubileo, G.; Puiu, A.

    2005-06-01

    The paper underlines the importance of breath tests in medicine and the potential of laser techniques to measure in-vivo and in real time human biomarkers. The presence of trace amounts of gases or the metabolites of a precursor in exhaled air could be linked to kidney or liver malfunction, asthma, diabetes, cancer, ulcers or neurological disorders. The measurement of some human biomarkers (ethylene, ammonia), based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy methods, insure very high sensitivity and selectivity. The technical characteristics of this instrument were measured to determine the detection limits (sub-ppb for ethylene). The results of ethylene release following lipid peroxidation initiated by X-ray irradiation or ingestion of radioactive compounds are presented. The possibility to extend this technique for measurement of breath ammonia levels in patients with end-stage renal disease while they are undergoing hemodialysis is discussed.

  18. [Proteomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate for diagnosis of pathologies of the respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Fedorchenko, K Yu; Ryabokon, A M; Starodubtseva, N L; Popov, I A; Zavialova, M G; Anaev, E C; Chuchalin, A G; Varfolomeev, S D; Nikolaev, E N

    2015-01-01

    Study of the proteomic composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), is a promising non-invasive method for the diagnosis of the respiratory tract diseases in patients. In this study the EBC proteomic composition of the 79 donors, including patients with different pathologies of the respiratory system has been investigated. Cytoskeletal keratins type II (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and cytoskeletal keratins the type I (9, 10, 14, 15, 16) were invariant for all samples. Analyzing the frequency of occurrence of proteins in different groups of examined patients, several categories of protein have been recognized: found in all pathologies (Dermcidin, Alpha-1-microglobulin, SHROOM3), found in several pathologies (CSTA, LCN1, JUP, PIP, TXN), and specific for a single pathology (PRDX1, Annexin A1/A2). The EBC analysis by HPLC-MS/MS can be used to identify potential protein markers characteristic for pathologies such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PRDX1) and pneumonia (Annexin A1/A2).

  19. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    PubMed

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-12-01

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values. PMID:26582819

  20. Measurements of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rates from different brands of cement used in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, S A; Rahim, A; Hussain, S; Farooq, M

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of activity due to the naturally occurring radionuclide has been carried out in different brands of cement available in Pakistan. The gamma spectra of the collected samples were obtained using high-purity germanium detector and analysed for the presence of 232Th, 238U and 40K. The assessment of radiological hazards due to these radionuclides has also been made. The studies concerning the determination of radon-exhalation rates from these samples of cement were also carried out using CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters. The range of activity concentrations were found for 226Ra (from 25.10 +/- 1.55 to 52.60 +/- 3.20 Bq kg(-1)), 232Th (from 10.30 +/- 0.65 to 30.40 +/- 1.70 Bq kg(-1)) and 40K (from 17.25 +/- 1.55 to 292.95 +/- 23.05 Bq kg(-1)). The estimated value of radium equivalent concentration was from 11.16 +/- 2.60 to 114.98 +/- 7.11 Bq kg(-1). The calculated absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose were in the range from 18.54 +/- 1.17 to 52.90 +/- 3.31 nGy h(-1) and 0.09 +/- 0.01 to 0.26 +/- 0.02 mSv, respectively. The external and internal hazard indices were in the range from 0.11 +/- 0.01 to 0.31 +/- 0.02 and 0.18 +/- 0.01 to 0.45 +/- 0.03, respectively. The radon exhalation rates from different brands of cement were found in the range from 3.3 +/- 0.7 to 8.1 +/- 1.7 mBq kg(-1) h(-1).

