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Sample records for 2011-10-01 false firefighting

  1. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  2. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  3. Firefighter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    The responsibilities of a firefighter extend far beyond simply responding to fire emergencies. At many departments, responding to medical calls or car accidents is the most frequent activity, and a routine shift might also entail dealing with hazardous materials, gas leaks, structural collapses, floods, ice storms, wild animals, or the myriad…

  4. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting...

  9. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section 21.23 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  15. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 237.102-70 Prohibition on contracting for... on a Government-owned but privately operated installation; (3) The contract (or renewal of a...

  16. Firefighters' Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

  17. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  18. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  19. 47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Privacy Act Regulations § 0.560 Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who...

  20. 43 CFR 20.510 - Fraud or false statements in a Government matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. 20.510 Section 20.510 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.510 Fraud or false statements in a...

  1. INL@Work Firefighter

    ScienceCinema

    Baron, Wendy

    2016-07-12

    Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

  2. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  3. 47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures...

  4. 49 CFR 1570.13 - False statements regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY GENERAL RULES § 1570.13 False statements... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False statements regarding security...

  5. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are working jointly to develop a helicopter transportable firefighting module that can shave precious minutes in combating shipboard or harbor fires. The program was undertaken in 1975, after a series of disastrous fires on oil tankers indicated a need for a lightweight, self-contained system that could be moved quickly to the scene of a fire. A prototype module was delivered to the Coast Guard last year and service testing is under way. The compact module weighs little more than a ton but it contains everything needed to fight a fire. The key component is a high output pump, which delivers up to 2,000 gallons of sea water a minute; the pump can be brought up to maximum output in only one minute after turning on the power source, a small Allison gas turbine engine. The module also contains hose, a foam nozzle and a spray nozzle, three sets of protective clothing for firefighters, and fuel for three hours operation. Designed to be assembled without special tools, the module can be set up for operation in less than 20 minutes.

  6. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  7. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  8. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... firefighting and emergency medical response personnel. (3) Type of rescue and firefighting equipment to be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. 139.315 Section 139.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting... capacity for each 1,000 tons of coal processed (average) per shift. (b) Fire extinguishers....

  10. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting... capacity for each 1,000 tons of coal processed (average) per shift. (b) Fire extinguishers....

  11. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting... capacity for each 1,000 tons of coal processed (average) per shift. (b) Fire extinguishers....

  12. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting... capacity for each 1,000 tons of coal processed (average) per shift. (b) Fire extinguishers....

  13. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  14. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  15. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  16. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  17. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60 Section 196.15-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...

  18. Improved Gloves for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J.

    1983-01-01

    New firefighter's gloves are more flexible and comfortable than previous designs. Since some firefighters prefer gloves made of composite materials while others prefer dip-coated gloves, both types were developed. New gloves also find uses in foundries, steelmills, and other plants where they are substituted for asbestos gloves.

  19. Improved Clothing for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Application of space technology should reduce incidence of injuries, heat exhaustion, and fatigue in firefighters. Using advanced materials and design concepts of aerospace technology, protective gear was fabricated and tested for the heat, face, torso, hand and foot. In tests, it was found that new gear protects better than conventional firefighter gear, weighs 40 percent less, and reduces wearer's energy expenditure by 25 percent.

  20. Advanced Transceivers for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blood, B. D.; Gandhi, O. P.; Radke, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents concept of improved portable radio transceiver for firefighters. Based in part on study of propagation of radio waves in such environments as high-rise buildings, ships, and tunnels. Study takes into account possible health hazard posed by personal tranceivers and needs and wishes expressed by firefighters in interviews. Conceptual radio attaches to clothing to allow hands-free use; voice-actuated with microphone worn at throat. Speaker placed near wearer's shoulder. Flexible antenna placed either horizontally across shoulders, vertically at one shoulder, or on transceiver itself.

  1. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  2. 46 CFR 169.569 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire axes. 169.569 Section 169.569 Shipping COAST GUARD... Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.569 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel must carry at least the number of fire axes set forth in Table 169.569(a). The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection may...

  3. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall meet the applicable requirements in part 193 of this subchapter. Other fire-fighting systems will...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154.1140... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas carrier must have a dry chemical firefighting system that meets §§ 154.1145 through 154.1170, Part 56...

  5. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  6. 46 CFR 169.559 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be fitted with a pressure gage on the discharge side of the pump. (d) Each vessel must have a hand... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps. 169.559 Section 169.559 Shipping COAST GUARD... Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.559 Fire pumps. (a) Each sailing school vessel must...

  7. Firefighting module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

  8. Firefighters: fitness for duty.

    PubMed

    Gerkin, D

    1995-01-01

    One of the functions of the fire department physician is to give candidates and firefighters clearance to work based on medical and physical performance criteria. In this chapter the author discusses the practical application of the medical standards of NFPA 1582 and physical standards as measured by agility tests and the proposed NFPA 1583, presenting guidelines for hiring, return to work, and administration of periodic exams.

  9. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405...

  10. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405...

  11. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  13. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  14. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface..., evacuation, and rescue procedures for the surface portions of their operations. These procedures shall...

  16. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions.

  17. Sizing Firefighters: Method and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Routley, J. Gordon; Wilbur, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article reports new anthropometric information of U.S. firefighters for fire apparatus design applications (Study 1) and presents a data method to assist in firefighter anthropometric data usage for research-to-practice propositions (Study 2). Background Up-to-date anthropometric information of the U.S. firefighter population is needed for updating ergonomic and safety specifications for fire apparatus. Method A stratified sampling plan of three-age by three-race/ethnicity combinations was used to collect anthropometric data of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. regions; 71 anthropometric dimensions were measured (Study 1). Differences among original, weighted, and normality transformed data from Study 1 were compared to allowable observer errors (Study 2). Results On average, male firefighters were 9.8 kg heavier and female firefighters were 29 mm taller than their counterparts in the general U.S. population. They also have larger upper-body builds than those of the general U.S. population. The data in weighted, unweighted, and normality transformed modes were compatible among each other with a few exceptions. Conclusion The data obtained in this study provide the first available U.S. national firefighter anthropometric information for fire apparatus designs. The data represent the demographic characteristics of the current firefighter population and, except for a few dimensions, can be directly employed into fire apparatus design applications without major weighting or nonnormality concerns. Application The up-to-date firefighter anthropometric data and data method will benefit the design of future fire apparatus and protective equipment, such as seats, body restraints, cabs, gloves, and bunker gear. PMID:25141595

  18. Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

  19. 46 CFR 11.303 - Advanced firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Procedures for coordination with shore-based firefighters. (2) Inspect and service fire-detection and... and command. (ii) Communication and coordination during firefighting operations. (iii) Ventilation... hazards (dry distillation, chemical reactions, boiler uptake). (vi) Fire precautions and...

  20. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  1. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  2. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  3. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be— (a) In...

  4. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  5. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  6. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  7. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  8. Colour vision requirements of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

    1996-04-01

    To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended.

  9. Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

  10. Firefighting acutely increases airway responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Sherman, C B; Barnhart, S; Miller, M F; Segal, M R; Aitken, M; Schoene, R; Daniell, W; Rosenstock, L

    1989-07-01

    The acute effects of the products of combustion and pyrolysis on airway responsiveness among firefighters are poorly documented. To study this relationship, spirometry and methacholine challenge testing (MCT) were performed on 18 active Seattle firefighters before and 5 to 24 h after firefighting. Body plethysmography was used to measure changes in specific airway conductance (SGaw), and results of MCT were analyzed using PD35-SGaw, the cumulative dose causing a 35% decrease in SGaw. Subjects who did not react by the end of the protocol were assigned a value of 640 inhalational units, the largest cumulative dose. Fire exposure was defined as the total time (hours) spent without a self-contained breathing apparatus at the firesite and was categorized as mild (less than 1 h, n = 7), moderate (1 to 2 h, n = 5), or severe (greater than 2 h, n = 6). Mean age of the 18 firefighters was 36.7 +/- 6.7 yr (range, 25 to 51), with a mean of 9.1 +/- 7.9 active years in the trade (range, zero to 22). None was known to be asthmatic. After firefighting, FEV1 % predicted (%pred) and FEF25-75 %pred significantly decreased by means of 3.4 +/- 1.1% and 5.6 +/- 2.6%, respectively. The mean decline in PD35-SGaw after firefighting was 184.5 +/- 53.2 units (p = 0.003). This observed decline in PD35-SGaw could not be explained by decrements in prechallenge SGaw, FEV1, or FVC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Model Training Guide. Firefighter I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.; Gallagher, Leigh S.

    This firefighter training guide for a 180-hour course was developed to assist training officers in planning training with emphasis on conformance to recommended National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 1001) standards. The material in the guide is referenced to current editions of the International Fire Service Training Association manuals and…

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-5 - Steam fire pumps or their equivalent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. 167.45-5 Section... NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-5 Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. (a) All nautical school ships shall be equipped with fire pumps. (b) Nautical...

  13. 46 CFR 108.499 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire axes. 108.499 Section 108.499 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Miscellaneous Firefighting Equipment § 108.499 Fire axes. Each unit must have at least...

  14. 46 CFR 167.45-80 - Fire axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire axes. 167.45-80 Section 167.45-80 Shipping COAST... Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-80 Fire axes. (a) All nautical school ships shall be provided with fire axes, as follows: Number of axes Gross tons of nautical school ships: All not over...

  15. 46 CFR 169.539 - Type required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type required. 169.539 Section 169.539 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.539 Type required. All personal...

  16. 46 CFR 34.15-25 - Discharge outlets-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets-T/ALL. 34.15-25 Section 34.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-25 Discharge outlets—T/ALL. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of an...

  17. 46 CFR 169.517 - Rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boat. 169.517 Section 169.517 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.517 Rescue boat. All vessels certificated for exposed or partially protected waters service must have a suitable motor rescue boat,...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  19. 46 CFR 154.1110 - Areas protected by system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Areas protected by system. 154.1110 Section 154.1110... Firefighting § 154.1110 Areas protected by system. Each water spray system must protect: (a) All cargo tank... valves essential to cargo flow; (f) Each boundary facing the cargo area of each superstructure...

  20. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section 154.1170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must:...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section 154.1155... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not exceed the length of the hand hose line except the coverage for...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-15 - Capacity of pipes and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capacity of pipes and hose. 167.45-15 Section 167.45-15... SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-15 Capacity of pipes and hose. The capacity of the pipes and hose leading from the pumps shall in no case be less than that of the...

  4. 46 CFR 34.20-25 - Foam monitor capacity-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foam monitor capacity-T/ALL. 34.20-25 Section 34.20-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-25 Foam monitor capacity—T/ALL. The capacity of each foam monitor on ships that have...

  5. 46 CFR 34.10-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.10-1 Section 34.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) On all tankships the provisions of this subpart, with...

  6. 46 CFR 34.50-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.50-1 Section 34.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with the...

  7. 46 CFR 34.50-15 - Spare charges-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spare charges-TB/ALL. 34.50-15 Section 34.50-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-15 Spare charges—TB/ALL. (a) Spare charges shall be carried on all...

  8. 46 CFR 34.30-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.30-1 Section 34.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems, Details § 34.30-1 Application—TB/ALL. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with NFPA 13-1996....

  9. 46 CFR 34.01-1 - Applicability-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability-TB/ALL. 34.01-1 Section 34.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT General § 34.01-1 Applicability—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this part shall apply to all tank vessels except as otherwise...

  10. 46 CFR 34.50-90 - Vessels contracted for prior to January 1, 1962-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels contracted for prior to January 1, 1962-TB/ALL. 34.50-90 Section 34.50-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-90 Vessels contracted for prior...

  11. 46 CFR 34.13-1 - Application-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-T/ALL. 34.13-1 Section 34.13-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Steam Smothering Systems § 34.13-1 Application—T/ALL. Steam smothering fire extinguishing systems are not permitted...

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10... SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose shall be of brass, copper, or composition material. All hydrants shall be...

  13. High-Capacity, Portable Firefighting Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes an evaluation of firefighting module that delivers water at 5,000 gal/min (320 L/s). Is compact, self-contained, portable water pump. Besides firefighting, module used for flood control, pumping water into large vessels, and pump water from sinking ships.

  14. Firefighter Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite there being a significant amount of research investigating workplace learning, research exploring firefighter workplace learning is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore how firefighters conceptualize, report, and practice workplace learning. The researcher also investigated how firefighters…

  15. Learning amongst Norwegian Fire-Fighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Morten; Nja, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach…

  16. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  17. For Firefighters, Another Danger: the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... cardiovascular system that firefighters face, said Dr. Stefanos Kales, an associate professor at Harvard Medical School. The ... closer attention to this group's unique needs, added Kales, who wrote an editorial about the study. Both ...

  18. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. 291.530 Section 291.530 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  19. Determining Best Practices to Reduce Occupational Health Risks in Firefighters.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Suzanne L; Phillips, Jonathan S; Twilbeck, Travis J

    2015-07-01

    The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters.

  20. Flame-retardant contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - A potential health risk for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2016-09-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in firefighters that may be related to their occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Exposure may result from contaminated personal protective gear, as well as from direct exposure at fire scenes. This study characterized flame-retardant contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used and unused firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hoods and a coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270D Specific Ion Method (SIM) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Until recently PBDEs were some of the most common flame-retardant chemicals used in the US. Fifteen of the seventeen PBDEs for which analysis was performed were found on at least one clothing swatch. Every clothing sample, including an unused hood and all three layers of an unused glove, held a detectable concentration of at least one PBDE. These findings, along with previous research, suggest that firefighters are exposed to PBDE flame retardants at levels much higher than the general public. PBDEs are found widely dispersed in the environment and still persist in existing domestic materials such as clothing and furnishings. Firefighter exposure to flame retardants therefore merits further study.

  1. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  2. Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

  3. Evaluation of circuit-training intensity for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Abel, Mark G; Mortara, Anthony J; Pettitt, Robert W

    2011-10-01

    Firefighters are required to perform a variety of strenuous occupational tasks that require high levels of both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Thus, it is critical that firefighters train at an appropriate intensity to develop adequate levels of aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Circuit training is a unique training method that stresses both energy systems and therefore may be a viable training method to enhance firefighter preparedness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic intensities of a circuit-based workout to physiological data previously reported on firefighters performing fire suppression and rescue tasks. Twenty career firefighters performed a workout that included 2 rotations of 12 exercises that stressed all major muscle groups. Heart rate was recorded at the completion of each exercise. Blood lactate was measured before and approximately 5 minutes after the workout. The workout heart rate and post-workout blood lactate responses were statistically compared to data reported on firefighters performing fire suppression and rescue tasks. The mean circuit-training heart rate was similar to previously reported heart rate responses from firefighters performing simulated smoke-diving tasks (79 ± 5 vs. 79 ± 6% maximum heart rate [HRmax], p = 0.741), but lower than previously reported heart rate responses from firefighters performing fire suppression tasks (79 ± 5 vs. 88 ± 6% HRmax, p < 0.001). The workout produced a similar peak blood lactate compared to that when performing firefighting tasks (12 ± 3 vs. 13 ± 3 mmol·L(-1), p = 0.084). In general, the circuit-based workout produced a lower cardiovascular stress but a similar anaerobic stress as compared to performing firefighting tasks. Therefore, firefighters should supplement low-intensity circuit-training programs with high-intensity cardiovascular and resistance training (e.g., ≥85% 1-repetition maximum) exercises to adequately prepare for the variable physical

  4. Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard Murray

    2007-01-01

    Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

  5. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media.

  6. Fire Simulation and Cardiovascular Health in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Amanda L.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Langrish, Jeremy P.; Raftis, Jennifer B.; Lucking, Andrew J.; Brittan, Mairi; Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Stables, Catherine L.; Stelzle, Dominik; Marshall, James; Graveling, Richard; Flapan, Andrew D.; Newby, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rates of myocardial infarction in firefighters are increased during fire suppression duties, and are likely to reflect a combination of factors including extreme physical exertion and heat exposure. We assessed the effects of simulated fire suppression on measures of cardiovascular health in healthy firefighters. Methods: In an open-label randomized crossover study, 19 healthy firefighters (age, 41±7 years; 16 males) performed a standardized training exercise in a fire simulation facility or light duties for 20 minutes. After each exposure, ex vivo thrombus formation, fibrinolysis, platelet activation, and forearm blood flow in response to intra-arterial infusions of endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilators were measured. Results: After fire simulation training, core temperature increased (1.0±0.1°C) and weight reduced (0.46±0.14 kg, P<0.001 for both). In comparison with control, exposure to fire simulation increased thrombus formation under low-shear (73±14%) and high-shear (66±14%) conditions (P<0.001 for both) and increased platelet-monocyte binding (7±10%, P=0.03). There was a dose-dependent increase in forearm blood flow with all vasodilators (P<0.001), which was attenuated by fire simulation in response to acetylcholine (P=0.01) and sodium nitroprusside (P=0.004). This was associated with a rise in fibrinolytic capacity, asymptomatic myocardial ischemia, and an increase in plasma cardiac troponin I concentrations (1.4 [0.8–2.5] versus 3.0 [1.7–6.4] ng/L, P=0.010). Conclusions: Exposure to extreme heat and physical exertion during fire suppression activates platelets, increases thrombus formation, impairs vascular function, and promotes myocardial ischemia and injury in healthy firefighters. Our findings provide pathogenic mechanisms to explain the association between fire suppression activity and acute myocardial infarction in firefighters. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier

  7. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  8. 75 FR 23785 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal... describe the application process for grants and the criteria for awarding grants in the 2010 Assistance to Firefighters Grant program year, as well as an explanation for any differences from the guidelines...

  9. 77 FR 39717 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...-2012-0022] Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 37687 notifying the public of the application process for grants and the criteria for awarding grants in the fiscal year 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant...

  10. Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Firefighter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This competency-based education curriculum, developed by firefighters and educators in West Virginia, is designed for use as a resource for the development of improved firefighter training programs. It consists of an introductory note to the instructor and 140 competency sheets. These sheets deal with tasks in the following areas: general…

  11. KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with a railroad tanker car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Kennedy Space Center railroad tanker car loaded with 20,000 gallons of water and retrofitted with a special attachment for directly filling fire trucks was transported to the scene of a fire in north Brevard County to assist with firefighting efforts.

  12. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  13. Firefighter safety: rampant unsafe practices as documented in mainstream media.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Woods, Jason; Sipes, Jan C; Toscano, Nicole; Bell, Derek E

    2014-01-01

    More than 30,000 firefighters are injured on the fireground each year. Literature suggests that injury often occurs when protective gear is not used properly. According to firefighters, failure to correctly wear protective equipment occurs for several reasons: (1) gear not used because of haste, (2) cumbersome gear can sometimes interfere with performance, and (3) cultural factors. The purpose of this study is to quantify improper gear and tactic use in a publicly available, online video repository in order to better understand unsafe firefighting. This was an Institutional Review Board-exempt study of public video records. A search for "fire fighting videos" was conducted at YouTube (www.youtube.com). The first 50 videos that contained volunteer or career firefighters at work fighting fires were selected evaluated for appropriate use of personal protective equipment and for safe behavior. The videos were evaluated by two highly experienced professional firefighters. Of the 50 videos reviewed, 25 (50%) demonstrated violations of firefighting safety principles. Of the unsafe videos, 21 (42%) displayed firefighters improperly using gear, while the other 4 (8%) were related to unsound tactics. The most common problem was failure to wear or properly secure a self-contained breathing apparatus when appropriate (14 videos or 28%). The second most common failure was lack of helmet, hood, or approved gloves (11 videos or 22%). In conclusion, firefighting as documented on YouTube is often unsafe because of failure to properly use personal protective equipment. Half of the videos reviewed contained unsafe practices. With such a shockingly high rate of unsafe firefighting, the profession is in need of additional education and reform. In response to this epidemic, a multidisciplinary educational program has been developed to improve firefighter awareness of gear limitations and burn injury risk. Effectiveness of educational programs should be documented in additional

  14. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-01-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  15. Polymer Fabric Protects Firefighters, Military, and Civilians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In 1967, NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. In 2005, the PBI fiber and polymer business was sold to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form. PBI is now used in numerous firefighting, military, motor sports, and other applications.

  16. Acute effects of firefighting on arterial stiffness and blood flow.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Christopher A; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant; Rossow, Lindy M; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Echols, George; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Rowland, Thomas; Lane, Abbi; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-04-01

    Sudden cardiac events are responsible for 40-50% of line-of-duty firefighter fatalities, yet the exact cause of these events is unknown. Likely, combinations of thermal, physical, and mental factors impair cardiovascular function and trigger such events. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of firefighting activities on vascular function. Sixty-nine young (28 ± 1 years) male firefighters underwent 3 hours of firefighting activities. Carotid, aortic, and brachial blood pressures (BP), heart rate (HR), augmentation index (AIx), wave reflection timing (TR), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), forearm blood flow (FBF), and forearm reactive hyperemia (RH) were measured before and after firefighting activities. Paired samples t-tests revealed significant (p < 0.05) increases in aortic diastolic BP, HR, AIx, PWV, RH, and FBF, and significant decreases in brachial and aortic pulse pressure and TR following firefighting activities. In conclusion, these results suggest that 3 hours of firefighting activities increase both arterial stiffness and vasodilation.

  17. Firefighter safety and photovoltaic installations research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backstrom, Robert; Dini, Dave

    2012-10-01

    Under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Assistance to Fire Fighters grant, UL LLC examined fire service concerns of photovoltaic (PV) systems. These concerns included firefighter vulnerability to electrical and casualty hazards when mitigating a fire involving photovoltaic (PV) modules systems. Findings include: 1. The electric shock hazard due to application of water is dependent on voltage, water conductivity, distance and spray pattern of the suppression stream. 2. Outdoor weather exposure rated electrical enclosures are not resistant to water penetration by fire hose streams. 3. Firefighter's gloves and boots afford limited protection against electrical shock provided the insulating surface is intact and dry. 4. "Turning off" an array is not a simple matter of opening a disconnect switch. 5. Tarps offer varying degrees of effectiveness. 6. Fire equipment scene lighting and exposure fires may illuminate PV systems sufficiently to cause a lock-on hazard. 7. Severely damaged PV arrays are capable of producing hazardous conditions. 8. Damage to modules from tools may result in both electrical and fire hazards. 9. Severing of conductors in both metal and plastic conduit results in electrical and fire hazards. 10. Responding personnel must stay away from the roofline in the event of modules or sections of an array sliding off the roof. 11. Fires under an array but above the roof may breach roofing materials and decking allowing fire to propagate into the attic space. Several tactical considerations were developed utilizing the data from the experiments.

  18. Firefighter Hand Anthropometry and Structural Glove Sizing: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Hildreth, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the current use and fit of structural firefighting gloves and developed an improved sizing scheme that better accommodates the U.S. firefighter population. Background Among surveys, 24% to 30% of men and 31% to 62% of women reported experiencing problems with the fit or bulkiness of their structural firefighting gloves. Method An age-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the United States participated in the study. Fourteen hand dimensions relevant to glove design were measured. A cluster analysis of the hand dimensions was performed to explore options for an improved sizing scheme. Results The current national standard structural firefighting glove-sizing scheme underrepresents firefighter hand size range and shape variation. In addition, mismatch between existing sizing specifications and hand characteristics, such as hand dimensions, user selection of glove size, and the existing glove sizing specifications, is significant. An improved glove-sizing plan based on clusters of overall hand size and hand/finger breadth-to-length contrast has been developed. Conclusion This study presents the most up-to-date firefighter hand anthropometry and a new perspective on glove accommodation. The new seven-size system contains narrower variations (standard deviations) for almost all dimensions for each glove size than the current sizing practices. Application The proposed science-based sizing plan for structural firefighting gloves provides a step-forward perspective (i.e., including two women hand model–based sizes and two wide-palm sizes for men) for glove manufacturers to advance firefighter hand protection. PMID:26169309

  19. Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study.

  20. Firefighters' exposure biomonitoring: Impact of firefighting activities on levels of urinary monohydroxyl metabolites.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Alves, Maria José; Fernandes, Adília; Teixeira, João Paulo; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-11-01

    The concentrations of six urinary monohydroxyl metabolites (OH-PAHs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 1-hydroxyacenaphthene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHPy), and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, were assessed in the post-shift urine of wildland firefighters involved in fire combat activities at six Portuguese fire corporations, and compared with those of non-exposed subjects. Overall, median levels of urinary individual and total OH-PAHs (ΣOH-PAHs) suggest an increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during firefighting activities with ΣOH-PAH levels in exposed firefighters 1.7-35 times higher than in non-exposed ones. Urinary 1-hydroxynaphthalene and/or 1-hydroxyacenapthene were the predominant compounds, representing 63-98% of ΣOH-PAHs, followed by 2-hydroxyfluorene (1-17%), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-13%), and 1OHPy (0.3-10%). A similar profile was observed when gender discrimination was considered. Participation in fire combat activities promoted an increase of the distribution percentage of 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxyacenaphthene, while contributions of 1-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1OHPy decreased. The detected urinary 1OHPy concentrations (1.73×10(-2) to 0.152μmol/mol creatinine in exposed subjects versus 1.21×10(-2) to 5.44×10(-2)μmol/mol creatinine in non-exposed individuals) were lower than the benchmark level (0.5μmol/mol creatinine) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. This compound, considered the biomarker of exposure to PAHs, was the less abundant one from the six analyzed biomarkers. Thus the inclusion of other metabolites, in addition to 1OHPy, in future studies is suggested to better estimate firefighters' occupational exposure to PAHs. Moreover, strong to moderate Spearman correlations were observed between individual compounds and ΣOH-PAHs corroborating the prevalence of an emission source.

  1. DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE OF BOAT UNDER THE WATERLINE. ZINCS ARE ALSO ADDED HERE TO PRESERVE THE METAL. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  2. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of...

  3. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of...

  4. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of...

  5. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of...

  6. The effect of fatigue and training status on firefighter performance.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Katie J; Mullineaux, David R; Yates, James W; Abel, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    Firefighting is a strenuous occupation that requires optimal levels of physical fitness. The National Fire Protection Association suggests that firefighters should be allowed to exercise on duty to maintain adequate fitness levels. However, no research has addressed the effect of exercise-induced fatigue on subsequent fire ground performance. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect that a single exercise session had on the performance of a simulated fire ground test (SFGT). Secondarily, this study sought to compare the effect of physical training status (i.e., trained vs. untrained firefighters) on the performance of an SFGT. Twelve trained (age: 31.8 ± 6.9 years; body mass index [BMI]: 27.7 ± 3.3 kg·m(-2); VO2peak: 45.6 ± 3.3 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 37 untrained (age: 31.0 ± 9.0 years; BMI: 31.3 ± 5.2 kg·m(-2); VO2peak: 40.2 ± 5.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) male career firefighters performed a baseline SFGT. The trained firefighters performed a second SFGT after an exercise session. Time to complete the SFGT, heart rate, and blood lactate were compared between baseline and exercise SFGT (EX-SFGT) conditions. In the trained firefighters, time to complete the SFGT (9.6% increase; p = 0.002) and heart rate (4.1% increase; p = 0.032) were greater during the EX-SFGT compared with baseline, with no difference in post-SFGT blood lactate (p = 0.841). The EX-SFGT time of the trained firefighters was faster than approximately 70% of the untrained firefighters' baseline SFGT time. In addition, the baseline SFGT time of the trained firefighters was faster than 81% of the untrained firefighters. This study demonstrated that on-duty exercise training reduced the work efficiency in firefighters. However, adaptations obtained through regular on-duty exercise training may limit decrements in work efficiency because of acute exercise fatigue and allow for superior work efficiency compared with not participating in a training program.

  7. Cardiovascular disease in US firefighters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Smith, Denise L; Tsismenakis, Antonios J; Baur, Dorothee M; Kales, Stefanos N

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of on-duty death among firefighters (45% of on-duty fatalities) and a major cause of morbidity. CVD in the fire service also has adverse public safety implications as well as significant cost impacts on government agencies. Over the last decade, our understanding of CVD among firefighters has significantly improved and provides insight into potential preventive strategies. The physiology of cardiovascular arousal and other changes that occur in association with acute firefighting activities have been well-characterized. However, despite the strenuous nature of emergency duty, firefighters' prevalence of low fitness, obesity, and other CVD risk factors are high. Unique statistical approaches have documented that on-duty CVD events do not occur at random in the fire service. They are more frequent at certain times of day, certain periods of the year, and are overwhelmingly more frequent during strenuous duties compared with nonemergency situations. Moreover, as expected on-duty CVD events occur almost exclusively among susceptible firefighters with underlying CVD. These findings suggest that preventive measures with proven benefits be applied aggressively to firefighters. Furthermore, all fire departments should have entry-level medical evaluations, institute periodic medical and fitness evaluations, and require rigorous return to work evaluations after any significant illness. Finally, on the basis of the overwhelming evidence supporting markedly higher relative risks of on-duty death and disability among firefighters with established coronary heart disease, most firefighters with clinically significant coronary heart disease should be restricted from participating in strenuous emergency duties.

  8. Economic benefit of the PHLAME wellness programme on firefighter injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Work-related injuries and illness are prevalent and costly. Firefighting is especially hazardous and many firefighters sustain work-related injuries. Workplace health promotion programmes have shown positive return on investment (ROI). Little is known about how similar programmes would impact injury and cost among firefighters. Aims To evaluate the impact of a workplace health promotion intervention on workers’ compensation (WC) claims and medical costs among Oregon fire departments participating in the PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models’ Effects) health promotion programme compared with Oregon fire departments not participating in PHLAME. Methods Data from firefighters from four large urban fire departments in Oregon were evaluated using a retrospective quasi-experimental study design. Outcomes were (i) total annual firefighter WC claims, (ii) total annual incurred medical costs prior to and after implementation of the PHLAME firefighter worksite health promotion programme (iii) and an ROI analysis. Results Data were obtained from 1369 firefighters (mean age of 42 years, 91% white, 93% male). WC claims (P < 0.001) and medical costs (P < 0.01) were significantly lower among PHLAME fire departments compared with Oregon fire departments not participating in the programme. Fire departments participating in the PHLAME TEAM programme demonstrated a positive ROI of 4.61–1.00 (TEAM is used to indicate the 12-session peer-led health promotion programme). Conclusions Fire department WC claims and medical costs were reduced after implementation of the PHLAME workplace health promotion programme. This is a low cost, team-based, peer-led, wellness programme that may provide a feasible, cost-effective means to reduce firefighter injury and illness rates. PMID:23416849

  9. Risk of Cancer Among Firefighters in California, 1988–2007

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Rebecca J.; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Schumacher, Pam; Cress, Rosemary D.; Deapen, Dennis M.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most studies of firefighter cancer risks were conducted prior to 1990 and do not reflect risk from advances in building materials. Methods A case–control study using California Cancer Registry data (1988–2007) was conducted to evaluate the risk of cancer among firefighters, stratified by race. Results This study identified 3,996 male firefighters with cancer. Firefighters were found to have a significantly elevated risk for melanoma (odds ratio [OR]=1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.1), multiple myeloma (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–1.8), acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.4; 95%CI 1.0–2.0), and cancers of the esophagus (OR 1.6;95%CI 1.2–2.1), prostate (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.3–1.7), brain (OR 1.5; 95%CI 1.2–2.0), and kidney (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.0–1.6). Conclusions In addition to observing cancer findings consistent with previous research, this study generated novel findings for firefighters with race/ethnicity other than white. It provides additional evidence to support the association between firefighting and several specific cancers. PMID:25943908

  10. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  11. Differences in psychiatric symptoms and barriers to mental health care between volunteer and career firefighters.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ian H; Boffa, Joseph W; Hom, Melanie A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about differences in psychiatric symptoms between volunteer and career firefighters. This study aimed to (1) describe differences in psychiatric symptoms and barriers to mental health care between U.S. firefighters in volunteer-only and career-only departments; and (2) determine if greater self-reported structural barriers to mental health care (e.g., cost, availability of resources) explain the differences in psychiatric symptom levels. Overall, 525 current U.S. firefighters participated. Analyses of covariance and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate group differences between volunteer (n=204) and career (n=321) firefighters, adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics. Volunteer firefighters reported significantly elevated levels of depression, posttraumatic stress, and suicidal symptoms compared to career firefighters. Career firefighters reported relatively elevated levels of problematic alcohol use. Volunteer firefighters additionally reported greater structural barriers to mental health care (e.g., cost, availability of resources), and these barriers accounted for the differences in mental health variables between volunteer and career firefighters. Findings suggest that volunteer firefighters report elevated psychiatric symptoms compared to career firefighters and greater structural barriers to mental health treatment may explain this link. Increased efforts are needed to develop firefighter-specific interventions and bolster mental health service utilization.

  12. Validation of a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Anthony T; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K; Cowen, Tiffany L; Huq, Mona B Sayedul; Delisle, Alexis D; Stopka, Christine B; Tillman, Mark D

    2014-10-01

    Currently, a submaximal protocol is used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters by estimating their true aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max); however, this submaximal test has not been cross-validated among firefighters. Thirty firefighters (85% male, 15% female), completed the submaximal protocol and the maximal (Bruce) treadmill protocol on separate occasions. Pearson's correlation analyses between the submaximal and Bruce protocol revealed a significant moderate positive correlation (r = 0.635, p = 0.005). The range of mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values and SDs produced from the submaximal and maximal protocols varied greatly (35.4-50.9 vs. 28.6-58.4 ml·kg·min, and SD of 3.91 vs. 7.22, respectively). The submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test underestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the majority of firefighters (72.4%) and overestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the remainder of firefighters. Participants with a higher body fat percentage were more likely (p = 0.0157) to have an overestimated true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max than those with a lower-body fat percentage. Our results indicate the current submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters is an improvement over previous protocols. However, our findings also show that the accuracy of this submaximal test for predicting the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in firefighters is questionable, and may not identify firefighters who possess substandard cardiorespiratory fitness, particularly in those with a higher percentage of body fat. Thus, the results of this study indicate that improvements to the current Fire Service Joint Management, Wellness & Fitness Initiative (WFI) V[Combining Dot Above]O2 assessment is still needed to accurately reflect the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of individual firefighters.

  13. Firefighters' Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work.

    PubMed

    Chappel, Stephanie E; Aisbett, Brad; Vincent, Grace E; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2016-09-30

    Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters' physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters' activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED) and in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant) were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h) or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively). No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period) did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period). Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time.

  14. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... firefighting services to list in response plans. 155.4030 Section 155.4030 Navigation and Navigable Waters... firefighting services to list in response plans. (a) You must identify, in the geographical-specific appendices of your VRP, the salvage and marine firefighting services listed in Table 155.4030(b)—Salvage...

  15. Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights

    SciTech Connect

    Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

    2006-03-09

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

  16. Firefighter Down! How to Rapidly Remove Turnout Gear.

    PubMed

    ALexander, John G

    2016-04-01

    The rescue of an injured colleague--and probably a good friend--is an emotionally charged event. A common initial response could be to remove everything as quickly as possible. Keep in mind that we have accepted practices for the removal of motorcycle equipment and football gear. There are also procedures for removing a patient from a vehicle or swimming pool. These all exist to protect a patient from further injury. We now have established practices for removing a firefighter from a window, or down a ladder. Why then do the procedures stop? Once a firefighter is rescued from a hot zone, he deserves the same level of consideration a football player, motorcycle rider or any other patient receives. We should not be in such a hurry that we don't care how we remove a protective ensemble. The injured firefighter deserves a system, or a procedure, that may be practiced by others and reduce the chance of further injury during

  17. Stress hormones and vascular function in firefighters during concurrent challenges.

    PubMed

    Webb, Heather E; Garten, Ryan S; McMinn, David R; Beckman, Jamie L; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of concurrent physical and mental challenge on stress hormones and indicators of vascular function in firefighters. Twelve professional firefighters exercised at 60% VO(2max) while participating in a computerized Fire Strategies and Tactics Drill (FSTD-fire strategies condition [FSC]), and again at the same intensity without the mental challenge (EAC). No differences in the amount of work performed between conditions existed, although the FSC resulted in greater perceptions of overall workload. Epinephrine and norepinephrine demonstrated significant interaction effects with elevated levels during the FSC. Cortisol responses were significantly elevated across time and for the FSC. Positive correlations were found between cortisol and interleukin-6, endothelin-1, and thromboxane-B(2), and a negative correlation between interleukin-6 and thromboxane-B(2). These results suggest that concurrent challenges results in exacerbated responses of stress hormones and suggests mechanisms that could contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular events among firefighters.

  18. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  19. Preventing fire-related occupational deaths: residential sprinklers save civilians, property, and firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Keshia M; Frattaroli, Shannon; Somers, Scott

    2015-02-01

    Residential fires are an important public health problem, with proven strategies to prevent death and injury. Residential sprinkler systems are one such strategy. While the benefits of this technology tend to center on civilian lives and property, there are also benefits for firefighters. The purpose of this article is to describe these benefits and discuss residential sprinkler systems as a strategy to reduce the risk of firefighter injury and death. Because of the benefits for firefighter safety, firefighters' knowledge about fire prevention, and their authority on this topic, firefighters are an essential stakeholder for raising awareness among the public and policymakers about the existence of and benefits associated with residential sprinkler systems.

  20. Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A leading contributing factor to firefighter injury and death is lack of fitness. Therefore, the Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) was established that includes a focus on providing fitness assessments to all fire service personnel. The current fitness assessment includes a submaximal exercise test protocol and associated prediction equation to predict individual VO2peak as a measure of fitness. There is limited information on the accuracy, precision, and sources of error of this prediction equation. This study replicated previous research by validating the accuracy of the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for a group of firefighters and further examining potential sources of error for an individual firefighters’ assessment. Methods The sample consisted of 22 firefighters who completed a maximal exercise test protocol similar to the WFI submaximal protocol, but the test was terminated when firefighters reached a maximal level of exertion (i.e., measured VO2peak). We then calculated the predicted VO2peak based on the WFI prediction equation along with individual firefighters’ body mass index (BMI) and 85% of maximum heart rate. The data were analyzed using paired samples t-tests in SPSS v. 21.0. Results The difference between predicted and measured VO2peak was -0.77 ± 8.35 mL•kg-1•min-1. However, there was a weak, statistically non-significant association between measured VO2peak and predicted VO2peak (R2 = 0.09, F(1,21) = 2.05, p = 0.17). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.215, p > 0.05) and Pearson (r = 0.31, p = 0.17) and Spearman (ρ = 0.28, p = 0.21) correlation coefficients were small. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 8.5 mL•kg-1•min-1. Further, both age and baseline fitness level were associated with increased inaccuracy of the prediction equation. Conclusions We provide data on the inaccuracy and sources of error for the WFI VO2peak

  1. Effect of heat on firefighters' work performance and physiology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rodney; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-10-01

    Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking) in firefighting clothing for six hours, separated by dedicated rest breaks. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area). Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate were recorded continuously throughout the protocol. Urine output was measured before and during the protocol, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. Ad libitum fluid intake was also recorded. There were no differences in overall work output between conditions for any physical task. Heart rate was higher in the HOT (55±2% HRmax) compared to the CON condition (51±2% HRmax) for the rest periods between bouts, and for the static hose hold task (69±3% HRmax versus 65±3% HRmax). Tc and Tsk were 0.3±0.1°C and 3.1±0.2°C higher in the HOT compared to the CON trial. Both pre- and within- shift fluid intake were increased two-fold in the heat, and participants in the heat recorded lower USG results than their CON counterparts. There was no difference between the CON and HOT conditions in terms of their work performance, and firefighters in both experimental groups increased their work output over the course of the simulated shift. Though significantly hotter, participants in the heat also managed to avoid excessive cardiovascular and thermal strain, likely aided by the frequent rest breaks in the protocol, and through doubling their fluid intake. Therefore

  2. Challenges and successes in recruiting firefighters for hearing loss prevention research.

    PubMed

    Hong, OiSaeng; Fiola, Lauren Ann; Feld, Jamie

    2013-06-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant occupational health problem in the United States, affecting more than 1 million firefighters. Noise hazards include vehicles, sirens, and power tools. Additionally, firefighters are commonly exposed to ototoxic chemicals. Because the use of hearing protection is not universally required for firefighters, firefighters must be educated about NIHL to ensure they take personal responsibility for hearing loss prevention. This study discusses challenges associated with recruiting firefighters to participate in a randomized, controlled trial testing a web-based hearing protection training program. Successful recruitment strategies included collaboration with key stakeholders, a flexible and convenient computer-based intervention, expansion to multiple recruitment sites, and interactive outreach to potential participants. Future research should use quantitative methods to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of specific recruitment strategies to facilitate firefighter enrollment in research studies. Developing and testing effective hearing protection interventions for firefighters is a crucial first step toward preventing NIHL in this population.

  3. 78 FR 65678 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ..., using the online application submission form and process available at https://portal.fema.gov . Before... Firefighters Grants will be accepted electronically at https://portal.fema.gov , from November 4, 2013... application submission form and process available at the AFG e-Grant application portal:...

  4. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or off a vessel, or transfer a product with a flashpoint of less than 300 °F to or from a portable tank unless— (a) Water pressure is maintained on the... a dry chemical type are— (1) Located to protect the deck area 10 feet in any horizontal...

  5. Tobacco Use Pattern Among a National Firefighter Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Poston, Walker SC; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Day, Rena S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To date, there have been no large-scale, national epidemiological studies of tobacco use patterns among firefighters, particularly with a focus on smokeless tobacco (SLT) and dual use with cigarettes. While rates of firefighters’ smoking are relatively low compared to the general population, SLT use typically is substantially higher than the populations they protect. In the current study, we systemically examine tobacco use, including SLT and dual use, and the health-related profiles of various tobacco use groups in a national sample of career firefighters. Methods: Data are from a national cohort study of career departments (N = 20) comprised of 947 male firefighters. Results: Among 947 participants, 197 (21%) were tobacco users, of which, 34.5% used cigarettes, 53.2% used SLT, and 12.2% used both cigarettes and SLT. Adjusted rates of smoking, SLT use, and dual use were 13.2%, 10.5%, and 12.2%, respectively. Tobacco users of all types were significantly younger and had served fewer years in fire service and were significantly more likely to engage in heavy and binge drinking, as well as more likely to show signs of depressive symptoms compared to nontobacco users. Conclusions: Detailed information on tobacco use pattern will aid in better understanding what factors are contributing to the high rates of SLT and dual use among firefighters in order to guide and develop an appropriate treatment program for the fire service. PMID:25145378

  6. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  7. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-37 Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on or off a vessel, or transfer a product with a flashpoint of less than 300 °F to or from a portable tank unless— (a) Water pressure is maintained on...

  8. Pilot task-based assessment of noise levels among firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, RL; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational noise exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based noise exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential noise exposure sources, and to use collected task-based noise levels to create noise exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of noise-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for noise of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. METHODS Task-based noise exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These levels were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr noise exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. RESULTS Task-based noise levels were found to range from 82–109 dBA, with the highest levels resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate potential for overexposure to noise from a variety of firefighting tasks and

  9. Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and related factors in Korean firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae-Won; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Byun, Junsu; Lee, Jong-In; Kim, Kun-Hyung; Kim, Youngki; Song, Han-Soo; Lee, Chul-Gab; Kwon, Young-Jun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jeong, Kyoungsook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The job of firefighting can cause lumbar burden and low back pain. This study aimed to identify the association between age and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and whether the association differs between field and administrative (non-field) firefighters. Methods Subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method. Firefighters were stratified by geographic area, gender, age and type of job. First, 25 fire stations were randomly sampled considering regional distribution. Then firefighters were stratified by gender, age and their job and randomly selected among the strata. A questionnaire survey and MRI scans were performed, and then four radiologists used Pfirrmann classification methods to determine the grade of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Results Pfirrmann grade increased with lumbar intervertebral disc level. Analysis of covariance showed that age was significantly associated with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (p<0.05). The value of β (parameter estimate) was positive at all lumbar intervertebral disc levels and was higher in the field group than in the administrative group at each level. In logistic regression analysis, type of job was statistically significant only with regard to the L4–5 intervertebral disc (OR 3.498, 95% CI 1.241 to 9.860). Conclusions Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration is associated with age, and field work such as firefighting, emergency and rescue may accelerate degeneration in the L4–5 intervertebral disc. The effects of field work on lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration were not clear in discs other than at the level L4–5. PMID:27354080

  10. "It Happened in Seconds" Firefighter Burn Prevention Program: Evaluation of a "Train the Trainer" Course.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Held, Jenny M; Hollowed, Kathleen A; Woods, Jason; Holmes, James H

    2016-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 100 firefighter fatalities and tens of thousands of injuries in the United States. 'It Happened in Seconds' is a firefighter burn injury awareness program offered to firefighters nationwide. The course focuses on situational awareness, personal protective equipment, and burn injury prevention. In order to create more instructors, a 'Train the Trainer' instructor course was developed to prepare experienced firefighters and healthcare providers from around the United States to teach firefighters in their respective communities. This study evaluates trainees' perception of the instructor course. Three instructor courses were held in a period between November 2013 and January 2015. Trainees were asked to complete both precourse/postcourse assessments and provide demographics. In both surveys, trainees rated their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention and their awareness about firefighter-specific burn issues using a 5-point Likert Scale (1 = none and 5 = high). The postassessment asked if trainees thought the course should be mandatory for all firefighters. Pretest and post-test scores were compared using a Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. A total of 140 experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals completed the Train the Trainer course. The average age was 40 ± 9 years, and 41 were women and 99 men. The average trainee had 13.6 ± 9 years experience in his or her respective job and 11 ± 9 years experience in burn care. Trainees reported a significant increase in their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention (2.9/5 precourse vs. 4.5/5 postcourse, P < .0001) and in their current awareness of firefighter-specific burn issues (3.2 precourse vs. 4.4 postcourse, P < .0001). In the postcourse assessment, 139 of 140 respondents agreed that the 'It Happened in Seconds' course should be mandatory for all firefighters. This study showed that experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals

  11. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  12. Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = −0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = −0.82) and bench press (rs = −0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.83) and bench press (rs = −0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = −0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = −0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  13. Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.