  1. Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Zietkowski, Ziemowit; Skiepko, Roman; Tomasiak, Maria M; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels in exhaled breath condensate following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. Methods The study was conducted in a group of 19 asthmatic patients (11 with EIB, 8 without EIB) and 7 healthy volunteers. Changes induced by intensive exercise in the concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during 24 hours after an exercise challenge test were determined. Moreover, the possible correlations of these measurements with the results of other tests commonly associated with asthma and with the changes of airway inflammation after exercise were observed. Results In asthmatic patients with EIB a statistically significant increase in the concentration of ET-1 in EBC collected between 10 minutes and 6 hours after an exercise test was observed. The concentration of ET-1 had returned to its initial level 24 hours after exercise. No effects of the exercise test on changes in the concentrations of ET-1 in EBC in either asthmatic patients without EIB or healthy volunteers were observed. A statistically significant correlation between the maximum increase in ET-1 concentrations in EBC after exercise and either baseline FENO and the increase in FENO or BHR to histamine 24 hours after exercise in the groups of asthmatics with EIB was revealed. Conclusion The release of ET-1 from bronchial epithelium through the influence of many inflammatory cells essential in asthma and interactions with other cytokines, may play an important role in increase of airway inflammation which was observed after postexercise bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. PMID:17973986

  2. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    PubMed

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-11-19

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values.

  3. The identification of hypoxia biomarkers from exhaled breath under normobaric conditions.

    PubMed

    Harshman, Sean W; Geier, Brian A; Fan, Maomian; Rinehardt, Sage; Watts, Brandy S; Drummond, Leslie A; Preti, George; Phillips, Jeffrey B; Ott, Darrin K; Grigsby, Claude C

    2015-12-01

    Pilots have reported experiencing in-flight hypoxic-like symptoms since the inception of high-altitude aviation. As a result, the need to monitor pilots, in-flight, for the onset of hypoxic conditions is of great interest to the aviation community. We propose that exhaled breath is an appropriate non-invasive medium for monitoring pilot hypoxic risk through volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis. To identify changes in the exhaled breath VOCs produced during periods of reduced O2 levels, volunteers were exposed to simulated flight profiles, i.e. sea level for 5 min, O2 levels found at elevated altitudes for 5 min or placebo and 5 min at 100% O2 recovery gas, using a modified flight mask interfaced with a reduced O2 breathing device. During the course of these test events, time series breath samples from the flight mask and pre/post bag samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven compounds (pentanal, 4-butyrolactone, 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3-methylheptane and 2-heptanone) were found to significantly change in response to hypoxic conditions. Additionally, the isoprene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, was found to increase following the overall exposure profile. This study establishes an experimental means for monitoring changes in VOCs in response to hypoxic conditions, a computational workflow for compound analysis via the Metabolite Differentiation and Discovery Lab and MatLab(©) software and identifies potential volatile organic compound biomarkers of hypoxia exposure. PMID:26505091

  4. Cancerous glucose metabolism in lung cancer-evidence from exhaled breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Tali; Alkoby-Meshulam, Layah; Herbig, Jens; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Gai Mor, Naomi; Bar, Jair; Ilouze, Maya; Haick, Hossam; Peled, Nir

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cells prefer hyperglycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation, even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon is used through the FDG-PET scans, and may affect the exhaled volatile signature. This study investigates the volatile signature in lung cancer (LC) before and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to determine if tumor cells' hyperglycolysis would affect the volatile signature. Blood glucose levels and exhaled breath samples were analyzed before the OGTT, and 90 min after, in both LC patients and controls. The volatile signature was measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Twenty-two LC patients (age 66.6  ±  12.7) with adenocarcinoma (n  =  14), squamous (n  =  6), small cell carcinoma (n  =  2), and twenty-one controls (age 54.4  ±  13.7; 10 non-smokers and 11 smokers) were included. All LC patients showed a hyperglycolytic state in their FDG-PET scans. Both baseline and post OGTT volatile signatures discriminate between the groups. The OGTT has a minimal effect in LC (a decrease in m/z 54 by 39%, p v  =  0.0499); whereas in the control group, five masses (m/z 64, 87,88, 142 and 161) changed by  -13%, -49%, -40% and  -29% and 46% respectively. To conclude, OGTT has a minimal effect on the VOC signature in LC patients, where a hyperglycolytic state already exists. In contrast, in the control group the OGTT has a profound effect in which induced hyperglycolysis significantly changed the VOC pattern. We hypothesized that a ceiling effect in cancerous patients is responsible for this discrepancy. PMID:27272440