    PubMed

    Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that

  14. Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam

  15. Selected hormonal and immunological responses to strenuous live-fire firefighting drills.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J; Chludzinski, M A; Reed, J J; Woods, J A

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of strenuous live-fire firefighting drills and a 90 min recovery period on selected hormonal, immunological and psychological variables. Apparently healthy, male, professional firefighters (n = 11) performed three trials of standardized firefighting tasks in a live-fire training structure. There was significant leukocytosis immediately post firefighting activity that persisted following recovery, although there was a variable response among the leukocyte subsets. Most notable was the decrease in number and percentage of lymphocytes following 90 min of recovery. Plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol were significantly elevated post firefighting activity and cortisol remained elevated following 90 min of recovery. Elevated cortisol immediately following activity was related to reduced feelings of energy. These data demonstrate the magnitude of the physiological and psychological disruption following strenuous firefighting activity and suggest that immune function may be altered following such activity. This is a finding that may have practical consequences for this group of first responders.

  16. Variability in performance on a work simulation test of physical fitness for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Liam; Rogers, Todd; Docherty, David; Petersen, Stewart

    2015-04-01

    The Canadian Forces Firefighter Physical Fitness Maintenance Evaluation (FF PFME) requires firefighters in full fire-protective ensemble, including self-contained breathing apparatus, to correctly complete 10 work-related tasks on a measured and calibrated course. Fitness for duty is inferred from completion time of the course. We hypothesized that completion time may be dependent on pacing strategy and day-to-day fluctuations in biological function. To examine variability in performance, 20 females and 31 males (mean ± SD; age, 27.6 ± 10.5 years; height, 176.7 ± 8.3 cm; mass, 77.3 ± 13.4 kg) were familiarized with the FF PFME and then completed the test on 6 separate days. Pre-test behaviours (e.g., sleep, diet) and test conditions (e.g., calibration, time of day) were consistent. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in completion time between tests 1 and 6 (18.7%) and between all sequential pairs (e.g., tests 1 and 2). There was also a small but significant increase in the fraction of total test time for task completion and a corresponding decrease in the time to transition between tasks. The performance improvements cannot be explained by differences in effort (heart rate and perceived exertion). Coefficient of variation for tests 1, 2, and 3 was 7% and for tests 4, 5, and 6 was 2.6%. The results indicate the importance of practice on performance and the potential for false-positive or false-negative decision errors if biological variability is not taken into account.

  17. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the...

  18. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 μg/m(3) to 2700 μg/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 μg/m(3) to 355 μg/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles.

  19. Doffing procedures for firefighters' contaminated turnout gear: Documentation for videotape

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report summarizes the doffing procedures and provides a copy of the videotape script, which includes a fire brigade returning to a mock decontamination area after dealing with a simulated fire. The report also provides background information explaining why the videotape was made, how the project was accomplished, and what the procedures are intended to accomplish. Overall, the video gives step-by-step instructions for the removal of contaminated turnout gear and indicates how firefighters and radiation protection personnel can work together cooperatively. These new doffing procedures were developed with the advice and participation of actual nuclear power plant firefighting personnel at the Seabrook Station of New Hampshire Yankee utility and may be adapted to enhance any existing in-plant procedures. The video includes comments from members of the fire brigade, an equipment review, and a discussion of the doffing area arrangement.

  20. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF FIREFIGHTING AND ACTIVE COOLING DURING REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Duncan, Michael D.; Hu, Chengcheng; Littau, Sally R.; Caseman, Delayne; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Davis-Gorman, Grace; McDonagh, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the cardiovascular and hemostatic effects of fire suppression and post-exposure active cooling. Methods Forty-four firefighters were evaluated prior to and after a 12 minute live-fire drill. Next, 50 firefighters undergoing the same drill were randomized to post-fire forearm immersion in 10°C water or standard rehabilitation. Results In the first study, heart rate and core body temperature increased and serum C-reactive protein decreased but there were no significant changes in fibrinogen, sE-selectin or sL-selectin. The second study demonstrated an increase in blood coagulability, leukocyte count, factors VIII and X, cortisol and glucose, and a decrease in plasminogen and sP-selectin. Active cooling reduced mean core temperature, heart rate and leukocyte count. Conclusions Live-fire exposure increased core temperature, heart rate, coagulability and leukocyte count; all except coagulability were reduced by active cooling. PMID:23090161

  1. Characteristics of Workplace Injuries among Nineteen Thousand Korean Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin Ha; Kim, Yeong Kwang; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2016-10-01

    To determine the actual firefighter injury statistics in Korea, we conducted a survey on the nature of on-duty injuries among all male firefighters in Korea. We distributed questionnaires to all Korean male firefighters via email, and data from the 19,119 workers that responded were used for data analysis. The job types were categorized into fire suppression, emergency medical service (EMS) and officers. As estimated of age standardized injury prevalence per one thousand workers, 354 fire extinguishing personnel, 533 EMS workers, and 228 officers experienced one or more injuries during the previous 12 months. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of injuries was 1.86 (1.61-2.15) for fire suppression and 2.93 (2.51-3.42) for EMS personnel compared to officers after adjusting for age, marital status, smoking habit and career period. Age standardized absence days from work due to injuries per one thousand workers were 1,120, 1,337, and 676 for fire suppression, EMS and officers, respectively. Car accident (24.5%) was the most common cause and wound (42.3%) was the most common type of injuries. Our nationwide representative study showed that fire suppression and EMS workers are at greater risk of on-duty injuries compared to officers. We observed different injury characteristics compared to those reported in other countries.

  2. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  3. Characteristics of Workplace Injuries among Nineteen Thousand Korean Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To determine the actual firefighter injury statistics in Korea, we conducted a survey on the nature of on-duty injuries among all male firefighters in Korea. We distributed questionnaires to all Korean male firefighters via email, and data from the 19,119 workers that responded were used for data analysis. The job types were categorized into fire suppression, emergency medical service (EMS) and officers. As estimated of age standardized injury prevalence per one thousand workers, 354 fire extinguishing personnel, 533 EMS workers, and 228 officers experienced one or more injuries during the previous 12 months. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of injuries was 1.86 (1.61–2.15) for fire suppression and 2.93 (2.51–3.42) for EMS personnel compared to officers after adjusting for age, marital status, smoking habit and career period. Age standardized absence days from work due to injuries per one thousand workers were 1,120, 1,337, and 676 for fire suppression, EMS and officers, respectively. Car accident (24.5%) was the most common cause and wound (42.3%) was the most common type of injuries. Our nationwide representative study showed that fire suppression and EMS workers are at greater risk of on-duty injuries compared to officers. We observed different injury characteristics compared to those reported in other countries. PMID:27550481

  4. Impact of a modern firefighting protective uniform on the incidence and severity of burn injuries in New York City firefighters.

    PubMed

    Prezant, D J; Kelly, K J; Malley, K S; Karwa, M L; McLaughlin, M T; Hirschorn, R; Brown, A

    1999-06-01

    The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest fire department in the United States, with over 11,000 firefighters. In 1994, FDNY changed to a modern firefighting protective uniform. The major difference between traditional and modern uniforms is that modern uniforms include both protective over-coat and over-pant, whereas traditional uniforms include only the over-coat. Furthermore, modern uniforms are manufactured using improved thermal protective textiles that meet or exceed current National Fire Protection Association standards for structural firefighting. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the modern uniform on the incidence and severity of FDNY burn injuries. We also evaluated the incidence and severity of other non-burn injuries to determine whether there was serious adverse impact. The number of lower-extremity burns decreased by 85% when 2 years' experience while wearing the modern uniform was compared with 2 years while wearing the traditional uniform. Upper-extremity burns and head burns decreased by 65% and 40%, respectively. Severity indicators (days lost to medical leave, hospital admissions, and skin grafts) for lower- and upper-extremity burn injuries were all substantially reduced. This occurred without significant change in the incidence or severity of trunk burns, heat exhaustion, inhalation injuries (actually decreased), or cardiac events. The reduction in the incidence and severity of burn injuries, the major occupational injury affecting this workforce, has been so dramatic and without untoward effects that the introduction of the modern uniform must be characterized as a sentinel event in the history of firefighter health and safety.

  5. Impact of a design modification in modern firefighting uniforms on burn prevention outcomes in New York City firefighters.

    PubMed

    Prezant, D J; Freeman, K; Kelly, K J; Malley, K S; Karwa, M L; McLaughlin, M T; Hirschhorn, R; Brown, A

    2000-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the impact of three different firefighting uniforms (traditional, modern, and modified modern) on the incidence and severity of thermal burn injuries, the major occupational injury affecting firefighters. Injury data were collected prospectively for the entire New York City Fire Department (FDNY) firefighting force wearing FDNY's traditional uniform (protective over-coat) from May 1, 1993 to August 31, 1993; FDNY's modern uniform (protective over-coat and over-pant) from May 1, 1995 to August 31, 1995; and FDNY's modified modern uniform (short sleeved shirt and short pants, rather than long-sleeved shirt and long pants, worn under firefighter's protective over-clothes) from May 1, 1998 to August 31, 1998. Outcome measures were burn incidence and severity. Adverse outcomes were heat exhaustion and cardiac events. During this 12-month study, 29,094 structural fires occurred. The incidence rate for upper extremity burns was 2341 per 100,000 fires and for lower extremity burns, 2076 per 100,000 fires. With the change from the traditional to modern uniform, the distribution of burns per fire decreased significantly (P = 0.001) for upper extremity burns (86%) and lower extremity burns (93%). With the change from traditional to modern uniform, days lost to medical leave for upper or lower extremity burns decreased by 89%. The majority of burns occurred at the lower arm and mid-leg, and the change to the modern uniform decreased such burns by 87% and 92%. Burn incidence and severity were not significantly affected by the change to the modified modern uniform. The distribution of heat exhaustion or cardiac events per fire was not significantly affected by the change from the traditional to modern uniform, and heat exhaustion was decreased (P < 0.001) by the change to the modified modern uniform. In conclusion, the modern uniform dramatically reduced burn incidence and severity without adverse impact. The modified modern uniform significantly reduced

  6. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section 155.4040 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and...

  7. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  8. Firefighter willingness to participate in a stem cell clinical trial for burns: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Horch, Jenny D; Carr, Eloise C J; Harasym, Patricia; Burnett, Lindsay; Biernaskie, Jeff; Gabriel, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Adult stem cells represent a potentially renewable and autologous source of cells to regenerate skin and improve wound healing. Firefighters are at risk of sustaining a burn and potentially benefiting from a split thickness skin graft (STSG). This mixed methods study examined firefighter willingness to participate in a future stem cell clinical trial, outcome priorities and factors associated with this decision.

  9. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403 of this part,...

  10. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  11. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  12. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  13. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes of the GNND Sales Program if the person is employed full-time as a firefighter or emergency medical technician by a fire department or emergency medical services responder unit of the federal government,...

  14. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes of the GNND Sales Program if the person is employed full-time as a firefighter or emergency medical technician by a fire department or emergency medical services responder unit of the federal government,...

  15. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes of the GNND Sales Program if the person is employed full-time as a firefighter or emergency medical technician by a fire department or emergency medical services responder unit of the federal government,...

  16. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes of the GNND Sales Program if the person is employed full-time as a firefighter or emergency medical technician by a fire department or emergency medical services responder unit of the federal government,...

  17. Effect of fire smoke on some biochemical parameters in firefighters of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Rezq, Ameen M; Al-Saedy, Mohamed H

    2008-01-01

    Background Firefighters who are facing fires, are frequently exposed to hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, benzene, sulphur dioxide, etc. This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes in activity involved firefighters in comparison to normal subjects. Subjects and Methods Two groups of male firefighters volunteered to participate in the study. The first included 28 firefighters from Jeddah, while the second included 21 firefighters from Yanbu, with overall age ranged 20–48 years. An additional group of 23 male non-firefighters volunteered from both cities as normal control subjects, of age range 20–43 years. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes. Results The results obtained showed that, there were statistically significant differences in liver function, kidney function, serum lipid profile, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, iron and its biologically active derivatives, and blood picture in firefighters as compared with the normal control group. These results indicate that, fire smoke mainly affects serum biochemical and blood hematological parameters. Such results might point out to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to avoid such hazardous health effects that might endanger firefighters under their highly drastic working conditions. Conclusion Besides using of personal protective equipments for firefighters to protect them against exposure to toxic materials of fire smoke, it is recommended that, firefighters must be under continuous medical follow up through a standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for early detection of any serum biochemical or blood hematological changes that might happen during their active service life and to allow for early treatment whenever necessary. PMID:19077241

  18. High Resolution 12-lead Electrocardiograms of On-Duty Professional Firefighters: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mary G.; Thevenin, Bernard J.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular deaths among on-duty firefighters are high; double that of police officers and quadruple that of first responders. The aim of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of obtaining high resolutions ECGs of on-duty firefighters useful for detecting ECG predictors for cardiac events. Methods Twenty-eight professional firefighters (age, 46 ± 6 years) wore a 12-lead ECG Holter for 24 hours (16 hours while on-duty and 8 hours post-duty). All activities including fire and medical calls were monitored. Results On average the recordings were 92% analyzable. All were in sinus with a heart rate of 80 ±11bpm (35–188 range). The average rr50 over the 24-hour Holter study was 6.2 ±6% (range: 1–23%) and rms-SD was 81 ± 55 (range: 24–209). Using the QRS/Tsimple formula, the average spatial QRS-T angle was 104 ±17 degrees (range 78–132 degrees). Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia occurred irrespectively of activity or time of day in three (11%) firefighters, which was significantly higher than in comparable normal populations (p<0.05). Conclusions This preliminary work demonstrates that it is feasible to obtain high resolution ECGs during firefighting activities and further points to the high prevalence of arrhythmias among firefighters. The strategy of continuous field monitoring of firefighters could provide new insight into the association between their specific professional lifestyle and high cardiac risks. PMID:21206348

  19. Risk assessment of soils identified on firefighter turnout gear.

    PubMed

    Easter, Elizabeth; Lander, Deborah; Huston, Tabitha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the composition of soils on firefighter turnout gear and to determine the dermal exposure risks associated with the soils. Nine used Nomex hoods from the Philadelphia fire department were analyzed for the presence of trace metals and seven sets of used turnout gear were analyzed for semi-volatile organics. Turnout gear samples were removed from areas of the gear known to have high levels of dermal absorption including the collar, armpit, wrist, and crotch areas, from either the outer shell or thermal liner layers. The following compounds were detected: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate plasticizers, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs). A screening risk assessment was conducted by converting the measured concentrations to an estimated dermally absorbed dose based on estimates for the permeation coefficient (Kp) and an assumed firefighting exposure scenario. Benzo(a) pyrene had the highest dermal exposure risk based on carcinogenic effects and PBDE-99 had the highest dermal exposure risk based on non-carcinogenic effects. For the metals, arsenic had the highest dermal exposure risk for the use hoods.

  20. Arterial Stiffness, Oxidative Stress, and Smoke Exposure in Wildland Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Denise M.; Siegel, Paul D.; Hughes, Michael D.; Chang, Chiung-Yu; Law, Brandon F.; Campbell, Corey R.; Richards, Jennifer C.; Kales, Stefanos F.; Chertok, Marcia; Kobzik, Lester; Nguyen, Phuongson; O’Donnell, Carl R.; Kiefer, Max; Wagner, Gregory R.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between exposure, oxidative stress, symptoms, and cardiorespiratory function in wildland firefighters. Methods We studied two Interagency Hotshot Crews with questionnaires, pulse wave analysis for arterial stiffness, spirometry, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the smoke exposure marker (urinary levoglucosan). Arterial stiffness was assessed by examining levels of the aortic augmentation index, expressed as a percentage. An oxidative stress score comprising the average of z-scores created for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane was calculated. Results Mean augmentation index % was higher for participants with higher oxidative stress scores after adjusting for smoking status. Specifically for every one unit increase in oxidative stress score the augmentation index % increased 10.5% (95% CI: 2.5, 18.5%). Higher mean lower respiratory symptom score was associated with lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity. Conclusions Biomarkers of oxidative stress may serve as indicators of arterial stiffness in wildland firefighters. PMID:24909863

  1. Relationships between strength and endurance parameters and air depletion rates in professional firefighters.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Stephanie; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Hahn, Daniel

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this study was to quantify the physical demands of a simulated firefighting circuit and to establish the relationship between job performance and endurance and strength fitness measurements. On four separate days 41 professional firefighters (39 ± 9 yr, 179.6 ± 2.3 cm, 84.4 ± 9.2 kg, BMI 26.1 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) performed treadmill testing, fitness testing (strength, balance and flexibility) and a simulated firefighting exercise. The firefighting exercise included ladder climbing (20 m), treadmill walking (200 m), pulling a wire rope hoist (15 times) and crawling an orientation section (50 m). Firefighting performance during the simulated exercise was evaluated by a simple time-strain-air depletion model (TSA) taking the sum of z-transformed parameters of time to finish the exercise, strain in terms of mean heart rate, and air depletion from the breathing apparatus. Multiple regression analysis based on the TSA-model served for the identification of the physiological determinants most relevant for professional firefighting. Three main factors with great influence on firefighting performance were identified (70.1% of total explained variance): VO2peak, the time firefighter exercised below their individual ventilatory threshold and mean breathing frequency. Based on the identified main factors influencing firefighting performance we recommend a periodic preventive health screening for incumbents to monitor peak VO2 and individual ventilatory threshold.

  2. Relationships between strength and endurance parameters and air depletion rates in professional firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Windisch, Stephanie; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Hahn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the physical demands of a simulated firefighting circuit and to establish the relationship between job performance and endurance and strength fitness measurements. On four separate days 41 professional firefighters (39 ± 9 yr, 179.6 ± 2.3 cm, 84.4 ± 9.2 kg, BMI 26.1 ± 2.8 kg/m2) performed treadmill testing, fitness testing (strength, balance and flexibility) and a simulated firefighting exercise. The firefighting exercise included ladder climbing (20 m), treadmill walking (200 m), pulling a wire rope hoist (15 times) and crawling an orientation section (50 m). Firefighting performance during the simulated exercise was evaluated by a simple time-strain-air depletion model (TSA) taking the sum of z-transformed parameters of time to finish the exercise, strain in terms of mean heart rate, and air depletion from the breathing apparatus. Multiple regression analysis based on the TSA-model served for the identification of the physiological determinants most relevant for professional firefighting. Three main factors with great influence on firefighting performance were identified (70.1% of total explained variance): VO2peak, the time firefighter exercised below their individual ventilatory threshold and mean breathing frequency. Based on the identified main factors influencing firefighting performance we recommend a periodic preventive health screening for incumbents to monitor peak VO2 and individual ventilatory threshold. PMID:28303944

  3. Resilience as a mediator in emotional social support's relationship with occupational psychology health in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Miguel; Botia, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    This study's objective is to examine the relationship between emotional demands and emotional social support at work, and the impact of resilience on health. A cross-sectional study of 156 firefighters was conducted. Descriptive analyses of the study's variables were performed, along with structural equation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The results suggest statistically significant relationships among the study's variables. Social support from one's boss and intense emotional demands were found to have an interaction effect on firefighters' resilience. The findings confirm the mediating role of resilience and the relationship with emotional social support from the boss on firefighters' occupational health.

  4. Monitoring of firefighters exposure to smoke during fire experiments in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana Isabel; Martins, Vera; Cascão, Pedro; Amorim, Jorge Humberto; Valente, Joana; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos; Tchepel, Oxana; Ferreira, António Jorge; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo; Viegas, Domingos Xavier; Ribeiro, Luís Mário; Pita, Luís Paulo

    2010-10-01

    Forest fires represent a serious threat to public security in Europe due to the large burned area. Moreover, smoke pollution due to forest fire events is an important public health issue for the communities directly affected, and particularly for the personnel involved in firefighting operations. Aiming to contribute to the scientific knowledge concerning firefighters exposure to forest fires smoke, data of individual exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were obtained during experimental field fires for a group of 10 firefighters equipped with portable "in continuum" measuring devices. Measured values are very high exceeding the Occupational Exposure Standard limits, in particular for peak limit thresholds. These are the first measurements and analysis of firefighter's individual exposure to toxic gases and particles in fire smoke experiments in Europe. However, they already indicate that urgent measures to avoid these levels of exposure are needed.

  5. Fire and Ice - Safety, Comfort, and Getting the Firefighters' Job Done

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Butzer, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Daily life for firefighters consists of working with life-threatening hazards in hostile environments. A major hazard is excessive ambient heat. New hazards have arisen from protective gear that was intended to increase survival time of firefighters while finding and rescuing victims. The insulation is so good now that a firefighter's metabolic heat buildup cannot escape. This forces body core temperatures to life threatening levels in about 20 minutes of moderate activity. Using NASA space suit technology, Oceaneering Space Systems developed a liquid cooling garment prototype that will remove up to 250 watts of metabolic heat. After testing and certification as an approved accessory for firefighter use, this garment will be available for use by any individual encapsulated in protective clothing. This demonstration will present a high surface area circulated liquid cooling garment displayed on a mannequin and available for attendees to try on to experience the effects of active cooling.

  6. Correlates of team effectiveness: An exploratory study of firefighter's operations during emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Jouanne, Elise; Charron, Camilo; Chauvin, Christine; Morel, Gaël

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines elements contributing to the effectiveness of firefighting teams carrying out typical tasks. Fourteen firefighter crews were filmed during nineteen real operations and answered questionnaires relating to psychosocial dimensions. Results have shown that "enriched closed-loops" of communication, positive emotional interactions and a "gamma" type of adaptation are positively related to team effectiveness. Conversely, open and incomplete loops of communication, negative emotional interactions, "beta" and "alpha" types of adaptation are negatively related to team effectiveness. Furthermore, there is a mediated link between organisational trust and motivation on the one hand and team effectiveness on the other. These findings highlight the necessity to consider both cognitive and psychosocial variables to account for team effectiveness in the firefighting profession. They also emphasize the need to expand firefighter training to the "non-technical" aspects of the competence.

  7. Analysis of Firetruck Crashes and Associated Firefighter Injuries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

  8. Posttraumatic Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth of Israeli Firefighters, at One Month following the Carmel Fire Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Leykin, Dmitry; Lahad, Mooli; Bonneh, Nira

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire disasters are potentially traumatic events which directly and indirectly affect both citizens and first responders. The study of posttraumatic growth is scarcely found in the context of firefighters and only few studies have addressed this construct. In the current study, posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic growth were investigated among Israeli firefighters (N = 65), approximately one month after the Carmel Fire Disaster. Eight firefighters (12.3%) were found to be above the cut-off score for probable PTSD, with intrusion symptoms as the most frequent finding compared to avoidance and hyper-arousal symptoms. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was evident to a small but considerable degree; noticeable changes were found regarding personal strength and appreciation of life. Results also revealed significant linear and quadratic relationships between PTSD and PTG. Results are discussed in light of past research on psychological responses among firefighters and first responders. PMID:24286064

  9. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  10. US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

  11. Climate change and wildland firefighter health and safety.

    PubMed

    Withen, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The author examines how climate change is impacting wildland firefighters. Climate change has made wildland fires more frequent and more intense. The increase in frequency and intensity of fires has pushed the number of fatalities and injuries higher in recent decades. The most common hazards on fires follow the trend of fire in general in that these hazards become more frequent and intense. Burnovers, heat exhaustion, tree hazards, and many other common fire hazards are more likely. The fire suppression agencies are making every effort to improve health and safety on fires by improving communication, weather forecasting, mapping, fire shelters, decision making and more. Despite these efforts, wildfires are becoming ever more hazardous because of climate change and the increasing frequency and intensity of wildfires.

  12. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  13. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  14. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  15. False Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    In a gray scale image, the suble variations seen in this false color image are almost impossible to identify. Note the orange band in the center of the frame, and the bluer bands to either side of it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 87, Longitude 65.5 East (294.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Life-saving uncooled IR camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Mel V.; Matthews, Iain

    1996-06-01

    A recent description by a firefighter on the experience of entering a building that is on fire was to liken it to being blindfolded, then being lead to a maze and told there is a victim at the center which you have to recover. In simple terms, firefighters are totally blind and what they need are 'eyes' that can see in the dark and through dense smoke. The development of lightweight thermal cameras using uncooled IR staring arrays and a helmet mounted display has now given the firefighter the 'eyes' in such situations which means less time to achieve a rescue and enhanced personal safety for the firefighter. This paper gives details on the development of the uncooled array camera and how it's been configured to withstand the extreme temperature conditions encountered during a firefighting environment. Also, how the camera and display system have been designed to provide the firefighter with a helmet mounted configuration to enable total 'hands free' operation. This is followed by a description of the special tests required to prove that the complete system can survive in a fire environment and finally a short video which demonstrates how the system performs in real life situations.

  17. Selected physiological and psychological responses to live-fire drills in different configurations of firefighting gear.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected physiological and psychological responses to strenuous live-fire drills in different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) performed three sets of firefighting drills in a training structure that contained live fires in two different configurations of firefighting gear. On separate days subjects wore: (a) the NFPA 1500 (1987) standard configuration, and (b) a hip-boot configuration of the firefighting gear. Physiological and psychological measurements were recorded pre-activity and at the end of each trial. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a strong trend for performance time to be greater in the 1500 gear than in the hip-boot gear. There was a significant Time x Gear interaction for tympanic membrane temperature, with temperature being greater in the 1500 gear. Perceptions of effort and thermal sensations were also greater in the 1500 gear than in the hip-boot configuration of the gear. There was little difference in mean performance on cognitive function measures between the two gear configurations, but there was greater variability in performance in the 1500 gear. These data suggest that performing strenuous firefighting drills in the current NFPA 1500 standard configuration results in longer performance time, greater thermal strain, and greater perception of effort and thermal sensation.

  18. Stress hormones and immunological responses to a dual challenge in professional firefighters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Garten, Ryan S; Kamimori, Gary H; Evans, Ronald K; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in heart rate (HR), catecholamines (norepinephrine [NE] and epinephrine [EPI]), pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and lymphocytes (CD8+ and CD56+) in firefighters exposed to a decision-making challenge (firefighting strategies and tactics drill) while participating in moderate intensity exercise. Nine professional male firefighters participated in two counterbalanced exercise conditions on a cycle ergometer: (1) 37 min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) (exercise alone condition ; EAC) and (2) 37 min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) along with 20 min of a computerized firefighting strategy and tactics decision-making challenge (firefighting strategy condition; FSC). FSC elicited significantly greater HR, NE, EPI, and IL-2 when compared to EAC. These elevations may suggest that the addition of a mental challenge to physical stress can alter the hormonal and immunological responses during firefighting. In addition, this evidence provides insight into the possible mechanisms that explain the link between physical activity, psychological stress, and stress-related diseases.

  19. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. North Polar False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image contains dunes, and small areas of 'blue' which may represent fresh (ie. not dust covered) frost or ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 85, Longitude 235.8 East (124.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Biomonitoring of chemical exposure among New York City firefighters responding to the World Trade Center fire and collapse.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Philip; Osterloh, John; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Sam P; Grainger, James; Jones, Robert; Blount, Ben; Calafat, Antonia; Turner, Wayman; Feldman, Debra; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Lushniak, Boris D; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David

    2003-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 exposed New York City firefighters to smoke and dust of unprecedented magnitude and duration. The chemicals and the concentrations produced from any fire are difficult to predict, but estimates of internal dose exposures can be assessed by the biological monitoring of blood and urine. We analyzed blood and urine specimens obtained from 321 firefighters responding to the WTC fires and collapse for 110 potentially fire-related chemicals. Controls consisted of 47 firefighters not present at the WTC. Sampling occurred 3 weeks after 11 September, while fires were still burning. When reference or background ranges were available, most chemical concentrations were found to be generally low and not outside these ranges. Compared with controls, the exposed firefighters showed significant differences in adjusted geometric means for six of the chemicals and significantly greater detection rates for an additional three. Arrival time was a significant predictor variable for four chemicals. Special Operations Command firefighters (n = 95), compared with other responding WTC firefighters (n = 226), had differences in concentrations or detection rate for 14 of the chemicals. Values for the Special Operations Command firefighters were also significantly different from the control group values for these same chemicals and for two additional chemicals. Generally, the chemical concentrations in the other firefighter group were not different from those of controls. Biomonitoring was used to characterize firefighter exposure at the WTC disaster. Although some of the chemicals analyzed showed statistically significant differences, these differences were generally small. PMID:14644665

  2. Biomonitoring of chemical exposure among New York City firefighters responding to the World Trade Center fire and collapse.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Philip; Osterloh, John; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Sam P; Grainger, James; Jones, Robert; Blount, Ben; Calafat, Antonia; Turner, Wayman; Feldman, Debra; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Lushniak, Boris D; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David

    2003-12-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 exposed New York City firefighters to smoke and dust of unprecedented magnitude and duration. The chemicals and the concentrations produced from any fire are difficult to predict, but estimates of internal dose exposures can be assessed by the biological monitoring of blood and urine. We analyzed blood and urine specimens obtained from 321 firefighters responding to the WTC fires and collapse for 110 potentially fire-related chemicals. Controls consisted of 47 firefighters not present at the WTC. Sampling occurred 3 weeks after 11 September, while fires were still burning. When reference or background ranges were available, most chemical concentrations were found to be generally low and not outside these ranges. Compared with controls, the exposed firefighters showed significant differences in adjusted geometric means for six of the chemicals and significantly greater detection rates for an additional three. Arrival time was a significant predictor variable for four chemicals. Special Operations Command firefighters (n = 95), compared with other responding WTC firefighters (n = 226), had differences in concentrations or detection rate for 14 of the chemicals. Values for the Special Operations Command firefighters were also significantly different from the control group values for these same chemicals and for two additional chemicals. Generally, the chemical concentrations in the other firefighter group were not different from those of controls. Biomonitoring was used to characterize firefighter exposure at the WTC disaster. Although some of the chemicals analyzed showed statistically significant differences, these differences were generally small.

  3. False Color Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft were used to produce this false-color composite of Jupiter's northern aurora on the night side of the planet. The height of the aurora, the thickness of the auroral arc, and the small-scale structure are revealed for the first time. Images in Galileo's red, green, and clear filters are displayed in red, green, and blue respectively. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size, which is a ten-fold improvement over Hubble Space Telescope images and a hundred-fold improvement over ground-based images.

    The glow is caused by electrically charged particles impinging on the atmosphere from above. The particles travel along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which are nearly vertical at this latitude. The auroral arc marks the boundary between the 'closed' field lines that are attached to the planet at both ends and the 'open' field lines that extend out into interplanetary space. At the boundary the particles have been accelerated over the greatest distances, and the glow is especially intense.

    The latitude-longitude lines refer to altitudes where the pressure is 1 bar. The image shows that the auroral emissions originate about 500 kilometers (about 310 miles) above this surface. The colored background is light scattered from Jupiter's bright crescent, which is out of view to the right. North is at the top. The images are centered at 57 degrees north and 184 degrees west and were taken on April 2, 1997 at a range of 1.7 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by Galileo's Solid State Imaging (SSI) system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http:// galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  4. Wood smoke exposure induces a pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Swiston, J R; Davidson, W; Attridge, S; Li, G T; Brauer, M; van Eeden, S F

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological studies report an association between exposure to biomass smoke and cardiopulmonary morbidity. The mechanisms for this association are unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterise the acute pulmonary and systemic inflammatory effects of exposure to forest fire smoke. Seasonal forest firefighters (n = 52) were recruited before and/or after a day of fire-fighting. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires and measurement of carbon monoxide levels (used to estimate respirable particulate matter exposure). The pulmonary response was assessed by questionnaires, spirometry and sputum induction. Peripheral blood cell counts and inflammatory cytokines were measured to define the systemic response. Estimated respirable particulate matter exposure was high (peak levels >2 mg x m(-3)) during fire-fighting activities. Respiratory symptoms were reported by 65% of the firefighters. The percentage sputum granulocytes increased significantly from 6.5 to 10.9% following fire-fighting shifts, with concurrent increases in circulating white blood cells (5.55x10(9) to 7.06x10(9) cells x L(-1)) and band cells (0.11x10(9) to 0.16x10(9) cells x L(-1)). Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels significantly increased following fire-fighting. There were no changes in band cells, IL-6, and IL-8 following strenuous physical exertion without fire-fighting. There was a significant association between changes in sputum macrophages containing phagocytosed particles and circulating band cells. In conclusion, acute exposure to air pollution from forest fire smoke elicits inflammation within the lungs, as well as a systemic inflammatory response.

  5. Firefighting and Emergency Response Study of Advanced Composites Aircraft. Objective 2: Firefighting Effectiveness of Technologies and Agents on Composite Aircraft Fires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-31

    composite fire, AFFF, MIL-F-24835F, UHP , firefighting gel, extinguishment U U U UU 33 Brent M. Pickett Reset i Distribution A: Approved for public...12 Figure 8. (a) Temperature and (b) Total Heat Flux for Representative AA and UHP Test Runs...13 Figure 9. Photograph Following UHP Extinguishment, Showing

  6. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Clare C.W.; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; McManus, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters in Hong Kong. Methods Male firefighters (n = 387) were randomly selected from serving firefighters in Hong Kong (n = 5,370) for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, known cardiovascular diseases). One-third (Target Group) were randomly selected for the assessment of off-duty leisure-time physical activity using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed, as well as cardiovascular workload using heart rate monitoring for each firefighter for four “normal” 24-hour working shifts and during real-situation simulated scenarios. Results Overall, 33.9% of the firefighters had at least two cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the Target Group, firefighters who had higher leisure-time physical activity had a lower resting heart rate and a lower average working heart rate, and spent a smaller proportion of time working at a moderate-intensity cardiovascular workload. Firefighters who had moderate aerobic fitness and high leisure-time physical activity had a lower peak working heart rate during the mountain rescue scenario compared with firefighters who had low leisure-time physical activities. Conclusion Leisure-time physical activity conferred significant benefits during job tasks of moderate cardiovascular workload in firefighters in Hong Kong. PMID:26929827

  7. Common Sleep Disorders Increase Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes and Adverse Health Outcomes in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Laura K.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.; Wang, Wei; O'Brien, Conor S.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Qadri, Salim; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Heart attacks and motor vehicle crashes are the leading causes of death in US firefighters. Given that sleep disorders are an independent risk factor for both of these, we examined the prevalence of common sleep disorders in a national sample of firefighters and their association with adverse health and safety outcomes. Methods: Firefighters (n = 6,933) from 66 US fire departments were assessed for common sleep disorders using validated screening tools, as available. Firefighters were also surveyed about health and safety, and documentation was collected for reported motor vehicle crashes. Results: A total of 37.2% of firefighters screened positive for any sleep disorder including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 28.4%; insomnia, 6.0%; shift work disorder, 9.1%; and restless legs syndrome, 3.4%. Compared with those who did not screen positive, firefighters who screened positive for a sleep disorder were more likely to report a motor vehicle crash (adjusted odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.29–3.12, p = 0.0021) and were more likely to self-report falling asleep while driving (2.41, 2.06–2.82, p < 0.0001). Firefighters who screened positive for a sleep disorder were more likely to report having cardiovascular disease (2.37, 1.54–3.66, p < 0.0001), diabetes (1.91, 1.31–2.81, p = 0.0009), depression (3.10, 2.49–3.85, p < 0.0001), and anxiety (3.81, 2.87–5.05, p < 0.0001), and to report poorer health status (p < 0.0001) than those who did not screen positive. Adverse health and safety associations persisted when OSA and non-OSA sleep disorders were examined separately. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are prevalent in firefighters and are associated with increased risk of adverse health and safety outcomes. Future research is needed to assess the efficacy of occupational sleep disorders prevention, screening, and treatment programs in fire departments to reduce these safety and health risks. Citation: Barger LK, Rajaratnam SM, Wang W, O'Brien CS

  8. Fatigue risk management by volunteer fire-fighters: Use of informal strategies to augment formal policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Drew; Mayger, Katherine; Thomas, Matthew J W; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number and intensity of catastrophic fire events in Australia has led to increasing demands on a mainly volunteer fire-fighting workforce. Despite the increasing likelihood of fatigue in the emergency services environment, there is not yet a systematic, unified approach to fatigue management in fire agencies across Australia. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify informal strategies used in volunteer fire-fighting and examine how these strategies are transmitted across the workforce. Thirty experienced Australian volunteer fire-fighters were interviewed in August 2010. The study identified informal fatigue-management behaviours at the individual, team and brigade level that have evolved in fire-fighting environments and are regularly implemented. However, their purpose was not explicitly recognized as such. This apparent paradox - that fatigue proofing behaviours exist but that they are not openly understood as such - may well resolve a potential conflict between a culture of indefatigability in the emergency services sector and the frequent need to operate safely while fatigued. However, formal controls require fire-fighters and their organisations to acknowledge and accept their vulnerability. This suggests two important areas in which to improve formal fatigue risk management in the emergency services sector: (1) identifying and formalising tacit or informal fatigue coping strategies as legitimate elements of the fatigue risk management system; and (2) developing culturally appropriate techniques for systematically communicating fatigue levels to self and others.

  9. Acute health effects among firefighters exposed to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, J.S.; Gutterman, E.M. ); Schwartz, S.; Link, B.; Gorman, S.M. )

    1989-05-01

    Firefighters are frequently being called on to fight fires that are chemical in nature. In the aftermath of a chemical fire in Plainfield, New Jersey on March 20-21, 1985, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study which surveyed 80 firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as well as 15 nonexposed firefighter subjects. By means of an 81-item symptom checklist, exposed firefighters reported more frequent and severe symptoms at 5-6 weeks post incident. This was true for a total symptomatology score as well as 19 individual items. Some of the items with an elevated risk were consistent with exposure to hydrogen chloride, the main pyrolysis product of polyvinyl chloride. Other items with an elevated risk appeared to be related to smoke inhalation while others seemed psychosocial in nature. Analyses conducted within the exposed firefighter group showed that fighting the fire the first day, being a truckman, and residence within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the firehouse were significant risk factors for high total symptom scores. These risk factors may have been associated with level or duration of exposure to the toxic substances produced during the fire.

  10. Exposures to environmental phenols in Southern California firefighters and findings of elevated urinary benzophenone-3 levels.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Jed M; Gavin, Qi; Anderson, Meredith; Hoover, Sara; Alvaran, Josephine; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Fenster, Laura; Wu, Nerissa T; Krowech, Gail; Plummer, Laurel; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; She, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for exposure to toxic chemicals compared to the general population, but few studies of this occupational group have included biomonitoring. We measured selected phenolic chemicals in urine collected from 101 Southern California firefighters. The analytes included bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and parabens, which are common ingredients in a range of consumer products. BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben were detected in almost all study subjects (94-100%). The BP-3 geometric mean for firefighters was approximately five times higher than for a comparable National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) subgroup. Demographic and exposure data were collected from medical records and via a questionnaire, and covariates were examined to assess associations with BP-3 levels. BP-3 levels were elevated across all firefighter age groups, with the highest levels observed in the 35 to 39year old group. Body fat percentage had a significant inverse association with BP-3 concentrations. Our results indicate pervasive exposure to BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben in this population of firefighters, consistent with studies of other populations. Further research is needed to investigate possible explanations for the higher observed BP-3 levels, such as occupational or California-specific exposures.

  11. Association between resiliency and posttraumatic growth in firefighters: the role of stress appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina; Kobylarczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the relation between resiliency and the level of positive changes, comprising posttraumatic growth in a group of firefighters experiencing job-related traumatic events and the mediating role of stress appraisal in this relation. The study was performed on a group of 100 firefighters from firefighting and rescue brigades, out of which 75 admitted to experiencing a traumatic event. Firefighters covered by the study were on average 31.51 years old (SD = 6.34). A Polish version of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Resiliency Assessment Scale and Stress Appraisal Questionnaire were used in the study. The results have shown that 22.7% of firefighters displayed low, 58.6% average and 18.7% high intensity of positive changes resulting from a traumatic event. Resiliency poorly correlates with posttraumatic growth expressed in changes in self-perception, and strongly correlates with stress appraisal, negatively correlates with threat and harm/loss and positively correlates with challenge. Appraisal of stress as a threat and challenge appeared to be mediators of the relationship between resiliency and posttraumatic growth. PMID:26651530

  12. Association between resiliency and posttraumatic growth in firefighters: the role of stress appraisal.

    PubMed

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina; Kobylarczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the relation between resiliency and the level of positive changes, comprising posttraumatic growth in a group of firefighters experiencing job-related traumatic events and the mediating role of stress appraisal in this relation. The study was performed on a group of 100 firefighters from firefighting and rescue brigades, out of which 75 admitted to experiencing a traumatic event. Firefighters covered by the study were on average 31.51 years old (SD = 6.34). A Polish version of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Resiliency Assessment Scale and Stress Appraisal Questionnaire were used in the study. The results have shown that 22.7% of firefighters displayed low, 58.6% average and 18.7% high intensity of positive changes resulting from a traumatic event. Resiliency poorly correlates with posttraumatic growth expressed in changes in self-perception, and strongly correlates with stress appraisal, negatively correlates with threat and harm/loss and positively correlates with challenge. Appraisal of stress as a threat and challenge appeared to be mediators of the relationship between resiliency and posttraumatic growth.

  13. Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Baur, Dorothee M; Christophi, Costas A; Cook, E Francis; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-01-01

    Firefighting is a very hazardous occupation, and strenuous fire duties require high levels of physical fitness. In the general adult population, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) declines with aging. We sought to investigate the effect of increasing age on CRF in male career firefighters as well as the modifying effects of physical activity and adiposity. We cross-sectionally examined 804 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states. CRF was determined from symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise testing in metabolic equivalents (METS) following the Bruce protocol. Physical activity self-reports were extracted from responses to a health and lifestyle questionnaire. We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (R(2) = 0.6286). The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights.

  14. Repeat work bouts increase thermal strain for Australian firefighters working in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Anthony; Argus, Christos; Driller, Matthew; Rattray, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Background: Firefighters regularly re-enter fire scenes during long duration emergency events with limited rest between work bouts. It is unclear whether this practice is impacting on the safety of firefighters. Objectives:To evaluate the effects of multiple work bouts on firefighter physiology, strength, and cognitive performance when working in the heat. Methods: Seventy-seven urban firefighters completed two 20-minute simulated search and rescue tasks in a heat chamber (105 ± 5°C), separated by a 10-minute passive recovery. Core and skin temperature, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), grip strength, and cognitive changes between simulations were evaluated. Results: Significant increases in core temperature and perceptual responses along with declines in strength were observed following the second simulation. No differences for other measures were observed. Conclusions: A significant increase in thermal strain was observed when firefighters re-entered a hot working environment. We recommend that longer recovery periods or active cooling methods be employed prior to re-entry. PMID:25849044

  15. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and...) Marine firefighting pre-fire plan. (1) You must prepare a vessel pre-fire plan in accordance with NFPA 1405, Guide for Land-Based Firefighters Who Respond to Marine Vessel Fires, Chapter 9 (Incorporation...

  16. The Impact of Heat Exposure and Sleep Restriction on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology during Simulated Wildfire Suppression.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Grace E; Aisbett, Brad; Larsen, Brianna; Ridgers, Nicola D; Snow, Rod; Ferguson, Sally A

    2017-02-12

    This study was designed to examine the effects of ambient heat on firefighters' physical task performance, and physiological and perceptual responses when sleep restricted during simulated wildfire conditions. Thirty firefighters were randomly allocated to the sleep restricted (n = 17, SR; 19 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) or hot and sleep restricted (n = 13, HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. Firefighters performed two days of simulated, intermittent, self-paced work circuits comprising six firefighting tasks. Heart rate, and core temperature were measured continuously. After each task, firefighters reported their rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation. Effort sensation was also reported after each work circuit. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume and urine specific gravity were analysed. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography. There were no differences between the SR and HOT + SR groups in firefighters' physiological responses, hydration status, ratings of perceived exertion, motivation, and four of the six firefighting tasks (charged hose advance, rake, hose rolling, static hose hold). Black out hose and lateral repositioning were adversely affected in the HOT + SR group. Working in hot conditions did not appear to consistently impair firefighters work performance, physiology, and perceptual responses. Future research should determine whether such findings remain true when individual tasks are performed over longer durations.

  17. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045...

  18. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045...

  19. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage...

  20. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045...

  1. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage...

  2. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage...

  3. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045...

  4. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage...

  5. 77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... developed respiratory protection for this occupational setting, firefighters battling wild fires often... Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures for Composite Multi-Gas and Particulate Protection and Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland...

  6. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

  7. Exposure to bushfire smoke during prescribed burns and wildfires: firefighters' exposure risks and options.

    PubMed

    Reisen, Fabienne; Hansen, Dane; Meyer, C P Mick

    2011-02-01

    Firefighters are exposed to known health-damaging air pollutants present in bushfire smoke and poorly managed exposure can result in serious health issues. A better understanding of exposure levels and the major factors influencing exposures is crucial for the development of mitigation strategies to minimise exposure risks and adverse health impacts. This study monitored air toxics within the breathing zone of firefighters at prescribed burns and at wildfires in Australia. The results showed that exposure levels were highly variable, with higher exposures (sometimes exceeding occupational exposure standards) associated with particular work tasks (such as patrol and suppression) and with certain burn conditions. The majority of firefighter's exposures were at low and moderate levels (~60%), however considerable attention should be given to the high (~30%) and very high (6%) exposure risk situations for which acute and chronic health risks are very likely and for which control strategies should be developed and implemented to minimise health risks.

  8. Are the job demands on physical work capacity equal for young and aging firefighters?

    PubMed

    Lusa, S; Louhevaara, V; Kinnunen, K

    1994-01-01

    The job demands on physical work capacity and the frequency of the firefighting and rescue tasks were rated by 156 professional firefighters (age range, 22 to 54 years) who responded to a questionnaire. Smoke-diving requiring the use of personal protective equipment was considered to demand most aerobic power. The clearing of debris with heavy manual tools, and roof work set the highest demands on muscular performance and motor coordination, respectively. During the past 5 years, 83 to 88% of the respondents had performed these tasks on average four times a year. The rating and frequency of the tasks were not significantly affected by age. The results suggest that the job demands on physical work capacity remain the same throughout the occupational career of the firefighters.