  5. Noninvasive Measurement of Plasma Triglycerides and Free Fatty Acids from Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Timothy Do Chau; Oliver, Stacy R; Flores, Rebecca L; Ngo, Jerry; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K; Midyett, Jason; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R; Galassetti, Pietro Renato

    2012-01-01

    Background Although altered metabolism has long been known to affect human breath, generating clinically usable metabolic tests from exhaled compounds has proven challenging. If developed, a breath-based lipid test would greatly simplify management of diabetes and serious pathological conditions (e.g., obesity, familial hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease), in which systemic lipid levels are a critical risk factor for onset and development of future cardiovascular events. Methods We, therefore, induced controlled fluctuations of plasma lipids (insulin-induced lipid suppression or intravenous infusion of Intralipid) during 4-h in vivo experiments on 23 healthy volunteers (12 males/11 females, 28.0 ± 0.3 years) to find correlations between exhaled volatile organic compounds and plasma lipids. In each subject, plasma triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations were both directly measured and calculated via individualized prediction equations based on the multiple linear regression analysis of a cluster of 4 gases. In the lipid infusion protocol, we also generated common prediction equations using a maximum of 10 gases. Results This analysis yielded strong correlations between measured and predicted values during both lipid suppression (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.90 for FFA) and lipid infusion (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.94 for FFA) studies. In our most accurate common prediction model, measured and predicted TG and FFA values also displayed very strong statistical agreement (r = 0.86 and r = 0.81, respectively). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring plasma lipids through breath analysis. Optimization of this technology may ultimately lead to the development of portable breath analyzers for plasma lipids, replacing blood-based bioassays. PMID:22401327

  6. Exhaled volatile organic compounds for phenotyping chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasive phenotyping of chronic respiratory diseases would be highly beneficial in the personalised medicine of the future. Volatile organic compounds can be measured in the exhaled breath and may be produced or altered by disease processes. We investigated whether distinct patterns of these compounds were present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and clinically relevant disease phenotypes. Methods Breath samples from 39 COPD subjects and 32 healthy controls were collected and analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subjects with COPD also underwent sputum induction. Discriminatory compounds were identified by univariate logistic regression followed by multivariate analysis: 1. principal component analysis; 2. multivariate logistic regression; 3. receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Comparing COPD versus healthy controls, principal component analysis clustered the 20 best-discriminating compounds into four components explaining 71% of the variance. Multivariate logistic regression constructed an optimised model using two components with an accuracy of 69%. The model had 85% sensitivity, 50% specificity and ROC area under the curve of 0.74. Analysis of COPD subgroups showed the method could classify COPD subjects with far greater accuracy. Models were constructed which classified subjects with ≥2% sputum eosinophilia with ROC area under the curve of 0.94 and those having frequent exacerbations 0.95. Potential biomarkers correlated to clinical variables were identified in each subgroup. Conclusion The exhaled breath volatile organic compound profile discriminated between COPD and healthy controls and identified clinically relevant COPD subgroups. If these findings are validated in prospective cohorts, they may have diagnostic and management value in this disease. PMID:22916684

  7. Complete surgical resection of lung tumor decreases exhalation of mutated KRAS oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kordiak, Jacek; Szemraj, Janusz; Hamara, Katarzyna; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Nowak, Dariusz