  9. Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

    2013-04-01

    Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

  10. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakié; Hostler, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status, and task performance was analyzed. There was an effect of equipment and training status on performance with the group reporting both aerobic and resistance training performing better than the group reporting no physical training. In conclusion, firefighters walk more slowly as a strategy to maintain balance when wearing TPC, which may be suboptimal given the emergent nature of fire suppression. This result was most prominent in the group reporting no physical training. PMID:23367817

  11. Positive consequences of false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory.

  12. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  13. Dietary Preferences and Nutritional Information Needs Among Career Firefighters in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Justin; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable cardiovascular disease and cancer risk among firefighters are attributable to excess adiposity. Robust evidence confirms strong relationships between dietary patterns and the risk of chronic disease. Dietary modification is more likely to be effective when the strategy is appealing and addresses knowledge gaps. Objective: To assess career firefighters' diet practices and information needs, compare the relative appeal of proposed diet plans, and examine how these vary in association with body composition. Methods: Cross-sectional, online survey distributed to members of the International Association of Fire Fighters. Results: Most firefighters do not currently follow any specific dietary plan (71%) and feel that they receive insufficient nutrition information (68%), but most are interested in learning more about healthy eating (75%). When presented with written descriptions of diets without names or labels and asked to rank them in order of preference, firefighters most often rated the Mediterranean diet as their favorite and gave it a more favorable distribution of relative rankings (P<.001) compared to the Paleo, Atkins, Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes, and Esselsteyn Engine 2 (low-fat, strictly plant-based) diets. Obese respondents reported more limited nutritional knowledge (P<.001) and were more likely to feel that they received insufficient nutritional information (P=.021) than participants with normal body weight. Conclusions: Most career firefighters are overweight or obese and do not practice a specific diet; however, 75% want to learn more about healthy eating. Among popular dietary choices, firefighters were most receptive to a Mediterranean diet and least receptive to a strictly plant-based diet. PMID:26331100

  14. Effect of Body Mass Index on Left Ventricular Mass in Career Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Korre, Maria; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G.; Farioli, Andrea; Yang, Justin; Christiani, David C.; Christophi, Costas A.; Lombardi, David A.; Kovacs, Richard J.; Mastouri, Ronald; Abbasi, Siddique; Steigner, Michael; Moffatt, Steven; Smith, Denise; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events; increased LV mass is common among US firefighters and plays a major role in firefighter sudden cardiac death. We aim to identify significant predictors of LV mass among firefighters. Cross-sectional study of 400 career male firefighters selected by an enriched randomization strategy. Weighted analyses were performed based on the total number of risk factors per subject with inverse probability weighting. LV mass was assessed by echocardiography (ECHO) and cardiac magnetic resonance, and normalized (indexed) for height. CVD risk parameters included vital signs at rest, body mass index (BMI)–defined obesity, obstructive sleep apnea risk, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and physical activity. Linear regression models were performed. In multivariate analyses, BMI was the only consistent significant independent predictor of LV mass indexes (all, p <0.001). A 1-unit decrease in BMI was associated with 1-unit (g/m1.7) reduction of LV mass/height1.7 after adjustment for age, obstructive sleep apnea risk, and cardiorespiratory fitness. In conclusion, after height-indexing ECHO-measured and cardiac magnetic resonance–measured LV mass, BMI was found to be a major driver of LV mass among firefighters. Our findings taken together with previous research suggest that reducing obesity will improve CVD risk profiles and decrease on-duty CVD and sudden cardiac death events in the fire service. Our results may also support targeted noninvasive screening for LV hypertrophy with ECHO among obese firefighters. PMID:27687051

  15. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Kales, Stefanos N; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Christoudias, Stavros G; Christiani, David C

    2003-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556); training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3) and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8) carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ≥ 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9), current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4), hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1), and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6). Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths. PMID:14613487

  16. Systemic exposure to PAHs and benzene in firefighters suppressing controlled structure fires.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P; Dalton, James

    2014-08-01

    Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre

  17. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, p<0.01), WC (r=0.858, p<0.01) and body fat percentage (r=0.757, <0.01). Body fat percentage also showed to have a high correlation with BMI (r=0.757, p<0.01) and WC (r=0.693, p<0.01). Furthermore, overweight and obesity were found to be more prevalent among firefighters personnel of older age, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of

  18. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  19. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  20. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  1. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

  2. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  3. Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public.

    PubMed

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Domitrovich, Joe; Broyles, George; Adetona, Anna M; Kleinman, Michael T; Ottmar, Roger D; Naeher, Luke P

    2016-01-01

    Each year, the general public and wildland firefighters in the US are exposed to smoke from wildland fires. As part of an effort to characterize health risks of breathing this smoke, a review of the literature was conducted using five major databases, including PubMed and MEDLINE Web of Knowledge, to identify smoke components that present the highest hazard potential, the mechanisms of toxicity, review epidemiological studies for health effects and identify the current gap in knowledge on the health impacts of wildland fire smoke exposure. Respiratory events measured in time series studies as incidences of disease-caused mortality, hospital admissions, emergency room visits and symptoms in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients are the health effects that are most commonly associated with community level exposure to wildland fire smoke. A few recent studies have also determined associations between acute wildland fire smoke exposure and cardiovascular health end-points. These cardiopulmonary effects were mostly observed in association with ambient air concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, research on the health effects of this mixture is currently limited. The health effects of acute exposures beyond susceptible populations and the effects of chronic exposures experienced by the wildland firefighter are largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of wildland firefighters during and/or after the firefighting career could help elucidate some of the unknown health impacts of cumulative exposure to wildland fire smoke, establish occupational exposure limits and help determine the types of exposure controls that may be applicable to the occupation.

  4. 78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative Agreements are available to State forestry agencies... requirements and rules for the cooperation. Each State forestry agency shall provide an Accountable Officer who..., FEPP and FFP collect the State forestry agency contact information, the information of the...

  5. The Integrated Personnel Development System: The Training and Development of Competent Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Peter; Starling, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article enquires into the nature of an emergent continuous professional development (CPD) mechanism for firefighters in the form of an Integrated Personnel Development System (IPDS), which proposes to base future training for every rank in the service on the acquisition and demonstration of competence for role. IPDS is due to be introduced…

  6. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) Operating on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS... Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) DEEPWATER HORIZON, in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, with loss of...

  7. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... salvage operations plan 18 24 (B) Subsurface product removal 72 84 (C) Heavy lift 1 Estimated Estimated (2... firefighting systems 4 12 18 1 Heavy lift services are not required to have definite hours for a response...

  8. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... salvage operations plan 18 24 (B) Subsurface product removal 72 84 (C) Heavy lift 1 Estimated Estimated (2... firefighting systems 4 12 18 1 Heavy lift services are not required to have definite hours for a response...

  9. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... salvage operations plan 18 24 (B) Subsurface product removal 72 84 (C) Heavy lift 1 Estimated Estimated (2... firefighting systems 4 12 18 1 Heavy lift services are not required to have definite hours for a response...

  10. Physiological monitoring in firefighter ensembles: wearable plethysmographic sensor vest versus standard equipment.

    PubMed

    Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond J; Williams, W Jon; Landsittel, Douglas P; Powell, Jeffrey B; Palmiero, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a wearable sensor vest for real-time monitoring of physiological responses to treadmill exercise. Ten subjects in standard firefighter ensembles, treadmill exercising at 50% VO(2) max, had heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperature (T(sk)), oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E)) recorded concurrently by a wearable plethysmographic sensor vest and standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment for comparison. A high degree of correlation was noted for most of the measured variables [HR (r = 0.99), RR (r = 0.98), T(sk) (r = 0.98), V(E) (r = 0.88), and SaO(2) (r = 0.79)]. V(T) (r = 0.60) had a moderate correlation, although a paired differences analysis showed a mean paired difference of -0.03 L. This mean paired difference represents a 1.92% variation for V(T). Data from the wearable sensor vest is comparable to data captured from standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment on subjects wearing standard firefighter ensembles while exercising at a moderate work rate. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the wearable sensor technology for these physiological parameters under these conditions and suggests that it could be useful for actual field studies of firefighters in traditional firefighting gear.

  11. STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  12. Race "Outsider Within" the Firehouse: African American and White Women Firefighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Janice D.; Berendsen, Lynne L.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed and interviewed black and white women firefighters regarding subordination through imposed exclusion, tokenism, and omnirelevance of race/ethnicity in their perceptions of work experience. Both groups experienced insufficient instruction, hostility, silence, hypersupervision, insufficient support, stereotyping, and intertwining of race…

  13. 77 FR 42417 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ..., Christoudias SG, Christiani DC, Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control... and life-threatening diseases like cancer. Guidotti TL, Evaluating causality for occupational cancers... promote prevention and early intervention and treatment for diseases that cannot be prevented. In...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation... paragraph (b) for each 2,500 square feet of floor space in a wooden or other flammable structure, or for each 5,000 square feet of floor space in a metal, concrete-block, or other type of...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation... paragraph (b) for each 2,500 square feet of floor space in a wooden or other flammable structure, or for each 5,000 square feet of floor space in a metal, concrete-block, or other type of...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation... paragraph (b) for each 2,500 square feet of floor space in a wooden or other flammable structure, or for each 5,000 square feet of floor space in a metal, concrete-block, or other type of...

  17. 75 FR 54026 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-3417] RIN 1625-AA19 Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil AGENCY... vessels carrying oil. The amendment triggered information collection requirements affecting vessel response planholders required to establish evidence that they have properly planned to mitigate oil...

  18. 75 FR 55973 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Response Plans for Oil AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; information collection approval... firefighting requirements for tank vessels carrying oil. That announcement indicated that the collection of... Plans for Oil'' (73 FR 80618). The final rule amended the vessel response plan salvage and...

  19. Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

  20. A test of the interpersonal theory of suicide in a large sample of current firefighters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-30

    Recent research suggests that firefighters experience elevated rates of suicidal ideation and behaviors. The interpersonal theory of suicide may shed light on this finding. This theory postulates that suicidal desire is strongest among individuals experiencing perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and that the combination of suicide desire and acquired capability for suicide is necessary for the development of suicidal behaviors. We tested the propositions of the interpersonal theory in a large sample of current United States firefighters (N=863). Participants completed self-report measures of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death (FAD; a component of acquired capability), and career suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history. Regression models were used to examine the association between interpersonal theory constructs, career suicidal ideation severity, and the presence of career suicide attempts. In line with theory predictions, the three-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and FAD was significantly associated with career suicide attempts, beyond participant sex. However, findings were no longer significant after accounting for years of firefighter service or age. Contrary to predictions, the two-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was not significantly related to career suicidal ideation severity. Applications of the theory to firefighters and future research are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of Firefighter Exposure to Wood Smoke during Training Exercises at Burn Houses.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Shaw, Lorraine; Shaw, Don; Gallea, Michael; VandenEnden, Lori; House, Ron; Verma, Dave K; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; McCarry, Brian E

    2016-02-02

    Smoke from wood-fueled fires is one of the most common hazards encountered by firefighters worldwide. Wood smoke is complex in nature and contains numerous compounds, including methoxyphenols (MPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic. Chronic exposure to wood smoke can lead to adverse health outcomes, including respiratory infections, impaired lung function, cardiac infarctions, and cancers. At training exercises held in burn houses at four fire departments across Ontario, air samples, skin wipes, and urine specimens from a cohort of firefighters (n = 28) were collected prior to and after exposure. Wood was the primary fuel used in these training exercises. Air samples showed that MP concentrations were on average 5-fold greater than those of PAHs. Skin wipe samples acquired from multiple body sites of firefighters indicated whole-body smoke exposure. A suite of MPs (methyl-, ethyl-, and propylsyringol) and deconjugated PAH metabolites (hydroxynaphthalene, hydroxyfluorene, hydroxyphenanthrene, and their isomers) were found to be sensitive markers of smoke exposure in urine. Creatinine-normalized levels of these markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in 24 h postexposure urine despite large between-subject variations that were dependent on the specific operational roles of firefighters while using personal protective equipment. This work offers deeper insight into potential health risk from smoke exposure that is needed for translation of better mitigation policies, including improved equipment to reduce direct skin absorption and standardized hygiene practices implemented at different regional fire services.

  2. Task-Relevant Sound and User Experience in Computer-Mediated Firefighter Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkamp, Joske M.; Toet, Alexander; Bos, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently intense to make the training viable and effective.…

  3. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and nuclear materials couriers. 842.208 Section 842.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine... underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that instructs all miners in the proper procedures they must follow if a mine emergency occurs. (a)...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine... underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that instructs all miners in the proper procedures they must follow if a mine emergency occurs. (a)...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine... underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that instructs all miners in the proper procedures they must follow if a mine emergency occurs. (a)...

  7. Systemic Exposure to PAHs and Benzene in Firefighters Suppressing Controlled Structure Fires

    PubMed Central

    Fent, Kenneth W.; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D.; Stiegel, Matthew A.; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P.; Dalton, James

    2014-01-01

    Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre

  8. [Hearing damage as a consequence of firefighters' professional exposure to noise].

    PubMed

    Lalić, Hrvoje; Ferhatović, Mensur; Dinko, Jurjević; Culinović, Marko

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether firefighters' professional exposure to the noise of sirens, motor water pumps and transportation by heavy vehicles causes biauricular hearing impairment. Furthermore, on the basis of the results the aim was to find out whether it is necessary to launch a hearing preservation program and additional health protection measures for this specific working population. The method of physical examination and audiometry was used. Thirty-four professional firefighters from Opatija and 30 workers of Rijeka Promet employed at the town parking lots underwent audiometry on a Sibelmed AC 50 device and then analyzed. The results of biauricular audiometry showed significant differences in hearing damage between the firefighters and Rijeka Promet employees at higher frequencies where hearing damage begins, i.e. at 4 kHz and 8 kHz (P < 0.05). The firefighters' maximal hearing loss of 30.58 +/- 24.66 dB for the right ear at 4 kHz and of 28.52 +/- 24.66 dB for the right ear at 8 kHz were higher than the hearing loss of the parking lot employees with maximal hearing loss of 17.00 +/- 13.10 dB at 4 kHz and of 16.33 +/- 13.89 dB at 8 kHz. The results of left ear audiometry were very close to those of right ear in both groups of subjects. The linear regression analysis yielded almost identical positive correlation between the time spent at the job and hearing damage, with correlation factor r = +.55 for the right and left ear at 4 kHz. The noise was measured at the Opatija Fire Station. Several measurements were performed: on the premises where firefighters are exposed to so-called communal noise, measurements at 2 m of the fire truck when sirens are sounded, noise measurements in driver's cab when sirens are sounded, and the noise made by motor water pump used in firefighting. Also, measurements were performed on the spot, i.e. at the working place of parking lot employees in the center of Rijeka where they stay most of the time, and on the

  9. Assessing the risk to firefighters from chemical vapors and gases during vehicle fire suppression.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E

    2011-03-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of vehicle fires, very few studies investigating firefighters' potential inhalation exposures during vehicle fire suppression have been conducted. In this paper, we present an assessment of firefighters' health risk from vehicle fire suppression that accounts for the mixture of gases and vapors likely to be found in these fires. Summa canisters were used to collect emissions from the engine and cabin fires of a single vehicle and were analyzed for 75 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Firefighters' breathing zone concentrations (BZCs) of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, isocyanates, and carbon monoxide were measured during the suppression of three vehicle fires. The Summa canister and BZC data were used to develop a simple model for predicting BZCs for the compounds that were not measured in the firefighters' breathing zones. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated by dividing the predicted and measured BZCs by the most conservative short-term exposure limits (STELs) or ceiling limits. Hazard indices (HIs) were determined by adding HQs for compounds grouped by the target organ for acute health effects. Any HIs above unity represented unacceptable risks. According to this mixture analysis, the estimated 95(th) percentile of the exposure distribution for the study population represents ≥ 9.2 times the acceptable level of risk to the respiratory tract and eyes. Furthermore, chemicals known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens contributed to > 45% of these HIs. While STELs are not usually based on carcinogenicity, maintaining exposures below STELs may protect individuals from the biological stress that could result from short-term exposures to carcinogens over time. Although vehicle fires are suppressed quickly (<10 min), this assessment suggests that firefighters have the potential to be overexposed to acute toxins during vehicle fire suppression and should therefore wear self-contained breathing apparatus at all times

  10. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the

  11. Evaluation of a fitness intervention for new firefighters: injury reduction and economic benefits

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Stephanie C; Regan, Tracy L; Harber, Philip; Lutz, Eric A; Hu, Chengcheng; Peate, Wayne F; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2016-01-01

    Background Firefighting is a hazardous profession and firefighters suffer workplace injury at a higher rate than most US workers. Decreased physical fitness is associated with injury in firefighters. A physical fitness intervention was implemented among Tucson Fire Department recruit firefighters with the goals of decreasing injury and compensation claims frequency and costs during the recruit academy, and over the subsequent probationary year. Methods Department injury records were analysed and described by body part, injury type and mechanism of injury. Injury and workers’ compensation claims outcomes from the recruit academy initiation through the 12-month probationary period for the intervention recruit class were compared with controls from three historical classes. Results The majority of injuries were sprains and strains (65.4%), the most common mechanism of injury was acute overexertion (67.9%) and the lower extremity was the most commonly affected body region (61.7%). The intervention class experienced significantly fewer injuries overall and during the probationary year (p=0.009), filed fewer claims (p=0.028) and experienced claims cost savings of approximately US$33 000 (2013) from avoided injury and reduced claims costs. The estimated costs for programme implementation were $32 192 leading to a 1-year return on investment of 2.4%. Conclusions We observed reductions in injury occurrence and compensation costs among Probationary Firefighter Fitness (PFF-Fit) programme participants compared with historical controls. The initiation of the PFF-Fit programme has demonstrated promise in reducing injury and claims costs; however, continued research is needed to better understand the programme's potential effectiveness with additional recruit classes and carryover effects into the recruit's career injury potential. PMID:26559144

  12. Assessment of physical fitness aspects and their relationship to firefighters' job abilities.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Marcos A; Parpa, Koulla M; Henry, Leah J; Thompson, Gerald B; Brown, Barry S

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters and firefighting performance on an "Ability Test" (AT) that included a set of 6 simulated firefighting tasks. The relationships between each fitness parameter and each task of the AT were determined. Ninety firefighters participated in this study (age 33 ± 7 years). The AT completion time was associated with abdominal strength (r = -0.53, p < 0.01), relative power (r = -0.44, p < 0.01), upper-body muscular endurance (push-ups, r = -0.27, p < 0.05) (sit-ups, r = -0.41, p < 0.01), and upper-body strength (1 repetition maximum bench press, r = -0.41, p < 0.01). In addition, poor performance on the AT was associated with high resting heart rate (r = 0.36, p < 0.01), high body mass index (r = 0.34, p < 0.01), high body fat (BF)% (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), increasing age (r = 0.42, p < 0.01), and large waist size (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analyses indicated that a significant (F[5, 53] = 14.02, p < 0.01) proportion (60%) of the variation observed in the AT was explained by the variation of the fitness parameters used in the model. This study demonstrated that fitness variables, such as abdominal strength, power (step test), push-ups, resting Hr, and BF%, contributed significantly to the predictive power of firefighters' AT performance. The findings of this study may be useful to fire department instructors and trainers in the design and implementation of training programs that are more specifically tailored to improving both individual firefighting skills and general fire suppression performance.

  13. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  14. Study modality and false recall.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Engle, Randall W

    2011-01-01

    False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical item (e.g., SWEET). The study phase is followed by a test of memory for the study list words. Researchers typically find very high levels of false recall of the critical non-presented item. However, the likelihood of falsely remembering the non-presented critical items can be reduced by presenting studied associates visually rather than auditorally (e.g., Smith & Hunt, 1998). This is referred to as the modality effect in false memory. The current study investigated the role of resource availability in the expression of this modality effect in false recall. In Experiment 1 false recall was reduced in the visual study presentation condition relative to the auditory condition for participants with higher working memory capacity, but not for participants with lower working memory capacity. In Experiment 2 the effect of study modality on false recall was eliminated by the addition of a divided attention task at encoding. Both studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm (Smith, Lozito, & Bayen, 2005).

  15. Inflammatory Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure among Wildland Firefighters Working at Prescribed Burns at the Savannah River Site, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsm...

  16. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  17. False allegation of child abduction.

    PubMed

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality.

  18. Longitudinal Pulmonary Function in Newly Hired, Non-World Trade Center-Exposed Fire Department City of New York Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fen; Hall, Charles B.; Webber, Mayris P.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Dinkels, Michael; Cosenza, Kaitlyn; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few longitudinal studies characterize firefighters’ pulmonary function. We sought to determine whether firefighters have excessive FEV1 decline rates compared with control subjects. Methods: We examined serial measurements of FEV1 from about 6 months prehire to about 5 years posthire in newly hired male, never smoking, non-Hispanic black and white firefighters, hired between 2003 and 2006, without prior respiratory disease or World Trade Center exposure. Similarly defined Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers served as control subjects. Results: Through June 30, 2011, 940 firefighters (82%) and 97 EMS workers (72%) who met study criteria had four or more acceptable posthire spirometries. Prehire FEV1% averaged higher for firefighters than EMS workers (99% vs 95%), reflecting more stringent job entry criteria. FEV1 (adjusted for baseline age and height) declined by an average of 45 mL/y both for firefighters and EMS workers, with Fire − EMS decline rate differences averaging 0.2 mL/y (CI, −9.2 to 9.6). Four percent of each group had FEV1 less than the lower limit of normal before hire, increasing to 7% for firefighters and 17.5% for EMS workers, but similar percentages of both groups had adjusted FEV1 decline rates ≥ 10%. Mixed effects modeling showed a significant influence of weight gain but not baseline weight: FEV1 declined by about 8 mL/kg gained for both groups. Adjusting for weight change, FEV1 decline averaged 38 mL/y for firefighters and 34 mL/y for EMS workers. Conclusions: During the first 5 years of duty, firefighters do not show greater longitudinal FEV1 decline than EMS control subjects, and fewer of them develop abnormal lung function. Weight gain is associated with a small loss of lung function, of questionable clinical relevance in this fit and active population. PMID:23188136

  19. Water immersion for post incident cooling of firefighters; a review of practical fire ground cooling modalities.

    PubMed

    Brearley, Matt; Walker, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly cooling firefighters post emergency response is likely to increase the operational effectiveness of fire services during prolonged incidents. A variety of techniques have therefore been examined to return firefighters core body temperature to safe levels prior to fire scene re-entry or redeployment. The recommendation of forearm immersion (HFI) in cold water by the National Fire and Protection Association preceded implementation of this active cooling modality by a number of fire services in North America, South East Asia and Australia. The vascularity of the hands and forearms may expedite body heat removal, however, immersion of the torso, pelvis and/or lower body, otherwise known as multi-segment immersion (MSI), exposes a greater proportion of the body surface to water than HFI, potentially increasing the rates of cooling conferred. Therefore, this review sought to establish the efficacy of HFI and MSI to rapidly reduce firefighters core body temperature to safe working levels during rest periods. A total of 38 studies with 55 treatments (43 MSI, 12 HFI) were reviewed. The core body temperature cooling rates conferred by MSI were generally classified as ideal (n = 23) with a range of ~0.01 to 0.35 °C min(-1). In contrast, all HFI treatments resulted in unacceptably slow core body temperature cooling rates (~0.01 to 0.05 °C min(-1)). Based upon the extensive field of research supporting immersion of large body surface areas and comparable logistics of establishing HFI or MSI, it is recommended that fire and rescue management reassess their approach to fireground rehabilitation of responders. Specifically, we question the use of HFI to rapidly lower firefighter core body temperature during rest periods. By utilising MSI to restore firefighter Tc to safe working levels, fire and rescue services would adopt an evidence based approach to maintaining operational capability during arduous, sustained responses. While the optimal MSI protocol will be

  20. Bubbling the false vacuum away

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.; Rogers, B.; Thorarinson, J.

    2008-01-15

    We investigate the role of nonperturbative, bubblelike inhomogeneities on the decay rate of false-vacuum states in two- and three-dimensional scalar field theories. The inhomogeneities are induced by setting up large-amplitude oscillations of the field about the false vacuum, as, for example, after a rapid quench or in certain models of cosmological inflation. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, the presence of large-amplitude bubblelike inhomogeneities greatly accelerates the decay rate, changing it from the well-known exponential suppression of homogeneous nucleation to a power-law suppression. It is argued that this fast, power-law vacuum decay--known as resonant nucleation--is promoted by the presence of long-lived oscillons among the nonperturbative fluctuations about the false vacuum. A phase diagram is obtained distinguishing three possible mechanisms for vacuum decay: homogeneous nucleation, resonant nucleation, and crossover. Possible applications are briefly discussed.

  1. Depressive Symptoms among Firefighters and Related Factors after the Response to Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Richard; Bernard, Bruce; West, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted an evaluation regarding physical and psychological health symptoms among New Orleans firefighters 13 weeks after Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S. Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005. This report examines associations between depressive symptoms and concurrent comorbidity. Depressive symptoms were twice as likely among those with either lower respiratory symptoms or skin rash. Firefighters housed with their families were less likely to report depressive symptoms compared to those not living with their families. Perceived low supervisor support was associated with depressive symptoms, whereas participating in group counseling was not. The results underscore the need for the incorporation of physical and psychological health follow-up of emergency responders after natural disasters to better understand, monitor, and treat their health conditions. PMID:17216569

  2. Doffing procedures for firefighters` contaminated turnout gear: Documentation for videotape. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report summarizes the doffing procedures and provides a copy of the videotape script, which includes a fire brigade returning to a mock decontamination area after dealing with a simulated fire. The report also provides background information explaining why the videotape was made, how the project was accomplished, and what the procedures are intended to accomplish. Overall, the video gives step-by-step instructions for the removal of contaminated turnout gear and indicates how firefighters and radiation protection personnel can work together cooperatively. These new doffing procedures were developed with the advice and participation of actual nuclear power plant firefighting personnel at the Seabrook Station of New Hampshire Yankee utility and may be adapted to enhance any existing in-plant procedures. The video includes comments from members of the fire brigade, an equipment review, and a discussion of the doffing area arrangement.

  3. Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight (−0.4 ± 4.1, −1.1 ± 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 ± 18, 17 ± 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than ± 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. PMID:25198061

  4. A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting

    PubMed Central

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Dios, José Ramiro Martínez-de; Baturone, Aníbal Ollero

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

  5. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  6. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  7. The Danger of False Dichotomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBoskey, Vicky Kubler

    1998-01-01

    Responds to an article that examined 10 dichotomies in teacher education (SP 527 128), suggesting that too much time and energy are spent debating false dichotomies and addressing two specific dichotomies (preservice versus inservice and campus versus school site). Recommends that professional educators pool their energy and collaborate (rather…

  8. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  9. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  10. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  11. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  12. The effect of practical cooling strategies on physiological response and cognitive function during simulated firefighting tasks

    PubMed Central

    Hemmatjo, Rasoul; Motamedzade, Majid; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Kalatpour, Omid; Farhadian, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Firefighters often perform multiple tasks during firefighting operations under unknown and unpredictable conditions in hot and hostile environments. Methods: In this interventional study each firefighters engaged in 4 conditions: namely (1) no cooling device; control (NC), (2) cooling gel (CG), (3) cool vest (CV), and (4) CG+CV. Cooling effects of the employed interventions were evaluated based on heart rate (HR), temporal temperature (TT), reaction time (RT), and the correct response (CR). Results: HR and TT values for use of CG+CV (147.47 bpm [SD 4.8]; 37.88°C [SD 0.20]) and CV bpm (147.53 [SD 4.67]; 37.90°C [SD 0.22]) were significantly lower than the CG (153.67 bpm [SD 4.82]; 38.10°C [SD 0.22]) and NC (154.4 bpm [SD 4.91]; 38.11°C [SD 0.23]) at the end of the activity. RT and CR for use of CG + CV (389.87 ms [SD 6.12]; 143.53 [SD 1.24]) and CV (389.53 ms [SD 6.24]; 143.47 [SD 1.18]) were significantly higher than the CG (385.73 [SD 7.25] ms; 143.07 [SD 0.88]) and NC (385.67 ms [SD 7.19]; 143.00 [SD 0.84]) at the end of the activity. Conclusion: It is concluded that CV was more effective than the CG in attenuating physiological responses and cognitive functions during firefighting operations. Furthermore, combining CV with CG provides no additional benefit. PMID:28326286

  13. A Nation in Need: The Air Reserve Component and Wildland Firefighting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    the strategy being wildfire firefighting response. 8 is also emphasized by the USDA’s 2012 Large Airtanker Modernization Strategy report...Management and Budget, A Review of Existing Authorities and Procedures for Using Military Assets in Fighting Wildfires , 17 May 2004. 10 Todd M. Rosenblum...Assets in Fighting Wildfires , 17 May 2004. Rosenblum, Todd M. Acting ASD (HD&ASA). To Deputy Secretary of Defense. Action Memo for Coordination, Duty

  14. Sensing Disaster: The Use of Wearable Sensor Technology to Decrease Firefighter Line-of-Duty Deaths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    THE USE OF WEARABLE SENSOR TECHNOLOGY TO DECREASE FIREFIGHTER LINE-OF-DUTY DEATHS by John A. Payne December 2015 Thesis Co-Advisors...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “SENSING DISASTER”: THE USE OF WEARABLE SENSOR TECHNOLOGY TO DECREASE...cardiac complications while on the fire ground than anywhere else while on duty. The development of wearable sensor technology now allows for

  15. Field Study Evaluation of an Experimental Physical Fitness Program for USAF Firefighters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    program. G. CONCLUSIONS The results of submaximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer to predict aerobic capacity on all firefighters assigned to four...exercise test began with the subject pedaling the cycle ergometer (Monark 868) to the rhythm of a metronome (50 rpm). The first three minutes were...statistically signific&nt at p<.05 - Partic’pant-nonparticipant responses to the cycle ergometer training program are presented in Figures 1 & 2. These

  16. Refractory Sarcoid Arthritis in World Trade Center- Exposed New York City Firefighters: a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Loupasakis, Konstantinos; Berman, Jessica; Jaber, Nadia; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Webber, Mayris P.; Glaser, Michelle S.; Moir, William; Qayyum, Basit; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe cases of sarcoid arthritis in firefighters from the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) who worked at the World Trade Center (WTC) site. Methods All WTC-exposed FDNY firefighters with sarcoidosis and related chronic inflammatory arthritis (n=11) are followed jointly by the FDNY-WTC Health Program and the Rheumatology Division at the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). Diagnoses of sarcoidosis were based on clinical, radiographic and pathological criteria. Patient characteristics, WTC-exposure information, smoking status, date of diagnosis and pulmonary findings were obtained from FDNY-WTC database. Joint manifestations (symptoms and duration, distribution of joints involved), radiographic findings, treatment responses were obtained from chart review. Results Nine of 60 FDNY firefighters who developed sarcoidosis since 9/11/2001 presented with polyarticular arthritis. Two others diagnosed pre-9/11/2001 developed sarcoid arthritis post-WTC-exposure. All 11 were never cigarette smokers and all performed rescue/recovery at the WTC-site within 3 days of the attacks. All had biopsy-proven pulmonary sarcoidosis and all required additional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for adequate control (stepwise progression from hydroxychloroquine to methotrexate to anti-TNFα agents) of their joint manifestations. Conclusion Chronic inflammatory polyarthritis appears to be an important manifestation of sarcoidosis in FDNY firefighters with sarcoidosis and WTC-exposure. Their arthritis is chronic, and unlike arthritis in non-WTC-exposed sarcoid patients, inadequately responsive to conventional oral DMARDs, often requiring anti-TNFα agents. Further studies are needed to determine the generalizability of these findings to other groups with varying levels of WTC-exposure or with other occupational/environmental exposures. PMID:25539429

  17. Impact of excess body weight on arterial structure, function, and blood pressure in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Christopher A; Smith, Denise L; Horn, Gavin P; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Rossow, Lindy M; Echols, George; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-11-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among firefighters. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of excess body weight on arterial structure and function and blood pressure (BP) in relatively young, apparently healthy, firefighters. The body mass index, brachial BP, carotid BP, aortic BP, radial augmentation index, central pulse wave velocity, forearm blood flow, forearm vasodilatory capacity, carotid arterial compliance, carotid intima-media thickness, and brachial flow-mediated dilation were assessed in 110 firefighters (aged 29.7 +/- 8.0 years). The group was divided into equal tertiles according to the body mass index (<25.9, 25.9 to 29.4, and >or=29.5 kg/m(2)). Group differences in hemodynamics, anthropometrics, microvascular function, and macrovascular structure and function were tested using multivariate analysis of variance. The obese group was older, heavier, and had a larger waist circumference compared to the lean and overweight groups (p <0.05). The overweight group was also older, heavier, and had a larger waist circumference than the lean group (p <0.05). Compared to the lean group, the overweight and obese groups had a greater systolic BP (p <0.05). The obese group also had a significantly greater mean arterial BP and carotid systolic BP than the lean group (p <0.05). The obese group had greater beta stiffness and elastic modulus compared to the lean and overweight groups (p <0.05), but no group differences were found in endothelial function. In conclusion, in a population of relatively young firefighters, an increased body mass index was associated with elevated peripheral BP and arterial stiffness, with no apparent decrements in endothelial function.

  18. Altering the Mission Statement: The Training of Firefighters as Intelligence Gatherers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE September 2008 3...critical to a wide range of activities associated with his agency. The Secretary stressed that DHS will strive to incorporate firefighters into...Emergency Response to Terrorism Self Study is a curriculum offered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Department of Justice

  19. Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Balilionis, Gytis; Casaru, Catalina; Geary, Colleen; Schumacker, Randall E; Neggers, Yasmin H; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D; Richardson, Mark T; Bishop, Phillip A; Green, James M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N = 10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400 mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consisted of 2 bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise in the heat with two brief 15-min rest periods between each exercise phase. Exercise induced significant dehydration (>3%) and elevated rectal temperature (>38.9 °C), for all three conditions. Neither caffeine nor menthol reduced perceived exertion compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Mood ratings (i.e., alertness, hedonic tone, tension) significantly deteriorated over time (p < 0.05), but there was no difference among the three conditions. Simple reaction time, short-term memory, and retrieval memory did not alter with treatments or repeated evaluations. Reaction accuracy from a math test remained unchanged throughout the experimental period; reaction time from the math test was significantly faster after exposure to the heat (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, exhaustive exercise in the heat severely impacted mood, but minimally impacted cognition. These treatments failed to show ergogenic benefits in a simulated firefighting paradigm in a hot environment.

  20. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 × 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  1. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke.

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian J.

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 x 107Bq ha-1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. The potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2ms-1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. This approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  2. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    DOE PAGES

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; ...

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 ×more » 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.« less

  3. A simple method to analyze overall individual physical fitness in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Calavalle, Anna R; Sisti, Davide; Mennelli, Giacomina; Andolina, Giuseppe; Del Sal, Marta; Rocchi, Marco B L; Benelli, Piero; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main components that determine firefighters' level of physical fitness using a stair-climbing test. The age, weight, height, body fat, and VO(2max) of the firefighters were recorded before the trial, and percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) was recorded during the stair climbing. Nonlinear modeling of HRR time series and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the data to isolate a small number of variables that quantify overall individual physical fitness. The HRR was represented as a function of time using the sum of linear and trigonometric functions. Four main factors that influence performance, obtained from PCA analysis, emerged (78.2% of total explained variance): the capacity to carry the extra load (22.8% of total variance); the effect of body fat (19.6% of total variance); the influence of age in the task (19.3% of total variance); and the overall fitness level (16.4% of total variance). This approach allowed us to make a rapid assessment of each subject's fitness level. Such an assessment could be used in planning individualized functional training programs to improve each firefighter's job performance and reduce injuries and hence save time, energy, and financial resources.

  4. Exercise-induced hypertension among healthy firefighters-a comparison between two different definitions.

    PubMed

    Leiba, Adi; Baur, Dorothee M; Kales, Stefanos N

    2013-01-01

    Different studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the association of hypertensive response to exercise and cardiovascular morbidity. We compared two different definitions of exaggerated hypertensive response to exercise and their association with cardio-respiratory fitness in a population of healthy firefighters. We examined blood pressure response to exercise in 720 normotensive male career firefighters. Fitness was measured as peak metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) achieved during maximal exercise treadmill tests. Abnormal hypertensive response was defined either as systolic blood pressure ≥ 200 mm Hg; or alternatively, as responses falling in the upper tertile of blood pressure change from rest to exertion, divided by the maximal workload achieved. Using the simple definition of a 200 mm Hg cutoff at peak exercise less fit individuals (METs ≤ 12) were protected from an exaggerated hypertensive response (OR 0.45, 95%CI 0.30-0.67). However, using the definition of exercise-induced hypertension that corrects for maximal workload, less fit firefighters had almost twice the risk (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3-2.47). Blood pressure change corrected for maximal workload is better correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Systolic blood pressure elevation during peak exercise likely represents an adaptive response, whereas elevation out of proportion to the maximal workload may indicate insufficient vasodilation and a maladaptive response. Prospective studies are needed to best define exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise.

  5. Prospective study of hepatic, renal, and haematological surveillance in hazardous materials firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Kales, S; Polyhronopoulos, G; Aldrich, J; Mendoza, P; Suh, J; Christiani, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate possible health effects related to work with hazardous materials as measured by end organ effect markers in a large cohort over about 2 years, and in a subcohort over 5 years.
METHODS—Hepatic, renal, and haematological variables were analysed from 1996-98 in hazardous materials firefighters including 288 hazardous materials technicians (81%) and 68 support workers (19%). The same end organ effect markers in a subcohort of the technicians were also analysed (n=35) from 1993-98. Support workers were considered as controls because they are also firefighters, but had a low potential exposure to hazardous materials.
RESULTS—During the study period, no serious injuries or exposures were reported. For the end organ effect markers studied, no significant differences were found between technicians and support workers at either year 1 or year 3. After adjustment for a change in laboratory, no significant longitudinal changes were found within groups for any of the markers except for creatinine which decreased for both technicians (p<0.001) and controls (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—Health effects related to work are infrequent among hazardous materials technicians. Haematological, hepatic, and renal testing is not required on an annual basis and has limited use in detecting health effects in hazardous materials technicians.


Keywords: hazardous materials; firefighters; medical surveillance PMID:11160986

  6. Physiological parameters monitoring of fire-fighters by means of a wearable wireless sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Chatzistamatis, Panagiotis; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Primentas, Antonios; Kogias, Dimitris; Michailidis, Emmanouel T.; Rangoussi, Maria; Kurşun Bahadir, Senem; Atalay, Özgür; Kalaoğlu, Fatma; Sağlam, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Physiological parameter monitoring may be useful in many different groups of the population, such as infants, elderly people, athletes, soldiers, drivers, fire-fighters, police etc. This can provide a variety of information ranging from health status to operational readiness. In this article, we focus on the case of first responders and specifically fire-fighters. Firefighters can benefit from a physiological monitoring system that is used to extract multiple indications such as the present position, the possible life risk level, the stress level etc. This work presents a wearable wireless sensor network node, based on low cost, commercial-off- the-self (COTS) electronic modules, which can be easily attached on a standard fire-fighters’ uniform. Due to the low frequency wired interface between the selected electronic components, the proposed solution can be used as a basis for a textile system where all wired connections will be implemented by means of conductive yarn routing in the textile structure, while some of the standard sensors can be replaced by textile ones. System architecture is described in detail, while indicative samples of acquired signals are also presented.

  7. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  8. Does sleep promote false memories?

    PubMed

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories.

  9. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO

  10. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  11. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; PARK, Joonhee; PARK, Huiju; COCA, Aitor; KIM, Jung-Hyun; TAYLOR, Nigel A.S.; SON, Su-Young; TOCHIHARA, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying ‘a location monitoring system’ as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred ‘an automatic body cooling system’ while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally ‘an automatic body cooling system’ and ‘a wireless communication system’. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: ‘a location monitoring system’, ‘an automatic body cooling system’, ‘a wireless communication system’, and ‘a vision support system’. The least preferred elements were ‘an automatic body warming system’ and ‘a voice recording system’. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  12. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Park, Huiju; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Taylor, Nigel A S; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying 'a location monitoring system' as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred 'an automatic body cooling system' while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally 'an automatic body cooling system' and 'a wireless communication system'. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: 'a location monitoring system', 'an automatic body cooling system', 'a wireless communication system', and 'a vision support system'. The least preferred elements were 'an automatic body warming system' and 'a voice recording system'. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at fire stations: firefighters' exposure monitoring and biomonitoring, and assessment of the contribution to total internal dose.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Alves, Maria José; Fernandes, Adília; Teixeira, João Paulo; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2017-02-05

    This work characterizes levels of eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the breathing air zone of firefighters during their regular work shift at eight Portuguese fire stations, and the firefighters' total internal dose by six urinary monohydroxyl metabolites (OH-PAHs). Total PAHs (ΣPAHs) concentrations varied widely (46.4-428ng/m(3)), mainly due to site specificity (urban/rural) and characteristics (age and layout) of buildings. Airborne PAHs with 2-3 rings were the most abundant (63.9-95.7% ΣPAHs). Similarly, urinary 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxyacenaphthene were the predominant metabolites (66-96% ΣOH-PAHs). Naphthalene contributed the most to carcinogenic ΣPAHs (39.4-78.1%) in majority of firehouses; benzo[a]pyrene, the marker of carcinogenic PAHs, accounted with 1.5-10%. Statistically positive significant correlations (r≥0.733, p≤0.025) were observed between ΣPAHs and urinary ΣOH-PAHs for firefighters of four fire stations suggesting that, at these sites, indoor air was their major exposure source of PAHs. Firefighter's personal exposure to PAHs at Portuguese fire stations were well below the existent occupational exposure limits. Also, the quantified concentrations of post-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in all firefighters were clearly lower than the benchmark level (0.5μmol/mol) recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

  14. Main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in relation to alcohol dependence among urban male firefighters.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schuhmann, Bailee B; Smith, Lia J; Tran, Jana

    2017-05-01

    Depression, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use are highly prevalent among firefighters. However, no study has evaluated the interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to alcohol use among firefighters. The current study examined main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in terms of alcohol dependence symptoms, positive alcohol dependence screen, and drinks per occasion. Participants included 2707 male urban firefighters. There was a main effect of posttraumatic stress in relation to all alcohol-related outcomes and a main effect of depression only for alcohol dependence symptoms. There was a significant interaction of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to symptoms of alcohol dependence, positive screen for alcohol dependence, and number of drinks per occasion. Interactions were evident above main effects and covariates (age, presence of a spouse/partner, tenure in the fire department, history of active duty in the U.S. armed forces, and racial/ethnic minority status). Overall, heightened depression was positively associated with alcohol-related outcomes for those with lower but not higher levels of posttraumatic stress in all models. Posttraumatic stress and depression may pose unique interactive risks for alcohol dependence in urban male firefighters. Implications for clinical intervention in firefighters are discussed.

  15. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  16. Dusty Crater In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This false color image of a crater rim illustrates just how complete the dust cover can be. The small white/blue regions on the rim are of areas where the dust cover has been removed - due to heating on sun facing slopes or by gravitational effects.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 70.1, Longitude 352.8 East (7.2 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Application of end-exhaled breath monitoring to assess carbon monoxide exposures of wildland firefighters at prescribed burns.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Devaux, Isabelle; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke P

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February-March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

  18. Application of End-Exhaled Breath Monitoring to Assess Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed Burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.H.; Devaux, I; Stock, A.; Naeher, L.P.

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February–March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

  19. Age as a bona fide occupational qualification for firefighting. A review on the importance of measuring aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, M S; Landy, F; Saupe, K

    1992-01-01

    Recent federal and judicial initiatives have led to controversy over the justification of mandatory retirement policies applied to public safety occupations. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has been mandated to study this issue, and a critical element of that study will be to determine the types of tests to be employed as substitutes for a mandatory retirement age. In this review, a rationale is presented for the measurement of aerobic power (VO2max) as a predictor of the physical performance capability of firefighters. We conclude that task simulations rarely replicate the environmental conditions present at structural fires that stress the cardiorespiratory capability of firefighters. VO2max is an important predictor of performance effectiveness of firefighters to be used in conjunction with task-specific testing.

  20. Association between job stress and occupational injuries among Korean firefighters: a nationwide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, KyooSang; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the nature of association between job stress and occupational injuries among firefighters in Korea. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting We conducted a nationwide survey using self-reported questionnaires in South Korea. Participants A survey was conducted among 30 630 firefighters; 25 616 (83.6%) responded. Our study included firefighters who were 20–59 years old. Individuals with <12 months of current job experience and those with missing data were excluded; ultimately, 14 991 firefighters were analysed. Results Among fire suppression personnel, high job demands (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.77), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.37), a poor organisational system (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.55), and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.64) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; high job demands (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) were also associated with the frequency of injuries. Among emergency medical services personnel, high job demands (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.66), a poor organisational system (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.85), lack of reward (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.69) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; low job control (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.36), lack of reward (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.35) and a negative workplace climate (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.34) were also associated with a greater number of injuries. Among officers, high job demands (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.85) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.10) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injuries; however, there was no significant correlation between job stress and the number of injuries. Conclusions High job stress among firefighters was

  1. Inflammatory effects of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site, SC.

    PubMed

    Hejl, Anna M; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Carter, Jacqueline D; Commodore, Adwoa A; Rathbun, Stephen L; Naeher, Luke P

    2013-01-01

    Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsmoke exposure on inflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. Twelve U.S. Forest Service wildland firefighters at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, volunteered to give blood samples during four prescribed burns between February and March 2011. Twenty-four paired (pre- and post-work shift) blood samples were collected using dried blood spot method to facilitate repeated sample collection. Inflammatory biomarker concentrations in blood samples were measured using the Meso Scale Discovery multi-spot assay system. Concurrent personal PM₂.₅ and CO monitoring of firefighters was conducted. Linear mixed models were used to test whether cross-work shift differences occurred in the following inflammatory biomarkers: IL-1β, IL-8, CRP, SAA, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. IL-8 showed a significant cross-work shift difference as indicated by a post/pre-work shift ratio of 1.70 (95% CL: 1.35, 2.13; p = 0.0012). Concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and ICAM-1 increased in >50% of samples across work shift. Firefighters who lighted fires as opposed to other work tasks had the largest cross-work shift increase in IL-8. A significant cross-work shift increase in IL-8 in blood samples was observed in healthy wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns. Further research is needed to understand the physiological responses underlying the adverse effects of woodsmoke exposure, and the dose-response relationship between woodsmoke exposure and inflammatory responses.