    2012-09-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains extracellular DNA that may originate from pathological lesions of the respiratory tract and can be a genetic marker of pulmonary malignancy. We tested whether complete surgical excision of lung cancer will decrease exhalation of mutated KRAS oncogene. Fifty seven patients with clinical diagnosis of lung cancer and detectable KRAS mutations in pre-surgery EBC-DNA were qualified for surgical treatment. Point mutations at codon 12 of KRAS oncogene were detected using mutant-enriched PCR technique in DNA from pre-surgery blood, EBC collected before, 7 and 30 days after surgery and from specimens of resected tumor and normal pulmonary parenchyma. The ratio of mutated to wild type KRAS DNA (R mut/wild KRAS) was calculated for each specimen after electrophoresis and densitometry of the final amplification and digestion product. In 46 patients non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in 11 benign lesion (BL) were confirmed. All blood and tumor specimens were positive for KRAS mutations, while 41 specimens of normal pulmonary parenchyma were negative. In NSCLC patients pre-surgery EBC R mut/wild KRAS of 0.20 ± 0.03 decreased by 1.3- and 3.7-times (p < 0.001) at 7th and 30th day and 10 EBC specimens at day 30th became negative. The highest R mut/wild KRAS was found in NSCLC specimens - 1.36 ± 0.29 while the lowest in pulmonary parenchyma - 0.02 ± 0.03 (p < 0.001). R mut/wild KRAS in EBC did not correlate with the blood and cancer ratios. Determination of mutated KRAS oncogene in EBC can be potentially helpful in the follow-up of surgical treatment of pulmonary malignancy. PMID:22795503

  8. Interrogation and false confessions: vulnerability factors.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    This paper reviews the psychological factors that make some individuals susceptible to making a false confession of having committed a criminal offence. A number of 'vulnerability factors' are highlighted and it is emphasized that these need to be interpreted within the context of all circumstances surrounding the case. PMID:1591561

  9. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  10. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Response to Reports... false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing... crossing by taking the following actions: (a) Prior to a train's arrival at the crossing, notify the...

  11. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Response to Reports... false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing... crossing by taking the following actions: (a) Prior to a train's arrival at the crossing, notify the...

  12. 30 CFR 581.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER... provisions of 18 U.S.C. 1001, it is a crime punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment or a fine of $10,000, or... States any false or fraudulent statement(s) to any matters within the Agency's jurisdiction....

  13. What Makes Language Learners False Beginners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Tomoko

    A study in Japan investigated second language skill loss and maintenance in three groups of English-as-a-Second-Language learners: (1) ninth graders studying basic vocabulary and sentence structures (true beginners); (2) students in the lowest level English class at a technical college, but with some English language skills (false beginners); and…

  14. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  15. How to Justify Teaching False Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Matthew H.

    2008-01-01

    We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

  16. Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

  17. False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

    2007-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

  18. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  19. False Belief vs. False Photographs: A Test of Theory of Mind or Working Memory?

    PubMed

    Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to reason about other people's thoughts and beliefs, has been traditionally studied in behavioral and neuroimaging experiments by comparing performance in "false belief" and "false photograph" (control) stories. However, some evidence suggests that these stories are not matched in difficulty, complicating the interpretation of results. Here, we more fully evaluated the relative difficulty of comprehending these stories and drawing inferences from them. Subjects read false belief and false photograph stories followed by comprehension questions that probed true ("reality" questions) or false beliefs ("representation" questions) appropriate to the stories. Stories and comprehension questions were read and answered, respectively, more slowly in the false photograph than false belief conditions, indicating their greater difficulty. Interestingly, accuracy on representation questions for false photograph stories was significantly lower than for all other conditions and correlated positively with participants' working memory span scores. These results suggest that drawing representational inferences from false photo stories is particularly difficult and places heavy demands on working memory. Extensive naturalistic practice with ToM reasoning may enable a more flexible and efficient mental representation of false belief stories, resulting in lower memory load requirements. An important implication of these results is that the differential modulation of right temporal-parietal junction (RTPJ) during ToM and "false photo" control conditions may reflect the documented negative correlation of RTPJ activity with working memory load rather than a specialized involvement in ToM processes.

  20. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert E-mail: philipp.grothaus@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.

  1. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  2. False beats in coupled piano string unisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capleton, Brian

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of a unison pair of piano strings coupled by the soundboard bridge, when one string has localized anisotropy in the reactive part of the bridge admittance for a given partial frequency, can be investigated using a theoretical matrix description. The anisotropy can cause what in piano tuning terminology is referred to as ``false beating'' in a partial of the single string. A mathematical model can be used to illustrate how ``mistunings'' between the strings of the unison (measured when the strings are sounding in isolation from each other) may theoretically arise as a consequence of the normal practice in piano tuning, of eliminating or reducing audible beating in the unison when both strings are sounding. ``False beats'' in a single string partial can be ``inherited'' by a partial of the coupled unison's spectrum, and mistunings between the strings can eliminate or reduce the appearance of this inheritance.

  3. [False memory syndrome: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Nemets, Boris; Witztum, Eliezer; Kotler, Moshe

    2002-08-01

    The review describes the heated dispute on the present state of recovered traumatic memories. There are two main schools concerning the status of recovered memories of child abuse. One school believes in their authenticity unconditionally. Those who oppose the authenticity claim False Memory Syndrome's existence. They describe it as "a serious form of psychopathology characterized by strongly believed pseudomemories of childhood sexual abuse" and "condition in which a person's identity and interpersonal relationships are centered around a memory of traumatic experience which is objectively false but in which the person strongly believes". This review presents the allegations of both sides involved in the dispute, with updates of scientific and judicial references and relevant recommendations to care takers.

  4. False beats in coupled piano string unisons.

    PubMed

    Capleton, Brian

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of a unison pair of piano strings coupled by the soundboard bridge, when one string has localized anisotropy in the reactive part of the bridge admittance for a given partial frequency, can be investigated using a theoretical matrix description. The anisotropy can cause what in piano tuning terminology is referred to as "false beating" in a partial of the single string. A mathematical model can be used to illustrate how "mistunings" between the strings of the unison (measured when the strings are sounding in isolation from each other) may theoretically arise as a consequence of the normal practice in piano tuning, of eliminating or reducing audible beating in the unison when both strings are sounding. "False beats" in a single string partial can be "inherited" by a partial of the coupled unison's spectrum, and mistunings between the strings can eliminate or reduce the appearance of this inheritance. PMID:15000199

  5. Accounting for false negatives in hotspot detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Wilson, John E.

    2007-08-28

    Hotspot sampling designs are used in environmental sampling to identify the location of one (or more) contiguous regions of elevated contamination. These regions are known as hotspots. The problem of how to calculate the probability of detecting an elliptical hotspot using a rectangular or triangular grid of sampling points was addressed by Singer and Wickman in 1969. This approach presumed that any sample which coincided with a hotspot would detect the hotspot without error. However, for many sampling methodologies, there is a chance that the hotspot will not be detected even though it has been sampled directly--a false negative. We present a mathematical solution and a numerical algorithm which account for false negatives when calculating the probability of detecting hotspots that are circular in shape.

  6. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    PubMed Central

    Marchak, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

  7. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  8. A selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry study of ammonia in mouth- and nose-exhaled breath and in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Wang, Tianshu; Pysanenko, Andriy; Spanel, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    A study has been carried out, involving three healthy volunteers, of the ammonia levels in breath exhaled via the mouth and via the nose and in the static oral cavity using on-line, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), obviating the problems associated with sample collection of ammonia. The unequivocal conclusion drawn is that the ammonia appearing in the mouth-exhaled breath of the three volunteers is largely generated in the oral cavity and that the ammonia originating at the alveolar interface in the lungs is typically at levels less than about 100 parts-per-billion, which is a small fraction of the total breath ammonia. This leads to the recommendation that exhaled breath analyses should focus on nose-exhaled breath if the objective is to use breath analysis to investigate systemic, metabolic disease.