  2. Individual and cumulative impacts of fire emissions and tobacco consumption on wildland firefighters' total exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Magalhães, Carlos Pires; Fernandes, Adília; Teixeira, João Paulo; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; do Carmo Pereira, Maria; Morais, Simone

    2017-03-27

    There is limited information about wildland firefighters' exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), being scarce studies that included the impact of tobacco consumption. Thus, this work evaluated the individual and cumulative impacts of firefighting activities and smoking on wildland firefighters' total exposure to PAHs. Six urinary PAH metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene (1OHNaph), 1-hydroxyacenaphthene (1OHAce), 2-hydroxyfluorene (2OHFlu), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1OHPhen), 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHPy), and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3OHB[a]P)) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Firefighters from three fire stations were characterized and organized in three groups: non-smoking and non-exposed to fire emissions (NSNExp), smoking non-exposed (SNExp), and smoking exposed (SExp) individuals. 1OHNaph+1OHAce were the most predominant OH-PAHs (66-91% ∑OH-PAHs), followed by 2OHFlu (2.8-28%), 1OHPhen (1.3-7%), and 1OHPy (1.4-6%). 3OHB[a]P, the carcinogenicity PAH biomarker, was not detected. Regular consumption of tobacco increased 76-412% ∑OH-PAHs. Fire combat activities promoted significant increments of 158-551% ∑OH-PAHs. 2OHFlu was the most affected compound by firefighting activities (111-1068%), while 1OHNaph+1OHAce presented the more pronounced increments due to tobacco consumption (22-339%); 1OHPhen (76-176%) and 1OHPy (20-220%) were the least influenced ones. OH-PAH levels of SExp firefighters were significantly higher than in other groups, suggesting that these subjects may be more vulnerable to develop and/or aggravate diseases related with PAHs exposure.

  3. Loaded treadmill walking and cycle ergometry to assess work capacity: a retrospective comparison in 424 firefighters.

    PubMed

    Carlén, Anna; Åström Aneq, Meriam; Nylander, Eva; Gustafsson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    The fitness of firefighters is regularly evaluated using exercise tests. We aimed to compare, with respect to age and body composition, two test modalities for the assessment work capacity. A total of 424 Swedish firefighters with cycle ergometer (CE) and treadmill (TM) tests available from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were included. We compared results from CE (6 min at 200 W, 250 W or incremental ramp exercise) with TM (6 min at 8° inclination, 4·5 km h(-1) or faster, wearing 24-kg protective equipment). Oxygen requirements were estimated by prediction equations. It was more common to pass the TM test and fail the supposedly equivalent CE test (20%), than vice versa (0·5%), P<0·001. Low age and tall stature were significant predictors of passing both CE and TM tests (P<0·05), while low body mass predicted accomplishment of TM test only (P = 0·006). Firefighters who passed the TM but failed the supposedly equivalent CE test within 12 months had significantly lower body mass, lower BMI, lower BSA and shorter stature than did those who passed both tests. Calculated oxygen uptake was higher in TM tests compared with corresponding CE tests (P<0·001). Body constitution affected approval differently depending on the test modality. A higher approval rate in TM testing suggests lower cardiorespiratory requirements compared with CE testing, even though estimated oxygen uptake was higher during TM testing. The relevance of our findings in relation to the occupational demands needs reconsidering.

  4. Acute Symptoms in Firefighters who Participated in Collection Work after the Community Hydrogen Fluoride Spill Accident

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze the relationship between clinical status and work characteristics of firefighters and other public officers who engaged on collection duties in the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill that occurred on September 27, 2012, in Gumi City, South Korea. Methods We investigated the clinical status, personal history, and work characteristics of the study subjects and performed physical examination and several clinical examinations, including chest radiography, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and blood testing in 348 firefighters, police officers, volunteer firefighters, and special warfare reserved force who worked at the hydrogen fluoride spill area. Results The subjects who worked near the accident site more frequently experienced eye symptoms (p = 0.026), cough (p = 0.017), and headache (p = 0.003) than the subjects who worked farther from the accident site. The longer the working hours at the accident area, the more frequently the subjects experienced pulmonary (p = 0.027), sputum (p = 0.043), and vomiting symptoms (p = 0.003). The subjects who did not wear respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced dyspnea than those who wore respiratory protective devices (p = 0.013). In the pulmonary function test, the subjects who worked near the accident site had a higher decease in forced vital capacity than the subjects who worked farther from the site (p = 0.019); however, no statistical association was found between serum calcium/phosphate level, echocardiography result, chest radiographic result, and probation work characteristics. Conclusions The subjects who worked near the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill, worked for an extended period, or worked without wearing respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced upper/lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms. Further follow-up examination is needed for the workers who were exposed to hydrogen

  5. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training.

  6. High-intensity, occupation-specific training in a series of firefighters during phase II cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dunlei; Berbarie, Rafic F.

    2013-01-01

    Six male firefighters who were referred to phase II cardiac rehabilitation after coronary revascularization participated in a specialized regimen of high-intensity, occupation-specific training (HIOST) that simulated firefighting tasks. During each session, the electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure were monitored, and the patients were observed for adverse symptoms. No patient had to discontinue HIOST because of adverse arrhythmias or symptoms. For physicians who must make decisions about return to work, the information collected over multiple HIOST sessions might be more thorough and conclusive than the information gained during a single treadmill exercise stress test (the recommended evaluation method). PMID:23543963

  7. Ice Surfaces In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This full resolution image shows a marked difference in the 'blueness' of the ice surfaces. The lower (presumably older) surface is oranger and the top (presumably younger) surface is blue. This may represent the fresher ice of the upper surface which has not yet covered with as much dust as the lower surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.8, Longitude 302.1 East (57.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Polar Layers in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image again illustrates the oranger/bluer nature of the polar layers.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.6, Longitude 70.2 East (289.8 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Sand Sea in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image is of part of the northern sand sea. The small dunes in the image are bluer than the ice/dust filled central crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 73.7, Longitude 323 East (37 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. LAFD: TA-15 DARHT Firefighter Facility Familiarization Tour, OJT 53044, Revision 0.2

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, Victor Stephen; Priestley, Terry B.; Maestas, Marvin Manuel

    2016-03-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Lab) will conduct familiarization tours for the Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility, TA-15-0312. The purpose of these tours is to orient LAFD firefighters to the DARHT facility layout and hazards. This document provides information and figures to supplement the familiarization tours. The document will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the familiarization tour. A checklist (Attachment A) has also been developed to ensure that all required information is consistently presented to LAFD personnel during the familiarization tours.

  11. Perception or reality: Can thermal perceptions inform management of firefighters in the heat?

    PubMed

    Walker, Anthony; Rattray, Ben; Brearley, Matt

    2017-04-01

    Accurately assessing the physiological status of firefighters during work in the heat is critical to ensuring their safety. Evaluating core temperatures (Tc) in the field is problematic due to cost and limitations in technology and accuracy. As such, fire services rely on individual perceptions of wellbeing. The present study aimed to establish whether perceptual responses measured using the perceptual strain index (PeSI), calculated from rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), could reliably predict the physiological strain (PSI) encountered by experienced firefighters working in a hot environment. We conducted two firefighting simulations (set-pace and self-paced) in a purposefully built heat chamber (100 ± 5°C) comprised of two 20-min periods separated by a 10-min recovery outside the chamber. Physiological strain was measured via heart rate (HR) and gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) and compared with PeSI at 5-min intervals. To evaluate the predictive ability of the PeSI for PSI, mean differences and the 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were established, along with correlation coefficients at each 5-min interval. Moderately significant correlations occurred in the second work bout of the self-paced trial only (10 min: r = 0.335, 15 min: r = 0.498, 20 min r = 0.439) with no other correlations observed at any other time during either trial or during the rest periods. Bland-Altman analysis revealed mean differences of -0.74 ± 2.70 (self-paced) and +0.04 ± 2.04 (set-paced) between PeSI and PSI with the 95% LOA being -4.77 to 3.28 (self-paced) and -4.01 to 2.01 (set-paced). The wide LOA and lack of correlations observed between perceptual and physiological strain in both self-paced and set-paced work trials indicate that PeSI is not sufficiently reliable as a sole measure of wellbeing for firefighters working in the heat. Hence, we recommend that fire services prioritise the development of reliable and effective monitoring tools for use in

  12. Development of a Flow Modifier for Reducing the Reaction Force of Firefighting Nozzles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-07

    Borows Risk & Industrial Safety Consultants, Inc. 268 Howard Street Des Plaines, IL 60018-1906 Contract No. F08635-90- C -0065...ORGftJlZATION MSD PKR FQ1J tffY’able) Contract #F08635-90- C -0065 Be. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10 . SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Eglin AFB, Florida...Modifier for Reducing the Reaction Force of Firefighting Nozzles 12. PERSONAL A UTHOR($) C . K. Krishnakumar, s. Atallah, and K. A. Borows 13a . TYPE

  13. Exposures and cross-shift lung function declines in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Denise M; Piacitelli, Chris A; Chen, Bean T; Law, Brandon F; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Enright, Paul L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Leonard, Stephen S; Wagner, Gregory R; Kobzik, Lester; Kales, Stefanos N; Hughes, Michael D; Christiani, David C; Siegel, Paul D; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Hoover, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland fire fighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency Hotshot Crew with environmental sampling and pulmonary function testing during a large wildfire. We characterized particles by examining size distribution and mass concentration, and conducting elemental and morphological analyses. We examined associations between cross-shift lung function change and various analytes, including levoglucosan, an indicator of wood smoke from burning biomass. The levoglucosan component of the wildfire aerosol showed a predominantly bimodal size distribution: a coarse particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter about 12 μm and a fine particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 0.5 μm. Levoglucosan was found mainly in the respirable fraction and its concentration was higher for fire line construction operations than for mop-up operations. Larger cross-shift declines in forced expiratory volume in one second were associated with exposure to higher concentrations of respirable levoglucosan (p < 0.05). Paired analyses of real-time personal air sampling measurements indicated that higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with higher particulate concentrations when examined by mean values, but not by individual data points. However, low CO concentrations did not provide reliable assurance of concomitantly low particulate concentrations. We conclude that inhalation of fine smoke particles is associated with acute lung function decline in some wildland firefighters. Based on short-term findings, it appears important to address possible long-term respiratory health issues for wildland firefighters. [Supplementary materials are

  14. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  15. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  16. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  17. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  18. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  19. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters.

  20. A fractionation of the physiological burden of the personal protective equipment worn by firefighters.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Lewis, Michael C; Notley, Sean R; Peoples, Gregory E

    2012-08-01

    Load carriage increases physiological strain, reduces work capacity and elevates the risk of work-related injury. In this project, the separate and combined physiological consequences of wearing the personal protective equipment used by firefighters were evaluated. The overall impact upon performance was first measured in 20 subjects during a maximal, job-related obstacle course trial and an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion (with and without protective equipment). The fractional contributions of the thermal protective clothing, helmet, breathing apparatus and boots were then separately determined during steady-state walking (4.8 km h(-1), 0% gradient) and bench stepping (20 cm at 40 steps min(-1)). The protective equipment reduced exercise tolerance by 56% on a treadmill, with the ambulatory oxygen consumption reserve (peak minus steady-state walking) being 31% lower. For the obstacle course, performance declined by 27%. Under steady-state conditions, the footwear exerted the greatest relative metabolic impact during walking and bench stepping, being 8.7 and 6.4 times greater per unit mass than the breathing apparatus. Indeed, the relative influence of the clothing on oxygen cost was at least three times that of the breathing apparatus. Therefore, the most efficient way to reduce the physiological burden of firefighters' protective equipment, and thereby increase safety, would be to reduce the mass of the boots and thermal protective clothing.

  1. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Hyder, Melissa L.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R. Sue; Poston, Walker S. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25830073

  2. When the smoke disappears: dealing with extinguishing chemicals in firefighting wastewater.

    PubMed

    Courtens, E N P; Meerburg, F; Mausen, V; Vlaeminck, S E

    2014-01-01

    Water is not enough. Nowadays, numerous chemicals are used for fire extinction. After use, however, these may unintentionally enter sewerage systems. In order to safely treat firefighting wastewater (FFWW), knowledge of the potential effects of these chemicals on biological treatment processes is essential. This study characterized and mimicked the composition of FFWW containing two powders, three foams and one foam degrader. Nitrogen (162-370 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1)) and phosphorus (173-320 mg PO4(3-)-P L(-1)) concentrations exceeded discharge limits, whereas chemical and biological oxygen demand, suspended solids and detergent concentrations remained sufficiently low. Adequate nutrient removal could be obtained through FeCl3 addition and nitrification/denitrification with acetate as substrate. In batch tests, residual nitrifying activities of 84, 81, 89, 95 and 93% were observed in the presence of powders, foams, foam degrader, synthetic and real FFWW, respectively. All categories showed higher denitrification rates than the control. Although the powders at first seemed to inhibit anammox activity at 82%, after pH correction anammox was fully feasible, allowing nitrogen removal through oxygen-limited nitrification/denitrification (OLAND). Detailed cost calculations indicated that OLAND could save 11% of capital and 68% of operational costs compared to nitrification/denitrification, identifying OLAND as the most recommendable process for nitrogen removal from firefighting wastewaters.

  3. Occupational exposure of firefighters to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in non-fire work environments.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Fernandes, Adília; Teixeira, João Paulo; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2017-08-15

    This work aims to characterize personal exposure of firefighters to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in non-fire work environments (fire stations), and assesses the respective risks. Eighteen PAHs (16 considered by USEPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were monitored in breathing zones of workers at five Portuguese fire stations during a normal shift. The obtained levels of PAHs fulfilled all existent occupational exposure limits as well as air quality guidelines with total concentrations (ΣPAHs) in range of 46.8-155ngm(-3). Light compounds (2-3 rings) were the most predominant congeners (74-96% of ΣPAHs) whereas PAHs with 5-6 rings accounted 3-9% of ΣPAHs. Fuel and biomass combustions, vehicular traffic emissions, and use of lubricant oils were identified as the main sources of PAHs exposure at the studied fire corporations. Incremental lifetime cancer risks were below the recommend USEPA guideline of 10(-6) and thus negligible for all the studied subjects, but WHO health-based guideline level of 10(-5) was exceeded (9-44 times) at all fire corporations. These results thus show that even during non-fire situations firefighters are exposed to PAHs at levels that may promote some adverse health outcomes; therefore the respective occupational exposures to these compounds should be carefully controlled.

  4. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  5. High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O.; Berbarie, Rafic F.

    2014-01-01

    Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

  6. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  7. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  8. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  9. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  10. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. Steam-propelled... school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil installation is situated, 2 or more... steam propelled nautical school ship of over 1,000 gross tons having one boiler room there shall...

  11. 49 CFR 520.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 520.2 Section 520.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... affect the quality of the human environment....

  12. 48 CFR 232.503 - Postaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postaward matters. 232.503 Section 232.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....503 Postaward matters....

  13. 48 CFR 232.502 - Preaward matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preaward matters. 232.502 Section 232.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT....502 Preaward matters....

  14. 48 CFR 970.0470 - Department of Energy Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Energy Directives. 970.0470 Section 970.0470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... Energy Directives....

  15. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... than small arms....

  16. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  17. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  18. 48 CFR 931.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 931.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 931.205 Selected costs....

  19. 48 CFR 31.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 31.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205 Selected costs....

  20. 48 CFR 1331.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1331.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1331.205 Selected costs....

  1. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent costs. 970.3102-05... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30 Patent costs....

  2. 48 CFR 970.3102-05 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 970.3102... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05 Selected costs....

  3. 48 CFR 1231.205 - Selected costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selected costs. 1231.205... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1231.205 Selected costs....

  4. 48 CFR 628.309 - Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance. 628.309 Section 628.309 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... workers' compensation insurance....

  5. 48 CFR 53.301-1423 - Inventory Verification Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory Verification Survey. 53.301-1423 Section 53.301-1423 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Survey. ER05AP04.000...

  6. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management Controls...

  7. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  8. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  9. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  10. 47 CFR 22.703 - Separate rural subscriber station authorization not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or base station from which they receive service. ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separate rural subscriber station authorization... subscriber station authorization not required. A separate authorization is not required for rural...

  11. 48 CFR 236.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance evaluation... Architect-Engineer Services 236.604 Performance evaluation. Prepare a separate performance evaluation after... familiar with the architect-engineer contractor's performance....

  12. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 1816.402-2 Section 1816.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Performance incentives....

  13. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  14. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  15. 48 CFR Appendix - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... (IFMS) Contract clause. FAR Index Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Editorial Note:...

  16. 43 CFR 2912.1 - Nature of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature of interest. 2912.1 Section 2912.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Nature of interest....

  17. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  18. 48 CFR 236.606 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations. 236.606 Section 236.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT...-Engineer Services 236.606 Negotiations....

  19. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  20. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation....

  1. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Contract negotiation....

  2. 48 CFR 836.606 - Negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations. 836.606 Section 836.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Negotiations....

  3. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act....

  4. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  5. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives....

  6. 47 CFR 76.227 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 76.227 Section 76.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.227...

  7. 49 CFR 369.5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Records. 369.5 Section 369.5 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.5 Records. Books, records... Records....

  8. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  9. 48 CFR 970.3770 - Facilities management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilities management. 970... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Facilities Management Contracting 970.3770 Facilities management....

  10. 48 CFR 970.2201-2 - Overtime management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overtime management. 970... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-2 Overtime management....

  11. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  12. 48 CFR 803.570 - Commercial advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial advertising. 803.570 Section 803.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL... Commercial advertising....

  13. 47 CFR 22.169 - International coordination of channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International coordination of channel assignments. 22.169 Section 22.169 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications...

  14. 47 CFR 22.107 - General application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Applications and Notifications § 22.107 General application requirements. In general, applications for authorizations, assignments of... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General application requirements....

  15. 48 CFR 225.7009 - Restriction on ball and roller bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on ball and roller bearings. 225.7009 Section 225.7009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... roller bearings....

  16. 48 CFR 519.1202 - Evaluation factor or subfactor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation factor or subfactor. 519.1202 Section 519.1202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Evaluation factor or subfactor....

  17. 48 CFR 19.1202 - Evaluation factor or subfactor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evaluation factor or subfactor. 19.1202 Section 19.1202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Evaluation factor or subfactor....

  18. 48 CFR 4.501 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 4.501 Section 4.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.501...

  19. 43 CFR 3.8 - Applications referred for recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications referred for recommendation... AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.8 Applications referred for recommendation. Applications for permits shall be referred to the Smithsonian Institution for recommendation....

  20. 49 CFR 37.39 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 37.39 Section 37.39 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.39...

  1. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  2. 48 CFR 225.7004 - Restriction on acquisition of foreign buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on acquisition of foreign buses. 225.7004 Section 225.7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on acquisition of foreign buses....

  3. 46 CFR 308.305 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.305 Section 308.305 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.305...

  4. 46 CFR 308.301 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.301 Section 308.301 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.301...

  5. 48 CFR 245.201 - Solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation. 245.201... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Solicitation and Evaluation Procedures 245.201 Solicitation....

  6. 48 CFR 239.7201 - Solicitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation requirements... Standards 239.7201 Solicitation requirements. Contracting officers shall ensure that all applicable Federal Information Processing Standards are incorporated into solicitations....

  7. 48 CFR 1524.104 - Solicitation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation provisions....104 Solicitation provisions. The Contracting Officer shall insert the provision at 1552.224-70, Social... solicitations....

  8. 48 CFR 514.201-6 - Solicitation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation provisions... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 514.201-6 Solicitation provisions... solicitation....

  9. 48 CFR 2116.105 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation provision... TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Selecting Contract Types 2116.105 Solicitation provision. FAR 16.105 has no... solicitations....

  10. 48 CFR 606.570 - Solicitation provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation provision... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 606.570 Solicitation provision. The... solicitations exceeding the simplified acquisition threshold....

  11. 44 CFR 19.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military and merchant marine... marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution... the merchant marine....

  12. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 2555.210 Military and merchant marine... marine....

  13. 43 CFR 11.16 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11.16 Section 11.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.16...

  14. 43 CFR 11.19 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11.19 Section 11.19 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.19...

  15. 48 CFR 243.204-70 - Definitization of change orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.204-70 Definitization of change orders. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitization of...

  16. 49 CFR 178.33b - Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles. 178.33b Section 178.33b Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... nonrefillable plastic receptacles....

  17. 43 CFR 1784.4 - Public participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public participation. 1784.4 Section 1784.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Public participation....

  18. 48 CFR 1.602 - Contracting officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracting officers. 1... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602 Contracting officers....

  19. 48 CFR 3017.204 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts. 3017.204... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204 Contracts....

  20. 47 CFR 32.6362 - Other terminal equipment expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other terminal equipment expense. 32.6362... Other terminal equipment expense. This account shall include expenses associated with other terminal equipment....

  1. 47 CFR 32.6351 - Public telephone terminal equipment expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public telephone terminal equipment expense. 32....6351 Public telephone terminal equipment expense. This account shall include expenses associated with public telephone terminal equipment....

  2. 46 CFR 308.106 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.106 Section 308.106 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance §...

  3. 47 CFR 24.832 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.832 Section 24.832 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Interim Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for Broadband PCS §...

  4. 47 CFR 73.766 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 73.766 Section 73.766 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations §...

  5. 46 CFR 308.201 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.201 Section 308.201 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance §...

  6. 47 CFR 73.659-73.663 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 73.659-73.663 Section 73.659-73.663 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations §§...

  7. 46 CFR 298.34 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 298.34 Section 298.34 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation §...

  8. 47 CFR 22.215 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 22.215 Section 22.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Licensing Requirements and Procedures Competitive Bidding Procedures §...

  9. 47 CFR 24.710 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.710 Section 24.710 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for Broadband PCS §...

  10. 47 CFR 24.101 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.101 Section 24.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS §...

  11. 47 CFR 73.3534 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 73.3534 Section 73.3534 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations §...

  12. 47 CFR 73.672 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 73.672 Section 73.672 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations §...

  13. 47 CFR 24.713 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.713 Section 24.713 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for Broadband PCS §...

  14. 46 CFR 308.101 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.101 Section 308.101 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance §...

  15. 47 CFR 24.130 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.130 Section 24.130 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS §...

  16. 47 CFR 24.320 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24.320 Section 24.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for Narrowband PCS §...

  17. 45 CFR 1233.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1233.4 Section 1233.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ACTION PROGRAMS §...

  18. 46 CFR 308.206 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 308.206 Section 308.206 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance §...

  19. 47 CFR 22.961-22.967 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 22.961-22.967 Section 22.961-22.967 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service §§...

  20. 48 CFR 1511.011-79 - Information resources management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information resources... AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-79 Information resources management. The... Resource Management, in all solicitations and contracts....

  1. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... contracts with economic price adjustment....

  2. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  3. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  4. 49 CFR 236.780 - Plunger, facing point lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plunger, facing point lock. 236.780 Section 236.780 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... plunger stand when the switch is locked....

  5. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  6. 49 CFR 200.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... railroads for freight transportation. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 200.3 Section 200.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 224 - Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Report B Appendix B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 224 - Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports C Appendix C to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 46 CFR Appendix D to Subpart C of... - Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI) Group Bond Form [FMC-69

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI) Group Bond Form... OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR OCEAN TRANSPORTATION INTERMEDIARIES Financial Responsibility Requirements; Claims Against...