  9. [A sigh increases motivation for difficult and monotonous tasks: The effect of one-time voluntary brief exhalation on relief and achievement needs].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kana; Yamamoto, Yumi; Sugamura, Genji

    2016-06-01

    We tested possible intrapersonal effects of a sigh as a psychological "resetter/rebooter." Fifty-eight undergraduates were randomly assigned to a sigh or a normal exhalation (control) group. We asked participants on each task to model the experimenter demonstrating how to exhale air into a small plastic bag for breathing manipulation under the pretext that we were interested in the exhaled gas in stressful situations. Results revealed that the sigh group did not experience more relief (as shown by prolonged reaction time) after exposure to threat stimuli, but showed more persistence on a highly-difficult puzzle task (p = .03, d = .62) and more willingness to continue working on a monotonous task (p < .10, d = .48), than the normal exhalation group. A sigh may have an adaptive function to motivate further work; although it may not induce relief--suggesting that a "sigh of refresh" is a voluntary but a "sigh of relief" is an involuntary response. PMID:27476263

  10. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area. PMID:20542936

  11. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  12. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

  13. Exhaled breath profiling using broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy in healthy children and children with asthma and cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    van Mastrigt, E; Reyes-Reyes, A; Brand, K; Bhattacharya, N; Urbach, H P; Stubbs, A P; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2016-04-08

    Exhaled breath analysis is a potential non-invasive tool for diagnosing and monitoring airway diseases. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrochemical sensor arrays are the main techniques to detect volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath. We developed a broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy technique for VOC detection and identification. The objective of this study was to assess the repeatability of exhaled breath profiling with broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy and to explore the clinical applicability by comparing exhaled breath samples from healthy children with those from children with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF). Healthy children and children with stable asthma or stable CF, aged 6-18 years, were included. Two to four exhaled breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by quantum cascade laser spectroscopy to detect VOCs with an absorption profile in the wavenumber region between 832 and 1262.55 cm(-1). We included 35 healthy children, 39 children with asthma and 15 with CF. Exhaled breath VOC profiles showed poor repeatability (Spearman's rho  =  0.36 to 0.46) and agreement of the complete profiles. However, we were able to discriminate healthy children from children with stable asthma or stable CF and identified VOCs that were responsible for this discrimination. Broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy detected differences in VOC profiles in exhaled breath samples between healthy children and children with asthma or CF. The combination of a relatively easy and fast method and the possibility of molecule identification makes broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy attractive to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of volatiles in exhaled breath.

  14. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  15. Exhaled breath condensate appears to be an unsuitable specimen type for the detection of influenza viruses with nucleic acid-based methods.

    PubMed

    St George, Kirsten; Fuschino, Meghan E; Mokhiber, Katharine; Triner, Wayne; Spivack, Simon D

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate is an airway-derived specimen type that has shown significant promise in the diagnosis of asthma, cancer, and other disorders. The presence of human genomic DNA in this sample type has been proven, but there have been no reports on its utility for the detection of respiratory pathogens. The suitability of exhaled breath condensate for the detection of influenza virus was investigated, as an indication of its potential as a specimen type for respiratory pathogen discovery work. Matched exhaled condensates and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 18 adult volunteers. Eleven cases were positive for influenza A virus, and one was positive for influenza B virus. All swab samples tested positive in real-time amplification assays, but only one exhaled condensate, an influenza A positive sample with a very high viral load, tested positive in the real-time RT-PCR assay. Most of the positive nasopharyngeal swab samples inoculated for virus culture also tested positive, whereas influenza virus was not grown from any of the exhaled condensate specimens. It was concluded that influenza viruses are not readily detectable with culture or nucleic acid-based techniques in this sample type, and that exhaled breath condensate may not be suitable for respiratory pathogen investigations with molecular methods. PMID:19733195