  10. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... manifolds; and (c) Pump seals....

  11. 43 CFR 3191.5 - Delegation for Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegation for Indian lands. 3191.5 Section 3191.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... lands....

  12. 48 CFR 215.404 - Proposal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposal analysis. 215.404 Section 215.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Proposal analysis....

  13. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  14. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219...

  15. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  16. 47 CFR 2.1055 - Measurements required: Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurements required: Frequency stability. 2.1055 Section 2.1055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization...

  17. 49 CFR 236.731 - Controller, circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Controller, circuit. A device for opening and closing electric circuits. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Controller, circuit. 236.731 Section 236.731 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  18. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Circuit, common return. A term applied where one wire is used for the return of more than one electric circuit. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, common return. 236.720 Section...

  19. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  20. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements....

  1. 47 CFR 32.15 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 32.15 Section 32.15 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.15...

  2. 49 CFR 236.206 - Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery or power supply with respect to relay... to relay; location. The battery or power supply for each signal control relay circuit, where an open... from the relay....

  3. 47 CFR 25.402 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 25.402 Section 25.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.402...

  4. 48 CFR 3032.006 - Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud. 3032.006 Section 3032.006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... finding of fraud....

  5. 48 CFR 1616.7002 - Clause-contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clause-contracts based on... FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated). ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  6. 48 CFR 219.401 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 219.401 Section 219.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... point for interface with the SBA....

  7. 48 CFR 252.239-7016 - Telecommunications security equipment, devices, techniques, and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Telecommunications... Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS... telecommunications security equipment, devices, techniques, or services to contractor telecommunications systems....

  8. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  9. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  10. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  11. 50 CFR 38.5 - Emergency authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Executive Authority; Authorized... Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency authority. 38.5 Section...

  12. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before...

  13. Cardiorespiratory and thermoregulatory response of working in fire-fighter protective clothing in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    Baker, S J; Grice, J; Roby, L; Matthews, C

    2000-09-01

    The cardiorespiratory and thermal responses of two intensities of treadmill exercise were compared for brief periods (12 min) in fire ensemble (FE) but without self contained breathing apparatus, and sports ensemble (SE), in a temperature environment. A further experiment explored the responses of subjects exercising in FE over a prolonged period (60 min). Eighteen male fire-fighters wearing either FE or SE walked on a level treadmill for 6 min at 5 km x h(-1) increasing to 7 km x h(-1) for 6 min. Following a recovery interval of 1 h, the exercise protocol was repeated in the second ensemble; the order of ensemble was balanced. Heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored continuously under both ensembles. At 7 km x h(-1), VO2 was significantly higher (p<0.05) in FE (36.1 and 39.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) than in SE and represented 74% VO2 max. There were no changes Tre. In experiment 2, following a rest interval of at least 36 h, eight subjects in FE walked on the treadmill at 6 km x h (gradient 10%) for 60 min also in temperate conditions, where HR, Tre and RPE were recorded at 10-min intervals. During the 60-min exercise in FE, HR reached 161 beats x min(-1) and Tre increased to 38.3 degrees C. Despite considerable subject discomfort, Tre remained below dangerous levels (38.4 degrees C). When RPE were compared with a physiological strain index (PSI) calculated from Tre and HR data over 60 min, there was no significant difference (p<0.05) with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.98. The results suggest that RPE and PSI are closely related when exercise is sufficiently prolonged or intense to elevate Tre and HR in fire-fighters wearing FE in temperate conditions. If further investigation confirms this relationship for hot humid conditions in which fire-fighters operate, then with training, it may provide individuals with a valid measure of dangerous levels of perceived heat strain.

  14. Effects of Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy on Thermoregulation in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    McEntire, Serina J.; Reis, Steven E.; Suman, Oscar E.; Hostler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart attack is the most common cause of line-of-duty death in the fire service. Daily aspirin therapy is a preventative measure used to reduce the morbidity of heart attacks but may decrease the ability to dissipate heat by reducing skin blood flow. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, firefighters were randomized to receive 14 days of therapy (81-mg aspirin or placebo) before performing treadmill exercise in thermal-protective clothing in a hot room [38.8 ± 2.1°C, 24.9 ± 9.1% relative humidity (RH)]. Three weeks without therapy was provided before crossing to the other arm. Firefighters completed a baseline skin blood-flow assessment via laser Doppler flowmetry; skin was heated to 44°C to achieve maximal cutaneous vasodilation. Skin blood flow was measured before and after exercise in a hot room, and at 0 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes of recovery under temperature conditions (25.3 ± 1.2°C, 40.3 ± 13.7% RH). Platelet clotting time was assessed before drug administration, and before and after exercise. Results Fifteen firefighters completed the study. Aspirin increased clotting time before and after exercise compared with placebo (p = 0.003). There were no differences in absolute skin blood flow between groups (p = 0.35). Following exercise, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was 85 ± 42% of maximum in the aspirin and 76 ± 37% in the placebo groups. The percentage of maximal CVC did not differ by treatment before or after recovery. Neither maximal core body temperature nor heart rate responses to exercise differed between trials. Conclusion There were no differences in skin blood flow during uncompensable heat stress following exercise after aspirin or placebo therapy. PMID:26929836

  15. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  16. Active versus passive cooling during work in warm environments while wearing firefighting protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, G A; McLellan, T M; Wong, J

    2004-08-01

    This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35 degrees Celsius, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the heat-stress trials. Subjects walked at 4.5 km.h(-1) with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50 min) and rest (30 min) schedule. Work continued until rectal temperature (T(re)) reached 39.5 degrees Celsius, or heart rate (HR) reached 95% of maximum or exhaustion. One of three cooling strategies, forearm submersion (FS), mister (M), and passive cooling (PC) were employed during the rest phases. Tolerance time (TT) and total work time (WT) (min) were significantly increased during FS (178.7 +/- 13.0 and 124.7 +/- 7.94, respectively) and M (139.1 +/- 8.28 and 95.1 +/- 4.96, respectively), compared with PC (108.0 +/- 3.59 and 78.0 +/- 3.59). Furthermore, TT and WT were significantly greater in FS compared with M. Rates of T(re) increase, HR and T-(sk) were significantly lower during active compared with passive cooling. In addition, HR and T(re) values in FS were significantly lower compared with M after the first rest phase. During the first rest phase, T(re) dropped significantly during FS (approximately 0.4 degree Celsius) compared with M (approximately 0.08 degree Celsius) while PC increased (approximately 0.2 degree Celsius). By the end of the second rest period T(re) was 0.9 degree Celsius lower in FS compared with M. The current findings suggest that there is a definite advantage when utilizing forearm submersion compared with other methods of active or passive cooling while wearing FPC and SCBA in the heat.

  17. Physiological and subjective responses to cooling devices on firefighting protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chinmei; Tochihara, Yutaka; Kim, Taegyou

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of ice-packs (ICE) and phase change material (PCM) cooling devices in reducing physiological load based on subjects' physiological and subjective responses while the subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer while wearing firefighting protective clothing in a relatively high temperature environment (30 degrees C, 50%RH). Subjects were eight graduate students, aged 25.9 years (SD 3.2). Each subject participated in four 50-min exposures: control (CON), ICE, PCM of 5 degrees C [PCM(5)] and 20 degrees C [PCM(20)]. Each subject rested in a pre-test room for 10 min before entering the test-room where they rested for another 10 min, followed by 30 min-exercise and a 10 min-recovery period. The exercise intensity was set at 55%VO(2max). Cooling effects were evaluated by measuring rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), body weight loss and subjective responses. An increase in Tre for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was less than that for CON and ICE was observed. The increases in Tsk were depressed using cooling devices, but the cooling effects of PCMs were greater than ICE. The subjects with CON felt hotter and wetter than those in the other conditions. The larger surface cooling area, higher melting temperature and softer material of PCMs which reduces absorption capacity caused a decrease in Tre and Tsk for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was more than that for CON and ICE. Furthermore, PCM(20) does not require refrigeration. These results suggest that PCM(20) is more effective than other cooling devices in reducing the physiological load while wearing firefighting protective clothing.

  18. Metabolical shifts towards alternative BTEX biodegradation intermediates induced by perfluorinated compounds in firefighting foams.

    PubMed

    Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; Lopes, Paulo Renato Matos; Cruz, Jaqueline Matos; Claro, Marina Turini; Quiterio, Gabriela Mercuri; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2017-04-01

    The type and concentration of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can induce different types of enzymes and promote alternate patterns of BTEX transformation. However, it is not known how the presence of active fluorocarbon-degrading microbial populations affects the transformation of BTEX. In addition to chemical analysis at the molecular level, our research approached the aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) and BTEX co-contamination at a large-scale with respirometers to quantify the total microbial metabolism of soil via CO2 output levels. The intended outcome of this research was to obtain and characterize shifts in BTEX degradation at a set realistic environmental condition while measuring byproducts and CO2 production. Both methodologies complimentarily provided an in-depth knowledge of the environmental behavior of fire-fighting foams. The biodegradation was monitored using headspace sampling and two types of gas chromatography: thermal conductivity detector and flame ionization detector. Headspace samples were periodically withdrawn for BTEX biodegradation and CO2 production analysis. Our research suggests the discovery of an altered metabolic pathway in aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation that is directly affected by fluorinated substances. The fluorinated compounds affected the BTEX biodegradation kinetics, as PFCs may contribute to a shift in styrene and catechol concentrations in co-contamination scenarios. A faster production of styrene and catechol was detected. Catechol is also rapidly consumed, thus undergoing further metabolic stages earlier under the presence of PFCs. The release of AFFF compounds not only changes byproducts output but also drastically disturbs the soil microbiota according to the highly variable CO2 yields. Therefore, we observed a high sensitivity of microbial consortia due to PFCs in the AFFF formulation, therefore shifting their BTEX degradation routes in terms of intermediate products concentration.

  19. Induced sputum assessment in New York City firefighters exposed to World Trade Center dust.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Elizabeth M; Lerman, Yehuda; Ganor, Eliezer; Greif, Joel; Fireman-Shoresh, Sharon; Lioy, Paul J; Banauch, Gisela I; Weiden, Michael; Kelly, Kerry J; Prezant, David J

    2004-11-01

    New York City Firefighters (FDNY-FFs) were exposed to particulate matter and combustion/pyrolysis products during and after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse. Ten months after the collapse, induced sputum (IS) samples were obtained from 39 highly exposed FDNY-FFs (caught in the dust cloud during the collapse on 11 September 2001) and compared to controls to determine whether a unique pattern of inflammation and particulate matter deposition, compatible with WTC dust, was present. Control subjects were 12 Tel-Aviv, Israel, firefighters (TA-FFs) and 8 Israeli healthcare workers who were not exposed to WTC dust. All controls volunteered for this study, had never smoked, and did not have respiratory illness. IS was processed by conventional methods. Retrieved cells were differentially counted, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), particle size distribution (PSD), and mineral composition were measured. Differential cell counts of FDNY-FF IS differed from those of health care worker controls (p < 0.05) but not from those of TA-FFs. Percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils increased with greater intensity of WTC exposure (< 10 workdays or greater than or equal to 10 workdays; neutrophils p = 0.046; eosinophils p = 0.038). MMP-9 levels positively correlated to neutrophil counts (p = 0.002; r = 0.449). Particles were larger and more irregularly shaped in FDNY-FFs (1-50 microm; zinc, mercury, gold, tin, silver) than in TA-FFs (1-10 microm; silica, clays). PSD was similar to that of WTC dust samples. In conclusion, IS from highly exposed FDNY-FFs demonstrated inflammation, PSD, and particle composition that was different from nonexposed controls and consistent with WTC dust exposure.

  20. Firefighter feedback during active cooling: a useful tool for heat stress management?

    PubMed

    Savage, Robbie J; Lord, Cara; Larsen, Brianna L; Knight, Teagan L; Langridge, Peter D; Aisbett, Brad

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring an individual's thermic state in the workplace requires reliable feedback of their core temperature. However, core temperature measurement technology is expensive, invasive and often impractical in operational environments, warranting investigation of surrogate measures which could be used to predict core temperature. This study examines an alternative measure of an individual's thermic state, thermal sensation, which presents a more manageable and practical solution for Australian firefighters operating on the fireground. Across three environmental conditions (cold, warm, hot & humid), 49 Australian volunteer firefighters performed a 20-min fire suppression activity, immediately followed by 20 min of active cooling using hand and forearm immersion techniques. Core temperature (Tc) and thermal sensation (TS) were measured across the rehabilitation period at five minute intervals. Despite the decline in Tc and TS throughout the rehabilitation period, there was little similarity in the magnitude or rate of decline between each measure in any of the ambient conditions. Moderate to strong correlations existed between Tc and TS in the cool (0.41, p<0.05) and hot & humid (0.57, p<0.05) conditions, however this was resultant in strong correlation during the earlier stages of rehabilitation (first five minutes), which were not evident in the latter stages. Linear regression revealed TS to be a poor predictor of Tc in all conditions (SEE=0.45-0.54°C) with a strong trend for TS to over-predict Tc (77-80% of the time). There is minimal evidence to suggest that ratings of thermal sensation, which represent a psychophysical assessment of an individual's thermal comfort, are an accurate reflection of the response of an individual's core temperature. Ratings of thermal sensation can be highly variable amongst individuals, likely moderated by local skin temperature. In account of these findings, fire managers require a more reliable source of information to guide

  1. A comparison of cooling techniques in firefighters after a live burn evolution

    PubMed Central

    Colburn, Deanna; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Morley, Julia L; Goss, Fredric L; Chen, Yi-Fan; Moore, Charity G; Hostler, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective We compared two active cooling devices to passive cooling in a moderate (≈22°C) temperature environment on heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tc) recovery when applied to firefighters following 20 min. of fire suppression. Methods Firefighters (23 male, 2 female) performed 20 minutes of fire suppression at a live fire evolution. Immediately following the evolution, the subjects removed their thermal protective clothing and were randomized to receive forearm immersion (FI), ice water perfused cooling vest (CV) or passive (P) cooling in an air-conditioned medical trailer for 30 minutes. Heart rate and deep gastric temperature were monitored every five minutes during recovery. Results A single 20-minute bout of fire suppression resulted in near maximal HR (175±13 - P, 172±20 - FI, 177±12 beats•min−1 - CV) when compared to baseline (p < 0.001), a rapid and substantial rise in Tc (38.2±0.7 - P, 38.3±0.4 - FI, 38.3±0.3° - CV) compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and mass lost from sweating of nearly one kilogram. Cooling rates (°C/min) differed (p = 0.036) by device with FI (0.05±0.04) providing higher rates than P (0.03±0.02) or CV (0.03±0.04) although differences over 30 minutes were small and recovery of body temperature was incomplete in all groups. Conclusions During 30 min. of recovery following a 20-minute bout of fire suppression in a training academy setting, there is a slightly higher cooling rate for FI and no apparent benefit to CV when compared to P cooling in a moderate temperature environment. PMID:21294631

  2. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Vincent, Grace; Tran, Jacqueline; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36) were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C) or HOT (33°C) condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area) to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc), and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants' doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants' work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of physiological responses

  3. An Association Account of False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

  4. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  5. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  6. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.5 False statements. Under...

  7. False discoveries and models for gene discovery.

    PubMed

    van den Oord, Edwin J C G; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2003-10-01

    In the search for genes underlying complex traits, there is a tendency to impose increasingly stringent criteria to avoid false discoveries. These stringent criteria make it hard to find true effects, and we argue that it might be better to optimize our procedures for eliminating and controlling false discoveries. Focusing on achieving an acceptable ratio of true- and false-positives, we show that false discoveries could be eliminated much more efficiently using a stepwise approach. To avoid a relatively high false discovery rate, corrections for 'multiple testing' might also be needed in candidate gene studies. If the appropriate methods are used, detecting the proportion of true effects appears to be a more important determinant of the genotyping burden than the desired false discovery rate. This raises the question of whether current models for gene discovery are shaped excessively by a fear of false discoveries.

  8. Validation of the Compassion Fatigue Short Scale among Chinese medical workers and firefighters: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Binghai; Hu, Mengna; Yu, Shitian; Jiang, Yiru; Lou, Baona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the C-Compassion Fatigue (CF)-Short Scale among 4 independent samples of Chinese emergency workers (medical workers and firefighters). Design Cross-sectional. Setting 6 hospitals in Zhejiang Province and 12 fire stations in Shanghai. Participants Emergency workers (medical and firefighters) were consecutively recruited and divided into 4 groups: the MW1 group (medical workers, n=167), the FF1 group (firefighters, n=157), the MW2 group (medical workers, n=265) and the FF2 group (firefighters, n=231). Interventions All patients completed the C-CF-Short Scale to identify factors associated with compassion fatigue. The MW1 and FF1 groups were used for the exploratory analyses. The MW2 and FF2 groups were used for the confirmatory factor analyses. Primary and secondary outcome measures Factor loading, correlations with previously validated questionnaires (the Ego-Resiliency Scale, the Social Support Questionnaire and the Job Pressure Scale) and Cronbach's α coefficient were tested for each factor. Results The C-CF-Short Scale demonstrated excellent construct validity and good internal consistency. Specifically, the results of exploratory factor analyses in the MW1 and FF1 groups showed that secondary trauma and job burnout were associated with compassion fatigue in these emergency workers. The confirmatory factor analyses in the MW2 and FF2 groups indicated that all the fit indices of the 2-factor model were satisfactory. Finally, the Cronbach's α coefficient of each factor was excellent. Conclusions The findings suggest that the C-CF-Short Scale has good psychometric properties and can be applied to study Chinese emergency workers. PMID:27363817

  9. Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

  10. The impact of different types of textile liners used in protective footwear on the subjective sensations of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Irzmańska, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents ergonomic evaluation of footwear used with three types of textile liners differing in terms of design and material composition. Two novel textile composite liners with enhanced hygienic properties were compared with a standard liner used in firefighter boots. The study involved 45 healthy firefighters from fire and rescue units who wore protective footwear with one of the three types of liners. The study was conducted in a laboratory under a normal atmosphere. The ergonomic properties of the protective footwear and liners were evaluated according to the standard EN ISO 20344:2012 as well as using an additional questionnaire concerning the thermal and moisture sensations experienced while wearing the footwear. The study was conducted on a much larger group of subjects (45) than that required by the ISO standard (3) to increase the reliability of subjective evaluations. Some statistically significant differences were found between the different types of textile liners used in firefighter boots. It was confirmed that the ergonomic properties of protective footwear worn in the workplace may be improved by the use of appropriate textile components.

  11. Changes of oxidative/antioxidative parameters and DNA damage in firefighters wearing personal protective equipment during treadmill walking training.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunju; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sun-Woo; Bang, Chang-Hoon; Lee, GyuChang; Lee, Jun-Kyoung; Kwan, Jung-Suk; Huh, Yu-Sub

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personal protective equipment on the oxidant/antioxidant parameters and DNA damage in firefighters during training and recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve male nonsmoking volunteer firefighters (35.1 ± 7.2 years) underwent two maximal treadmill training (9 METs, 6 km/h), within 2 weeks, one in regular clothes and one in personal protective equipment weighing 22.1 kg. Blood samples were obtained before, right after, and 40 min after training. Plasma conjugated dienes, total radical trapping antioxidant potential, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes activities, and leukocyte DNA damage were measured. [Results] Wearing personal protective equipment during treadmill walking training resulted in increases of plasma conjugated dienes, total radical trapping antioxidant potential, and leukocyte DNA resistance to oxidative stress, which were recovered after in 40 min of rest. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities remained unchanged during the training either with regular clothes or personal protective equipment. [Conclusion] These results suggest that wearing personal protective equipment during firefighting work could induce oxidative stress, which was enough to produce DNA damage in leukocytes.

  12. Predictors of postevent distress and growth among firefighters after work-related emergencies--A cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Doris; Knuth, Daniela; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2015-05-01

    Firefighters may experience posttraumatic stress symptomatology (i.e., postevent distress) as a consequence of exposure to work-related distressing incidents. However, positive psychological changes (i.e., postevent growth) should also be taken into account. The aim of this cross-national study was to investigate both postevent distress and growth in firefighters following distressing incidents. A sample of 1,916 firefighters from 8 predominantly European countries recalled a work-related distressing incident. Two hierarchical regression analyses were run to reveal predictors of postevent distress and growth, respectively. Predictors included person pre-event characteristics, objective (e.g., type of incident, time since incident, fatalities) and subjective (e.g., perceived life-threat, peri-event distress, most distressing aspect) incident features, and the participant's country. Postevent distress was measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and growth by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form (PTGI-SF). The final models explained 29% of the variation in postevent distress and 26% in growth. Postevent distress and growth were predicted by different variables. Country differences were found after controlling for all other variables. Further research is needed to explain these differences.

  13. Changes of oxidative/antioxidative parameters and DNA damage in firefighters wearing personal protective equipment during treadmill walking training

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunju; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sun-Woo; Bang, Chang-Hoon; Lee, GyuChang; Lee, Jun-Kyoung; Kwan, Jung-Suk; Huh, Yu-Sub

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personal protective equipment on the oxidant/antioxidant parameters and DNA damage in firefighters during training and recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve male nonsmoking volunteer firefighters (35.1 ± 7.2 years) underwent two maximal treadmill training (9 METs, 6 km/h), within 2 weeks, one in regular clothes and one in personal protective equipment weighing 22.1 kg. Blood samples were obtained before, right after, and 40 min after training. Plasma conjugated dienes, total radical trapping antioxidant potential, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes activities, and leukocyte DNA damage were measured. [Results] Wearing personal protective equipment during treadmill walking training resulted in increases of plasma conjugated dienes, total radical trapping antioxidant potential, and leukocyte DNA resistance to oxidative stress, which were recovered after in 40 min of rest. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities remained unchanged during the training either with regular clothes or personal protective equipment. [Conclusion] These results suggest that wearing personal protective equipment during firefighting work could induce oxidative stress, which was enough to produce DNA damage in leukocytes. PMID:27942144

  14. Protection of firefighters against combustion aerosol particles: simulated workplace protection factor of a half-mask respirator (pilot study).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, James; Yermakov, Michael; Reponen, Tiina; Kulkarni, Pramod; Qi, Chaolong; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the penetration of ultrafine particles originated by combustion of different materials into elastomeric half-mask respirators equipped with two P100 filters. We determined the Simulated Workplace Protection Factor (SWPF) for 11 firefighters wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators and performing activities simulating those conducted during fire overhaul operations. The tests were performed in a controlled laboratory setting. A newly-developed battery-operated Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer (PAMS) was used to measure size-resolved aerosol particle concentrations outside (C(out)) and inside (Cin) of an air-purifying respirator donned on a firefighter, and the SWPF was calculated as C(out)/C(in). Based on the total aerosol concentration, the "total" SWPF ranged from 4,222 (minimum) to 35,534 (maximum) with values falling primarily in a range from 11,171 (25 percentile) to 26,604 (75 percentile) and a median value being ≈15,000. This is consistent with the recently reported fit factor (FF) data base.((1)) The size-resolved SWPF data revealed a dependency on the particle size. It was concluded that a portable device such as PAMS can be used on firefighters during overhaul operations (as well as on other workers wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators) to monitor the aerosol concentrations in real time and ultimately help prevent overexposure.

  15. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  16. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  17. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  18. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  19. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  20. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.