  16. Uranus in True and False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two pictures of Uranus -- one in true color (left) and the other in false color -- were compiled from images returned Jan. 17, 1986, by the narrow-angle camera of Voyager 2. The spacecraft was 9.1 million kilometers (5.7 million miles) from the planet, several days from closest approach. The picture at left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The picture is a composite of images taken through blue, green and orange filters. The darker shadings at the upper right of the disk correspond to the day-night boundary on the planet. Beyond this boundary lies the hidden northern hemisphere of Uranus, which currently remains in total darkness as the planet rotates. The blue-green color results from the absorption of red light by methane gas in Uranus' deep, cold and remarkably clear atmosphere. The picture at right uses false color and extreme contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of Uranus. Images obtained through ultraviolet, violet and orange filters were respectively converted to the same blue, green and red colors used to produce the picture at left. The very slight contrasts visible in true color are greatly exaggerated here. In this false-color picture, Uranus reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter concentric bands. One possible explanation is that a brownish haze or smog, concentrated over the pole, is arranged into bands by zonal motions of the upper atmosphere. The bright orange and yellow strip at the lower edge of the planet's limb is an artifact of the image enhancement. In fact, the limb is dark and uniform in color around the planet. The Voyager project is manages for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  17. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Laser analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.

    2002-11-01

    Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) are applied to the diagnostics of gastroenterological diseases using respiratory tests and preparations enriched with the stable 13C isotope. This method of the analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air is based on the selective measurement of the resonance absorption at the vibrational — rotational structure of 12CO2 and 13CO2. The CO2 transmission spectra in the region of 4.35 μm were measured with a PbEuSe double-heterostructure TDL. The accuracy of carbon isotope ratio measurements in CO2 of exhaled air performed with the TDL was ~0.5%. The data of clinical tests of the developed laser-based analyser are presented.

  18. Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser-based integrated cavity output spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Matthew R; Bakhirkin, Yury; Wysocki, Gerard; Tittel, Frank K

    2007-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is an important biomarker in asthma and other respiratory disorders. The optical performance of a NOCO(2) sensor employing integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) with a quantum cascade laser operating at 5.22 microm capable of real-time NO and CO(2) measurements in a single breath cycle is reported. A NO noise-equivalent concentration of 0.4 ppb within a 1-sec integration time is achieved. The off-axis ICOS sensor performance is compared to a chemiluminescent NO analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) CO(2) absorption capnograph. Differences between the gas analyzers are assessed by the Bland-Altman method to estimate the expected variability between the gas sensors. The off-axis ICOS sensor measurements are in good agreement with the data acquired with the two commercial gas analyzers. This work demonstrates the performance characteristics and merits of mid-infrared spectroscopy for exhaled breath analysis.

  19. Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser-based integrated cavity output spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Matthew R; Bakhirkin, Yury; Wysocki, Gerard; Tittel, Frank K

    2007-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is an important biomarker in asthma and other respiratory disorders. The optical performance of a NOCO(2) sensor employing integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) with a quantum cascade laser operating at 5.22 microm capable of real-time NO and CO(2) measurements in a single breath cycle is reported. A NO noise-equivalent concentration of 0.4 ppb within a 1-sec integration time is achieved. The off-axis ICOS sensor performance is compared to a chemiluminescent NO analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) CO(2) absorption capnograph. Differences between the gas analyzers are assessed by the Bland-Altman method to estimate the expected variability between the gas sensors. The off-axis ICOS sensor measurements are in good agreement with the data acquired with the two commercial gas analyzers. This work demonstrates the performance characteristics and merits of mid-infrared spectroscopy for exhaled breath analysis. PMID:17614742

  20. On the calibration of a radon exhalation monitor based on the electrostatic collection method and accumulation chamber.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    The radon exhalation rate can be obtained quickly and easily from the evolution of radon concentration over time in the accumulation chamber. Radon monitoring based on the electrostatic collection method is not interfered with by (220)Rn. In this paper, we propose that the difference between radon and (218)Po concentrations in the measurement cell of this kind of radon exhalation monitor is the main system error, and it changes with time and different effective decay constants. Based on the results of simulation experiments, we propose that the calibration factor obtained from the suitable experiment cannot completely correct the system error, even if it is useful to reduce the measurement error. The better way for reducing measurement error is to use the new measurement model which we have proposed in recent years.